Science.gov

Sample records for district heating association

  1. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  2. Turbine modifications for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sawhney, H.S.; Oliker, I.; Silaghy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the technical and economic feasibilities of retrofitting existing turbine-generators and replacing existing turbine-generators with specially designed district heating units. Topics considered include turbine retrofit options (approach and design criteria, district heating equipment), new district heating turbines (approach and design criteria, turbine selection), and heat generation costs. The conclusions of the analysis include: no technical barrier was discovered for converting the Potomac River Power Plant to a cogeneration facility, additional equipment required for the district heating operation is of conventional design, the existing steam turbines and associated system components can be retrofitted for district heating operation, the modified units retain the flexibility of producing 100% electric power output when the district heating load is disconnected, the district heating system uses indirect heating of water by extraction steam (the purity of which is not degraded), about three and a half times more heat can be extracted from units designed specifically for cogeneration than from modified units, and the described methodology can be used for the assessment of retrofitting existing units to cogeneration operation for power plants located close to heat load centers.

  3. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  4. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

  5. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  7. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  8. Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; Vīgants, Ģirts; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-01-01

    The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

  9. Hitaveita (district heating) in Akureyri

    SciTech Connect

    Flovenz, O.G.; Axelsson, G.; Arnason, F.; Finnsson, M.

    1996-11-01

    Akureyri is a town of 15,000 inhabitants located in central N-Iceland. It has been heated by geothermal energy since the end of the seventies. Prior to that, it was partly heated by electricity, but mainly with oil burners, located within individual buildings. During the period 1928-1970, several attempts were made to exploit known hot spring areas in the vicinity of Akureyri. These attempts failed. Following the jump in energy price during the oil crisis of 1973, considerable effort was put into further exploration. Based on resistivity soundings, the Laugaland field was selected for deep drilling. In 1975, this resulted in the discovery of a big feed zone, which initially yielded around 100 1/s of 90{degrees}C hot water by free flow. Two years later another big feed zone was located at the Ytri-Tjarnir geothermal field initially yielding 50 1/2 of 80{degrees}C water. Based on short-term pump tests, and simulations by the Theis model, it was estimated that these two fields together could yield 240 1/s with a water level drawdown to 190 m below the surface. This was expected to satisfy the energy need for space heating in Akureyri. In 1977, Hitaveita Akureyrar was, therefore, established. Construction of the district heating system was initiated in 1976 and most of the town had been connected in 1979.

  10. [Association between heat wave and stroke mortality in Jiang'an District of Wuhan, China during 2003 to 2010: a time-series analysis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Zhang, Yunquan; Zhu, Cihua; Ma, Lu; Tan, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    To assess the association between heat wave and stroke mortality in Jiang'an District of Wuhan, China during 2003 to 2010. Daily data of stroke mortality, meteorological factor and ambient pollution were collected from June to September during 2003 to 2010 in Jiang'an District of Wuhan.Quasi-Poisson regression in generalized additive model was applied to evaluate the impact of heat wave on stroke mortality on different lag days. During the study period, a total of 38 heat wave events and 191 heat wave days were registered. The total stroke death was 2 455 (1 182 women and 1 998 people aged 65 years old and over). Quasi-Poisson regression in generalized additive model showed that after controlling for long-term trend and seasonal trend, weekday, holiday, and relative humidity, heat wave was associated with stroke mortality on current day with relative risk of 1.15 (95%CI 1.01-1.30). Heat wave was not significantly associated with stroke mortality on current day among men (RR= 0.98, 95%CI 0.82-1.18, P=0.848) and people aged below 65 years old (RR=0.90, 95%CI 0.67-1.22, P=0.500), but relative risk increased to 1.34 (95%CI 1.12-1.62, P=0.002) and 1.20 (95%CI 1.04-1.39, P=0.002) for women and elderly (≥65 years old) people, respectively. When ambient pollutants (PM(10), sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide) were involved into the models, the impacts of heat wave on stroke mortality almost remained unchanged. Lagged effects were found in the association between heat wave and stroke mortality, relative risks reached the highest on lag of 2 days and the effects of heat wave usually lasted for 3 to 5 days. Moreover, lagged patterns of the effects of heat wave on stroke mortality were different between female and male and people of different age groups.significantly increased relative risks were found on current day in the elderly (≥65 years old) people and women, while significant associations occurred on lag of 2 days for men and people aged below 65 years old. Heat

  11. Midland, South Dakota geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This article describes historical aspects and present usage of geothermal district heating systems in the town of Midland, South Dakota. The use of geothermal resources exists due to a joint venture between the school district and the city back in the early 1960`s. A total of approximately 30,000 square feet (2800 square meters) of floor space is heated using geothermal energy in Midland. This provides an estimated annual saving in propane cost of $15,000 to the community.

  12. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  13. Geothermal district heating: basics to success

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    A district heating system using geothermal energy is a viable and economic option in many locations. A successful system, however, is dependent upon a variety of factors, and it is the purpose of this presentation to accent those items that are proving to have significant impact upon the successful operation of geothermal district heating systems. (These lessons can also apply to other sources of energy.) The six major basics to success that are discussed in this paper are economic viability, an adequate geothermal resource, simplicity of design, a closed loop system, a local champion, and good public relations.

  14. Akranes and Borgarfjordur district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnarsson, A.; Hrolfsson, I.

    1998-12-01

    Akranes and Borgarnes are two towns in the western part of Iceland, about 100 km north of Reykjavik. Geothermal investigations for Akranes started as early as around 1950; but in spite of several attempts, a geothermal field, which could be utilized economically, was not found for a long period. After the increase in oil prices in the early 1970s, further studies were carried out. On the basis of the results of those studies, it was decided to build a combined district heating system for Akranes, Borgarnes, Hvanneyri (agricultural school) and some farms in the Borgarfjordur region. The water is piped from the hot spring Deildartunga, which is one of the largest hot springs in the world. Besides that, the system utilizes two wells at the farm Baer. The utilization of the hot spring makes the system different from most other district heating systems in Iceland, which are based on water from wells. Akranes and Borgarfjordur District Heating System was established in 1979. Before that time, space heating in this area was both by oil (93%) and electricity (7%). The system has now been split into three companies: one that is responsible for all the hot water production and transmission, and one district heating system for each of the two communities.

  15. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  16. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  17. New directions for district heating in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.; Karnitz, M. A.

    A description is given of the status of major US district heating projects and the potential impact of the newly implemented US National District Heating plan. Five major district heating projects moving into the construction and demonstration phase are described. Although all have hot water distribution systems, a variety of heat sources are utilized. These include geothermal water, industrial reject heat, and utility cogeneration using coal-fired power plants.

  18. Alternative institutional vehicles for geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.; Gardner, T.C.; King, D.; Nimmons, J.T.

    1980-06-01

    The attributes of various institutional entities which might participate in various phases of geothermal heating applications are described. Public entities considered include cities, counties, and special districts. Private entities discussed include cooperative organizations and non-member-owned private enterprises. The powers, authority and manner of operation of each of the institutional entities are reviewed. Some of the public utility regulatory implications which may affect choices among available alternatives are considered. (MHR)

  19. District heating system, City of Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, T.

    1984-06-01

    An updated feasibility study of the district heating system is described. The study was made in two parts, Option 1 and Option 2. Option 1 is a district heating system for the city of Caliente only, whereas Option 2 assumes making 140{sup 0}F water available to the Mark West Development, about five miles to the west of the city. The city district heating system is based on a supply water temperature of 175{sup 0}F and 120{sup 0}F return temperature. The capital cost estimate for Option 1 is $3,140,000. The resultant savings in conventional energy cost over a 20 year project life, assuming 12% bond financing, show a present worth of $4,074,000. This shows that the project should be economically feasible. The capital cost for Option 2 is estimated to be $4,230,000. The additional cost of Option 2 over Option 1, $1,090,000, will have to be recovered by the fee charged to the Mark West Development users for the water made available to them. Since, however, this use is unknown an evaluation of the economic feasibility of Option 2 cannot be made at this time.

  20. Tushino - 3 district heating project/Moscow

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, H.W.

    1995-09-01

    The contract for supply and installation of Honeywell control equipment at the district heating plant in Moscow suburb of Tushino was signed between the Mayor of Moscow and Honeywell in December 1991. Total contract value is US$3 million. The aim is to demonstrate on a pilot project the potential energy savings and improved pleat safety which can be achieved by means of electronic control of latest design. The Honeywell contract basically covers modernization of instrumentation and control of the gas fired heating plant, comprising water preparation and 4 boilers, of 100 Gcal/h each, i.e., 400 Gcal/h total. The plant is feeding the hot water network which has 60 heat exchanger stations connected. The heat exchangers (thermal rating between 2 to 10 Gcal/h each) supply hot water mainly to residential building blocks for apartment heating and domestic hot water. Honeywell`s responsibility covers engineering, supply of TDC 3000 micro-processor based control system for the boilers and DeltaNet Excel control for the Heat Exchangers. The contract also includes installation and start-up of the total control system.

  1. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  2. District heating/cooling feasibility study for Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.; Buffa, W.; Harms, R.; Preston, E.

    1982-12-01

    The results of the District Heating/Cooling Feasibility Study for Jamestown, NY are presented. The heat source for the system is a power plant located within the city limits. Several options for the extraction of heat from the power plant are developed and heat balances are presented. The options are based on the development of a hot water district heating system. The geography and climate of the area are discussed and the primary potential district heat district is described. The heat load assessment was based on fuel consumption data collected from a sampling of various types of structures and operations. The methodology is presented in detail followed by the block-by-block results which include the heated floor space, the annual total fuel consumed, the annual fuel consumed for comfort use, and the peak heat rate demands. The heating fuel demand and consumption for most of the major industries in the city is presented. A transmission and distribution system is developed to deliver heat from the power plant to the district heating customers. The piping design is described and the proposed pipe routing for the primary district is presented. Cost estimates are presented for the different district heating options developed. The cost of heat from the Jamestown district heating system has been determined using the required revenue approach to determine the minimum rate the utility must charge for district heat in order to break even. An analysis has also been performed to determine the maximum allowable charge for district heat that would allow consumers to recover their retrofit expenses in a five year period.

  3. District heating/cooling feasibility study for Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.; Buffa, W.; Harms, R.; Preston, E.

    1982-12-01

    The report describes the results of a district heating feasibility study for Jamestown, New York based on the use of a power plant located within the city limits. Several options for the extraction of heat from the power plant were developed, with heat balances presented, based on the development of a hot water district heating system. The geography and climate of the area are discussed, as well as the primary potential heat district. The heat load assessment was based on fuel consumption data collected from a sampling of various types of structures and operations. The report presents the methodology in detail, along with block-by-block results including heated floor space, total annual fuel consumed, and peak heat rate demands. A transmission and distribution system was then developed for delivering heat from the power plant to the district heating customers.

  4. Methodology for the Improvement of Large District Heating Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, Anna; Mashatin, Vladislav; Hlebnikov, Aleksander; Siirde, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer a methodology for the evaluation of large district heating networks. The methodology includes an analysis of heat generation and distribution based on the models created in the TERMIS and EnergyPro software Data from the large-scale Tallinn district heating system was used for the approbation of the proposed methodology as a basis of the case study. The effective operation of the district heating system, both at the stage of heat generation and heat distribution, can reduce the cost of heat supplied to the consumers. It can become an important factor for increasing the number of district heating consumers and demand for the heat load, which in turn will allow installing new cogeneration plants, using renewable energy sources and heat pump technologies

  5. Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam rising from the ground he exclaimed, {open_quotes}Behold! A Steamboat in the desert.{close_quotes} Over the years, the area has been used for its relaxing and curative qualities by Indians, settlers, and geothermal experts. Since the mid-1980s five geothermal power plants have been built at Steamboat Springs and in December 1996 it was announced that the proposed largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S. would supply an industrial park in the area. The active geothermal area is located within the north-south trending graben like trough between the Carson and Virginia Ranges at the southern end of Truckee Meadows. Hot springs and other geothermal features occur over an area of about one square mile. The mid-basin location is controlled by faulting more or less parallel to the major mountain-front faults. It is believed that the heat source for the system is a cooling magmatic body at depth. The Steamboat geothermal area consists of a deep, high-temperature (215{degrees}C to 240{degrees} C) geothermal system, a shallower, moderate-temperature (160{degrees}C to 18{degrees} C) system, and a number of shallow low-temperature (30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C) subsystems. The higher temperature systems are used for electric-power generation. It is proposed that the exit fluids from the electric power plants be used for the geothermal district heating system.

  6. District heating and cooling market assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Karvelas, D.E.; Daniels, E.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    For more than 10 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research on and development of district steam, hot-water, and chilled-water systems in the residential and commercial sectors. In 1991, DOE sponsored a research project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to reestimate the national market for district heating and cooling (DHC) systems to the year 2010. ANL had previously developed a DHC market-penetration model and used it to project future market penetration. The first step in the project was to conduct a literature search to identify major data sources on historical DHC markets and any past studies on the future market potential of DHC systems. On the basis of an evaluation of the available data and methodologies for estimating market penetration of new technologies, it was concluded that ANL should develop a new econometric model for forecasting DHC markets. By using the 1989 DOE/Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Surveys (CBECS) public-use-tape data, a model was estimated for steam, hot-water, and chilled-water demand in the buildings surveyed. The model provides estimates of building steam, hot-water, and chilled-water consumption and expenditures between now and the year 2010. The analysis shows that the total U.S. market for district steam, hot water, and chilled water could grow from 0.8 quadrillion British thermal units (quad) in 1989 to 1.0 quad by 2000 and 1.25 quad by 2010. The demand for chilled water could nearly double in the forecast period, and its share could approach one-third of the total DHC market. This model, and the results, should be of use to policymakers, researchers, and market participants involved in the planning and implementation of community-based, energy-conserving, and environmentally beneficial energy systems.

  7. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  8. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-07-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO{sub 2} accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO{sub 2} saving of 48 kg CO{sub 2}/GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO{sub 2}/GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  9. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: District Heat Model

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) District Heat Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  10. Application of imitation steam'' systems to hot water district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aalto, P.J.; Chen, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Pequod Associates, Inc. and District Energy St. Paul, Inc. installed a pilot project of an innovative District Heating technology through a contract with the US DOE. This applied research was funded by the Energy Research and Development Act (94--163) for District Heating and Cooling Research. The experimental design is an intervention technique that permits hot water district heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems. This method can substantially reduce conversion costs in many older buildings. The method circulates Imitation Steam, which is moist hot air, as a heating medium in standard steam radiators and steam heating coils. Based on the operation of the system during the 1989--90 and 1990--91 winter heating seasons, we conclude the following: the basic concept of using Imitation Steam was proved feasible. The performance of the system can be improved beyond the levels achieved in this installation. Imitation Steam did not cause significant corrosion in the piping system. The technology can be used by other district heating systems to lower conversion costs and increase market penetration. Among the additional benefits from this technology are: eliminating old, inefficient boilers; lower maintenance costs; improved fuel efficiency; reduced emissions.

  11. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH) Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, Georg K.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH) systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized) and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  12. HPASS: a computer program for evaluation of district heating with heat pumps. Users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, G.R.; Calm, J.M.

    1981-03-01

    HPASS (Heat Pump district heating ASSessment) is a computer program for assessment of district heating and cooling with heat pumps. The software facilitates comparison of site- and source-energy use, discounted payback, and life-cycle costs of these systems with alternative systems providing similar services. The program also performs parametric studies of these analyses. This report explains the use of HPASS; the input requirements, available outputs, and program options are described.

  13. Energy-conserving heat pump-boiler systems for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, H.; Giedt, W.H.; Kasahara, K.; Kawamura, K.; Kudo, K.; Ohta, J.

    1983-08-01

    The energy saving potential of a proposed heat pump-boiler system for district heating is analyzed. Fuel is supplied to a boiler which generates steam to drive a turbine. The turbine output is used to power a heat pump which takes energy from the environment. Introduction of a screw type expander in place of the throttling valve in the heat pump cycle is planned to increase the system performance. District heating is provided by hot water which is heated as it flows through the condensers in the heat pump and turbine cycles. Both series and parallel connected condenser arrangements are considered. Results show that the heat supplied to the water for district heating can be as high as 200 percent of the heating that would be provided by use of the fuel supplied to a conventional boiler system with a thermal efficiency of 90 percent.

  14. Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

  15. Philip, South Dakota geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    The geothermal heating project in Philip, South Dakota which uses the waste water from the Haakon School has now been in operation for 15 years. This project was one of the 23 cost shared by the U.S. DOE starting in 1978, of which 15 became operational. This article describes the geothermal heating system for eight buildings in downtown Philip.

  16. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Use of domestic fuels for large-scale space heating and for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Seppaelae, R.; Asplund, D.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the study was to survey the heating systems for large-scale space heating and district heating with domestic fuels or under development in Finland, and to study alternative technico-economic applications in the size class of 0.5 - 5 MW.

  18. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonina, Alona; Bolonins, Genadijs; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2014-12-01

    District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with reduced district heating supply temperature. Conclusions on the benefits of new operation modes are introduced.

  19. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, James William

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  20. District heating feasibility for Port Jefferson, NY: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-29

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the feasibility of implementing a centralized district heating system serving the Incorporated Village of Port Jefferson, New York. The study assesses the potential heating loads, develops in conceptual form the distribution system and central heating plant design and implementation plans, and evaluates the system and customer economics for both conventional boiler and cogeneration district heat sources. The placement of the heat source near the largest heat user will keep the largest pipe size to a minimum length of run. The capital costs for all phases were prepared based on previous experience and vendor's budget estimates. The costs were based on 1987 dollars and escalated to the implementation dates using a general inflation rate of 5%. Since piping is costly, the routing must be planned carefully. The disturbance that is a result of excavation can be minimized by laying the pipe under sidewalks or the shoulder. This will show a savings since replacement of concrete is simpler and less costly than road surface. A sidewalk installation requires less excavation and backfill and usually involves less interference. The recommended plan is to install an 110 KW gas turbine cogeneration plant at St. Charles Hospital. It will supply electricity to the hospital and the excess generation will be sold to LILCO. Steam from the plant would be supplied to the hospital and would also be used to generate hot water for a district heating hot water loop that would service both hospitals, the public schools, office and apartment buildings, and the downtown business district. 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. District heating feasibility, Industrial Corridor, Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The Industrial Corridor of Jamestown, New York, contains more than twenty industrial/manufacturing companies, whose thermal demands, in addition to space heating, include significant process heating loads. This study investigated in depth, the technical and economic feasibility of implementing a district heating system in the Industrial Corridor which can serve both process and space heating loads. Based upon the heat load assessment conducted, the study focused upon nine companies with the largest thermal demand. Alternative system implementation designs were considered including new conventional centralized boiler plants, gas turbine cogeneration, and both high temperature hot water and steam as the heat transport media in an underground distribution system. The study concluded that, in view of the nature of existing prospective customer loads being primarily steam based, the most economical system for near term phased development is a steam based system with a new conventional centrally located steam boiler plant. The economic potential for a cogeneration system was found to be sensitive to electricity buy back rates, which at present, are not attractive. Implementing a modern high temperature hot water system would require significant customer retrofit costs to convert their steam based systems to hot water, resulting in long and unattractive pay back periods. Unless customer hot water retrofit costs can be expended without penalty to the district system economics, hot water district heating is not considered economically feasible. Chapters describe heat load assessment; heat source analysis; system implementation; transmission and distribution systems assessment; institutional assessment; system economic analysis; and customer retrofit, economic analysis, and conclusions 20 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

  3. District heating systems in Oradea, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Oradea is located on the Crisul Repede River, in the northwestern corner of Romania almost due west of Budapest, Hungary. The city has a population around half a million people and can trace its origins back to the Neolithic Age. It was an urban settlement beginning in the 13th century and has been an economic and cultural center for the region. It is a geothermal city with 12 wells drilled within the city limits, six in the nearby Felix Spa and five in the Bors geothermal area to the west, with one doublet set at Nufarul. Currently, there are a variety of geothermal uses in the area, including space and greenhouse heating, domestic hot water supply, process heat, balneology and swimming pools. Wellhead temperatures range from 70 to 105{degrees}C with artesian flows of from 5 to 25 L/s. The present installed capacity is 25 MWt and the heat supply is estimated at 60,000 MWh per year (216,000 GJ/yr). With pumping, the production would double and adding four more doublets, the installed capacity be increased to 65 MWt.

  4. Modular cogeneration in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.; Aalto, P.; Gleason, T.C.J.; Skalafuris, A.J.

    1987-12-01

    The use of prepackaged cogeneration systems of modular size (100 kWe - 10 MWe) in conjunction with district heating and cooling is proposed as a way to enhance the energy conservation potential of both cogeneration and district energy systems. This report examines the technical and institutional aspects of this marriage of technologies, and develops a research agenda whose goal is to define this potential use of cogeneration more accurately and to develop the generic technology base needed to bring it to actuality. 11 refs.

  5. Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

    1980-03-01

    The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

  6. Feasibility analysis of geothermal district heating for Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-23

    An analysis of the geothermal resource at Lakeview, Oregon, indicates that a substantial resource exists in the area capable of supporting extensive residential, commercial and industrial heat loads. Good resource productivity is expected with water temperatures of 200{degrees}F at depths of 600 to 3000 feet in the immediate vicinity of the town. Preliminary district heating system designs were developed for a Base Case serving 1170 homes, 119 commercial and municipal buildings, and a new alcohol fuel production facility; a second design was prepared for a downtown Mini-district case with 50 commercial users and the alcohol plant. Capital and operating costs were determined for both cases. Initial development of the Lakeview system has involved conducting user surveys, well tests, determinations of institutional requirements, system designs, and project feasibility analyses. A preferred approach for development will be to establish the downtown Mini-district and, as experience and acceptance are obtained, to expand the system to other areas of town. Projected energy costs for the Mini-district are $10.30 per million Btu while those for the larger Base Case design are $8.20 per million Btu. These costs are competitive with costs for existing sources of energy in the Lakeview area.

  7. How to Compute Complex Interconnected District Heating Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    valid modelling of such systems. 3. Network Hydraulic Characteristics In hot water networks the usual pipe diameters, roughnesses, and flow rates are...with cold water network flow characteristics, are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. Table 2. Characteristic flow values of water distribution networks...conveyance costs decrease. V󈨋 ....... Figure 2. Flow domains for water networks and district heating system networks cold water I//I//I hot water

  8. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-07-01

    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders.

  9. Possibility of using adsorption refrigeration unit in district heating network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur; Jaworski, Maciej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50 °C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25 °C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.

  10. The analysis of thermal network of district heating system from investor point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulics of a thermal network of a district heating system is a very important issue, to which not enough attention is often paid. In this paper the authors want to point out some of the important aspects of the design and operation of thermal networks in district heating systems. The design boundary conditions of a heat distribution network and the requirements on active pressure - circulation pump - influencing the operation costs of the centralized district heating system as a whole, are analyzed in detail. The heat generators and the heat exchange stations are designed according to the design heat loads after thermal insulation, and modern boiler units are installed in the heating plant.

  11. District heating and cooling: a 28-city assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meshenberg, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    Findings of a project that assessed the potential for construction of district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in 28 US cities are presented. The project sought to determine whether DHC could promote local community and economic development. In the preliminary assessment, 17 of the cities identified up to 23 projects that could be built within three to five years. Most of these projects would rely on nonscarce heat sources such as refuse or geothermal energy, and to improve financial feasibility, the majority would cogenerate electricity along with heat. Many would use existing power plants or industrial boilers to hold down capital costs. Overall, the projects could generate as amany as 24,000 jobs and retain $165 million that otherwise could leave the communities, thereby helping to stabilize local economies.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District`s elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  13. District heating feasibility study for Jamestown, New York. Phase Two. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This document presents the results of the second phase District Heating Feasibility Study for Jamestown, NY. The study takes an in-depth look at a hot water district heating system using the Jamestown municipal electric plant as the heat source and the downtown area as the primary load. The study considers phased expansion to outlying areas. This second phase study was performed in light of the findings of a first phase district heating study which determined that district heating was technically and economically feasible in Jamestown. The objective of this second phase study is to perform a detailed assessment of district heating and present the findings to the City in sufficient detail to serve as a basis for deciding whether or not to proceed with final design and construction of a district heating system. The study assesses the technical, financial and institutional feasibility of the system, recommends system ownership and financing strategies, develops a phased implementation plan, identifies prospective users and analyzes potential user performance from both a technical and economic point of view. The study concludes that a municipal district heating system financed with municipal bonds could be developed in Jamestown to economically supply heat to the downtown area and the industrial corridor. The study shows that district heating could successfully compete with alternate fuels, allowing most customers to recover their district heating retrofit costs in three to four years.

  14. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  15. Exergy-economics of a district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelissen, R.L.; Hirs, G.G.; Lie, A.B.K.; Steenderen, P. van

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to define the exergetic pay back period. This period can be used for energy efficient systems as part of a more general assessment also including financial aspects. For the conservation of the exergy of natural resources investments with a shorter exergetic pay back period will be preferable. To determine exergy savings of exergy efficient systems the exergetic life cycle assessment has been used. As an example a district heating system in combination with a cogeneration plant based on natural gas has been selected. The irreversibility taking place during the life cycle of the system due to the construction, operation, dismantling and waste processing is determined and compared with domestic central heating also based on natural gas. The analysis has been performed for four alternative district heating systems. The exergetic pay back period, defined as additional exergy invested divided by exergy saving, is shown to be between 0.07 and 1.2 years. The life cycle exergy saving varies from 24% to 49%, mainly depending on the density of the distribution system. In addition the differences in exergy saving are due to the fact that the small scale alternatives have a smaller gas turbine, which has a lower exergetic efficiency when compared with the big scale projects. There is no direct relation between the exergetic and financial pay back period in this study. However, the financial pay back period is roughly one order of magnitude higher than the exergetic pay back period. From this can be concluded that heat distribution systems with exergetic pay back periods of more than one year have unacceptable financial pay back periods.

  16. Geothermal district heating systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    There are 18 geothermal district heating systems in the Untied States. These systems use geothermal fluids from 138 F to 218 F (59 C to 103 C), with peak flow rates from 85 gpm to 4000 gpm (5 L/s to 250 L/s). Installed power varies from 0.2 MWt to 31 MWt, and annual energy use from 0.8 {times} 10{sup 9} Btu to 75 {times} 10{sup 9} Btu (0.6 GWh to 22 GWh). Thus, the total installed power is almost 100 MWt and the annual energy use is 572 {times} 10{sup 9} Btu (168 GWh). The oldest systems in operation are the Warm Springs Water District in Boise, Idaho that began operation in 1892, and the private system in Ketchum, Idaho starting in 1929, with the system on the Oregon Institute of Technology in operation since 1962, and Midland, South Dakota since 1964. The remaining systems have all been in operation for less than 20 years. Both open and closed distribution systems are used--the later type using a secondary fluid to supply the heat to the customers. Approximately half of the systems use a central mechanical plant containing heat exchangers, circulating pumps, expansion tanks and controls. Both volume and energy metering systems for customer billing are used. A variety of geothermal fluid disposal systems are used, including injection and disposal in a nearby river or stream. The energy and environmental savings, as compared to fossil fuel, amount to nearly 135,000 barrels of oil equivalent annually, and a reduction of 58,000 metric tons of carbon (coal) or 11,000 metric tons of carbon (natural gas) per year. Three systems are described.

  17. District-heating/cogeneration success keyed to planning, coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, B.I.; Gray, D.; Major, W. )

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the Jamestown (NY) district-heating (DH) system which illustrates the cost-effective incorporation of equipment and techniques into community planning to meet its hot-water and spaceheating needs. It provided experience not only in the use of the technology itself but in the harmonious interaction of concerned community sectors--governmental, technical, environmental, social--toward a common beneficial goal. Overall cooperation and strong support of the community enabled local officials to enthusiastically promote the project, obtain financing, and meet an ambitious construction schedule. Installation of the pilot system in 1984 was a milestone. The heightened public awareness that this brought about, coupled with several marketing activities, led to replacement of initial skepticism in several quarters with general enthusiasm for DH and its anticipated benefits.

  18. Selecting adjustment operating conditions in open-circuit district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, R. L.; Stennikov, N. V.

    2008-11-01

    A procedure for selecting the optimal hydraulic operating conditions for adjustment and alignment of district heating systems is proposed. Results from a study on substantiating efficient operating conditions for adjusting district heating systems are given together with recommendations on how to set up these conditions.

  19. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  20. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  1. The road to Lockport: Historical background of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The idea of district heating can be traced back to Roman hypocausts, some of which warmed multiple buildings. They were reintroduced into Europe during the Renaissance and slowly evolved into modern hot air, hot water, and steam heating systems. Major heating milestones are summarized, along with requirements to conserve fuel and abate smoke. Early district-heating proposals in London (1623 and 1820s), Pennsylvania (1869), Warsaw and Zuerich (1872) are discussed, as are steam systems actually installed at the US Naval Academy (1853), the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, and a hot water cogeneration system at the Banstead Downs Asylum in England (1876). Birdsill Holly--a Lockport, New York, inventor--installed the first successful commercial district heating system there in 1877. By 1890, more than 50 were installed, many of which are still operating today. District cooling began shortly after that, with successful introduction of systems using brine and ammonia.

  2. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District Heating system. [using cogeneration heat production and aquifiers for heat storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District heating project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district heating systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is based on cogeneration and the storage of heat in aquifers.

  4. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  5. Biomass district heating methodology and pilot installations for public buildings groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistougianni, N.; Giagozoglou, E.; Sentzas, K.; Karastergios, E.; Tsiamitros, D.; Stimoniaris, D.; Stomoniaris, A.; Maropoulos, S.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to show how locally available biomass can support a small-scale district heating system of public buildings, especially when taking into account energy audit in-situ measurements and energy efficiency improvement measures. The step-by-step methodology is presented, including the research for local biomass availability, the thermal needs study and the study for the biomass district heating system, with and without energy efficiency improvement measures.

  6. Economics of power plant district and process heating in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-04-01

    The economic feasibility of utilizing hot water from nuclear reactors to provide district heating for private residences in Richland, Washington, and space and process heating for nearby offices, part of the Hanford Reservation, and the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant is assessed. Specifically, the practicality of using hot water from the Washington Public Power Supply System's WNP-1 reactor, which is currently under construction on the Hanford Reservation, just north of the City of Richland is established. World-wide experience with district heating systems and the advantages of using these systems are described. The GEOCITY computer model used to calculate district heating costs is described and the assumptions upon which the costs are based are presented. District heating costs for the city of Richland, process heating costs for the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant, district heating costs for the Horn Rapids triangle area, and process heating costs for the 300 and 3000 areas are discussed. An economic analysis is discussed and institutional restraints are summarized. (MCW)

  7. District heating from electric-generating plants and municipal incinerators: local planner's assessment guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pferdehirt, W.; Kron, N. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    This guide is designed to aid local government planners in the preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of district heating using heat recovered from electric generating plants and municipal incinerators. System feasibility is indicated by: (1) the existence of an adequate supply of nearby waste heat, (2) the presence of a sufficiently dense and large thermal load, and (3) a favorable cost comparison with conventional heating methods. 34 references.

  8. District heating/feasibility study for Jamestown, New York. Phase two. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.

    1986-04-01

    This report details an investigation to implement district heating in Jamestown, New York. It is a technical and economic feasibility study of a hot-water district-heating system, using a municipal electric plant as the heat source and the downtown area as a source for customers. As a result of the project, the City of Jamestown built a district-heating system that was a service to four customers in 1984 and expanded to 14 customers in 1985. The City expects it to grow in 1986 and beyond. Customers are realizing a 20 to 30% savings in heating costs. The municipal electric plant burns coal and the system so far has displaced the equivalent of 1 million gallons of oil per year.

  9. Improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondurov, E. P.; Kruglikov, P. A.; Smolkin, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    Ways for improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants are considered as a possible approach to improving the nuclear power plant energy efficiency. The results of thermal tests carried out at one of single-circuit NPPs in Russia with a view to reveal the possibilities of improving the existing heat-transfer equipment of the turbine district heating installation without making significant investments in it were taken as a basis for the analysis. The tests have shown that there is certain energy saving potential in some individual units and elements in the turbine district heating installation's process circuit. A significant amount of thermal energy can be obtained only by decreasing the intermediate circuit temperature at the inlet to the heater of the first district-heating extraction. The taking of this measure will also lead to an additional amount of generated electricity because during operation with the partially loaded first heater, the necessary amount of heat has to be obtained from the peaking heater by reducing live steam. An additional amount of thermal energy can also be obtained by eliminating leaks through the bypass control valves. The possibility of achieving smaller consumption of electric energy for power plant auxiliaries by taking measures on reducing the available head in the intermediate circuit installation's pump unit is demonstrated. Partial cutting of pump impellers and dismantling of control valves are regarded to be the most efficient methods. The latter is attributed to qualitative control of the turbine district heating installation's thermal load. Adjustment of the noncondensable gas removal system will make it possible to improve the performance of the turbine district heating installation's heat-transfer equipment owing to bringing the heat-transfer coefficients in the heaters to the design level. The obtained results can be used for estimating the energy saving potential at other

  10. Mapping Extreme Heat Vulnerability and Health Outcomes to inform the District of Columbia's Climate Adaptation Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declet-Barreto, J.; Wilhelmi, O.; Goggans, A.

    2016-12-01

    In this collaborative engagement, scientists are partnering with the District of Columbia (DC) to develop an extreme heat vulnerability assessment. To do so, we map socio-demographic and built environment indicators of extreme heat vulnerability in Census Tracts in DC neighborhoods. In order to provide information useful for DC public health and urban planning practitioners, we aggregate the indicators into an index of extreme heat vulnerability. We compare the index against heat-related call data from DC's 911 system to better understand the socio-spatial distribution of extreme heat-related health outcomes. Our assessment can help inform the District's Climate Adaptation Plan as well as increase public engagement in reducing vulnerability to extreme heat.

  11. Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

  12. Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

  13. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  14. The Role of the Latvian District Heating System in the Development of Sustainable Energy Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazbauers, Gatis; Cimdina, Ginta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether and to what extent it is possible to use excess electricity produced by wind power plants during low demand periods for district heat production by heat pumps. Energy system analysis on an hourly basis is conducted at various capacities of wind power plants. The results show that it is possible to increase the share of renewable energy sources, decrease the use of primary energy sources and CO2 emissions per unit of the produced energy, i.e. heat and electricity, by using the surplus electricity produced by wind power in the heat pumps combined with the heat storage.

  15. Geothermal district heating and cooling of hotel/casinos in downtown Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cerci, Y.; Kanoglu, M.; Cengel, Y.A.; Turner, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, potential revenues from the proposed geothermal district heating/cooling system for the hotel/casino complexes in downtown Reno, Nevada are estimated by analyzing their actual electricity and natural gas bills during 1993 through 1994. The geothermal system appears to be feasible, and financially very attractive. The geothermal district system can meet the entire heating and cooling requirements of the hotel/casinos, generating total potential revenues of $3,486,000 per year. Also, other buildings around the downtown area such as Saint Mary`s Hospital, several motels, business complexes, Washoe County School District Building, and even the UNR campus will add extra potential revenues, if these buildings are connected to the geothermal grid. Since most buildings around the downtown use central heating and cooling system, the retrofit costs for the both system should be minimal.

  16. Financial planning for district heating: The Brooklyn Navy Yard project: A project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Financial planning for the Brooklyn Navy Cogeneration and District Heating Project involved the establishment of three distinct potential markets, a determination of economic feasibility and the development of a financial structure that could accommodate the diverse social objectives of the project and the nature of the markets to be served. The Brooklyn Navy Yard (BNY) is owned by the City of New York (City) and managed by the non-profit Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation for operation as an industrial park. Development of a cogeneration/district heating facility at the Navy Yard was undertaken to meet multiple community and economic development objectives.

  17. Application of an intermediate LWR for electricity production and hot-water district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a 400 MWe Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) for supplying district heat to the Minneapolis/St. Paul area. A total of three CNSS reactor sites, located various distances from the Minneapolis-St. Paul area load center, are evaluated. The distance from the load center is determined by the credited safety features of the plant design. Each site is also evaluated for three different hot water supply/return temperatures providing a total of nine CNSS study cases. The cost of district heat delivered to the load center is determined for each case.

  18. APA District Branch / State Association Directory

    MedlinePlus

    ... NKL454@aol.com Genesee Valley Psychiatric Association Susan Diesel, Executive Director 681 Chestnut Ridge Rd Rochester, NY ... 585) 275-6917 Fax : (585) 889-5577 sue_diesel@urmc.rochester.edu Greater Long Island Psychiatric Society ...

  19. Blueprint for financing geothermal district heating in California

    SciTech Connect

    Grattan, J.P.; Hansen, D.P.

    1981-03-01

    The current legal and investment climate surrounding geothermal development is depicted. Changes that would make the climate more favorable to direct heat geothermal development are recommended. The Boise, Susanville, and Brady Hot Springs projects are analyzed. (MHR)

  20. District heating/cogeneration application studies for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Impact of a district heating/cogeneration system on annual average SO2 air quality in the twin cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnitz, M. A.; Kornegay, F. C.; McLain, H. A.; Murphy, B. D.; Raridon, R. J.; Shlatter, E. C.

    1981-03-01

    Annual average SO2 concentrations in air at ground level were determined for a base year (1976) and for a future year (1987) with and without a 2600-MW(t) district heating system. Without district heating, the SO2 concentrations in the area are predicted to increase with time because of anticipated increased substitution of oil for curtailed natural gas. Implementation of the district heating/cogeneration system is predicted to mitigate this increase of SO2 concentrations significantly. Although the total emissions will be slightly higher with district heating/cogeneration because of the substitution of coal for natural gas and oil, use of tall stacks at the cogeneration plants will permit greater dispersion of the SO2 emissions. Considerable overall energy savings, particularly in the form of natural gas and oil, will be realized with a district heating/cogeneration system.

  1. Steam on the frontier: District heating in Denver, 1880--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.E.; Pierce, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    In late 1879 a group of Denver businessmen led by pioneer John W. Smith incorporated the Denver City Steam Heating Company to supply heat and power to their frontier own. The following summer they installed a Holly district steam system, including a boiler plant and several thousand feet of underground steam pipe laid under unpaved streets. On November 5, 1880, the company began supplying steam to downtown Denver. Henry M. Porter, Smith`s son-in-law, became president of the company in 1888 and replaced the distribution system with larger pipes in anticipation of asphalt paving. Although rarely meeting the financial expectations of its owners, the system grew over the years and in 1909 was acquired by a predecessor to the Public Service Company of Colorado. The Denver steam system is the oldest commercial district heating company in the world and continues to supply steam for heating and cooling to a large portion of downtown Denver from its original plant location.

  2. Geothermal district heating and cooling system for the city of Calistoga, California

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.

    1982-01-01

    Calistoga has long been known for having moderate (270/sup 0/F maximum) hydrothermal deposits. The economic feasibility of a geothermal heating and cooling district for a portion of the downtown commercial area and city-owned building was studied. Descriptions of existing and proposed systems for each building in the block are presented. Heating and cooling loads for each building, retrofit costs, detailed cost estimates, system schematics, and energy consumption data for each building are included. (MHR)

  3. TX model: a quantitative heat-loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface-temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinko, Heimo; Perers, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of analyzing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that enables the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX-model has been developed, implementing that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground has a temperature signature on the ground surface. A qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques mostly makes use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss in Watt/m. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature variation across the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but affected by some other parameters such as depth, heat diffusivity and so on. In order to analyze the parameters influencing the TX-factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is relatively unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at a testfield in Studsvik, Sweden, with electrically controlled pipe heat losses and long term monitoring of the surface temperature profile and TX factor with temperature sensors at the ground surface. The quantitative TX model for heat loss

  4. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  5. The technical and economic principles and lines of development of nuclear district heating cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. N.; Khrilev, L. S.; Brailov, V. P.

    2008-11-01

    We consider the social and economic requirements, technical background, and possible lines for future development of nuclear district heating cogeneration for the period leading up to 2030 taking into account the way in which the structure of Russia’s fuel and energy complex is formed.

  6. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  7. Direct-use geothermal district heating projects in the US. A summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fornes, A.O.

    1981-10-01

    Brief summaries of geothermal district heating projects are presented for the following: Boise, Idaho; Elko, Nevada; Ephrata, Washington; Hawthorne, Nevada; Klamath Falls, Oregon; Lakeview, Oregon; Madison County, Idaho; North Bonneville, Washington; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Preston, Idaho; Reno, Nevada; Susanville, California; Thermopolis, Wyoming; and Utah State Prison, Utah. (MHR)

  8. Possible ways to implement district heating cogeneration under present conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revzin, B. S.; Komarov, O. V.; Styazhkin, A. A.

    2008-04-01

    We propose a scheme of a combined gas turbine unit intended for medium-capacity units for combined generation of electricity and heat. The use of gas turbine unit constructed in accordance with this scheme makes it possible to have a limited number of peak hot-water boilers.

  9. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhan, Chenyang; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes the structure and function of major HSPs, recent research progress on the association of HSPs with grass tolerance to heat stress, and incorporation of HSPs in heat-tolerant grass breeding. PMID:22084689

  10. Optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in the district heating system cooperating with thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents the results of optimizing the coefficient of the share of cogeneration expressed by an empirical formula dedicated to designers, which will allow to determine the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in contemporary cogeneration systems with the thermal storages feeding the district heating systems. This formula bases on the algorithm of the choice of the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems with the thermal storage, taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of high-efficiency cogeneration and the decrease of the cost of CO2 emission thanks to cogeneration. The approach presented in this paper may be applicable both in combined heat and power (CHP) plants with back-pressure turbines and extraction-condensing turbines.

  11. Assessment of district heating/cooling potential in Holland, Michigan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    A study undertaken to evaluate the potential for district heating/cooling (DHC) in the City of Holland, Michigan is documented. The purpose of the study was to assess the concept of delivering energy from a centralized source (or several sources) through a piping network to many end users for heating domestic hot water, space heating, space cooling and industrial process use. The Holland community was involved through representation of various businesses, agencies and community groups as part of an Assessment Work Group (AWG) membership. The AWG worked throughout the study with the BPW staff and consultants. Conclusions and recommendations of the study reflect the joint effort.

  12. Effects of heat recovery for district heating on waste incineration health impact: a simulation study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone; De Leo, Giulio A

    2013-02-01

    The construction of waste incinerators in populated areas always causes substantial public concern. Since the heat from waste combustion can be recovered to power district heating networks and allows for the switch-off of domestic boilers in urbanized areas, predictive models for health assessment should also take into account the potential benefits of abating an important source of diffuse emission. In this work, we simulated the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants from a waste incinerator under construction in Parma (Italy) into different environmental compartments and estimated the potential health effect of both criteria- (PM(10)) and micro-pollutants (PCDD/F, PAH, Cd, Hg). We analyzed two emission scenarios, one considering only the new incinerator, and the other accounting for the potential decrease in pollutant concentrations due to the activation of a district heating network. We estimated the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimation on health risk through Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we analyzed the robustness of health risk to alternative assumptions on: a) the geographical origins of the potentially contaminated food, and b) the dietary habits of the exposed population. Our analysis showed that under the specific set of assumptions and emission scenarios explored in the present work: (i) the proposed waste incinerator plant appears to cause negligible harm to the resident population; (ii) despite the net increase in PM(10) mass balance, ground-level concentration of fine particulate matter may be curbed by the activation of an extensive district heating system powered through waste combustion heat recovery and the concurrent switch-off of domestic/industrial heating boilers. In addition, our study showed that the health risk caused by waste incineration emissions is sensitive to assumptions about the typical diet of the resident population, and the geographical origins of food production.

  13. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  14. Biomass district heating in the Tug Hill, NY: Feasibility and regional economic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Aaron

    Biomass district heating (BDH) has the potential to stimulate rural economies in the Tug Hill region of New York State by establishing a local industry and providing lower cost heat compared to the local alternative, #2 fuel oil. However, the competitiveness and economic impact of BDH networks in rural villages is largely unknown. This study proposes a methodology to provide initial assessments of the feasibility of BDH in rural communities. BDH would deliver heat below the cost of the local alternative in eight of the ten study villages examined. Capital costs comprised over 80% of the project costs, illuminating the importance of reaching a sufficient heat density; however, specific building heat was a stronger determinant of a village's feasibility. An input-output analysis determined that BDH would generate $18.6 million in output and create 143 jobs throughout the three county region, a significant impact if concentrated around the study villages.

  15. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekret, Robert; Nitkiewicz, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  16. Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district heating sector: a production function approach.

    PubMed

    Furtenback, Orjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

  17. Economic tradeoffs between energy conservation measures and district heating in a large US city

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, G D; Sullivan, W G; Eksel, M; Karnitz, M A

    1982-01-01

    An examination is made of the economic implications of applying end-user conservation measures to buildings that are served by a proposed district heating system in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. End-user conservation is a demand-side conservation strategy typified by changes in building operating procedures and changes in the building shell. District heating with cogeneration is a supply-side conservation method that allows scarce fossil fuels to be more efficiently converted into thermal and electrical energy. Technically these two conservation methods can be applied simultaneously to a densely populated urban are such as Minneapolis-St. Paul, but the implementation of one tends to reduce the economic feasibility of the other. This analysis suggests that building coservation measures will be difficult to justify economically in buildings that are connected to the proposed Minneapolis-St. Paul system.

  18. Reduction in air emissions attainable through implementation of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air emissions associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such emissions. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum reductions in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air emissions credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air emissions that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development.

  19. Economic Assessment of Rural District Heating by Bio-Steam Supplied by a Paper Mill in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova, Mariya; Beaudry, Catherine; Taoussi, Abdelaziz; Trepanier, Martin; Paris, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the feasibility of district heating in a small town adjacent to a Kraft pulp mill in eastern Canada. A detailed heat demand analysis is performed for all buildings using a geographical information system and archived data provided by the municipality. The study shows that the entire space heating requirement of the town…

  20. Economic Assessment of Rural District Heating by Bio-Steam Supplied by a Paper Mill in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova, Mariya; Beaudry, Catherine; Taoussi, Abdelaziz; Trepanier, Martin; Paris, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the feasibility of district heating in a small town adjacent to a Kraft pulp mill in eastern Canada. A detailed heat demand analysis is performed for all buildings using a geographical information system and archived data provided by the municipality. The study shows that the entire space heating requirement of the town…

  1. Energy Efficiency of Low-Temperature Deaeration of Makeup Water for a District Heating System

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapov, V. I. Kudryavtseva, E. V.

    2016-07-15

    It is shown that the temperature of makeup water in district heating systems has a strong effect on the energy efficiency of turbines of thermal power plants. A low-temperature deaeration process that considerably improves the energy efficiency of thermal power plants is developed. The desorbing agent is the gas supplied to the burners of the boiler. The energy efficiency of the process for a typical unit of thermal power plant is assessed.

  2. Application of service oriented architecture for sensors and actuators in district heating substations.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-08-21

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation.

  3. Application of Service Oriented Architecture for Sensors and Actuators in District Heating Substations

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  4. Minnesota Project: district heating and cooling through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report. Phase 1. [Minnesota Project

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: Environmental Review Procedures; Public Service Commission Regulation of District Heating; Energy Use Normalization Procedures; Power Plant Description; Letters of Commitment; Bond Opinion and Issuance; and Marvin Koeplin Letter, Chairman of Public Service Commission, Moorehead, Minnesota.

  5. Heat pump associations, alliances, and allies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Associations, Alliances, and Allies, a seminar and workshop sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, was held in Memphis, Tennessee, April 10--11, 1991. The focus of the meeting was relationships forged between electric utilities and trade allies that sell residential heat pumps. one hundred and seven representatives of electric utilities, dealer/contractors, manufacturers, and consultants attended. Electric utility trade ally programs run the gamut from coop advertising to heat pump association to elaborate technician training programs. All utility participants recognize the important programs, since it is the trade ally who sells, installs, and services heat pumps, while it is the electric utility who gets blamed if the heat pumps fail to operate properly or are inefficient. Heat pumps are efficient and effective, but their efficiency and effectiveness depends critically upon the quality of installation and maintenance. A utility can thus help to ensure satisfied customers and can also help to achieve its own load shape objectives by working closely with its trade allies, the dealers, contractors, manufacturers, and distributors. Attendees spent the morning sessions of the two day meeting in plenary sessions, hearing about utility and dealer heat pump programs and issues. Afternoon roundtable discussions provided structured forums to discuss: Advertising; Heat pump association startup and operation; Rebates and incentives; Technician training school and centers; Installation inspection and dealer qualification; and Heat pump association training. These proceedings report on the papers presented in the morning plenary sessions and summarize the main points discussed in the afternoon workshops.

  6. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  7. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  8. Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates Reno, Nevada residential geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, F.; McKay, G.; McKay, S.; Flynn, T.

    1995-12-31

    Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates is the largest privately-owned and operated residential geothermal district heating system in the State of Nevada. The system has operated for ten years and presently services 95 homes. Geothermal energy is used to heat homes, domestic water, spas, swimming pools, and greenhouses. Four homes have installed driveway deicing systems using geothermal energy. This paper briefly describes the geothermal resource, wells, system engineering, operation, applications, and economics. The accompanying posters illustrate the geothermal area, system design, and various applications. The resource is part of the Moana geothermal field, located in southwest Reno. Excluding the Warren-Manzanita Estates, the well-known Moana field supports nearly 300 geothermal wells that supply fluids to individual residences, several motels, a garden nursery, a few churches, and a municipal swimming pool. The Warren-Manzanita Estates is ideally suited for residential district space heating because the resource is shallow, moderate-temperature, and chemically benign. The primary reservoir rock is the Kate Peak andesite, a Tertiary volcanic lahar that has excellent permeability within the narrow fault zones that bisect the property. The Kate Peak formation is overlain by impermeable Tertiary lake sediments and alluvium. Two production wells, each about 240 m deep, are completed near the center of the residential development at the intersection of two fault zones. Geothermal fluids are pumped at a rate of 15 to 25 l/s (260-400 gpm) from one of two wells at a temperature of 95{degrees}C (202{degrees}F) to two flat-plate heat exchangers. The heat exchangers transfer energy from the geothermal fluids to a second fluid, much like a binary geothermal power plant.

  9. Ten years of experience of district heat supply from a retrofitted power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gronquist, R.J.; Gustafson, D.; Champ, D.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the development and operation of the Jamestown District Heating System in the City of Jamestown, new York. The conception of the systems through the initial feasibility studies is discussed, followed by the development of the system through phased implementation and the current status of operation. The planning aspects which contributed to the successful development of this system are highlighted and the customer savings are cited. Finally, problems encountered with the development and operation of the system and their solutions are examined.

  10. Institutional and financial guide to geothermal district heating, serial no. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    General planning considerations which affect nearly every community are reviewed, and alternative operating structures which are available to communities are reviewed, including local governments, nonprofit cooperatives, private enterprises, and joint ventures. The financing options available to publicly-owned and privately-owned district heating systems are then summarized. The geothermal production and distribution activities most appropriate to each type of operating structure are reviewed, along with typical equity and debt funding sources. The tax advantages for private developers are described, as are the issues of customer contracts and service prices, and customer retrofit financing. The treatment is limited to an introductory overview.

  11. Leakage and blockage detection in water network of district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    1996-11-01

    A new procedure has been designed to discover the leakage or blocked branch in the water network of a district heating system. The main feature of this procedure is taking the network as a whole system and making the detection according to the distribution of pressures measured at some points in the network. As the information from the measured data can be used with maximum efficiency, the required number of sensors can be reduced significantly. Influence from errors in some sensors can also be reduced greatly. The basic idea of this method is presented first. The procedure is then described step by step. A numerical example is given for illustration at the end.

  12. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  13. Influence of biomass cofiring on the optimal coefficient of the cogeneration share in a district heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a modified algorithm for choosing the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of highefficiency cogeneration and biomass cofiring. The optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration depends first of all on the share of the heat required for preparing the hot tap water. The final result of investigations is an empirical equation describing the influence of the ratio of the heat flux for the production of hot tap water to the maximum flux for space heating and ventilation, as well as the share of chemical energy of biomass in the fuel mixture on the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems. The approach presented in the paper may be applied both in back-pressure combined heat and power (CHP) plants and in extraction-condensing CHP plants.

  14. Assessment of impact of advanced energy transmission fluids on district heating and cooling systems (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Chen, M.M.

    1987-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community Systems, has embarked upon a comprehensive, long-range program to develop high-performance advanced energy transmission fluids for use in district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. ANL has the lead technical role in this DOE program. These advanced fluids will substantially reduce flow frictional losses and enhance energy transfer. In system enhancement scoping studies conducted by ANL, the fluids yielded potentially significant upfront capital equipment cost reductions by allowing the use of smaller pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, and storage tanks as well as reductions in operational costs. This report presents the first-phase results of assessment of impact of the advanced fluids on DHC systems. Future reports will focus on assessment of impact on hardware performance, capital eqiupment, and operation costs. 9 refs., 30 figs., 2 tab.

  15. Damages of the Tallinn District Heating Networks and Indicative Parameters for an Estimation of the Networks General Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlebnikov, Aleksandr; Volkova, Anna; Dzuba, Olga; Poobus, Arvi; Kask, Ülo

    2010-01-01

    District heating networks in Estonia are mostly old and in bad condition. The state of the district heating networks of Tallinn is typical for the rest of Estonian DH networks. The paper includes an analysis of the Tallinn district heating networks. Valid data about damages in district heating systems received for the last 12 years were used for an analysis of the network damages. Different types of network damages are analysed: external corrosion, internal corrosion, defect of installation, factory defects, defect of construction and other reasons. The scale of damages for the different elements of networks is compared in the paper: armature, compensator, construction and pipes. The main factors which influence damages in district heating networks are the age of networks, the quality of construction works and the network operation conditions. The damage quantity dependence on the age of networks is also defined and analysed in the paper. The scale of damages can be diminished by reducing the average age of the networks. This is possible by replacing old pipelines and other network system elements. The pipes average age changes for a 20 year period are simulated according to different intensities of renovation works.

  16. Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

  17. Feasibility and Supply Analysis of U.S. Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoning

    Geothermal energy is a globally distributed sustainable energy with the advantages of a stable base load energy production with a high capacity factor and zero SOx, CO, and particulates emissions. It can provide a potential solution to the depletion of fossil fuels and air pollution problems. The geothermal district heating and cooling system is one of the most common applications of geothermal energy, and consists of geothermal wells to provide hot water from a fractured geothermal reservoir, a surface energy distribution system for hot water transmission, and heating/cooling facilities to provide water and space heating as well as air conditioning for residential and commercial buildings. To gain wider recognition for the geothermal district heating and cooling (GDHC) system, the potential to develop such a system was evaluated in the western United States, and in the state of West Virginia. The geothermal resources were categorized into identified hydrothermal resources, undiscovered hydrothermal resources, near hydrothermal enhanced geothermal system (EGS), and deep EGS. Reservoir characteristics of the first three categories were estimated individually, and their thermal potential calculated. A cost model for such a system was developed for technical performance and economic analysis at each geothermally active location. A supply curve for the system was then developed, establishing the quantity and the cost of potential geothermal energy which can be used for the GDHC system. A West Virginia University (WVU) case study was performed to compare the competiveness of a geothermal energy system to the current steam based system. An Aspen Plus model was created to simulate the year-round campus heating and cooling scenario. Five cases of varying water flow rates and temperatures were simulated to find the lowest levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for the WVU case study. The model was then used to derive a levelized cost of heat as a function of the population density

  18. Factors associated with neonatal deaths in Chitwan district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rajani; Sharma, Bimala; Khanal, Vishnu; Pandey, Usha Kumari; Vishwokarma, Anu; Malla, Dinesh Kumar

    2015-12-26

    Neonatal mortality has remained unchanged since 2006 in Nepal. Reducing neonatal mortality is indispensable to reduce child mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with neonatal mortality. This study assesses socio-demographic factors, maternal health care and newborn care practices contributing to neonatal deaths in Chitwan district of Central Nepal. A case-control study was conducted during April-July 2012. The study used a mixed-method approach, in which records of neonatal deaths were obtained from the District Public Health Office and a comparison group, survivors, was obtained from the same community. A total of 198 mothers (of 99 neonatal deaths and 99 survivor neonates) were included in the survey. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and case studies were also conducted. Maternal characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mc Nemar's Chi square test and multivariable backward conditional logistic regression analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed by narrative analysis method. More than four-fifth of mothers (86%) had antenatal check-up (ANC) and the proportion of four or more ANC was 64%. Similarly, the percentage of mothers having institutional delivery was 62%, and postnatal check-up was received by 65% of mothers. In multivariable analysis, low birth weight [adjusted odds ratio: 8.49, 95% CI (3.21-22.47)], applying nothing on cord [adjusted odds ratio: 5.72, 95% CI (1.01-32.30)], not wrapping of newborn [adjusted odds ratio: 9.54, 95% CI (2.03-44.73)], and no schooling of mother [adjusted odds ratio: 2.09, 95% CI (1.07-4.11)] were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of neonatal mortality after adjusting for other confounding variables. Qualitative findings suggested that bathing newborns after 24 h and wrapping in clean clothes were common newborn care practices. The mothers only attended postnatal care services if health problems appeared either in the mother or in the

  19. Coupled Simulation of Borehole Thermal Energy Storages and Solar District Heating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formhals, Julian; Schulte, Daniel O.; Welsch, Bastian; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The temporal difference between times of high heat demands and times of high solar heat supplies can be compensated by solar district heating (SDH) with borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems. To achieve a good understanding of the system behavior and for optimized dimensioning of the components transient simulations are imperative. In this context the models of SDH systems and BTES pose very different requirements on their simulation environments. Taking this into account, a coupled simulation, in which both models can be realized in separate and specialized simulation environments becomes favorable. The underlying work presents a new approach for a coupled simulation of a SDH system modelled in SimulationX and a BTES system modelled in MATLAB. A case study is performed, in which a SDH system with an annual heat demand of 1,100 MWh and a BTES is designed and dimensioned. The SDH is modelled in SimulationX and later coupled to an existing model of a BTES in MATLAB. Subsequently, a simulation over seven years is carried out to assess the performance of the designed system and the presented coupling method. For the designed system, a storage efficiency of 56.6% and a solar fraction of 36.6% can be achieved after the final year. The implementation of a heat pump proves to be beneficial for the performance of the system. A detailed analysis of the system and component behavior is performed, which concludes in a good understanding of interdependencies between the components and the identification of potential improvements. Following this, an improvement strategy for the system is developed, in which major potentials are related to a more sophisticated control strategy.

  20. District heating/cooling potential in New York City. phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McLoughlin, G.T.; Kuo, R.P.; Karol, J.

    1983-02-01

    New York City through its Energy Office has identified and evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of district heating and cooling at three locations: Brooklyn Navy Yard, Kings County Medical Complex, and the S.W. Brooklyn Incinerator. Of these the Navy Yard has the most immediate potential for implementation. The Navy Yard has an extensive steam and electrical system that has not been used since the Navy turned most of the property over to New York City more than a decade ago. By remodeling several of the smaller boilers still in place or purchasing new boilers, an ample supply of steam and hot water can be produced. The steam will be used for heating and industrial process for the industrial tenants now occupying the former yards. Hot water will be sold to the New York City Housing Authority to heat between 3,500 and 5,000 nearby public housing units operated by the authority. Electricity will be cogenerated using present generators that will be overhauled. It is expected that some of the electricity will be used directly to supply power to a planned nearby Red Hook Sewage Treatment plant, while most will be sold to the industrial tenants of the Navy Yard. Studies will continue to determine the best market for excess power.

  1. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-11-27

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  2. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  3. Environmental analysis of a potential district heating network powered by a large-scale cogeneration plant.

    PubMed

    Ravina, Marco; Panepinto, Deborah; Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Genon, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Among the solutions for the achievement of environmental sustainability in the energy sector, district heating (DH) with combined heat and power (CHP) systems is increasingly being used. The Italian city of Turin is in a leading position in this field, having one of the largest DH networks in Europe. The aim of this work is the analysis of a further development of the network, addressed to reduce the presence of pollutants in a city that has long been subject to high concentration levels. The environmental compatibility of this intervention, especially in terms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, is evaluated. The pollutants dispersion is estimated using the CALPUFF model. The forecasting scenario is created firstly by simulating the energy production of the main generation plants in response to the estimated heat demand, and secondly by investigating the amount and the dispersion of pollutants removed due to the elimination of the centralized residential heaters. The results show a future reduction in ground level average NOx concentration ranging between 0.2 and 4 μg/m(3). The concentration of PM remains almost unchanged. Measures are then taken to lower the uncertainty in the simulation scenarios. This study provides important information on the effects of a change of the energy configuration on air quality in an urban area. The proposed methodological approach is comprehensive and repeatable.

  4. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2011-05-01

    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality.

  5. Agreement Between Central Michigan University and Central Michigan University District of Michigan Association of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant.

    This document presents the agreement between the Central Michigan University (CMU) and Central Michigan University, District of Michigan Association of Higher Education. The agreement covers the purpose and intent, recognition, aid to other collective bargaining agents, deduction of district dues and initiation fees, special conferences, grievance…

  6. Factors Associated with Adoption of Evidence-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula in US School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with the adoption of evidence-based substance use prevention curricula (EBC) in a national sample of school districts. Substance abuse prevention coordinators in public school districts (n = 1593), which were affiliated with a random sample of schools that served students in Grades 5-8, completed a written…

  7. An Exploratory Investigation into the Key Elements Associated with District-Wide Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosunich, Daniel Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Faced with expectations to improve student learning and increasing student alternatives, school districts are challenged to make system-wide and sustainable improvement in student learning outcomes. The national accountability movement is associated with a growing body of research that has considered the role of the district to influence student…

  8. Censored and Censured: Racine Unified School District vs. Wisconsin Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Alan M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the censure of the Racine Unified School District by the Wisconsin Library Association for its internal censorship of library materials. Highlights include a chronology of events in the case, the district's history of censorship, its selection policy, and the importance of the case as a model. (EM)

  9. Methodological Approach to Determining the Effect of Parallel Energy Consumption on District Heating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latosov, Eduard; Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin

    2017-05-01

    District heating (DH) offers the most effective way to enhance the efficiency of primary energy use, increasing the share of renewable energy in energy consumption and decreasing the amount of CO2 emissions. According to Article 9 section 1 of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, the Member states of the European Union are obligated to draw up National Plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings [1]. Article 2 section 2 of the same Directive states that the energy used in nearly zero-energy buildings should be created covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Thus, the heat distributed by DH systems and produced by manufacturing devices located in close vicinity of the building also have to be taken into account in determining the energy consumption of the building and the share of renewable energy used in the nearly zero-energy buildings. With regard to the spreading of nearly zero-energy and zero-energy houses, the feasibility of on-site energy (heat and/or electricity) production and consumption in DH areas energy (i.e. parallel consumption, when the consumer, connected to DH system, consumes energy for heat production from other sources besides the DH system as well) needs to be examined. In order to do that, it is necessary to implement a versatile methodological approach based on the principles discussed in this article.

  10. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling. Final report, September 25, 1990--September 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  11. Draft Master Agreement between the University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association/NEA and the University of District of Columbia, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Univ., Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the University of the District of Columbia and the University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association Chapter (600 members) of the National Education Association covering the period October 1, 1985-September 30, 1987 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit scope and…

  12. Fourth Master Agreement between the University of the District of Columbia and University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association/NEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Univ., Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the University of the District of Columbia and the University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association, an affiliate of the National Education Association, for the period October 1, 1988 to September 30, 1993 is presented. The agreement's 33 articles cover the following: purpose and intent, scope…

  13. Feasibility Study for the Ivano-Frankivsk District Heating Repowering: Analysis of Options

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.; Popelka, A.; Laskarevsky, V.

    2002-03-20

    Part of the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation with the Ukraine Inter-Ministerial Commission on Climate Change, financed by the US Department of Energy. The project was implemented by a team consisting of the US company SenTech, Inc. and the Ukrainian company Esco-West. The main objective of the effort was to assess available alternatives of Ivano-Frankivsk (I-F) District Heating repowering and provide information for I-F's investment decision process. This study provides information on positive and negative technical and economic aspects of available options. Three options were analyzed for technical merit and economic performance: 1. Installation of cogeneration system based on Gas Turbine (GT) and Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger with thermal capacity of 30 MW and electrical capacity of 13.5 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. Equipment in this Option was sized for longest operating hours, about 8000 based on the available summer baseload. 2. Installation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (GTCC) and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) with thermal capacity 45 MW and electrical capacity of 58.7 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. The equipment was sized for medium, shoulder season thermal load, and some cooling was assumed during the summer operation for extension of operating hours for electricity production. 3. Retrofit of six existing boilers (NGB) with total thermal capacity of 255.9 MW by installation of modern control system and minor upgrades. This option assumes only heat production with minimum investment. The best economic performance and the largest investment cost would result from alternative GTCC. This alternative has positive Net Present Value (NPV) with discount rate lower than about 12%, and has IRR slightly above 12%. The

  14. A Method for Monitoring the Heat Flux from an Urban District with a Single Infrared Remote Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénon, Aurélien; Mestayer, Patrice G.

    2014-07-01

    The proposed methodology relies on the modelling capabilities of the thermo-radiative model Suc(olene) to simulate the heat and radiation energy exchanges between an actual urban district and the atmosphere. It is based on the comparison of the simulated upward infrared and sensible heat flux diurnal cycles that may be measured by elevated sensors above the three-dimensional scene, as a function of sensor position: the heat flux is a function of an equivalent surface temperature given by the infrared sensor and an equivalent heat transfer coefficient deduced from Suc(olene) simulations with the actual geometry. The method is tested against measurements obtained in the city centre of Toulouse, France during an experimental campaign in 2004-2005. To improve the computation of the heat exchanges between air and building surfaces a new algorithm is first implemented, based on an empirical model of the wind distribution within street canyons. This improvement is assessed by a direct comparison of the simulated brightness surface temperatures of the Toulouse city centre to measurements obtained with an airborne infrared sensor. The optimization of the infrared remote sensor position is finally analyzed as a function of its height above the mean roof level: it allows evaluation of the heat flux from an urban district when the three different classes of surfaces (roofs, walls, grounds) have similar contributions to the infrared flux towards the sensor, and to the heat flux into the atmosphere.

  15. Association between district and state policies and US public elementary school competitive food and beverage environments.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Turner, Lindsey; Taber, Daniel R; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    Given the importance of developing healthy eating patterns during early childhood, policies to improve the elementary school food and beverage environments are critical. To examine the association between district and state policy and/or law requirements regarding competitive food and beverages and public elementary school availability of foods and beverages high in fats, sugars, and/or sodium. Multivariate, pooled, cross-sectional analysis of data gathered annually during elementary school years 2008-2009 through 2010-2011 in the United States. Survey respondents at 1814 elementary schools (1485 unique) in 957 districts in 45 states (food analysis) and 1830 elementary schools (1497 unique) in 962 districts and 45 states (beverage analysis). EXPOSURES Competitive food and beverage policy restrictions at the state and/or district levels. Competitive food and beverage availability. RESULTS Sweets were 11.2 percentage points less likely to be available (32.3% vs 43.5%) when both the district and state limited sugar content, respectively. Regular-fat baked goods were less available when the state law, alone and in combination with district policy, limited fat content. Regular-fat ice cream was less available when any policy (district, state law, or both) limited competitive food fat content. Sugar-sweetened beverages were 9.5 percentage points less likely to be available when prohibited by district policy (3.6% vs 13.1%). Higher-fat milks (2% or whole milk) were less available when prohibited by district policy or state law, with either jurisdiction's policy or law associated with an approximately 15 percentage point reduction in availability. Both district and state policies and/or laws have the potential to reduce in-school availability of high-sugar, high-fat foods and beverages. Given the need to reduce empty calories in children's diets, governmental policies at all levels may be an effective tool.

  16. Particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, A.; Lillieblad, L.; Pagels, J.; Strand, M.; Gudmundsson, A.; Gharibi, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Sanati, M.; Bohgard, M.

    The aim of this study was to characterise particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels: forest residues, pellets and sawdust. Boilers used in the three district heating units were of moving grate type, with the maximum thermal output between 1 and 1.5 MW. The measurements were done after multicyclones, the only particle removal devices installed, therefore the direct emissions to ambient air were characterised. Number and mass size distributions were determined. Elemental composition of the particles was determined by particle induced X-ray emissions analysis (PIXE) and thermal-optical analysis. Particles' morphology was assessed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total number concentration of emitted particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 5 μm (PM5) at medium operation load ranged from 6.3 to 7.7×10 7 particles/cm n3, with the slightly higher values from combustion of forest residues. PM5 mass concentration at medium load from low pressure impactor measurements ranged between 51 and 120 mg/m n3, with the highest values from unit operating on forest residues. Both PM5 mass and total number concentrations were dominated by fine mode contributions i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm (PM1). Elements determined by PIXE ( Z>12) contributed to 21-34% of PM1 mass, of which K, S, Cl and Ca contributed to 18-33% of PM1 mass, and Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Pb and Cd to 1-3%. Emitted concentrations of heavy metals depended on type of the fuel and operating load. Particulate organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon contribution to PM1 ranged from 1-19% and 0-56%, respectively. Particulate OC concentrations strongly depended on the operation load regardless the type of the fuel, while EC concentrations seemed to depend both on load and the type of the fuel. Considering the potential public health implications of the obtained results, further research is needed to carefully assess the impact

  17. Hourly associations between heat and ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The response speed of ambulance calls is very crucial to rescue patients suffering immediately life threatening conditions. The serious health outcomes might be caused by exposing to extreme heat only several hours before. However, limited evidence is available on this topic. This study aims to examine the hourly association between heat and ambulance calls, to improve the ambulance services and to better protect health. Hourly data on ambulance calls for non-accidental causes, temperature and air pollutants (PM10, NO2, and O3) were collected from Brisbane, Australia, during 2001 and 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the associations between hourly ambulance calls and temperature during warm season (Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, and Mar), while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age groups. Ambulance calls peaked at 10am for all groups, except those aged <15 years at 19pm, while temperature was hottest at 13pm. The hourly heat-ambulance calls relationships were non-linear for all groups, with thresholds between 27 °C and 31 °C. The associations appeared immediately, and lasted for about 24 h. There were no significant modification effect by sex and age. The findings suggest that hot hourly temperatures (>27 °C) increase the demands of ambulance. This information is helpful to increase the efficiency of ambulance service then save lives, for example, preparing more ambulance before appearance of extremely hot temperature in combination with weather forecast. Also, people should better arrange their time for outdoor activities to avoid exposing to extreme hot temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

  19. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  20. Are characteristics of the school district associated with active transportation to school in Danish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Stock, Christiane; Bloomfield, Kim; Ejstrud, Bo; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Meijer, Mathias; Grønbæk, Morten; Grittner, Ulrike

    2012-06-01

    This study sought to determine the influence of individual factors on active transportation to school among Danish seventh graders and whether school district factors are associated with such behaviour independently of individual factors. Mixed effects logistic regression models determined the effects of individual (gender, family affluence, enjoyment of school and academic performance) and school district factors (educational level, household savings, land use and size) on active transportation to school (by foot, bicycle or other active means) among 10 380 pupils aged 13-15 years nested in 407 school districts. Of all students, 64.4% used active transportation to school daily. Boys, those with perceived higher school performance and those with lower family affluence were more likely to use active transportation to school. After adjustment for all individual factors listed above, high household savings at the school district level was associated with higher odds of active transportation to school. As factors of land use, low level of farming land use and high proportion of single houses were associated with active transportation to school. Policies aiming at reducing social inequalities at the school district level may enhance active transportation to school. School districts with farming land use face barriers for active transportation to school, requiring special policy attention.

  1. Air Heating Associated with Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riousset, J. A.; Pasko, V. P.; Bourdon, A.

    2009-12-01

    The understanding of ambient gas heating processes initiated by needle-shaped filaments of ionization, called streamers, embedded in originally cold air (near room temperature) represents a long standing problem, which is of interest for studies of long laboratory sparks and natural lightning discharges [e.g., Gallimberti et al., C. R. Physique, 3, 1335, 2002]. The observed phenomenology of a subset of the recently observed transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere, which originate from thundercloud tops [e.g, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 21549, 2001; Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; Krehbiel et al., Nature Geoscience, 1, 233, 2008; Cummer et al., Nature Geoscience, 2, 617, 2009, Riousset et al., JGR, 10.1029/2009JA014286, 2009, in press], indicate that these events may be related to conventional lightning leader processes and therefore are associated with significant heating of the air in the regions of atmosphere through which they propagate [Pasko and George, JGR, 107, 1458, 2002]. Many of the small scale features observed in sprites at higher altitudes [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 104, L11105, 2007, and references therein] can be interpreted in terms of corona streamers, which, after appropriate scaling with air density, are fully analogous to those, which initiate spark discharges in relatively short (several cm) gaps at near ground pressure [Liu et al., JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009, and references therein] and which constitute building blocks of streamer zones of conventional lightning leaders in long gaps [Gallimberti et al., 2002]. The recent reports of infrasound bursts originating from 60-80 km altitudes in sprites, with durations consistent with the optical widths of the sprites [e.g., Farges, in Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications, p. 417, Betz et al., (eds.), Springer, 2009], provide an additional motivation for studies of the heating of the ambient air and associated chemical effects

  2. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  3. Global carbon impacts of using forest harvest residues for district heating in Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, H.A.

    1998-07-01

    Forests in Vermont are selectively logged periodically to generate wood products and useful energy. Carbon remains stored in the wood products during their lifetime and in fossil fuel displaced by using these products in place of energy-intensive products. Additional carbon is sequestered by new forest growth, and the forest inventory is sustained using this procedure. A significant portion of the harvest residue can be used as biofuel in central plants to generate electricity and thermal energy, which also displaces the use of fossil fuels. The impact of this action on the global carbon balance was analyzed using a model derived from the Graz/Oak Ridge Carbon Accounting Model (GORCAM). The analysis showed that when forests are harvested only to manufacture wood products, more than 100 years are required to match the sequestered carbon present if the forest is left undisturbed. If part of the harvest residue is collected and used as biofuel in place of oil or natural gas, it is possible to reduce this time to about 90 years, but it is usually longer. Given that harvesting the forest for products will continue, carbon emission benefits relative to this practice can start within 10 to 70 years if part of the harvest residue is used as biofuel. This time is usually higher for electric generation plants, but it can be reduced substantially by converting to cogeneration operation. Cogeneration makes possible a ratio of carbon emission reduction for district heating to carbon emission increase for electricity generation in the range of 3 to 5. Additional sequestering benefits can be realized by using discarded wood products as biofuels.

  4. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  5. Assessment of feasibility of a district heating and cooling system for Ecorse, Michigan. Final report, 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, M.J.; Cason, D. Jr

    1982-10-01

    The City of Ecorse is an older industrial suburb of Detroit with an economy much related to the automobile industry. Ecorse conducted an assessment of the feasibility of building a district heating system which would service an 80 acre redevelopment area in the heart of the community. The system would utilize waste heat in the form of hot water from either of two electric generating plants, or a steel mill, or a nearby chemical plant located within the city. The estimated price of cogenerated thermal energy from one of the power plants was quite competitive. However, the 1980-1985 economy of Ecorse was so weak that the study found no real customer base for the heat in the target redevelopment area.

  6. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  7. Heat-Pipe-Associated Localized Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pan-Jo; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Jang, Ju-Chan; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The present study focused on how to improve the maximum power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system and move heat to any suitable space using a TEG associated with a loop thermosyphon (loop-type heat pipe). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the power output, the temperature difference of the thermoelectric module (TEM), and the heat transfer performance associated with the characteristic of the researched heat pipe. Currently, internal combustion engines lose more than 35% of their fuel energy as recyclable heat in the exhaust gas, but it is not easy to recycle waste heat using TEGs because of the limited space in vehicles. There are various advantages to use of TEGs over other power sources, such as the absence of moving parts, a long lifetime, and a compact system configuration. The present study presents a novel TEG concept to transfer heat from the heat source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any location. This simple and novel design for a TEG can be applied to future hybrid cars. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate power of around 1.8 V with T TEM = 58°C. The heat transfer performance of a loop-type heat pipe with various working fluids was investigated, with water at high heat flux (90 W) and 0.05% TiO2 nanofluid at low heat flux (30 W to 70 W) showing the best performance in terms of power generation. The heat pipe can transfer the heat to any location where the TEM is installed.

  8. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p<0.05) in cattle (1076/1475; 72.9%) than in buffaloes (957/2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.

  9. The geothermal potential of the Campania volcanic district and new heat exchanger technologies for exploitation of highly urbanised areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal research in Campania region (Italy), started since the 1930, and continued until the '80 by the SAFEN, ENEL and AGIP companies. Such exploration activity highlighted that most of the volcanic districts of the Campania Region have a very high geothermal gradient and heat flow. In particular, inside the Campi Flegrei caldera and at Ischia island the geothermal gradient measured inside the deep wells reaches temperatures above 100° C between few tens and few hundreds of metres of depth, while the heat flow varies between 120-160 mWm-2 at Agnano and Mofete (Campi Flegrei main drill sites) to more than 500 mWm-2 at Ischia island (south-western sector). A general review of the available literature data (temperature at depth, stratigraphic sections, logs etc.) of the deep wells (down to 3 km b.s.l.) allowed us to quantify the geothermal potential (thermal and electric) of such district. The geothermal potential is about 6 GWy for the Campi Flegrei (Mofete and S. Vito sectors) and 11 GWy for the Ischia island (south-western sector) showing a geothermal reservoir with water and vapour dominant respectively. This results in strong potential interest for economic exploitation of the geothermal resource, both in the range of low-medium enthalpy at few hundreds of meters depth and of high enthalpy at depths of 1-2 km. In this study we try to model the effectiveness of new technologies of boreholes heat exchangers, which would allow to avoid fluid withdrawal, then strongly decreasing the environmental impact. The proposed technology consists of a double-pipe placed in a borehole heat exchange that can work coupled with an ORC. The two pipes, one inside the other, are located in the well in order to transfer the thermal energy to the working fluid during the descent in the external pipe and then go back through the internal pipe properly isolated. We propose a complete design of the borehole heat exchangers. The design activity is performed on a theoretical basis

  10. Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

    2013-01-08

    A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR.

  11. Association between climatic variables and malaria incidence: a study in Kokrajhar district of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Nath, Dilip C; Mwchahary, Dimacha Dwibrang

    2012-11-11

    A favorable climatic condition for transmission of malaria prevails in Kokrajhar district throughout the year. A sizeable part of the district is covered by forest due to which dissimilar dynamics of malaria transmission emerge in forest and non-forest areas. Observed malaria incidence rates of forest area, non-forest area and the whole district over the period 2001-2010 were considered for analyzing temporal correlation between malaria incidence and climatic variables. Associations between the two were examined by Pearson correlation analysis. Cross-correlation tests were performed between pre-whitened series of climatic variable and malaria series. Linear regressions were used to obtain linear relationships between climatic factors and malaria incidence, while weighted least squares regression was used to construct models for explaining and estimating malaria incidence rates. Annual concentration of malaria incidence was analyzed by Markham technique by obtaining seasonal index. Forest area and non-forest area have distinguishable malaria seasons. Relative humidity was positively correlated with forest malaria incidence, while temperature series were negatively correlated with non-forest malaria incidence. There was higher seasonality of concentration of malaria in the forest area than non-forest area. Significant correlation between annual changes in malaria cases in forest area and temperature was observed (coeff=0.689, p=0.040). Separate reliable models constructed for forecasting malaria incidence rates based on the combined influence of climatic variables on malaria incidence in different areas of the district were able to explain substantial percentage of observed variability in the incidence rates (R2adj=45.4%, 50.6%, 47.2%; p< .001 for all). There is an intricate association between climatic variables and malaria incidence of the district. Climatic variables influence malaria incidence in forest area and non-forest area in different ways. Rainfall

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with dental caries among children and adults in selected districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kutesa, Annet; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nkamba, Moses; Muwazi, Louis; Okullo, Isaac; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries among adults and children in seven districts of Uganda. Participants aged 11-13 (n=1230) and 35-44 years (n=648) were randomly selected from urban and rural areas of Gulu, Soroti, Jinja, Masaka, Kabale, Kabarole and Hoima districts. They were examined by 4 trained and calibrated dentists for dental caries using Decayed, Missing and Filled teeth index as described by World Health Organisation. Overall mean DMFT score was 0.73 for children and 4.71 for adults. Generally, there was a higher mean DMFT score in the rural (2.19) compared to urban areas (1.97). In all the districts, except Hoima, there was a higher mean DMFT score of children in rural compared to urban. In adults, similar trend was mainly registered in Masaka, Hoima and Gulu districts. Most participants (79.9%, n=1309) occasionally ate sugared snacks. Overall, 95% (n=1795) of the participants cleaned their teeth with plastic tooth brushes (71.7%) and chewing sticks (8.3%). Although the severity of dental caries was low, the disease was widespread in the study population. A high proportion of participants reported consumption of sugared snacks and drinks, which calls for oral health education.

  13. Study of the causes and identification of the dominant mechanisms of failure of bellows expansion joints used in district heating system pipelines at MOEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Semenov, V. N.; Shipkov, A. A.; Shepelev, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    The results of laboratory studies of material properties and of numerical and analytical investigations to assess the stress-strain state of the metal of the bellows expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK subjected to corrosion failure are presented. The main causes and the dominant mechanisms of failure of the expansion joints have been identified. The influence of the initial crevice defects and the operating conditions on the features and intensity of destruction processes in expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK has been established.

  14. Technical feasibility and economics of retrofitting an existing nuclear power plant to cogeneration for hot water district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, J.O.; Bauman, H.F.; Jones, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the hypothetical conversion of the Prairie Island Nuclear Plant of the Northern States Power Company to cogeneration operation to supply a future hot water district heating system load in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis-St. Paul. The conceptual design of the nuclear turbine retrofitted for cogeneration and of a hot water transmission system has been performed, and the capital investment and annual owning and operating costs have been estimated for thermal energy capacities of 600 and 1200 MW(t). Unit costs of thermal energy (in mid-1982 dollars/million Btu) have been estimated for cogenerated hot water at the plant gate and also for the most economic transmission system from Prairie Island to the Twin Cities. The economic results from the analysis of the Prairie Island plant and transmission route have been generalized for other transmission distances in other locations.

  15. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Afyon geothermal district heating system by using neural network and neuro-fuzzy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şencan Şahin, Arzu; Yazıcı, Hilmi

    2012-07-01

    In this study, energy and exergy analysis of the Afyon geothermal district heating system (AGDHS) in Afyon, Turkey using artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) methods is carried out. Actual system data in the analysis of the AGDHS are used. The results of ANN are compared with ANFIS in which the same data sets are used. ANN model is slightly better than ANFIS in determining the energy and exergy rates. In addition, new formulations obtained from ANN are presented for the determination of the energy and exergy rates of the AGDHS. The R2-values obtained when unknown data were used in the networks were 0.999999847 and 0.99999997 for the energy and exergy rates respectively, which are very satisfactory.

  16. Association Between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    PubMed

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-12-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not in such states to (1) have an IAQ management program (p < .001); (2) require schools to conduct periodic inspections of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (p < .05); of the building for cracks, leaks, or past water damage (p < .01); for mold (p < .01); for clutter that prevents effective cleaning and maintenance (p < .05); of the plumbing system (p < .01); and for condensation in and around school facilities (p < .001); (3) have an engine idling reduction program ( < .001); (4) have a policy to purchase low-emitting products (p < .05); and (5) require IPM strategies (p < .05). Increasing the number of states that provide IAQ-related assistance to school districts and schools may improve school IAQ. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.

  18. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An assessment is made of four applications of biomass and solar energy conversion technologies. The first is an energy self-sufficient farm that provides all of its space heating and hot water needs by burning wood obtained by selective timber cutting on the farm acreage. The heating system is a commerical boiler furnace. A Purox gasification system is described which uses wood feedstock with a capacity of 850 dry tons/day. This system requires 2,000 farms, each with 30 acres of wooded land having a sustainable capacity of 5 dry tons/day per acre. The efficiency of silviculture plantations is then addressed in regard to different conversion strategies. Finally, a solar heat and cooling system designed for a one story school building is assessed. Land and materials requirements, climatology, and economic factors are discussed.

  19. Feasibility of cogenerated district heating and cooling for North Loop project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-03-01

    A thermal-economic analysis was performed in order to determine feasibility of cogeneration with central heating and cooling for Chicago's North Loop Development Project. Heating, cooling and electrical loads were predicted by using energy data according to use and floor area, representative of downtown Chicago. The central facility proposed would supply cogenerated heating for a part of the development's demand and about one half of the cooling demand by means of combined conventional and cogeneration equipment together on the 4-pipe distribution system. Electricity would also be distributed and used to substantially displace purchases. Additional options are also discussed and, if economical, could make implementation more attractive. Four alternatives involving gas turbines and diesels were selected for study and are reported. Energy savings extend over the assumed 25 years of the project and are indexed to inflation and fuel-cost escalation. It would appear that cogeneration could assist economic development of the North Loop Project.

  20. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  1. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastware toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  2. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeringer, M. R.; Crist, W. K.; Dunn, J. R.

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of sub-surface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Eight wells about 400-feet deep, one 600-foot well and one 2232-foot well were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  3. Association between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health: a multilevel study in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Choi, Jaesung; Park, Kisoo; Chung, Yeonseung; Park, Sangjo; Heo, Jongho

    2014-07-29

    Several studies have reported the relationship between residents' perceived neighbourhood safety and their health outcomes. However, those studies suffered from unreliability of neighbourhood safety measure and potential residual confounding related to crime rates. In this study, using multilevel analysis to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, we examined associations between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health after adjusting for potential confounders including the district-level crime rate. Cross-sectional study. We used the first wave of Seoul Welfare Panel Study, which has 7761 individuals from 3665 households in 25 administrative districts in Seoul, South Korea. District-level perceived safety was obtained by aggregating responses from the residents that are representative samples for each administrative district in Seoul. To examine an association between district-level safety and residents' self-rated health, we used mixed effect logistic regression. Our results showed that higher district-level perceived safety, an aggregated measure of district residents' responses towards neighbourhood safety, was significantly associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for sex, age, education level, job status, marital status and household income (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). Furthermore, this association was still robust when we additionally adjusted for the district-level crime rate (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95). Our study highlights the importance of improving neighbourhood perceived safety to enhance residents' health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. The interactive association between heat shock factor 1 and heat shock proteins in primary myocardial cells subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu; Chen, Hongbo; Cheng, Yanfen; Nasir, Mohammad Abdel; Kemper, Nicole; Bao, Endong

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a heat shock transcription factor that rapidly induces heat shock gene transcription following thermal stress. In this study, we subjected primary neonatal rat myocardial cells to heat stress in vitro to create a model system for investigating the trends in expression and association between various heat shock proteins (HSPs) and HSF1 under adverse environmental conditions. After the cells were subjected to heat stress at 42˚C for different periods of time, HSP and HSF1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis in the heat-stressed cells. The HSF1 expression levels significantly increased in the cells following 120 min of exposure to heat stess compared to the levels observed at the beginning of heat stress exposure. HSP90 followed a similar trend in expression to HSF1, whereas HSP70 followed an opposite trend. However, no significant changes were observed in the crystallin, alpha B (CRYAB, also known as HSP beta-5) expression levels during the 480‑min period of exposure to heat stress. The interaction between the HSPs and HSF1 was analyzed by STRING 9.1, and it was found that HSF1 interacted with HSP90 and HSP70, and that it did not play a role in regulating CRYAB expression. Based on our findings, HSP70 may suppress HSF1 in rat myocardial cells under conditions of heat stress. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that HSF1 is not the key factor for all HSPs, and this was particularly the case for CRYAB.

  5. The interactive association between heat shock factor 1 and heat shock proteins in primary myocardial cells subjected to heat stress

    PubMed Central

    TANG, SHU; CHEN, HONGBO; CHENG, YANFEN; NASIR, MOHAMMAD ABDEL; KEMPER, NICOLE; BAO, ENDONG

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a heat shock transcription factor that rapidly induces heat shock gene transcription following thermal stress. In this study, we subjected primary neonatal rat myocardial cells to heat stress in vitro to create a model system for investigating the trends in expression and association between various heat shock proteins (HSPs) and HSF1 under adverse environmental conditions. After the cells were subjected to heat stress at 42°C for different periods of time, HSP and HSF1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis in the heat-stressed cells. The HSF1 expression levels significantly increased in the cells following 120 min of exposure to heat stess compared to the levels observed at the beginning of heat stress exposure. HSP90 followed a similar trend in expression to HSF1, whereas HSP70 followed an opposite trend. However, no significant changes were observed in the crystallin, alpha B (CRYAB, also known as HSP beta-5) expression levels during the 480-min period of exposure to heat stress. The interaction between the HSPs and HSF1 was analyzed by STRING 9.1, and it was found that HSF1 interacted with HSP90 and HSP70, and that it did not play a role in regulating CRYAB expression. Based on our findings, HSP70 may suppress HSF1 in rat myocardial cells under conditions of heat stress. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that HSF1 is not the key factor for all HSPs, and this was particularly the case for CRYAB. PMID:26719858

  6. Infant respiratory symptoms associated with indoor heating sources.

    PubMed

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Belanger, Kathleen; Beckett, William; Bracken, Michael B; Holford, Theodore R; Gent, Janneane; Jankun, Thomas; McSharry, Jean-Ellen; Leaderer, Brian P

    2002-10-15

    This study examined the effects of indoor heating sources on infant respiratory symptoms during the heating season of the first year of life. Mothers delivering babies between 1993 and 1996 at 12 hospitals in Connecticut and Virginia were enrolled. Daily symptom and heating source use information about their infant was obtained every 2 weeks during the first year of life. Heating sources included fireplace, wood stove, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use. Four health outcomes were analyzed by reporting period: days of wheeze, episodes of wheeze, days of cough, and episodes of cough. A large percentage of infants had at least one episode of cough (88%) and wheeze (33%) during the heating season of the first year of life. Wood stove, fireplace, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use was intermittent across the study period. In adjusted Poisson regression models controlling for important confounders, gas space heater use was associated with episodes and days of wheeze. Wood stove use was associated with total days of cough, and kerosene heater use was associated with episodes of cough. Fireplace use was not associated with any of the respiratory symptoms. Use of some heating sources appears related to respiratory symptoms in infants.

  7. Factors associated with uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision, Mazowe District, Zimbabwe, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rupfutse, Maxwell; Tshuma, Cremence; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Gombe, Notion; Bangure, Donewell; Wellington, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is the surgical removal of the foreskin by a trained health worker. VMMC was introduced in Zimbabwe in 2009. It is of concern that the programme performance has been below expectations nationally and in Mazowe district. Zimbabwe is unlikely to meet its 2015 target of circumcising 1 200 000 men aged between 15 and 29 years and unlikely to enjoy maximum benefits of VMMC which include prevention of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer. We therefore broadly aimed at identifying factors influencing the level of VMMC uptake in Mazowe district. Methods An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out in Mazowe district. A multi-stage probability sampling strategy was used to select 300 men aged between 18 and 49 years. Pretested interviewer administered questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Quantitative data was analysed using Epi info where odds ratios and p-values were calculated. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results Being of Shona origin (AOR= 7.69 (95%CI 1.78-33.20)), fear of pain (AOR= 7.09 (95%CI 2.58-19.47)) and fear of poor wound healing (AOR= 2.68 (95%CI 1.01-7.08)) were independently associated with being uncircumcised while having a circumcised friend and encouragement by a friend or relative were independently associated with being circumcised. Conclusion Fear of pain, fear of poor wound healing and encouragement by a friend or relative were associated with circumcision status. Widening use of surgical devices and third part referrals may assist in scaling up the programme. PMID:25918577

  8. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Helen M.; Beckett, Joseph; Casa, Douglas J.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; Plummer, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background: Certified athletic trainers evaluate and treat heat-related injuries during athletic activity in “safe” and high-risk environments. While the recognition of heat illness has improved, the subtle signs and symptoms associated with heat illness are often overlooked, resulting in more serious problems for affected athletes. The recommendations presented here provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and practical approach to the prevention, recognition, and treatment of heat illnesses. These recommendations can be modified based on the environmental conditions of the site, the specific sport, and individual considerations to maximize safety and performance. Recommendations: Certified athletic trainers and other allied health providers should use these recommendations to establish on-site emergency plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the prevention and recognition of heat-related illnesses and a well-developed plan to evaluate and treat affected athletes. Even with a heat-illness prevention plan that includes medical screening, acclimatization, conditioning, environmental monitoring, and suitable practice adjustments, heat illness can and does occur. Athletic trainers and other allied health providers must be prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:12937591

  9. Agreement between Board of Trustees, West Kern Community College District and Taft College Faculty Association, 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Kern Community Coll. District, Taft, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the West Kern Community College District Board of Trustees and the Taft College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1989 through June 30, 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  10. Napa Valley Community College District and Napa Valley College Faculty Association/CTA/NEA 1988-89 Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa Valley Community Coll. District, Napa, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the Napa Valley Community College District and the Napa Valley College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, in effect from June 1988 through July 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  11. Agreement: Desert Community College District, College of the Desert Faculty Association CTA/NEA, January 13, 1989-June 30, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desert Community Coll. District, Palm Desert, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Desert Community College District and the College of the Desert Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from January 13, 1989 through June 30, 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  12. Association between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not…

  13. Association between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not…

  14. Root carbon and protein metabolism associated with heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingru; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Xu, Jichen

    2012-05-01

    Extensive past efforts have been taken toward understanding heat tolerance mechanisms of the aboveground organs. Root systems play critical roles in whole-plant adaptation to heat stress, but are less studied. This review discusses recent research results revealing some critical physiological and metabolic factors underlying root thermotolerance, with a focus on temperate perennial grass species. Comparative analysis of differential root responses to supraoptimal temperatures by a heat-adapted temperate C3 species, Agrostis scabra, which can survive high soil temperatures up to 45 °C in geothermal areas in Yellow Stone National Park, and a heat-sensitive cogeneric species, Agrostis stolonifera, suggested that efficient carbon and protein metabolism is critical for root thermotolerance. Superior root thermotolerance in a perennial grass was associated with a greater capacity to control respiratory costs through respiratory acclimation, lowering carbon investment in maintenance for protein turnover, and efficiently partitioning carbon into different metabolic pools and alternative respiration pathways. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that root thermotolerance was associated with an increased maintenance of stability and less degradation of proteins, particularly those important for metabolism and energy production. In addition, thermotolerant roots are better able to maintain growth and activity during heat stress by activating stress defence proteins such as those participating in antioxidant defence (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) and chaperoning protection (i.e. heat shock protein).

  15. The prevalence and characteristics associated with mother-infant bed-sharing in Klang district, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L; Ghani, S N; Moy, F M

    2009-12-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of mother-infant bed-sharing practice in Klang district, Malaysia. Data was collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire for a four month period in 2006. A total of 682 mother-infant pairs attending government health clinics were included in the study. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers, information on the infants, bed-sharing and breastfeeding practices were collected. The mean maternal age was 28.4 +/- 5.1 years while the mean infant gestational age was 38.8 +/- 1.8 weeks. The study showed the prevalence of bed-sharing was 73.5% (95% CI: 70.0, 76.7). In multivariate analysis; area of interview, maternal occupation, family income, breastfeeding and infant birth weight were associated with bed-sharing after adjusted for maternal ethnicity, age, marital status, educational level, parity, infant gender and infant gestational age. In conclusion, bed-sharing is a common practice in Klang district, Malaysia, not specific to ethnicity, but strongly associated with low family income and breastfeeding.

  16. Sickness absenteeism and associated factors among horticulture employees in lume district, southeast Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Ebrahim, Kamil; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absenteeism is the major occupational health problem in developing countries where the majority of working population are engaged in hazardous sectors, such as agriculture. However, there is a dearth of studies clarifying the situation in most of Subsaharan African countries, like Ethiopia. The present study determined the magnitude of sickness absenteeism and associated factors among horticulture employees in Lume District, southeast Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among horticulture employees in Lume District, southeast Ethiopia from March to May 2014. Stratified sampling followed by simple random sampling techniques was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable analyses were employed to see the effect of explanatory variables on dependent variable. The magnitude of sickness absenteeism was 58.8 % [95 % CI: (54.9, 62.5)] in the past three months. Absence of periodic medical checkup, working for more than 48 h per week, working overtime, job dissatisfaction, and job stress were factors significantly associated with sickness absenteeism. In this study a relatively higher rate of sickness absenteeism was reported compared to other studies. Interventions to reduce sickness absenteeism should focus on areas, such as periodic medical checkup, monitoring work schedules, improving employees' job satisfaction, and managing job stress.

  17. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  18. Prevalence & factors associated with chronic obstetric morbidities in Nashik district, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Agarwal, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: In India, community based data on chronic obstetric morbidities (COM) are scanty and largely derived from hospital records. The main aim of the study was to assess the community based prevalence and the factors associated with the defined COM - obstetric fistula, genital prolapse, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and secondary infertility among women in Nashik district of Maharashtra State, India. Methods: The study was cross-sectional with self-reports followed by clinical and gynaecological examination. Six primary health centre areas in Nashik district were selected by systematic random sampling. Six months were spent on rapport development with the community following which household interviews were conducted among 1560 women and they were mobilized to attend health facility for clinical examination. Results: Of the 1560 women interviewed at household level, 1167 women volunteered to undergo clinical examination giving a response rate of 75 per cent. The prevalence of defined COM among 1167 women was genital prolapse (7.1%), chronic PID (2.5%), secondary infertility (1.7%) and fistula (0.08%). Advancing age, illiteracy, high parity, conduction of deliveries by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and obesity were significantly associated with the occurrence of genital prolapse. History of at least one abortion was significantly associated with secondary infertility. Chronic PID had no significant association with any of the socio-demographic or obstetric factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings provided an insight in the magnitude of community-based prevalence of COM and the factors associated with it. The results showed that COM were prevalent among women which could be addressed by interventions at personal, social and health services delivery level. PMID:26609041

  19. A Level Playing Field. A Report to the Association of Small City School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Hollis A.

    This report describes findings of a study conducted by the Auburn Enlarged City School District that examined the ability of New York school districts to pay for their students' educational needs. The methodology used involved an economic comparison of the largest 80 New York school districts selected on the basis of enrollment and an analysis of…

  20. THE CASE FOR INDEPENDENT JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS, A REPORT OF THE CALIFORNIA JUNIOR COLLEGE FACULTY ASSOCIATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEWITT, GEORGE E.; HALL, LLOYD C.

    MOST CALIFORNIA JUNIOR COLLEGES ARE ALREADY GOVERNED IN SEPARATE DISTRICTS. THE FEW JUNIOR COLLEGES, HOWEVER, WHICH DO REMAIN IN UNIFIED DISTRICTS ARE LARGE ONES, AND THE ABUSES AND HANDICAPS THEY SUSTAIN ARE MANIFOLD. FUNDS EARMARKED FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE PROGRAMS ARE BEING DIVERTED TO ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. UNIFIED DISTRICT BOARD MEMBERS…

  1. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean's index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p < 0.05). Bivariate analysis was performed to identify significant risk factors that affected prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) on χ(2) were entered into multiple logistic regressions to assess their independent effects. In this study, we analyzed risk factors for both prevalence and severity of fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):256-263.

  2. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Aim The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. Materials and methods The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean’s index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p < 0.05). Bivariate analysis was performed to identify significant risk factors that affected prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) on χ2 were entered into multiple logistic regressions to assess their independent effects. Results In this study, we analyzed risk factors for both prevalence and severity of fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Conclusion Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. How to cite this article Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District

  3. Healthcare-associated infection in Burkina Faso: an assessment in a district hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Hervé; Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Konfé, Salifou; Zeba, Sylvain; Sangaré, Lassana; Compaoré, Sidzabda C.; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Ouendo, Edgard M.; Makoutodé, Michel; Meda, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, few data are available on healthcare-associated infections. In Burkina Faso, there has been a failure to take into account risk management and patient safety in the quality assurance program. The main objective of our study was to carry out an assessment of healthcare-associated infection in a first level hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study in June 2011 in the care units of Ziniaré District Hospital (Ziniaré, Burkina Faso). The hospital has been divided in three components: i) hospital population (care providers, in-patients and patients' guardians); ii) healthcare and services organization; iii) hospital environment. We included: care providers of the clinical services, hospital in-patients and patients' guardians, hospitalization infrastructure and nursing units, and all the documents relating to standards and protocols. Data collection has been done by direct observation, interviews and biological samples taken at different settings. In hospital population, care providers and patients' guardians represented a high source of infection: adherence to hygiene practice on the part of care providers was low (12/19), and no patients' guardian experienced good conditions of staying in the hospital. In healthcare and services organization, healthcare waste management represented a high-risk source of infection. In hospital environment, hygiene level of the infrastructure in the hospital rooms was low (6.67%). Prevalence of isolated bacteria was 71.8%. Urinary-tract catheters infections were the most significant in our sample, followed by surgical-site infections. In total, 56.26% (9/19) of germs were -Lactamase producers (ESBL). They were represented by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our analysis identified clearly healthcare-associated infection as a problem in Ziniaré district hospital. Hence, a national program of quality assurance in the hospitals should now integrate the risk infectious management of healthcare-associated

  4. Investigation of Salmonella Enteritidis Outbreak Associated with Truffle Oil - District of Columbia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto-Crawford, S Janet; McGee, Sasha; Li, Keith; Hennenfent, Andrew K; Dassie, Kossia; Carney, Jhetari T; Gibson, Arian; Cooper, Ivory; Blaylock, Morris; Blackwell, Reginald; Fields, Angela; Davies-Cole, John

    2017-03-17

    On September 8, 2015, the District of Columbia Department of Health (DCDOH) received a call from a person who reported experiencing gastrointestinal illness after eating at a District of Columbia (DC) restaurant with multiple locations throughout the United States (restaurant A). Later the same day, a local emergency department notified DCDOH to report four persons with gastrointestinal illness, all of whom had eaten at restaurant A during August 30-September 5. Two patients had laboratory-confirmed Salmonella group D by stool culture. On the evening of September 9, a local newspaper article highlighted a possible outbreak associated with restaurant A. Investigation of the outbreak by DCDOH identified 159 patrons who were residents of 11 states and DC with gastrointestinal illness after eating at restaurant A during July 1-September 10. A case-control study was conducted, which suggested truffle oil-containing food items as a possible source of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infection. Although several violations were noted during the restaurant inspections, the environmental, laboratory, and traceback investigations did not confirm the contamination source. Because of concern about the outbreak, the restaurant's license was suspended during September 10-15. The collaboration and cooperation of the public, media, health care providers, and local, state, and federal public health officials facilitated recognition of this outbreak involving a pathogen commonly implicated in foodborne illness.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among form four students in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Kee, C C; Christopher, V M; Noruiza Hana, M; Lim, K K; Amal, N M

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among form four students of secondary schools in the District of Petaling, Selangor, Malaysia from February 2008 to June 2008 with the aim of quantifying the prevalence of smoking and identifying the psychosocial factors related to smoking among adolescents in this district. A two-stage stratified sampling strategy was used to obtain a sample of 1300 students based on an estimated prevalence of 10%. The response rate was 80.5% (1045 out of 1298 students). Results showed that prevalence of smoking was higher among male students (22.3%) compared to females (5.5%) and the median age at smoking initiation was lower among males compared to female smokers (14 years old vs 15 years old). Modifiable risk factors associated with smoking were "percentage of friends who smoke" (OR 2.94, 95% CI [1.71- 5.06]) and "having a brother who smokes" (OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.20-3.31]). There was also a correlation between smoking prevalence and the number of risk factors present. Intensification of health education and anti-smoking programmes and modification of external factors in early adolescence are recommended to prevent smoking initiation.

  6. Retrofitting the Strogino district heat supply station with construction of a 260-MW combined-cycle power plant (Consisting of two PGU-130 combined-cycle power units)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    The retrofitting carried out at the Strogino district heat supply station and the specific features of works accomplished in the course of constructing the thermal power station based on a combined-cycle power plant at the station site are described; the layout solutions for the main building and turbine building are presented, and a comparison of the retrofitted station with the Kolomenskoe and Vnukovo gas turbine-based power stations is given.

  7. Prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Makayoto, Lyndah A; Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M; Harder, Valarie S; Mutai, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05-4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06-5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01-3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21-4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16-0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies.

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women Attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M.; Harder, Valarie S.; Mutai, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05–4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06–5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01–3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21–4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16–0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies. PMID:22569943

  9. City of Kansas City, Missouri Public Works Department: Solid waste management plan, district heating and cooling plan, and waste-to-energy feasibility study: Appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This paper covers the following topics: Garbage and Trash (Municipal Solid Waste Storage and Ordinance of Kansas City with Proposed Modifications; Contract (Draft Solid Waste Collection Contract); Solid Waste Disposal Services Contract; Electric Power Purchase Agreement; Steam Delivery Agreement; Results of Telecon Survey of Companies Paying for Recycled Materials; Regional Hazardous Waste Processing and Disposal Facilities; Summary of Downtown District Heating Survey; Steam Distribution System Information; Ruling by Missouri Public Service Commission: KCPandL Downtown Steam Heating System for Kansas City, Missouri; and Review of Kansas City Power and Light Waste-to-Energy Study.

  10. Master Contract by and between the Board of Trustees of Washington Community College District 17 (The Community Colleges of Spokane) and the District 17 Association for Higher Education, September 1, 1988-August 31, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokane Community Coll., WA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of Washington Community College District 17 and the District 17 Association for Higher Education (AHE) is presented, covering all academic employees employed by Spokane Community College, Spokane Falls Community College, and the Institute for Extended Learning. This contract,…

  11. Collective Bargaining Agreement by and Between Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10, July 1973-June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Park Technical Inst., Fond du Lac, WI.

    This is the collective bargaining agreement between the Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10 covering the period July 1973-June 1974. Contents cover academic freedom; advancement on the salary schedule; aggrieved person; arbitration and…

  12. Healthier Fundraising in U. S. Elementary Schools: Associations between Policies at the State, District, and School Levels

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether state laws and district policies pertaining to nutritional restrictions on school fundraisers were associated with school policies as reported by administrators in a nationally-representative sample of United States public elementary schools. Methods We gathered data on school-level fundraising policies via a mail-back survey during the 2009–10 and 2010–11 school years. Surveys were received from 1,278 public elementary schools (response rate = 60.9%). Data were also gathered on corresponding school district policies and state laws. After removing cases with missing data, the sample size for analysis was 1,215 schools. Results After controlling for school characteristics, school policies were consistently associated with state laws and district policies, both those pertaining to fundraising generally, as well as specific restrictions on the sale of candy and soda in fundraisers (all Odds Ratios >2.0 and Ps<.05). However, even where district policies and state laws required fundraising restrictions, school policies were not uniformly present; school policies were also in place at only 55.8% of these schools, but were more common at schools in the West (77.1%) and at majority-Latino schools (71.4%), indicating uneven school-level implementation of district policy and state law. Conclusions District policies and state laws were associated with a higher prevalence of elementary school-level fundraising policies, but many schools that were subject to district policies and state laws did not have school-level restrictions in place, suggesting the need for further attention to factors hindering policy implementation in schools. PMID:23166788

  13. Healthier fundraising in U. S. elementary schools: associations between policies at the state, district, and school levels.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether state laws and district policies pertaining to nutritional restrictions on school fundraisers were associated with school policies as reported by administrators in a nationally-representative sample of United States public elementary schools. We gathered data on school-level fundraising policies via a mail-back survey during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 school years. Surveys were received from 1,278 public elementary schools (response rate = 60.9%). Data were also gathered on corresponding school district policies and state laws. After removing cases with missing data, the sample size for analysis was 1,215 schools. After controlling for school characteristics, school policies were consistently associated with state laws and district policies, both those pertaining to fundraising generally, as well as specific restrictions on the sale of candy and soda in fundraisers (all Odds Ratios >2.0 and Ps<.05). However, even where district policies and state laws required fundraising restrictions, school policies were not uniformly present; school policies were also in place at only 55.8% of these schools, but were more common at schools in the West (77.1%) and at majority-Latino schools (71.4%), indicating uneven school-level implementation of district policy and state law. District policies and state laws were associated with a higher prevalence of elementary school-level fundraising policies, but many schools that were subject to district policies and state laws did not have school-level restrictions in place, suggesting the need for further attention to factors hindering policy implementation in schools.

  14. District Policies and Practices Vary in Their Association With Adolescents' Consumption of Milk and 100% Fruit Juice.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Miller, Gabrielle F; Brener, Nancy D; Park, Sohyun; Merlo, Caitlin L

    2017-05-01

    Researchers previously examined the relationship between school beverage policies and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. This study addressed a research gap by examining cross-sectional associations between district-level policies and practices and U.S. high school students' consumption of milk and 100% fruit juice. Data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study and 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System were linked for 12 large urban school districts. Outcome variables were daily milk consumption (≥1 glass/day) and 100% fruit juice consumption (≥1 time/day). Exposure variables were five district policies (i.e., restrict SSB sales, maintain closed campuses, offer/sell healthful alternatives, restrict promotional products, and require nutrition education). Logistic regression models estimated the odds of consuming milk or 100% fruit juice daily, conditional on the policies and adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, grade level, weight status, and district free/reduced-price lunch eligibility (n = 23,173). Students in districts that required/recommended restricting the times of SSB sales had 55% higher (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.87) odds of consuming ≥1 glass/day of milk than students in districts without this policy. Closed campus policies were associated with lower odds of consuming milk (AOR, .72; 95% CI, .63-.82) and higher odds of consuming juice (AOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50). Policies requiring/recommending that districts offer/sell healthful alternatives were associated with lower odds of consuming 100% fruit juice daily. Results suggest that restricting SSB sales may support adolescents' milk consumption. Future studies should assess whether the implementation of federal standards that further restrict SSB sales in school leads to increased milk consumption. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Income gaps in self-rated poor health and its association with life expectancy in 245 districts of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ikhan; Bahk, Jinwook; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-01-01

    To examine the income gaps associated with self-rated poor health at the district level in Korea and to identify the geographical correlations between self-rated poor health, life expectancy, and the associated income gaps. We analyzed data for 1,578,189 participants from the Community Health Survey of Korea collected between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of self-rated poor health and the associated income gaps were calculated. Previously released data on life expectancy and the associated income gaps were also used. We performed correlation and regression analyses for self-rated poor health, life expectancy, and associated income gaps. Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of self-rated poor health was 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.6 to 16.8%), with interquartile range (IQR) of 3.1 percentage points (%p). The median interquintile gaps in the prevalence of self-rated poor health was 11.1%p (95% CI, 8.1 to 14.5%p), with IQR of 3.6%p. Pro-rich inequalities in self-rated health were observed across all 245 districts of Korea. The correlation coefficients for the association between self-rated poor health and the associated income gaps, self-rated poor health and life expectancy, and income gaps associated with self-rated poor health and life expectancy were 0.59, 0.78 and 0.55 respectively. Income gaps associated with self-rated poor health were evident across all districts in Korea. The magnitude of income gaps associated with self-rated poor health was larger in the districts with greater prevalence of self-rated poor health. A strong correlation between self-rated poor health and life expectancy was also observed.

  16. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

  17. Association between obesity and cancer incidence in the population of the District Sumperk, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Máchová, Lucie; Cízek, Ludek; Horáková, Dagmar; Koutná, Jirina; Lorenc, Jirí; Janoutová, Gabriela; Janout, Vladimír

    2007-11-01

    Excess body weight was shown to be associated with risk of several types of cancer. In the Czech Republic, malignant tumors are the second leading cause of death. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the most frequent types of cancer and obesity. A case-control study was accomplished, using data from the National Cancer Registry and from a preventive oncologic checkup database. Cases were defined as persons from the studied population who developed skin, breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, cervical, endometrial, kidney, ovarian, urinary bladder, stomach, pancreatic, or gallbladder cancers from 1987 to 2002. Controls were cancer-free men and women from the population. Among the cancer patients and healthy controls, proportions of obese, overweight, and nonobese individuals were compared, and odds ratios (OR) were computed. After adjustment for confounders, obese men had a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.56-2.76) and kidney cancer (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.14-3.24). Obese women were at higher risk of endometrial cancer (OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.65-6.37). An inverse association was observed between obesity and lung cancer (in men: OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.37-0.66; in women: OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21-0.80). Obesity is associated with several frequent types of tumors and represents an important preventable cause of cancer in the population of the District Sumperk, Czech Republic.

  18. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Dangila district, North West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Negusie, Azezu Asres

    2016-03-01

    Childbirth in a health institution has been shown to be associated with lower rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. However, about 85% of mothers in Ethiopia deliver at home. To assess factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among women who gave birth within one year prior to the study in Dangila district. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01-28, 2015. A total of 763 mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaire. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Crude and adjusted Odds ratios were computed for selected variables. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistical significant. Only 18.3% of mothers gave birth at health facilities. Knowledge on danger signs [AOR=2.0, 95% CI: (1.1, 3.4)], plan to give birth at health institution [AOR=5.4, 95% CI: (3.0, 9.6)], having ANC follow up during pregnancy [AOR=12.9, 95% CI: (5.0, 33.3)] and time taken to get to a nearby health institution [AOR=5.1, 95% CI: (2.9, 9.1)] were associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Institutional delivery was very low. Knowledge about danger signs, having ANC visits, and time were factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Thus, the findings recommend repeated re-enforcement of institutional delivery service utilization through professionals. And also, the findings recommend promotion of institutional delivery service utilization through mass media.

  19. District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications. Final report, August 20, 1990--January 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

  20. Assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and associated factors in a Buruli ulcer endemic district in Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Roch Christian; Boni, Gratien; Barogui, Yves; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Houndonougbo, Macaire; Anagonou, Esai; Agossadou, Didier; Diez, Gabriel; Boko, Michel

    2015-08-19

    Control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires multiple strategic approaches including water, sanitation and hygiene services (WASH). Buruli ulcer (BU), one of the 17 NTDs, remains a public health issue in Benin particularly in the district of Lalo. The availability of water as well as good hygiene are important for the management of Buruli ulcer particularly in the area of wound care one of the main component of the treatment of BU lesions. Given the growing importance of WASH in controlling NTDs and in order to assess the baseline for future cross-cutting interventions, we report here on the first study evaluating the level of WASH and associated factors in Lalo, one of the most BU-endemic districts in Benin. A cross-sectional study was carried to assess WASH practices and associated factors in the district of Lalo. Data were collected from 600 heads of household using structured pretested questionnaire and observations triangulated with qualitative information obtained from in-depth interviews of patients, care-givers and community members. Univariate and multivariate analysis were carried to determine the relationships between the potential associated factors and the sanitation as well as hygiene status. BU is an important conditions in the district of Lalo with 917 new cases detected from 2006 to 2012. More than 49 % of the household surveyed used unimproved water sources for their daily needs. Only 8.7 % of the investigated household had improved sanitation facilities at home and 9.7 % had improved hygiene behavior. The type of housing as an indicator of the socioeconomic status, the permanent availability of soap and improved hygiene practices were identified as the main factors positively associated with improved sanitation status. In the district of Lalo in Benin, one of the most endemic for BU, the WASH indicators are very low. This study provides baseline informations for future cross-cutting interventions in this district.

  1. Incidence of influenza virus-associated severe acute respiratory infection in Damanhour district, Egypt, 2013.

    PubMed

    Refaey, S; Hassan, M; Mansour, A; Kandeel, A

    2016-10-02

    The epidemiology, seasonality and risk factors for influenza virus infection remains poorly defined in countries such as Egypt. Between 1 January and 31 December 2013, we used surveillance data on patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory infection in three Egyptian government hospitals in Damanhour district to estimate the incidence rate of laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza. Samples were taken from 1727 of 1856 patients; of these, 19% were influenza virus positive. The overall incidence of influenza virus-associated SARI during the study period was estimated to be 44 cases per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 39-48). The highest incidence of 166 cases per 100 000 person year (95% CI: 125-220) was observed in children aged 2 to 4 years. The incidence of influenza-virus associated SARI cases in pregnant women was estimated to be 17.3 cases per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 6-54). Majority of influenza virus-associated SARI occurred in autumn and early winter, and influenza A(H3N2) virus predominated. This was the first ever description of the epidemiology of seasonal influenza in Egypt. However, additional works are needed for greater understanding of influenza burden in Egypt.

  2. Seroprevalence and factors associated with Leptospira infection in an urban district of Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Osorio, Lyda; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2017-06-12

    Few studies have addressed Leptospira seroprevalence and risk factors in urban populations in Colombia. This study aimed to determine seroprevalence and factors associated with Leptospira infection in inhabitants of an urban district of Cali, Colombia. We collected sociodemographic and environmental data, as well as blood samples, from 353 subjects selected through a multistage cluster sampling design. We performed microagglutination test for the eight main Leptospira serogroups circulating in the region, considering a cut-off titer of ≥ 1:100. Most participants were female (226, 64.8%), with mean age 41.4 years, and 89 (32.6%) lived in low-low socioeconomic stratum (SES-1). Overall seroprevalence was 12.2% (95%CI: 10.3%-14.4%). Factors associated with Leptospira infection were SES 1, older age, single marital status, ethnic groups (Afro-Colombian and white/mestizo), school students, absence of toilet, barefoot walking, travel outside Cali in the previous month, and absence of skin and mucous-membrane lesions in the previous month. Our study suggests domestic and peridomiciliary transmission of Leptospira likely related to activities of daily living and inadequate environmental conditions. SES-1 is a major factor associated with Leptospira infection (adjusted OR = 4.08; 95%CI: 2.54-6.53; p < 0.001), suggesting that social and environmental conditions are key elements for endemicity of Leptospira infection in the study area. Epidemiological surveillance, improvement of environmental and sanitary conditions in various SES-1 areas, and community educational campaigns are recommended.

  3. Agreement between Lakeshore Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District Board and Lakeshore Education Association, 1987-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    The agreement between the Lakeshore Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District Board and the Lakeshore Education Association is presented for the period 1987-1989. The articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1) recognition and composition of the bargaining unit; (2) pay variations for various or unusual conditions; (3)…

  4. Thermoregulatory adaptations associated with training and heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1998-04-01

    The large metabolic heat load generated as a consequence of muscular work requires activation of thermoregulatory mechanisms in order to prevent an excessive and potentially dangerous rise in body temperature during exercise. Although the horse has highly efficient heat dissipatory mechanisms, there are a number of circumstances in which the thermoregulatory system may be overwhelmed, resulting in the development of critical hyperthermia. The risk for development of life-threatening hyperthermia is greatest when (1) the horse is inadequately conditioned for the required level of physical performance; (2) exercise is undertaken in hot and particularly, in hot and humid ambient conditions; and (3) there is an impairment to thermoregulatory mechanisms (e.g., severe dehydration, anhidrosis). Both exercise training under cool to moderate ambient conditions and a period of repeated exposure to, and exercise in, hot ambient conditions (heat acclimation) will result in a number of physiologic adaptations conferring improved thermoregulatory ability. These adaptations include an expanded plasma volume, greater stability of cardiovascular function during exercise, and an improved efficiency of evaporative heat loss as a result of alterations in the sweating response. Collectively, these adjustments serve to attenuate the rise in core body temperature in response to a given intensity of exercise. The magnitude of the physiologic adaptations occurring during exercise training and heat acclimation is a reflection of the thermal load imposed on the horse. Therefore, when compared with a period of training in cool conditions, the larger thermal stimulus associated with repeated exercise in hot ambient conditions will invoke proportionally greater thermoregulatory adaptations. Although it is not possible to eliminate the effects of adverse environmental conditions on exercise performance, it is clear that a thorough exercise training program together with a subsequent period of

  5. Heat tolerance testing: association between heat intolerance and anthropometric and fitness measurements.

    PubMed

    Lisman, Peter; Kazman, Josh B; O'Connor, Francis G; Heled, Yuval; Deuster, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated associations between heat intolerance, as determined by performance on a heat tolerance test (HTT), and anthropometric measurements (body surface-to-mass ratio, percent body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference) and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]). Relationships between predictive variables and specific physiological measurements recorded during the HTT were examined. A total of 34 male and 12 female participants, recruited from the military community, underwent anthropometric measurements, a maximal aerobic exercise test, and a standardized HTT, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at 5 km/h at 2% grade for 120 minutes at 40°C and 40% relative humidity. VO2max negatively correlated with maximum core temperature (r = -0.30, p < 0.05) and heart rate (HR) (r = -0.48, p < 0.01) although percent body fat showed a positive correlation with maximum HR (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). VO2max was the only independent attribute that significantly influenced both the maximum HR and core temperature attained during HTT. Logistic regression analyses indicated that VO2max was the only independent parameter (OR = 0.89, p = 0.026) that significantly contributed to overall HTT performance. Low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with heat intolerance, as defined by HTT performance, and can be addressed as a preventative measure for exertional heat illness. This study provides further evidence that the HTT can be an effective tool for assessment of thermoregulatory patterns. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Board of Trustees of Lower Columbia College District 13 and Lower Columbia Faculty Association, 1987-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower Columbia Coll., Longview, WA.

    This contractual agreement between the Board of Trustees of Lower Columbia College (LCC) District 13 and the Lower Columbia College Faculty Association outlines the terms of employment for all academic employees of the district. The 13 articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1) recognition of the association as exclusive…

  7. Role Performance of Community Health Volunteers and Its Associated Factors in Kuching District, Sarawak

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Melvin Hsien Liang; Hazmi, Helmy

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role performance among KOSPEN community health volunteer in Kuching district and its associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 21 localities in Kuching with a total of 210 respondents. Data were collected using validated interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. The respondents comprised 55.2% females, 81.9% married, and 41.4% aged above 45 and above and 72.4% completed their education up to secondary school. The result revealed that 59.0% of the respondents agreed and understood their role performances. Multiple Logistics analysis revealed that factors associated with role performance were age group (p = 0.003), education level (p < 0.001), marital status (p = 0.025), prestige and respect (p = 0.012), being seen as “doctor” in community (p = 0.003), job aids (p = 0.009), training location (p = 0.001), and supervision by community (p < 0.001). To increase and maintain the work performance of CHVs, commitment from the government, policy makers, stakeholders, and the communities is required. PMID:28286530

  8. Role Performance of Community Health Volunteers and Its Associated Factors in Kuching District, Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Chung, Melvin Hsien Liang; Hazmi, Helmy; Cheah, Whye Lian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role performance among KOSPEN community health volunteer in Kuching district and its associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 21 localities in Kuching with a total of 210 respondents. Data were collected using validated interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. The respondents comprised 55.2% females, 81.9% married, and 41.4% aged above 45 and above and 72.4% completed their education up to secondary school. The result revealed that 59.0% of the respondents agreed and understood their role performances. Multiple Logistics analysis revealed that factors associated with role performance were age group (p = 0.003), education level (p < 0.001), marital status (p = 0.025), prestige and respect (p = 0.012), being seen as "doctor" in community (p = 0.003), job aids (p = 0.009), training location (p = 0.001), and supervision by community (p < 0.001). To increase and maintain the work performance of CHVs, commitment from the government, policy makers, stakeholders, and the communities is required.

  9. Rosacea and exposure to tandoor heat: Is there an association?

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Hatice U; Calka, Omer; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Baskan, Elife; Ozkol, Halil

    2015-12-01

    Particularly in eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, women use tandoor ovens to bake bread and as a result are exposed to excessive heat. Exposure to heat for long periods may lead to the initiation or exacerbation of rosacea. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between exposure to heat from a tandoor and rosacea. A total of 350 female patients with various dermatological diseases were included in this study. These patients were divided into two groups comprising a control group and a group of tandoor users. Subjects in both the control and tandoor-user groups were screened to identify clinical and other characteristics, and symptoms and findings of rosacea and other dermatological disorders. The frequency of rosacea was significantly (P < 0.001) higher and that of acne markedly (P < 0.001) lower in the tandoor-user group than in the control group. Incidences of temporary and persistent types of erythema and telangiectasia, which are considered to be among the symptoms and findings of rosacea, were also significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the tandoor-user group than the control group. Frequencies of asthma and ex-smoker status differed significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.002, respectively) between the tandoor-user and control groups. Furthermore, the period of exposure to tandoor heat was positively correlated with the frequency of telangiectasia (r = 0.321, P < 0.01). Our study revealed a strong association between exposure to tandoor heat and rosacea. Further studies including higher numbers of patients are required to confirm our results. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Factors associated with use of malaria control interventions by pregnant women in Buwunga subcounty, Bugiri District.

    PubMed

    Muhumuza, Elizabeth; Namuhani, Noel; Balugaba, Bonny Enock; Namata, Jessica; Ekirapa Kiracho, Elizabeth

    2016-07-04

    In Uganda, the Government has promoted the use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) as malaria control strategies for pregnant women. However, their utilization among pregnant women is low. This study aimed at assessing factors associated with use of IPTp for malaria and ITNs by pregnant women in Buwunga sub-county, Bugiri District. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in Buwunga sub-county, Bugiri District, employing quantitative data collection tools. A total of 350 household members were randomly selected to participate in the study. Data were entered and analysed using Epi info version 3.5.1; bivariable and multivariable analysis was done to assess the factors associated with use of IPTp and ITNs among pregnant women. The level of uptake of IPTp1 (at least one dose) was 63.7 % while IPTp2 (at least two doses) was 42.0 %. More than half (58.6 %) of the mothers had slept under an ITN the night before the survey. Slightly more than half (51.9 %) of the mothers mentioned stock outs as the major reason for not accessing IPTp and ITNs. The main factors that were statistically significant for IPTp2 uptake were the knowledge of mothers on IPTp2 (AOR 2.48 95 % CI 1.53-4.02) and providing women with free clean water at the antenatal care (ANC) clinic (AOR 3.63 95 % CI 2.06-6.39). Factors that were significant for ITN utilization included education level of mothers (AOR 2.03 95 % CI 1.09-3.78), ease of access (AOR 2.74 95 % CI 1.65-4.52), and parity (AOR 1.71 95 % CI 1.01-1.29). The level of uptake of the two recommended doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) tablets for malaria prevention (IPTp2) was low, slightly more than half of the mothers slept under an ITN the night before the survey. Appropriate measures to increase the level of uptake of IPTp2 and coverage of ITNs among pregnant women should be implemented, and these include providing health education about IPTp and ITNs, and

  11. Factors associated with health facility childbirth in districts of Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia: a population based survey.

    PubMed

    Ng'anjo Phiri, Selia; Kiserud, Torvid; Kvåle, Gunnar; Byskov, Jens; Evjen-Olsen, Bjørg; Michelo, Charles; Echoka, Elizabeth; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2014-07-04

    Maternal mortality continues to be a heavy burden in low and middle income countries where half of all deliveries take place in homes without skilled attendance. The study aimed to investigate the underlying and proximate determinants of health facility childbirth in rural and urban areas of three districts in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. A population-based survey was conducted in 2007 as part of the 'REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT) project. Stratified random cluster sampling was used and the data included information on place of delivery and factors that might influence health care seeking behaviour. A total of 1800 women who had childbirth in the previous five years were analysed. The distal and proximate conceptual framework for analysing determinants of maternal mortality was modified for studying factors associated with place of delivery. Socioeconomic position was measured by employing a construct of educational attainment and wealth index. All analyses were stratified by district and urban-rural residence. There were substantial inter-district differences in proportion of health facility childbirth. Facility childbirth was 15, 70 and 37% in the rural areas of Malindi, Mbarali and Kapiri Mposhi respectively, and 57, 75 and 77% in the urban areas of the districts respectively. However, striking socio-economic inequities were revealed regardless of district. Furthermore, there were indications that repeated exposure to ANC services and HIV related counselling and testing were positively associated with health facility deliveries. Perceived distance was negatively associated with facility childbirth in rural areas of Malindi and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi. Strong socio-economic inequities in the likelihood of facility childbirths were revealed in all the districts added to geographic inequities in two of the three districts. This strongly suggests an urgent need to strengthen services targeting disadvantaged and

  12. Epidemiology of Eimeria and associated risk factors in cattle of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Tauseef Ur; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Abbas, Rao Zahid; Arshad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Iqbal, Asif

    2011-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, species characterization, and associated risk factors with Eimeria of cattle of district Toba Tek Singh from April, 2009 to March, 2010. Of the total 584 fecal samples examined for Eimeria, 275 (47.09%) were found infected with six species of Eimeria. Among the identified species of Eimeria, Eimeria bovis was found to be the highest prevalent species (52.36%), followed in order by Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria canadensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis, Eimeria alabamensis, and Eimeria cylindrica with prevalence of 48.27%, 34.83%, 29.31%, 24.14%, and 8.62% respectively. Peak prevalence was observed in August. Cattle were infected more frequently during rainy (60.32%) and post-rainy seasons (59.25%). Calves had significantly higher prevalence (P<0.05) of Eimeria than adults while higher prevalence of Eimeria was observed in female cattle. Among management and husbandry practices, feeding system, watering system, housing system, floor type, and herd size strongly influenced the prevalence of Eimeria in cattle. Coccidiosis was more prevalent in ground feeding system, pond-watered animals, closed housing system, and non-cemented floor type (P<0.05) as compared to trough feeding system, tap watered animals, open housing system, and partially cemented floor types, respectively. Breed and body condition of animals were not found risk factors (P>0.05) influencing prevalence of Eimeria.

  13. Real-time surveillance of heat-related morbidity: Relation to excess mortality associated with extreme heat

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kazuhiko; Lane, Kathryn; Matte, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of heat on mortality is well documented but deaths tend to occur after (or lag) extreme heat events, and mortality data is generally not available for timely surveillance during extreme heat events. Recently, systems for near-real time surveillance of heat illness have been reported but have not been validated as predictors of non-external cause of deaths associated with extreme heat events. We analyzed associations between daily weather conditions, emergency medical system (EMS) calls flagged as heat-related by EMS dispatchers, emergency department (ED) visits classified as heat-related based on chief complaint text, and excess non-external cause mortality in New York City. EMS and ED data were obtained from data reported daily to the city health department for syndromic surveillance. We fit generalized linear models to assess the relationships of daily counts of heat related EMS and ED visits to non-external cause deaths after adjustment for weather conditions during the months of May-September between 1999 and 2013. Controlling for temporal trends, a 7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2–12) and 6% (95% CI: 3–10) increase in non-external cause mortality was associated with an increase from the 50th percentile to 99th percentile of same-day and one-day lagged heat-related EMS calls and ED visits, respectively. After controlling for both temporal trends and weather, we observed a 7% (95% CI: 3–12) increase in non-external cause mortality associated with one-day lagged heat-related EMS calls and a 5% mortality increase with one-day lagged ED visits (95% CI: 2–8). Heat-related illness can be tracked during extreme heat events using EMS and ED data which are indicators of heat associated excess non-external cause mortality during the warm weather season. PMID:28877241

  14. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

  15. Heat waves in Senegal : detection, characterization and associated processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnacoussa Sambou, Marie Jeanne; Janicot, Serge; Badiane, Daouda; Pohl, Benjamin; Dieng, Abdou L.; Gaye, Amadou T.

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric configuration and synoptic evolution of patterns associated with Senegalese heat wave (HW) are examined on the period 1979-2014 using the Global Surface Summary of the Day (GSOD) observational database and ERA-Interim reanalysis. Since there is no objective and uniform definition of HW events, threshold methods based on atmospheric variables as daily maximum (Tmax) / minimum (Tmin) temperatures and daily mean apparent temperature (AT) are used to define HW threshold detection. Each criterion is related to a specific category of HW events: Tmax (warm day events), Tmin (warm night events) and AT (combining temperature and moisture). These definitions are used in order to characterize as well as possible the warm events over the Senegalese regions (oceanic versus continental region). Statistics on time evolution and spatial distribution of warm events are carried out over the 2 seasons of maximum temperature (March-May and October-November). For each season, a composite of HW events, as well as the most extended event over Senegal (as a case study) are analyzed using usual atmospheric fields (sea level pressure, geopotential height, total column water content, wind components, 2m temperature). This study is part of the project ACASIS (https://acasis.locean-ipsl.upmc.fr/doku.php) on heat waves occurrences over the Sahel and their impact on health. Keywords: heat wave, Senegal, ACASIS.

  16. Dental fluorosis associated with drinking water from hot springs in Choma district in southern province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Shitumbanuma, V; Tembo, F; Tembo, J M; Chilala, S; Van Ranst, E

    2007-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the high incidence of mottled teeth among residents of an area with hot springs in the Choma District of the Southern Province of Zambia. A survey involving 128 pupils was conducted at a Basic School to collect data on pupil's backgrounds and their main sources of drinking water between birth and age 7. A dental specialist examined the pupils' teeth and samples of drinking water were collected from locations where the majority of the pupils lived. It was analysed for fluorides and other drinking water quality parameters. Results of the survey showed a highly significant (P < 0.001) association between pupils' main sources of drinking water between birth and age 7 and the incidence of discoloured teeth. All (100%) pupils who drank water from hot springs before age 7 had moderate to severe fluorosis, while the majority (96.7%) of the pupils who drank water from other sources had no dental fluorosis. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 5.95 to 10.09 mg/l in water from hot springs, and from 0.03 to 0.6 mg/l in water from other sources. Fluoride levels in water from hot spring water samples exceeded the 1.5 mg/l WHO guideline value for drinking water, while those in water from other sources were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than this. We conclude that the high prevalence of mottled teeth among residents of the study area is a case of endemic dental fluorosis associated with drinking water from hot springs containing high concentrations of fluoride.

  17. Self-esteem and its associated factors among secondary school students in Klang District, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Sherina, M S; Rampal, L; Loh, J W; Chan, C L; Teh, P C; Tan, P O

    2008-03-01

    Self-esteem is an important determinant of psychological well-being that is particularly problematic during adolescent life stage. There is a correlation between low self-esteem and other social problems among today's adolescents. This study was conducted to determine the mean self-esteem score, and to determine the association between self-esteem and age, sex, race, religion, number of siblings, ranking among siblings, family function, parental marital status and smoking among adolescents aged 12 to 20-years-old. A cross sectional study design using random cluster sampling method was done. Four out of a total of 35 secondary schools in Klang District, Selangor were selected. Respondents consisted of individual students in selected classes from the four selected schools. Data was collected using a self-administered, structured, pre-tested questionnaire and was analyzed using the SPSS version 12.0. Out of 1089 respondents, 793 completed the questionnaire (response rate 73.82%). The overall mean self-esteem score was 27.65. The mean self-esteem score for males (27.99) was slightly higher than females (27.31). The differences in the mean scores by race were statistically significant. There was a statistically significant relationship between mean self-esteem scores and sex, age, race, religion, number of siblings, smoking and family function. There was no statistically significant difference between mean self-esteem score with parental marital status and with ranking among siblings. The overall mean self-esteem score was 27.65. Self-esteem was associated with sex, age, race, religion, number of siblings, smoking and family function.

  18. The association between multiple sources of information and risk perceptions of tuberculosis, Ntcheu district, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chizimba, Robert; Christofides, Nicola; Chirwa, Tobias; Singini, Isaac; Ozumba, Chineme; Sikwese, Simon; Banda, Hastings T; Banda, Rhoda; Chimbali, Henry; Ngwira, Bagrey; Munthali, Alister; Nyasulu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main causes of death in developing countries. Awareness and perception of risk of TB could influence early detection, diagnosis and care seeking at treatment centers. However, perceptions about TB are influenced by sources of information. This study aimed to determine the association between multiple sources of information, and perceptions of risk of TB among adults aged 18-49 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ntcheu district in Malawi. A total of 121 adults were sampled in a three-stage simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Perceptions of risk were measured using specific statements that reflected common myths and misconceptions. Low risk perception implied a person having strong belief in myths and misconceptions about TB and high risk perception meant a person having no belief in myths or misconceptions and demonstrated understanding of the disease. Females were more likely to have low risk perceptions about TB compared to males (67.7% vs. 32.5%, p = 0.01). The higher the household asset index the more likely an individual had higher risk perceptions about TB (p = 0.006). The perception of risk of TB was associated with sources of information (p = 0.03). Use of both interpersonal communication and mass media was 2.8 times more likely to be associated with increased perception of risk of TB (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% Confidence interva1[CI]: 3.1-15. 6; p = 0.01). After adjusting for sex and asset ownership, use of interpersonal communication and mass media were more likely to be associated with higher perception of risk of TB (OR, 2.0; 95% CI: 1.65-10.72; p = 0.003) compared with interpersonal communication only (OR 1.6, 95%; CI: 1.13-8.98, p = 0.027). The study found that there was association between multiple sources of information, and higher perceptions of risk of TB among adults aged 18-49 years.

  19. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (P<0.05) or for good student behavior (P<0.05). School-level respondents in the West and the Midwest were less likely to report that food was not used as a reward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools.

  20. Agreement between Association of Certificated Educators and West Valley-Mission Community College District, July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Valley-Mission Community Coll. District, Saratoga, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the West Valley-Mission Community College District (including West Valley College and Mission College) and the West Valley-Mission Community College District Association of Certified Educators is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the…

  1. Agreement between Association of Certificated Educators and West Valley-Mission Community College District, July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Valley-Mission Community Coll. District, Saratoga, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the West Valley-Mission Community College District (including West Valley College and Mission College) and the West Valley-Mission Community College District Association of Certified Educators is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the…

  2. Deficiency of heat shock transcription factor 1 suppresses heat stress-associated increase in slow soleus muscle mass of mice.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y; Egawa, T; Yokoyama, S; Nakai, A; Sugiura, T; Ohira, Y; Yoshioka, T; Goto, K

    2015-12-01

    Effects of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) deficiency on heat stress-associated increase in slow soleus muscle mass of mice were investigated. Both HSF1-null and wild-type mice were randomly assigned to control and heat-stressed groups. Mice in heat-stressed group were exposed to heat stress (41 °C for 60 min) in an incubator without anaesthesia. Significant increase in wet and dry weights, and protein content of soleus muscle in wild-type mice was observed seven days after the application of the heat stress. However, heat stress had no impact on soleus muscle mass in HSF1-null mice. Neither type of mice exhibited much effect of heat stress on HSF mRNA expression (HSF1, HSF2 and HSF4). On the other hand, heat stress upregulated heat shock proteins (HSPs) at the mRNA (HSP72) and protein (HSP72 and HSP110) levels in wild-type mice, but not in HSF1-null mice. The population of Pax7-positive nuclei relative to total myonuclei of soleus muscle in wild-type mice was significantly increased by heat stress, but not in HSF1-null mice. Furthermore, the absence of HSF1 gene suppressed heat stress-associated phosphorylation of Akt and p70 S6 kinase (p-p70S6K) in soleus muscle. Heat stress-associated increase in skeletal muscle mass may be induced by HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response that activates muscle satellite cells and Akt/p70S6K signalling pathway. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A genome-wide association study of heat stress-associated SNPs in catfish.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Zhou, T; Geng, X; Liu, S; Chen, A; Yao, J; Jiang, C; Tan, S; Su, B; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    Heat tolerance is a complex and economically important trait for catfish genetic breeding programs. With global climate change, it is becoming an increasingly important trait. To better understand the molecular basis of heat stress, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out using the 250 K catfish SNP array with interspecific backcross progenies, which derived from crossing female channel catfish with male F1 hybrid catfish (female channel catfish × male blue catfish). Three significant associated SNPs were detected by performing an EMMAX approach for GWAS. The SNP located on linkage group 14 explained 12.1% of phenotypical variation. The other two SNPs, located on linkage group 16, explained 11.3 and 11.5% of phenotypical variation respectively. A total of 14 genes with heat stress related functions were detected within the significant associated regions. Among them, five genes-TRAF2, FBXW5, ANAPC2, UBR1 and KLHL29- have known functions in the protein degradation process through the ubiquitination pathway. Other genes related to heat stress include genes involved in protein biosynthesis (PRPF4 and SYNCRIP), protein folding (DNAJC25), molecule and iron transport (SLC25A46 and CLIC5), cytoskeletal reorganization (COL12A1) and energy metabolism (COX7A2, PLCB1 and PLCB4) processes. The results provide fundamental information about genes and pathways that is useful for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of heat stress. The associated SNPs could be promising candidates for selecting heat-tolerant catfish lines after validating their effects on larger and various catfish populations.

  4. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-07-14

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  5. District cooling gets hot

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0

  7. Insufficient quality of sputum submitted for tuberculosis diagnosis and associated factors, in Klaten district, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sakundarno, Mateus; Nurjazuli, Nurjazuli; Jati, Sutopo Patria; Sariningdyah, Retna; Purwadi, Sumarsono; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2009-01-01

    Background Sputum smear microscopy is the standard diagnostic method for detection of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Insufficient quality of sputum might result in missing cases. In this study we aimed at assessing the quality of sputum in a district in Central Java and determining patient and health worker factors associated with submission of three good quality sputum samples. Methods In 16 health centers information was collected on the quality of sputum submitted by TB suspects, i.e. volume, color, and viscosity. TB suspects were interviewed to assess their knowledge of TB, motivation to provide sputum and whether they were informed why and how to produce a sputum sample. Health workers were interviewed to assess what information they provided to TB suspects about the reason for sputum examination, methods to produce sputum and characteristics of a good quality sputum sample. All health worker and patient factors were evaluated for association with sputum quality. Results Of 387 TB suspects, 294 (76.0%) could be traced and interviewed, and of 272 (70.3%) information about sputum quality was available. Of those 203 (74.6%) submitted three samples, 90 (33.1%) provided at least one good sample, and 37 (13.6%) provided three good quality sputum samples. Of the 272 TB suspects, 168 (61.8%) mentioned that information on the reason for sputum examination was provided, 66 (24.3%) remembered that they were informed about how to produce sputum and 40 (14.7%) recalled being informed about the characteristics of good quality sputum. Paramedics reported to provide often/always information on the importance of sputum examination, and when to produce sputum. Information on how to produce sputum and characteristics of a good sputum sample was less often provided. None of the studied patient characteristics or health worker factors was associated with providing good quality sputum. Conclusion A considerable number of TB suspects did not provide three sputum samples

  8. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; DeMartini, Julie K.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E. Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Miller, Kevin C.; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N.; Yeargin, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background  Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Recommendations  Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses. PMID:26381473

  9. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Casa, Douglas J; DeMartini, Julie K; Bergeron, Michael F; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, Kevin C; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N; Yeargin, Susan W

    2015-09-01

    To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses.

  10. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Casa, Douglas J; DeMartini, Julie K; Bergeron, Michael F; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, Kevin C; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N; Yeargin, Susan W

    2015-08-18

     To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation.  Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes.  Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses.

  11. Association of child health and household amenities in high focus states in India: a district-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Jitendra; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Yadav, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess household amenities in districts of high focus states and their association with child health in India. Design The data for the study are extracted from Annual Health Survey (AHS) and Census 2011. Settings Districts in high focus states in India. Participants Information regarding children below 5 years of age and women aged 15–49 has been extracted from the AHS (2010–2011), and household amenities information has been obtained from the Census (2011). Measures Household amenities were assessed from the census at the district level in the high focus states. Child health indicators and wealth index were borrowed from AHS and used in this study to check their linkage with household amenities. Results Absence of drinking water from a treated source, improved sanitation, usage of clean cooking fuel and drainage facility in the household were adversely associated with the incidence of acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea, infant mortality rate (IMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR). The mean IMR declined from 64 to 54 for districts where a high proportion of household have improved sanitation. The result of ordinary least square regression shows that improved sanitation has a negative and statistically significant association (β=−0.0067, p<0.01) with U5MR. Conclusions Although child healthcare services are important in addressing child health issues, they barely touch on the root of the problem. Building toilets and providing safe drinking water, clean cooking fuel and drainage facilities at the household level, may prevent a number of adverse child health issues and may reduce the burden on the healthcare system in India. PMID:25968003

  12. Association of child health and household amenities in high focus states in India: a district-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Jitendra; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Yadav, Ajit Kumar

    2015-05-11

    To assess household amenities in districts of high focus states and their association with child health in India. The data for the study are extracted from Annual Health Survey (AHS) and Census 2011. Districts in high focus states in India. Information regarding children below 5 years of age and women aged 15-49 has been extracted from the AHS (2010-2011), and household amenities information has been obtained from the Census (2011). Household amenities were assessed from the census at the district level in the high focus states. Child health indicators and wealth index were borrowed from AHS and used in this study to check their linkage with household amenities. Absence of drinking water from a treated source, improved sanitation, usage of clean cooking fuel and drainage facility in the household were adversely associated with the incidence of acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea, infant mortality rate (IMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR). The mean IMR declined from 64 to 54 for districts where a high proportion of household have improved sanitation. The result of ordinary least square regression shows that improved sanitation has a negative and statistically significant association (β=-0.0067, p<0.01) with U5MR. Although child healthcare services are important in addressing child health issues, they barely touch on the root of the problem. Building toilets and providing safe drinking water, clean cooking fuel and drainage facilities at the household level, may prevent a number of adverse child health issues and may reduce the burden on the healthcare system in India. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. )

    1990-09-01

    K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

  14. Coupled heat and fluid flow modeling of the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Alaska: Implications for the genesis of the Red Dog Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garven, G.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary investigation on a primary energy saving heat supply system for the residential district "Maria Lindenhof" in Dorsten, West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, A.; Berlinghoff, K.; Grossmann, H.; Kaschube, H.; Reinmuth, F.

    1980-12-01

    Ways and means to operate a heating station by gas motor-driven heat pumps, using river water as heat source are investigated. The economic viability of the scheme is considered. A comparison with conventional technologies clearly shows the feasibility and effectiveness of this application, and at the same time supplies guidelines for design and dimensioning. Because of possible energy saving, the present investigation supports the realization of the project.

  16. Associations between heat shock protein 70 genetic polymorphisms and calving traits in crossbred Brahman cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stressors such as heat, cold, toxins, and oxygen deprivation are known to induce heat shock proteins. Genetic polymorphisms associated with heat shock protein genes have been associated with decreased male and female fertility. Our objectives were to 1) confirm single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) ...

  17. Occupation and environmental heat-associated deaths in Maricopa county, Arizona: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Petitti, Diana B; Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell-Puente, Gerardo; Ruddell, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that work in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations increases the risk of environmental heat-associated death. To assess the risk of environmental heat-associated death by occupation. This was a case-control study. Cases were heat-caused and heat-related deaths occurring from May-October during the period 2002-2009 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Controls were selected at random from non-heat-associated deaths during the same period in Maricopa County. Information on occupation, age, sex, and race-ethnicity was obtained from death certificates. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for heat-associated death. There were 444 cases of heat-associated deaths in adults (18+ years) and 925 adult controls. Of heat-associated deaths, 332 (75%) occurred in men; a construction/extraction or agriculture occupation was described on the death certificate in 115 (35%) of these men. In men, the age-adjusted odds ratios for heat-associated death were 2.32 (95% confidence interval 1.55, 3.48) in association with construction/extraction and 3.50 (95% confidence interval 1.94, 6.32) in association with agriculture occupations. The odds ratio for heat-associated death was 10.17 (95% confidence interval 5.38, 19.23) in men with unknown occupation. In women, the age-adjusted odds ratio for heat-associated death was 6.32 (95% confidence interval 1.48, 27.08) in association with unknown occupation. Men age 65 years and older in agriculture occupations were at especially high risk of heat-associated death. The occurrence of environmental heat-associated death in men in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations in a setting with predictable periods of high summer temperatures presents opportunities for prevention.

  18. Occupation and Environmental Heat-Associated Deaths in Maricopa County, Arizona: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Petitti, Diana B.; Harlan, Sharon L.; Chowell-Puente, Gerardo; Ruddell, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research shows that work in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations increases the risk of environmental heat-associated death. Purpose To assess the risk of environmental heat-associated death by occupation. Methods This was a case-control study. Cases were heat-caused and heat-related deaths occurring from May-October during the period 2002–2009 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Controls were selected at random from non-heat-associated deaths during the same period in Maricopa County. Information on occupation, age, sex, and race-ethnicity was obtained from death certificates. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for heat-associated death. Results There were 444 cases of heat-associated deaths in adults (18+ years) and 925 adult controls. Of heat-associated deaths, 332 (75%) occurred in men; a construction/extraction or agriculture occupation was described on the death certificate in 115 (35%) of these men. In men, the age-adjusted odds ratios for heat-associated death were 2.32 (95% confidence interval 1.55, 3.48) in association with construction/extraction and 3.50 (95% confidence interval 1.94, 6.32) in association with agriculture occupations. The odds ratio for heat-associated death was 10.17 (95% confidence interval 5.38, 19.23) in men with unknown occupation. In women, the age-adjusted odds ratio for heat-associated death was 6.32 (95% confidence interval 1.48, 27.08) in association with unknown occupation. Men age 65 years and older in agriculture occupations were at especially high risk of heat-associated death. Conclusion The occurrence of environmental heat-associated death in men in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations in a setting with predictable periods of high summer temperatures presents opportunities for prevention. PMID:23734174

  19. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  20. Characterization of Heat Waves in the Sahel and associated mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Boutheina; Pohl, Benjamin; Moron, Vincent; Rome, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Large efforts are made to investigate the heat waves (HW) in developed countries because of their devastating impacts on society, economy and environment. This interest increased after the intense event over Europe during summer 2003. However, HWs are still understudied over developing countries. This is particularly true in West Africa, and especially in the Sahel, where temperatures recurrently reach critical values, such as during the 2010 HW event. Understanding the Sahelian HWs and associated health risks constitute the main objective of ACASIS, a 4-year project funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche. Our work contributes to this project and aims at characterizing the Sahelian HWs and understanding the mechanisms associated with such extreme events. There is no universal definition of a HW event, since it is highly dependent on the sector (human health, agriculture, transport...) and region of interest. In our case, a HW is defined when the heat index of the day and of the night exceeds the 90th percentile for at least 3 consecutive days (Rome et al. 2016, in preparation). This index combines temperature and relative humidity in order to determine the human-perceived equivalent temperature (definition adapted from Steadman, 1979). Intrinsic properties of Sahelian HW are analyzed from the Global Summary of the Day (GSOD) synoptic observations and ERA-interim reanalyses over 1979-2014 during boreal spring seasons (April-May-June), the warmest period of the year in the Central Sahel. ERA-interim captures well the observed interannual variability and seasonal cycle at the regional scale, as well as the 1979-2014 increasing linear trend of springtime HW occurrences in the Sahel. Reanalyses, however, overestimate the duration, spatial extent of HW, and underestimate their intensity. For both GSOD and ERA-interim, we show that, over the last three decades, Sahelian HWs tend to become more frequent, last longer, cover larger areas and reach higher

  1. Small heat-shock proteins protect from heat-stroke-associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Nikos; Nikoletopoulou, Vassiliki; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2012-10-11

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition, characterized by catastrophic collapse of thermoregulation and extreme hyperthermia. In recent years, intensification of heat waves has caused a surge of heat-stroke fatalities. The mechanisms underlying heat-related pathology are poorly understood. Here we show that heat stroke triggers pervasive necrotic cell death and neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. Preconditioning of animals at a mildly elevated temperature strongly protects from heat-induced necrosis. The heat-shock transcription factor HSF-1 and the small heat-shock protein HSP-16.1 mediate cytoprotection by preconditioning. HSP-16.1 localizes to the Golgi, where it functions with the Ca(2+)- and Mn(2+)-transporting ATPase PMR-1 to maintain Ca(2+) homeostasis under heat stroke. Preconditioning also suppresses cell death inflicted by diverse insults, and protects mammalian neurons from heat cytotoxicity. These findings reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that defends against diverse necrotic stimuli, and may be relevant to heat stroke and other pathological conditions involving necrosis in humans.

  2. Association of heat shock protein 70 expression with rat myocardial cell damage during heat stress in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, H B; Zhang, X C; Cheng, Y F; Abdelnasir, A; Tang, S; Kemper, N; Hartung, J; Bao, E D

    2015-03-20

    To investigate the mechanism of sudden death as a result of stress-induced damage to heart tissue and myocardial cells and to investigate the cardioprotective role of Hsp70 during heat stress, the distribution and expression of Hsp70 was evaluated in the heart cells of heat-stressed rats in vivo and heat-stressed H9c2 cells in vitro. After exposure to heat stress at 42°C for different durations, we observed a significant induction of CK, CK-MB, and LDH as well as pathologic lesions characterized by acute degeneration, suggesting that cell damage occurs from the onset of heat stress. Immunocytochemistry showed that Hsp70 was distributed mainly in the cytoplasm of myocardial cells in vivo and in vitro. Hsp70-positive signals in the cytoplasm were more prominent in intact areas than in degenerated areas after 60 min of heat stress. Hsp70 protein levels in myocardial cells in vitro decreased from the beginning to the end of heat stress. Hsp70 protein levels in rat heart tissues in vivo decreased gradually with prolonged heat stress, with a slight increase at the beginning of heat stress. These results indicate that Hsp70 plays a role in the response of cardiac cells to heat stress and that decreased Hsp70 levels are associated with damage to rat myocardial cells in vitro and in vivo. Significant differences were found in hsp70 mRNA, which began to increase after 20 min of heat stress in vitro and after 40 min in vivo. This indicates that hysteresis is involved in mRNA expression after heat stress in vivo.

  3. Preliminary conceptual design for geothermal space heating conversion of school district 50 joint facilities at Pagosa Springs, Colorado. GTA Report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Engen, I.A.

    1981-11-01

    This feasibility study and preliminary conceptual design effort assesses the conversion of Colorado School District 50 facilities - a high school and gym, and a middle school building - at Pagosa Springs, Colorado to geothermal space heating. A preliminary cost-benefit assessment made on the basis of estimated costs for conversion, system maintenance, debt service, resource development, electricity to power pumps, and savings from reduced natural gas consumption concluded that an economic conversion depended on development of an adequate geothermal resource (approximately 150/sup 0/F, 400 gpm). Material selection assumed that the geothermal water to the main supply system was isolated to minimize effects of corrosion and deposition, and that system-compatible components would be used for the building modifications. Asbestos-cement distribution pipe, a stainless steel heat exchanger, and stainless steel lined valves were recommended for the supply, heat transfer, and disposal mechanisms, respectively. A comparison of the calculated average gas consumption cost, escalated at 10% per year, with conversion project cost, both in 1977 dollars, showed that the project could be amortized over less than 20 years at current interest rates. In view of the favorable economics and the uncertain future availability and escalating cost of natural gas, the conversion appears economicaly feasible and desirable.

  4. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Kato, Shinsuke

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30 °C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore, the urban thermal environment should be carefully investigated and accurately analyzed for a better study of the air quality. Here, in order to study the urban thermal environment in summer, (1) the actual status of an urban thermal environment in a complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling (DHC) system in Tokyo is investigated using field measurements, and (2) a numerical simulation program which can be adapted to complex urban areas coupled with convection, radiation and conduction is developed and used to predict the urban thermal environment. Wind velocity, temperature and humidity are obtained from the simulation, which shows good agreement with results of the field measurement. The spatial distribution of the standard effective temperature (SET *), the comprehensive index of human thermal comfort, is also calculated using the above results, to estimate the thermal comfort at the pedestrian level. This urban thermal numerical simulation can be coupled with air pollution dispersion and chemical processes to provide a more precise air quality prediction in complex urban areas.

  5. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Developing Leaves' Heat Tolerance during Vegetative Growth Stages in a Sorghum Association Panel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junping; Chopra, Ratan; Hayes, Chad; Morris, Geoffrey; Marla, Sandeep; Burke, John; Xin, Zhanguo; Burow, Gloria

    2017-07-01

    Heat stress reduces grain yield and quality worldwide. Enhancing heat tolerance of crops at all developmental stages is one of the essential strategies required for sustaining agricultural production especially as frequency of temperature extremes escalates in response to climate change. Although heat tolerance mechanisms have been studied extensively in model plant species, little is known about the genetic control underlying heat stress responses of crop plants at the vegetative stage under field conditions. To dissect the genetic basis of heat tolerance in sorghum [ (L.) Moench], we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for traits responsive to heat stress at the vegetative stage in an association panel. Natural variation in leaf firing (LF) and leaf blotching (LB) were evaluated separately for 3 yr in experimental fields at three locations where sporadic heat waves occurred throughout the sorghum growing season. We identified nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated with LF and five SNPs that were associated with LB. Candidate genes near the SNPs were investigated and 14 were directly linked to biological pathways involved in plant stress responses including heat stress response. The findings of this study provide new knowledge on the genetic control of leaf traits responsive to heat stress in sorghum, which could aid in elucidating the genetic and molecular mechanisms of vegetative stage heat tolerance in crops. The results also provide candidate markers for molecular breeding of enhanced heat tolerance in cereal and bioenergy crops. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  7. Association between Childhood Diarrhoeal Incidence and Climatic Factors in Urban and Rural Settings in the Health District of Mbour, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Sokhna; Diène, Aminata N.; Sy, Ibrahima; Winkler, Mirko S.; Schindler, Christian; Ndione, Jacques A.; Faye, Ousmane; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the association between childhood diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors in rural and urban settings in the health district of Mbour in western Senegal. We used monthly diarrhoeal case records among children under five years registered in 24 health facilities over a four-year period (2011–2014). Climatic data (i.e., daily temperature, night temperature and rainfall) for the same four-year period were obtained. We performed a negative binomial regression model to establish the relationship between monthly diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors of the same and the previous month. There were two annual peaks in diarrhoeal incidence: one during the cold dry season and one during the rainy season. We observed a positive association between diarrhoeal incidence and high average temperature of 36 °C and above and high cumulative monthly rainfall at 57 mm and above. The association between diarrhoeal incidence and temperature was stronger in rural compared to urban settings, while higher rainfall was associated with higher diarrhoeal incidence in the urban settings. Concluding, this study identified significant health–climate interactions and calls for effective preventive measures in the health district of Mbour. Particular attention should be paid to urban settings where diarrhoea was most common in order to reduce the high incidence in the context of climatic variability, which is expected to increase in urban areas in the face of global warming. PMID:28895927

  8. Chlorophyll loss associated with heat-induced senescence in bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-08-01

    Heat stress-induced leaf senescence is characterized by the loss of chlorophyll from leaf tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine genetic variations in the level of heat-induced leaf senescence in hybrids of colonial (Agrostis capillaris)×creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) contrasting in heat tolerance, and determine whether loss of leaf chlorophyll during heat-induced leaf senescence was due to suppressed chlorophyll synthesis and/or accelerated chlorophyll degradation in the cool-season perennial grass species. Plants of two hybrid backcross genotypes ('ColxCB169' and 'ColxCB190') were exposed to heat stress (38/33°C, day/night) for 28 d in growth chambers. The analysis of turf quality, membrane stability, photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll content demonstrated significant variations in the level of leaf senescence induced by heat stress between the two genotypes, with ColXCB169 exhibiting a lesser degree of decline in chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency and membrane stability than ColXCB190. The assays of enzymatic activity or gene expression of several major chlorophyll-synthesizing (porphobilinogen deaminase, Mg-chelatase, protochlorophyllide-reductase) and chlorophyll-degrading enzymes (chlorophyllase, pheophytinase, and chlorophyll-degrading peroxidase) indicated heat-induced decline in leaf chlorophyll content was mainly due to accelerated chlorophyll degradation, as manifested by increased gene expression levels of chlorophyllase and pheophytinase, and the activity of pheophytinase (PPH), while chlorophyll-synthesizing genes and enzymatic activities were not differentially altered by heat stress in the two genotypes. The analysis of heat-induced leaf senescence of pph mutants of Arabidopsis further confirmed that PPH could be one enzymes that plays key roles in regulating heat-accelerated chlorophyll degradation. Further research on enzymes responsible in part for the loss of chlorophyll during heat

  9. Ionospheric Ion Upflows Associated with the Alfven Wave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, P.; Tu, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we present the simulation results from a self-consistent inductive-dynamic ionosphere-thermosphere model. In a 2-D numerical simulation (noon-midnight meridian plane), we solve the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple species of ions and neutrals and Maxwell's equations. In particular, the model retains Faraday's law, inertial term in the ion momentum equations and photochemistry. The code is based on an implicit algorithm and simulates a region from 80 km to 5000 km above the Earth. The system is driven by an antisunward motion at the upper boundary of the dayside cusp latitude in both hemispheres. We show that the frictional heating, which can produce upflows of the light (H+ and He+) and heave (O+) ions, is driven by the Alfven wave-induced ion motion relative to the neutrals. The variations of the upflows along a noon-midnight magnetic meridian are examined in association with given driving conditions imposed by the magnetosphere convection.

  10. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs and associated factors among pregnant women in Erer district, Somali region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Maseresha, Nebiyu; Woldemichael, Kifle; Dube, Lamessa

    2016-06-06

    Knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications is first step in the appropriate and timely referral to essential obstetric care. Although women's knowledge about the obstetric danger signs is important for improving maternal and child health, little is known about the current knowledge and influencing factors in pastoral community of Ethiopia. This study, therefore, aims to fill this gap by assessing the current level of knowledge and associated factors of pregnant women living in Erer district of Somali region, Ethiopia. A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted from April 7 to 21, 2014. The study involved 666 pregnant women residing in the district. Two-stage sampling technique was used to select the study subjects. Data about women's socio-demographic information, reproductive history, knowledge of the danger signs, exposure to media and interventions were collected by interviewer administered questionnaires. A respondent who spontaneously mentioned at least two of the danger signs during each of the three periods was considered knowledgeable; otherwise not. Descriptive, bivariate, then multivariable logistic regression were done. Six hundred thirty two pregnant women were interviewed with a response rate of 94.9 %. Only 98 (15.5 %) respondents were knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs. Urban residence [AOR = 2.43; 95 % CI (1.40, 4.21)], women who had been pregnant five or more times [AOR = 6.65; 95 % CI (2.48, 17.89)] and antenatal care utilization [AOR = 5.44; 95 % CI (3.26, 9.09)] were associated with being knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. A significant proportion of pregnant women in Erer district do not have knowledge of obstetric danger signs. The implication is that lack of recognition may lead to delay in seeking care. Area of residence, gravidity and antenatal care service utilization are independently associated with the knowledge of women on obstetric

  11. Exploration of the enhanced geothermal system (EGS) potential of crystalline rocks for district heating (Elbe Zone, Saxony, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, Andrea; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Krentz, Ottomar

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses aspects of a baseline geothermal exploration of the thermally quiescent Elbe Zone (hosting the cities of Meissen and Dresden) for a potential deployment of geothermal heat in municipal heating systems. Low-permeable to impermeable igneous and metamorphic rocks constitute the major rock types at depth, implying that an enhanced geothermal system needs to be developed by creating artificial flow paths for fluids to enhance the heat extraction from the subsurface. The study includes the development of geological models for two areas on the basis of which temperature models are generated at upper crustal scale. The models are parameterized with laboratory-measured rock thermal properties (thermal conductivity k, radiogenic heat production H). The uncertainties of modelled temperature caused by observed variations of k and H and inferred mantle heat flow are assessed. The study delineates highest temperatures within the intermediate (monzonite/syenite unit) and mafic rocks (diorite/monzodiorite unit) forming the deeper portions of the Meissen Massif and, specifically for the Dresden area, also within the low-metamorphic rocks (slates/phyllites/quartzites) of the Elbtalschiefergebirge. Boreholes 3-4 km deep need to be drilled to reach the envisioned economically favourable temperatures of 120 °C. The metamorphic and mafic rocks exhibit low concentrations of U and Th, thus being advantageous for a geothermal use. For the monzonite/syenite unit of high heat production ( 6 µW m-3) in the Meissen Massif, the mobilization of Th and U into the geothermal working fluid is assumed to be minor, although their various radioactive decay products will be omnipresent during geothermal use.

  12. Patterns of Gene Expression Associated with Recovery and Injury in Heat-stressed Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-03

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Patterns of gene expression associated with recovery and injury in heat-stressed rats Jonathan D Stallings1*, Danielle L...characterization of the gene response to heat stress using an in vivo conscious rat model. Results: We heated rats until implanted thermal probes indicated a maximal...all four organs at Tc,Max. Self-organizing maps identified gene-specific signatures corresponding to protein-folding disorders in heat-stressed rats

  13. A case control study investigating factors associated with high infant death in Saiha district of Mizoram, India bordering Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Deb, Alok K; Dutta, Shanta; Hnichho, Chhaihlo; Vanlalpeki, Mary; Phosa, Hli Thapi; Rakhu, Khaila; Fanai, Samuel Lalfakawma; Chakrabarti, Manoj; Panda, Samiran

    2017-01-17

    Infant mortality has dropped considerably in India over the last 5 years. A sharp contrast to this decline in national average of infant mortality is the rate recorded during 2014-2015 from the southernmost district of Saiha, Mizoram having a common international border with Myanmar. As this district specific rate (113 per 1000 live births) is 3 times higher compared to the national and state average, the present investigation was carried out to identify associated factors. We examined secondary data made available by the national health mission, consulted with local community members and generated primary data through interviews. A case-control study design was followed. Mothers, who delivered a child during 2013-2015 and subsequently lost them due to infant death, formed the case group and controls were selected from same neighborhood as with case-mothers. The mother and child tracking system maintained by the district specific national health mission office was used for recruiting cases and controls. A total of 195 mothers were interviewed; 66 of them belonged to 'cases' and 129 were 'controls'. The mean age of the respondents was 27 years (median 27; SD ± 5; minimum 17 & maximum 44). In uni-variate analyses 'child delivery at home', 'low birth weight', 'non-attendance of school by mothers', 'completed standard of school education by mothers', 'both parents working', 'mothers receiving blood transfusion during last pregnancy', and 'fourth or more birth order during last pregnancy' were associated with infant deaths. Intriguingly, the number of daily kuhva (raw areca nut) intake during last pregnancy was significantly higher among case-mothers compared to controls. In conditional logistic regression, 'low birth weight' (adjusted OR (AOR) 14.7; 95% CI 2.1-101.8; p = 0.006), and 'consumption of 4 or more kuhva per day' (AOR 8; 95% CI 1.9-34.3; p = 0.005) were independently associated with infant-death-experiences. The present investigation merits due

  14. Pacing Adjustments Associated With Familiarization: Heat Versus Temperate Environments.

    PubMed

    Schmit, Cyril; Duffield, Rob; Hausswirth, Christophe; Coutts, Aaron J; Le Meur, Yann

    2016-10-01

    To describe the effect of the initial perceptual experience from heat familiarization on the pacing profile during a freepaced endurance time trial (TT) compared with temperate conditions. Two groups of well-trained triathletes performed two 20-km TTs in either hot (35°C and 50% relative humidity [RH], n = 12) or temperate (21°C and 50% RH, n = 22) conditions, after standardization of training for each group before both trials. To ensure no physiological acclimation differences between conditions, the TTs for both groups were separated by 11 ± 4 d. Performance improvement in the heat (11 ± 24 W) from the 1st to 2nd trial appeared comparable to that in temperate conditions (8 ± 14 W, P = .67). However, the specific alteration in pacing profile in the heat was markedly different than temperate conditions, with a change from "positive" to an "even" pacing strategy. Altered perceptions of heat during heat familiarization, rather than physiological acclimatization per se, may mediate initial changes in pacing and TT performance in the heat. These results highlight the need for athletes without time for sufficient heat acclimatization to familiarize themselves with hot conditions to reduce the uncertainty from behavior-based outcomes that may impede performance.

  15. Collective Bargaining Agreement Between Gateway Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District Board and Gateway Technical Education Association, WEAC, NEA, 1989-91 (July 1, 1989 - June 30, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gateway Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District, WI.

    This collective bargaining agreement establishes provisions between the Gateway Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education District Board and the Gateway Technical Education Association, WEAC (Wisconsin Educational Association Council), and NEA (National Education Association). The agreement is divided into nine articles and a series of…

  16. Master Contract: San Joaquin Delta College Teachers Association/CTA/NEA and San Joaquin Delta Community College District, July 1987-June 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Joaquin Delta Community Coll. District, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the San Joaquin Delta Community College District Board of Trustees and the San Joaquin Delta College Teachers Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1987 through June 1990, deals with the following topics:…

  17. Collective Bargaining Agreement, 1989-1992, between College of the Desert Faculty Association CTA/NEA and Desert Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desert Community Coll. District, Palm Desert, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Desert Community College District Board of Trustees and the College of the Desert Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from November 17, 1989 through June 30, 1992, deals with the following topics: bargaining…

  18. Agreement between South County Community College District and Chabot College Teachers Association/C.T.A./N.E.A. for Certificated Personnel, July 1, 1987-June 30, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South County Community Coll. District, Hayward, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the South County Community College District Board of Trustees and the Chabot College Teachers Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association, is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1987 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  19. Potentially Modifiable Factors Associated with Death of Infants and Children with Severe Pneumonia Routinely Managed in District Hospitals in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Enarson, Penelope M.; Gie, Robert P.; Mwansambo, Charles C.; Chalira, Alfred E.; Lufesi, Norman N.; Maganga, Ellubey R.; Enarson, Donald A.; Cameron, Neil A.; Graham, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate recognised co-morbidities and clinical management associated with inpatient pneumonia mortality in Malawian district hospitals. Methods Prospective cohort study, of patient records, carried out in Malawi between 1st October 2000 and 30th June 2003. The study included all children aged 0-59 months admitted to the paediatric wards in sixteen district hospitals throughout Malawi with severe and very severe pneumonia. We compared individual factors between those that survived (n = 14 076) and those that died (n = 1 633). Results From logistic regression analysis, predictors of death in hospital, adjusted for age, sex and severity grade included comorbid conditions of meningitis (OR =2.49, 95% CI 1.50-4.15), malnutrition (OR =2.37, 95% CI 1.94-2.88) and severe anaemia (OR =1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.92). Requiring supplementary oxygen (OR =2.16, 95% CI 1.85-2.51) and intravenous fluids (OR =3.02, 95% CI 2.13-4.28) were associated with death while blood transfusion was no longer significant (OR =1.10, 95% CI 0.77-1.57) when the model included severe anaemia. Conclusions This study identified a number of challenges to improve outcome for Malawian infants and children hospitalised with pneumonia. These included improved assessment of co-morbidities and more rigorous application of standard case management. PMID:26237222

  20. Potentially Modifiable Factors Associated with Death of Infants and Children with Severe Pneumonia Routinely Managed in District Hospitals in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Enarson, Penelope M; Gie, Robert P; Mwansambo, Charles C; Chalira, Alfred E; Lufesi, Norman N; Maganga, Ellubey R; Enarson, Donald A; Cameron, Neil A; Graham, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate recognised co-morbidities and clinical management associated with inpatient pneumonia mortality in Malawian district hospitals. Prospective cohort study, of patient records, carried out in Malawi between 1st October 2000 and 30th June 2003. The study included all children aged 0-59 months admitted to the paediatric wards in sixteen district hospitals throughout Malawi with severe and very severe pneumonia. We compared individual factors between those that survived (n = 14 076) and those that died (n = 1 633). From logistic regression analysis, predictors of death in hospital, adjusted for age, sex and severity grade included comorbid conditions of meningitis (OR =2.49, 95% CI 1.50-4.15), malnutrition (OR =2.37, 95% CI 1.94-2.88) and severe anaemia (OR =1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.92). Requiring supplementary oxygen (OR =2.16, 95% CI 1.85-2.51) and intravenous fluids (OR =3.02, 95% CI 2.13-4.28) were associated with death while blood transfusion was no longer significant (OR =1.10, 95% CI 0.77-1.57) when the model included severe anaemia. This study identified a number of challenges to improve outcome for Malawian infants and children hospitalised with pneumonia. These included improved assessment of co-morbidities and more rigorous application of standard case management.

  1. Non-conductive heat transfer associated with frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Douglas L.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Goering, Douglas J.; Hinzman, Larry D.; Outcalt, Samuel I.

    2001-06-01

    The assertion that pure conductive heat transfer always dominates in cold climates is at odds with decades of research in soil physics which clearly demonstrate that non-conductive heat transfer by water and water vapor are significant, and frequently are for specific periods the dominant modes of heat transfer near the ground surface. The thermal regime at the surface represents the effective boundary condition for deeper thermal regimes. Also, surface soils are going to respond more quickly to any climatic fluctuations; this is important to us because most facets of our lives are tied to earth's surface. To accurately determine the surface thermal regime (for example, the detection of climate change), it is important to consider all potential forms of heat transfer. Gradients that have the potential to alter the thermal regime besides temperature include pore water pressure, gravitational, density, vapor pressure and chemical. The importance of several non-conductive heat transport mechanisms near the ground surface is examined. Infiltration into seasonally frozen soils and freezing (release of latent heat) of water is one mechanism for the acceleration of warming in surficial soils in the spring. Free convection due to buoyancy-induced motion of fluids does not appear to be an important heat-transfer mechanism; estimates of the Rayleigh number (the ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces) are generally around 2, which is too low for effective heat transfer. The Peclet number (ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer) is on the order of 0.25 for snowmelt infiltration and up to 2.5 for rainfall infiltration for porous organic soils. In mineral soils, both vertical and horizontal advection of heat can be neglected (Peclet number is approximately 0.001) except for snowmelt infiltration into open thermal contraction cracks. The migration of water in response to temperature or chemical gradients from unfrozen soil depths to the freezing front, and the

  2. Numerical prediction of turbulent oscillating flow and associated heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, W. J.; Patankar, S. V.; Ibele, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial point for further development of engines is the optimization of its heat exchangers which operate under oscillatory flow conditions. It has been found that the most important thermodynamic uncertainties in the Stirling engine designs for space power are in the heat transfer between gas and metal in all engine components and in the pressure drop across the heat exchanger components. So far, performance codes cannot predict the power output of a Stirling engine reasonably enough if used for a wide variety of engines. Thus, there is a strong need for better performance codes. However, a performance code is not concerned with the details of the flow. This information must be provided externally. While analytical relationships exist for laminar oscillating flow, there has been hardly any information about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow, which could be introduced into the performance codes. In 1986, a survey by Seume and Simon revealed that most Stirling engine heat exchangers operate in the transitional and turbulent regime. Consequently, research has since focused on the unresolved issue of transitional and turbulent oscillating flow and heat transfer. Since 1988, the University of Minnesota oscillating flow facility has obtained experimental data about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow. However, since the experiments in this field are extremely difficult, lengthy, and expensive, it is advantageous to numerically simulate the flow and heat transfer accurately from first principles. Work done at the University of Minnesota on the development of such a numerical simulation is summarized.

  3. Multivariate analysis of heat tolerance characteristics in Santa Inês and crossbred lambs in the Federal District of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correa, Marilma Pachêco Chediak; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Canozzi, Maria Eugênia Andrighetto; Louvandini, Helder; Barcellos, Júlio Jardim; McManus, Concepta

    2013-08-01

    Heat tolerance is an important trait for deciding on which genetic resource to use on farms in tropical regions. Three genetic groups of lambs were evaluated by physical and physiological parameters related to adaptation and multivariate analyses used to test if these traits were efficient in separating the genetic groups and which traits were more important in this separation. Crossbred lambs were more similar to each other than to Santa Inês, in general; but individually there was an overlap between Ile de France and Santa Inês lambs. Size traits had higher canonical correlation with physiological variables, while rectal temperature, heart rate, and hemoglobin were more highly correlated with physical traits. Error rates using only physiological traits were high, suggesting that these are inefficient in separating groups of lambs for heat tolerance, while separation with physical traits was more efficient.

  4. A comparative analysis of heat waves and associated mortality in St. Louis, Missouri - 1980 and 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoyer, K. E.

    This research investigates heat-related mortality during the 1980 and 1995 heat waves in St. Louis, Missouri. St. Louis has a long history of extreme summer weather, and heat-related mortality is a public health concern. Heat waves are defined as days with apparent temperatures exceeding 40.6°C (105°F). The study uses a multivariate analysis to investigate the relationship between mortality and heat wave intensity, duration, and timing within the summer season. The heat wave of 1980 was more severe and had higher associated mortality than that of 1995. To learn if changing population characteristics, in addition to weather conditions, contributed to this difference, changes in population vulnerability between 1980 and 1995 are evaluated under simulated heat wave conditions. The findings show that St. Louis remains at risk of heat wave mortality. In addition, there is evidence that vulnerability has increased despite increased air-conditioning penetration and public health interventions.

  5. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Associated Risk Factors amongst Middle-School Students in Ongkharak District, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana; Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a common tobacco use which is the leading preventable cause of death in Thailand. Prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking are varied amongst communities. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of cigarette smoking amongst middle-school students studying in the Ongkharak district, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with students of the public schools in Ongkharak district, central Thailand, in 2013. Of 677 middle-school students (grade 7-9) who currently enrolled in the classes, 130 were randomly selected. Data on smoking as well as demographic characteristics were collected using an anonymous self- administered questionnaire which was modified from the 2013 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and translated into Thai. The prevalence of children who smoked or had smoked before was 24.6% (38.9% amongst males and 6.9% amongst females, p-value < 0.001), of this proportion 50% were current smokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for having ever smoked were being male (OR = 7.63, 95% CI 2.26-26.90), of an older age (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.40-3.76), high coffee or tea consumption (OR = 2.95, 95% CI 1.08-8.05) and sharing a household with a smoker (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.09-8.06). Those who have smoked reported higher prevalence of asthma compared to those who have never smoked (25.0% vs. 9.2%, p-value = 0.033). About a quarter ofmiddle-school students in Ongkharak district smoked cigarettes. Anti-smoking and prevention policies should be encouraged to tackle this rising major public health problem.

  6. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in Homa Bay District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Eshitera, Eric E; Githigia, Samuel M; Kitala, Philip; Thomas, Lian F; Fèvre, Eric M; Harrison, Leslie J S; Mwihia, Evalyn W; Otieno, Richard O; Ojiambo, Fred; Maingi, Ndichu

    2012-12-05

    Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and leads to economic losses to the pig production industry. Due to scarcity of data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Kenya, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis within Homa Bay district. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010, and a total of 392 pigs were recruited in a household survey, with all being tested by ante-mortem lingual palpation (together with questionnaire data on pig production, occurrence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis, risk factors and awareness of porcine cysticercosis collected from the households from which pigs were sampled). Sufficient serum was collected from 232 of the pigs to be tested for the presence of circulating parasite antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). Seventy six pigs were found positive by the Ag-ELISA (32.8%, 95% C.I. 26.8-39.2%), while by tongue inspection cysticerci were detected in 22/ 392 pigs (5.6% 95% C.I. 3.6-8.4%).The most important risk factor for porcine cysticercosis in the Homa Bay area was for pigs to belong to a farm where latrine use by members of the household was not evident (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.13-2.37). The present findings indicate that porcine cysticercosis is endemic in Homa Bay District, and that latrine provision, in conjunction with free-range pig keeping contributes significantly to porcine cysticercosis transmission.

  7. Alkalic rocks and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Powderhorn District, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, J.C.; Hedlund, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Alkalic igneous rocks and related concentrations of thorium, niobium, rare-earth elements, titanium, and other elements have long been known in the Powderhorn mining district and have been explored intermittently for several decades. The deposits formed chiefly about 570 m.y. (million years) ago in latest Precambrian or Early Cambrian time. They were emplaced in lower Proterozoic (Proterozoic X) metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and plutonic rocks. The complex of alkalic rocks of Iron Hill occupies 31 km 2 (square kilometers) and is composed of pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, nepheline syenite, and carbonatite, in order of generally decreasing age. Fenite occurs in a zone, in places more than 0.6 km (kilometer) wide, around a large part of the margin of the complex and adjacent to alkalic dikes intruding Precambrian host rock. The alkalic rocks have a radioactivity, chiefly due to thorium, greater than that of the surrounding Powderhorn Granite (Proterozoic X) and metamorphic rocks. The pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, and nepheline syenite, which form more than 80 percent of the complex, have fairly uniform radioactivity. Radioactivity in the carbonatite stock, carbonatite dikes, and the carbonatite-pyroxenite mixed rock zone, however, generally exceeds that in the other rocks of the complex. The thorium concentrations in the Powderhorn district occur in six types of deposits: thorite veins, a large massive carbonatite body, carbonatite dikes, trachyte dikes, magnetite-ilmeniteperovskite dikes or segregations, and disseminations in small, anomalously radioactive plutons chiefly of granite or quartz syenite that are older than rocks of the alkalic complex. The highest grade thorium concentrations in the district are in veins that commonly occur in steeply dipping, crosscutting shear or breccia zones in the Precambrian rocks. They range in thickness from a centimeter or less to 5 m (meters) and are as much as 1 km long. The thorite veins are composed chiefly of

  8. Prevalence of war-related mental health conditions and association with displacement status in postwar Jaffna District, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Husain, Farah; Anderson, Mark; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Becknell, Kristin; Blanton, Curtis; Araki, Diane; Vithana, Eeshara Kottegoda

    2011-08-03

    Nearly 2.7 million individuals worldwide are internally displaced (seeking refuge in secure areas of their own country) annually by armed conflict. Although the psychological impact of war has been well documented, less is known about the mental health symptoms of forced displacement among internally displaced persons. To estimate the prevalence of the most common war-related mental health conditions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression, and to assess the association between displacement status and these conditions in postwar Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. Between July and September 2009, a cross-sectional multistage cluster sample survey was conducted among 1517 Jaffna District households including 2 internally displaced persons camps. The response rate was 92% (1448 respondents, 1409 eligible respondents). Two percent of participants (n = 80) were currently displaced, 29.5% (n = 539) were recently resettled, and 68.5% (n = 790) were long-term residents. Bivariable analyses followed by multivariable logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between displacement status and mental health. Symptom criteria of PTSD, anxiety, and depression as measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. The overall prevalences of symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression were 7.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.1%-9.7%), 32.6% (95% CI, 28.5%-36.9%), and 22.2% (95% CI, 18.2%-26.5%), respectively. Currently displaced participants were more likely to report symptoms of PTSD (odds ratio [OR], 2.71; 95% CI, 1.28-5.73), anxiety (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.89-4.48), and depression (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 2.47-8.39) compared with long-term residents. Recently resettled residents were more likely to report symptoms of PTSD (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.11-3.47) compared with long-term residents. However, displacement was no longer associated with mental health symptoms after controlling for trauma exposure

  9. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Daping; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Yong; Chen, Wei; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang

    2013-01-01

    Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on. PMID:24135822

  10. Prediction of diffuse sulfate emissions from a former mining district and associated groundwater discharges to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graupner, Bastian J.; Koch, Christian; Prommer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Rivers draining mining districts are often affected by the diffuse input of polluted groundwaters. The severity and longevity of the impact depends on a wide range of factors such as the source terms, the hydraulic regime, the distance between pollutant sources and discharge points and the dilution by discharge from upstream river reaches. In this study a deterministic multi-mine life-cycle model was developed. It is used to characterize pollutant sources and to quantify the resulting current and future effects on both groundwater and river water quality. Thereby sulfate acts as proxy for mining-related impacts. The model application to the Lausitz mining district (Germany) shows that the most important factors controlling concentrations and discharge of sulfate are mixing/dilution with ambient groundwater and the rates of biological sulfate reduction during subsurface transport. In contrast, future impacts originating from the unsaturated zones of the mining dumps showed to be of little importance due to the high age of the mining dumps and the associated depletion in reactive iron-sulfides. The simulations indicate that currently the groundwater borne diffuse input of sulfate into the rivers Kleine Spree and Spree is ∼2200 t/years. Our predictions suggest a future increase to ∼11,000 t/years within the next 40 years. Depending on river discharge rates this represents an increase in sulfate concentration of 40-300 mg/L. A trend reversal for the surface water discharge is not expected before 2050.

  11. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  12. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part I: Dynamic intake fraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature by proposing a novel, state-of-the-art approach to estimate incremental air quality and health impacts of proposed or installed district energy systems (DES), such as the growing biomass-based DES, on the immediately surrounding community where population density varies significantly during day as well as the micrometeorological conditions. Spatial and temporal dynamics of pollutant concentrations at sensitive receptors obtained from modeled actual source emissions, inclusion of site-specific terrain, land use and microclimatic characteristics, population density and breathing rates are examined based on their impacts on the exposure potential expressed by the intake fraction (iF). Overall, results revealed that when those parameters are changing, the increase of iF calculated based on average ambient concentrations at each receptor for the UBC campus for the day and night hours for September 2012, ranges from 6.2% to 43.0%: introducing actual spatial receptor distribution led to 43% increase of iF, combined spatial and population dynamics led to 11.3% increase of iF, while introducing temporal dynamics and varying breathing rates resulted in 6.2% and 21.4% increase in iF respectively, compared to the base case box model where receptors and population were treated as static and uniformly distributed across the modeling domain. It is thus essential to take into consideration temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric conditions and dispersion, population density and varying aspiration rates in accurately assessing the health impacts of DES located at densely populated urban communities.

  13. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  14. Wireless sensor network for remote monitoring of parameters in distribution points of district utilities for heat and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Ilie, Ioana; Vasile, Alexandru; Svasta, Paul; Tapu, Adina

    2009-01-01

    Rigorous monitoring of technological parameters optimizes the activities and reduces energy losses in distribution points of heat and water from utility companies. Extra efficiency can be achieved by remote monitoring via Internet or GSM communications and using networks of wireless sensors for collecting data. Presented paper focuses on hardware and software design aspects of wireless sensors for measuring parameters required by water and heat distribution, with focus on flow and temperature measurement. The sensors consist of two modules - one control and communication unit and sensing unit. Sensing unit is specific to measured parameter (flow, temperature, humidity etc.) but control and communication unit is the same for all sensors. Software for sensing unit was developed and tested on a universal electronic module for industrial control. Sensors group together in a plug-and-play wireless mesh network and one of them is connected to an Internet/GSM communication module for remote access. Wireless sensors are battery based devices so energy management issues (hardware and software) play a big role in sensor design. Current consumption of different configurations and in different operation states is analyzed.

  15. Professional Quality of Life and Associated Factors Among Ugandan Midwives Working in Mubende and Mityana Rural Districts.

    PubMed

    Muliira, Rhoda Suubi; Ssendikadiwa, Vito Bosco

    2016-03-01

    To explore the professional quality of life and associated factors among Ugandan midwives working in Mubende and Mityana rural district to recommend interventions to improve professional well-being and outcomes of midwifery care. Professional quality of life of midwives working in rural areas may be influenced by several personal and work setting factors of care professionals often impacting the quality and outcomes of patient care. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 224 midwives working in two rural districts of Uganda. The majority of participants were female (80 %), with an associate degree in midwifery (92 %). The mean age and years of experience were 34 ± 6.3 and 4 ± 2.1 years, respectively. The mean scores on the professional quality of life scale showed average compassionate satisfaction (19 ± 4.88), burnout (36.9 ± 6.22) and secondary traumatic stress (22.9 ± 6.69). The midwives' compassion satisfaction was related to psychological well-being (p < 0.01) and job satisfaction (p < 0.01). Conversely, their burnout levels and secondary traumatic stress were associated with education level (p < 0.01), marital status (p < 0.01), involvement in non-midwifery health care activities (p < 0.01), and physical well-being (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATION TO PRACTICE: Midwives working in rural areas of resource-poor countries have moderate professional quality of life and tend to experience moderate to high levels of burnout, secondary traumatic stress and compassion satisfaction in their professional work. Therefore, employers need to provide deliberate work based services such as counselling, debriefing, training and social support to enhance midwives professional quality of life and quality of midwifery care and practice.

  16. Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001), May (r = 0.77, p<0.001), and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05). During a period of more intense heat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03–2.21] applying reference periods (May 12–18, 2010) from various years. Conclusion The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot

  17. Heat-related mortality in India: excess all-cause mortality associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad heat wave.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8 °C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1-31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest "summer" months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001), May (r = 0.77, p<0.001), and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05). During a period of more intense heat (May 19-25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67-1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03-2.21] applying reference periods (May 12-18, 2010) from various years. The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June.

  18. THIN CURRENT SHEETS AND ASSOCIATED ELECTRON HEATING IN TURBULENT SPACE PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Chasapis, A.; Retinò, A.; Sahraoui, F.; Canu, P.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Sundkvist, D.; Greco, A.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.

    2015-05-01

    Intermittent structures, such as thin current sheets, are abundant in turbulent plasmas. Numerical simulations indicate that such current sheets are important sites of energy dissipation and particle heating occurring at kinetic scales. However, direct evidence of dissipation and associated heating within current sheets is scarce. Here, we show a new statistical study of local electron heating within proton-scale current sheets by using high-resolution spacecraft data. Current sheets are detected using the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method which identifies regions of strong intermittency. We find that strong electron heating occurs in high PVI (>3) current sheets while no significant heating occurs in low PVI cases (<3), indicating that the former are dominant for energy dissipation. Current sheets corresponding to very high PVI (>5) show the strongest heating and most of the time are consistent with ongoing magnetic reconnection. This suggests that reconnection is important for electron heating and dissipation at kinetic scales in turbulent plasmas.

  19. Thin Current Sheets and Associated Electron Heating in Turbulent Space Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasapis, A.; Retinò, A.; Sahraoui, F.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Sundkvist, D.; Greco, A.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Canu, P.

    2015-05-01

    Intermittent structures, such as thin current sheets, are abundant in turbulent plasmas. Numerical simulations indicate that such current sheets are important sites of energy dissipation and particle heating occurring at kinetic scales. However, direct evidence of dissipation and associated heating within current sheets is scarce. Here, we show a new statistical study of local electron heating within proton-scale current sheets by using high-resolution spacecraft data. Current sheets are detected using the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method which identifies regions of strong intermittency. We find that strong electron heating occurs in high PVI (>3) current sheets while no significant heating occurs in low PVI cases (<3), indicating that the former are dominant for energy dissipation. Current sheets corresponding to very high PVI (>5) show the strongest heating and most of the time are consistent with ongoing magnetic reconnection. This suggests that reconnection is important for electron heating and dissipation at kinetic scales in turbulent plasmas.

  20. Association of anthropometric measures and dental caries among a group of adolescent cadets of Udupi district, South India.

    PubMed

    Chakravathy, P K; Chenna, D; Chenna, V

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among a group of adolescent cadets of Udupi district, India. Demographic information such as age, sex and parental education were collected. Various anthropometric measures such as weight, body mass index (BMI), height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference were recorded as per standard guidelines. Dental caries was recorded using mouth mirrors and CPI probes. A total of 211 cadets with age range of 12-19 years constituted the final sample. Caries experience was significantly different with respect to age and gender (p=0.049 and 0.05 respectively). Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with DMFT as dependent variable. Height, weight, BMI and WC showed significant association with dental caries status (OR = 10.61, 1.03, 1.09 and 1.02 respectively). Stratified analysis showed no association with anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI and WC) and dental caries in 12-14 years. Among 15-19 years age group, there was a significant association between anthropometric measures (height, weight and BMI) and dental caries. There was a significant association between anthropometric measures and caries status in 15-19 years age group while no association was found in 12-14 years age group. Obesity and dental caries have common risk determinants and require a comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach by health care professionals.

  1. Associations between alcohol outlets and emergency department injury presentations: effects of distance from the central business district.

    PubMed

    Hobday, Michelle; Meuleners, Lynn; Liang, Wenbin; Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effects of licensed outlets and sales on levels of alcohol-related injuries presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in the Inner, Middle and Outer postcode zones of Perth, Australia. Using panel data (2002-2010), a surrogate measure (based on day of week and time of day of presentation) was used to identify alcohol-related injuries presenting at EDs. Postcodes were grouped according to their distance from the central business district (CBD). Numbers of alcohol outlets and their sales were the primary explanatory variables. Data were analysed using negative binomial regression with random effects. In the Inner and Outer postcode zones, counts of on-site outlets were positively associated with alcohol-related injury (IRR: 1.008; 95%CI 1.003-1.013 and IRR: 1.021; 95%CI 1.013-1.030 respectively). An additional off-site outlet was associated with 6.8% fewer alcohol-related injuries (95%CI 0.887-0.980). In the Middle postcode zone, mean off-site sales were positively associated with injury (IRR: 1.024; 95%CI 1.003-1.044). Associations between alcohol availability variables and injury differed by outlet type and distance from the CBD. These findings provide further evidence to support stronger controls on liquor licensing, and indicate the need for different controls according to the location and type of licence. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. [Exercise guideline for prevention of heat injury (Japan Sports Association)].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Sports activities in hot environment are high risk for heat injury. Athletes should take rest(at least once every 30 minutes) and water (with 0.1-0.2% salt) frequently during training in hot environment. When wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is over 28 degrees C, sports activities should be restricted. When WBGT is over 31 degrees C, sports activities should be stopped.

  3. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. Aim To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Results Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Conclusion Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis. PMID:26816986

  4. Obesity and deranged sleep are independently associated with increased cancer mortality in 50 US states and the District of Columbia.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Ramanathan, Lakshmi; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2013-09-01

    Proper sleep is associated with reduced cancer risk. For example, multiple studies have found that habitual sleeping pill usage is related to death from cancer, suggesting that sleep derangement may increase cancer mortality. However, other studies have not found a definite connection between sleep and cancer deaths. For this reason, we analyzed US cancer mortality data and sleep quality data to see if there was relationship. Age-adjusted data on sleep disturbance in 50 US states and the District of Columbia are from Perceived insufficient rest or sleep among adults--United States, 2008. Age-adjusted all-cancer mortality data are from American Cancer Society Cancer Facts and Figures. Obesity data are from Vital signs: state-specific obesity prevalence among adults--United States, 2009. Data on race by state are from the 2010 US Census (http://www.census.gov). There was a significant correlation between percentage of persons who reported insufficient sleep every day in the preceding 30 days versus all-cancer mortality in 50 US states and the District of Columbia (p < 0.001). Because cancer survival is higher in whites than blacks and lower in obese individuals, multiple linear regression was performed. The association of insufficient sleep every day in the preceding 30 days with all-cancer mortality was significant (p = 0.017), independent of the percentage obese (p < 0.001), and unrelated to percentage white population (p = 0.847). Alterations in endocrine function, perhaps abnormal cortisol metabolism resulting from deranged sleep, may be in part responsible for the increased all-cancer mortality we report here. Further studies would be worthwhile.

  5. Prevalence of and factors associated with myopia in primary school students in the Chaoyang District of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yanyu; Zhang, Hao; Gong, Yueqiu; Wang, Dan; Chen, Ting; Guo, Xianghui; Yang, Suhong; Liu, Danyan; Kang, Meixia

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for myopia in primary school children in Chaoyang District, Beijing. This cross-sectional prevalence survey was conducted in September to October 2011 in 4 schools randomly chosen from among the 126 primary schools in Chaoyang District. Students were assessed with autorefractometry under cycloplegia and checked with retinoscopy for accuracy. Questionnaires were completed by the students' parents. Myopia was present in 36.7 ± 0.7% of 4249 students aged 5-14 years old. The prevalence of myopia in girls (38.6 ± 1.1%) was significantly higher than in boys (35.0 ± 1.0 %) (p = 0.015) and increased with age (p < 0.001), with the highest prevalence observed in children aged ≥11 years (67.5 ± 1.8%). After adjustment, having a myopic parent (aOR 3.10; 95% CI 2.49-3.86), incorrect reading posture (aOR 2.09; 95% CI 1.75-2.50), reading a book at a distance of <20 cm (aOR 1.60; 95% CI 1.16-2.21), studying at home for >3 h daily (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 1.12-2.01), studying for >1 h continuously (aOR 1.21; 95% CI 1.02-1.45), and reading extracurricular books that utilize a font larger than that used in textbooks (aOR 0.74; 95% CI 0.59-0.94) were all significantly associated with myopia. The prevalence of myopia among primary school children in Beijing increased with age, and was significantly higher in girls ≥10 years old. Myopia was significantly associated with parental myopia, reading posture, distance between the eyes and the book being read, font size used in extracurricular reading material, time spent studying at home, and the duration of continuous study time.

  6. Hydrogeochemical controls on mobilization of arsenic and associated health risk in Nagaon district of the central Brahmaputra Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Patel, Arbind Kumar; Das, Aparna; Kumar, Pankaj; Goswami, Ritusmita; Deka, Parismita; Das, Nilotpal

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, elevated concentration of arsenic (As) in groundwater in the northeastern states of India has become a major cause of concern. Since many regions of the Brahmaputra plains are reported with groundwater As contamination, an attempt was made to study the As contamination and factors governing its release in the Nagaon district in Brahmaputra floodplain, based on various water types, relation of As with other major ions and with various depth profiles. The origin of groundwater mineralization and the processes responsible for As enrichment in groundwater was determined by calculating saturation index using PHREEQC code. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out for identification of As-releasing mechanism based on rock-water interaction. Principle component analysis of physicochemical parameters revealed the association of As with SiO2 and Cl(-) in pre-monsoon and the fact that alkaline condition favors release of As. The relation between As and Fe shows that reductive dissolution of solid Fe oxide and hydroxide phases could be the source of As in Nagaon district. The result of hierarchical cluster analysis indicates that As release could also be associated with the agrochemicals application. Health risk assessment revealed that children are more susceptible to carcinogenic as well as non-carcinogenic health impact with consumption of As-contaminated drinking water. The male population is more susceptible to cancer as compared to females as the average water consumption is higher in case of male. Overall, the study highlights the health risk assessment is a matter of chief concern in this study as the younger generation are at higher risk.

  7. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  8. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill.

  9. Genome wide association of changes in feeding behavior due to heat stress in pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress negatively impacts pork production, losses include decreased growth, reduced feed intake, and mortality. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify genetic markers associated with changes in feeding behavior due to heat stress in grow-finish pigs. Data were collected on grow-...

  10. Mapping QTL for the traits associated with heat tolerance in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High temperature (heat) stress during grain filling is a major problem in most of the wheat growing areas. Developing heat-tolerant cultivars is becoming a principal breeding goal in the Southern and Central Great Plain areas of USA. Traits associated with high temperature tolerance can be used to d...

  11. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  12. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  13. Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historic (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, whereas a time series analysis using a piecewise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day vs. a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages and all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect of heat intensity on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4°C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly age groups (<85 years) experience significant risk for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma hospitalizations.

  14. Heat shock proteins and their association with major pediatric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Skora, Dorota; Gorska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins belong to a group of molecular chaperones responsible for the regulation of many intracellular processes. HSPs play a pivotal role in the survival of cells under stressful conditions. Over-expression of these proteins have been found in both healthy and a great number of cancer cells. HSPs may be involved in numerous carcinogenic and chemoresistant processes. Due to that fact, they may be referred to as diagnostic biomarkers of oncogenesis and potential targets for anticancer drugs. Thus, we decided to review the involvement of major HSPs in the most malignant childhood cancers.

  15. PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF DENTAL CARIES, GINGIVITIS, AND CALCULUS DEPOSITS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN OF SARGODHA DISTRICT, PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Umer, Muhammad Farooq; Farooq, Umer; Shabbir, Arham; Zofeen, Shumaila; Mujtaba, Hasan; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    According to a pathfinder survey conducted by World Health Organization, dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease in Pakistan. The update information regarding dental health of school children of Sargodha district is required to plan community caries prevention programs and for better understanding of existing situation, and may improve longevity, treatment, and care. This cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected schools of Sargodha district, stratified by gender selected. Two well-trained dentists examined the oral cavities of children for dental caries, gingivitis, and calculus deposits. The sample consisted of children aged between 3-12 years. The overall prevalence rate of gingivitis, calculus, and dental caries was found as 14.5%, 14.3%, and 45.9% respectively. A significant association was found between DMFT score (p < 0.001), gingivitis (p < 0.01), and calculus (p < 0.05) with the increase in age of children. More children living in urban area were detected with gingivitis (p < 0.01), calculus (p < 0.01), and dental caries than children residing in rural areas. Incidence of gingivitis (p < 0.05), calculus, and dental caries in primary (p < 0.001) and permanent teeth were found higher in those children who were not brushing their teeth. Experience of dental caries in primary teeth was found higher (p < 0.01) in children who brushed occasionally. Study also showed that none of the children ever visited dentist for treatment. The results emphasize the need for initiation of awareness programs to achieve 0 DMFT/df scores.

  16. Study on the association between ambient air pollution and daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in an urban district of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-06-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003-2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007-2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease.

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  18. Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historical (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County -King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis using a piece-wise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect that heat’s intensity has on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day versus a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages, all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect heat intensity has on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4 °C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly (less than 85) age groups experience significant risk for: nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, COPD and asthma hospitalizations. PMID:25719287

  19. Master Agreement between Board of Directors of Iowa Valley Community College District (Merged Area VI) and Iowa Valley Community College Education Association/ISEA, 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Valley Community Coll. District, Marshalltown, IA.

    This collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Directors of the Iowa Valley Community College District and the Iowa Valley Community College Education Association outlines the terms of employment for all faculty, librarians, and counselors and certain other professional staff at Marshalltown and Ellsworth Community Colleges. The 13…

  20. [Agreement Between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 11 and the Fort Steilacoom Community College Faculty Association 1973-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort Steilacoom Community Coll., Tacoma, WA.

    This agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 11 and the Fort Steilacoom Community College Faculty Association covers the academic year 1973-74. Provisions of the agreement cover a saving clause, definitions, hours per week/work day span, instructor productivity, teaching load, extended contracts/released time,…

  1. Contract between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 20 and the Walla Walla Community College Association for Higher Education, 1987-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walla Walla Community Coll., WA.

    This contract between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 20 and the Walla Walla Community College Association for Higher Education covers the period between 1987 and 1989. The 14 articles in the contract set forth provisions related to: (1) administration, including recognition of the bargaining unit, status of the contract,…

  2. Heat Wave-Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014.

    PubMed

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G H; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens.

  3. Carried or Defeated? Examining the Factors Associated with Passing School District Bond Elections in Texas, 1997-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Lee, Jooyoung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Across the United States, a large percentage of school districts are in need of facility improvements to provide safe and adequate buildings to facilitate student learning. To finance new construction, school districts traditionally have put proposals before local voters to fund construction through issuing long-term bonds to finance…

  4. Carried or Defeated? Examining the Factors Associated with Passing School District Bond Elections in Texas, 1997-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Lee, Jooyoung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Across the United States, a large percentage of school districts are in need of facility improvements to provide safe and adequate buildings to facilitate student learning. To finance new construction, school districts traditionally have put proposals before local voters to fund construction through issuing long-term bonds to finance…

  5. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors in children living in urban and rural settings from Bata District, Equatorial Guinea, 2013.

    PubMed

    Ncogo, Policarpo; Romay-Barja, Maria; Benito, Agustin; Aparicio, Pilar; Nseng, Gloria; Berzosa, Pedro; Santana-Morales, Maria A; Riloha, Matilde; Valladares, Basilio; Herrador, Zaida

    2017-01-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age is a global public health problem. According to the World Health Organization the current rate of anemia among preschool aged children in Equatorial Guinea is 66%. No information is available above this age. The cross-sectional Prevamal Survey was conducted in 2013 aimed at providing baseline data on malaria prevalence in children aged 2 months-15 years old. Sampling was carried out with the use of a multistage, stratified cluster strategy in the district of Bata, Equatorial Guinea. The χ2 test and adjusted Poisson regression models were applied to assess the association between social-demographic and economic factors, malaria and anemia. A total of 1436 children were tested, out of which 1,421 children (99%) were tested for anemia. Over 85% were anemic; out of them, 284 (24%), 815 (67%) and 111 (9%) children had mild, moderate and severe anemia, respectively. Severe anemia was more frequent among children aged 2-12 months old and those living in rural sites. About 47% tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). This rate was significantly higher in rural villages (66%; p<0.001). The prevalence of anemia and malaria was higher in rural settings (p<0.001). On the other hand, anemia in urban areas displayed a heterogeneity and complexity that differed from the rural environment: in urban neighbourhoods, children with concomitant malaria infection were more likely to be anemic (adjusted prevalence rate (aPR):1.19; CI 95%: 1.12-1.28). Moreover, the prevalence of anemia was higher in children aged above 13 months compared to younger children (p<0.005). Belonging to the poorest wealth tertile were positively (aPR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.05-1.24) and children' parents being employees (aPR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.96) or self-employed (aPR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.97) vs. working in agriculture and/or fishing negatively associated with anemia among urban children. This marked urban-rural variation indicates the importance of

  6. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors in children living in urban and rural settings from Bata District, Equatorial Guinea, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ncogo, Policarpo; Romay-Barja, Maria; Benito, Agustin; Aparicio, Pilar; Nseng, Gloria; Berzosa, Pedro; Santana-Morales, Maria A.; Riloha, Matilde; Valladares, Basilio

    2017-01-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age is a global public health problem. According to the World Health Organization the current rate of anemia among preschool aged children in Equatorial Guinea is 66%. No information is available above this age. The cross-sectional Prevamal Survey was conducted in 2013 aimed at providing baseline data on malaria prevalence in children aged 2 months-15 years old. Sampling was carried out with the use of a multistage, stratified cluster strategy in the district of Bata, Equatorial Guinea. The χ2 test and adjusted Poisson regression models were applied to assess the association between social-demographic and economic factors, malaria and anemia. A total of 1436 children were tested, out of which 1,421 children (99%) were tested for anemia. Over 85% were anemic; out of them, 284 (24%), 815 (67%) and 111 (9%) children had mild, moderate and severe anemia, respectively. Severe anemia was more frequent among children aged 2–12 months old and those living in rural sites. About 47% tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). This rate was significantly higher in rural villages (66%; p<0.001). The prevalence of anemia and malaria was higher in rural settings (p<0.001). On the other hand, anemia in urban areas displayed a heterogeneity and complexity that differed from the rural environment: in urban neighbourhoods, children with concomitant malaria infection were more likely to be anemic (adjusted prevalence rate (aPR):1.19; CI 95%: 1.12–1.28). Moreover, the prevalence of anemia was higher in children aged above 13 months compared to younger children (p<0.005). Belonging to the poorest wealth tertile were positively (aPR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.05–1.24) and children’ parents being employees (aPR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76–0.96) or self-employed (aPR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76–0.97) vs. working in agriculture and/or fishing negatively associated with anemia among urban children. This marked urban-rural variation indicates the

  7. Factors associated with undernutrition among children in a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Mohd Hussin, Zabidi Azhar; Thon, Chang Ching

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the factors associated with undernutrition indicators in children 5 years and younger in a rural community in Malaysia. A total of 295 children and their carers were selected from community clinics based on a multistage sampling method. Pretested questionnaire, anthropometric measurement, and dietary assessment were used for data collection. There was 69% stunting, 63.4% underweight, 40% wasting, and 26.8% with mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) for age below a z score of -2 among children. In all, 10 factors were found to be associated with different indicators of undernutrition. Age was the only factor that had association with all the undernutrition indicators. Total household income and total expenditure showed significant association with underweight. Birth weight was reported to have significant association with underweight, stunting, and low MUAC-for-age. The findings suggest that the factors of undernutrition were different for different indicators of undernutrition and thus give a more comprehensive picture on factors contributing to acute and chronic malnutrition.

  8. [Latent tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors among the tuberculosis contacts in one of district in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Tang, L H; Huang, X X; Wu, Y; Su, H L

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI) and associated risk factors among the tuberculosis(TB) contacts in Minhang District of Shanghai. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was used to acquire socio-demographic information and to assess the degree of exposure to index cases. LTBI screening was performed by T-SPOT.TB assay. Pearson chi-square test and Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors associated with LTBI among the TB contacts. Results: A total of 137 contacts from 59 mycobacterial (culture) positive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled in this study. In these contacts, there were 54 men and 83 women, with the average age of 42. LTBI was identified in 20% (27/137) of these contacts. Several risk factors were found by logistic analyses in this study. The worse the ventilation in the exposure location was, the more likely to develop LTBI. Contacts aged more than 60 (42.1%) were 3.9 times more likely to develop LTBI than those aged less than 60 (16.1%). Individuals in contact with TB patients for more than 40 h/week(25.8%) had a 4.2 times risk of LTBI as compared to those for less than 40 h/week(6.8%). Conclusion: The prevalence of LTBI was 20% among the TB contacts in this study, highlighting the need of TB screening and intervention among TB contacts.

  9. Age-dependent decline and association with stunting of Giardia duodenalis infection among schoolchildren in rural Huye district, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Heimer, Jakob; Staudacher, Olga; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean Marie; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection is highly prevalent and a cause of underweight in pre-school children in rural Rwanda. The present study aimed at assessing the age-pattern of Giardia infection and its manifestation in older children, i.e., during school age. Stool samples were collected from 622 schoolchildren at two schools in the Huye district of southern Rwanda (rural, 301; urban, 321) and subjected to G. duodenalis specific PCR assays. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with G. duodenalis infection were assessed. Of the 622 children (mean age, 10.4 years), 35.7% were infected with G. duodenalis (rural, 43.9%; urban, 28.0%; P<0.0001). Only few indicators of low socio-economic status were found to be associated with infection. In rural but not urban schoolchildren, infection prevalence declined significantly with age. G. duodenalis infection more than doubled the odds of stunting in both rural (adjusted OR, 2.35 (95%CI, 1.25-4.41)) and urban children (adjusted OR, 2.27 (95%CI, 1.01-5.09)). In the study area of rural southern Rwanda, G. duodenalis prevalence among children declined throughout school-age. The data suggest that while lacking overt clinical manifestation at high endemicity, G. duodenalis infection is a common cause of stunting in schoolchildren.

  10. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks.

  11. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10% (1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69% (95% CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0°C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks.

  12. The heat production associated with the passage of a single impulse in pike olfactory nerve fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, J V; Keynes, R D; Ritchie, J M; von Muralt, A

    1975-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the temperature changes associated with the passage of a single impulse in the non-myelinated fibres of the pike olfactory nerve. 2. The initial heat occurs in two phases: a burst of positive heat, followed by an evolution of negative heat. The positive and negative heats, and the net initial heat, are temperature-dependent. 3. At 0 degrees C the measured positive initial heat is 44.2 mucal/g.impulse; and the corresponding negative initial heat is 48.9 mucal/g.impulse. There is thus a net initial heat that is negative, of about 4.7 mucal/g.impulse. 4. The positive heat has a positive temperature coefficient, being increased by a factor of 1.86 when the temperature is rasied from 0 degrees C to 10 degrees C. 5. The negative initial heat also increases when the temperature is raised, but less than the positive initial heat. As a result, the net initial heat tends to become positive at higher temperatures. 6. Because of temporal dispersion of the action potential over the face of the thermopile, the observed temperature changes are smaller than those that occur at a single point in the nerve close to the stimulating cathode. The value of the positive heat at 0 degrees C corrected for temporal dispersion is estimated to be about 62 mucal/g.impulse: the corresponding value for the negative heat is about 67 mucal/g.impulse. 7. All records were analysed in terms of only two phases of initial heat (one positive, one negative). No analysis required four phases; but it is unclear whether this finding reflects a true absence of four phases, or merely the inability of the recording equipment to resolve them. 8. The positive heat seems to be derived from two sources. First, there is a dissipation of the free energy stored in the membrane capacity. Secondly, there is an evolution of heat corresponding with a decrease in entropy of the membrane dielectric with depolarization. PMID:1236946

  13. Experimental evidence in support of Joule heating associated with geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution accelerometer measurements in the altitude region 140 to 300 km from a satellite in a near-polar orbit during a period of extremely high geomagnetic activity indicate that Joule heating is the primary source of energy for atmospheric heating associated with geomagnetic activity. This conclusion is supported by the following observational evidence: (1) There is an atmospheric response in the auroral zone which is nearly simulataneous with the onset of geomagnetic activity, with no significant response in the equatorial region until several hours later; (2) The maximum heating occurs at geographic locations near the maximum current of the auroral electrojet; and (3) There is evidence of atmospheric waves originating near the auroral zone at altitudes where Joule heating would be expected to occur. An analysis of atmospheric response time to this heat shows time delays are apparently independent of altitude but are strongly dependent upon geomagnetic latitude.

  14. Factors Associated With Heat Strain Among Workers at an Aluminum Smelter in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Bich N.; Dowell, Chad H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of heat strain and factors associated with heat strain among workers at an aluminum smelter in Texas. Methods Continuous core body temperature (Tc), heart rate, and pre- and postshift serum electrolytes, and urine specific gravity were measured, and symptom questionnaires were administered. Results Most participants (54%) had 1 or more signs of heat strain. Unacclimatized participants were significantly more likely to exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists–recommended Tc than acclimatized participants (88% vs 20%; P < 0.01). Participants who exceeded the Tc for their acclimatization status and/or exceeded the recommended sustained peak HR had a significantly lower body mass index than those who did not (27.6 vs 31.8 and 28.4 vs 32.4, respectively; P = 0.01). Conclusions Employees and management need to strictly adhere to a heat stress management program to minimize heat stress and strain. PMID:24458134

  15. Factors associated with heat strain among workers at an aluminum smelter in Texas.

    PubMed

    Dang, Bich N; Dowell, Chad H

    2014-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of heat strain and factors associated with heat strain among workers at an aluminum smelter in Texas. Continuous core body temperature (T(c)), heart rate, and pre- and postshift serum electrolytes, and urine specific gravity were measured, and symptom questionnaires were administered. Most participants (54%) had 1 or more signs of heat strain. Unacclimatized participants were significantly more likely to exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists-recommended T(c) than acclimatized participants (88% vs 20%; P < 0.01). Participants who exceeded the T(c) for their acclimatization status and/or exceeded the recommended sustained peak HR had a significantly lower body mass index than those who did not (27.6 vs 31.8 and 28.4 vs 32.4, respectively; P = 0.01). Employees and management need to strictly adhere to a heat stress management program to minimize heat stress and strain.

  16. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980–2010

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Richard A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980–2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat’s intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45–64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks. PMID:25956805

  17. Association between behavioural factors and BMI-for-age among early adolescents in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Woon, Fui Chee; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between behavioural factors and BMI-for-age among early adolescents (10-11 years old) in Hulu Langat district, Selangor. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 333 primary school students. Body weight and height of the students were measured and their BMI-for-age was calculated. Eating behaviours, energy intake, energy expenditure, physical activity, and screen time were assessed using the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire and a 2-day dietary and physical activity recall, respectively. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression analysis. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (28.2%) was about twice the prevalence of thinness (11.1%). The mean energy intake and energy expenditure of the students was 1772±441kcal/day and 1705±331kcal/day, respectively. Three in five of the students (60.1%) skipped at least one meal and 98.2% snacked between meals daily. A majority of them (55.3%) were sedentary. Low energy intake (p<0.05) and low energy expenditure (p<0.05) were associated with high BMI-for-age. Energy expenditure (β=-0.033) and energy intake (β=-0.090) significantly explained 65.1% of the variances in BMI-for-age (F=119.170, p<0.05). These findings suggested that promoting healthy eating and active lifestyle should be targeted in the prevention and management of obesity among early adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with flea infestation among the different rodent species in Mbulu and Karatu districts, northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Haule, Martin; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Matee, Mecky I; Kilonzo, Bukheti S; Hang'ombe, Bernard M

    2013-07-01

    Flea infection with the bacterium, Yersinia pestis is acquired from reservoirs which include several rodents and other small mammals. In areas that are endemic of plague, reservoirs of Y. pestis and various flea vectors are responsible for perpetuating existence of the disease. The objective of this cross sectional study was to investigate the magnitude and factors associated with flea infestation among different rodent species of northern Tanzania, where outbreaks of plague have been recently reported. House rodents were trapped with box traps, while field and forest rodents were trapped with Sherman live traps. Fleas were removed from the rodents by using shoe-shining brush and were identified to genus level. Among the captured rodents, Rattus rattus (26.5%), Lophuromys flavopunctatus (16.5%), Praomys delectorum (16.2%) and Mastomys natalensis (32.3%) were most abundant rodent species, accounting for 91% of all species. Altogether, 805 fleas belonging to nine species were collected from 61% of the captured rodents. The most common fleas were Xenopsylla spp.; Dinopsyllus spp and Ctenophthalmus spp. Fleas were found to be highly abundant in M. natalensis, R. rattus, P. delectorum and L .flavopunctatus. Most of rodents were heavily infested with various flea species. These flea species probably play an important role in the transmission of plague in these two districts. We conclude that rodent species was the most important risk factor associating with flea infestation among the rodent population. Therefore, measures for control and prevention of plague in this area should particularly target rodents associated with high intensity of flea infestation.

  19. Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-01-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003–2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007–2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. PMID:21776219

  20. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at Olkalou District Hospital, Central Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muchemi, Onesmus Maina; Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-two percent of Low Birth Weight(LBW) infants are born in developing countries, 70% in Asia and 22% in Africa. WHO and UNICEF estimate LBW in Kenya as11% and 6%by 2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. The same survey estimated LBW to be 5.5% in Central Province, Kenya. Data in Olkalou hospital indicated that prevalence of LBW was high. However, factors giving rise to the problem remained unknown. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital. LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g. We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 women were randomly selected from 500mothers. Data was managed using Epi Info 3.3.2. Results The prevalence of LBW was 12.3% (n=40). The mean age of mothers was 25.6±6.2 years. Mean birth weight was 2928±533 grams. There were 51.1% (n=165) male neonates and 48.9% (n=158) females. The following factors were significantly associated with LBW:LBW delivery in a previous birth (OR=4.7, 95%C.I.=1.53-14.24), premature rapture of membranes (OR=2.95, 95%C.I.=1.14-7.62), premature births (OR=3.65, 95%C.I.=1.31-10.38), and female newborn (OR=2.32, 95%C.I.=1.15-4.70). On logistic regression only delivery of LBW baby in a previous birth (OR=5.07, 95%C.I.=1.59-16.21) and female infant (OR=3.37, 95%C.I.=1.14-10.00)were independently associated with LBW. Conclusion Prevalence of LBW in the hospital was higher than national estimates. Female infant and LBW baby in a previous birth are independent factors. Local prevention efforts are necessary to mitigate the problem. Population-based study is necessary to provide accurate estimates in the area. PMID:26090056

  1. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at Olkalou District Hospital, Central Region, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muchemi, Onesmus Maina; Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of Low Birth Weight(LBW) infants are born in developing countries, 70% in Asia and 22% in Africa. WHO and UNICEF estimate LBW in Kenya as 11% and 6%by 2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. The same survey estimated LBW to be 5.5% in Central Province, Kenya. Data in Olkalou hospital indicated that prevalence of LBW was high. However, factors giving rise to the problem remained unknown. A cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital. LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500 g. We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 women were randomly selected from 500 mothers. Data was managed using Epi Info 3.3.2. The prevalence of LBW was 12.3% (n = 40). The mean age of mothers was 25.6 ± 6.2 years. Mean birth weight was 2928 ± 533 grams. There were 51.1% (n = 165) male neonates and 48.9% (n = 158) females. The following factors were significantly associated with LBW:LBW delivery in a previous birth (OR = 4.7, 95%C.I. = 1.53-14.24), premature rapture of membranes (OR = 2.95, 95%C.I. = 1.14-7.62), premature births (OR=3.65, 95%C.I. = 1.31-10.38), and female newborn (OR = 2.32, 95%C.I. = 1.15-4.70). On logistic regression only delivery of LBW baby in a previous birth (OR = 5.07, 95%C.I. = 1.59-16.21) and female infant (OR = 3.37, 95%C.I. = 1.14-10.00)were independently associated with LBW. Prevalence of LBW in the hospital was higher than national estimates. Female infant and LBW baby in a previous birth are independent factors. Local prevention efforts are necessary to mitigate the problem. Population-based study is necessary to provide accurate estimates in the area.

  2. Visceral Leishmaniasis Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Saran District of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Diana; Dixon, Kandice; Garlapati, Rajesh; Gendernalik, Alex; Poché, David; Poché, Richard

    2013-01-01

    India is one of three countries that account for an estimated 300,000 of 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurring annually. Bihar State is the most affected area of India, with more than 90% of the cases. Surveys were conducted in two villages within the Saran district of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011 to assess risk factors associated with VL. Forty-five cases were identified, and individuals were given an oral survey. The results indicated that men contracted the disease more than women (58%), and cases over the age of 21 years accounted for 42% of the total VL cases. April to June showed the highest number of new cases. Of 135 households surveyed for sleeping conditions, 95% reported sleeping outside, and 98% slept in beds. Proximity to VL cases was the greatest risk factor (cluster 1 relative risk = 11.89 and cluster 2 relative risk = 138.34). The VL case clustering observed in this study can be incorporated in disease prevention strategies to more efficiently and effectively target VL control efforts. PMID:23382167

  3. The association of IL-8-251T/A polymorphism with complicated malaria in Karbi Anglong district of Assam.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Anusree; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Baruah, Shashi

    2014-02-01

    Amongst host genetic factors, cytokine gene polymorphism can be anticipated to be an important factor as qualitative, quantitative and time of secretion play an important role in disease outcome. We have investigated association of cytokine promoter SNPs with risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and disease severity in a case control study in malaria endemic Karbi Anglong district of Assam, India. Frequency of IL-8-251T/A (p=0.03 and p=0.01) and TGF-β1-509C/T (p=0.02 and p=0.03) was higher in malaria in comparison to control participants and non-malarial fever controls. Interestingly, a higher frequency of mutant allele of IL-10-819T/C was observed in non-malarial fever controls compared to malaria thus suggesting its role as a distinguishing marker of the two disease groups. Higher IL-8 expression and increased frequency of IL-8-251T/A in complicated malaria (p=0.002) was reported indicating its role in susceptibility to complicated malaria. In conclusion, our study suggests the role of mutant genotype of IL-8-251T/A as a marker of complicated malaria in our population. Surprisingly, decreased expression of TGF-β1 in uncomplicated malaria even in presence of high expressing mutant genotype was observed and needs to be investigated in context of the pool of activated cells producing the cytokine.

  4. Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers: findings of the Thai Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kjellstrom, Tord; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to work very fast. Nearly 20% of workers experienced occupational heat stress which strongly and significantly associated with occupational injury (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.87-2.42 for males and 1.89, 95%CI 1.64-2.18 for females). This study provides evidence connecting heat stress and occupational injury in tropical Thailand and also identifies several factors that increase heat exposure. The findings will be useful for policy makers to consider work-related heat stress problems in tropical Thailand and to develop an occupational health and safety program which is urgently needed given the looming threat of global warming.

  5. The chloroplast-localized small heat shock protein Hsp21 associates with the thylakoid membranes in heat-stressed plants.

    PubMed

    Bernfur, Katja; Rutsdottir, Gudrun; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) chaperones are crucial for cell survival and can prevent aggregation of client proteins that partially unfold under destabilizing conditions. Most investigations on the chaperone activity of sHsps are based on a limited set of thermosensitive model substrate client proteins since the endogenous targets are often not known. There is a high diversity among sHsps with a single conserved β-sandwich fold domain defining the family, the α-crystallin domain, whereas the N-terminal and C-terminal regions are highly variable in length and sequence among various sHsps and conserved only within orthologues. The endogenous targets are probably also varying among various sHsps, cellular compartments, cell type and organism. Here we have investigated Hsp21, a non-metazoan sHsp expressed in the chloroplasts in green plants which experience huge environmental fluctuations not least in temperature. We describe how Hsp21 can also interact with the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, both when isolated thylakoid membranes are incubated with Hsp21 protein and when plants are heat-stressed. The amount of Hsp21 associated with the thylakoid membranes was precisely determined by quantitative mass spectrometry after metabolic (15) N-isotope labeling of either recombinantly expressed and purified Hsp21 protein or intact Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We found that Hsp21 is among few proteins that become associated with the thylakoid membranes in heat-stressed plants, and that approximately two thirds of the pool of chloroplast Hsp21 is affected. We conclude that for a complete picture of the role of sHsps in plant stress resistance also their association with the membranes should be considered. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  6. [Drug expenditure in primary care: associated variables and allocation of drug budgets according to health district].

    PubMed

    García-Sempere, A; Peiró, S

    2001-01-01

    Identify factors explaining variability in prescribing costs after reviewing ecological data related to costs and socio-demographic characteristics of the health care zones in the autonomous region of Valencia, and explore the usefulness of using the model to set prescribing budgets in basic healthcare zones. An ecological analysis of the value socio-demographic characteristics and use of healthcare services to explain prescribing costs in 1997. Development of a prediction model based on multiple linear regression in data for prescribing costs in 1997 and validation in data for 1998. Factors that correlated positively with prescribing costs were the percentage of inhabitants over the age of 80, the death rate, the percentage of inhabitants with only primary education or less, the percentage of inhabitants between the ages of 65 and 79 and the distance from the capital city. A multivariate model including the death rate, the percentage of inhabitants 80 years of age and older, the number of cars per 100 inhabitants and number of visits per inhabitant accounted for 44.5% of the variations in prescribing costs in 1997 and 32% in 1998. Socio-demographic factors and certain variables associated with health care utilization can be applied, within certain limitations, to set prescribing budgets in basic healthcare zones.

  7. Factors associated with severe malaria among children below ten years in Mutasa and Nyanga districts, Zimbabwe, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Mutsigiri-Murewanhema, Faith; Mafaune, Patron Trish; Shambira, Gerald; Juru, Tsitsi; Bangure, Donewell; Mungati, More; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2017-01-01

    Severe malaria is a rare life threatening illness. Only a small proportion of patients with clinical malaria progress to this medical emergency. On reviewing 61 malaria death investigation forms submitted to the provincial office in 2014, 22(36%) were children below ten years who succumbed to severe malaria. Mutasa and Nyanga Districts reported 73% of these deaths. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with severe malaria so as to come up with evidence based interventions to prevent severe malaria and associated mortality. A 1:2 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was defined as a child 10 years and below, who was admitted at Hauna (Mutasa) or Nyanga District Hospitals between September 2014 and May 2015 with a primary diagnosis of severe malaria. Controls were children of similar age with uncomplicated malaria. Permission to conduct the study was sought and granted by the Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe (Approval number B/874), Joint Research Ethics Committee, Health Studies Office and the Manicaland Directorate Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was sought from all caregivers of enrolled children. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to ascertain exposures. A total of 52 cases and 104 controls were enrolled into the study. The median age of cases was 4 years (Q1=3, Q3=9) and 6 years for controls (Q1=3, Q3=8). The Case Fatality Rate among cases was 28.8%. The independent risk factors for severe malaria were; distance >10km to the nearest health facility [Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)=14.35, 95% CI=1.30, 158.81], duration of symptoms before seeking medical care >2 days [aOR=9.03, 95% CI=2.21, 36.93], having comorbidities [aOR=5.38, 95% CI=1.90, 15.19], staying in a house under construction [aOR=4.51, 95%CI=1.80, 11.32] and duration of illness before receiving antimalarial medicines >24 hours [aOR=3.82, 95% CI=1.44, 10.12]. Owning at least one ITN in the household [aOR=0.32, 95% CI=0.11, 0.95] and

  8. Vitamin D, Parathormone and Associated Minerals among Students in Zagazig District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Badawy, Amal A; Aboserea, Mona M; El Seifi, Omnia S; Mortada, Eman M; Bakry, Huny M; Waly, Eman H; Raafat, Nermin; Etewa, Rasha L; El Badawy, Samir A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors among students of age 13-18 years. Community-based cross sectional survey. Two schools were selected using multistage sampling techniques. Cluster sampling of all enrolled students (550 students). Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD), parathyroid hormone and calcium. Data was collected about nutritional intake, physical activity and lifestyle variables that are potential risk factors for hypovitaminosis D. Hypovitaminosis D prevalence was 23.8%, of which 5.3% was deficiency and 18.5% insufficiency. Serum 25 OHD levels inversely correlated with parathyroid hormone levels (r=-0.206, P= 0.00). Low calcium and ionized calcium levels were 40.6% and 45.9%, respectively, and significantly correlated with vitamin D levels. Female students have significantly higher levels of hypovitaminosis D compared to males (29.3% to 15.0%, respectively) and the level of vitamin D significantly improved with increased age. Exposure to sun had a significant effect on vitamin D levels, and physical activity, soft drink consumption and smoking did not. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that age, sun exposure and Ca level were the only significant independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D among the studied group. Our findings revealed that hypovitaminosis D is a prevalent health problem in adolescents, especially girls, who were at higher risk, and increased age and sun exposure improved vitamin D status among the studied group. There is therefore a need to consider vitamin D supplementation for school children together with increased awareness through a health education program.

  9. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, p<0.001). When sap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  10. The Association between Cariogenic Factors and the Occurrence of Early Childhood Caries in Children from Salem District of India.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Arokiaraj; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Various aetiological factors for Early Childhood Caries (ECC) have been suggested in literature, but the role of each factor has been disputed in various studies. To evaluate the association between ECC and its related factors in children between three to six years of age, from rural, semi-urban and urban schools in the district of Salem (India). The study consisted of children between three to six years of age, selected randomly from schools in semi-urban, urban and rural schools at Salem. Questionnaire (comprising of the factors associated with ECC) and parental consent forms were sent to each of the parents of the school children. Filled questionnaires and parental consent forms were obtained from a total of 2771 children, out of which 1771 were boys and 1000 were girls. Clinical examination for ECC was carried out according to the WHO criteria, by a single examiner and an assistant to eliminate inter-examiner variability. Statistical analysis was carried out using the student's independent t-test and ANOVA (one way analysis of variance). Out of a total of 2771 children examined, only 443 (315 boys and 128 girls) children were found to have ECC (16 %). Significant correlations were found between the occurrence of ECC and various factors like age of parents, number of siblings, on-demand breast feeding and bottle feeding habits and sweetened pacifier use. However, factors such as age and gender of the child, type of birth and duration of pregnancy, had no significant correlation with the occurrence of ECC. The need for educating parents on the ill effects of improper breast feeding and bottle feeding habits is important.

  11. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves in the South Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Richter, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (> 2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (> 1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  12. Risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along the Uganda-Kenya border.

    PubMed

    Nantima, Noelina; Ocaido, Michael; Ouma, Emily; Davies, Jocelyn; Dione, Michel; Okoth, Edward; Mugisha, Anthony; Bishop, Richard

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along Kenya-Uganda border. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 642 randomly selected pig households in the study area. The study showed that the major risk factors that influenced ASF occurrence were purchase of pigs in the previous year (p < 0.000) and feeding of pigs with swill (p < 0.024). By employing cluster analysis, three clusters of pig production types were identified based on production characteristics that were found to differ significantly between districts. The most vulnerable cluster to ASF was households with the highest reported number of ASF outbreaks and composed of those that practiced free range at least some of the time. The majority of the households in this cluster were from Busia district in Uganda. On the other hand, the least vulnerable cluster to ASF composed of households that had the least number of pig purchases, minimal swill feeding, and less treatment for internal and external parasites. The largest proportion of households in this cluster was from Busia district Kenya. The study recommended the need to sensitize farmers to adopt proper biosecurity practices such as total confinement of pigs, treatment of swill, isolation of newly purchased pigs for at least 2 weeks, and provision of incentives for farmers to report suspected outbreaks to authorities and rapid confirmation of outbreaks.

  13. Evaluation of the District of Columbia Energy Office Residential Conservation Assistance Program for Natural Gas-Heated Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, Lance Neil; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2007-03-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), with assistance from the District of Columbia Energy Office (DCEO) performed an evaluation of part of the DCEO Residential Conservation Assistance Program (RCAP). The primary objective of the evaluation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the DCEO weatherization program. Because Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds are used primarily for weatherization of single-family homes and because evaluating the performance of multi-family residences would be more complex than the project budget would support, ORNL and DCEO focused the study on gas-heated single-family homes. DCEO provided treatment information and arranged for the gas utility to provide billing data for 100 treatment houses and 434 control houses. The Princeton Scorkeeping Method (PRISM) software package was used to normalize energy use for standard weather conditions. The houses of the initial treatment group of 100 houses received over 450 measures costing a little over $180,000, including labor and materials. The average cost per house was $1,811 and the median cost per house was $1,674. Window replacement was the most common measure and accounted for about 35% of total expenditures. Ceiling and floor insulation was installed in 61 houses and accounts for almost 22% of the expenditures. Twenty-seven houses received replacement doors at an average cost of $620 per house. Eight houses received furnace or boiler replacements at an average cost of about $3,000 per house. The control-adjusted average measured savings are about 20 therms/year. The 95% confidence interval is approximately +20 to +60 therms/year. The average pre-weatherization energy consumption of the houses was about 1,100 therm/year. Consequently, the adjusted average savings is approximately 2% ({+-}4%)-not significantly different than zero. Most RCAP expenditures appear to go to repairs. While some repairs may have energy benefits, measures

  14. Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating.

    PubMed

    Mathys, Werner; Stanke, Juliane; Harmuth, Margarita; Junge-Mathys, Elisabeth

    2008-03-01

    A total of 452 samples from hot water systems of randomly selected single family residences in the suburbs of two German cities were analysed for the occurrence of Legionella. Technical data were documented using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate possible factors promoting the growth of the bacterium in these small plumbing systems. All houses were supplied with treated groundwater from public water works. Drinking water quality was within the limits specified in the German regulations for drinking water and the water was not chlorinated. The results showed that plumbing systems in private houses that provided hot water from instantaneous water heaters were free of Legionella compared with a prevalence of 12% in houses with storage tanks and recirculating hot water where maximum counts of Legionella reached 100,000 CFU/100ml. The presence of L. pneumophila accounted for 93.9% of all Legionella positive specimens of which 71.8% belonged to serogroup 1. The volume of the storage tank, interrupting circulation for several hours daily and intermittently raising hot water temperatures to >60 degrees C had no influence on Legionella counts. Plumbing systems with copper pipes were more frequently contaminated than those made of synthetic materials or galvanized steel. An inhibitory effect due to copper was not present. Newly constructed systems (<2 years) were not colonized. The type of hot water preparation had a marked influence. More than 50% of all houses using district heating systems were colonized by Legionella. Their significantly lower hot water temperature is thought to be the key factor leading to intensified growth of Legionella. Although hot water systems using solar energy to supplement conventional hot water supplies operate at temperatures 3 degrees C lower than conventional systems, this technique does not seem to promote proliferation of the bacterium. Our data show convincingly that the temperature of the hot water is probably the most important

  15. Aberrant TRPV1 expression in heat hyperalgesia associated with trigeminal neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Urano, Hiroko; Ara, Toshiaki; Fujinami, Yoshiaki; Hiraoka, B Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    Trigeminal neuropathic pain is a facial pain syndrome associated with trigeminal nerve injury. However, the mechanism of trigeminal neuropathic pain is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in heat hyperalgesia in a trigeminal neuropathic pain model. We evaluated nociceptive responses to mechanical and heat stimuli using a partial infraorbital nerve ligation (pIONL) model. Withdrawal responses to mechanical and heat stimuli to vibrissal pads (VP) were assessed using von Frey filaments and a thermal stimulator equipped with a heat probe, respectively. Changes in withdrawal responses were measured after subcutaneous injection of the TRP channel antagonist capsazepine. In addition, the expression of TRPV1 in the trigeminal ganglia was examined. Mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia were observed in VP by pIONL. Capsazepine suppressed heat hyperalgesia but not mechanical allodynia. The number of TRPV1-positive neurons in the trigeminal ganglia was significantly increased in the large-diameter-cell group. These results suggest that TRPV1 plays an important role in the heat hyperalgesia observed in the pIONL model.

  16. Mechanical Alterations Associated with Repeated Treadmill Sprinting under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Racinais, Sébastien; Millet, Grégoire P.; Périard, Julien D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Examine the mechanical alterations associated with repeated treadmill sprinting performed in HOT (38°C) and CON (25°C) conditions. Methods Eleven recreationally active males performed a 30-min warm-up followed by three sets of five 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery and 3-min between sets in each environment. Constant-velocity running for 1-min at 10 and 20 km.h-1 was also performed prior to and following sprinting. Results Mean skin (37.2±0.7 vs. 32.7±0.8°C; P<0.001) and core (38.9±0.2 vs. 38.8±0.3°C; P<0.05) temperatures, together with thermal comfort (P<0.001) were higher following repeated sprinting in HOT vs. CON. Step frequency and vertical stiffness were lower (-2.6±1.6% and -5.5±5.5%; both P<0.001) and contact time (+3.2±2.4%; P<0.01) higher in HOT for the mean of sets 1–3 compared to CON. Running distance per sprint decreased from set 1 to 3 (-7.0±6.4%; P<0.001), with a tendency for shorter distance covered in HOT vs. CON (-2.7±3.4%; P = 0.06). Mean vertical (-2.6±5.5%; P<0.01), horizontal (-9.1±4.4%; P<0.001) and resultant ground reaction forces (-3.0±2.8%; P<0.01) along with vertical stiffness (-12.9±2.3%; P<0.001) and leg stiffness (-8.4±2.7%; P<0.01) decreased from set 1 to 3, independently of conditions. Propulsive power decreased from set 1 to 3 (-16.9±2.4%; P<0.001), with lower propulsive power values in set 2 (-6.6%; P<0.05) in HOT vs. CON. No changes in constant-velocity running patterns occurred between conditions, or from pre-to-post repeated-sprint exercise. Conclusions Thermal strain alters step frequency and vertical stiffness during repeated sprinting; however without exacerbating mechanical alterations. The absence of changes in constant-velocity running patterns suggests a strong link between fatigue-induced velocity decrements during sprinting and mechanical alterations. PMID:28146582

  17. Climate variability of heat waves and their associated diurnal temperature range variations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueh, M.-T.; Lin, C.-Y.; Chuang, Y.-J.; Sheng, Y.-F.; Chien, Y.-Y.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates heat waves in Taiwan and their maintenance mechanism, based upon observations and dynamically downscaled simulations. A 95th percentile threshold is used for identifying hot extremes over a period of consecutive days. Heat waves are forecast to become more severe in the future projection. Daily minimum temperatures are generally high and diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) are relatively large. The daily minimum temperature serves as the primary control in the variation in DTR during heat waves. An apparent increase in the daily minimum temperature suggests elevated heat stress at nighttime during future heat waves. Heat waves in Taiwan are associated with abnormal warming and drying atmospheric conditions under the control of an enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high. The surrounding waters serve as a vast moisture source to suppress the drying magnitude in the surface layer as the temperature rises, thereby ensuring a high humidity level during the hot spell. The subsidence and adiabatic warming above can trap the warm and humid air in the surface layer, leading to positive feedback to the abnormally hot surface condition. The associated warming and drying atmospheric conditions cover certain spatial extents, suggesting that the extreme situation identified here is not confined to just an island-wide hot spell; the abnormal hot weather can take place across a broad geographical area.

  18. Candidate genes and molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in colonial Bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Belanger, Faith C; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Elevated temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting the growth of cool-season grasses during the summer months. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variation in the expression patterns of selected genes involved in several major metabolic pathways regulating heat tolerance for two genotypes contrasting in heat tolerance to confirm their status as potential candidate genes, and to identify PCR-based markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance in a colonial (Agrostis capillaris L.) x creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) hybrid backcross population. Plants were subjected to heat stress in controlled-environmental growth chambers for phenotypic evaluation and determination of genetic variation in candidate gene expression. Molecular markers were developed for genes involved in protein degradation (cysteine protease), antioxidant defense (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase), energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), cell expansion (expansin), and stress protection (heat shock proteins HSP26, HSP70, and HSP101). Kruskal-Wallis analysis, a commonly used non-parametric test used to compare population individuals with or without the gene marker, found the physiological traits of chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, normalized difference vegetative index, and turf quality were associated with all candidate gene markers with the exception of HSP101. Differential gene expression was frequently found for the tested candidate genes. The development of candidate gene markers for important heat tolerance genes may allow for the development of new cultivars with increased abiotic stress tolerance using marker-assisted selection.

  19. Candidate genes and molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in colonial Bentgrass

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, David; Belanger, Faith C.; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Elevated temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting the growth of cool-season grasses during the summer months. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variation in the expression patterns of selected genes involved in several major metabolic pathways regulating heat tolerance for two genotypes contrasting in heat tolerance to confirm their status as potential candidate genes, and to identify PCR-based markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance in a colonial (Agrostis capillaris L.) x creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) hybrid backcross population. Plants were subjected to heat stress in controlled-environmental growth chambers for phenotypic evaluation and determination of genetic variation in candidate gene expression. Molecular markers were developed for genes involved in protein degradation (cysteine protease), antioxidant defense (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase), energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), cell expansion (expansin), and stress protection (heat shock proteins HSP26, HSP70, and HSP101). Kruskal-Wallis analysis, a commonly used non-parametric test used to compare population individuals with or without the gene marker, found the physiological traits of chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, normalized difference vegetative index, and turf quality were associated with all candidate gene markers with the exception of HSP101. Differential gene expression was frequently found for the tested candidate genes. The development of candidate gene markers for important heat tolerance genes may allow for the development of new cultivars with increased abiotic stress tolerance using marker-assisted selection. PMID:28187136

  20. Association of heat index and patient volume at a mass gathering event.

    PubMed

    Perron, Andrew D; Brady, William J; Custalow, Catherine B; Johnson, David M

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, a department of emergency medicine was asked to provide medical care at a football stadium with a capacity of 61,625. Over four seasons, the department's experience has been that the number of patients seen during a game correlates closely with game-time heat and humidity (heat index). To determine how closely the heat index is associated with the number of patients who will require care at a mass gathering event. This was a retrospective review of all patient care from 1999 to 2003 at a Division I college football stadium located in the southeastern United States. All patrons seen in two emergency care centers (ECCs) were included. To control for stadium attendance, the Pearson product-moment correlation (PPMC) was calculated for each game. This statistical tool determines whether there is a positive correlation between heat index and ratio of number of patients cared for per 10,000 patrons. A total of 20 games occurred, and the heat index ranged from 33 to 92. Number of patients varied from 15 to 74, and stadium attendance ranged from 53,371 to 61,625. The PPMC was calculated as 0.607, which indicates a strong positive correlation between heat index and patient volume (p < 0.005). Linear modeling predicts that for every 10-degree increase in the heat index, three more patients per 10,000 patrons will require care. In this retrospective study, the heat index was strongly associated with the volume of patients who would be seen at a mass gathering event.

  1. Ion acceleration and heating by kinetic Alfvén waves associated with magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ji; Lin, Yu; Johnson, Jay R.; Wang, Zheng-Xiong; Wang, Xueyi

    2017-10-01

    Our previous study on the generation and signatures of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) associated with magnetic reconnection in a current sheet revealed that KAWs are a common feature during reconnection [Liang et al. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 121, 6526 (2016)]. In this paper, ion acceleration and heating by the KAWs generated during magnetic reconnection are investigated with a three-dimensional (3-D) hybrid model. It is found that in the outflow region, a fraction of inflow ions are accelerated by the KAWs generated in the leading bulge region of reconnection, and their parallel velocities gradually increase up to slightly super-Alfvénic. As a result of wave-particle interactions, an accelerated ion beam forms in the direction of the anti-parallel magnetic field, in addition to the core ion population, leading to the development of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions, which include a trapped population with parallel velocities consistent with the wave speed. The ions are heated in both parallel and perpendicular directions. In the parallel direction, the heating results from nonlinear Landau resonance of trapped ions. In the perpendicular direction, however, evidence of stochastic heating by the KAWs is found during the acceleration stage, with an increase of magnetic moment μ. The coherence in the perpendicular ion temperature T⊥ and the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields of KAWs also provides evidence for perpendicular heating by KAWs. The parallel and perpendicular heating of the accelerated beam occur simultaneously, leading to the development of temperature anisotropy with T⊥>T∥ . The heating rate agrees with the damping rate of the KAWs, and the heating is dominated by the accelerated ion beam. In the later stage, with the increase of the fraction of the accelerated ions, interaction between the accelerated beam and the core population also contributes to the ion heating, ultimately leading to overlap of the beams and an overall

  2. Ion acceleration and heating by kinetic Alfvén waves associated with magnetic reconnection

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Ji; Lin, Yu; Johnson, Jay R.; ...

    2017-09-19

    In a previous study on the generation and signatures of kinetic Alfv en waves (KAWs) associated with magnetic reconnection in a current sheet revealed that KAWs are a common feature during reconnection [Liang et al. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 121, 6526 (2016)]. In this paper, ion acceleration and heating by the KAWs generated during magnetic reconnection are investigated with a three-dimensional (3-D) hybrid model. It is found that in the outflow region, a fraction of inflow ions are accelerated by the KAWs generated in the leading bulge region of reconnection, and their parallel velocities gradually increase up to slightly super-Alfv enic. As a result of waveparticle interactions, an accelerated ion beam forms in the direction of the anti-parallel magnetic field, in addition to the core ion population, leading to the development of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions, which include a trapped population with parallel velocities consistent with the wave speed. We then heat ions in both parallel and perpendicular directions. In the parallel direction, the heating results from nonlinear Landau resonance of trapped ions. In the perpendicular direction, however, evidence of stochastic heating by the KAWs is found during the acceleration stage, with an increase of magnetic moment μ. The coherence in the Tmore » $$\\perp$$ ion temperature and the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields of KAWs also provides evidence for perpendicular heating by KAWs. The parallel and perpendicular heating of the accelerated beam occur simultaneously, leading to the development of temperature anisotropy with the perpendicular temperature T$$\\perp$$>T$$\\parallel$$ temperature. The heating rate agrees with the damping rate of the KAWs, and the heating is dominated by the accelerated ion beam. In the later stage, with the increase of the fraction of the accelerated ions, interaction between the accelerated beam and the core population also contributes to the ion heating

  3. Observations and Numerical Models of Solar Coronal Heating Associated with Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; De Moortel, I.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; McIntosh, S. W.

    2017-08-01

    Spicules have been proposed as significant contributors to the mass and energy balance of the corona. While previous observations have provided a glimpse of short-lived transient brightenings in the corona that are associated with spicules, these observations have been contested and are the subject of a vigorous debate both on the modeling and the observational side. Therefore, it remains unclear whether plasma is heated to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. We use high-resolution observations of the chromosphere and transition region (TR) with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to show evidence of the formation of coronal structures associated with spicular mass ejections and heating of plasma to TR and coronal temperatures. Our observations suggest that a significant fraction of the highly dynamic loop fan environment associated with plage regions may be the result of the formation of such new coronal strands, a process that previously had been interpreted as the propagation of transient propagating coronal disturbances. Our observations are supported by 2.5D radiative MHD simulations that show heating to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. Our results suggest that heating and strong flows play an important role in maintaining the substructure of loop fans, in addition to the waves that permeate this low coronal environment.

  4. Challenges associated with projecting urbanization-induced heat-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Hondula, David M; Georgescu, Matei; Balling, Robert C

    2014-08-15

    Maricopa County, Arizona, anchor to the fastest growing megapolitan area in the United States, is located in a hot desert climate where extreme temperatures are associated with elevated risk of mortality. Continued urbanization in the region will impact atmospheric temperatures and, as a result, potentially affect human health. We aimed to quantify the number of excess deaths attributable to heat in Maricopa County based on three future urbanization and adaptation scenarios and multiple exposure variables. Two scenarios (low and high growth projections) represent the maximum possible uncertainty range associated with urbanization in central Arizona, and a third represents the adaptation of high-albedo cool roof technology. Using a Poisson regression model, we related temperature to mortality using data spanning 1983-2007. Regional climate model simulations based on 2050-projected urbanization scenarios for Maricopa County generated distributions of temperature change, and from these predicted changes future excess heat-related mortality was estimated. Subject to urbanization scenario and exposure variable utilized, projections of heat-related mortality ranged from a decrease of 46 deaths per year (-95%) to an increase of 339 deaths per year (+359%). Projections based on minimum temperature showed the greatest increase for all expansion and adaptation scenarios and were substantially higher than those for daily mean temperature. Projections based on maximum temperature were largely associated with declining mortality. Low-growth and adaptation scenarios led to the smallest increase in predicted heat-related mortality based on mean temperature projections. Use of only one exposure variable to project future heat-related deaths may therefore be misrepresentative in terms of direction of change and magnitude of effects. Because urbanization-induced impacts can vary across the diurnal cycle, projections of heat-related health outcomes that do not consider place

  5. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephanie; Everett Jones, Sherry

    2016-12-13

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counties with high predicted average indoor radon, 42.4% had policies for radon testing and 37.5% had policies for radon-resistant new construction practices. These findings suggest a critical need for improved awareness among policy makers regarding potential radon exposure for both students and school staff.

  6. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Stephanie; Everett Jones, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counties with high predicted average indoor radon, 42.4% had policies for radon testing and 37.5% had policies for radon-resistant new construction practices. These findings suggest a critical need for improved awareness among policy makers regarding potential radon exposure for both students and school staff. PMID:27983613

  7. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health

  8. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Yan Jun; Zhang, Yong Hui; Yan, Qing Hua; Song, Xiu Ling; Xie, Hui Yan; Luo, Yuan; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Hua Liang; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-10-02

    In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4-7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to

  9. Ion/electron heating associated with low-frequency turbulence (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorland, W.; Tatsuno, T.; Numata, R.; Howes, G.; Barnes, M.

    2010-12-01

    The solar wind is an extraordinarily well-diagnosed turbulent plasma. The range of processes and parameters found in the solar is very broad. No single physical model that is tractable (i.e., currently computable) describes the full range of phenomena of interest. For turbulence dynamics that are slow compared to the ion cyclotron frequency, gyrokinetic theory and simulations are powerful tools that can be used to predict quantities such as power spectra, ion and electron heating rates, and minor ion heating rates. We present a new, fully spectral gyrokinetic simulation code (AstroGKS) together with predictions for these quantities across a range of plasma parameters. We focus on the role of the free energy cascade and the associated generation of structure in the velocity-space distribution function, which is closely associated with the turbulent heating of each plasma species.

  10. The changing burden of malaria and association with vector control interventions in Zambia using district-level surveillance data, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria control was strengthened in Zambia over the past decade. The two primary interventions for vector control are indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Using passive malaria surveillance data collected from 2006 to 2011 through the Zambian District Health Information System, the associations between increased coverage with LLINs and IRS and the burden of malaria in Zambia were evaluated. Methods National passive malaria surveillance data from 2006 to 2011 were analysed. A district-level, random-effects model with Poisson regression was used to explore the association between malaria cases and coverage with LLINs and IRS. Malaria cases and LLINs and IRS coverage were mapped to visualize spatiotemporal variation in malaria for each year. Results From 2006–2011, 24.6 million LLINs were distributed and 6.4 million houses were sprayed with insecticide. Coverage with LLINs was not uniformly distributed over the study period and IRS was targeted to central and southern districts where malaria transmission was low. LLIN coverage was associated with a reduction in malaria cases, although an increase in the number of malaria cases was reported in some districts over the study period. A high burden of malaria persisted in north-eastern Zambia, whereas a reduction in the number of reported malaria cases was observed in western and southern Zambia. Conclusion Enhanced and targeted interventions in north-eastern Zambia where the burden of malaria remains high, as well as efforts to sustain low malaria transmission in the south-west, will be necessary for Zambia to achieve the national goal of being malaria free by 2030. PMID:24289177

  11. The changing burden of malaria and association with vector control interventions in Zambia using district-level surveillance data, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Chanda, Emmanuel; Haque, Ubydul; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Sikaala, Chadwick; Katebe-Sakala, Cecilia; Mukonka, Victor M; Norris, Douglas E; Smith, David L; Glass, Gregory E; Moss, William J

    2013-12-01

    Malaria control was strengthened in Zambia over the past decade. The two primary interventions for vector control are indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Using passive malaria surveillance data collected from 2006 to 2011 through the Zambian District Health Information System, the associations between increased coverage with LLINs and IRS and the burden of malaria in Zambia were evaluated. National passive malaria surveillance data from 2006 to 2011 were analysed. A district-level, random-effects model with Poisson regression was used to explore the association between malaria cases and coverage with LLINs and IRS. Malaria cases and LLINs and IRS coverage were mapped to visualize spatiotemporal variation in malaria for each year. From 2006-2011, 24.6 million LLINs were distributed and 6.4 million houses were sprayed with insecticide. Coverage with LLINs was not uniformly distributed over the study period and IRS was targeted to central and southern districts where malaria transmission was low. LLIN coverage was associated with a reduction in malaria cases, although an increase in the number of malaria cases was reported in some districts over the study period. A high burden of malaria persisted in north-eastern Zambia, whereas a reduction in the number of reported malaria cases was observed in western and southern Zambia. Enhanced and targeted interventions in north-eastern Zambia where the burden of malaria remains high, as well as efforts to sustain low malaria transmission in the south-west, will be necessary for Zambia to achieve the national goal of being malaria free by 2030.

  12. Calving traits of crossbred Brahman Cows are Associated with Heat Shock Protein 70 Genetic Polymorphisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives were to: 1) identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in the promoter region of the bovine heat shock protein 70 gene, and 2) evaluate associations between Hsp70 SNP and calving rates of Brahman-influenced cows. Specific primers were designed for PCR amplification of a 539 b...

  13. A prolonged, community-wide cholera outbreak associated with drinking water contaminated by sewage in Kasese District, western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kwesiga, Benon; Pande, Gerald; Ario, Alex Riolexus; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Matovu, Joseph K B; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2017-07-18

    In May 2015, a cholera outbreak that had lasted 3 months and infected over 100 people was reported in Kasese District, Uganda, where multiple cholera outbreaks had occurred previously. We conducted an investigation to identify the mode of transmission to guide control measures. We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 February 2015 onwards in a Kasese resident. A confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba cultured from a stool sample. We reviewed medical records to find cases. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures among confirmed case-persons and asymptomatic controls, matched by village and age-group. We conducted environmental assessments. We tested water samples from the most affected area for total coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. We identified 183 suspected cases including 61 confirmed cases of Vibrio cholerae 01; serotype Inaba, with onset between February and July 2015. 2 case-persons died of cholera. The outbreak occurred in 80 villages and affected all age groups; the highest attack rate occurred in the 5-14 year age group (4.1/10,000). The outbreak started in Bwera Sub-County bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo and spread eastward through sustained community transmission. The first case-persons were involved in cross-border trading. The case-control study, which involved 49 confirmed cases and 201 controls, showed that 94% (46/49) of case-persons compared with 79% (160/201) of control-persons drank water without boiling or treatment (ORM-H=4.8, 95% CI: 1.3-18). Water collected from the two main sources, i.e., public pipes (consumed by 39% of case-persons and 38% of control-persons) or streams (consumed by 29% of case-persons and 24% control-persons) had high coliform counts, a marker of faecal contamination. Environmental assessment revealed evidence of open defecation along the streams. No food items were significantly associated with

  14. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C.; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S.; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.3, p<0.001). When sap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9–1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents’ knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission. PMID:26551202

  15. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zerdo, Zerihun; Yohanes, Tsegaye; Tariku, Befikadu

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1–28.2), 16.2% (12.7–20.1), and 1.0% (0.3–2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. PMID:26941997

  16. Associations between Grades and Physical Activity and Food Choices: Results from YRBS from a Large Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Beard, Jonathan; Young, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between television viewing time, physical activity level, food consumption patterns, and academic performance of adolescents in a large urban school district in the USA where health disparities are prevalent, particularly among minority residents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  17. Associations between Grades and Physical Activity and Food Choices: Results from YRBS from a Large Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Beard, Jonathan; Young, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between television viewing time, physical activity level, food consumption patterns, and academic performance of adolescents in a large urban school district in the USA where health disparities are prevalent, particularly among minority residents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  18. Association between heat stress and oxidative stress in poultry; mitochondrial dysfunction and dietary interventions with phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Akbarian, Abdollah; Michiels, Joris; Degroote, Jeroen; Majdeddin, Maryam; Golian, Abolghasem; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    reserves. Some phytochemicals, such as various types of flavonoids and related compounds, were shown to be beneficial in chronic heat-stressed poultry, but were less or not effective in non-heat-stressed counterparts. This supports the contention that antioxidant phytochemicals have potential under challenging conditions. Though substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the association between heat stress and oxidative stress, the means by which phytochemicals can alleviate oxidative stress have been sparsely explored.

  19. District heating and cooling. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, July 23, 1981, No. 39

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The energy-saving possibilities of district-heating-and-cooling systems as a way to reduce the 30% of US energy lost to waste heat suggests the need for more, not less, federal support. Experts in the domestic and international field testified on the appropriate federal role in providing financial and regulatory incentives. Witnesses from Minnesota described the state's legislation and pioneering efforts patterned on the Scandinavian experience. A representative of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) described joint DOE-HUD programs for small-scale systems and explained the institutional hurdles that discourage private-sector participation. A spokesman from the Office of Technology Assessment reviewed the capital-intensive aspects of cogeneration investments and the need for subsidies, but emphasized that cogeneration will be competitive in the 1990s regardless of subsidies. (DCK)

  20. Projected health impacts of heat events in Washington State associated with climate change.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael; Hom, Elizabeth; Fenske, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and duration of extreme-heat events and associated health outcomes. This study used data from the historical heat-health outcome relationship, and a unique prediction model, to estimate mortality for 2025 and 2045. For each one degree change in humidex above threshold, we find a corresponding 1.83% increase in mortality for all ages, all non-traumatic causes of death in King County, Washington. Mortality is projected to increase significantly in 2025 and 2045 for the 85 and older age group (2.3-8.0 and 4.0-22.3 times higher than baseline, respectively).

  1. Extraordinary heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl and associated large-scale conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; King, Andrew D.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Durre, Imke; Karoly, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually hot summer conditions occurred during the 1930s over the central United States and undoubtedly contributed to the severity of the Dust Bowl drought. We investigate local and large-scale conditions in association with the extraordinary heat and drought events, making use of novel datasets of observed climate extremes and climate reanalysis covering the past century. We show that the unprecedented summer heat during the Dust Bowl years was likely exacerbated by land-surface feedbacks associated with springtime precipitation deficits. The reanalysis results indicate that these deficits were associated with the coincidence of anomalously warm North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific surface waters and a shift in atmospheric pressure patterns leading to reduced flow of moist air into the central US. Thus, the combination of springtime ocean temperatures and atmospheric flow anomalies, leading to reduced precipitation, also holds potential for enhanced predictability of summer heat events. The results suggest that hot drought, more severe than experienced during the most recent 2011 and 2012 heat waves, is to be expected when ocean temperature anomalies like those observed in the 1930s occur in a world that has seen significant mean warming.

  2. Mortality in Portugal associated with the heat wave of August 2003: early estimation of effect, using a rapid method.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, P J; Falcão, J M; Contreiras, M T; Paixão, E; Brandão, João; Batista, I

    2005-07-01

    During the first two weeks of August 2003, Portugal was affected by a severe heat wave. Following the identification in Portugal of the influence of heat waves on mortality in 1981 and 1991 (estimated excess of about 1900 and 1000 deaths respectively), the Observatorio Nacional de Saude (ONSA) - Instituto Nacional de Saude Dr. Ricardo Jorge, together with the Vigilancia Previsao e Informacao - Instituto de Meteorologia, created a surveillance system called iCARO, which has been in operation since 1999. iCARO identifies heat waves with potential influence on mortality [1]. Before the end of the 2003 heat wave, ONSA had produced a preliminary estimate of its effect on mortality. The results based on daily number of deaths from 1 June to 12 August 2003 were presented within 4 working days. Data was gathered from 31 National Civil registrars, covering the district capitals of all 18 districts of mainland Portugal, and representing approximately 40% of the mainland's mortality. The number of deaths registered in the period 30 July to 12 August was compared with the ones registered during 3 comparison periods: (in July): 1-14 July, 1-28 July, and 15-28 July). 15-28 July, the period best resembling the heat wave in time and characteristics, produced an estimation of 37.7% higher mortality rate then the value expected under normal temperature conditions. From this value, an estimate of 1316 death excess was obtained for mainland Portugal. The main purpose of this article is to present the method used to identify and assess the occurrence of an effect (excess mortality) during the heat wave of summer 2003.

  3. Maternal health care service seeking behaviors and associated factors among women in rural Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: a triangulated community-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Dereje; Azale, Telake; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu

    2017-01-13

    Regular utilization of maternal health care services reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the maternal health care seeking behavior and associated factors of reproductive age women in rural villages of Haramaya district, East Ethiopia. Community based cross sectional study supplemented with qualitative data was conducted in Haramaya district from November 15 to Decemeber 30, 2015. A total of 561 women in reproductive age group and who gave birth in the last 2 years were randomly included. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions model was used to identify the associated factors. Odds ratios with 95% CI were used to measure the strength of association. Maternal health care service seeking of women was found as; antenatal care 74.3% (95% CI; 72.5, 76.14), attending institutional delivery 28.7% (95% CI; 26.8, 30.6) and postnatal care 22.6% (95% CI; 20.84, 24.36). Knowledge of pregnancy complications, Educational status, and religion of women were found to be significantly associated with antenatal health care, delivery and postnatal health care service seeking behaviours triangulated with individual, institutional and socio-cultural qualitative data. The maternal health care service seeking behavior of women in the study area was low. Educational status of the women, birth order and knowledge about pregnancy complications were the major factors associated with maternal health care service seeking behavior Focused health education with kind and supportive health care provider counseling will improve the maternal health care seeking behaviors of women.

  4. Heating of an Erupting Prominence Associated with a Solar Coronal Mass Ejection on 2012 January 27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the heating of an erupting prominence and loops associated with a coronal mass ejection and X-class flare. The prominence is seen as absorption in EUV at the beginning of its eruption. Later, the prominence changes to emission, which indicates heating of the erupting plasma. We find the densities of the erupting prominence using the absorption properties of hydrogen and helium in different passbands. We estimate the temperatures and densities of the erupting prominence and loops seen as emission features using the differential emission measure method, which uses both EUV and X-ray observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the X-ray Telescope on board Hinode. We consider synthetic spectra using both photospheric and coronal abundances in these calculations. We verify the methods for the estimation of temperatures and densities for the erupting plasmas. Then, we estimate the thermal, kinetic, radiative loss, thermal conduction, and heating energies of the erupting prominence and loops. We find that the heating of the erupting prominence and loop occurs strongly at early times in the eruption. This event shows a writhing motion of the erupting prominence, which may indicate a hot flux rope heated by thermal energy release during magnetic reconnection.

  5. Factors associated with recidivism among adolescents girls in conflict with the law in an institution in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallassi, Andrea Donatti; dos Santos, Samantha Lima; Santos, Vagner Dos; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Fischer, Benedikt; Galinkin, Ana Lúcia; Wagner, Gabriela Arantes

    2015-12-01

    Recidivism is a challenge for the Brazilian socio-educational system because it is associated with personal, social and environmental factors, especially among juvenile offenders. This study examined key characteristics and potential association with recidivism in 391 female adolescent offenders from a correctional institution in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil, between 2004 and 2011. Cross-sectional data on socio-demographics, drug use and offense characteristics from institutional information were examined. Associate factors with recidivism were examined using negative binomial regression analyses. 32.5% of offenders were recidivists at present admission and the mean frequency of recidivism among recidivists was 2.16. About half (53.6%) of the sample reported drug use. After the adjustment, recidivism was positively associated with: age; offender's drug use; residence status; offense type; and no family drug use. Factors associated with juvenile offenders' recidivism confirm findings from elsewhere, and should inform targeted interventions in Brazil.

  6. Physiological traits associated with heat tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Girish Chandra; Mamrutha, H M; Tiwari, Ratan; Sareen, Sindhu; Bhatia, Shrutkirti; Siwach, Priyanka; Tiwari, Vinod; Sharma, Indu

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments for evaluating heat tolerance-related physiological traits were conducted for two consecutive years using a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross RAJ4014/WH730. Chlorophyll content (Chl) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CFL) were recorded under timely sown (TS) and late sown (LS) conditions. Late sowing exposes the terminal stage of plants to high temperature stress. Pooled analysis showed that CFL and Chl differed significantly under TS and LS conditions. The mean value of CFL (Fv/Fm) and Chl under both timely and late sown conditions were used as physiological traits for association with markers. Regression analysis revealed significant association of microsatellite markers viz., Xpsp3094 and Xgwm131 with coefficients of determination (R (2)) values for CFL (Fv/Fm) and Chl as 12 and 8 %, respectively. The correlation between thousand grain weight (TGW) with Chl and CFL were 14 and 7 % and correlation between grain wt./spike with Chl and CFL were 15 and 8 %, respectively. The genotypes showing tolerance to terminal heat stress as manifested by low heat susceptibility index (HSI = 0.43) for thousand grain weight, were also found having very low Chl, HSI (-0.52). These results suggest that these physiological traits may be used as a secondary character for screening heat-tolerant genotypes.

  7. Association of Climatic Variability, Vector Population and Malarial Disease in District of Visakhapatnam, India: A Modeling and Prediction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Srimath-Tirumula-Peddinti, Ravi Chandra Pavan Kumar; Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Sidagam, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Malarial incidence, severity, dynamics and distribution of malaria are strongly determined by climatic factors, i.e., temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity. The objectives of the current study were to analyse and model the relationships among climate, vector and malaria disease in district of Visakhapatnam, India to understand malaria transmission mechanism (MTM). Methodology Epidemiological, vector and climate data were analysed for the years 2005 to 2011 in Visakhapatnam to understand the magnitude, trends and seasonal patterns of the malarial disease. Statistical software MINITAB ver. 14 was used for performing correlation, linear and multiple regression analysis. Results/Findings Perennial malaria disease incidence and mosquito population was observed in the district of Visakhapatnam with peaks in seasons. All the climatic variables have a significant influence on disease incidence as well as on mosquito populations. Correlation coefficient analysis, seasonal index and seasonal analysis demonstrated significant relationships among climatic factors, mosquito population and malaria disease incidence in the district of Visakhapatnam, India. Multiple regression and ARIMA (I) models are best suited models for modeling and prediction of disease incidences and mosquito population. Predicted values of average temperature, mosquito population and malarial cases increased along with the year. Developed MTM algorithm observed a major MTM cycle following the June to August rains and occurring between June to September and minor MTM cycles following March to April rains and occurring between March to April in the district of Visakhapatnam. Fluctuations in climatic factors favored an increase in mosquito populations and thereby increasing the number of malarial cases. Rainfall, temperatures (20°C to 33°C) and humidity (66% to 81%) maintained a warmer, wetter climate for mosquito growth, parasite development and malaria transmission. Conclusions

  8. Molecular characterization of tospoviruses associated with ringspot disease in bell pepper from different districts of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshul; Kulshrestha, Saurabh

    2016-06-01

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an important cash crop for the farmers of Himachal Pradesh was found to be affected with tospovirus like disease. An extensive survey was conducted in the bell pepper grown areas in the five districts of Himachal Pradesh to identify and characterize the causative agent. Hence, 60 symptomatic bell pepper plants exhibiting characteristics symptoms were collected from Solan, Sirmaur, Hamirpur, Kangra and Bilaspur districts. Out of 60 samples, 53 samples were found to be positive by DAS-ELISA with tospovirus group specific antiserum. To confirm the presence of tospovirus, DAC-ELISA was performed using GBNV/CaCV polyclonal antiserum and DAS-ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies i.e. TSWV, GRSV. All the 53 samples were found negative for TSWV and GRSV and positive for GBNV/CaCV. Further, eleven infected isolates from both poly-house and open field conditions were selected for characterization at molecular level. RT-PCR was performed with N gene specific primers for TSWV, GBNV and CaCV. The eleven samples selected for molecular identification were further found to be negative for TSWV and positive for CaCV using RT-PCR. One of the samples from district Sirmaur was found to be positive for mixed infection of GBNV and CaCV. N gene phylogenetic analysis of CaCV/GBNV provided important information about the movement and evolution of tospoviruses in Himachal Pradesh.

  9. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  10. Hsp56: a novel heat shock protein associated with untransformed steroid receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, E R

    1990-12-25

    The recently-described p59 protein has been shown to be associated with untransformed steroid receptors present in rabbit uterus and rat liver cytosols (Tai, P. K., Maeda, Y., Nakao, K., Wakim, N. G., Duhring, J. L., and Faber, L. E. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 5269-5275; Renoir, J.-M., Radanyi, C., Faber, L. E., and Baulieu, E.-E. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 10740-10745), while a smaller version of this protein (p56) interacts with glucocorticoid receptors in human IM-9 cell cytosols (Sanchez, E. R., Faber, L. E., Henzel, W. J., and Pratt, W. B. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 5145-5152). In addition to interacting with glucocorticoid receptors, the p56 protein of IM-9 cell cytosol is also found as part of a large heteromeric complex that contains both the 70-kDa and 90-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp70 and hsp90, respectively). Given this association of p56 with the two major stress proteins, I have speculated that p56 may itself be a heat shock protein. In this paper, the effect of heat stress on the rate of synthesis of p56 is determined. Intact IM-9 cells were exposed to 37 or 43 degrees C for 4 h, followed by pulse-labeling with [35S]methionine. Analysis of whole cytosolic extracts by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography reveal an increased rate of radiolabeling for hsp70, hsp90, hsp100, ad hsp110, but no heat-inducible protein of smaller relative molecular mass is detected. However, immune-purification of p56 from normal and heat-stressed cytosols with the EC1 monoclonal antibody results in the presence of a 56-kDa protein that exhibits an increased rate of synthesis in response to heat stress. The results of two-dimensional gel Western blots employing the EC1 antibody demonstrate that this heat-inducible protein is indeed the EC1-reactive p56 protein and that the induction effect is not due to unequal yields of p56 during immune-purification. Heat stress has no effect on the composition of the p56.hsp.70.hsp90 complex, except that

  11. Vulnerability to extreme-heat-associated hospitalization in three counties in Michigan, USA, 2000-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbomo, Adesuwa S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; O'Neill, Marie S.; Konen, Tess; Cameron, Lorraine; Wahl, Robert

    2016-10-01

    With climate change, extreme heat (EH) events are increasing, so it is important to understand who is vulnerable to heat-associated morbidity. We determined the association between EH and hospitalizations for all natural causes; cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases; diabetes mellitus; and acute myocardial infarction in Michigan, USA, at different intensities and durations. We assessed confounding by ozone and how individual characteristics and health insurance payer (a proxy for income) modified these associations. We obtained Michigan Inpatient Database, National Climatic Data Center, and US Environmental Protection Agency ozone data for May-September, 2000-2009 for three Michigan counties. We employed a case-crossover design and modeled EH as an indicator for temperature above the 95th, 97th, or 99th percentile thresholds for 1, 2, 3, or 4 days. We examined effect modification by patient age, race, sex, and health insurance payer and pooled the county results. Among non-whites, the pooled odds ratio for hospitalization on EH (97th percentile threshold) vs. non-EH days for renal diseases was 1.37 (95 % CI = 1.13-1.66), which increased with increasing EH intensity, but was null among whites (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.81, 1.25). We observed a null association between EH and cardiovascular hospitalization. EH (99th percentile threshold) was associated with myocardial infarction hospitalizations. Confounding by ozone was minimal. EH was associated with hospitalizations for renal disease among non-whites. This information on vulnerability to heat-associated morbidity helps characterize the public health burden of EH and target interventions including patient education.

  12. Vulnerability to extreme-heat-associated hospitalization in three counties in Michigan, USA, 2000-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbomo, Adesuwa S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; O'Neill, Marie S.; Konen, Tess; Cameron, Lorraine; Wahl, Robert

    2017-05-01

    With climate change, extreme heat (EH) events are increasing, so it is important to understand who is vulnerable to heat-associated morbidity. We determined the association between EH and hospitalizations for all natural causes; cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases; diabetes mellitus; and acute myocardial infarction in Michigan, USA, at different intensities and durations. We assessed confounding by ozone and how individual characteristics and health insurance payer (a proxy for income) modified these associations. We obtained Michigan Inpatient Database, National Climatic Data Center, and US Environmental Protection Agency ozone data for May-September, 2000-2009 for three Michigan counties. We employed a case-crossover design and modeled EH as an indicator for temperature above the 95th, 97th, or 99th percentile thresholds for 1, 2, 3, or 4 days. We examined effect modification by patient age, race, sex, and health insurance payer and pooled the county results. Among non-whites, the pooled odds ratio for hospitalization on EH (97th percentile threshold) vs. non-EH days for renal diseases was 1.37 (95 % CI = 1.13-1.66), which increased with increasing EH intensity, but was null among whites (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.81, 1.25). We observed a null association between EH and cardiovascular hospitalization. EH (99th percentile threshold) was associated with myocardial infarction hospitalizations. Confounding by ozone was minimal. EH was associated with hospitalizations for renal disease among non-whites. This information on vulnerability to heat-associated morbidity helps characterize the public health burden of EH and target interventions including patient education.

  13. Environment and farm factors associated with exposure to Theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, John M; Kitala, Phillip M; Ngumi, Priscilla N; Skilton, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to Theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere District, Kenya. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to T. parva infection epidemiology. Serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of T. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The association between the variables was assessed using a generalized estimation equation logistic regression model. The overall T. parva seroprevalence, accounting for correlation of responses, was 19.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14%, 25%). Two variables, "administrative division" and "presence of the vector tick on the farm", were significantly associated with the T. parva seroresponse. Respectively, cattle from farms in Gachoka, Evurore, and Mwea divisions were (and their 95% CI) 1.3 (0.36, 4.8), 4.4 (1.2, 15.9), and 15.2 (4.9, 47.1) times more likely to be seropositive relative to those from Siakago Division (P = 0.000). Cattle from farms in which the vector tick was present were 2.9 (1.2, 6.7) times more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.011). Results of this study suggested that both environmental and farm factors may be associated with T. parva infection epidemiology in Mbeere District. Under such circumstances, characterization of environmental suitability for the vector tick and corresponding environment-specific farm management practices in the district is required both for improved understanding of the disease and in planning disease control programs.

  14. Social factors and lifestyle attributes associated with nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS attending care and treatment clinics in Ilala District, Dar Es Salaam.

    PubMed

    Ritte, S A; Kessy, A T

    2012-03-01

    Tanzania is one of the countries that suffer huge burden of malnutrition and food poverty with over two million people living with HIV/AIDS. Despite ongoing nutritional interventions in care and treatment clinics for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), a high proportion of them still face nutritional problems, with about 29% being underweight. This study therefore aimed assessing social factors and lifestyle attributes associated with nutritional status among adults living with HIV/AIDS and attending care and treatment clinics (CTCs) in an urban district in Tanzania. An interview schedule was administered to 412 randomly selected adult male and female clients attending different CTCs in Ilala district. Their anthropometric measurements i.e. body weights and heights were also taken. Findings revealed that 18.4% of males and females were underweight according to their body mass indices. The risk of being underweight was higher among respondents who were young; who had never married; had no formal education as well as those who reported to be living with their families or friends, although these associations were not statistically significant. On the other hand, factors which had statistically significant association with nutritional status included the type of persons the client was living with and the habit of drinking alcohol. From the findings we conclude that PLWHA attending Care and Treatment Clinics in Ilala district, Dar es Salaam have problems with their nutrition with underweight being common among them. This suggests that the existing care and treatment clinics that provide nutritional support to PLWHA do not appear to address these issues in their totality. There is therefore, need to ensure that more efforts are geared towards providing nutritional counseling, support and encouragement of these clients within social contexts of their lives so in order for the current efforts to give best results.

  15. Genetic variation in heat shock protein 70 is associated with septic shock: narrowing the association to a specific haplotype.

    PubMed

    Kee, C; Cheong, K Y; Pham, K; Waterer, G W; Temple, S E L

    2008-12-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a major role in immune responses. Polymorphisms within the gene have been associated with development of septic shock. This study refines the region of the HSP70 gene associated with development of septic shock and confirms its functionality. Subjects (n = 31) were grouped into one of three haplotypes based on their HSPA1B-179C>T and HSPA1B1267A>G genotypes. Mononuclear cells from these subjects were stimulated with heat-killed bacteria (10(7 )colony-forming units/mL Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae) for 8 and 21 h. HSP70 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA and protein levels were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. The HSPA1B-179*C:1267*A haplotype was associated with significantly lower levels of HSPA1B mRNA and protein and higher production of TNF mRNA and protein compared to the other haplotypes. Induction of HSP70 was TNF independent. These results suggest that the HSPA1B-179C>T:1267A>G haplotype is functional and may explain the association of the HSP70 gene with development of septic shock.

  16. Molecular characterization of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) promoter in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and the association of Pohsp70 SNPs with heat-resistant trait.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jie; Liu, Xudong; Liu, Jinxiang; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Wenji; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-08-01

    Ambient temperature is one of the major abiotic environmental factors determining the main parameters of fish vital activity. HSP70 plays an essential role in heat response. In this investigation, the promoter and structure of Paralichthys olivaceus hsp70 (Pohsp70) gene was cloned and predicted. 2558 bp upstream regulatory region of Pohsp70 was annotated with four potential promoter elements and four putative binding sites of transcription factors heat shock elements (HSE, nGAAn) in the upstream of the transcription start site. In addition, one intron with 454 bp in the 5'-noncoding region was found. Quantitative Real Time PCR analysis indicated that the transcript level of Pohsp70 was raised markedly after 1 h by heat shocked. Furthermore, 25 SNPs were identified in Pohsp70 by resequencing, seven of which was associated with heat resistance. In addition, two of the seven SNPs, namely SNP14 and SNP16, were observed in strong linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype with association analysis showed TAGGAG haplotype was more represented in heat susceptible group while (DEL/T) GAATA haplotype was more frequent in heat resistant group. The heat resistant SNPs and haplotype could be candidate markers potentially serving for selective breeding programs of Japanese flounder aimed at improving anti-stress and production.

  17. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed.

  18. IRIS and SDO/AIA observations of coronal heating associated with spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; De Moortel, I.; Mcintosh, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Chromospheric spicules have been proposed as significant contributors to the coronal energy and mass balance. While previous observations have provided a glimpse of short-lived transient brightenings in the corona that are associated with spicules, these observations have been contested and the subject of a vigorous debate both on the modeling and the observational side so that it remains unclear whether plasma associated with spicules is heated to coronal temperatures. We use high-resolution observations of the chromosphere and transition region with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to show evidence of the formation of coronal structures as a result of spicular mass ejections and subsequent heating of plasma first to transition region and later to coronal temperatures. Our observations suggest that much of the highly dynamic loop fan environment associated with plage regions may be the result of the formation of such new coronal strands, a process that previously had been interpreted as the propagation of transient propagating coronal disturbances (PCD)s. Our results suggest that heating and strong flows play an important role in maintaining the substructure of loop fans, in addition to the waves that permeate this low coronal environment.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35–44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3–5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  20. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews (n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries. PMID:28085105

  1. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  2. State but not district nutrition policies are associated with less junk food in vending machines and school stores in US public schools.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Martha Y; Wall, Melanie; Shen, Lijuan; Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben F; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Policy that targets the school food environment has been advanced as one way to increase the availability of healthy food at schools and healthy food choice by students. Although both state- and district-level policy initiatives have focused on school nutrition standards, it remains to be seen whether these policies translate into healthy food practices at the school level, where student behavior will be impacted. To examine whether state- and district-level nutrition policies addressing junk food in school vending machines and school stores were associated with less junk food in school vending machines and school stores. Junk food was defined as foods and beverages with low nutrient density that provide calories primarily through fats and added sugars. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-report data collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires from state-, district-, and school-level respondents participating in the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. The School Health Policies and Programs Study, administered every 6 years since 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is considered the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health policies and programs in the United States. A nationally representative sample (n=563) of public elementary, middle, and high schools was studied. Logistic regression adjusted for school characteristics, sampling weights, and clustering was used to analyze data. Policies were assessed for strength (required, recommended, neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food) and whether strength was similar for school vending machines and school stores. School vending machines and school stores were more prevalent in high schools (93%) than middle (84%) and elementary (30%) schools. For state policies, elementary schools that required prohibiting junk food in school vending machines and school stores offered less junk food than

  3. Prevalence and associated Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries in 12- to 36-month-old Children of Sirmaur District, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    G Mangla, Ritu; Kapur, Raman; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Madan, Manish

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence, distribution, and associated risk factors of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) among 12- to 36-month-old children of district Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh, India. The present study was conducted on a random sample of 510 children, both boys and girls, between 12 and 36 months of age randomly selected from various government-sponsored day-care centers, private day-care centers, and vaccination centers. Caries was recorded using World Health Organization criteria. Statistical analysis was done by using chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test. A two-sided p value was calculated for each statistical test. Multiple logistic regressions were done to calculate the risk of S-ECC from independent variables. In the present study, S-ECC was found in 21% of 510, 12 to 36 months old children of Sirmaur district, Himachal Pradesh. The S-ECC was found to be significantly higher in 25 to 36 months old children's age group and was 27.8% in them as compared with 8% in 12 to 24 months old children. Providing anticipatory guidance and education to parents is essential for the promotion of optimal oral health of their children. There is a need for moving upstream to propose and implement policies and programs to improve the oral health of the very young, especially in a developing country like India, which lacks much data on S-ECC. Mangla RG, Kapur R, Dhindsa A, Madan M. Prevalence and associated Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries in 12- to 36-month-old Children of Sirmaur District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):183-187.

  4. Study of indoor radon concentrations and associated health risks in the five districts of Hazara division, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fayaz; Ali, Nawab; Khan, Ehsan U; Khattak, Nimat U; Raja, Iftikhar A; Baloch, Muzahir A; Rajput, Muhammad U

    2012-11-01

    A total of 200 indoor air samples were collected to measure radon concentration levels and its contribution to the mean effective doses during different seasons of the period 2009-2010 at different sites of the five districts of Hazara division, Pakistan. The major portion of the region is mountainous and is full of thick forests which receives heavy snow fall in winter. The need for conducting the present survey relied on the fact that occupants spend their lives in poorly ventilated indoor environments of the region, especially in the winter season when they use wood fire inside their residences. The measurements of indoor air samples were taken with RAD-7, a solid state α-detector. Radon concentrations in the whole region range from 41 Bq m(-3) to 254 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 128 Bq m(-3). Radon progenies were measured with a surface barrier detector through alpha spectroscopy from which the Equilibrium Factor (EF) for radon and Radon Decay Products (RDPs) for the smoke-bearing as well as smoke-free indoor environments were deduced. The respective mean values of EF were calculated as 0.49 ± 0.08 and 0.40 ± 0.07. The mean effective doses from indoor air of Abbottabad, Mansehra, Haripur, Battgram and Kohistan districts were calculated as 3.5 ± 1.2, 3.7 ± 0.7, 3.9 ± 1.0, 3.6 ± 1.1 and 3.9 ± 0.7 mSv a(-1) respectively, with the maximum value of 5.1 ± 1.8 mSv a(-1) in Kohistan district during winter and the minimum value of 2.9 ± 1.0 mSv a(-1) in Abbottabad district during summer. The annual exposure dose to the inhabitants of the locality lies below the upper bound of 10 mSv a(-1), as recommended by ICRP-65, and may not pose any significant threat to the public health.

  5. Collection and Utilization of Animal Carcasses Associated with zoonotic Disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Doty, Jeffrey B; Moses, Cynthia; Ibata, Saturnin; Reynolds, Mary; Carroll, Darin

    2015-07-01

    The collection and consumption of animal carcasses is a common activity in forested areas of the Congo River basin and creates sustainability, conservation, and health concerns. Residents of the Tshuapa District reported collecting the remains of 5,878 animals from >30 species when surveyed about their wildlife consumption habits. Carcasses were discovered in varying degrees of decomposition and were often consumed at home or sold in local markets. The most commonly collected animals were Cricetomys gambianus (Northern giant pouched rat), Cercopithecus ascanius (red-tailed monkey), and Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel). Many of the species recorded may be hosts of zoonotic pathogens, creating concern for spillover events.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder seven years after the conflict in three districts in northern Uganda (The Wayo-Nero Study).

    PubMed

    Mugisha, James; Muyinda, Herbert; Wandiembe, Peter; Kinyanda, Eugene

    2015-07-24

    Research on the prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is still limited in low income countries yet PTSD can be a public health problem in post conflict areas. In order to respond to the burden of PSTD in northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife for over two decades, we need accurate data on its (PTSD) prevalence and the associated risk factors to facilitate public mental health planning. This study employed a cross-sectional study design and data collection was undertaken in three districts in northern Uganda: Gulu, Amuru and Nwoya. Respondents were aged 18 years and above and were randomly selected at community level. A total of 2400 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in the three study districts. In this study, multivariate logistic regression was employed to analyze the associations of socio-demographic factors, trauma related variables and the outcome of PTSD. The prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the study population was 11.8 % (95 % CI: 10.5 %, 13.1 %) with a prevalence of 10.9 % (95 % CI: 9.3 %, 12.5 %) among female respondents and 13.4 % (95 % CI: 11.2 %, 15.7 %) among male respondents. Quite a number of factors were strongly associated with PTSD. Overall, a respondent had experienced 9 negative life events. In a multivariate logistic regression, the factors that were strongly associated with PTSD were: exposure to war trauma events, childhood trauma, negative life events, negative copying style and food insecurity. The findings also indicate no association between sex, age and PTSD. The prevalence rate of PTSD in the study communities is unacceptably high. Quite a number of factors were associated with PTSD. Effective public mental health services are needed that combine treatment (medical) psychological and social welfare programs especially at community level to address the high burden of PTSD. Longitudinal studies are also recommended to continuously assess the trends in PTSD in

  7. Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; George, Jasmine; Bhui, Kulpreet; Murari Saxena, Anand; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-11-01

    Repeated heating of vegetable oils at high temperatures during cooking is a very common cooking practice. Repeated heating of edible oils can generate a number of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which have been reported to have carcinogenic potential. Consumption of these repeatedly heated oils can pose a serious health hazard. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil (RCO), which is one of the commonly consumed cooking and frying medium. The PAH were analysed using HPLC in fresh CO, single-heated CO (SCO) and RCO. Results revealed the presence of certain PAH, known to possess carcinogenic potential, in RCO when compared with SCO. Oral intake of RCO in Wistar rats resulted in a significant induction of aberrant cells (P<0·05) and micronuclei (P<0·05) in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidative stress analysis showed a significant (P<0·05) decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase with a concurrent increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the liver. In addition, RCO given alone and along with diethylnitrosamine for 12 weeks induced altered hepatic foci as noticed by alteration in positive (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and negative (adenosine triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase) hepatospecific biomarkers. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute hepatic weight of RCO-supplemented rats was recorded (P<0·05). In conclusion, dietary consumption of RCO can cause a genotoxic and preneoplastic change in the liver.

  8. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io: the HISAKI observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshioka, K.; Kimura, T.; Murakami, G.; Kagitani, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Yoshikawa, I.; Nozawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in Io plasma torus (IPT) has been discovered by Voyager and show an evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, the amount of observation data is still limited to investigate its detail properties. In addition, the clear Io-correlated change has not been detected by EUVE and Cassini observations. Cause of the Io-correlated effect is still open issue. The HISAKI satellite was launched on Sep. 14, 2013 and started observation of IPT and Jovian aurora for more than two months since the end of Dec. 2013. EUV spectrograph onboard the HISAKI satellite covers wavelength range from 55 to 145 nm, a wide slit which had a field of view of 400 x 140 arc-second was chosen to measure radial distribution and time variation of IPT. Observation of IPT with HISAKI showed clear Io-correlated brightness change since the Voyager observation. The amplitude of the periodic variation associated with Io's orbital period was found. It also showed long-term variation during the HISAKI's observation period. Through the observation period, the amplitude was larger in the short wavelength than in long wavelength. The wavelength dependence suggests significant electron heating and/or hot electron production. The Io phase dependence shows that bright region is located just downstream of Io. These are evidence of local electron heating around/downstream of Io and consistent with the Voyager result. The brightness also depends on system-III longitude and has local maximum around 120 and 300 degrees. Based on an empirical model of IPT, electron density at Io also shows maxima around the same longitudes. This suggests that the electron heating process is related with plasma density at Io. Candidate mechanisms which are responsible for the electron heating will be discussed.

  9. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0·000) for F. gigantica and paramphistomes but not for S. bovis. The snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas.

  10. Poleward eddy heat flux anomalies associated with recent Arctic sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Kazuhira; Ukita, Jinro; Honda, Meiji; Iwamoto, Katsushi; Nakamura, Tetsu; Yamazaki, Koji; Dethloff, Klaus; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe

    2017-01-01

    Details of the characteristics of upward planetary wave propagation associated with Arctic sea ice loss under present climate conditions are examined using reanalysis data and simulation results. Recent Arctic sea ice loss results in increased stratospheric poleward eddy heat fluxes in the eastern and central Eurasia regions and enhanced upward propagation of planetary-scale waves in the stratosphere. A linear decomposition scheme reveals that this modulation of the planetary waves arises from coupling of the climatological planetary wavefield with temperature anomalies for the eastern Eurasia region and with meridional wind anomalies for the central Eurasia region. Propagation of stationary Rossby wave packets results in a dynamic link between these temperature and meridional wind anomalies with sea ice loss over the Barents-Kara Sea. The results provide strong evidence that recent Arctic sea ice loss significantly modulates atmospheric circulation in winter to modify poleward eddy heat fluxes so as to drive stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes.

  11. Activation of a heat-stable cytolytic protein associated with the surface membrane of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed Central

    Lowrey, D M; McLaughlin, J

    1985-01-01

    Surface membrane-enriched fractions of Naegleria fowleri obtained after isopycnic centrifugation experiments contain a potent cytolytic activity as determined by hemolysis and 51Cr release assays. This surface membrane cytolysin was unaffected by a treatment at 75 degrees C for 30 min and accounted for 70 to 90% of cytolysis by whole-cell lysates of amoebae. This heat resistance as well as intimate membrane association distinguished the surface membrane cytolytic activity from a second heat-labile cytolytic activity which appears to be latent within lysosomes. The surface membrane cytolysin was found to be specifically activated by diluted samples of lysosomal fractions. The possible role of this surface membrane cytotoxin in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri is discussed. PMID:4055029

  12. State but not District Nutrition Policies Are Associated with Less Junk Food in Vending Machines and School Stores in US Public Schools

    PubMed Central

    KUBIK, MARTHA Y.; WALL, MELANIE; SHEN, LIJUAN; NANNEY, MARILYN S.; NELSON, TOBEN F.; LASKA, MELISSA N.; STORY, MARY

    2012-01-01

    Background Policy that targets the school food environment has been advanced as one way to increase the availability of healthy food at schools and healthy food choice by students. Although both state- and district-level policy initiatives have focused on school nutrition standards, it remains to be seen whether these policies translate into healthy food practices at the school level, where student behavior will be impacted. Objective To examine whether state- and district-level nutrition policies addressing junk food in school vending machines and school stores were associated with less junk food in school vending machines and school stores. Junk food was defined as foods and beverages with low nutrient density that provide calories primarily through fats and added sugars. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-report data collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires from state-, district-, and school-level respondents participating in the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. The School Health Policies and Programs Study, administered every 6 years since 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is considered the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health policies and programs in the United States. Subjects/setting A nationally representative sample (n = 563) of public elementary, middle, and high schools was studied. Statistical analysis Logistic regression adjusted for school characteristics, sampling weights, and clustering was used to analyze data. Policies were assessed for strength (required, recommended, neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food) and whether strength was similar for school vending machines and school stores. Results School vending machines and school stores were more prevalent in high schools (93%) than middle (84%) and elementary (30%) schools. For state policies, elementary schools that required prohibiting junk food

  13. Knowledge about Danger Signs of Obstetric Complications and Associated Factors among Postnatal Mothers of Mechekel District Health Centers, East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Amenu, Gedefa; Mulaw, Zerfu; Seyoum, Tewodros; Bayu, Hinsermu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Developing countries like Ethiopia contributed highest level of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women awareness of obstetric danger sign to recognize complications to seek medical care early is the first intervention in an effort to decrease maternal death. Objective. To assess knowledge about danger signs of obstetric complications and associated factors among postnatal mothers at Mechekel district health centers, East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2014, in Mechekel district health centers. Systematic random sampling was used to select four hundred eleven study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the presence and strength of association. Results. According to this study, 55.1% participants were knowledgeable about danger signs of obstetric complications. Maternal and husband educational level ((AOR = 1.977, 95% CI: 1.052, 3.716) and (AOR = 3.163, 95% CI: 1.860, 5.3770), resp.), family monthly income ≥ 1500 (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI: 1.289, 6.770), being multipara (AOR = 7.463, 95% CI: 1.301, 12.800), ANC follow-up during last pregnancy (AOR = 2.184, 95% CI: 1.137, 4.196), and place of last delivery (AOR = 1.955, 95% CI: 1.214, 3.150) were variables found to be significantly associated with women's knowledge on danger signs of obstetric complications. Conclusion. Significant proportion of respondents were not knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs and factors like educational status, place of last delivery, and antenatal follow-up were found to be associated. PMID:27375920

  14. Estimating seroprevalence and variation to four tick-borne infections and determination of associated risk factors in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, J M; Ngumi, P N; Kitala, P M; Skilton, R A

    2010-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne disease (TBD) parasites (Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina) was conducted on traditional smallholder mixed farms in Mbeere District in Kenya. The objective was to estimate the infections' seroprevalence and variation and identify associated risk factors. A total of 440 cattle in 80 farms, selected by stratified random sampling from the four divisions in the district, were surveyed. Information on animal and on each farm's management practices, particularly on tick control practices, was obtained by personal interview using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalences of serum antibodies were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The relationship between TBDs seroprevalence and the risk factors was assessed by multivariable analysis using standard logistic regression models and mixed models using the farm as a random effect. Overall estimation of seroprevalences and their 95% confidence limits were: T. parva (19% [14%, 25%]), T. mutans (25% [20%, 29%]), A. marginale (58% [52%, 64%]) and B. bigemina (19% [15%, 23%]). Analysis in presence of extra-binomial variation under Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) yielded relatively larger intra-farm correlation coefficient (ICC) (0.3) and variance-inflation factor (VIF) (2.35) values for T. parva than for the other parasites [range, 0.05-0.07 (for ICC) and 1.02-1.32 (for VIF)]. Both farm- and area-level variables had variably significant and large effects on all infections, but these were more pronounced on T. parva seroprevalence. Inclusion of farm random effect resulted in substantially higher estimate of farm variance component for T. parva infection (1.73) compared to other infections [range, 0.29-0.56], comparable ICC values with those under ANOVA analysis [range, 0.08-0.35] and a substantially better fit than the standard multivariable logistic regressions. The above results

  15. Interplanetary magnetic field orientations associated with bidirectional electron heat fluxes detected at ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. A.; Gosling, J. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Bame, S. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical survey of interplanetary magnetic field orientations associated with bidirectional electron heat fluxes observed at ISEE 3 in orbit about the Sunward Lagrange point indicates that magnetic connection of the spacecraft to the earth's shock was frequently the source of the bidirectionality. When the interplanetary magnetic field was oriented within 5 deg of the earth-spacecraft line, backstreaming electrons from the bow shock were clearly observed approximately 18 percent of the time, and connections apparently occurred for angles as large as about 30-35 deg.

  16. The Membrane-Associated Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Channel Is the Central Heat Shock Receptor Controlling the Cellular Heat Shock Response in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Zohar; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Saidi, Younousse; Weiss, Yoram George

    2013-01-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is a highly conserved molecular response to various types of stresses, including heat shock, during which heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are produced to prevent and repair damages in labile proteins and membranes. In cells, protein unfolding in the cytoplasm is thought to directly enable the activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), however, recent work supports the activation of the HSR via an increase in the fluidity of specific membrane domains, leading to activation of heat-shock genes. Our findings support the existence of a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism of HSF-1 activation in animal cells, which is initiated by a membrane-associated transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor (TRPV). We found in various non-cancerous and cancerous mammalian epithelial cells that the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX), upregulated the accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27 and Hsp70 and Hsp90 respectively, while the TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and AMG-9810, attenuated the accumulation of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27 and Hsp70, Hsp90, respectively. Capsaicin was also shown to activate HSF-1. These findings suggest that heat-sensing and signaling in mammalian cells is dependent on TRPV channels in the plasma membrane. Thus, TRPV channels may be important drug targets to inhibit or restore the cellular stress response in diseases with defective cellular proteins, such as cancer, inflammation and aging. PMID:23468922

  17. Numerical and theoretical analysis of beam vibration induced acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qun

    The purpose of this research is to numerically and analytically investigate the acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer, which are induced by a beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms. Analytical results show that the beam vibrating in standing waveforms scatters the acoustic waves into the free space, which have a larger attenuation coefficient and longer propagating traveling wavelength than those of the plane wave. In contrast to a constant Reynolds stress in the plane wave, the Reynolds stress generated by such acoustic wave is expected to drive the free space streaming away from the anti-nodes and towards nodes of the standing wave vibration. The sonic and ultrasonic streamings within the channel between the vibrating beam and a parallel stationary beam are also investigated. The acoustic streaming is utilized to cool the stationary beam, which has either a heat source attached to it or subjected to a uniform heat flux. The sonic streaming is found to be mainly the boundary layer streaming dominating the whole channel while the ultrasonic streaming is clearly composed of two boundary layer streamings near both beams and a core region streaming, which is driven by the streaming velocity at the edge of the boundary layer near the vibrating beam. The standing wave vibration of the beam induces acoustic streaming in a series of counterclockwise eddies, which is directed away from the anti-nodes and towards the nodes. The magnitude of the sonic streaming is proportional to o2A 2 while that of the ultrasonic streaming is proportional to o 3/2A2. Numerical results show that the acoustic streaming induced by the beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms has almost the same cooling efficiency for the heat source and the heat flux cases although the flow and temperature fields within the channel are different. The hysteresis of the ultrasonic streaming flow patterns associated with the change of the aspect ratio of the channel

  18. Timing of First Antenatal Care Attendance and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebremeskel, Feleke; Dibaba, Yohannes; Admassu, Bitiya

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the timing of first antenatal care attendance and associated factors among pregnant women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, south Ethiopia. Method. Facility based cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted from February to March, 2014, in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District. Data were collected from 409 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in nine public health facilities using systematic random sampling. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results. The mean (SD±) age of the respondents was 26 ± 5.5 years. The mean gestational age at first antenatal care attendance was 5 ± 1.5 months. This study indicated that pregnant women with low monthly income (AOR = 4.9, CI: 1.71, 14.08), women who did not receive advise on when to start ANC (AOR = 3, CI: 1.48, 6.24), women with household food insecurity (AOR = 4.66, CI: 1.007, 21.59) and women with unplanned pregnancy (AOR = 4.49, CI: 2.16, 9.35) had higher odds of late antenatal care attendance compared with their counterparts. Conclusions. The study showed that majority of the pregnant women attended late for first antenatal care. Hence, providing health education on the timing of antenatal care is important. PMID:26543485

  19. A Positive Feedback Loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN Modulates Long-Term Acquired Thermotolerance Illustrating Diverse Heat Stress Responses in Rice Varieties1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng-yi; Chai, Kuo-hsing; Ko, Swee-suak; Kuang, Lin-yun; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Charng, Yee-yung

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. ‘N22’ seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios. PMID:24520156

  20. Agreement Between the Board of Junior College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association, A Chapter of the Cook County College Teachers Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

    This document covers the agreement between the Board of Junior College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association Chapter of the Cook County College Teachers Union. Articles of the agreement cover: definitions; recognition; nondiscrimination; association and board relations; academic freedom;…

  1. Agreement between the Board of Trustees of the St. Clair County Community College of the County of St. Clair and the St. Clair County Community College District of the Michigan Association for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Clair County Community Coll., Port Huron, MI.

    This agreement between the Board of Trustees of the St. Clair County Community College of the County of St. Clair and the St. Clair County Community College District of the Michigan Association for Higher Education covers the academic years 1972-74. Articles of the agreement cover recognition, association and instructor's rights, rights of the…

  2. Exploring the association between heat and mortality in Switzerland between 1995 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Designing effective public health strategies to prevent adverse health effect of hot weather is crucial in the context of global warming. In Switzerland, the 2003 heat have caused an estimated 7% increase in all-cause mortality. As a consequence, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health developed an information campaign to raise public awareness on heat threats. For a better understanding on how hot weather affects daily mortality in Switzerland, we assessed the effect of heat on daily mortality in eight Swiss cities and population subgroups from 1995 to 2013 using different temperature metrics (daily mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax)), and aimed to evaluate variations of the heat effect after 2003 (1995-2002 versus 2004-2013). We applied conditional quasi-Poisson regression models with non-linear distributed lag functions to estimate temperature-mortality associations over all cities (1995-2013) and separately for two time periods (1995-2002, 2004-2013). Relative risks (RR) of daily mortality were estimated for increases in temperature from the median to the 98th percentile of the warm season temperature distribution. Over the whole time period, significant temperature-mortality relationships were found for all temperature indicators (RR (95% confidence interval): Tappmax: 1.12 (1.05; 1.18); Tmax: 1.15 (1.08-1.22); Tmean: 1.16 (1.09-1.23); Tmin 1.23 (1.15-1.32)). Mortality risks were higher at the beginning of the summer, especially for Tmin. In the more recent time period, we observed a non-significant reduction in the effect of high temperatures on mortality, with the age group > 74 years remaining the population at highest risk. High temperatures continue to be a considerable risk factor for human health in Switzerland after 2003. More effective public health measures targeting the elderly should be promoted with increased attention to the first heat events in summer and considering both high day-time and

  3. Overexpression of Colligin 2 in Glioma Vasculature is Associated with Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor 2.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Dana A M; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Zheng, Ping Pin; Kros, Johan M

    2010-10-20

    In previous studies we found expression of the protein colligin 2 (heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), SERPINH1) in glioma neovasculature while not in normal brain tissue. Generally, the regulation of heat shock gene expression in eukaryotes is mediated by heat shock factors (HSF). In mammals, three heat shock transcription factors, HSF-1, -2, and -4, have been isolated. Here we investigated the relation between the expression of colligin 2 and these heat shock factors at the mRNA level using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in different grades of astrocytic tumorigenesis, viz., low-grade glioma and glioblastoma. Endometrium samples, representing physiological angiogenesis, were included as controls. Since colligin 2 is a chaperon for collagens, the gene expression of collagen I (COL1A1) was also investigated. The blood vessel density of the samples was monitored by expression of the endothelial marker CD31 (PECAM1). Because NG2-immunopositive pericytic cells are involved in glioma neovascularization, the expression of NG2 (CSPG4) was also measured.We demonstrate overexpression of HSF2 in both stages of glial tumorigenesis (reaching significance only in low-grade glioma) and also minor elevated levels of HSF1 as compared to normal brain. There were no differences in expression of HSF4 between low-grade glioma and normal brain while HSF4 was downregulated in glioblastoma. In the endometrium samples, none of the HSFs were upregulated. In the low-grade gliomas SERPINH appeared to be slightly overexpressed with a parallel 4-fold upregulation of COL1A1, while in glioblastoma there was over 5-fold overexpression of SERPINH1 and more than 150-fold overexpression of COL1A1. In both the lowgrade gliomas and the glioblastomas overexpression of CSPG4 was found and overexpression of PECAM1 was only found in the latter. Our data suggest that the upregulated expression of colligin 2 in glioma is accompanied by upregulation of COL1A1, CSPG4, HSF2 and to a lesser extent

  4. Association of heat shock protein70-2 (HSP70-2) gene polymorphism with obesity.

    PubMed

    Mardan-Nik, Maryam; Pasdar, Alireza; Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh; Avan, Amir; Mohebati, Mohsen; Esmaily, Habibollah; Biabangard-Zak, Atefeh; Afzal Javan, Fahimeh; Rivandi, Mahdi; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor of chronic-diseases, including cardiovascular-diseases (CVD). Increasing evidence is showing the association of heat-shock protein (HSP) with type-2 diabetes and CVD; however, there is little data on the relationship between the genetic-polymorphisms of HSP70-2 with obesity. The present study has investigated the association between 1267HSP70-2 genetic polymorphism and obesity in an Iranian population with 317 subjects. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical measurements were measured in all the samples, while genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP. Univariate/multivariate analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between the genetic-polymorphisms and obesity. The data showed a significant association between 1267HSP70-2 polymorphism in obese subjects, compared to the non-obese group. Moreover, it was observed that this polymorphism was associated with obesity in the CAD + group, which had a high BMI compared to non-obese controls. The 1267HSP70-2 polymorphism is associated with obesity in an Iranian population, supporting a possible potential genetic link between obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in association with different water fluoride levels in Mysore district, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sunitha, S

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride intake at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries. However, excessive intake, especially during developmental stages can cause adverse effects such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary school children born and raised in three villages of Mysore District. The three selected villages have different water fluoride concentrations. Three villages namely, Nerale (water fluoride 2.0 ppm), Belavadi (1.2 ppm) and Naganahally (0.4 ppm) were selected for the study. Then, a total of 405 children, 10-12-year-old (204 [50.4%] males and 201 [49.60%] females) were selected from three schools of the villages. Dean's fluorosis index recommended by World Health Organization was used to evaluate fluorosis among the study population. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 41.73%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) was higher among those living in high water fluoride area. A significantly positive correlation was found between CFI and water fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  6. Association Between Occupational Heat Stress and Kidney Disease Among 37 816 Workers in the Thai Cohort Study (TCS)

    PubMed Central

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kjellstrom, Tord; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between self-reported occupational heat stress and incidence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed kidney disease in Thai workers. Methods Data were derived from baseline (2005) and follow-up (2009) self-report questionnaires from a large national Thai Cohort Study (TCS). Analysis was restricted to full-time workers (n = 17 402 men and 20 414 women) without known kidney disease at baseline. We used logistic regression models to examine the association of incident kidney disease with heat stress at work, after adjustment for smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, and a large number of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Results Exposure to heat stress was more common in men than in women (22% vs 15%). A significant association between heat stress and incident kidney disease was observed in men (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01–2.16). The risk of kidney disease was higher among workers reporting workplace heat stress in both 2005 and 2009. Among men exposed to prolonged heat stress, the odds of developing kidney disease was 2.22 times that of men without such exposure (95% CI 1.48–3.35, P-trend <0.001). The incidence of kidney disease was even higher among men aged 35 years or older in a physical job: 2.2% exposed to prolonged heat stress developed kidney disease compared with 0.4% with no heat exposure (adjusted OR = 5.30, 95% CI 1.17–24.13). Conclusions There is an association between self-reported occupational heat stress and self-reported doctor-diagnosed kidney disease in Thailand. The results indicate a need for occupational health interventions for heat stress among workers in tropical climates. PMID:22343327

  7. Collective Bargaining Agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 3 and the Olympic College Association for Higher Education, Affiliated with the Washington Education Association and the National Education Association, July 1, 1988 to and Including June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympic Coll., Bremerton, WA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 3 and the Olympic College Association for Higher Education is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; a savings clause; association rights;…

  8. Collective Bargaining Agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 3 and the Olympic College Association for Higher Education, Affiliated with the Washington Education Association and the National Education Association, July 1, 1988 to and Including June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympic Coll., Bremerton, WA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 3 and the Olympic College Association for Higher Education is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; a savings clause; association rights;…

  9. Prevalence, awareness and risk factors associated with Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ngaira, Jacqueline Asundula Malungu; Kimotho, James; Mirigi, Isaac; Osman, Saida; Ng’ang’a, Zipporah; Lwembe, Raphael; Ochwoto, Missiani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B Viral Infection (HBV) remains one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally accounting for 38-53% of chronic liver diseases and about 686,000 deaths annually. The prevalence of HBV is 9-20% in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in Kenya it is 5-30% among the general population and 9.4% among pregnant women. This study was aimed at identifying the prevalence, awareness and risk factors associated with HBV infections among pregnant women attending Antenatal clinic (ANC) at Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 287 pregnant women enrolled for three months (September to December 2014) from Nairobi and neighbouring counties. A structured questionnaire that captured social, demographic and explanatory variables was administered to the study participants. Blood samples were also drawn from the participants and tested for HBV using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) system. Results The study established that the prevalence of HBV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital was 3.8% with highest infection rate among the 20-24 years age group. Seventy six (60.8 %) of the participants reported sexual encounters in less than a month before the interview of which 5 (7.6%) reported encounters involving other partners apart from their spouses. HBV awareness among the study participants was 12.2%. Before the interview, those with at least tertiary education (Mean =1.33, SD = 1.131), were more informed about HBV infection as compared to those with primary and secondary education (Mean = 0.63, SD = 0.722; (Mean =0.31, SD= 0.664). In regards to assessment of the risk factors; type of family (χ² =19.753 df2 p<0.01), parity (χ² =7.128 df2 p<0.01), History of abortions (χ²=9.094 df1 p<0.01), early age (11-15 years) at first sexual encounter (χ² =8.185 df1 p<0.01) were significantly associated with HBV positivity. Conclusion The prevalence of HBV

  10. Magnitude and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha district, Gurage zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Habte, Feleke; Demissie, Meaza

    2015-11-17

    Ethiopia is one of the six countries that contributes' to more than 50 % of worldwide maternal deaths. While it is revealed that delivery attended by skilled provider at health facility reduced maternal deaths, more than half of all births in Ethiopia takes place at home. According to EDHS 2011 report nine women in every ten deliver at home in Ethiopia. The situation is much worse in southern region. The aim of our study is to measure the prevalence and to identify factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha District, SNNPR, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in Cheha District from Dec 22, 2012 to Jan 11, 2013. Multistage sampling method was employed and 816 women who gave birth within the past 2 years and lived in Cheha district for minimum of one year prior to the survey were involved in the study. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7 and SPSS Version 16. Frequencies and binary logistic regression were done. Factors affecting institutional delivery were determined using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 31 % of women gave birth to their last child at health facility. Place of residence, ability to afford for the whole process to get delivery service at health facility, traveling time that takes to reach to health institution which provides delivery service, husband's attitude towards institutional delivery, counseling about where to deliver during ANC visit and place of birth of the 2(nd) youngest child were found to have statistically significant association with institutional delivery. Institutional delivery is low in the study area. Access to health service was found to be the most important predictor of institutional delivery among others. Accessing health facility within reasonable travel time; providing health education and BCC services to husbands and the community at large on importance of using health institution for delivery service

  11. Assessment of factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months: a cross-sectional study in Nouna district, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Aboubakary; Simboro, Seraphin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Dugas, Marylène; Graham, Janice; Bibeau, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Background The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is still in need of improvement. In Burkina Faso in 2003, for example, the Nouna health district had an immunization coverage rate of 31.5%, compared to the national rate of 52%. This study identifies specific factors associated with immunization status in Nouna health district in order to advance improved intervention strategies in this district and in those with similar environmental and social contexts. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 41 rural communities and one semi-urban area (urban in the text). Data on 476 children aged 12 to 23 months were analyzed from a representative sample of 489, drawn from the Nouna Health Research Centre's Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) database. The vaccination history of these children was examined. The relationships between their immunization status and social, economic and various contextual variables associated with their parents and households were assessed using Chi square test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression. Results The total immunization coverage was 50.2% (CI, 45.71; 54.69). Parental knowledge of the preventive value of immunization was positively related to complete immunization status (p = 0.03) in rural areas. Children of parents who reported a perception of communication problems surrounding immunization had a lower immunization coverage rate (p < 0.001). No distance related difference exists in terms of complete immunization coverage within villages and between villages outside the site of the health centres. Children of non-educated fathers in rural areas have higher rates of complete immunization coverage than those in the urban area (p = 0.028). Good communication about immunization and the importance of availability of immunization booklets, as well as economic and religious factors appear to positively affect children's immunization status. Conclusion Vaccination sites in remote areas are intended to provide a greater

  12. Prevalence, awareness and risk factors associated with Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ngaira, Jacqueline Asundula Malungu; Kimotho, James; Mirigi, Isaac; Osman, Saida; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Lwembe, Raphael; Ochwoto, Missiani

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B Viral Infection (HBV) remains one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally accounting for 38-53% of chronic liver diseases and about 686,000 deaths annually. The prevalence of HBV is 9-20% in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in Kenya it is 5-30% among the general population and 9.4% among pregnant women. This study was aimed at identifying the prevalence, awareness and risk factors associated with HBV infections among pregnant women attending Antenatal clinic (ANC) at Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi. This was a cross-sectional study involving 287 pregnant women enrolled for three months (September to December 2014) from Nairobi and neighbouring counties. A structured questionnaire that captured social, demographic and explanatory variables was administered to the study participants. Blood samples were also drawn from the participants and tested for HBV using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) system. The study established that the prevalence of HBV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital was 3.8% with highest infection rate among the 20-24 years age group. Seventy six (60.8 %) of the participants reported sexual encounters in less than a month before the interview of which 5 (7.6%) reported encounters involving other partners apart from their spouses. HBV awareness among the study participants was 12.2%. Before the interview, those with at least tertiary education (Mean =1.33, SD = 1.131), were more informed about HBV infection as compared to those with primary and secondary education (Mean = 0.63, SD = 0.722; (Mean =0.31, SD= 0.664). In regards to assessment of the risk factors; type of family (χ(²) =19.753 df2 p<0.01), parity (χ(²) =7.128 df2 p<0.01), History of abortions (χ(²)=9.094 df1 p<0.01), early age (11-15 years) at first sexual encounter (χ(²) =8.185 df1 p<0.01) were significantly associated with HBV positivity. The prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women

  13. Genome-wide association study of heat tolerance of developing leaves during vegetative growth stages in a sorghum association panel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress reduces grain yield and quality worldwide. Enhancing heat tolerance of crops is one of the essential strategies required for sustaining agricultural production, especially as frequent temperature extremes escalates due to climate change. Although heat tolerance mechanisms have been stud...

  14. Preliminary conceptual design for geothermal space heating conversion of school district 50 joint facilities at Pagosa Springs, Colorado. GTA report no. 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engen, I. A.

    1981-11-01

    This feasibility study and preliminary conceptual design effect assesses the conversion of a high school and gym, and a middle school building to geothermal space heating is assessed. A preliminary cost benefit assessment made on the basis of estimated costs for conversion, system maintenance, debt service, resource development, electricity to power pumps, and savings from from reduced natural gas consumption concluded that an economic conversion depended on development of an adequate geothermal resource (approximately 1500F, 400 gpm). Material selection assumed that the geothermal water to the main supply system was isolated to minimize effects of corrosion and deposition, and that system compatible components are used for the building modifications. Asbestos cement distribution pipe, a stainless steel heat exchanger, and stainless steel lined valves were recommended for the supply, heat transfer, and disposal mechanisms, respectively. A comparison of the calculated average gas consumption cost, escalated at 10% per year, with conversion project cost, both in 1977 dollars, showed that the project could be amortized over less than 20 years at current interest rates.

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10-24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents' educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Despite girls' knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels.

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  17. Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock.

    PubMed

    Brüwer, Jan D; Agrawal, Shobhit; Liew, Yi Jin; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R

    2017-08-17

    Stony corals provide the structural foundation of coral reef ecosystems and are termed holobionts given they engage in symbioses, in particular with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Besides Symbiodinium, corals also engage with bacteria affecting metabolism, immunity, and resilience of the coral holobiont, but the role of associated viruses is largely unknown. In this regard, the increase of studies using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess gene expression provides an opportunity to elucidate viral signatures encompassed within the data via careful delineation of sequence reads and their source of origin. Here, we re-analyzed an RNA-Seq dataset from a cultured coral symbiont (Symbiodinium microadriaticum, Clade A1) across four experimental treatments (control, cold shock, heat shock, dark shock) to characterize associated viral diversity, abundance, and gene expression. Our approach comprised the filtering and removal of host sequence reads, subsequent phylogenetic assignment of sequence reads of putative viral origin, and the assembly and analysis of differentially expressed viral genes. About 15.46% (123 million) of all sequence reads were non-host-related, of which <1% could be classified as archaea, bacteria, or virus. Of these, 18.78% were annotated as virus and comprised a diverse community consistent across experimental treatments. Further, non-host related sequence reads assembled into 56,064 contigs, including 4856 contigs of putative viral origin that featured 43 differentially expressed genes during heat shock. The differentially expressed genes included viral kinases, ubiquitin, and ankyrin repeat proteins (amongst others), which are suggested to help the virus proliferate and inhibit the algal host's antiviral response. Our results suggest that a diverse viral community is associated with coral algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium, which prompts further research on their ecological role in coral health and resilience.

  18. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io from HISAKI satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kagitani, Masato; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Kimura, Tomoki; Murakami, Go; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Nozawa, Hiromasa; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in the Io plasma torus (IPT) was discovered by the Voyager spacecraft, showing evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, its detailed properties and the cause of electron heating are still open issues. The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph on board the HISAKI satellite continuously observed the IPT from the end of December 2013 to the middle of January 2014. The variation in the IPT brightness showed that clear periodicity associated with Io's orbital period (42 h) and that the bright region was located downstream of Io. The amplitude of the periodic variation was larger at short wavelengths than at long wavelengths. From spectral analyses, we found that Io-correlated brightening is caused by the increase in the hot electron population in the region downstream of Io. We also found that the brightness depends on the system III longitude and found primary and secondary peaks in the longitude ranges of 100-130° and 250-340°, respectively. Io's orbit crosses the center of the IPT around these longitudes. This longitude dependence suggests that the electron heating process is related to the plasma density around Io. The total radiated power from the IPT in January 2014 was estimated to be 1.4 TW in the wavelength range from 60 to 145 nm. The Io-correlated component produced 10% of this total radiated power. The interaction between Io and the IPT continuously produces a large amount of energy around Io, and 140 GW of that energy is immediately converted to hot electron production in the IPT.

  19. 3D modelling of hydrothermal alteration associated with VHMS deposits in the Kristineberg area, Skellefte district, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielowski, Riia M.; Jansson, Nils; Persson, Mac Fjellerad; Fagerström, Pia

    2016-01-01

    This contribution presents a 3D assessment of metamorphosed and deformed, hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, hosting the massive sulphide deposits of the Kristineberg area in the 1.9 Ga Skellefte mining district in northern Sweden, using six calculated alteration parameters: the Ishikawa alteration index, the chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and calculated net mass changes in MgO, SiO2, Na2O and Ba. The results, which are also available as film clips in the Supplementary data, confirm inferences from geological mapping; namely that the sericite- and chlorite-rich alteration zones have complex and cross-cutting geometries and that most of these zones are semi-regional in extent and range continuously from surface to over a kilometre deep. The major known massive sulphide deposits occur proximal to zones characterised by coincidence of high values for the alteration index and chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and large MgO gains, which corresponds to zones rich in magnesian silicates. These zones are interpreted as the original chlorite-rich, proximal parts the alteration systems, and form anomalies extending up to 400 m away from the sulphide lenses. In addition, the stratigraphically highest VHMS are hosted by rocks rich in tremolite, talc, chlorite and dolomite with lesser clinozoisite, which have high chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and low-medium alteration index values, reflecting a greater importance of some chlorite-carbonate alteration at this stratigraphic level. Vectoring towards massive sulphide deposits in this area can be improved by combining the AI and CCPI indexes with calculated mass changes for key mobile elements. Of the ones modelled in this study, MgO and SiO2 appear to be the most useful.

  20. [Association between family history and the risk of hypertension in rural districts of Hanzhong in Shaanxi province].

    PubMed

    Wu, X Y; Li, Q; Yan, H; Liu, D M; Gao, J Y; Zhao, Y L

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence of hypertension and quantitative relationship between family history and the risk of hypertension among rural residents living in Hanzhong District, Shaanxi province. Methods: A multistage random sampling survey was conducted. Data on the characteristics related to hypertension were collected and physical examination was conducted. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between family history and hypertension. Results: A total number of 2 817 rural residents aged 18-80 with complete information were recruited. The crude prevalence of hypertension was 33.7%. Results from the logistic regression analysis showed that the OR was 2.06 (95% CI: 1.70-2.50) between family histories with or without hypertension. When the first-degree relatives were with the degrees of family history of hypertention as Ⅰ, Ⅱ or Ⅲ, the OR values of hypertension appeared as 1.83 (95% CI: 1.47-2.27), 2.94 (95% CI: 2.09-4.13) and 4.48 (95% CI: 2.17-9.27) respectively. Either father or mother having the positive family history of hypertension, the corresponding OR values appeared as 2.50 (95% CI: 1.84-3.40), 1.61(95% CI: 1.22-2.12) seen in mothers. However, when both father and mother having the family history of hypertention, the OR value was seen 2.82 (95%CI: 1.76-4.51) in the mothers. Conclusion: Family history appeared as a risk factor for hypertension. The number of first-degree relatives with positive family history showed a dose-response relationship to the occurrence of hypertension. Family history in both father or mother might further affect the incidence of hypertension.

  1. Operational issues and trends associated with the pilot introduction of zinc for childhood diarrhoea in Bougouni district, Mali.

    PubMed

    Winch, Peter J; Gilroy, Kate E; Doumbia, Seydou; Patterson, Amy E; Daou, Zana; Diawara, Adama; Swedberg, Eric; Black, Robert E; Fontaine, Olivier

    2008-06-01

    Zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea was introduced in a pilot area in southern Mali to prepare for a cluster-randomized effectiveness study and to inform policies on how to best introduce and promote zinc at the community level. Dispersible zinc tablets in 14-tablet blister packs were provided through community health centres and drug kits managed by community health workers (CHWs) in two health zones in Bougouni district, Mali. Village meetings and individual counselling provided by CHWs and head nurses at health centres were the principal channels of communication. A combination of methods were employed to (a) detect problems in communication about the benefits of zinc and its mode of administration; (b) identify and resolve obstacles to implementation of zinc through existing health services; and (c) describe household-level constraints to the adoption of appropriate home-management practices for diarrhoea, including administration of both zinc and oral rehydration solution (ORS). Population-based household surveys with caretakers of children sick in the previous two weeks were carried out before and four months after the introduction of zinc supplementation. Household follow-up visits with children receiving zinc from the health centres and CHWs were conducted on day 3 and 14 after treatment for a subsample of children. A qualitative process evaluation also was conducted to investigate operational issues. Preliminary evidence from this study suggests that the introduction of zinc does not reduce the use of ORS and may reduce inappropriate antibiotic use for childhood diarrhoea. Financial access to treatments, management of concurrent diarrhoea and fever, and high use of unauthorized drug vendors were identified as factors affecting the effectiveness of the intervention in this setting. The introduction of zinc, if not appropriately integrated with other disease-control strategies, has the potential to decrease the appropriate presumptive treatment of

  2. Strengthening of Ocean Heat Uptake Efficiency Associated with the Recent Climate Hiatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Kamae, Youichi; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Oka, Akira; Sato, Makiko; Ishii, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Kimoto, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    The rate of increase of global-mean surface air temperature (SAT(sub g)) has apparently slowed during the last decade. We investigated the extent to which state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) can capture this hiatus period by using multimodel ensembles of historical climate simulations. While the SAT(sub g) linear trend for the last decade is not captured by their ensemble means regardless of differences in model generation and external forcing, it is barely represented by an 11-member ensemble of a GCM, suggesting an internal origin of the hiatus associated with active heat uptake by the oceans. Besides, we found opposite changes in ocean heat uptake efficiency (k), weakening in models and strengthening in nature, which explain why the models tend to overestimate the SAT(sub g) trend. The weakening of k commonly found in GCMs seems to be an inevitable response of the climate system to global warming, suggesting the recovery from hiatus in coming decades.

  3. Strengthening of Ocean Heat Uptake Efficiency Associated with the Recent Climate Hiatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Kamae, Youichi; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Oka, Akira; Sato, Makiko; Ishii, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Kimoto, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    The rate of increase of global-mean surface air temperature (SAT(sub g)) has apparently slowed during the last decade. We investigated the extent to which state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) can capture this hiatus period by using multimodel ensembles of historical climate simulations. While the SAT(sub g) linear trend for the last decade is not captured by their ensemble means regardless of differences in model generation and external forcing, it is barely represented by an 11-member ensemble of a GCM, suggesting an internal origin of the hiatus associated with active heat uptake by the oceans. Besides, we found opposite changes in ocean heat uptake efficiency (k), weakening in models and strengthening in nature, which explain why the models tend to overestimate the SAT(sub g) trend. The weakening of k commonly found in GCMs seems to be an inevitable response of the climate system to global warming, suggesting the recovery from hiatus in coming decades.

  4. A nuclear protein associated with lethal heat shock of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Pipkin, J L; Hinson, W G; Lyn-Cook, L E; Burns, E R; Sheehan, D; Casciano, D A

    1992-09-01

    The responses to stress in living cells are well known. Thermal stress causes decreased protein synthesis as well as rapid induction of heat shock proteins (hsps), or alternately termed stress proteins (sps). The exposure of cultured promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) to a 45 degrees C lethal heat shock for 1 h elicited synthesis and phosphorylation of a polypeptide M(r) 48,000 and pI 7.5 (p 48) as visualized by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel ultra-microelectrophoresis. p 48, which was not observed at sublethal temperatures (39 and 41 degrees C), was synthesized during all phases of the cell cycle but was phosphorylated only in G0 + G1 and S-phases. The appearance of p 48 was marked by a concomitant and reciprocal reduction in hsps or sps 70 and 90. Distinct protease V8 fragment maps of p 48, hsps 70 and 90 in conjunction with immunochemical determination indicated vast differences in their primary structures. These facts suggest that p 48 was not formed from coalesced breakdown products of hsps 70 or 90. Western blotting showed that p 48 possessed the same immunochemical determinants as two other proteins with the same molecular mass but different isoelectric points. In an association assay, p 48 was shown to bind with actins and hsp 90 from HL-60 nuclei.

  5. Associations between Meteorological Parameters and Influenza Activity in Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and Israeli Districts

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Gross, Diane; Jorgensen, Pernille; Buda, Silke; Bromberg, Michal; Kaufman, Zalman; Prosenc, Katarina; Socan, Maja; Vega Alonso, Tomás; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies in the literature have indicated that the timing of seasonal influenza epidemic varies across latitude, suggesting the involvement of meteorological and environmental conditions in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we investigated the link between meteorological parameters and influenza activity in 9 sub-national areas with temperate and subtropical climates: Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and all 6 districts in Israel. Methods We estimated weekly influenza-associated influenza-like-illness (ILI) or Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) incidence to represent influenza activity using data from each country’s sentinel surveillance during 2000–2011 (Spain) and 2006–2011 (all others). Meteorological data was obtained from ground stations, satellite and assimilated data. Two generalized additive models (GAM) were developed, with one using specific humidity as a covariate and another using minimum temperature. Precipitation and solar radiation were included as additional covariates in both models. The models were adjusted for previous weeks’ influenza activity, and were trained separately for each study location. Results Influenza activity was inversely associated (p<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations. Minimum temperature was inversely associated with influenza in all 3 temperate locations, but not in all subtropical locations. Inverse associations between influenza and solar radiation were found in most locations. Associations with precipitation were location-dependent and inconclusive. We used the models to estimate influenza activity a week ahead for the 2010/2011 period which was not used in training the models. With exception of Ljubljana and Israel’s Haifa District, the models could closely follow the observed data especially during the start and the end of epidemic period. In these locations, correlation coefficients between the observed and estimated ranged between 0.55 to 0.91and

  6. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  7. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  8. Heat shock factor 2 is associated with the occurrence of lung cancer by enhancing the expression of heat shock proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yun-Hua; Cheng, Hong-Zhong; Peng, Hao; Tang, Shi-Cong; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly lung cancer. Heat shock proteins and their upstream heat shock factors are involved in the occurrence of cancer and have been widely researched. However, the role of heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) in lung cancer remains unclear. In the present study, expression levels of HSF2 in lung cancer tissues from 50 lung cancer patients were detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and 76% (38/50) were upregulated compared with the matched normal tissues. This suggested possible involvement of HSF2 in lung cancer. To additionally investigate the role of HSF2 in lung cancer occurrence, a plasmid encoding HSF2 was constructed. HSF2 was over expressed in normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and lung cancer A549 cells. The results showed that HSF2 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and cell migration in BEAS-2B and A549 cells. Additional experiments showed that the HSF2-induced cell proliferation and cell migration were dependent on induction of HSPs, particularly HSP27 and HSP90, as co-transfection of HSP27 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or HSP90 siRNA attenuated HSF2-induced cell growth and migration. In conclusion, the present study showed that HSF2 is aberrantly expressed in lung cancer, and it may be an upstream regulator of HSPs, which may strongly affect cell growth and cell migration. Additional studies are required to explain the detailed mechanism between lung cancer, HSF2, HSPs and other possible signaling pathways. PMID:28101237

  9. Association analysis of heat shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Jin; Mandelli, Laura; Lim, Suzy; Lim, Hyun Kook; Kwon, Oh Joo; Pae, Chi Un; Serretti, Alessandro; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Paik, In-Ho; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2008-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a promising candidate gene in schizophrenia as they are believed to play a protective role in the central nervous system. An alteration in the titers of antibodies to the HSPs in schizophrenia patients has been suggested. Association between the three polymorphisms of HSP70-1 (HSPA1A), HSP70-hom (HSPA1L) and HSP70-2 (HSPA1B) and schizophrenia has been reported. Therefore, this study investigated the association between an enlarged set of SNPs at HSP70 gene and schizophrenia. Two hundred and ninety-four patients with schizophrenia and 287 controls were enrolled in the study. Genotypings of 5 SNPs of HSP70 were performed using pyrosequencing method. Haploview 3.2 was used to generate a linkage disequilibrium map and to test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Single locus and haplotype-based associations were tested. Tests for associations using and multi-marker haplotypes were performed by using a COCAPHASE v2.403. Association of SNP markers and clinical variables were analyzed by analysis of variance. Significant association was detected at rs2075799 (allele A, X2 = 8.03, df = 1, P = 0.0046), but not at rs2227956 (P = 0.28), rs1043618 (P = 0.88), rs562047 (P = 0.47) or rs539689 (P = 0.32). In fact, the rs2075799*G/A genotype was more represented in patients with schizophrenia than in controls (X2 = 8.23, df= 1, P = 0.0041). Haplotype based associations were also detected (global P value 0.000003); the T-A-C-C-G haplotype was more prevalent among the patients (odds ratio, OR 5.95). Sliding windows analysis revealed a major contribution from rs2227956 and rs2075799 (global-P value 0.0075), with T-A haplotype significantly associated with schizophrenia. There was no evidence of an association between the clinical variables and schizophrenia across the genotypes. Our results raise the possibility that HSP70 gene (i.e., haplotypes of rs2075799) might be implicated in the development of schizophrenia, although limited by rare haplotypic

  10. Observation of a heated electron population associated with the 6300 A SAR arc emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.; Slater, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Conjunctive observations of the Dynamics Explorer satellite pair and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory scanning photometer unit at Richland, WA have allowed identification of the low energy, heated, electron population associated with the 6300 A Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arc emission. Measurements over the SAR arc on day 296 of 1981 show an enhanced flux in the low altitude 5-12 eV electrons. Analysis of this electron population shows them to be fairly Maxwellian, with temperatures on the order of 9900 + or - 1100 K and an earthward field aligned velocity of approximately 275 + or - 60 km/sec. The electrons are not accompanied by ion precipitation. The ion loss cone is empty at least as high as 6000 km. This fact may cast some doubt as to the role of the ring current ions in the SAR arc production.

  11. Heat-shock protein dysregulation is associated with functional and pathological TDP-43 aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Hou, Shin-Chen; Way, Tzong-Der; Wong, Chi-Huey; Wang, I.-Fan

    2013-11-01

    Conformational disorders are involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major contributors to neurodegenerative disease; however, ROS that affect the structural changes in misfolded disease proteins have yet to be well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the intrinsic propensity of TDP-43 to aggregate drives the assembly of TDP-43-positive stress granules and soluble toxic TDP-43 oligomers in response to a ROS insult via a disulfide crosslinking-independent mechanism. Notably, ROS-induced TDP-43 protein assembly correlates with the dynamics of certain TDP-43-associated chaperones. The heat-shock protein (HSP)-90 inhibitor 17-AAG prevents ROS-induced TDP-43 aggregation, alters the type of TDP-43 multimers and reduces the severity of pathological TDP-43 inclusions. In summary, our study suggests that a common mechanism could be involved in the pathogenesis of conformational diseases that result from HSP dysregulation.

  12. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

  14. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

  15. Heat shock transcription factor 1-deficiency attenuates overloading-associated hypertrophy of mouse soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Koya, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Sono; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Ikuta, Akihiro; Suzuki, Miho; Ohira, Tomotaka; Egawa, Tatsuro; Nakai, Akira; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Beppu, Moroe; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (p<0.05). Significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor mRNAs were observed in HSF1-null, but not in wild-type, mice following 2 weeks of overloading. Overloading-related increases of IL-6 and AFT3 mRNA expressions seen after 2 weeks of overloading tended to decrease after 4 weeks in both types of mice. In HSF1-null mice, however, the significant overloading-related increase in the expression of IL-6, not ATF3, mRNA was noted even at 4th week. Inhibition of muscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  16. Heat Shock Transcription Factor 1-Deficiency Attenuates Overloading-Associated Hypertrophy of Mouse Soleus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Sono; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Ikuta, Akihiro; Suzuki, Miho; Ohira, Tomotaka; Egawa, Tatsuro; Nakai, Akira; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Beppu, Moroe; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (p<0.05). Significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor mRNAs were observed in HSF1-null, but not in wild-type, mice following 2 weeks of overloading. Overloading-related increases of IL-6 and AFT3 mRNA expressions seen after 2 weeks of overloading tended to decrease after 4 weeks in both types of mice. In HSF1-null mice, however, the significant overloading-related increase in the expression of IL-6, not ATF3, mRNA was noted even at 4th week. Inhibition of muscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. PMID:24167582

  17. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Arega Sadore, Abinet; Abebe Gebretsadik, Lakew; Aman Hussen, Mamusha

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777)), knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537)), and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368)) were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation. PMID:26839573

  18. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  19. Household Food Insecurity and Its Association with Nutritional Status of Children 6-59 Months of Age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Betebo, Bealu; Ejajo, Tekle; Alemseged, Fissahaye; Massa, Desalegn

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. Food insecurity is one of the determinant factors of malnutrition in developing countries; however its role remains unclear. Objective. To assess household food insecurity and its association with the nutritional status of children 6-59 months of age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 20 to 30, 2014 on a sample of 508 mother/child pairs of 6-59-month-old children. Sample households with eligible children were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with nutritional status of children. P value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of household food insecurity was 75.8%. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children were 45.6%, 26.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Household food insecurity was significantly associated with underweight (AOR = 3.82; CI = 1.78-8.19) and stunting (AOR = 6.7; CI = 3.71-12.1) but not with wasting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Household food insecurity and the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting, among children 6 to 59 months, were high. Intervention programs should focus on improving household food insecurity and nutritional status of children.

  20. Household Food Insecurity and Its Association with Nutritional Status of Children 6–59 Months of Age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ejajo, Tekle; Alemseged, Fissahaye; Massa, Desalegn

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. Food insecurity is one of the determinant factors of malnutrition in developing countries; however its role remains unclear. Objective. To assess household food insecurity and its association with the nutritional status of children 6–59 months of age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 20 to 30, 2014 on a sample of 508 mother/child pairs of 6–59-month-old children. Sample households with eligible children were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with nutritional status of children. P value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of household food insecurity was 75.8%. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children were 45.6%, 26.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Household food insecurity was significantly associated with underweight (AOR = 3.82; CI = 1.78–8.19) and stunting (AOR = 6.7; CI = 3.71–12.1) but not with wasting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Household food insecurity and the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting, among children 6 to 59 months, were high. Intervention programs should focus on improving household food insecurity and nutritional status of children. PMID:28408936

  1. Household flood preparedness and associated factors in the flood-prone community of Dembia district, Amhara National Regional State, northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ashenefe, Baye; Wubshet, Mamo; Shimeka, Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Background Flood preparedness empowers the community to respond effectively to related hazards. However, there was no research done in the country concerning household flood preparedness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess household flood preparedness and associated factors in the flood-prone community of Dembia district, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2014 in the Dembia district. A two-stage sampling technique was used. The study was conducted using 806 flood-prone participants. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The collected data were entered using Epi info version 3.5.1 and transported into SPSS version 16 for further analysis. Descriptive and analytic statistics were computed. Variables having association with the outcome variable were reported using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). Model fitness was checked by Hosmer and Lemeshew chi-square test. Results Household flood preparedness was found to be 24.4%. The age group of ≥ 46 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.62; 95% CI: 1.12, 6.00) above, monthly household income >893 Ethiopian Birr, (AOR=6.72; 95% CI: 2.2 7, 19.88) attending primary level education (AOR=22.08; 95% CI: 8.16, 59.74), warning system in household (AOR=5.41; 95% CI: 2.38, 12.32), knowledge of flood prevention, (AOR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.43, 5.57) were positively associated with household flood preparedness. Conclusion and recommendation This study has demonstrated that household flood preparedness was found to be low in the study area. Household flood preparedness was significantly associated with the older age group, attending primary level education, having a higher monthly income, receive household level warning messages, having knowledge on preparedness, prior exposure to a flood, and length of flood >6 days. Strengthening household flood preparedness in advance is important in order to prevent flood and its related

  2. The origin of the initial heat associated with a single impulse in mammalian non-myelinated nerve fibres

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, J. V.; Keynes, R. D.; Ritchie, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the temperature changes associated with the passage of a single impulse in rabbit desheated vagus nerves. 2. The initial changes consist of an evolution of positive heat followed by a reabsorption of most of it; i.e. there is a phase of positive and a phase of negative heat production. 3. The size of the positive heat, its time of onset, and the time of onset of the negative heat have been measured by an analogue method of analysis. In addition, these parameters, together with the size of the negative heat and the duration of both phases of initial heat, have been studied with the aid of a computer, and also by conventional heat block analysis. 4. At about 5° C the measured positive heat is 7·2 μcal/g. impulse. It starts as soon as the compound action potential reaches the thermopile and lasts for about 107 msec. 5. This positive heat decreases with increasing temperature, the ratio of heat at 4° C to that at 14° C being 1·86. 6. The measured negative heat at about 5° C is 4·9 μcal/g. impulse. It starts 102 msec after the onset of positive heat, and lasts for about 240 msec. 7. When the sodium of Locke solution is replaced by lithium the positive heat is reduced by 19%, but the negative heat is increased by 22%. 8. In potassium-free solutions the positive heat is hardly affected (increase of 5%), but the negative heat is more than doubled. As a result the nerve may become briefly colder than its initial temperature by about 2 μ° C. 9. The effect of sodium-deficient solutions on the positive heat is somewhat variable, but the negative heat is consistently diminished. 10. Replacement of the chloride of Locke solution by sulphate or nitrate has little effect on the positive heat. The negative heat is reduced in size by 26% and in duration by 22%. 11. Replacement of most of the sodium of Locke solution by barium reduces or abolishes the negative heat, and increases the measured size of the positive heat nearly threefold. 12

  3. Agreement between Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, July 1, 1979 thru June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian River Community Coll., FL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter (125 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period July 1, 1979-June 30, 1981 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: recognition of AAUP,…

  4. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13…

  5. Agreement between the Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, August 1, 1986-July 31, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian River Community Coll., FL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period August 1, 1986-July 1, 1987 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: recognition of AAUP, strikes and…

  6. Agreement, 1989-1992, between the Board of Community College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association, a Chapter of the Cook County College Teachers Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Community College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois, and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1989 to June 30, 1992, deals with the following topics: definitions; bargaining agent recognition;…

  7. Association Between Health Symptoms and Particulate Matter from Traffic and Residential Heating − Results from RHINE III in Tartu

    PubMed Central

    Pindus, Mihkel; Orru, Hans; Maasikmets, Marek; Kaasik, Marko; Jõgi, Rain

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traffic and residential heating are the main sources of particulate matter (PM) in Northern Europe. Wood is widely used for residential heating and vehicle numbers are increasing. Besides traffic exhaust, studded tires produce road dust that is the main source of traffic-related PM10. Several studies have associated total PM mass with health symptoms; however there has been little research on the effects of PM from specific sources. Objective: To study the health effects resulting from traffic and local heating PM. Methods: Data on respiratory and cardiac diseases were collected within the framework of RHINE III (2011/2012) in Tartu, Estonia. Respondents’ geocoded home addresses were mapped in ArcGIS and linked with local heating-related PM2.5, traffic-related PM10 and total PM2.5 concentrations. Association between self-reported health and PM was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The annual mean modelled exposure for local heating PM2.5 was 2.3 μg/m3, for traffic PM10 3.3 μg/m3 and for all sources PM2.5 5.6 μg/m3. We found relationship between traffic induced PM10 as well as all sources induced PM2.5 with cardiac disease, OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.06−1.93) and 1.42 (95% CI 1.02−1.95), respectively. However, we did not find any significant association between residential heating induced particles and self-reported health symptoms. People with longer and better confirmed exposure period were also significantly associated with traffic induced PM10, all sources induced PM2.5 and cardiac diseases. Conclusion: Traffic-related PM10 and all sources induced PM2.5 associated with cardiac disease; whereas residential heating induced particles did not. PMID:27843509

  8. Association Between Health Symptoms and Particulate Matter from Traffic and Residential Heating - Results from RHINE III in Tartu.

    PubMed

    Pindus, Mihkel; Orru, Hans; Maasikmets, Marek; Kaasik, Marko; Jõgi, Rain

    2016-01-01

    Traffic and residential heating are the main sources of particulate matter (PM) in Northern Europe. Wood is widely used for residential heating and vehicle numbers are increasing. Besides traffic exhaust, studded tires produce road dust that is the main source of traffic-related PM10. Several studies have associated total PM mass with health symptoms; however there has been little research on the effects of PM from specific sources. To study the health effects resulting from traffic and local heating PM. Data on respiratory and cardiac diseases were collected within the framework of RHINE III (2011/2012) in Tartu, Estonia. Respondents' geocoded home addresses were mapped in ArcGIS and linked with local heating-related PM2.5, traffic-related PM10 and total PM2.5 concentrations. Association between self-reported health and PM was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. The annual mean modelled exposure for local heating PM2.5 was 2.3 μg/m(3), for traffic PM10 3.3 μg/m(3) and for all sources PM2.5 5.6 μg/m(3). We found relationship between traffic induced PM10 as well as all sources induced PM2.5 with cardiac disease, OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.06-1.93) and 1.42 (95% CI 1.02-1.95), respectively. However, we did not find any significant association between residential heating induced particles and self-reported health symptoms. People with longer and better confirmed exposure period were also significantly associated with traffic induced PM10, all sources induced PM2.5 and cardiac diseases. Traffic-related PM10 and all sources induced PM2.5 associated with cardiac disease; whereas residential heating induced particles did not.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature during heat stress experience lower milk yield and fertility. Given that rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable in dairy cattle, genetic selection for regulation of body temperature should reduce effects of heat stress on production. One goal...

  10. Heat-shock treatment-mediated increase in transduction by recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 vectors is independent of the cellular heat-shock protein 90.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Li; Qing, Keyun; Si, Yue; Chen, Linyuan; Tan, Mengqun; Srivastava, Arun

    2004-03-26

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV) vectors transduction efficiency varies greatly in different cell types. We have described that a cellular protein, FKBP52, in its phosphorylated form interacts with the D-sequence in the viral inverted terminal repeat, inhibits viral second strand DNA synthesis, and limits transgene expression. Here we investigated the role of cellular heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in AAV transduction because FKBP52 forms a complex with HSP90, and because heat-shock treatment augments AAV transduction efficiency. Heat-shock treatment of HeLa cells resulted in tyrosine dephosphorylation of FKBP52, led to stabilization of the FKBP52-HSP90 complex, and resulted in approximately 6-fold increase in AAV transduction. However, when HeLa cells were pre-treated with tyrphostin 23, a specific inhibitor of cellular epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which phosphorylates FKBP52 at tyrosine residues, heat-shock treatment resulted in a further 18-fold increase in AAV transduction. HSP90 was shown to be a part of the FKBP52-AAV D-sequence complex, but HSP90 by itself did not bind to the D-sequence. Geldanamycin treatment, which disrupts the HSP90-FKBP52 complex, resulted in >22-fold increase in AAV transduction in heat-shock-treated cells compared with heat shock alone. Deliberate overexpression of the human HSP90 gene resulted in a significant decrease in AAV-mediated transduction in tyrphostin 23-treated cells, whereas down-modulation of HSP90 levels led to a decrease in HSP90-FKBP52-AAV D-sequence complex formation, resulting in a significant increase in AAV transduction following pre-treatment with tyrphostin 23. These studies suggest that the observed increase in AAV transduction efficiency following heat-shock treatment is unlikely to be mediated by HSP90 alone and that increased levels of HSP90, in the absence of heat shock, facilitate binding of FKBP52 to the AAV D-sequence, thereby leading to inhibition of AAV-mediated transgene

  11. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves over the Chickasaw Nation in the South Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Basara Richter, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (>2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (>1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  12. A cross-sectional study to assess the stigma associated with tuberculosis among tuberculosis patients in Udupi district, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Shivapujimath, R; Rao, A P; Nilima, A R; Shilpa, D M

    2017-10-01

    For decades, tuberculosis and other communicable diseases like human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, leprosy, etc., have been associated with stigma and discrimination by the society; this can interfere with the lifestyle and disease management among these patients. To assess the stigma experienced by tuberculosis patients and to find the factors associated with stigma. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 209 sputum-positive and sputum-negative tuberculosis patients. Convenient sampling was used to identify the patients. A predesigned, pretested proforma from Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue developed by World Health Organization was used for data collection. The study revealed that out of 209 respondents, 51.2% of the respondents experienced some form of stigma. Majority of the patients have received only primary education and 71.3% of the respondents were males. Most of the patients were under category 1 of Directly Observed Treatment Short course. Age, education, and smear status of the patient were found to be associated with stigmatization (P<0.05), whereas factors like gender, income, occupation, family history, and marital status were found to be not significantly associated with stigmatization. Effective counseling measures are recommended for tuberculosis patients with advancing age and education which can help reduce stigmatization and thereby improve quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acoustic streaming induced by ultrasonic flexural vibrations and associated enhancement of convective heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Byoung-Gook; Hyun, Sinjae; Ro, Paul I.; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2002-02-01

    Acoustic streaming induced by ultrasonic flexural vibrations and the associated convection enhancement are investigated. Acoustic streaming pattern, streaming velocity, and associated heat transfer characteristics are experimentally observed. Moreover, analytical analysis based on Nyborg's formulation is performed along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation using a numerical solver CFX 4.3. Two distinctive acoustic streaming patterns in half-wavelength of the flexural vibrations are observed, which agree well with the theory. However, acoustic streaming velocities obtained from CFD simulation, based on the incompressible flow assumption, exceed the theoretically estimated velocity by a factor ranging from 10 to 100, depending upon the location along the beam. Both CFD simulation and analytical analysis reveal that the acoustic streaming velocity is proportional to the square of the vibration amplitude and the wavelength of the vibrating beam that decreases with the excitation frequency. It is observed that the streaming velocity decreases with the excitation frequency. Also, with an open-ended channel, a substantial increase in streaming velocity is observed from CFD simulations. Using acoustic streaming, a temperature drop of 40 °C with a vibration amplitude of 25 μm at 28.4 kHz is experimentally achieved.

  14. Acoustic streaming induced by ultrasonic flexural vibrations and associated enhancement of convective heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Loh, Byoung-Gook; Hyun, Sinjae; Ro, Paul I; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2002-02-01

    Acoustic streaming induced by ultrasonic flexural vibrations and the associated convection enhancement are investigated. Acoustic streaming pattern, streaming velocity, and associated heat transfer characteristics are experimentally observed. Moreover, analytical analysis based on Nyborg's formulation is performed along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation using a numerical solver CFX 4.3. Two distinctive acoustic streaming patterns in half-wavelength of the flexural vibrations are observed, which agree well with the theory. However, acoustic streaming velocities obtained from CFD simulation, based on the incompressible flow assumption, exceed the theoretically estimated velocity by a factor ranging from 10 to 100, depending upon the location along the beam. Both CFD simulation and analytical analysis reveal that the acoustic streaming velocity is proportional to the square of the vibration amplitude and the wavelength of the vibrating beam that decreases with the excitation frequency. It is observed that the streaming velocity decreases with the excitation frequency. Also, with an open-ended channel, a substantial increase in streaming velocity is observed from CFD simulations. Using acoustic streaming, a temperature drop of 40 degrees C with a vibration amplitude of 25 microm at 28.4 kHz is experimentally achieved.

  15. Secondary Trauma and Job Burnout and Associated Factors among HIV Lay Counsellors in Nkangala District, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary trauma and job burnout and associated factors in a sample of 71 HIV lay counsellors in South Africa. Results indicate that 49.5% were not satisfied with their work environment and 51.4% were potentially secondary traumatic stress cases. In univariate analysis, seeing more HIV counselling and testing…

  16. Agreement between Board of Trustees, West Kern Community College District and Taft College Faculty Association, 1988-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft Coll., CA.

    This contractual agreement outlines the terms of employment in effect from 1988 to 1989. The 12 articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1) parties to the agreement; (2) recognition of the association as exclusive representative; (3) definition of terms; (4) professional dues or fees and payroll deductions; (5) personal and…

  17. Secondary Trauma and Job Burnout and Associated Factors among HIV Lay Counsellors in Nkangala District, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary trauma and job burnout and associated factors in a sample of 71 HIV lay counsellors in South Africa. Results indicate that 49.5% were not satisfied with their work environment and 51.4% were potentially secondary traumatic stress cases. In univariate analysis, seeing more HIV counselling and testing…

  18. Genetic polymorphisms within exon 3 of heat shock protein 90AA1 gene and its association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal cows

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, I. D.; Verma, Archana; Verma, Nishant; Vineeth, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene and to analyze their association with respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) in Sahiwal cows. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Sahiwal cows (n=100) with the objectives to identify novel SNP in exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene and to explore the association with heat tolerance traits. CLUSTAL-W multiple sequence analysis was used to identify novel SNPs in exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene in Sahiwal cows. Gene and genotype frequencies of different genotypes were estimated by standard procedure POPGENE version 1.32 (University of Alberta, Canada). The significant effect of SNP variants on physiological parameters, e.g. RR and RT were analyzed using the General Linear model procedure of SAS Version 9.2. Results: The polymerase chain reaction product with the amplicon size of 450 bp was successfully amplified, covering exon 3 region of HSP90AA1 gene in Sahiwal cows. On the basis of comparative sequence analysis of Sahiwal samples (n=100), transitional mutations were detected at locus A1209G as compared to Bos taurus (NCBI GenBank AC_000178.1). After chromatogram analysis, three genotypes AA, AG, and GG with respective frequencies of 0.23, 0.50, and 0.27 ascertained. RR and RT were recorded once during probable extreme hours in winter, spring, and summer seasons. It was revealed that significant difference (p<0.01) among genetic variants of HSP90AA1 gene with heat tolerance trait was found in Sahiwal cattle. The homozygotic animals with AA genotype had lower heat tolerance coefficient (HTC) (1.78±0.04a), as compared to both AG and GG genotypes (1.85±0.03b and 1.91±0.02c), respectively. The gene and genotype frequencies for the locus A1209G were ascertained. Conclusions: Novel SNP was found at the A1209G position showed all possible three genotypes (homozygous and heterozygous). Temperature humidity index has a highly significant

  19. Whole-genome analysis reveals that active heat shock factor binding sites are mostly associated with non-heat shock genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Sarah E; Moses, Alan M; Razak, Zak; Robert, Francois; Westwood, J Timothy

    2011-01-14

    During heat shock (HS) and other stresses, HS gene transcription in eukaryotes is up-regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor (HSF). While the identities of the major HS genes have been known for more than 30 years, it has been suspected that HSF binds to numerous other genes and potentially regulates their transcription. In this study, we have used a chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray (ChIP-chip) approach to identify 434 regions in the Drosophila genome that are bound by HSF. We have also performed a transcript analysis of heat shocked Kc167 cells and third instar larvae and compared them to HSF binding sites. The heat-induced transcription profiles were quite different between cells and larvae and surprisingly only about 10% of the genes associated with HSF binding sites show changed transcription. There were also genes that showed changes in transcript levels that did not appear to correlate with HSF binding sites. Analysis of the locations of the HSF binding sites revealed that 57% were contained within genes with approximately 2/3rds of these sites being in introns. We also found that the insulator protein, BEAF, has enriched binding prior to HS to promoters of genes that are bound by HSF upon HS but that are not transcriptionally induced during HS. When the genes associated with HSF binding sites in promoters were analyzed for gene ontology terms, categories such as stress response and transferase activity were enriched whereas analysis of genes having HSF binding sites in introns identified those categories plus ones related to developmental processes and reproduction. These results suggest that Drosophila HSF may be regulating many genes besides the known HS genes and that some of these genes may be regulated during non-stress conditions.

  20. Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in settlement areas in the district of Juruena, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Irani Machado; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Galvão, Noemi Dreyer; Atanaka-Santos, Marina

    2012-09-01

    Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, Juruena, Mato Grosso in 2005 were analyzed. Two hundred settlers of both genders and aged 18 years and above were interviewed. The prevalence of malaria reported in 2005 was 33%. The prevalence ratio showed that the highest prevalence of malaria was found in individuals involved in gold mining activities (67%); who came from non-endemic areas (43%); had inadequate knowledge about the time of greatest activity of the vector (71%); and who reported being outside after 5 p.m. (59%). It was concluded that in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, factors such as occupation, origin, inadequate knowledge about where malaria is transmitted, inadequate knowledge about the time the mosquito usually bites and individual practices in relation to the peak period of mosquito activity were associated with malaria in 2005.

  1. Oxygen isotope, aeromagnetic, and gravity anomalies associated with hydrothermally altered zones in the Yankee Fork mining district, Custer County, Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Champion, D.E.; McIntyre, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Anomalous geochemical and geophysical properties correlate spatially with epithermal Ag-Au deposits in altered volcanic rocks. Areas of low 18O, low magnetic susceptibilities, low remanent magnetizations and relatively high rock densities are much larger than the zones of obvious (not shown) hydrothermal alteration. Low aeromagnetic intensities and positive Bouguer anomalies are also associated with the altered rock, as which has delta 18O <6per mille. The altering and mineralizing fluids were Tertiary meteoric waters.-G.J.N.

  2. Identification of genes associated with heat tolerance in Arctic charr exposed to acute thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Nicole L; McGowan, Colin R; Cooper, Glenn A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

    2011-06-15

    Arctic charr is an especially attractive aquaculture species given that it features the desirable tissue traits of other salmonids and is bred and grown at inland freshwater tank farms year round. It is of interest to develop upper temperature tolerant (UTT) strains of Arctic charr to increase the robustness of the species in the face of climate change and to enable production in more southern regions. We used a genomics approach that takes advantage of the well-studied Atlantic salmon genome to identify genes that are associated with UTT in Arctic charr. Specifically, we conducted an acute temperature trial to identify temperature tolerant and intolerant Arctic charr individuals, which were subject to microarray and qPCR analysis to identify candidate UTT genes. These were compared with genes annotated in a quantitative trait locus (QTL) region that was previously identified as associated with UTT in rainbow trout and Arctic charr and that we sequenced in Atlantic salmon. Our results suggest that small heat shock proteins as well as HSP-90 genes are associated with UTT. Furthermore, hemoglobin expression was significantly downregulated in tolerant compared with intolerant fish. Finally, QTL analysis and expression profiling identified COUP-TFII as a candidate UTT gene, although its specific role is unclear given the identification of two transcripts, which appear to have different expression patterns. Our results highlight the importance of using more than one approach to identify candidate genes, particularly when examining a complicated trait such as UTT in a highly complex genome for which there is no reference genome.

  3. Characteristics of Precipitation, Cloud, and Latent Heating Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K-M.; Wu, H-T.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of cloud and rainfall structures associated with Madden Julian oscillation (MJO) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. Two complementary indices are used to define MJO phases. Joint probability distribution functions (PDFs) of cloud-top temperature and radar echo-top height are constructed for each of the eight MJO phases. The genesis stage of MJO convection over the western Pacific (phases 1 and 2) features a bottom-heavy PDF, characterized by abundant warm rain, low clouds, suppressed deep convection, and higher sea surface temperature (SST). As MJO convection develops (phases 3 and 4), a transition from the bottom-heavy to top-heavy PDF occurs. The latter is associated with the development of mixed-phase rain and middle-to-high clouds, coupled with rapid SST cooling. At the MJO convection peak (phase 5), a top-heavy PDF contributed by deep convection with mixed-phase and ice-phase rain and high echo-top heights (greater than 5 km) dominates. The decaying stage (phases 6 and 7) is characterized by suppressed SST, reduced total rain, increased contribution from stratiform rain, and increased nonraining high clouds. Phase 7, in particular, signals the beginning of a return to higher SST and increased warm rain. Phase 8 completes the MJO cycle, returning to a bottom-heavy PDF and SST conditions similar to phase 1. The structural changes in rain and clouds at different phases of MJO are consistent with corresponding changes in derived latent heating profiles, suggesting the importance of a diverse mix of warm, mixed-phase, and ice-phase rain associated with low-level, congestus, and high clouds in constituting the life cycle and the time scales of MJO.

  4. Criteria for the diagnosis of heat-related deaths: National Association of Medical Examiners. Position paper. National Association of Medical Examiners Ad Hoc Committee on the Definition of Heat-Related Fatalities.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, E R; Graham, M A; Jentzen, J M; Lifschultz, B D; Luke, J L; Mirchandani, H G

    1997-03-01

    The National Association of Medical Examiners Ad Hoc Committee on the Definition of Heat-Related Fatalities recommends the following definition of "heat-related death": a death in which exposure to high ambient temperature either caused the death or significantly contributed to it. The committee also recommends that the diagnosis of heat-related death be based on a history of exposure to high ambient temperature and the reasonable exclusion of other causes of hyperthermia. The diagnosis may be established from the circumstances surrounding the death, investigative reports concerning environmental temperature, and/or measured antemortem body temperature at the time of collapse. In cases where the measured antemortem body temperature at the time of collapse was > or = 105 degrees F (> or = 40.6 degrees C), the cause of death should be certified as heat stroke or hyperthermia. Deaths may also be certified as heat stroke or hyperthermia with lower body temperatures when cooling has been attempted prior to arrival at the hospital and/or when there is a clinical history of mental status changes and elevated liver and muscle enzymes. In cases where the antemortem body temperature cannot be established but the environmental temperature at the time of collapse was high, an appropriate heat-related diagnosis should be listed as the cause of death or as a significant contributing condition.

  5. Impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat waves on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat waves were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat waves (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat waves (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat waves have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.

  6. Review on Microwave-Matter Interaction Fundamentals and Efficient Microwave-Associated Heating Strategies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Wenlong; Yue, Qinyan

    2016-03-25

    Microwave heating is rapidly emerging as an effective and efficient tool in various technological and scientific fields. A comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of microwave-matter interactions is the precondition for better utilization of microwave technology. However, microwave heating is usually only known as dielectric heating, and the contribution of the magnetic field component of microwaves is often ignored, which, in fact, contributes greatly to microwave heating of some aqueous electrolyte solutions, magnetic dielectric materials and certain conductive powder materials, etc. This paper focuses on this point and presents a careful review of microwave heating mechanisms in a comprehensive manner. Moreover, in addition to the acknowledged conventional microwave heating mechanisms, the special interaction mechanisms between microwave and metal-based materials are attracting increasing interest for a variety of metallurgical, plasma and discharge applications, and therefore are reviewed particularly regarding the aspects of the reflection, heating and discharge effects. Finally, several distinct strategies to improve microwave energy utilization efficiencies are proposed and discussed with the aim of tackling the energy-efficiency-related issues arising from the application of microwave heating. This work can present a strategic guideline for the developed understanding and utilization of the microwave heating technology.

  7. Review on Microwave-Matter Interaction Fundamentals and Efficient Microwave-Associated Heating Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Wenlong; Yue, Qinyan

    2016-01-01

    Microwave heating is rapidly emerging as an effective and efficient tool in various technological and scientific fields. A comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of microwave–matter interactions is the precondition for better utilization of microwave technology. However, microwave heating is usually only known as dielectric heating, and the contribution of the magnetic field component of microwaves is often ignored, which, in fact, contributes greatly to microwave heating of some aqueous electrolyte solutions, magnetic dielectric materials and certain conductive powder materials, etc. This paper focuses on this point and presents a careful review of microwave heating mechanisms in a comprehensive manner. Moreover, in addition to the acknowledged conventional microwave heating mechanisms, the special interaction mechanisms between microwave and metal-based materials are attracting increasing interest for a variety of metallurgical, plasma and discharge applications, and therefore are reviewed particularly regarding the aspects of the reflection, heating and discharge effects. Finally, several distinct strategies to improve microwave energy utilization efficiencies are proposed and discussed with the aim of tackling the energy-efficiency-related issues arising from the application of microwave heating. This work can present a strategic guideline for the developed understanding and utilization of the microwave heating technology. PMID:28773355

  8. Association between physical activity levels and physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district.

    PubMed

    Laudani, Luca; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sawacha, Zimi; della Croce, Ugo; Cereatti, Andrea; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining adequate levels of physical activity is known to preserve health status and functional independence as individuals grow older. However, the relationship between determinants of physical activity (volume and intensity) and physiological factors underlying mobility (cardio-respiratory fitness, neuromuscular function and functional abilities) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively quantified physical activity and a spectrum of physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district. Experiments were carried out on 24 young (28 ± 2 years), 24 middle-aged (48 ± 2 years) and 24 older (70 ± 3 years) gender-matched volunteers. Physical activity was monitored by a wearable activity monitor to quantify volume and intensity of overall physical activity and selected habitual activities over 24 hours. Ventilatory threshold was assessed during an incremental cycling test. Torque, muscle fiber conduction velocity and agonist-antagonist coactivation were measured during maximal voluntary contraction of knee extensors and flexors. Ground reaction forces were measured during sit-to-stand and counter-movement jump. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify the participants' physical activity levels based on parameters of volume and intensity. Two clusters of physical activity volume (i.e., high and low volume) and three clusters of physical activity intensity (i.e. high, medium and low intensity) were identified in all participants. Cardio-respiratory fitness was associated with volume of overall physical activity as well as lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing. On the other hand, neuromuscular function and functional abilities showed a significant association with intensity of overall physical activity as well as postural transition, walking and stair climbing. As a practical application, the relative role played by volume and intensity

  9. Examining Fund Balance in Michigan School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidin, Zainin

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the financial profiles of 550 public school districts in Michigan and highlights the association between school district fund balance and the following eleven indicators: enrollment, percent enrollment change, percent of students receive free and reduced lunch (FRL), percent of special education students, percent of English…

  10. District Data-Informed Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H., III; Eller, Benjamin

    A descriptive research project was conducted to investigate how 57 public school districts in the United States used data-informed processes and data support tools like the Quality School Portfolio (QSP) to address key district questions. The research project was a partnership among the American Association of School Administrators, the National…

  11. Loss of Accreditation Rocks Georgia District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In the end, six months of management reforms and the hiring of an experienced urban superintendent failed to keep the Clayton County, Georgia, school district from becoming the nation's first district in nearly four decades to have its accreditation stripped. Last week's decision by the Atlanta-based Southern Association of Colleges and Schools…

  12. Heat stress-induced memory impairment is associated with neuroinflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonil; Moon, Minho; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lee, Tae Hee; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-05-23

    Heat stress induces many pathophysiological responses and has a profound impact on brain structure. It has been demonstrated that exposure to high temperature induces cognitive impairment in experimental animals and humans. Although the effects of heat stress have long been studied, the mechanisms by which heat stress affects brain structure and cognition not well understood. In our longitudinal study of mice exposed to heat over 7, 14, or 42 days, we found that heat stress time dependently impaired cognitive function as determined by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and novel object recognition tests. To elucidate the histological mechanism by which thermal stress inhibited cognitive abilities, we examined heat stress-induced inflammation in the hippocampus. In mice subjected to heat exposure, we found: 1) an increased number of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)- and macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1)-positive cells, 2) up-regulated nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a master regulator of inflammation, and 3) marked increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the mouse hippocampus. We also observed that neuronal and synaptic densities were degenerated significantly in hippocampal regions after heat exposure, as determined by histological analysis of neuronal nuclei (NeuN), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and synaptophysin expression. Moreover, in heat-exposed mice, we found that the number of cells positive for doublecortin (DCX), a marker of neurogenesis, was significantly decreased compared with control mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory agent minocycline inhibited the heat stress-induced cognitive deficits and astogliosis in mice. Together, these findings suggest that heat stress can lead to activation of glial cells and induction of inflammatory molecules in the hippocampus, which may act as causative factors for memory loss, neuronal death, and impaired adult

  13. Heat Capacity Changes Associated with DNA Duplex Formation: Salt- and Sequence-Dependent Effects†

    PubMed Central

    Mikulecky, Peter J.; Feig, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Duplexes are the most fundamental elements of nucleic acid folding. Although it has become increasingly clear that duplex formation can be associated with a significant change in heat capacity (ΔCp), this parameter is typically overlooked in thermodynamic studies of nucleic acid folding. Analogy to protein folding suggests that base stacking events coupled to duplex formation should give rise to a ΔCp due to the release of waters solvating aromatic surfaces of nucleotide bases. In previous work, we showed that the ΔCp observed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for RNA duplex formation depended on salt and sequence. In the present work, we apply calorimetric and spectroscopic techniques to a series of designed DNA duplexes to demonstrate that both the salt dependence and sequence dependence of ΔCps observed by ITC reflect perturbations to the same fundamental phenomenon: stacking in the single-stranded state. By measuring the thermodynamics of single strand melting, one can accurately predict the ΔCps observed for duplex formation by ITC at high and low ionic strength. We discuss our results in light of the larger issue of contributions to ΔCp from coupled equilibria and conclude that observed ΔCps can be useful indicators of intermediate states in nucleic acid folding phenomena. PMID:16401089

  14. Upregulation of heat shock factor 1 transcription activity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Shulian; Ma, Wanli; Fei, Teng; Lou, Qiang; Zhang, Yaqin; Cui, Xiukun; Qin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Guangchao; Dong, Zheng; Ma, Yuanfang; Song, Zhengshun; Hu, Yanzhong

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is associated with tissue‑specific tumorigenesis in a number of mouse models, and has been used a as prognostic marker of cancer types, including breast and prostatic cancer. However, its role in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well understood. Using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining, it was identified that HSF1 and its serine (S) 326 phosphorylation, a biomarker of HSF1 activation, are significantly upregulated in human HCC tissues and HCC cell lines compared with their normal counterparts. Cohort analyses indicated that upregulation of the expression of HSF1 and its phospho‑S326 is significantly correlated with HCC progression, invasion and patient survival prognosis (P<0.001); however, not in the presence of a hepatitis B virus infection and the expression of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen. Knockdown of HSF1 with shRNA induced the protein expression of tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein, resulting in attenuated plc/prf5 cell growth and colony formation in vitro. Taken together, these data markedly support that HSF1 is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.

  15. Characterization of physiological response and identification of associated genes under heat stress in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xue, Da-Wei; Jiang, Hua; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Guo, Long-Biao; Zeng, Da-Li; Dong, Guo-Jun; Sun, Guo-Chang; Qian, Qian

    2012-12-01

    Global warming, which is caused by greenhouse gas emissions, makes food crops more vulnerable to heat stress. Understanding the heat stress-related mechanisms in crops and classifying heat stress-related genes can increase our knowledge in heat-resistant molecular biology and propel developments in molecular design breeding, which can help rice cope with unfavorable temperatures. In this study, we carried out a physiological analysis of rice plants after heat stress. The results show a dramatic increase in malondialdehyde contents and SOD activities. We successfully isolated 11 heat-related rice genes with known function annotation through DNSH, which is an improved SSH method for screening long cDNA fragments. The reanalysis of microarray data from public database revealed that all these genes displayed various expression patterns after heat stress, drought, cold and salt. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR was also performed to validate the expression of these genes after heat stress. The expressions in 10 genes were all significantly changed except for contig 77, which is a CBL-interacting protein kinase. Several reports have been published about the members of the same gene family. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Cloud and radiative heating profiles associated with the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinwon; Waliser, Duane E.; Cesana, Gregory V.; Jiang, Xianan; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Neena, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    The cloud water content (CW) and radiative heating rate (QR) structures related to northward propagating boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations (BSISOs) are analyzed using data from A-train satellites in conjunction with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. It is found that the northward movement of CW- and QR anomalies are closely synchronized with the northward movement of BSISO precipitation maxima. Commensurate with the northward propagating BSISO precipitation maxima, the CW anomalies exhibit positive ice (liquid) CW maxima in the upper (middle/low) troposphere with a prominent tilting structure in which the low-tropospheric (upper-tropospheric) liquid (ice) CW maximum leads (lags) the BSISO precipitation maximum. The BSISO-related shortwave heating (QSW) heats (cools) the upper (low) troposphere; the longwave heating (QLW) c