Science.gov

Sample records for district heating association

  1. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  2. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  3. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

  4. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  6. Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; Vīgants, Ģirts; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-01-01

    The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

  7. Hitaveita (district heating) in Akureyri

    SciTech Connect

    Flovenz, O.G.; Axelsson, G.; Arnason, F.; Finnsson, M.

    1996-11-01

    Akureyri is a town of 15,000 inhabitants located in central N-Iceland. It has been heated by geothermal energy since the end of the seventies. Prior to that, it was partly heated by electricity, but mainly with oil burners, located within individual buildings. During the period 1928-1970, several attempts were made to exploit known hot spring areas in the vicinity of Akureyri. These attempts failed. Following the jump in energy price during the oil crisis of 1973, considerable effort was put into further exploration. Based on resistivity soundings, the Laugaland field was selected for deep drilling. In 1975, this resulted in the discovery of a big feed zone, which initially yielded around 100 1/s of 90{degrees}C hot water by free flow. Two years later another big feed zone was located at the Ytri-Tjarnir geothermal field initially yielding 50 1/2 of 80{degrees}C water. Based on short-term pump tests, and simulations by the Theis model, it was estimated that these two fields together could yield 240 1/s with a water level drawdown to 190 m below the surface. This was expected to satisfy the energy need for space heating in Akureyri. In 1977, Hitaveita Akureyrar was, therefore, established. Construction of the district heating system was initiated in 1976 and most of the town had been connected in 1979.

  8. Akranes and Borgarfjordur district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnarsson, A.; Hrolfsson, I.

    1998-12-01

    Akranes and Borgarnes are two towns in the western part of Iceland, about 100 km north of Reykjavik. Geothermal investigations for Akranes started as early as around 1950; but in spite of several attempts, a geothermal field, which could be utilized economically, was not found for a long period. After the increase in oil prices in the early 1970s, further studies were carried out. On the basis of the results of those studies, it was decided to build a combined district heating system for Akranes, Borgarnes, Hvanneyri (agricultural school) and some farms in the Borgarfjordur region. The water is piped from the hot spring Deildartunga, which is one of the largest hot springs in the world. Besides that, the system utilizes two wells at the farm Baer. The utilization of the hot spring makes the system different from most other district heating systems in Iceland, which are based on water from wells. Akranes and Borgarfjordur District Heating System was established in 1979. Before that time, space heating in this area was both by oil (93%) and electricity (7%). The system has now been split into three companies: one that is responsible for all the hot water production and transmission, and one district heating system for each of the two communities.

  9. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  10. New directions for district heating in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.; Karnitz, M. A.

    A description is given of the status of major US district heating projects and the potential impact of the newly implemented US National District Heating plan. Five major district heating projects moving into the construction and demonstration phase are described. Although all have hot water distribution systems, a variety of heat sources are utilized. These include geothermal water, industrial reject heat, and utility cogeneration using coal-fired power plants.

  11. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  12. Tushino - 3 district heating project/Moscow

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, H.W.

    1995-09-01

    The contract for supply and installation of Honeywell control equipment at the district heating plant in Moscow suburb of Tushino was signed between the Mayor of Moscow and Honeywell in December 1991. Total contract value is US$3 million. The aim is to demonstrate on a pilot project the potential energy savings and improved pleat safety which can be achieved by means of electronic control of latest design. The Honeywell contract basically covers modernization of instrumentation and control of the gas fired heating plant, comprising water preparation and 4 boilers, of 100 Gcal/h each, i.e., 400 Gcal/h total. The plant is feeding the hot water network which has 60 heat exchanger stations connected. The heat exchangers (thermal rating between 2 to 10 Gcal/h each) supply hot water mainly to residential building blocks for apartment heating and domestic hot water. Honeywell`s responsibility covers engineering, supply of TDC 3000 micro-processor based control system for the boilers and DeltaNet Excel control for the Heat Exchangers. The contract also includes installation and start-up of the total control system.

  13. District heating/cooling feasibility study for Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.; Buffa, W.; Harms, R.; Preston, E.

    1982-12-01

    The results of the District Heating/Cooling Feasibility Study for Jamestown, NY are presented. The heat source for the system is a power plant located within the city limits. Several options for the extraction of heat from the power plant are developed and heat balances are presented. The options are based on the development of a hot water district heating system. The geography and climate of the area are discussed and the primary potential district heat district is described. The heat load assessment was based on fuel consumption data collected from a sampling of various types of structures and operations. The methodology is presented in detail followed by the block-by-block results which include the heated floor space, the annual total fuel consumed, the annual fuel consumed for comfort use, and the peak heat rate demands. The heating fuel demand and consumption for most of the major industries in the city is presented. A transmission and distribution system is developed to deliver heat from the power plant to the district heating customers. The piping design is described and the proposed pipe routing for the primary district is presented. Cost estimates are presented for the different district heating options developed. The cost of heat from the Jamestown district heating system has been determined using the required revenue approach to determine the minimum rate the utility must charge for district heat in order to break even. An analysis has also been performed to determine the maximum allowable charge for district heat that would allow consumers to recover their retrofit expenses in a five year period.

  14. Methodology for the Improvement of Large District Heating Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, Anna; Mashatin, Vladislav; Hlebnikov, Aleksander; Siirde, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer a methodology for the evaluation of large district heating networks. The methodology includes an analysis of heat generation and distribution based on the models created in the TERMIS and EnergyPro software Data from the large-scale Tallinn district heating system was used for the approbation of the proposed methodology as a basis of the case study. The effective operation of the district heating system, both at the stage of heat generation and heat distribution, can reduce the cost of heat supplied to the consumers. It can become an important factor for increasing the number of district heating consumers and demand for the heat load, which in turn will allow installing new cogeneration plants, using renewable energy sources and heat pump technologies

  15. District heating/cooling feasibility study for Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.; Buffa, W.; Harms, R.; Preston, E.

    1982-12-01

    The report describes the results of a district heating feasibility study for Jamestown, New York based on the use of a power plant located within the city limits. Several options for the extraction of heat from the power plant were developed, with heat balances presented, based on the development of a hot water district heating system. The geography and climate of the area are discussed, as well as the primary potential heat district. The heat load assessment was based on fuel consumption data collected from a sampling of various types of structures and operations. The report presents the methodology in detail, along with block-by-block results including heated floor space, total annual fuel consumed, and peak heat rate demands. A transmission and distribution system was then developed for delivering heat from the power plant to the district heating customers.

  16. Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam rising from the ground he exclaimed, {open_quotes}Behold! A Steamboat in the desert.{close_quotes} Over the years, the area has been used for its relaxing and curative qualities by Indians, settlers, and geothermal experts. Since the mid-1980s five geothermal power plants have been built at Steamboat Springs and in December 1996 it was announced that the proposed largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S. would supply an industrial park in the area. The active geothermal area is located within the north-south trending graben like trough between the Carson and Virginia Ranges at the southern end of Truckee Meadows. Hot springs and other geothermal features occur over an area of about one square mile. The mid-basin location is controlled by faulting more or less parallel to the major mountain-front faults. It is believed that the heat source for the system is a cooling magmatic body at depth. The Steamboat geothermal area consists of a deep, high-temperature (215{degrees}C to 240{degrees} C) geothermal system, a shallower, moderate-temperature (160{degrees}C to 18{degrees} C) system, and a number of shallow low-temperature (30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C) subsystems. The higher temperature systems are used for electric-power generation. It is proposed that the exit fluids from the electric power plants be used for the geothermal district heating system.

  17. District heating and cooling market assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Karvelas, D.E.; Daniels, E.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    For more than 10 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research on and development of district steam, hot-water, and chilled-water systems in the residential and commercial sectors. In 1991, DOE sponsored a research project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to reestimate the national market for district heating and cooling (DHC) systems to the year 2010. ANL had previously developed a DHC market-penetration model and used it to project future market penetration. The first step in the project was to conduct a literature search to identify major data sources on historical DHC markets and any past studies on the future market potential of DHC systems. On the basis of an evaluation of the available data and methodologies for estimating market penetration of new technologies, it was concluded that ANL should develop a new econometric model for forecasting DHC markets. By using the 1989 DOE/Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Surveys (CBECS) public-use-tape data, a model was estimated for steam, hot-water, and chilled-water demand in the buildings surveyed. The model provides estimates of building steam, hot-water, and chilled-water consumption and expenditures between now and the year 2010. The analysis shows that the total U.S. market for district steam, hot water, and chilled water could grow from 0.8 quadrillion British thermal units (quad) in 1989 to 1.0 quad by 2000 and 1.25 quad by 2010. The demand for chilled water could nearly double in the forecast period, and its share could approach one-third of the total DHC market. This model, and the results, should be of use to policymakers, researchers, and market participants involved in the planning and implementation of community-based, energy-conserving, and environmentally beneficial energy systems.

  18. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  19. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-07-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO{sub 2} accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO{sub 2} saving of 48 kg CO{sub 2}/GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO{sub 2}/GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  20. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: District Heat Model

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) District Heat Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  1. Application of imitation steam'' systems to hot water district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aalto, P.J.; Chen, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Pequod Associates, Inc. and District Energy St. Paul, Inc. installed a pilot project of an innovative District Heating technology through a contract with the US DOE. This applied research was funded by the Energy Research and Development Act (94--163) for District Heating and Cooling Research. The experimental design is an intervention technique that permits hot water district heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems. This method can substantially reduce conversion costs in many older buildings. The method circulates Imitation Steam, which is moist hot air, as a heating medium in standard steam radiators and steam heating coils. Based on the operation of the system during the 1989--90 and 1990--91 winter heating seasons, we conclude the following: the basic concept of using Imitation Steam was proved feasible. The performance of the system can be improved beyond the levels achieved in this installation. Imitation Steam did not cause significant corrosion in the piping system. The technology can be used by other district heating systems to lower conversion costs and increase market penetration. Among the additional benefits from this technology are: eliminating old, inefficient boilers; lower maintenance costs; improved fuel efficiency; reduced emissions.

  2. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH) Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, Georg K.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH) systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized) and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  3. HPASS: a computer program for evaluation of district heating with heat pumps. Users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, G.R.; Calm, J.M.

    1981-03-01

    HPASS (Heat Pump district heating ASSessment) is a computer program for assessment of district heating and cooling with heat pumps. The software facilitates comparison of site- and source-energy use, discounted payback, and life-cycle costs of these systems with alternative systems providing similar services. The program also performs parametric studies of these analyses. This report explains the use of HPASS; the input requirements, available outputs, and program options are described.

  4. Energy-conserving heat pump-boiler systems for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, H.; Giedt, W.H.; Kasahara, K.; Kawamura, K.; Kudo, K.; Ohta, J.

    1983-08-01

    The energy saving potential of a proposed heat pump-boiler system for district heating is analyzed. Fuel is supplied to a boiler which generates steam to drive a turbine. The turbine output is used to power a heat pump which takes energy from the environment. Introduction of a screw type expander in place of the throttling valve in the heat pump cycle is planned to increase the system performance. District heating is provided by hot water which is heated as it flows through the condensers in the heat pump and turbine cycles. Both series and parallel connected condenser arrangements are considered. Results show that the heat supplied to the water for district heating can be as high as 200 percent of the heating that would be provided by use of the fuel supplied to a conventional boiler system with a thermal efficiency of 90 percent.

  5. Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

  6. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection.

  7. Use of domestic fuels for large-scale space heating and for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Seppaelae, R.; Asplund, D.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the study was to survey the heating systems for large-scale space heating and district heating with domestic fuels or under development in Finland, and to study alternative technico-economic applications in the size class of 0.5 - 5 MW.

  8. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, James William

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  9. District heating feasibility for Port Jefferson, NY: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-29

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the feasibility of implementing a centralized district heating system serving the Incorporated Village of Port Jefferson, New York. The study assesses the potential heating loads, develops in conceptual form the distribution system and central heating plant design and implementation plans, and evaluates the system and customer economics for both conventional boiler and cogeneration district heat sources. The placement of the heat source near the largest heat user will keep the largest pipe size to a minimum length of run. The capital costs for all phases were prepared based on previous experience and vendor's budget estimates. The costs were based on 1987 dollars and escalated to the implementation dates using a general inflation rate of 5%. Since piping is costly, the routing must be planned carefully. The disturbance that is a result of excavation can be minimized by laying the pipe under sidewalks or the shoulder. This will show a savings since replacement of concrete is simpler and less costly than road surface. A sidewalk installation requires less excavation and backfill and usually involves less interference. The recommended plan is to install an 110 KW gas turbine cogeneration plant at St. Charles Hospital. It will supply electricity to the hospital and the excess generation will be sold to LILCO. Steam from the plant would be supplied to the hospital and would also be used to generate hot water for a district heating hot water loop that would service both hospitals, the public schools, office and apartment buildings, and the downtown business district. 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. District heating feasibility, Industrial Corridor, Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The Industrial Corridor of Jamestown, New York, contains more than twenty industrial/manufacturing companies, whose thermal demands, in addition to space heating, include significant process heating loads. This study investigated in depth, the technical and economic feasibility of implementing a district heating system in the Industrial Corridor which can serve both process and space heating loads. Based upon the heat load assessment conducted, the study focused upon nine companies with the largest thermal demand. Alternative system implementation designs were considered including new conventional centralized boiler plants, gas turbine cogeneration, and both high temperature hot water and steam as the heat transport media in an underground distribution system. The study concluded that, in view of the nature of existing prospective customer loads being primarily steam based, the most economical system for near term phased development is a steam based system with a new conventional centrally located steam boiler plant. The economic potential for a cogeneration system was found to be sensitive to electricity buy back rates, which at present, are not attractive. Implementing a modern high temperature hot water system would require significant customer retrofit costs to convert their steam based systems to hot water, resulting in long and unattractive pay back periods. Unless customer hot water retrofit costs can be expended without penalty to the district system economics, hot water district heating is not considered economically feasible. Chapters describe heat load assessment; heat source analysis; system implementation; transmission and distribution systems assessment; institutional assessment; system economic analysis; and customer retrofit, economic analysis, and conclusions 20 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

  12. Modular cogeneration in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.; Aalto, P.; Gleason, T.C.J.; Skalafuris, A.J.

    1987-12-01

    The use of prepackaged cogeneration systems of modular size (100 kWe - 10 MWe) in conjunction with district heating and cooling is proposed as a way to enhance the energy conservation potential of both cogeneration and district energy systems. This report examines the technical and institutional aspects of this marriage of technologies, and develops a research agenda whose goal is to define this potential use of cogeneration more accurately and to develop the generic technology base needed to bring it to actuality. 11 refs.

  13. District heating systems in Oradea, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Oradea is located on the Crisul Repede River, in the northwestern corner of Romania almost due west of Budapest, Hungary. The city has a population around half a million people and can trace its origins back to the Neolithic Age. It was an urban settlement beginning in the 13th century and has been an economic and cultural center for the region. It is a geothermal city with 12 wells drilled within the city limits, six in the nearby Felix Spa and five in the Bors geothermal area to the west, with one doublet set at Nufarul. Currently, there are a variety of geothermal uses in the area, including space and greenhouse heating, domestic hot water supply, process heat, balneology and swimming pools. Wellhead temperatures range from 70 to 105{degrees}C with artesian flows of from 5 to 25 L/s. The present installed capacity is 25 MWt and the heat supply is estimated at 60,000 MWh per year (216,000 GJ/yr). With pumping, the production would double and adding four more doublets, the installed capacity be increased to 65 MWt.

  14. Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

    1980-03-01

    The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

  15. Feasibility analysis of geothermal district heating for Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-23

    An analysis of the geothermal resource at Lakeview, Oregon, indicates that a substantial resource exists in the area capable of supporting extensive residential, commercial and industrial heat loads. Good resource productivity is expected with water temperatures of 200{degrees}F at depths of 600 to 3000 feet in the immediate vicinity of the town. Preliminary district heating system designs were developed for a Base Case serving 1170 homes, 119 commercial and municipal buildings, and a new alcohol fuel production facility; a second design was prepared for a downtown Mini-district case with 50 commercial users and the alcohol plant. Capital and operating costs were determined for both cases. Initial development of the Lakeview system has involved conducting user surveys, well tests, determinations of institutional requirements, system designs, and project feasibility analyses. A preferred approach for development will be to establish the downtown Mini-district and, as experience and acceptance are obtained, to expand the system to other areas of town. Projected energy costs for the Mini-district are $10.30 per million Btu while those for the larger Base Case design are $8.20 per million Btu. These costs are competitive with costs for existing sources of energy in the Lakeview area.

  16. How to Compute Complex Interconnected District Heating Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    valid modelling of such systems. 3. Network Hydraulic Characteristics In hot water networks the usual pipe diameters, roughnesses, and flow rates are...with cold water network flow characteristics, are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. Table 2. Characteristic flow values of water distribution networks...conveyance costs decrease. V󈨋 ....... Figure 2. Flow domains for water networks and district heating system networks cold water I//I//I hot water

  17. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-07-01

    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders.

  18. Possibility of using adsorption refrigeration unit in district heating network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur; Jaworski, Maciej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50 °C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25 °C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.

  19. The analysis of thermal network of district heating system from investor point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulics of a thermal network of a district heating system is a very important issue, to which not enough attention is often paid. In this paper the authors want to point out some of the important aspects of the design and operation of thermal networks in district heating systems. The design boundary conditions of a heat distribution network and the requirements on active pressure - circulation pump - influencing the operation costs of the centralized district heating system as a whole, are analyzed in detail. The heat generators and the heat exchange stations are designed according to the design heat loads after thermal insulation, and modern boiler units are installed in the heating plant.

  20. District heating and cooling: a 28-city assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meshenberg, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    Findings of a project that assessed the potential for construction of district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in 28 US cities are presented. The project sought to determine whether DHC could promote local community and economic development. In the preliminary assessment, 17 of the cities identified up to 23 projects that could be built within three to five years. Most of these projects would rely on nonscarce heat sources such as refuse or geothermal energy, and to improve financial feasibility, the majority would cogenerate electricity along with heat. Many would use existing power plants or industrial boilers to hold down capital costs. Overall, the projects could generate as amany as 24,000 jobs and retain $165 million that otherwise could leave the communities, thereby helping to stabilize local economies.

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District`s elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  2. District heating feasibility study for Jamestown, New York. Phase Two. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This document presents the results of the second phase District Heating Feasibility Study for Jamestown, NY. The study takes an in-depth look at a hot water district heating system using the Jamestown municipal electric plant as the heat source and the downtown area as the primary load. The study considers phased expansion to outlying areas. This second phase study was performed in light of the findings of a first phase district heating study which determined that district heating was technically and economically feasible in Jamestown. The objective of this second phase study is to perform a detailed assessment of district heating and present the findings to the City in sufficient detail to serve as a basis for deciding whether or not to proceed with final design and construction of a district heating system. The study assesses the technical, financial and institutional feasibility of the system, recommends system ownership and financing strategies, develops a phased implementation plan, identifies prospective users and analyzes potential user performance from both a technical and economic point of view. The study concludes that a municipal district heating system financed with municipal bonds could be developed in Jamestown to economically supply heat to the downtown area and the industrial corridor. The study shows that district heating could successfully compete with alternate fuels, allowing most customers to recover their district heating retrofit costs in three to four years.

  3. Exergy-economics of a district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelissen, R.L.; Hirs, G.G.; Lie, A.B.K.; Steenderen, P. van

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to define the exergetic pay back period. This period can be used for energy efficient systems as part of a more general assessment also including financial aspects. For the conservation of the exergy of natural resources investments with a shorter exergetic pay back period will be preferable. To determine exergy savings of exergy efficient systems the exergetic life cycle assessment has been used. As an example a district heating system in combination with a cogeneration plant based on natural gas has been selected. The irreversibility taking place during the life cycle of the system due to the construction, operation, dismantling and waste processing is determined and compared with domestic central heating also based on natural gas. The analysis has been performed for four alternative district heating systems. The exergetic pay back period, defined as additional exergy invested divided by exergy saving, is shown to be between 0.07 and 1.2 years. The life cycle exergy saving varies from 24% to 49%, mainly depending on the density of the distribution system. In addition the differences in exergy saving are due to the fact that the small scale alternatives have a smaller gas turbine, which has a lower exergetic efficiency when compared with the big scale projects. There is no direct relation between the exergetic and financial pay back period in this study. However, the financial pay back period is roughly one order of magnitude higher than the exergetic pay back period. From this can be concluded that heat distribution systems with exergetic pay back periods of more than one year have unacceptable financial pay back periods.

  4. Geothermal district heating systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    There are 18 geothermal district heating systems in the Untied States. These systems use geothermal fluids from 138 F to 218 F (59 C to 103 C), with peak flow rates from 85 gpm to 4000 gpm (5 L/s to 250 L/s). Installed power varies from 0.2 MWt to 31 MWt, and annual energy use from 0.8 {times} 10{sup 9} Btu to 75 {times} 10{sup 9} Btu (0.6 GWh to 22 GWh). Thus, the total installed power is almost 100 MWt and the annual energy use is 572 {times} 10{sup 9} Btu (168 GWh). The oldest systems in operation are the Warm Springs Water District in Boise, Idaho that began operation in 1892, and the private system in Ketchum, Idaho starting in 1929, with the system on the Oregon Institute of Technology in operation since 1962, and Midland, South Dakota since 1964. The remaining systems have all been in operation for less than 20 years. Both open and closed distribution systems are used--the later type using a secondary fluid to supply the heat to the customers. Approximately half of the systems use a central mechanical plant containing heat exchangers, circulating pumps, expansion tanks and controls. Both volume and energy metering systems for customer billing are used. A variety of geothermal fluid disposal systems are used, including injection and disposal in a nearby river or stream. The energy and environmental savings, as compared to fossil fuel, amount to nearly 135,000 barrels of oil equivalent annually, and a reduction of 58,000 metric tons of carbon (coal) or 11,000 metric tons of carbon (natural gas) per year. Three systems are described.

  5. District-heating/cogeneration success keyed to planning, coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, B.I.; Gray, D.; Major, W. )

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the Jamestown (NY) district-heating (DH) system which illustrates the cost-effective incorporation of equipment and techniques into community planning to meet its hot-water and spaceheating needs. It provided experience not only in the use of the technology itself but in the harmonious interaction of concerned community sectors--governmental, technical, environmental, social--toward a common beneficial goal. Overall cooperation and strong support of the community enabled local officials to enthusiastically promote the project, obtain financing, and meet an ambitious construction schedule. Installation of the pilot system in 1984 was a milestone. The heightened public awareness that this brought about, coupled with several marketing activities, led to replacement of initial skepticism in several quarters with general enthusiasm for DH and its anticipated benefits.

  6. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  7. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  8. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District Heating system. [using cogeneration heat production and aquifiers for heat storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District heating project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district heating systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is based on cogeneration and the storage of heat in aquifers.

  10. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  11. Biomass district heating methodology and pilot installations for public buildings groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistougianni, N.; Giagozoglou, E.; Sentzas, K.; Karastergios, E.; Tsiamitros, D.; Stimoniaris, D.; Stomoniaris, A.; Maropoulos, S.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to show how locally available biomass can support a small-scale district heating system of public buildings, especially when taking into account energy audit in-situ measurements and energy efficiency improvement measures. The step-by-step methodology is presented, including the research for local biomass availability, the thermal needs study and the study for the biomass district heating system, with and without energy efficiency improvement measures.

  12. Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

  13. Economics of power plant district and process heating in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-04-01

    The economic feasibility of utilizing hot water from nuclear reactors to provide district heating for private residences in Richland, Washington, and space and process heating for nearby offices, part of the Hanford Reservation, and the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant is assessed. Specifically, the practicality of using hot water from the Washington Public Power Supply System's WNP-1 reactor, which is currently under construction on the Hanford Reservation, just north of the City of Richland is established. World-wide experience with district heating systems and the advantages of using these systems are described. The GEOCITY computer model used to calculate district heating costs is described and the assumptions upon which the costs are based are presented. District heating costs for the city of Richland, process heating costs for the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant, district heating costs for the Horn Rapids triangle area, and process heating costs for the 300 and 3000 areas are discussed. An economic analysis is discussed and institutional restraints are summarized. (MCW)

  14. District heating/feasibility study for Jamestown, New York. Phase two. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.

    1986-04-01

    This report details an investigation to implement district heating in Jamestown, New York. It is a technical and economic feasibility study of a hot-water district-heating system, using a municipal electric plant as the heat source and the downtown area as a source for customers. As a result of the project, the City of Jamestown built a district-heating system that was a service to four customers in 1984 and expanded to 14 customers in 1985. The City expects it to grow in 1986 and beyond. Customers are realizing a 20 to 30% savings in heating costs. The municipal electric plant burns coal and the system so far has displaced the equivalent of 1 million gallons of oil per year.

  15. District heating from electric-generating plants and municipal incinerators: local planner's assessment guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pferdehirt, W.; Kron, N. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    This guide is designed to aid local government planners in the preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of district heating using heat recovered from electric generating plants and municipal incinerators. System feasibility is indicated by: (1) the existence of an adequate supply of nearby waste heat, (2) the presence of a sufficiently dense and large thermal load, and (3) a favorable cost comparison with conventional heating methods. 34 references.

  16. Improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondurov, E. P.; Kruglikov, P. A.; Smolkin, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    Ways for improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants are considered as a possible approach to improving the nuclear power plant energy efficiency. The results of thermal tests carried out at one of single-circuit NPPs in Russia with a view to reveal the possibilities of improving the existing heat-transfer equipment of the turbine district heating installation without making significant investments in it were taken as a basis for the analysis. The tests have shown that there is certain energy saving potential in some individual units and elements in the turbine district heating installation's process circuit. A significant amount of thermal energy can be obtained only by decreasing the intermediate circuit temperature at the inlet to the heater of the first district-heating extraction. The taking of this measure will also lead to an additional amount of generated electricity because during operation with the partially loaded first heater, the necessary amount of heat has to be obtained from the peaking heater by reducing live steam. An additional amount of thermal energy can also be obtained by eliminating leaks through the bypass control valves. The possibility of achieving smaller consumption of electric energy for power plant auxiliaries by taking measures on reducing the available head in the intermediate circuit installation's pump unit is demonstrated. Partial cutting of pump impellers and dismantling of control valves are regarded to be the most efficient methods. The latter is attributed to qualitative control of the turbine district heating installation's thermal load. Adjustment of the noncondensable gas removal system will make it possible to improve the performance of the turbine district heating installation's heat-transfer equipment owing to bringing the heat-transfer coefficients in the heaters to the design level. The obtained results can be used for estimating the energy saving potential at other

  17. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  18. Geothermal district heating and cooling of hotel/casinos in downtown Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cerci, Y.; Kanoglu, M.; Cengel, Y.A.; Turner, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, potential revenues from the proposed geothermal district heating/cooling system for the hotel/casino complexes in downtown Reno, Nevada are estimated by analyzing their actual electricity and natural gas bills during 1993 through 1994. The geothermal system appears to be feasible, and financially very attractive. The geothermal district system can meet the entire heating and cooling requirements of the hotel/casinos, generating total potential revenues of $3,486,000 per year. Also, other buildings around the downtown area such as Saint Mary`s Hospital, several motels, business complexes, Washoe County School District Building, and even the UNR campus will add extra potential revenues, if these buildings are connected to the geothermal grid. Since most buildings around the downtown use central heating and cooling system, the retrofit costs for the both system should be minimal.

  19. Financial planning for district heating: The Brooklyn Navy Yard project: A project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Financial planning for the Brooklyn Navy Cogeneration and District Heating Project involved the establishment of three distinct potential markets, a determination of economic feasibility and the development of a financial structure that could accommodate the diverse social objectives of the project and the nature of the markets to be served. The Brooklyn Navy Yard (BNY) is owned by the City of New York (City) and managed by the non-profit Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation for operation as an industrial park. Development of a cogeneration/district heating facility at the Navy Yard was undertaken to meet multiple community and economic development objectives.

  20. District heating/cogeneration application studies for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Impact of a district heating/cogeneration system on annual average SO2 air quality in the twin cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnitz, M. A.; Kornegay, F. C.; McLain, H. A.; Murphy, B. D.; Raridon, R. J.; Shlatter, E. C.

    1981-03-01

    Annual average SO2 concentrations in air at ground level were determined for a base year (1976) and for a future year (1987) with and without a 2600-MW(t) district heating system. Without district heating, the SO2 concentrations in the area are predicted to increase with time because of anticipated increased substitution of oil for curtailed natural gas. Implementation of the district heating/cogeneration system is predicted to mitigate this increase of SO2 concentrations significantly. Although the total emissions will be slightly higher with district heating/cogeneration because of the substitution of coal for natural gas and oil, use of tall stacks at the cogeneration plants will permit greater dispersion of the SO2 emissions. Considerable overall energy savings, particularly in the form of natural gas and oil, will be realized with a district heating/cogeneration system.

  1. Blueprint for financing geothermal district heating in California

    SciTech Connect

    Grattan, J.P.; Hansen, D.P.

    1981-03-01

    The current legal and investment climate surrounding geothermal development is depicted. Changes that would make the climate more favorable to direct heat geothermal development are recommended. The Boise, Susanville, and Brady Hot Springs projects are analyzed. (MHR)

  2. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhan, Chenyang; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes the structure and function of major HSPs, recent research progress on the association of HSPs with grass tolerance to heat stress, and incorporation of HSPs in heat-tolerant grass breeding. PMID:22084689

  3. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  4. Direct-use geothermal district heating projects in the US. A summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fornes, A.O.

    1981-10-01

    Brief summaries of geothermal district heating projects are presented for the following: Boise, Idaho; Elko, Nevada; Ephrata, Washington; Hawthorne, Nevada; Klamath Falls, Oregon; Lakeview, Oregon; Madison County, Idaho; North Bonneville, Washington; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Preston, Idaho; Reno, Nevada; Susanville, California; Thermopolis, Wyoming; and Utah State Prison, Utah. (MHR)

  5. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  6. TX model: a quantitative heat-loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface-temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinko, Heimo; Perers, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of analyzing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that enables the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX-model has been developed, implementing that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground has a temperature signature on the ground surface. A qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques mostly makes use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss in Watt/m. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature variation across the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but affected by some other parameters such as depth, heat diffusivity and so on. In order to analyze the parameters influencing the TX-factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is relatively unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at a testfield in Studsvik, Sweden, with electrically controlled pipe heat losses and long term monitoring of the surface temperature profile and TX factor with temperature sensors at the ground surface. The quantitative TX model for heat loss

  7. Assessment of district heating/cooling potential in Holland, Michigan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    A study undertaken to evaluate the potential for district heating/cooling (DHC) in the City of Holland, Michigan is documented. The purpose of the study was to assess the concept of delivering energy from a centralized source (or several sources) through a piping network to many end users for heating domestic hot water, space heating, space cooling and industrial process use. The Holland community was involved through representation of various businesses, agencies and community groups as part of an Assessment Work Group (AWG) membership. The AWG worked throughout the study with the BPW staff and consultants. Conclusions and recommendations of the study reflect the joint effort.

  8. Effects of heat recovery for district heating on waste incineration health impact: a simulation study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone; De Leo, Giulio A

    2013-02-01

    The construction of waste incinerators in populated areas always causes substantial public concern. Since the heat from waste combustion can be recovered to power district heating networks and allows for the switch-off of domestic boilers in urbanized areas, predictive models for health assessment should also take into account the potential benefits of abating an important source of diffuse emission. In this work, we simulated the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants from a waste incinerator under construction in Parma (Italy) into different environmental compartments and estimated the potential health effect of both criteria- (PM(10)) and micro-pollutants (PCDD/F, PAH, Cd, Hg). We analyzed two emission scenarios, one considering only the new incinerator, and the other accounting for the potential decrease in pollutant concentrations due to the activation of a district heating network. We estimated the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimation on health risk through Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we analyzed the robustness of health risk to alternative assumptions on: a) the geographical origins of the potentially contaminated food, and b) the dietary habits of the exposed population. Our analysis showed that under the specific set of assumptions and emission scenarios explored in the present work: (i) the proposed waste incinerator plant appears to cause negligible harm to the resident population; (ii) despite the net increase in PM(10) mass balance, ground-level concentration of fine particulate matter may be curbed by the activation of an extensive district heating system powered through waste combustion heat recovery and the concurrent switch-off of domestic/industrial heating boilers. In addition, our study showed that the health risk caused by waste incineration emissions is sensitive to assumptions about the typical diet of the resident population, and the geographical origins of food production.

  9. Reduction in air emissions attainable through implementation of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air emissions associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such emissions. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum reductions in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air emissions credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air emissions that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development.

  10. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekret, Robert; Nitkiewicz, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  11. Economic tradeoffs between energy conservation measures and district heating in a large US city

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, G D; Sullivan, W G; Eksel, M; Karnitz, M A

    1982-01-01

    An examination is made of the economic implications of applying end-user conservation measures to buildings that are served by a proposed district heating system in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. End-user conservation is a demand-side conservation strategy typified by changes in building operating procedures and changes in the building shell. District heating with cogeneration is a supply-side conservation method that allows scarce fossil fuels to be more efficiently converted into thermal and electrical energy. Technically these two conservation methods can be applied simultaneously to a densely populated urban are such as Minneapolis-St. Paul, but the implementation of one tends to reduce the economic feasibility of the other. This analysis suggests that building coservation measures will be difficult to justify economically in buildings that are connected to the proposed Minneapolis-St. Paul system.

  12. Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district heating sector: a production function approach.

    PubMed

    Furtenback, Orjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

  13. Economic Assessment of Rural District Heating by Bio-Steam Supplied by a Paper Mill in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova, Mariya; Beaudry, Catherine; Taoussi, Abdelaziz; Trepanier, Martin; Paris, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the feasibility of district heating in a small town adjacent to a Kraft pulp mill in eastern Canada. A detailed heat demand analysis is performed for all buildings using a geographical information system and archived data provided by the municipality. The study shows that the entire space heating requirement of the town…

  14. Application of Service Oriented Architecture for Sensors and Actuators in District Heating Substations

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  15. Heat pump associations, alliances, and allies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Associations, Alliances, and Allies, a seminar and workshop sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, was held in Memphis, Tennessee, April 10--11, 1991. The focus of the meeting was relationships forged between electric utilities and trade allies that sell residential heat pumps. one hundred and seven representatives of electric utilities, dealer/contractors, manufacturers, and consultants attended. Electric utility trade ally programs run the gamut from coop advertising to heat pump association to elaborate technician training programs. All utility participants recognize the important programs, since it is the trade ally who sells, installs, and services heat pumps, while it is the electric utility who gets blamed if the heat pumps fail to operate properly or are inefficient. Heat pumps are efficient and effective, but their efficiency and effectiveness depends critically upon the quality of installation and maintenance. A utility can thus help to ensure satisfied customers and can also help to achieve its own load shape objectives by working closely with its trade allies, the dealers, contractors, manufacturers, and distributors. Attendees spent the morning sessions of the two day meeting in plenary sessions, hearing about utility and dealer heat pump programs and issues. Afternoon roundtable discussions provided structured forums to discuss: Advertising; Heat pump association startup and operation; Rebates and incentives; Technician training school and centers; Installation inspection and dealer qualification; and Heat pump association training. These proceedings report on the papers presented in the morning plenary sessions and summarize the main points discussed in the afternoon workshops.

  16. Minnesota Project: district heating and cooling through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report. Phase 1. [Minnesota Project

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: Environmental Review Procedures; Public Service Commission Regulation of District Heating; Energy Use Normalization Procedures; Power Plant Description; Letters of Commitment; Bond Opinion and Issuance; and Marvin Koeplin Letter, Chairman of Public Service Commission, Moorehead, Minnesota.

  17. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  18. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  19. Ten years of experience of district heat supply from a retrofitted power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gronquist, R.J.; Gustafson, D.; Champ, D.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the development and operation of the Jamestown District Heating System in the City of Jamestown, new York. The conception of the systems through the initial feasibility studies is discussed, followed by the development of the system through phased implementation and the current status of operation. The planning aspects which contributed to the successful development of this system are highlighted and the customer savings are cited. Finally, problems encountered with the development and operation of the system and their solutions are examined.

  20. Institutional and financial guide to geothermal district heating, serial no. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    General planning considerations which affect nearly every community are reviewed, and alternative operating structures which are available to communities are reviewed, including local governments, nonprofit cooperatives, private enterprises, and joint ventures. The financing options available to publicly-owned and privately-owned district heating systems are then summarized. The geothermal production and distribution activities most appropriate to each type of operating structure are reviewed, along with typical equity and debt funding sources. The tax advantages for private developers are described, as are the issues of customer contracts and service prices, and customer retrofit financing. The treatment is limited to an introductory overview.

  1. Leakage and blockage detection in water network of district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    1996-11-01

    A new procedure has been designed to discover the leakage or blocked branch in the water network of a district heating system. The main feature of this procedure is taking the network as a whole system and making the detection according to the distribution of pressures measured at some points in the network. As the information from the measured data can be used with maximum efficiency, the required number of sensors can be reduced significantly. Influence from errors in some sensors can also be reduced greatly. The basic idea of this method is presented first. The procedure is then described step by step. A numerical example is given for illustration at the end.

  2. Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates Reno, Nevada residential geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, F.; McKay, G.; McKay, S.; Flynn, T.

    1995-12-31

    Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates is the largest privately-owned and operated residential geothermal district heating system in the State of Nevada. The system has operated for ten years and presently services 95 homes. Geothermal energy is used to heat homes, domestic water, spas, swimming pools, and greenhouses. Four homes have installed driveway deicing systems using geothermal energy. This paper briefly describes the geothermal resource, wells, system engineering, operation, applications, and economics. The accompanying posters illustrate the geothermal area, system design, and various applications. The resource is part of the Moana geothermal field, located in southwest Reno. Excluding the Warren-Manzanita Estates, the well-known Moana field supports nearly 300 geothermal wells that supply fluids to individual residences, several motels, a garden nursery, a few churches, and a municipal swimming pool. The Warren-Manzanita Estates is ideally suited for residential district space heating because the resource is shallow, moderate-temperature, and chemically benign. The primary reservoir rock is the Kate Peak andesite, a Tertiary volcanic lahar that has excellent permeability within the narrow fault zones that bisect the property. The Kate Peak formation is overlain by impermeable Tertiary lake sediments and alluvium. Two production wells, each about 240 m deep, are completed near the center of the residential development at the intersection of two fault zones. Geothermal fluids are pumped at a rate of 15 to 25 l/s (260-400 gpm) from one of two wells at a temperature of 95{degrees}C (202{degrees}F) to two flat-plate heat exchangers. The heat exchangers transfer energy from the geothermal fluids to a second fluid, much like a binary geothermal power plant.

  3. Damages of the Tallinn District Heating Networks and Indicative Parameters for an Estimation of the Networks General Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlebnikov, Aleksandr; Volkova, Anna; Dzuba, Olga; Poobus, Arvi; Kask, Ülo

    2010-01-01

    District heating networks in Estonia are mostly old and in bad condition. The state of the district heating networks of Tallinn is typical for the rest of Estonian DH networks. The paper includes an analysis of the Tallinn district heating networks. Valid data about damages in district heating systems received for the last 12 years were used for an analysis of the network damages. Different types of network damages are analysed: external corrosion, internal corrosion, defect of installation, factory defects, defect of construction and other reasons. The scale of damages for the different elements of networks is compared in the paper: armature, compensator, construction and pipes. The main factors which influence damages in district heating networks are the age of networks, the quality of construction works and the network operation conditions. The damage quantity dependence on the age of networks is also defined and analysed in the paper. The scale of damages can be diminished by reducing the average age of the networks. This is possible by replacing old pipelines and other network system elements. The pipes average age changes for a 20 year period are simulated according to different intensities of renovation works.

  4. Censored and Censured: Racine Unified School District vs. Wisconsin Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Alan M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the censure of the Racine Unified School District by the Wisconsin Library Association for its internal censorship of library materials. Highlights include a chronology of events in the case, the district's history of censorship, its selection policy, and the importance of the case as a model. (EM)

  5. Agreement Between Central Michigan University and Central Michigan University District of Michigan Association of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant.

    This document presents the agreement between the Central Michigan University (CMU) and Central Michigan University, District of Michigan Association of Higher Education. The agreement covers the purpose and intent, recognition, aid to other collective bargaining agents, deduction of district dues and initiation fees, special conferences, grievance…

  6. Factors Associated with Adoption of Evidence-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula in US School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with the adoption of evidence-based substance use prevention curricula (EBC) in a national sample of school districts. Substance abuse prevention coordinators in public school districts (n = 1593), which were affiliated with a random sample of schools that served students in Grades 5-8, completed a written…

  7. Assessment of impact of advanced energy transmission fluids on district heating and cooling systems (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Chen, M.M.

    1987-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community Systems, has embarked upon a comprehensive, long-range program to develop high-performance advanced energy transmission fluids for use in district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. ANL has the lead technical role in this DOE program. These advanced fluids will substantially reduce flow frictional losses and enhance energy transfer. In system enhancement scoping studies conducted by ANL, the fluids yielded potentially significant upfront capital equipment cost reductions by allowing the use of smaller pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, and storage tanks as well as reductions in operational costs. This report presents the first-phase results of assessment of impact of the advanced fluids on DHC systems. Future reports will focus on assessment of impact on hardware performance, capital eqiupment, and operation costs. 9 refs., 30 figs., 2 tab.

  8. Fourth Master Agreement between the University of the District of Columbia and University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association/NEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Univ., Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the University of the District of Columbia and the University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association, an affiliate of the National Education Association, for the period October 1, 1988 to September 30, 1993 is presented. The agreement's 33 articles cover the following: purpose and intent, scope…

  9. Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

  10. Feasibility and Supply Analysis of U.S. Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoning

    Geothermal energy is a globally distributed sustainable energy with the advantages of a stable base load energy production with a high capacity factor and zero SOx, CO, and particulates emissions. It can provide a potential solution to the depletion of fossil fuels and air pollution problems. The geothermal district heating and cooling system is one of the most common applications of geothermal energy, and consists of geothermal wells to provide hot water from a fractured geothermal reservoir, a surface energy distribution system for hot water transmission, and heating/cooling facilities to provide water and space heating as well as air conditioning for residential and commercial buildings. To gain wider recognition for the geothermal district heating and cooling (GDHC) system, the potential to develop such a system was evaluated in the western United States, and in the state of West Virginia. The geothermal resources were categorized into identified hydrothermal resources, undiscovered hydrothermal resources, near hydrothermal enhanced geothermal system (EGS), and deep EGS. Reservoir characteristics of the first three categories were estimated individually, and their thermal potential calculated. A cost model for such a system was developed for technical performance and economic analysis at each geothermally active location. A supply curve for the system was then developed, establishing the quantity and the cost of potential geothermal energy which can be used for the GDHC system. A West Virginia University (WVU) case study was performed to compare the competiveness of a geothermal energy system to the current steam based system. An Aspen Plus model was created to simulate the year-round campus heating and cooling scenario. Five cases of varying water flow rates and temperatures were simulated to find the lowest levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for the WVU case study. The model was then used to derive a levelized cost of heat as a function of the population density

  11. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  12. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-11-27

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  13. District heating/cooling potential in New York City. phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McLoughlin, G.T.; Kuo, R.P.; Karol, J.

    1983-02-01

    New York City through its Energy Office has identified and evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of district heating and cooling at three locations: Brooklyn Navy Yard, Kings County Medical Complex, and the S.W. Brooklyn Incinerator. Of these the Navy Yard has the most immediate potential for implementation. The Navy Yard has an extensive steam and electrical system that has not been used since the Navy turned most of the property over to New York City more than a decade ago. By remodeling several of the smaller boilers still in place or purchasing new boilers, an ample supply of steam and hot water can be produced. The steam will be used for heating and industrial process for the industrial tenants now occupying the former yards. Hot water will be sold to the New York City Housing Authority to heat between 3,500 and 5,000 nearby public housing units operated by the authority. Electricity will be cogenerated using present generators that will be overhauled. It is expected that some of the electricity will be used directly to supply power to a planned nearby Red Hook Sewage Treatment plant, while most will be sold to the industrial tenants of the Navy Yard. Studies will continue to determine the best market for excess power.

  14. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2011-05-01

    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality.

  15. Feasibility Study for the Ivano-Frankivsk District Heating Repowering: Analysis of Options

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.; Popelka, A.; Laskarevsky, V.

    2002-03-20

    Part of the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation with the Ukraine Inter-Ministerial Commission on Climate Change, financed by the US Department of Energy. The project was implemented by a team consisting of the US company SenTech, Inc. and the Ukrainian company Esco-West. The main objective of the effort was to assess available alternatives of Ivano-Frankivsk (I-F) District Heating repowering and provide information for I-F's investment decision process. This study provides information on positive and negative technical and economic aspects of available options. Three options were analyzed for technical merit and economic performance: 1. Installation of cogeneration system based on Gas Turbine (GT) and Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger with thermal capacity of 30 MW and electrical capacity of 13.5 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. Equipment in this Option was sized for longest operating hours, about 8000 based on the available summer baseload. 2. Installation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (GTCC) and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) with thermal capacity 45 MW and electrical capacity of 58.7 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. The equipment was sized for medium, shoulder season thermal load, and some cooling was assumed during the summer operation for extension of operating hours for electricity production. 3. Retrofit of six existing boilers (NGB) with total thermal capacity of 255.9 MW by installation of modern control system and minor upgrades. This option assumes only heat production with minimum investment. The best economic performance and the largest investment cost would result from alternative GTCC. This alternative has positive Net Present Value (NPV) with discount rate lower than about 12%, and has IRR slightly above 12%. The

  16. A Method for Monitoring the Heat Flux from an Urban District with a Single Infrared Remote Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénon, Aurélien; Mestayer, Patrice G.

    2014-07-01

    The proposed methodology relies on the modelling capabilities of the thermo-radiative model Suc(olene) to simulate the heat and radiation energy exchanges between an actual urban district and the atmosphere. It is based on the comparison of the simulated upward infrared and sensible heat flux diurnal cycles that may be measured by elevated sensors above the three-dimensional scene, as a function of sensor position: the heat flux is a function of an equivalent surface temperature given by the infrared sensor and an equivalent heat transfer coefficient deduced from Suc(olene) simulations with the actual geometry. The method is tested against measurements obtained in the city centre of Toulouse, France during an experimental campaign in 2004-2005. To improve the computation of the heat exchanges between air and building surfaces a new algorithm is first implemented, based on an empirical model of the wind distribution within street canyons. This improvement is assessed by a direct comparison of the simulated brightness surface temperatures of the Toulouse city centre to measurements obtained with an airborne infrared sensor. The optimization of the infrared remote sensor position is finally analyzed as a function of its height above the mean roof level: it allows evaluation of the heat flux from an urban district when the three different classes of surfaces (roofs, walls, grounds) have similar contributions to the infrared flux towards the sensor, and to the heat flux into the atmosphere.

  17. Particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, A.; Lillieblad, L.; Pagels, J.; Strand, M.; Gudmundsson, A.; Gharibi, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Sanati, M.; Bohgard, M.

    The aim of this study was to characterise particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels: forest residues, pellets and sawdust. Boilers used in the three district heating units were of moving grate type, with the maximum thermal output between 1 and 1.5 MW. The measurements were done after multicyclones, the only particle removal devices installed, therefore the direct emissions to ambient air were characterised. Number and mass size distributions were determined. Elemental composition of the particles was determined by particle induced X-ray emissions analysis (PIXE) and thermal-optical analysis. Particles' morphology was assessed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total number concentration of emitted particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 5 μm (PM5) at medium operation load ranged from 6.3 to 7.7×10 7 particles/cm n3, with the slightly higher values from combustion of forest residues. PM5 mass concentration at medium load from low pressure impactor measurements ranged between 51 and 120 mg/m n3, with the highest values from unit operating on forest residues. Both PM5 mass and total number concentrations were dominated by fine mode contributions i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm (PM1). Elements determined by PIXE ( Z>12) contributed to 21-34% of PM1 mass, of which K, S, Cl and Ca contributed to 18-33% of PM1 mass, and Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Pb and Cd to 1-3%. Emitted concentrations of heavy metals depended on type of the fuel and operating load. Particulate organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon contribution to PM1 ranged from 1-19% and 0-56%, respectively. Particulate OC concentrations strongly depended on the operation load regardless the type of the fuel, while EC concentrations seemed to depend both on load and the type of the fuel. Considering the potential public health implications of the obtained results, further research is needed to carefully assess the impact

  18. Air Heating Associated with Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riousset, J. A.; Pasko, V. P.; Bourdon, A.

    2009-12-01

    The understanding of ambient gas heating processes initiated by needle-shaped filaments of ionization, called streamers, embedded in originally cold air (near room temperature) represents a long standing problem, which is of interest for studies of long laboratory sparks and natural lightning discharges [e.g., Gallimberti et al., C. R. Physique, 3, 1335, 2002]. The observed phenomenology of a subset of the recently observed transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere, which originate from thundercloud tops [e.g, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 21549, 2001; Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; Krehbiel et al., Nature Geoscience, 1, 233, 2008; Cummer et al., Nature Geoscience, 2, 617, 2009, Riousset et al., JGR, 10.1029/2009JA014286, 2009, in press], indicate that these events may be related to conventional lightning leader processes and therefore are associated with significant heating of the air in the regions of atmosphere through which they propagate [Pasko and George, JGR, 107, 1458, 2002]. Many of the small scale features observed in sprites at higher altitudes [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 104, L11105, 2007, and references therein] can be interpreted in terms of corona streamers, which, after appropriate scaling with air density, are fully analogous to those, which initiate spark discharges in relatively short (several cm) gaps at near ground pressure [Liu et al., JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009, and references therein] and which constitute building blocks of streamer zones of conventional lightning leaders in long gaps [Gallimberti et al., 2002]. The recent reports of infrasound bursts originating from 60-80 km altitudes in sprites, with durations consistent with the optical widths of the sprites [e.g., Farges, in Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications, p. 417, Betz et al., (eds.), Springer, 2009], provide an additional motivation for studies of the heating of the ambient air and associated chemical effects

  19. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  20. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  1. Global carbon impacts of using forest harvest residues for district heating in Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, H.A.

    1998-07-01

    Forests in Vermont are selectively logged periodically to generate wood products and useful energy. Carbon remains stored in the wood products during their lifetime and in fossil fuel displaced by using these products in place of energy-intensive products. Additional carbon is sequestered by new forest growth, and the forest inventory is sustained using this procedure. A significant portion of the harvest residue can be used as biofuel in central plants to generate electricity and thermal energy, which also displaces the use of fossil fuels. The impact of this action on the global carbon balance was analyzed using a model derived from the Graz/Oak Ridge Carbon Accounting Model (GORCAM). The analysis showed that when forests are harvested only to manufacture wood products, more than 100 years are required to match the sequestered carbon present if the forest is left undisturbed. If part of the harvest residue is collected and used as biofuel in place of oil or natural gas, it is possible to reduce this time to about 90 years, but it is usually longer. Given that harvesting the forest for products will continue, carbon emission benefits relative to this practice can start within 10 to 70 years if part of the harvest residue is used as biofuel. This time is usually higher for electric generation plants, but it can be reduced substantially by converting to cogeneration operation. Cogeneration makes possible a ratio of carbon emission reduction for district heating to carbon emission increase for electricity generation in the range of 3 to 5. Additional sequestering benefits can be realized by using discarded wood products as biofuels.

  2. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  3. Assessment of feasibility of a district heating and cooling system for Ecorse, Michigan. Final report, 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, M.J.; Cason, D. Jr

    1982-10-01

    The City of Ecorse is an older industrial suburb of Detroit with an economy much related to the automobile industry. Ecorse conducted an assessment of the feasibility of building a district heating system which would service an 80 acre redevelopment area in the heart of the community. The system would utilize waste heat in the form of hot water from either of two electric generating plants, or a steel mill, or a nearby chemical plant located within the city. The estimated price of cogenerated thermal energy from one of the power plants was quite competitive. However, the 1980-1985 economy of Ecorse was so weak that the study found no real customer base for the heat in the target redevelopment area.

  4. Heat-Pipe-Associated Localized Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pan-Jo; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Jang, Ju-Chan; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The present study focused on how to improve the maximum power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system and move heat to any suitable space using a TEG associated with a loop thermosyphon (loop-type heat pipe). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the power output, the temperature difference of the thermoelectric module (TEM), and the heat transfer performance associated with the characteristic of the researched heat pipe. Currently, internal combustion engines lose more than 35% of their fuel energy as recyclable heat in the exhaust gas, but it is not easy to recycle waste heat using TEGs because of the limited space in vehicles. There are various advantages to use of TEGs over other power sources, such as the absence of moving parts, a long lifetime, and a compact system configuration. The present study presents a novel TEG concept to transfer heat from the heat source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any location. This simple and novel design for a TEG can be applied to future hybrid cars. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate power of around 1.8 V with T TEM = 58°C. The heat transfer performance of a loop-type heat pipe with various working fluids was investigated, with water at high heat flux (90 W) and 0.05% TiO2 nanofluid at low heat flux (30 W to 70 W) showing the best performance in terms of power generation. The heat pipe can transfer the heat to any location where the TEM is installed.

  5. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  6. The geothermal potential of the Campania volcanic district and new heat exchanger technologies for exploitation of highly urbanised areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal research in Campania region (Italy), started since the 1930, and continued until the '80 by the SAFEN, ENEL and AGIP companies. Such exploration activity highlighted that most of the volcanic districts of the Campania Region have a very high geothermal gradient and heat flow. In particular, inside the Campi Flegrei caldera and at Ischia island the geothermal gradient measured inside the deep wells reaches temperatures above 100° C between few tens and few hundreds of metres of depth, while the heat flow varies between 120-160 mWm-2 at Agnano and Mofete (Campi Flegrei main drill sites) to more than 500 mWm-2 at Ischia island (south-western sector). A general review of the available literature data (temperature at depth, stratigraphic sections, logs etc.) of the deep wells (down to 3 km b.s.l.) allowed us to quantify the geothermal potential (thermal and electric) of such district. The geothermal potential is about 6 GWy for the Campi Flegrei (Mofete and S. Vito sectors) and 11 GWy for the Ischia island (south-western sector) showing a geothermal reservoir with water and vapour dominant respectively. This results in strong potential interest for economic exploitation of the geothermal resource, both in the range of low-medium enthalpy at few hundreds of meters depth and of high enthalpy at depths of 1-2 km. In this study we try to model the effectiveness of new technologies of boreholes heat exchangers, which would allow to avoid fluid withdrawal, then strongly decreasing the environmental impact. The proposed technology consists of a double-pipe placed in a borehole heat exchange that can work coupled with an ORC. The two pipes, one inside the other, are located in the well in order to transfer the thermal energy to the working fluid during the descent in the external pipe and then go back through the internal pipe properly isolated. We propose a complete design of the borehole heat exchangers. The design activity is performed on a theoretical basis

  7. Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

    2013-01-08

    A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR.

  8. Factors associated with uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision, Mazowe District, Zimbabwe, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rupfutse, Maxwell; Tshuma, Cremence; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Gombe, Notion; Bangure, Donewell; Wellington, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is the surgical removal of the foreskin by a trained health worker. VMMC was introduced in Zimbabwe in 2009. It is of concern that the programme performance has been below expectations nationally and in Mazowe district. Zimbabwe is unlikely to meet its 2015 target of circumcising 1 200 000 men aged between 15 and 29 years and unlikely to enjoy maximum benefits of VMMC which include prevention of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer. We therefore broadly aimed at identifying factors influencing the level of VMMC uptake in Mazowe district. Methods An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out in Mazowe district. A multi-stage probability sampling strategy was used to select 300 men aged between 18 and 49 years. Pretested interviewer administered questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Quantitative data was analysed using Epi info where odds ratios and p-values were calculated. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results Being of Shona origin (AOR= 7.69 (95%CI 1.78-33.20)), fear of pain (AOR= 7.09 (95%CI 2.58-19.47)) and fear of poor wound healing (AOR= 2.68 (95%CI 1.01-7.08)) were independently associated with being uncircumcised while having a circumcised friend and encouragement by a friend or relative were independently associated with being circumcised. Conclusion Fear of pain, fear of poor wound healing and encouragement by a friend or relative were associated with circumcision status. Widening use of surgical devices and third part referrals may assist in scaling up the programme. PMID:25918577

  9. Agreement: Desert Community College District, College of the Desert Faculty Association CTA/NEA, January 13, 1989-June 30, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desert Community Coll. District, Palm Desert, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Desert Community College District and the College of the Desert Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from January 13, 1989 through June 30, 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  10. Napa Valley Community College District and Napa Valley College Faculty Association/CTA/NEA 1988-89 Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa Valley Community Coll. District, Napa, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the Napa Valley Community College District and the Napa Valley College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, in effect from June 1988 through July 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  11. Agreement between Board of Trustees, West Kern Community College District and Taft College Faculty Association, 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Kern Community Coll. District, Taft, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the West Kern Community College District Board of Trustees and the Taft College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1989 through June 30, 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  12. Technical feasibility and economics of retrofitting an existing nuclear power plant to cogeneration for hot water district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, J.O.; Bauman, H.F.; Jones, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the hypothetical conversion of the Prairie Island Nuclear Plant of the Northern States Power Company to cogeneration operation to supply a future hot water district heating system load in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis-St. Paul. The conceptual design of the nuclear turbine retrofitted for cogeneration and of a hot water transmission system has been performed, and the capital investment and annual owning and operating costs have been estimated for thermal energy capacities of 600 and 1200 MW(t). Unit costs of thermal energy (in mid-1982 dollars/million Btu) have been estimated for cogenerated hot water at the plant gate and also for the most economic transmission system from Prairie Island to the Twin Cities. The economic results from the analysis of the Prairie Island plant and transmission route have been generalized for other transmission distances in other locations.

  13. Association between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not…

  14. Prevalence & factors associated with chronic obstetric morbidities in Nashik district, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Agarwal, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: In India, community based data on chronic obstetric morbidities (COM) are scanty and largely derived from hospital records. The main aim of the study was to assess the community based prevalence and the factors associated with the defined COM - obstetric fistula, genital prolapse, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and secondary infertility among women in Nashik district of Maharashtra State, India. Methods: The study was cross-sectional with self-reports followed by clinical and gynaecological examination. Six primary health centre areas in Nashik district were selected by systematic random sampling. Six months were spent on rapport development with the community following which household interviews were conducted among 1560 women and they were mobilized to attend health facility for clinical examination. Results: Of the 1560 women interviewed at household level, 1167 women volunteered to undergo clinical examination giving a response rate of 75 per cent. The prevalence of defined COM among 1167 women was genital prolapse (7.1%), chronic PID (2.5%), secondary infertility (1.7%) and fistula (0.08%). Advancing age, illiteracy, high parity, conduction of deliveries by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and obesity were significantly associated with the occurrence of genital prolapse. History of at least one abortion was significantly associated with secondary infertility. Chronic PID had no significant association with any of the socio-demographic or obstetric factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings provided an insight in the magnitude of community-based prevalence of COM and the factors associated with it. The results showed that COM were prevalent among women which could be addressed by interventions at personal, social and health services delivery level. PMID:26609041

  15. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.

  16. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Helen M.; Beckett, Joseph; Casa, Douglas J.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; Plummer, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background: Certified athletic trainers evaluate and treat heat-related injuries during athletic activity in “safe” and high-risk environments. While the recognition of heat illness has improved, the subtle signs and symptoms associated with heat illness are often overlooked, resulting in more serious problems for affected athletes. The recommendations presented here provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and practical approach to the prevention, recognition, and treatment of heat illnesses. These recommendations can be modified based on the environmental conditions of the site, the specific sport, and individual considerations to maximize safety and performance. Recommendations: Certified athletic trainers and other allied health providers should use these recommendations to establish on-site emergency plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the prevention and recognition of heat-related illnesses and a well-developed plan to evaluate and treat affected athletes. Even with a heat-illness prevention plan that includes medical screening, acclimatization, conditioning, environmental monitoring, and suitable practice adjustments, heat illness can and does occur. Athletic trainers and other allied health providers must be prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:12937591

  17. The interactive association between heat shock factor 1 and heat shock proteins in primary myocardial cells subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu; Chen, Hongbo; Cheng, Yanfen; Nasir, Mohammad Abdel; Kemper, Nicole; Bao, Endong

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a heat shock transcription factor that rapidly induces heat shock gene transcription following thermal stress. In this study, we subjected primary neonatal rat myocardial cells to heat stress in vitro to create a model system for investigating the trends in expression and association between various heat shock proteins (HSPs) and HSF1 under adverse environmental conditions. After the cells were subjected to heat stress at 42˚C for different periods of time, HSP and HSF1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis in the heat-stressed cells. The HSF1 expression levels significantly increased in the cells following 120 min of exposure to heat stess compared to the levels observed at the beginning of heat stress exposure. HSP90 followed a similar trend in expression to HSF1, whereas HSP70 followed an opposite trend. However, no significant changes were observed in the crystallin, alpha B (CRYAB, also known as HSP beta-5) expression levels during the 480‑min period of exposure to heat stress. The interaction between the HSPs and HSF1 was analyzed by STRING 9.1, and it was found that HSF1 interacted with HSP90 and HSP70, and that it did not play a role in regulating CRYAB expression. Based on our findings, HSP70 may suppress HSF1 in rat myocardial cells under conditions of heat stress. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that HSF1 is not the key factor for all HSPs, and this was particularly the case for CRYAB.

  18. The interactive association between heat shock factor 1 and heat shock proteins in primary myocardial cells subjected to heat stress

    PubMed Central

    TANG, SHU; CHEN, HONGBO; CHENG, YANFEN; NASIR, MOHAMMAD ABDEL; KEMPER, NICOLE; BAO, ENDONG

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a heat shock transcription factor that rapidly induces heat shock gene transcription following thermal stress. In this study, we subjected primary neonatal rat myocardial cells to heat stress in vitro to create a model system for investigating the trends in expression and association between various heat shock proteins (HSPs) and HSF1 under adverse environmental conditions. After the cells were subjected to heat stress at 42°C for different periods of time, HSP and HSF1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis in the heat-stressed cells. The HSF1 expression levels significantly increased in the cells following 120 min of exposure to heat stess compared to the levels observed at the beginning of heat stress exposure. HSP90 followed a similar trend in expression to HSF1, whereas HSP70 followed an opposite trend. However, no significant changes were observed in the crystallin, alpha B (CRYAB, also known as HSP beta-5) expression levels during the 480-min period of exposure to heat stress. The interaction between the HSPs and HSF1 was analyzed by STRING 9.1, and it was found that HSF1 interacted with HSP90 and HSP70, and that it did not play a role in regulating CRYAB expression. Based on our findings, HSP70 may suppress HSF1 in rat myocardial cells under conditions of heat stress. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that HSF1 is not the key factor for all HSPs, and this was particularly the case for CRYAB. PMID:26719858

  19. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  20. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastware toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  1. Feasibility of cogenerated district heating and cooling for North Loop project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-03-01

    A thermal-economic analysis was performed in order to determine feasibility of cogeneration with central heating and cooling for Chicago's North Loop Development Project. Heating, cooling and electrical loads were predicted by using energy data according to use and floor area, representative of downtown Chicago. The central facility proposed would supply cogenerated heating for a part of the development's demand and about one half of the cooling demand by means of combined conventional and cogeneration equipment together on the 4-pipe distribution system. Electricity would also be distributed and used to substantially displace purchases. Additional options are also discussed and, if economical, could make implementation more attractive. Four alternatives involving gas turbines and diesels were selected for study and are reported. Energy savings extend over the assumed 25 years of the project and are indexed to inflation and fuel-cost escalation. It would appear that cogeneration could assist economic development of the North Loop Project.

  2. Healthcare-associated infection in Burkina Faso: an assessment in a district hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Hervé; Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Konfé, Salifou; Zeba, Sylvain; Sangaré, Lassana; Compaoré, Sidzabda C.; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Ouendo, Edgard M.; Makoutodé, Michel; Meda, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, few data are available on healthcare-associated infections. In Burkina Faso, there has been a failure to take into account risk management and patient safety in the quality assurance program. The main objective of our study was to carry out an assessment of healthcare-associated infection in a first level hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study in June 2011 in the care units of Ziniaré District Hospital (Ziniaré, Burkina Faso). The hospital has been divided in three components: i) hospital population (care providers, in-patients and patients' guardians); ii) healthcare and services organization; iii) hospital environment. We included: care providers of the clinical services, hospital in-patients and patients' guardians, hospitalization infrastructure and nursing units, and all the documents relating to standards and protocols. Data collection has been done by direct observation, interviews and biological samples taken at different settings. In hospital population, care providers and patients' guardians represented a high source of infection: adherence to hygiene practice on the part of care providers was low (12/19), and no patients' guardian experienced good conditions of staying in the hospital. In healthcare and services organization, healthcare waste management represented a high-risk source of infection. In hospital environment, hygiene level of the infrastructure in the hospital rooms was low (6.67%). Prevalence of isolated bacteria was 71.8%. Urinary-tract catheters infections were the most significant in our sample, followed by surgical-site infections. In total, 56.26% (9/19) of germs were -Lactamase producers (ESBL). They were represented by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our analysis identified clearly healthcare-associated infection as a problem in Ziniaré district hospital. Hence, a national program of quality assurance in the hospitals should now integrate the risk infectious management of healthcare-associated

  3. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Aim The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. Materials and methods The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean’s index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p < 0.05). Bivariate analysis was performed to identify significant risk factors that affected prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) on χ2 were entered into multiple logistic regressions to assess their independent effects. Results In this study, we analyzed risk factors for both prevalence and severity of fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Conclusion Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. How to cite this article Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District

  4. THE CASE FOR INDEPENDENT JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS, A REPORT OF THE CALIFORNIA JUNIOR COLLEGE FACULTY ASSOCIATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEWITT, GEORGE E.; HALL, LLOYD C.

    MOST CALIFORNIA JUNIOR COLLEGES ARE ALREADY GOVERNED IN SEPARATE DISTRICTS. THE FEW JUNIOR COLLEGES, HOWEVER, WHICH DO REMAIN IN UNIFIED DISTRICTS ARE LARGE ONES, AND THE ABUSES AND HANDICAPS THEY SUSTAIN ARE MANIFOLD. FUNDS EARMARKED FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE PROGRAMS ARE BEING DIVERTED TO ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. UNIFIED DISTRICT BOARD MEMBERS…

  5. Investigation of Salmonella Enteritidis Outbreak Associated with Truffle Oil - District of Columbia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto-Crawford, S Janet; McGee, Sasha; Li, Keith; Hennenfent, Andrew K; Dassie, Kossia; Carney, Jhetari T; Gibson, Arian; Cooper, Ivory; Blaylock, Morris; Blackwell, Reginald; Fields, Angela; Davies-Cole, John

    2017-03-17

    On September 8, 2015, the District of Columbia Department of Health (DCDOH) received a call from a person who reported experiencing gastrointestinal illness after eating at a District of Columbia (DC) restaurant with multiple locations throughout the United States (restaurant A). Later the same day, a local emergency department notified DCDOH to report four persons with gastrointestinal illness, all of whom had eaten at restaurant A during August 30-September 5. Two patients had laboratory-confirmed Salmonella group D by stool culture. On the evening of September 9, a local newspaper article highlighted a possible outbreak associated with restaurant A. Investigation of the outbreak by DCDOH identified 159 patrons who were residents of 11 states and DC with gastrointestinal illness after eating at restaurant A during July 1-September 10. A case-control study was conducted, which suggested truffle oil-containing food items as a possible source of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infection. Although several violations were noted during the restaurant inspections, the environmental, laboratory, and traceback investigations did not confirm the contamination source. Because of concern about the outbreak, the restaurant's license was suspended during September 10-15. The collaboration and cooperation of the public, media, health care providers, and local, state, and federal public health officials facilitated recognition of this outbreak involving a pathogen commonly implicated in foodborne illness.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among form four students in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Kee, C C; Christopher, V M; Noruiza Hana, M; Lim, K K; Amal, N M

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among form four students of secondary schools in the District of Petaling, Selangor, Malaysia from February 2008 to June 2008 with the aim of quantifying the prevalence of smoking and identifying the psychosocial factors related to smoking among adolescents in this district. A two-stage stratified sampling strategy was used to obtain a sample of 1300 students based on an estimated prevalence of 10%. The response rate was 80.5% (1045 out of 1298 students). Results showed that prevalence of smoking was higher among male students (22.3%) compared to females (5.5%) and the median age at smoking initiation was lower among males compared to female smokers (14 years old vs 15 years old). Modifiable risk factors associated with smoking were "percentage of friends who smoke" (OR 2.94, 95% CI [1.71- 5.06]) and "having a brother who smokes" (OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.20-3.31]). There was also a correlation between smoking prevalence and the number of risk factors present. Intensification of health education and anti-smoking programmes and modification of external factors in early adolescence are recommended to prevent smoking initiation.

  7. Root carbon and protein metabolism associated with heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingru; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Xu, Jichen

    2012-05-01

    Extensive past efforts have been taken toward understanding heat tolerance mechanisms of the aboveground organs. Root systems play critical roles in whole-plant adaptation to heat stress, but are less studied. This review discusses recent research results revealing some critical physiological and metabolic factors underlying root thermotolerance, with a focus on temperate perennial grass species. Comparative analysis of differential root responses to supraoptimal temperatures by a heat-adapted temperate C3 species, Agrostis scabra, which can survive high soil temperatures up to 45 °C in geothermal areas in Yellow Stone National Park, and a heat-sensitive cogeneric species, Agrostis stolonifera, suggested that efficient carbon and protein metabolism is critical for root thermotolerance. Superior root thermotolerance in a perennial grass was associated with a greater capacity to control respiratory costs through respiratory acclimation, lowering carbon investment in maintenance for protein turnover, and efficiently partitioning carbon into different metabolic pools and alternative respiration pathways. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that root thermotolerance was associated with an increased maintenance of stability and less degradation of proteins, particularly those important for metabolism and energy production. In addition, thermotolerant roots are better able to maintain growth and activity during heat stress by activating stress defence proteins such as those participating in antioxidant defence (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) and chaperoning protection (i.e. heat shock protein).

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women Attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M.; Harder, Valarie S.; Mutai, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05–4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06–5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01–3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21–4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16–0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies. PMID:22569943

  9. Healthier Fundraising in U. S. Elementary Schools: Associations between Policies at the State, District, and School Levels

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether state laws and district policies pertaining to nutritional restrictions on school fundraisers were associated with school policies as reported by administrators in a nationally-representative sample of United States public elementary schools. Methods We gathered data on school-level fundraising policies via a mail-back survey during the 2009–10 and 2010–11 school years. Surveys were received from 1,278 public elementary schools (response rate = 60.9%). Data were also gathered on corresponding school district policies and state laws. After removing cases with missing data, the sample size for analysis was 1,215 schools. Results After controlling for school characteristics, school policies were consistently associated with state laws and district policies, both those pertaining to fundraising generally, as well as specific restrictions on the sale of candy and soda in fundraisers (all Odds Ratios >2.0 and Ps<.05). However, even where district policies and state laws required fundraising restrictions, school policies were not uniformly present; school policies were also in place at only 55.8% of these schools, but were more common at schools in the West (77.1%) and at majority-Latino schools (71.4%), indicating uneven school-level implementation of district policy and state law. Conclusions District policies and state laws were associated with a higher prevalence of elementary school-level fundraising policies, but many schools that were subject to district policies and state laws did not have school-level restrictions in place, suggesting the need for further attention to factors hindering policy implementation in schools. PMID:23166788

  10. Master Contract by and between the Board of Trustees of Washington Community College District 17 (The Community Colleges of Spokane) and the District 17 Association for Higher Education, September 1, 1988-August 31, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokane Community Coll., WA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of Washington Community College District 17 and the District 17 Association for Higher Education (AHE) is presented, covering all academic employees employed by Spokane Community College, Spokane Falls Community College, and the Institute for Extended Learning. This contract,…

  11. Collective Bargaining Agreement by and Between Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10, July 1973-June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Park Technical Inst., Fond du Lac, WI.

    This is the collective bargaining agreement between the Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10 covering the period July 1973-June 1974. Contents cover academic freedom; advancement on the salary schedule; aggrieved person; arbitration and…

  12. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  13. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Board of Trustees of Lower Columbia College District 13 and Lower Columbia Faculty Association, 1987-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower Columbia Coll., Longview, WA.

    This contractual agreement between the Board of Trustees of Lower Columbia College (LCC) District 13 and the Lower Columbia College Faculty Association outlines the terms of employment for all academic employees of the district. The 13 articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1) recognition of the association as exclusive…

  14. Role Performance of Community Health Volunteers and Its Associated Factors in Kuching District, Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Chung, Melvin Hsien Liang; Hazmi, Helmy; Cheah, Whye Lian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role performance among KOSPEN community health volunteer in Kuching district and its associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 21 localities in Kuching with a total of 210 respondents. Data were collected using validated interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. The respondents comprised 55.2% females, 81.9% married, and 41.4% aged above 45 and above and 72.4% completed their education up to secondary school. The result revealed that 59.0% of the respondents agreed and understood their role performances. Multiple Logistics analysis revealed that factors associated with role performance were age group (p = 0.003), education level (p < 0.001), marital status (p = 0.025), prestige and respect (p = 0.012), being seen as "doctor" in community (p = 0.003), job aids (p = 0.009), training location (p = 0.001), and supervision by community (p < 0.001). To increase and maintain the work performance of CHVs, commitment from the government, policy makers, stakeholders, and the communities is required.

  15. Role Performance of Community Health Volunteers and Its Associated Factors in Kuching District, Sarawak

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Melvin Hsien Liang; Hazmi, Helmy

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role performance among KOSPEN community health volunteer in Kuching district and its associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 21 localities in Kuching with a total of 210 respondents. Data were collected using validated interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. The respondents comprised 55.2% females, 81.9% married, and 41.4% aged above 45 and above and 72.4% completed their education up to secondary school. The result revealed that 59.0% of the respondents agreed and understood their role performances. Multiple Logistics analysis revealed that factors associated with role performance were age group (p = 0.003), education level (p < 0.001), marital status (p = 0.025), prestige and respect (p = 0.012), being seen as “doctor” in community (p = 0.003), job aids (p = 0.009), training location (p = 0.001), and supervision by community (p < 0.001). To increase and maintain the work performance of CHVs, commitment from the government, policy makers, stakeholders, and the communities is required. PMID:28286530

  16. Thermoregulatory adaptations associated with training and heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1998-04-01

    The large metabolic heat load generated as a consequence of muscular work requires activation of thermoregulatory mechanisms in order to prevent an excessive and potentially dangerous rise in body temperature during exercise. Although the horse has highly efficient heat dissipatory mechanisms, there are a number of circumstances in which the thermoregulatory system may be overwhelmed, resulting in the development of critical hyperthermia. The risk for development of life-threatening hyperthermia is greatest when (1) the horse is inadequately conditioned for the required level of physical performance; (2) exercise is undertaken in hot and particularly, in hot and humid ambient conditions; and (3) there is an impairment to thermoregulatory mechanisms (e.g., severe dehydration, anhidrosis). Both exercise training under cool to moderate ambient conditions and a period of repeated exposure to, and exercise in, hot ambient conditions (heat acclimation) will result in a number of physiologic adaptations conferring improved thermoregulatory ability. These adaptations include an expanded plasma volume, greater stability of cardiovascular function during exercise, and an improved efficiency of evaporative heat loss as a result of alterations in the sweating response. Collectively, these adjustments serve to attenuate the rise in core body temperature in response to a given intensity of exercise. The magnitude of the physiologic adaptations occurring during exercise training and heat acclimation is a reflection of the thermal load imposed on the horse. Therefore, when compared with a period of training in cool conditions, the larger thermal stimulus associated with repeated exercise in hot ambient conditions will invoke proportionally greater thermoregulatory adaptations. Although it is not possible to eliminate the effects of adverse environmental conditions on exercise performance, it is clear that a thorough exercise training program together with a subsequent period of

  17. Epidemiology of Eimeria and associated risk factors in cattle of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Tauseef Ur; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Abbas, Rao Zahid; Arshad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Iqbal, Asif

    2011-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, species characterization, and associated risk factors with Eimeria of cattle of district Toba Tek Singh from April, 2009 to March, 2010. Of the total 584 fecal samples examined for Eimeria, 275 (47.09%) were found infected with six species of Eimeria. Among the identified species of Eimeria, Eimeria bovis was found to be the highest prevalent species (52.36%), followed in order by Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria canadensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis, Eimeria alabamensis, and Eimeria cylindrica with prevalence of 48.27%, 34.83%, 29.31%, 24.14%, and 8.62% respectively. Peak prevalence was observed in August. Cattle were infected more frequently during rainy (60.32%) and post-rainy seasons (59.25%). Calves had significantly higher prevalence (P<0.05) of Eimeria than adults while higher prevalence of Eimeria was observed in female cattle. Among management and husbandry practices, feeding system, watering system, housing system, floor type, and herd size strongly influenced the prevalence of Eimeria in cattle. Coccidiosis was more prevalent in ground feeding system, pond-watered animals, closed housing system, and non-cemented floor type (P<0.05) as compared to trough feeding system, tap watered animals, open housing system, and partially cemented floor types, respectively. Breed and body condition of animals were not found risk factors (P>0.05) influencing prevalence of Eimeria.

  18. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

  19. Self-esteem and its associated factors among secondary school students in Klang District, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Sherina, M S; Rampal, L; Loh, J W; Chan, C L; Teh, P C; Tan, P O

    2008-03-01

    Self-esteem is an important determinant of psychological well-being that is particularly problematic during adolescent life stage. There is a correlation between low self-esteem and other social problems among today's adolescents. This study was conducted to determine the mean self-esteem score, and to determine the association between self-esteem and age, sex, race, religion, number of siblings, ranking among siblings, family function, parental marital status and smoking among adolescents aged 12 to 20-years-old. A cross sectional study design using random cluster sampling method was done. Four out of a total of 35 secondary schools in Klang District, Selangor were selected. Respondents consisted of individual students in selected classes from the four selected schools. Data was collected using a self-administered, structured, pre-tested questionnaire and was analyzed using the SPSS version 12.0. Out of 1089 respondents, 793 completed the questionnaire (response rate 73.82%). The overall mean self-esteem score was 27.65. The mean self-esteem score for males (27.99) was slightly higher than females (27.31). The differences in the mean scores by race were statistically significant. There was a statistically significant relationship between mean self-esteem scores and sex, age, race, religion, number of siblings, smoking and family function. There was no statistically significant difference between mean self-esteem score with parental marital status and with ranking among siblings. The overall mean self-esteem score was 27.65. Self-esteem was associated with sex, age, race, religion, number of siblings, smoking and family function.

  20. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (P<0.05) or for good student behavior (P<0.05). School-level respondents in the West and the Midwest were less likely to report that food was not used as a reward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools.

  1. Agreement between Association of Certificated Educators and West Valley-Mission Community College District, July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Valley-Mission Community Coll. District, Saratoga, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the West Valley-Mission Community College District (including West Valley College and Mission College) and the West Valley-Mission Community College District Association of Certified Educators is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the…

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0

  3. A genome-wide association study of heat stress-associated SNPs in catfish.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Zhou, T; Geng, X; Liu, S; Chen, A; Yao, J; Jiang, C; Tan, S; Su, B; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    Heat tolerance is a complex and economically important trait for catfish genetic breeding programs. With global climate change, it is becoming an increasingly important trait. To better understand the molecular basis of heat stress, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out using the 250 K catfish SNP array with interspecific backcross progenies, which derived from crossing female channel catfish with male F1 hybrid catfish (female channel catfish × male blue catfish). Three significant associated SNPs were detected by performing an EMMAX approach for GWAS. The SNP located on linkage group 14 explained 12.1% of phenotypical variation. The other two SNPs, located on linkage group 16, explained 11.3 and 11.5% of phenotypical variation respectively. A total of 14 genes with heat stress related functions were detected within the significant associated regions. Among them, five genes-TRAF2, FBXW5, ANAPC2, UBR1 and KLHL29- have known functions in the protein degradation process through the ubiquitination pathway. Other genes related to heat stress include genes involved in protein biosynthesis (PRPF4 and SYNCRIP), protein folding (DNAJC25), molecule and iron transport (SLC25A46 and CLIC5), cytoskeletal reorganization (COL12A1) and energy metabolism (COX7A2, PLCB1 and PLCB4) processes. The results provide fundamental information about genes and pathways that is useful for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of heat stress. The associated SNPs could be promising candidates for selecting heat-tolerant catfish lines after validating their effects on larger and various catfish populations.

  4. Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. )

    1990-09-01

    K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

  5. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; DeMartini, Julie K.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E. Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Miller, Kevin C.; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N.; Yeargin, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background  Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Recommendations  Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses. PMID:26381473

  7. District cooling gets hot

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

  8. Associations between heat shock protein 70 genetic polymorphisms and calving traits in crossbred Brahman cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stressors such as heat, cold, toxins, and oxygen deprivation are known to induce heat shock proteins. Genetic polymorphisms associated with heat shock protein genes have been associated with decreased male and female fertility. Our objectives were to 1) confirm single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) ...

  9. Occupation and Environmental Heat-Associated Deaths in Maricopa County, Arizona: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Petitti, Diana B.; Harlan, Sharon L.; Chowell-Puente, Gerardo; Ruddell, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research shows that work in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations increases the risk of environmental heat-associated death. Purpose To assess the risk of environmental heat-associated death by occupation. Methods This was a case-control study. Cases were heat-caused and heat-related deaths occurring from May-October during the period 2002–2009 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Controls were selected at random from non-heat-associated deaths during the same period in Maricopa County. Information on occupation, age, sex, and race-ethnicity was obtained from death certificates. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for heat-associated death. Results There were 444 cases of heat-associated deaths in adults (18+ years) and 925 adult controls. Of heat-associated deaths, 332 (75%) occurred in men; a construction/extraction or agriculture occupation was described on the death certificate in 115 (35%) of these men. In men, the age-adjusted odds ratios for heat-associated death were 2.32 (95% confidence interval 1.55, 3.48) in association with construction/extraction and 3.50 (95% confidence interval 1.94, 6.32) in association with agriculture occupations. The odds ratio for heat-associated death was 10.17 (95% confidence interval 5.38, 19.23) in men with unknown occupation. In women, the age-adjusted odds ratio for heat-associated death was 6.32 (95% confidence interval 1.48, 27.08) in association with unknown occupation. Men age 65 years and older in agriculture occupations were at especially high risk of heat-associated death. Conclusion The occurrence of environmental heat-associated death in men in agriculture and construction/extraction occupations in a setting with predictable periods of high summer temperatures presents opportunities for prevention. PMID:23734174

  10. Characterization of Heat Waves in the Sahel and associated mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Boutheina; Pohl, Benjamin; Moron, Vincent; Rome, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Large efforts are made to investigate the heat waves (HW) in developed countries because of their devastating impacts on society, economy and environment. This interest increased after the intense event over Europe during summer 2003. However, HWs are still understudied over developing countries. This is particularly true in West Africa, and especially in the Sahel, where temperatures recurrently reach critical values, such as during the 2010 HW event. Understanding the Sahelian HWs and associated health risks constitute the main objective of ACASIS, a 4-year project funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche. Our work contributes to this project and aims at characterizing the Sahelian HWs and understanding the mechanisms associated with such extreme events. There is no universal definition of a HW event, since it is highly dependent on the sector (human health, agriculture, transport...) and region of interest. In our case, a HW is defined when the heat index of the day and of the night exceeds the 90th percentile for at least 3 consecutive days (Rome et al. 2016, in preparation). This index combines temperature and relative humidity in order to determine the human-perceived equivalent temperature (definition adapted from Steadman, 1979). Intrinsic properties of Sahelian HW are analyzed from the Global Summary of the Day (GSOD) synoptic observations and ERA-interim reanalyses over 1979-2014 during boreal spring seasons (April-May-June), the warmest period of the year in the Central Sahel. ERA-interim captures well the observed interannual variability and seasonal cycle at the regional scale, as well as the 1979-2014 increasing linear trend of springtime HW occurrences in the Sahel. Reanalyses, however, overestimate the duration, spatial extent of HW, and underestimate their intensity. For both GSOD and ERA-interim, we show that, over the last three decades, Sahelian HWs tend to become more frequent, last longer, cover larger areas and reach higher

  11. Collective Bargaining Agreement, 1989-1992, between College of the Desert Faculty Association CTA/NEA and Desert Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desert Community Coll. District, Palm Desert, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Desert Community College District Board of Trustees and the College of the Desert Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from November 17, 1989 through June 30, 1992, deals with the following topics: bargaining…

  12. Master Contract: San Joaquin Delta College Teachers Association/CTA/NEA and San Joaquin Delta Community College District, July 1987-June 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Joaquin Delta Community Coll. District, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the San Joaquin Delta Community College District Board of Trustees and the San Joaquin Delta College Teachers Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1987 through June 1990, deals with the following topics:…

  13. Coupled heat and fluid flow modeling of the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Alaska: Implications for the genesis of the Red Dog Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garven, G.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Small heat-shock proteins protect from heat-stroke-associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Nikos; Nikoletopoulou, Vassiliki; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2012-10-11

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition, characterized by catastrophic collapse of thermoregulation and extreme hyperthermia. In recent years, intensification of heat waves has caused a surge of heat-stroke fatalities. The mechanisms underlying heat-related pathology are poorly understood. Here we show that heat stroke triggers pervasive necrotic cell death and neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. Preconditioning of animals at a mildly elevated temperature strongly protects from heat-induced necrosis. The heat-shock transcription factor HSF-1 and the small heat-shock protein HSP-16.1 mediate cytoprotection by preconditioning. HSP-16.1 localizes to the Golgi, where it functions with the Ca(2+)- and Mn(2+)-transporting ATPase PMR-1 to maintain Ca(2+) homeostasis under heat stroke. Preconditioning also suppresses cell death inflicted by diverse insults, and protects mammalian neurons from heat cytotoxicity. These findings reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that defends against diverse necrotic stimuli, and may be relevant to heat stroke and other pathological conditions involving necrosis in humans.

  15. Preliminary investigation on a primary energy saving heat supply system for the residential district "Maria Lindenhof" in Dorsten, West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, A.; Berlinghoff, K.; Grossmann, H.; Kaschube, H.; Reinmuth, F.

    1980-12-01

    Ways and means to operate a heating station by gas motor-driven heat pumps, using river water as heat source are investigated. The economic viability of the scheme is considered. A comparison with conventional technologies clearly shows the feasibility and effectiveness of this application, and at the same time supplies guidelines for design and dimensioning. Because of possible energy saving, the present investigation supports the realization of the project.

  16. Ionospheric Ion Upflows Associated with the Alfven Wave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, P.; Tu, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we present the simulation results from a self-consistent inductive-dynamic ionosphere-thermosphere model. In a 2-D numerical simulation (noon-midnight meridian plane), we solve the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple species of ions and neutrals and Maxwell's equations. In particular, the model retains Faraday's law, inertial term in the ion momentum equations and photochemistry. The code is based on an implicit algorithm and simulates a region from 80 km to 5000 km above the Earth. The system is driven by an antisunward motion at the upper boundary of the dayside cusp latitude in both hemispheres. We show that the frictional heating, which can produce upflows of the light (H+ and He+) and heave (O+) ions, is driven by the Alfven wave-induced ion motion relative to the neutrals. The variations of the upflows along a noon-midnight magnetic meridian are examined in association with given driving conditions imposed by the magnetosphere convection.

  17. Association of heat shock protein 70 expression with rat myocardial cell damage during heat stress in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, H B; Zhang, X C; Cheng, Y F; Abdelnasir, A; Tang, S; Kemper, N; Hartung, J; Bao, E D

    2015-03-20

    To investigate the mechanism of sudden death as a result of stress-induced damage to heart tissue and myocardial cells and to investigate the cardioprotective role of Hsp70 during heat stress, the distribution and expression of Hsp70 was evaluated in the heart cells of heat-stressed rats in vivo and heat-stressed H9c2 cells in vitro. After exposure to heat stress at 42°C for different durations, we observed a significant induction of CK, CK-MB, and LDH as well as pathologic lesions characterized by acute degeneration, suggesting that cell damage occurs from the onset of heat stress. Immunocytochemistry showed that Hsp70 was distributed mainly in the cytoplasm of myocardial cells in vivo and in vitro. Hsp70-positive signals in the cytoplasm were more prominent in intact areas than in degenerated areas after 60 min of heat stress. Hsp70 protein levels in myocardial cells in vitro decreased from the beginning to the end of heat stress. Hsp70 protein levels in rat heart tissues in vivo decreased gradually with prolonged heat stress, with a slight increase at the beginning of heat stress. These results indicate that Hsp70 plays a role in the response of cardiac cells to heat stress and that decreased Hsp70 levels are associated with damage to rat myocardial cells in vitro and in vivo. Significant differences were found in hsp70 mRNA, which began to increase after 20 min of heat stress in vitro and after 40 min in vivo. This indicates that hysteresis is involved in mRNA expression after heat stress in vivo.

  18. Potentially Modifiable Factors Associated with Death of Infants and Children with Severe Pneumonia Routinely Managed in District Hospitals in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Enarson, Penelope M.; Gie, Robert P.; Mwansambo, Charles C.; Chalira, Alfred E.; Lufesi, Norman N.; Maganga, Ellubey R.; Enarson, Donald A.; Cameron, Neil A.; Graham, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate recognised co-morbidities and clinical management associated with inpatient pneumonia mortality in Malawian district hospitals. Methods Prospective cohort study, of patient records, carried out in Malawi between 1st October 2000 and 30th June 2003. The study included all children aged 0-59 months admitted to the paediatric wards in sixteen district hospitals throughout Malawi with severe and very severe pneumonia. We compared individual factors between those that survived (n = 14 076) and those that died (n = 1 633). Results From logistic regression analysis, predictors of death in hospital, adjusted for age, sex and severity grade included comorbid conditions of meningitis (OR =2.49, 95% CI 1.50-4.15), malnutrition (OR =2.37, 95% CI 1.94-2.88) and severe anaemia (OR =1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.92). Requiring supplementary oxygen (OR =2.16, 95% CI 1.85-2.51) and intravenous fluids (OR =3.02, 95% CI 2.13-4.28) were associated with death while blood transfusion was no longer significant (OR =1.10, 95% CI 0.77-1.57) when the model included severe anaemia. Conclusions This study identified a number of challenges to improve outcome for Malawian infants and children hospitalised with pneumonia. These included improved assessment of co-morbidities and more rigorous application of standard case management. PMID:26237222

  19. Chlorophyll loss associated with heat-induced senescence in bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-08-01

    Heat stress-induced leaf senescence is characterized by the loss of chlorophyll from leaf tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine genetic variations in the level of heat-induced leaf senescence in hybrids of colonial (Agrostis capillaris)×creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) contrasting in heat tolerance, and determine whether loss of leaf chlorophyll during heat-induced leaf senescence was due to suppressed chlorophyll synthesis and/or accelerated chlorophyll degradation in the cool-season perennial grass species. Plants of two hybrid backcross genotypes ('ColxCB169' and 'ColxCB190') were exposed to heat stress (38/33°C, day/night) for 28 d in growth chambers. The analysis of turf quality, membrane stability, photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll content demonstrated significant variations in the level of leaf senescence induced by heat stress between the two genotypes, with ColXCB169 exhibiting a lesser degree of decline in chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency and membrane stability than ColXCB190. The assays of enzymatic activity or gene expression of several major chlorophyll-synthesizing (porphobilinogen deaminase, Mg-chelatase, protochlorophyllide-reductase) and chlorophyll-degrading enzymes (chlorophyllase, pheophytinase, and chlorophyll-degrading peroxidase) indicated heat-induced decline in leaf chlorophyll content was mainly due to accelerated chlorophyll degradation, as manifested by increased gene expression levels of chlorophyllase and pheophytinase, and the activity of pheophytinase (PPH), while chlorophyll-synthesizing genes and enzymatic activities were not differentially altered by heat stress in the two genotypes. The analysis of heat-induced leaf senescence of pph mutants of Arabidopsis further confirmed that PPH could be one enzymes that plays key roles in regulating heat-accelerated chlorophyll degradation. Further research on enzymes responsible in part for the loss of chlorophyll during heat

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  1. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  2. Alkalic rocks and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Powderhorn District, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, J.C.; Hedlund, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Alkalic igneous rocks and related concentrations of thorium, niobium, rare-earth elements, titanium, and other elements have long been known in the Powderhorn mining district and have been explored intermittently for several decades. The deposits formed chiefly about 570 m.y. (million years) ago in latest Precambrian or Early Cambrian time. They were emplaced in lower Proterozoic (Proterozoic X) metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and plutonic rocks. The complex of alkalic rocks of Iron Hill occupies 31 km 2 (square kilometers) and is composed of pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, nepheline syenite, and carbonatite, in order of generally decreasing age. Fenite occurs in a zone, in places more than 0.6 km (kilometer) wide, around a large part of the margin of the complex and adjacent to alkalic dikes intruding Precambrian host rock. The alkalic rocks have a radioactivity, chiefly due to thorium, greater than that of the surrounding Powderhorn Granite (Proterozoic X) and metamorphic rocks. The pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, and nepheline syenite, which form more than 80 percent of the complex, have fairly uniform radioactivity. Radioactivity in the carbonatite stock, carbonatite dikes, and the carbonatite-pyroxenite mixed rock zone, however, generally exceeds that in the other rocks of the complex. The thorium concentrations in the Powderhorn district occur in six types of deposits: thorite veins, a large massive carbonatite body, carbonatite dikes, trachyte dikes, magnetite-ilmeniteperovskite dikes or segregations, and disseminations in small, anomalously radioactive plutons chiefly of granite or quartz syenite that are older than rocks of the alkalic complex. The highest grade thorium concentrations in the district are in veins that commonly occur in steeply dipping, crosscutting shear or breccia zones in the Precambrian rocks. They range in thickness from a centimeter or less to 5 m (meters) and are as much as 1 km long. The thorite veins are composed chiefly of

  3. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Daping; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Yong; Chen, Wei; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang

    2013-01-01

    Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on. PMID:24135822

  4. Non-conductive heat transfer associated with frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Douglas L.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Goering, Douglas J.; Hinzman, Larry D.; Outcalt, Samuel I.

    2001-06-01

    The assertion that pure conductive heat transfer always dominates in cold climates is at odds with decades of research in soil physics which clearly demonstrate that non-conductive heat transfer by water and water vapor are significant, and frequently are for specific periods the dominant modes of heat transfer near the ground surface. The thermal regime at the surface represents the effective boundary condition for deeper thermal regimes. Also, surface soils are going to respond more quickly to any climatic fluctuations; this is important to us because most facets of our lives are tied to earth's surface. To accurately determine the surface thermal regime (for example, the detection of climate change), it is important to consider all potential forms of heat transfer. Gradients that have the potential to alter the thermal regime besides temperature include pore water pressure, gravitational, density, vapor pressure and chemical. The importance of several non-conductive heat transport mechanisms near the ground surface is examined. Infiltration into seasonally frozen soils and freezing (release of latent heat) of water is one mechanism for the acceleration of warming in surficial soils in the spring. Free convection due to buoyancy-induced motion of fluids does not appear to be an important heat-transfer mechanism; estimates of the Rayleigh number (the ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces) are generally around 2, which is too low for effective heat transfer. The Peclet number (ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer) is on the order of 0.25 for snowmelt infiltration and up to 2.5 for rainfall infiltration for porous organic soils. In mineral soils, both vertical and horizontal advection of heat can be neglected (Peclet number is approximately 0.001) except for snowmelt infiltration into open thermal contraction cracks. The migration of water in response to temperature or chemical gradients from unfrozen soil depths to the freezing front, and the

  5. Numerical prediction of turbulent oscillating flow and associated heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, W. J.; Patankar, S. V.; Ibele, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial point for further development of engines is the optimization of its heat exchangers which operate under oscillatory flow conditions. It has been found that the most important thermodynamic uncertainties in the Stirling engine designs for space power are in the heat transfer between gas and metal in all engine components and in the pressure drop across the heat exchanger components. So far, performance codes cannot predict the power output of a Stirling engine reasonably enough if used for a wide variety of engines. Thus, there is a strong need for better performance codes. However, a performance code is not concerned with the details of the flow. This information must be provided externally. While analytical relationships exist for laminar oscillating flow, there has been hardly any information about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow, which could be introduced into the performance codes. In 1986, a survey by Seume and Simon revealed that most Stirling engine heat exchangers operate in the transitional and turbulent regime. Consequently, research has since focused on the unresolved issue of transitional and turbulent oscillating flow and heat transfer. Since 1988, the University of Minnesota oscillating flow facility has obtained experimental data about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow. However, since the experiments in this field are extremely difficult, lengthy, and expensive, it is advantageous to numerically simulate the flow and heat transfer accurately from first principles. Work done at the University of Minnesota on the development of such a numerical simulation is summarized.

  6. Exploration of the enhanced geothermal system (EGS) potential of crystalline rocks for district heating (Elbe Zone, Saxony, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, Andrea; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Krentz, Ottomar

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses aspects of a baseline geothermal exploration of the thermally quiescent Elbe Zone (hosting the cities of Meissen and Dresden) for a potential deployment of geothermal heat in municipal heating systems. Low-permeable to impermeable igneous and metamorphic rocks constitute the major rock types at depth, implying that an enhanced geothermal system needs to be developed by creating artificial flow paths for fluids to enhance the heat extraction from the subsurface. The study includes the development of geological models for two areas on the basis of which temperature models are generated at upper crustal scale. The models are parameterized with laboratory-measured rock thermal properties (thermal conductivity k, radiogenic heat production H). The uncertainties of modelled temperature caused by observed variations of k and H and inferred mantle heat flow are assessed. The study delineates highest temperatures within the intermediate (monzonite/syenite unit) and mafic rocks (diorite/monzodiorite unit) forming the deeper portions of the Meissen Massif and, specifically for the Dresden area, also within the low-metamorphic rocks (slates/phyllites/quartzites) of the Elbtalschiefergebirge. Boreholes 3-4 km deep need to be drilled to reach the envisioned economically favourable temperatures of 120 °C. The metamorphic and mafic rocks exhibit low concentrations of U and Th, thus being advantageous for a geothermal use. For the monzonite/syenite unit of high heat production ( 6 µW m-3) in the Meissen Massif, the mobilization of Th and U into the geothermal working fluid is assumed to be minor, although their various radioactive decay products will be omnipresent during geothermal use.

  7. Hydrogeochemical controls on mobilization of arsenic and associated health risk in Nagaon district of the central Brahmaputra Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Patel, Arbind Kumar; Das, Aparna; Kumar, Pankaj; Goswami, Ritusmita; Deka, Parismita; Das, Nilotpal

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, elevated concentration of arsenic (As) in groundwater in the northeastern states of India has become a major cause of concern. Since many regions of the Brahmaputra plains are reported with groundwater As contamination, an attempt was made to study the As contamination and factors governing its release in the Nagaon district in Brahmaputra floodplain, based on various water types, relation of As with other major ions and with various depth profiles. The origin of groundwater mineralization and the processes responsible for As enrichment in groundwater was determined by calculating saturation index using PHREEQC code. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out for identification of As-releasing mechanism based on rock-water interaction. Principle component analysis of physicochemical parameters revealed the association of As with SiO2 and Cl(-) in pre-monsoon and the fact that alkaline condition favors release of As. The relation between As and Fe shows that reductive dissolution of solid Fe oxide and hydroxide phases could be the source of As in Nagaon district. The result of hierarchical cluster analysis indicates that As release could also be associated with the agrochemicals application. Health risk assessment revealed that children are more susceptible to carcinogenic as well as non-carcinogenic health impact with consumption of As-contaminated drinking water. The male population is more susceptible to cancer as compared to females as the average water consumption is higher in case of male. Overall, the study highlights the health risk assessment is a matter of chief concern in this study as the younger generation are at higher risk.

  8. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. Aim To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Results Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Conclusion Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis. PMID:26816986

  9. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  10. THIN CURRENT SHEETS AND ASSOCIATED ELECTRON HEATING IN TURBULENT SPACE PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Chasapis, A.; Retinò, A.; Sahraoui, F.; Canu, P.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Sundkvist, D.; Greco, A.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.

    2015-05-01

    Intermittent structures, such as thin current sheets, are abundant in turbulent plasmas. Numerical simulations indicate that such current sheets are important sites of energy dissipation and particle heating occurring at kinetic scales. However, direct evidence of dissipation and associated heating within current sheets is scarce. Here, we show a new statistical study of local electron heating within proton-scale current sheets by using high-resolution spacecraft data. Current sheets are detected using the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method which identifies regions of strong intermittency. We find that strong electron heating occurs in high PVI (>3) current sheets while no significant heating occurs in low PVI cases (<3), indicating that the former are dominant for energy dissipation. Current sheets corresponding to very high PVI (>5) show the strongest heating and most of the time are consistent with ongoing magnetic reconnection. This suggests that reconnection is important for electron heating and dissipation at kinetic scales in turbulent plasmas.

  11. Study on the association between ambient air pollution and daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in an urban district of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-06-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003-2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007-2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease.

  12. Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001), May (r = 0.77, p<0.001), and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05). During a period of more intense heat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03–2.21] applying reference periods (May 12–18, 2010) from various years. Conclusion The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot

  13. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  14. Mapping QTL for the traits associated with heat tolerance in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature (heat) stress during grain filling is a major problem in most of the wheat growing areas. Developing heat-tolerant cultivars is becoming a principal breeding goal in the Southern and Central Great Plain areas of USA. Traits associated with high temperature tolerance can be used to d...

  15. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part I: Dynamic intake fraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature by proposing a novel, state-of-the-art approach to estimate incremental air quality and health impacts of proposed or installed district energy systems (DES), such as the growing biomass-based DES, on the immediately surrounding community where population density varies significantly during day as well as the micrometeorological conditions. Spatial and temporal dynamics of pollutant concentrations at sensitive receptors obtained from modeled actual source emissions, inclusion of site-specific terrain, land use and microclimatic characteristics, population density and breathing rates are examined based on their impacts on the exposure potential expressed by the intake fraction (iF). Overall, results revealed that when those parameters are changing, the increase of iF calculated based on average ambient concentrations at each receptor for the UBC campus for the day and night hours for September 2012, ranges from 6.2% to 43.0%: introducing actual spatial receptor distribution led to 43% increase of iF, combined spatial and population dynamics led to 11.3% increase of iF, while introducing temporal dynamics and varying breathing rates resulted in 6.2% and 21.4% increase in iF respectively, compared to the base case box model where receptors and population were treated as static and uniformly distributed across the modeling domain. It is thus essential to take into consideration temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric conditions and dispersion, population density and varying aspiration rates in accurately assessing the health impacts of DES located at densely populated urban communities.

  16. Factors associated with undernutrition among children in a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Mohd Hussin, Zabidi Azhar; Thon, Chang Ching

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the factors associated with undernutrition indicators in children 5 years and younger in a rural community in Malaysia. A total of 295 children and their carers were selected from community clinics based on a multistage sampling method. Pretested questionnaire, anthropometric measurement, and dietary assessment were used for data collection. There was 69% stunting, 63.4% underweight, 40% wasting, and 26.8% with mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) for age below a z score of -2 among children. In all, 10 factors were found to be associated with different indicators of undernutrition. Age was the only factor that had association with all the undernutrition indicators. Total household income and total expenditure showed significant association with underweight. Birth weight was reported to have significant association with underweight, stunting, and low MUAC-for-age. The findings suggest that the factors of undernutrition were different for different indicators of undernutrition and thus give a more comprehensive picture on factors contributing to acute and chronic malnutrition.

  17. Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historic (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, whereas a time series analysis using a piecewise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day vs. a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages and all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect of heat intensity on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4°C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly age groups (<85 years) experience significant risk for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma hospitalizations.

  18. Carried or Defeated? Examining the Factors Associated with Passing School District Bond Elections in Texas, 1997-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Lee, Jooyoung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Across the United States, a large percentage of school districts are in need of facility improvements to provide safe and adequate buildings to facilitate student learning. To finance new construction, school districts traditionally have put proposals before local voters to fund construction through issuing long-term bonds to finance…

  19. Heat shock proteins and their association with major pediatric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Skora, Dorota; Gorska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins belong to a group of molecular chaperones responsible for the regulation of many intracellular processes. HSPs play a pivotal role in the survival of cells under stressful conditions. Over-expression of these proteins have been found in both healthy and a great number of cancer cells. HSPs may be involved in numerous carcinogenic and chemoresistant processes. Due to that fact, they may be referred to as diagnostic biomarkers of oncogenesis and potential targets for anticancer drugs. Thus, we decided to review the involvement of major HSPs in the most malignant childhood cancers.

  20. Age-dependent decline and association with stunting of Giardia duodenalis infection among schoolchildren in rural Huye district, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Heimer, Jakob; Staudacher, Olga; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean Marie; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection is highly prevalent and a cause of underweight in pre-school children in rural Rwanda. The present study aimed at assessing the age-pattern of Giardia infection and its manifestation in older children, i.e., during school age. Stool samples were collected from 622 schoolchildren at two schools in the Huye district of southern Rwanda (rural, 301; urban, 321) and subjected to G. duodenalis specific PCR assays. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with G. duodenalis infection were assessed. Of the 622 children (mean age, 10.4 years), 35.7% were infected with G. duodenalis (rural, 43.9%; urban, 28.0%; P<0.0001). Only few indicators of low socio-economic status were found to be associated with infection. In rural but not urban schoolchildren, infection prevalence declined significantly with age. G. duodenalis infection more than doubled the odds of stunting in both rural (adjusted OR, 2.35 (95%CI, 1.25-4.41)) and urban children (adjusted OR, 2.27 (95%CI, 1.01-5.09)). In the study area of rural southern Rwanda, G. duodenalis prevalence among children declined throughout school-age. The data suggest that while lacking overt clinical manifestation at high endemicity, G. duodenalis infection is a common cause of stunting in schoolchildren.

  1. [Latent tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors among the tuberculosis contacts in one of district in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Tang, L H; Huang, X X; Wu, Y; Su, H L

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI) and associated risk factors among the tuberculosis(TB) contacts in Minhang District of Shanghai. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was used to acquire socio-demographic information and to assess the degree of exposure to index cases. LTBI screening was performed by T-SPOT.TB assay. Pearson chi-square test and Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors associated with LTBI among the TB contacts. Results: A total of 137 contacts from 59 mycobacterial (culture) positive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled in this study. In these contacts, there were 54 men and 83 women, with the average age of 42. LTBI was identified in 20% (27/137) of these contacts. Several risk factors were found by logistic analyses in this study. The worse the ventilation in the exposure location was, the more likely to develop LTBI. Contacts aged more than 60 (42.1%) were 3.9 times more likely to develop LTBI than those aged less than 60 (16.1%). Individuals in contact with TB patients for more than 40 h/week(25.8%) had a 4.2 times risk of LTBI as compared to those for less than 40 h/week(6.8%). Conclusion: The prevalence of LTBI was 20% among the TB contacts in this study, highlighting the need of TB screening and intervention among TB contacts.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  3. Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historical (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County -King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis using a piece-wise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect that heat’s intensity has on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day versus a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages, all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect heat intensity has on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4 °C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly (less than 85) age groups experience significant risk for: nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, COPD and asthma hospitalizations. PMID:25719287

  4. Heat Wave-Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014.

    PubMed

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G H; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens.

  5. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill.

  6. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  7. Factors associated with flea infestation among the different rodent species in Mbulu and Karatu districts, northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Haule, Martin; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Matee, Mecky I; Kilonzo, Bukheti S; Hang'ombe, Bernard M

    2013-07-01

    Flea infection with the bacterium, Yersinia pestis is acquired from reservoirs which include several rodents and other small mammals. In areas that are endemic of plague, reservoirs of Y. pestis and various flea vectors are responsible for perpetuating existence of the disease. The objective of this cross sectional study was to investigate the magnitude and factors associated with flea infestation among different rodent species of northern Tanzania, where outbreaks of plague have been recently reported. House rodents were trapped with box traps, while field and forest rodents were trapped with Sherman live traps. Fleas were removed from the rodents by using shoe-shining brush and were identified to genus level. Among the captured rodents, Rattus rattus (26.5%), Lophuromys flavopunctatus (16.5%), Praomys delectorum (16.2%) and Mastomys natalensis (32.3%) were most abundant rodent species, accounting for 91% of all species. Altogether, 805 fleas belonging to nine species were collected from 61% of the captured rodents. The most common fleas were Xenopsylla spp.; Dinopsyllus spp and Ctenophthalmus spp. Fleas were found to be highly abundant in M. natalensis, R. rattus, P. delectorum and L .flavopunctatus. Most of rodents were heavily infested with various flea species. These flea species probably play an important role in the transmission of plague in these two districts. We conclude that rodent species was the most important risk factor associating with flea infestation among the rodent population. Therefore, measures for control and prevention of plague in this area should particularly target rodents associated with high intensity of flea infestation.

  8. Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-01-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003–2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007–2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. PMID:21776219

  9. Visceral Leishmaniasis Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Saran District of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Diana; Dixon, Kandice; Garlapati, Rajesh; Gendernalik, Alex; Poché, David; Poché, Richard

    2013-01-01

    India is one of three countries that account for an estimated 300,000 of 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurring annually. Bihar State is the most affected area of India, with more than 90% of the cases. Surveys were conducted in two villages within the Saran district of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011 to assess risk factors associated with VL. Forty-five cases were identified, and individuals were given an oral survey. The results indicated that men contracted the disease more than women (58%), and cases over the age of 21 years accounted for 42% of the total VL cases. April to June showed the highest number of new cases. Of 135 households surveyed for sleeping conditions, 95% reported sleeping outside, and 98% slept in beds. Proximity to VL cases was the greatest risk factor (cluster 1 relative risk = 11.89 and cluster 2 relative risk = 138.34). The VL case clustering observed in this study can be incorporated in disease prevention strategies to more efficiently and effectively target VL control efforts. PMID:23382167

  10. The association of IL-8-251T/A polymorphism with complicated malaria in Karbi Anglong district of Assam.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Anusree; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Baruah, Shashi

    2014-02-01

    Amongst host genetic factors, cytokine gene polymorphism can be anticipated to be an important factor as qualitative, quantitative and time of secretion play an important role in disease outcome. We have investigated association of cytokine promoter SNPs with risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and disease severity in a case control study in malaria endemic Karbi Anglong district of Assam, India. Frequency of IL-8-251T/A (p=0.03 and p=0.01) and TGF-β1-509C/T (p=0.02 and p=0.03) was higher in malaria in comparison to control participants and non-malarial fever controls. Interestingly, a higher frequency of mutant allele of IL-10-819T/C was observed in non-malarial fever controls compared to malaria thus suggesting its role as a distinguishing marker of the two disease groups. Higher IL-8 expression and increased frequency of IL-8-251T/A in complicated malaria (p=0.002) was reported indicating its role in susceptibility to complicated malaria. In conclusion, our study suggests the role of mutant genotype of IL-8-251T/A as a marker of complicated malaria in our population. Surprisingly, decreased expression of TGF-β1 in uncomplicated malaria even in presence of high expressing mutant genotype was observed and needs to be investigated in context of the pool of activated cells producing the cytokine.

  11. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at Olkalou District Hospital, Central Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muchemi, Onesmus Maina; Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-two percent of Low Birth Weight(LBW) infants are born in developing countries, 70% in Asia and 22% in Africa. WHO and UNICEF estimate LBW in Kenya as11% and 6%by 2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. The same survey estimated LBW to be 5.5% in Central Province, Kenya. Data in Olkalou hospital indicated that prevalence of LBW was high. However, factors giving rise to the problem remained unknown. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital. LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g. We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 women were randomly selected from 500mothers. Data was managed using Epi Info 3.3.2. Results The prevalence of LBW was 12.3% (n=40). The mean age of mothers was 25.6±6.2 years. Mean birth weight was 2928±533 grams. There were 51.1% (n=165) male neonates and 48.9% (n=158) females. The following factors were significantly associated with LBW:LBW delivery in a previous birth (OR=4.7, 95%C.I.=1.53-14.24), premature rapture of membranes (OR=2.95, 95%C.I.=1.14-7.62), premature births (OR=3.65, 95%C.I.=1.31-10.38), and female newborn (OR=2.32, 95%C.I.=1.15-4.70). On logistic regression only delivery of LBW baby in a previous birth (OR=5.07, 95%C.I.=1.59-16.21) and female infant (OR=3.37, 95%C.I.=1.14-10.00)were independently associated with LBW. Conclusion Prevalence of LBW in the hospital was higher than national estimates. Female infant and LBW baby in a previous birth are independent factors. Local prevention efforts are necessary to mitigate the problem. Population-based study is necessary to provide accurate estimates in the area. PMID:26090056

  12. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks.

  13. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10% (1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69% (95% CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0°C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks.

  14. The heat production associated with the passage of a single impulse in pike olfactory nerve fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, J V; Keynes, R D; Ritchie, J M; von Muralt, A

    1975-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the temperature changes associated with the passage of a single impulse in the non-myelinated fibres of the pike olfactory nerve. 2. The initial heat occurs in two phases: a burst of positive heat, followed by an evolution of negative heat. The positive and negative heats, and the net initial heat, are temperature-dependent. 3. At 0 degrees C the measured positive initial heat is 44.2 mucal/g.impulse; and the corresponding negative initial heat is 48.9 mucal/g.impulse. There is thus a net initial heat that is negative, of about 4.7 mucal/g.impulse. 4. The positive heat has a positive temperature coefficient, being increased by a factor of 1.86 when the temperature is rasied from 0 degrees C to 10 degrees C. 5. The negative initial heat also increases when the temperature is raised, but less than the positive initial heat. As a result, the net initial heat tends to become positive at higher temperatures. 6. Because of temporal dispersion of the action potential over the face of the thermopile, the observed temperature changes are smaller than those that occur at a single point in the nerve close to the stimulating cathode. The value of the positive heat at 0 degrees C corrected for temporal dispersion is estimated to be about 62 mucal/g.impulse: the corresponding value for the negative heat is about 67 mucal/g.impulse. 7. All records were analysed in terms of only two phases of initial heat (one positive, one negative). No analysis required four phases; but it is unclear whether this finding reflects a true absence of four phases, or merely the inability of the recording equipment to resolve them. 8. The positive heat seems to be derived from two sources. First, there is a dissipation of the free energy stored in the membrane capacity. Secondly, there is an evolution of heat corresponding with a decrease in entropy of the membrane dielectric with depolarization. PMID:1236946

  15. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, p<0.001). When sap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  16. Experimental evidence in support of Joule heating associated with geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution accelerometer measurements in the altitude region 140 to 300 km from a satellite in a near-polar orbit during a period of extremely high geomagnetic activity indicate that Joule heating is the primary source of energy for atmospheric heating associated with geomagnetic activity. This conclusion is supported by the following observational evidence: (1) There is an atmospheric response in the auroral zone which is nearly simulataneous with the onset of geomagnetic activity, with no significant response in the equatorial region until several hours later; (2) The maximum heating occurs at geographic locations near the maximum current of the auroral electrojet; and (3) There is evidence of atmospheric waves originating near the auroral zone at altitudes where Joule heating would be expected to occur. An analysis of atmospheric response time to this heat shows time delays are apparently independent of altitude but are strongly dependent upon geomagnetic latitude.

  17. Risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along the Uganda-Kenya border.

    PubMed

    Nantima, Noelina; Ocaido, Michael; Ouma, Emily; Davies, Jocelyn; Dione, Michel; Okoth, Edward; Mugisha, Anthony; Bishop, Richard

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along Kenya-Uganda border. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 642 randomly selected pig households in the study area. The study showed that the major risk factors that influenced ASF occurrence were purchase of pigs in the previous year (p < 0.000) and feeding of pigs with swill (p < 0.024). By employing cluster analysis, three clusters of pig production types were identified based on production characteristics that were found to differ significantly between districts. The most vulnerable cluster to ASF was households with the highest reported number of ASF outbreaks and composed of those that practiced free range at least some of the time. The majority of the households in this cluster were from Busia district in Uganda. On the other hand, the least vulnerable cluster to ASF composed of households that had the least number of pig purchases, minimal swill feeding, and less treatment for internal and external parasites. The largest proportion of households in this cluster was from Busia district Kenya. The study recommended the need to sensitize farmers to adopt proper biosecurity practices such as total confinement of pigs, treatment of swill, isolation of newly purchased pigs for at least 2 weeks, and provision of incentives for farmers to report suspected outbreaks to authorities and rapid confirmation of outbreaks.

  18. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980–2010

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Richard A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980–2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat’s intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45–64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks. PMID:25956805

  19. Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers: findings of the Thai Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kjellstrom, Tord; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to work very fast. Nearly 20% of workers experienced occupational heat stress which strongly and significantly associated with occupational injury (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.87-2.42 for males and 1.89, 95%CI 1.64-2.18 for females). This study provides evidence connecting heat stress and occupational injury in tropical Thailand and also identifies several factors that increase heat exposure. The findings will be useful for policy makers to consider work-related heat stress problems in tropical Thailand and to develop an occupational health and safety program which is urgently needed given the looming threat of global warming.

  20. Mechanical Alterations Associated with Repeated Treadmill Sprinting under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Racinais, Sébastien; Millet, Grégoire P.; Périard, Julien D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Examine the mechanical alterations associated with repeated treadmill sprinting performed in HOT (38°C) and CON (25°C) conditions. Methods Eleven recreationally active males performed a 30-min warm-up followed by three sets of five 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery and 3-min between sets in each environment. Constant-velocity running for 1-min at 10 and 20 km.h-1 was also performed prior to and following sprinting. Results Mean skin (37.2±0.7 vs. 32.7±0.8°C; P<0.001) and core (38.9±0.2 vs. 38.8±0.3°C; P<0.05) temperatures, together with thermal comfort (P<0.001) were higher following repeated sprinting in HOT vs. CON. Step frequency and vertical stiffness were lower (-2.6±1.6% and -5.5±5.5%; both P<0.001) and contact time (+3.2±2.4%; P<0.01) higher in HOT for the mean of sets 1–3 compared to CON. Running distance per sprint decreased from set 1 to 3 (-7.0±6.4%; P<0.001), with a tendency for shorter distance covered in HOT vs. CON (-2.7±3.4%; P = 0.06). Mean vertical (-2.6±5.5%; P<0.01), horizontal (-9.1±4.4%; P<0.001) and resultant ground reaction forces (-3.0±2.8%; P<0.01) along with vertical stiffness (-12.9±2.3%; P<0.001) and leg stiffness (-8.4±2.7%; P<0.01) decreased from set 1 to 3, independently of conditions. Propulsive power decreased from set 1 to 3 (-16.9±2.4%; P<0.001), with lower propulsive power values in set 2 (-6.6%; P<0.05) in HOT vs. CON. No changes in constant-velocity running patterns occurred between conditions, or from pre-to-post repeated-sprint exercise. Conclusions Thermal strain alters step frequency and vertical stiffness during repeated sprinting; however without exacerbating mechanical alterations. The absence of changes in constant-velocity running patterns suggests a strong link between fatigue-induced velocity decrements during sprinting and mechanical alterations. PMID:28146582

  1. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Stephanie; Everett Jones, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counties with high predicted average indoor radon, 42.4% had policies for radon testing and 37.5% had policies for radon-resistant new construction practices. These findings suggest a critical need for improved awareness among policy makers regarding potential radon exposure for both students and school staff. PMID:27983613

  2. Candidate genes and molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in colonial Bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Belanger, Faith C; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Elevated temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting the growth of cool-season grasses during the summer months. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variation in the expression patterns of selected genes involved in several major metabolic pathways regulating heat tolerance for two genotypes contrasting in heat tolerance to confirm their status as potential candidate genes, and to identify PCR-based markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance in a colonial (Agrostis capillaris L.) x creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) hybrid backcross population. Plants were subjected to heat stress in controlled-environmental growth chambers for phenotypic evaluation and determination of genetic variation in candidate gene expression. Molecular markers were developed for genes involved in protein degradation (cysteine protease), antioxidant defense (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase), energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), cell expansion (expansin), and stress protection (heat shock proteins HSP26, HSP70, and HSP101). Kruskal-Wallis analysis, a commonly used non-parametric test used to compare population individuals with or without the gene marker, found the physiological traits of chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, normalized difference vegetative index, and turf quality were associated with all candidate gene markers with the exception of HSP101. Differential gene expression was frequently found for the tested candidate genes. The development of candidate gene markers for important heat tolerance genes may allow for the development of new cultivars with increased abiotic stress tolerance using marker-assisted selection.

  3. Candidate genes and molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in colonial Bentgrass

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, David; Belanger, Faith C.; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Elevated temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting the growth of cool-season grasses during the summer months. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variation in the expression patterns of selected genes involved in several major metabolic pathways regulating heat tolerance for two genotypes contrasting in heat tolerance to confirm their status as potential candidate genes, and to identify PCR-based markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance in a colonial (Agrostis capillaris L.) x creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) hybrid backcross population. Plants were subjected to heat stress in controlled-environmental growth chambers for phenotypic evaluation and determination of genetic variation in candidate gene expression. Molecular markers were developed for genes involved in protein degradation (cysteine protease), antioxidant defense (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase), energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), cell expansion (expansin), and stress protection (heat shock proteins HSP26, HSP70, and HSP101). Kruskal-Wallis analysis, a commonly used non-parametric test used to compare population individuals with or without the gene marker, found the physiological traits of chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, normalized difference vegetative index, and turf quality were associated with all candidate gene markers with the exception of HSP101. Differential gene expression was frequently found for the tested candidate genes. The development of candidate gene markers for important heat tolerance genes may allow for the development of new cultivars with increased abiotic stress tolerance using marker-assisted selection. PMID:28187136

  4. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C.; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S.; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.3, p<0.001). When sap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9–1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents’ knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission. PMID:26551202

  5. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zerdo, Zerihun; Yohanes, Tsegaye; Tariku, Befikadu

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1–28.2), 16.2% (12.7–20.1), and 1.0% (0.3–2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. PMID:26941997

  6. Association of condensin with chromosomes depends on DNA binding by its HEAT-repeat subunits.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Ilaria; Rutkowska, Anna; Ori, Alessandro; Walczak, Marta; Metz, Jutta; Pelechano, Vicent; Beck, Martin; Haering, Christian H

    2014-06-01

    Condensin complexes have central roles in the three-dimensional organization of chromosomes during cell divisions, but how they interact with chromatin to promote chromosome segregation is largely unknown. Previous work has suggested that condensin, in addition to encircling chromatin fibers topologically within the ring-shaped structure formed by its SMC and kleisin subunits, contacts DNA directly. Here we describe the discovery of a binding domain for double-stranded DNA formed by the two HEAT-repeat subunits of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae condensin complex. From detailed mapping data of the interfaces between the HEAT-repeat and kleisin subunits, we generated condensin complexes that lack one of the HEAT-repeat subunits and consequently fail to associate with chromosomes in yeast and human cells. The finding that DNA binding by condensin's HEAT-repeat subunits stimulates the SMC ATPase activity suggests a multistep mechanism for the loading of condensin onto chromosomes.

  7. Challenges associated with projecting urbanization-induced heat-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Hondula, David M; Georgescu, Matei; Balling, Robert C

    2014-08-15

    Maricopa County, Arizona, anchor to the fastest growing megapolitan area in the United States, is located in a hot desert climate where extreme temperatures are associated with elevated risk of mortality. Continued urbanization in the region will impact atmospheric temperatures and, as a result, potentially affect human health. We aimed to quantify the number of excess deaths attributable to heat in Maricopa County based on three future urbanization and adaptation scenarios and multiple exposure variables. Two scenarios (low and high growth projections) represent the maximum possible uncertainty range associated with urbanization in central Arizona, and a third represents the adaptation of high-albedo cool roof technology. Using a Poisson regression model, we related temperature to mortality using data spanning 1983-2007. Regional climate model simulations based on 2050-projected urbanization scenarios for Maricopa County generated distributions of temperature change, and from these predicted changes future excess heat-related mortality was estimated. Subject to urbanization scenario and exposure variable utilized, projections of heat-related mortality ranged from a decrease of 46 deaths per year (-95%) to an increase of 339 deaths per year (+359%). Projections based on minimum temperature showed the greatest increase for all expansion and adaptation scenarios and were substantially higher than those for daily mean temperature. Projections based on maximum temperature were largely associated with declining mortality. Low-growth and adaptation scenarios led to the smallest increase in predicted heat-related mortality based on mean temperature projections. Use of only one exposure variable to project future heat-related deaths may therefore be misrepresentative in terms of direction of change and magnitude of effects. Because urbanization-induced impacts can vary across the diurnal cycle, projections of heat-related health outcomes that do not consider place

  8. Associations between Grades and Physical Activity and Food Choices: Results from YRBS from a Large Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Beard, Jonathan; Young, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between television viewing time, physical activity level, food consumption patterns, and academic performance of adolescents in a large urban school district in the USA where health disparities are prevalent, particularly among minority residents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  9. Ion/electron heating associated with low-frequency turbulence (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorland, W.; Tatsuno, T.; Numata, R.; Howes, G.; Barnes, M.

    2010-12-01

    The solar wind is an extraordinarily well-diagnosed turbulent plasma. The range of processes and parameters found in the solar is very broad. No single physical model that is tractable (i.e., currently computable) describes the full range of phenomena of interest. For turbulence dynamics that are slow compared to the ion cyclotron frequency, gyrokinetic theory and simulations are powerful tools that can be used to predict quantities such as power spectra, ion and electron heating rates, and minor ion heating rates. We present a new, fully spectral gyrokinetic simulation code (AstroGKS) together with predictions for these quantities across a range of plasma parameters. We focus on the role of the free energy cascade and the associated generation of structure in the velocity-space distribution function, which is closely associated with the turbulent heating of each plasma species.

  10. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health

  11. Calving traits of crossbred Brahman Cows are Associated with Heat Shock Protein 70 Genetic Polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to: 1) identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in the promoter region of the bovine heat shock protein 70 gene, and 2) evaluate associations between Hsp70 SNP and calving rates of Brahman-influenced cows. Specific primers were designed for PCR amplification of a 539 b...

  12. Factors associated with recidivism among adolescents girls in conflict with the law in an institution in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallassi, Andrea Donatti; dos Santos, Samantha Lima; Santos, Vagner Dos; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Fischer, Benedikt; Galinkin, Ana Lúcia; Wagner, Gabriela Arantes

    2015-12-01

    Recidivism is a challenge for the Brazilian socio-educational system because it is associated with personal, social and environmental factors, especially among juvenile offenders. This study examined key characteristics and potential association with recidivism in 391 female adolescent offenders from a correctional institution in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil, between 2004 and 2011. Cross-sectional data on socio-demographics, drug use and offense characteristics from institutional information were examined. Associate factors with recidivism were examined using negative binomial regression analyses. 32.5% of offenders were recidivists at present admission and the mean frequency of recidivism among recidivists was 2.16. About half (53.6%) of the sample reported drug use. After the adjustment, recidivism was positively associated with: age; offender's drug use; residence status; offense type; and no family drug use. Factors associated with juvenile offenders' recidivism confirm findings from elsewhere, and should inform targeted interventions in Brazil.

  13. Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating.

    PubMed

    Mathys, Werner; Stanke, Juliane; Harmuth, Margarita; Junge-Mathys, Elisabeth

    2008-03-01

    A total of 452 samples from hot water systems of randomly selected single family residences in the suburbs of two German cities were analysed for the occurrence of Legionella. Technical data were documented using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate possible factors promoting the growth of the bacterium in these small plumbing systems. All houses were supplied with treated groundwater from public water works. Drinking water quality was within the limits specified in the German regulations for drinking water and the water was not chlorinated. The results showed that plumbing systems in private houses that provided hot water from instantaneous water heaters were free of Legionella compared with a prevalence of 12% in houses with storage tanks and recirculating hot water where maximum counts of Legionella reached 100,000 CFU/100ml. The presence of L. pneumophila accounted for 93.9% of all Legionella positive specimens of which 71.8% belonged to serogroup 1. The volume of the storage tank, interrupting circulation for several hours daily and intermittently raising hot water temperatures to >60 degrees C had no influence on Legionella counts. Plumbing systems with copper pipes were more frequently contaminated than those made of synthetic materials or galvanized steel. An inhibitory effect due to copper was not present. Newly constructed systems (<2 years) were not colonized. The type of hot water preparation had a marked influence. More than 50% of all houses using district heating systems were colonized by Legionella. Their significantly lower hot water temperature is thought to be the key factor leading to intensified growth of Legionella. Although hot water systems using solar energy to supplement conventional hot water supplies operate at temperatures 3 degrees C lower than conventional systems, this technique does not seem to promote proliferation of the bacterium. Our data show convincingly that the temperature of the hot water is probably the most important

  14. Projected health impacts of heat events in Washington State associated with climate change.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael; Hom, Elizabeth; Fenske, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and duration of extreme-heat events and associated health outcomes. This study used data from the historical heat-health outcome relationship, and a unique prediction model, to estimate mortality for 2025 and 2045. For each one degree change in humidex above threshold, we find a corresponding 1.83% increase in mortality for all ages, all non-traumatic causes of death in King County, Washington. Mortality is projected to increase significantly in 2025 and 2045 for the 85 and older age group (2.3-8.0 and 4.0-22.3 times higher than baseline, respectively).

  15. Extraordinary heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl and associated large-scale conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; King, Andrew D.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Durre, Imke; Karoly, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually hot summer conditions occurred during the 1930s over the central United States and undoubtedly contributed to the severity of the Dust Bowl drought. We investigate local and large-scale conditions in association with the extraordinary heat and drought events, making use of novel datasets of observed climate extremes and climate reanalysis covering the past century. We show that the unprecedented summer heat during the Dust Bowl years was likely exacerbated by land-surface feedbacks associated with springtime precipitation deficits. The reanalysis results indicate that these deficits were associated with the coincidence of anomalously warm North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific surface waters and a shift in atmospheric pressure patterns leading to reduced flow of moist air into the central US. Thus, the combination of springtime ocean temperatures and atmospheric flow anomalies, leading to reduced precipitation, also holds potential for enhanced predictability of summer heat events. The results suggest that hot drought, more severe than experienced during the most recent 2011 and 2012 heat waves, is to be expected when ocean temperature anomalies like those observed in the 1930s occur in a world that has seen significant mean warming.

  16. Association between heat stress and oxidative stress in poultry; mitochondrial dysfunction and dietary interventions with phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Akbarian, Abdollah; Michiels, Joris; Degroote, Jeroen; Majdeddin, Maryam; Golian, Abolghasem; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    reserves. Some phytochemicals, such as various types of flavonoids and related compounds, were shown to be beneficial in chronic heat-stressed poultry, but were less or not effective in non-heat-stressed counterparts. This supports the contention that antioxidant phytochemicals have potential under challenging conditions. Though substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the association between heat stress and oxidative stress, the means by which phytochemicals can alleviate oxidative stress have been sparsely explored.

  17. Association of Climatic Variability, Vector Population and Malarial Disease in District of Visakhapatnam, India: A Modeling and Prediction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Srimath-Tirumula-Peddinti, Ravi Chandra Pavan Kumar; Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Sidagam, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Malarial incidence, severity, dynamics and distribution of malaria are strongly determined by climatic factors, i.e., temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity. The objectives of the current study were to analyse and model the relationships among climate, vector and malaria disease in district of Visakhapatnam, India to understand malaria transmission mechanism (MTM). Methodology Epidemiological, vector and climate data were analysed for the years 2005 to 2011 in Visakhapatnam to understand the magnitude, trends and seasonal patterns of the malarial disease. Statistical software MINITAB ver. 14 was used for performing correlation, linear and multiple regression analysis. Results/Findings Perennial malaria disease incidence and mosquito population was observed in the district of Visakhapatnam with peaks in seasons. All the climatic variables have a significant influence on disease incidence as well as on mosquito populations. Correlation coefficient analysis, seasonal index and seasonal analysis demonstrated significant relationships among climatic factors, mosquito population and malaria disease incidence in the district of Visakhapatnam, India. Multiple regression and ARIMA (I) models are best suited models for modeling and prediction of disease incidences and mosquito population. Predicted values of average temperature, mosquito population and malarial cases increased along with the year. Developed MTM algorithm observed a major MTM cycle following the June to August rains and occurring between June to September and minor MTM cycles following March to April rains and occurring between March to April in the district of Visakhapatnam. Fluctuations in climatic factors favored an increase in mosquito populations and thereby increasing the number of malarial cases. Rainfall, temperatures (20°C to 33°C) and humidity (66% to 81%) maintained a warmer, wetter climate for mosquito growth, parasite development and malaria transmission. Conclusions

  18. Molecular characterization of tospoviruses associated with ringspot disease in bell pepper from different districts of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshul; Kulshrestha, Saurabh

    2016-06-01

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an important cash crop for the farmers of Himachal Pradesh was found to be affected with tospovirus like disease. An extensive survey was conducted in the bell pepper grown areas in the five districts of Himachal Pradesh to identify and characterize the causative agent. Hence, 60 symptomatic bell pepper plants exhibiting characteristics symptoms were collected from Solan, Sirmaur, Hamirpur, Kangra and Bilaspur districts. Out of 60 samples, 53 samples were found to be positive by DAS-ELISA with tospovirus group specific antiserum. To confirm the presence of tospovirus, DAC-ELISA was performed using GBNV/CaCV polyclonal antiserum and DAS-ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies i.e. TSWV, GRSV. All the 53 samples were found negative for TSWV and GRSV and positive for GBNV/CaCV. Further, eleven infected isolates from both poly-house and open field conditions were selected for characterization at molecular level. RT-PCR was performed with N gene specific primers for TSWV, GBNV and CaCV. The eleven samples selected for molecular identification were further found to be negative for TSWV and positive for CaCV using RT-PCR. One of the samples from district Sirmaur was found to be positive for mixed infection of GBNV and CaCV. N gene phylogenetic analysis of CaCV/GBNV provided important information about the movement and evolution of tospoviruses in Himachal Pradesh.

  19. Environment and farm factors associated with exposure to Theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, John M; Kitala, Phillip M; Ngumi, Priscilla N; Skilton, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to Theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere District, Kenya. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to T. parva infection epidemiology. Serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of T. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The association between the variables was assessed using a generalized estimation equation logistic regression model. The overall T. parva seroprevalence, accounting for correlation of responses, was 19.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14%, 25%). Two variables, "administrative division" and "presence of the vector tick on the farm", were significantly associated with the T. parva seroresponse. Respectively, cattle from farms in Gachoka, Evurore, and Mwea divisions were (and their 95% CI) 1.3 (0.36, 4.8), 4.4 (1.2, 15.9), and 15.2 (4.9, 47.1) times more likely to be seropositive relative to those from Siakago Division (P = 0.000). Cattle from farms in which the vector tick was present were 2.9 (1.2, 6.7) times more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.011). Results of this study suggested that both environmental and farm factors may be associated with T. parva infection epidemiology in Mbeere District. Under such circumstances, characterization of environmental suitability for the vector tick and corresponding environment-specific farm management practices in the district is required both for improved understanding of the disease and in planning disease control programs.

  20. Mortality in Portugal associated with the heat wave of August 2003: early estimation of effect, using a rapid method.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, P J; Falcão, J M; Contreiras, M T; Paixão, E; Brandão, João; Batista, I

    2005-07-01

    During the first two weeks of August 2003, Portugal was affected by a severe heat wave. Following the identification in Portugal of the influence of heat waves on mortality in 1981 and 1991 (estimated excess of about 1900 and 1000 deaths respectively), the Observatorio Nacional de Saude (ONSA) - Instituto Nacional de Saude Dr. Ricardo Jorge, together with the Vigilancia Previsao e Informacao - Instituto de Meteorologia, created a surveillance system called iCARO, which has been in operation since 1999. iCARO identifies heat waves with potential influence on mortality [1]. Before the end of the 2003 heat wave, ONSA had produced a preliminary estimate of its effect on mortality. The results based on daily number of deaths from 1 June to 12 August 2003 were presented within 4 working days. Data was gathered from 31 National Civil registrars, covering the district capitals of all 18 districts of mainland Portugal, and representing approximately 40% of the mainland's mortality. The number of deaths registered in the period 30 July to 12 August was compared with the ones registered during 3 comparison periods: (in July): 1-14 July, 1-28 July, and 15-28 July). 15-28 July, the period best resembling the heat wave in time and characteristics, produced an estimation of 37.7% higher mortality rate then the value expected under normal temperature conditions. From this value, an estimate of 1316 death excess was obtained for mainland Portugal. The main purpose of this article is to present the method used to identify and assess the occurrence of an effect (excess mortality) during the heat wave of summer 2003.

  1. Genetic variation in heat shock protein 70 is associated with septic shock: narrowing the association to a specific haplotype.

    PubMed

    Kee, C; Cheong, K Y; Pham, K; Waterer, G W; Temple, S E L

    2008-12-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a major role in immune responses. Polymorphisms within the gene have been associated with development of septic shock. This study refines the region of the HSP70 gene associated with development of septic shock and confirms its functionality. Subjects (n = 31) were grouped into one of three haplotypes based on their HSPA1B-179C>T and HSPA1B1267A>G genotypes. Mononuclear cells from these subjects were stimulated with heat-killed bacteria (10(7 )colony-forming units/mL Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae) for 8 and 21 h. HSP70 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA and protein levels were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. The HSPA1B-179*C:1267*A haplotype was associated with significantly lower levels of HSPA1B mRNA and protein and higher production of TNF mRNA and protein compared to the other haplotypes. Induction of HSP70 was TNF independent. These results suggest that the HSPA1B-179C>T:1267A>G haplotype is functional and may explain the association of the HSP70 gene with development of septic shock.

  2. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews (n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries. PMID:28085105

  3. Physiological traits associated with heat tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Girish Chandra; Mamrutha, H M; Tiwari, Ratan; Sareen, Sindhu; Bhatia, Shrutkirti; Siwach, Priyanka; Tiwari, Vinod; Sharma, Indu

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments for evaluating heat tolerance-related physiological traits were conducted for two consecutive years using a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross RAJ4014/WH730. Chlorophyll content (Chl) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CFL) were recorded under timely sown (TS) and late sown (LS) conditions. Late sowing exposes the terminal stage of plants to high temperature stress. Pooled analysis showed that CFL and Chl differed significantly under TS and LS conditions. The mean value of CFL (Fv/Fm) and Chl under both timely and late sown conditions were used as physiological traits for association with markers. Regression analysis revealed significant association of microsatellite markers viz., Xpsp3094 and Xgwm131 with coefficients of determination (R (2)) values for CFL (Fv/Fm) and Chl as 12 and 8 %, respectively. The correlation between thousand grain weight (TGW) with Chl and CFL were 14 and 7 % and correlation between grain wt./spike with Chl and CFL were 15 and 8 %, respectively. The genotypes showing tolerance to terminal heat stress as manifested by low heat susceptibility index (HSI = 0.43) for thousand grain weight, were also found having very low Chl, HSI (-0.52). These results suggest that these physiological traits may be used as a secondary character for screening heat-tolerant genotypes.

  4. Vulnerability to extreme-heat-associated hospitalization in three counties in Michigan, USA, 2000-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbomo, Adesuwa S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; O'Neill, Marie S.; Konen, Tess; Cameron, Lorraine; Wahl, Robert

    2016-10-01

    With climate change, extreme heat (EH) events are increasing, so it is important to understand who is vulnerable to heat-associated morbidity. We determined the association between EH and hospitalizations for all natural causes; cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases; diabetes mellitus; and acute myocardial infarction in Michigan, USA, at different intensities and durations. We assessed confounding by ozone and how individual characteristics and health insurance payer (a proxy for income) modified these associations. We obtained Michigan Inpatient Database, National Climatic Data Center, and US Environmental Protection Agency ozone data for May-September, 2000-2009 for three Michigan counties. We employed a case-crossover design and modeled EH as an indicator for temperature above the 95th, 97th, or 99th percentile thresholds for 1, 2, 3, or 4 days. We examined effect modification by patient age, race, sex, and health insurance payer and pooled the county results. Among non-whites, the pooled odds ratio for hospitalization on EH (97th percentile threshold) vs. non-EH days for renal diseases was 1.37 (95 % CI = 1.13-1.66), which increased with increasing EH intensity, but was null among whites (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.81, 1.25). We observed a null association between EH and cardiovascular hospitalization. EH (99th percentile threshold) was associated with myocardial infarction hospitalizations. Confounding by ozone was minimal. EH was associated with hospitalizations for renal disease among non-whites. This information on vulnerability to heat-associated morbidity helps characterize the public health burden of EH and target interventions including patient education.

  5. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  6. Collection and Utilization of Animal Carcasses Associated with zoonotic Disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Doty, Jeffrey B; Moses, Cynthia; Ibata, Saturnin; Reynolds, Mary; Carroll, Darin

    2015-07-01

    The collection and consumption of animal carcasses is a common activity in forested areas of the Congo River basin and creates sustainability, conservation, and health concerns. Residents of the Tshuapa District reported collecting the remains of 5,878 animals from >30 species when surveyed about their wildlife consumption habits. Carcasses were discovered in varying degrees of decomposition and were often consumed at home or sold in local markets. The most commonly collected animals were Cricetomys gambianus (Northern giant pouched rat), Cercopithecus ascanius (red-tailed monkey), and Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel). Many of the species recorded may be hosts of zoonotic pathogens, creating concern for spillover events.

  7. Study of indoor radon concentrations and associated health risks in the five districts of Hazara division, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fayaz; Ali, Nawab; Khan, Ehsan U; Khattak, Nimat U; Raja, Iftikhar A; Baloch, Muzahir A; Rajput, Muhammad U

    2012-11-01

    A total of 200 indoor air samples were collected to measure radon concentration levels and its contribution to the mean effective doses during different seasons of the period 2009-2010 at different sites of the five districts of Hazara division, Pakistan. The major portion of the region is mountainous and is full of thick forests which receives heavy snow fall in winter. The need for conducting the present survey relied on the fact that occupants spend their lives in poorly ventilated indoor environments of the region, especially in the winter season when they use wood fire inside their residences. The measurements of indoor air samples were taken with RAD-7, a solid state α-detector. Radon concentrations in the whole region range from 41 Bq m(-3) to 254 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 128 Bq m(-3). Radon progenies were measured with a surface barrier detector through alpha spectroscopy from which the Equilibrium Factor (EF) for radon and Radon Decay Products (RDPs) for the smoke-bearing as well as smoke-free indoor environments were deduced. The respective mean values of EF were calculated as 0.49 ± 0.08 and 0.40 ± 0.07. The mean effective doses from indoor air of Abbottabad, Mansehra, Haripur, Battgram and Kohistan districts were calculated as 3.5 ± 1.2, 3.7 ± 0.7, 3.9 ± 1.0, 3.6 ± 1.1 and 3.9 ± 0.7 mSv a(-1) respectively, with the maximum value of 5.1 ± 1.8 mSv a(-1) in Kohistan district during winter and the minimum value of 2.9 ± 1.0 mSv a(-1) in Abbottabad district during summer. The annual exposure dose to the inhabitants of the locality lies below the upper bound of 10 mSv a(-1), as recommended by ICRP-65, and may not pose any significant threat to the public health.

  8. Hsp56: a novel heat shock protein associated with untransformed steroid receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, E R

    1990-12-25

    The recently-described p59 protein has been shown to be associated with untransformed steroid receptors present in rabbit uterus and rat liver cytosols (Tai, P. K., Maeda, Y., Nakao, K., Wakim, N. G., Duhring, J. L., and Faber, L. E. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 5269-5275; Renoir, J.-M., Radanyi, C., Faber, L. E., and Baulieu, E.-E. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 10740-10745), while a smaller version of this protein (p56) interacts with glucocorticoid receptors in human IM-9 cell cytosols (Sanchez, E. R., Faber, L. E., Henzel, W. J., and Pratt, W. B. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 5145-5152). In addition to interacting with glucocorticoid receptors, the p56 protein of IM-9 cell cytosol is also found as part of a large heteromeric complex that contains both the 70-kDa and 90-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp70 and hsp90, respectively). Given this association of p56 with the two major stress proteins, I have speculated that p56 may itself be a heat shock protein. In this paper, the effect of heat stress on the rate of synthesis of p56 is determined. Intact IM-9 cells were exposed to 37 or 43 degrees C for 4 h, followed by pulse-labeling with [35S]methionine. Analysis of whole cytosolic extracts by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography reveal an increased rate of radiolabeling for hsp70, hsp90, hsp100, ad hsp110, but no heat-inducible protein of smaller relative molecular mass is detected. However, immune-purification of p56 from normal and heat-stressed cytosols with the EC1 monoclonal antibody results in the presence of a 56-kDa protein that exhibits an increased rate of synthesis in response to heat stress. The results of two-dimensional gel Western blots employing the EC1 antibody demonstrate that this heat-inducible protein is indeed the EC1-reactive p56 protein and that the induction effect is not due to unequal yields of p56 during immune-purification. Heat stress has no effect on the composition of the p56.hsp.70.hsp90 complex, except that

  9. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed.

  10. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0·000) for F. gigantica and paramphistomes but not for S. bovis. The snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas.

  11. Knowledge about Danger Signs of Obstetric Complications and Associated Factors among Postnatal Mothers of Mechekel District Health Centers, East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Amenu, Gedefa; Mulaw, Zerfu; Seyoum, Tewodros; Bayu, Hinsermu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Developing countries like Ethiopia contributed highest level of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women awareness of obstetric danger sign to recognize complications to seek medical care early is the first intervention in an effort to decrease maternal death. Objective. To assess knowledge about danger signs of obstetric complications and associated factors among postnatal mothers at Mechekel district health centers, East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2014, in Mechekel district health centers. Systematic random sampling was used to select four hundred eleven study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the presence and strength of association. Results. According to this study, 55.1% participants were knowledgeable about danger signs of obstetric complications. Maternal and husband educational level ((AOR = 1.977, 95% CI: 1.052, 3.716) and (AOR = 3.163, 95% CI: 1.860, 5.3770), resp.), family monthly income ≥ 1500 (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI: 1.289, 6.770), being multipara (AOR = 7.463, 95% CI: 1.301, 12.800), ANC follow-up during last pregnancy (AOR = 2.184, 95% CI: 1.137, 4.196), and place of last delivery (AOR = 1.955, 95% CI: 1.214, 3.150) were variables found to be significantly associated with women's knowledge on danger signs of obstetric complications. Conclusion. Significant proportion of respondents were not knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs and factors like educational status, place of last delivery, and antenatal follow-up were found to be associated. PMID:27375920

  12. Molecular characterization of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) promoter in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and the association of Pohsp70 SNPs with heat-resistant trait.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jie; Liu, Xudong; Liu, Jinxiang; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Wenji; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-08-01

    Ambient temperature is one of the major abiotic environmental factors determining the main parameters of fish vital activity. HSP70 plays an essential role in heat response. In this investigation, the promoter and structure of Paralichthys olivaceus hsp70 (Pohsp70) gene was cloned and predicted. 2558 bp upstream regulatory region of Pohsp70 was annotated with four potential promoter elements and four putative binding sites of transcription factors heat shock elements (HSE, nGAAn) in the upstream of the transcription start site. In addition, one intron with 454 bp in the 5'-noncoding region was found. Quantitative Real Time PCR analysis indicated that the transcript level of Pohsp70 was raised markedly after 1 h by heat shocked. Furthermore, 25 SNPs were identified in Pohsp70 by resequencing, seven of which was associated with heat resistance. In addition, two of the seven SNPs, namely SNP14 and SNP16, were observed in strong linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype with association analysis showed TAGGAG haplotype was more represented in heat susceptible group while (DEL/T) GAATA haplotype was more frequent in heat resistant group. The heat resistant SNPs and haplotype could be candidate markers potentially serving for selective breeding programs of Japanese flounder aimed at improving anti-stress and production.

  13. Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; George, Jasmine; Bhui, Kulpreet; Murari Saxena, Anand; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-11-01

    Repeated heating of vegetable oils at high temperatures during cooking is a very common cooking practice. Repeated heating of edible oils can generate a number of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which have been reported to have carcinogenic potential. Consumption of these repeatedly heated oils can pose a serious health hazard. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil (RCO), which is one of the commonly consumed cooking and frying medium. The PAH were analysed using HPLC in fresh CO, single-heated CO (SCO) and RCO. Results revealed the presence of certain PAH, known to possess carcinogenic potential, in RCO when compared with SCO. Oral intake of RCO in Wistar rats resulted in a significant induction of aberrant cells (P<0·05) and micronuclei (P<0·05) in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidative stress analysis showed a significant (P<0·05) decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase with a concurrent increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the liver. In addition, RCO given alone and along with diethylnitrosamine for 12 weeks induced altered hepatic foci as noticed by alteration in positive (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and negative (adenosine triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase) hepatospecific biomarkers. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute hepatic weight of RCO-supplemented rats was recorded (P<0·05). In conclusion, dietary consumption of RCO can cause a genotoxic and preneoplastic change in the liver.

  14. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io: the HISAKI observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshioka, K.; Kimura, T.; Murakami, G.; Kagitani, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Yoshikawa, I.; Nozawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in Io plasma torus (IPT) has been discovered by Voyager and show an evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, the amount of observation data is still limited to investigate its detail properties. In addition, the clear Io-correlated change has not been detected by EUVE and Cassini observations. Cause of the Io-correlated effect is still open issue. The HISAKI satellite was launched on Sep. 14, 2013 and started observation of IPT and Jovian aurora for more than two months since the end of Dec. 2013. EUV spectrograph onboard the HISAKI satellite covers wavelength range from 55 to 145 nm, a wide slit which had a field of view of 400 x 140 arc-second was chosen to measure radial distribution and time variation of IPT. Observation of IPT with HISAKI showed clear Io-correlated brightness change since the Voyager observation. The amplitude of the periodic variation associated with Io's orbital period was found. It also showed long-term variation during the HISAKI's observation period. Through the observation period, the amplitude was larger in the short wavelength than in long wavelength. The wavelength dependence suggests significant electron heating and/or hot electron production. The Io phase dependence shows that bright region is located just downstream of Io. These are evidence of local electron heating around/downstream of Io and consistent with the Voyager result. The brightness also depends on system-III longitude and has local maximum around 120 and 300 degrees. Based on an empirical model of IPT, electron density at Io also shows maxima around the same longitudes. This suggests that the electron heating process is related with plasma density at Io. Candidate mechanisms which are responsible for the electron heating will be discussed.

  15. Poleward eddy heat flux anomalies associated with recent Arctic sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Kazuhira; Ukita, Jinro; Honda, Meiji; Iwamoto, Katsushi; Nakamura, Tetsu; Yamazaki, Koji; Dethloff, Klaus; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe

    2017-01-01

    Details of the characteristics of upward planetary wave propagation associated with Arctic sea ice loss under present climate conditions are examined using reanalysis data and simulation results. Recent Arctic sea ice loss results in increased stratospheric poleward eddy heat fluxes in the eastern and central Eurasia regions and enhanced upward propagation of planetary-scale waves in the stratosphere. A linear decomposition scheme reveals that this modulation of the planetary waves arises from coupling of the climatological planetary wavefield with temperature anomalies for the eastern Eurasia region and with meridional wind anomalies for the central Eurasia region. Propagation of stationary Rossby wave packets results in a dynamic link between these temperature and meridional wind anomalies with sea ice loss over the Barents-Kara Sea. The results provide strong evidence that recent Arctic sea ice loss significantly modulates atmospheric circulation in winter to modify poleward eddy heat fluxes so as to drive stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes.

  16. Activation of a heat-stable cytolytic protein associated with the surface membrane of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed Central

    Lowrey, D M; McLaughlin, J

    1985-01-01

    Surface membrane-enriched fractions of Naegleria fowleri obtained after isopycnic centrifugation experiments contain a potent cytolytic activity as determined by hemolysis and 51Cr release assays. This surface membrane cytolysin was unaffected by a treatment at 75 degrees C for 30 min and accounted for 70 to 90% of cytolysis by whole-cell lysates of amoebae. This heat resistance as well as intimate membrane association distinguished the surface membrane cytolytic activity from a second heat-labile cytolytic activity which appears to be latent within lysosomes. The surface membrane cytolysin was found to be specifically activated by diluted samples of lysosomal fractions. The possible role of this surface membrane cytotoxin in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri is discussed. PMID:4055029

  17. Estimating seroprevalence and variation to four tick-borne infections and determination of associated risk factors in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, J M; Ngumi, P N; Kitala, P M; Skilton, R A

    2010-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne disease (TBD) parasites (Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina) was conducted on traditional smallholder mixed farms in Mbeere District in Kenya. The objective was to estimate the infections' seroprevalence and variation and identify associated risk factors. A total of 440 cattle in 80 farms, selected by stratified random sampling from the four divisions in the district, were surveyed. Information on animal and on each farm's management practices, particularly on tick control practices, was obtained by personal interview using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalences of serum antibodies were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The relationship between TBDs seroprevalence and the risk factors was assessed by multivariable analysis using standard logistic regression models and mixed models using the farm as a random effect. Overall estimation of seroprevalences and their 95% confidence limits were: T. parva (19% [14%, 25%]), T. mutans (25% [20%, 29%]), A. marginale (58% [52%, 64%]) and B. bigemina (19% [15%, 23%]). Analysis in presence of extra-binomial variation under Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) yielded relatively larger intra-farm correlation coefficient (ICC) (0.3) and variance-inflation factor (VIF) (2.35) values for T. parva than for the other parasites [range, 0.05-0.07 (for ICC) and 1.02-1.32 (for VIF)]. Both farm- and area-level variables had variably significant and large effects on all infections, but these were more pronounced on T. parva seroprevalence. Inclusion of farm random effect resulted in substantially higher estimate of farm variance component for T. parva infection (1.73) compared to other infections [range, 0.29-0.56], comparable ICC values with those under ANOVA analysis [range, 0.08-0.35] and a substantially better fit than the standard multivariable logistic regressions. The above results

  18. Agreement Between the Board of Junior College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association, A Chapter of the Cook County College Teachers Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

    This document covers the agreement between the Board of Junior College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association Chapter of the Cook County College Teachers Union. Articles of the agreement cover: definitions; recognition; nondiscrimination; association and board relations; academic freedom;…

  19. Timing of First Antenatal Care Attendance and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebremeskel, Feleke; Dibaba, Yohannes; Admassu, Bitiya

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the timing of first antenatal care attendance and associated factors among pregnant women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, south Ethiopia. Method. Facility based cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted from February to March, 2014, in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District. Data were collected from 409 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in nine public health facilities using systematic random sampling. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results. The mean (SD±) age of the respondents was 26 ± 5.5 years. The mean gestational age at first antenatal care attendance was 5 ± 1.5 months. This study indicated that pregnant women with low monthly income (AOR = 4.9, CI: 1.71, 14.08), women who did not receive advise on when to start ANC (AOR = 3, CI: 1.48, 6.24), women with household food insecurity (AOR = 4.66, CI: 1.007, 21.59) and women with unplanned pregnancy (AOR = 4.49, CI: 2.16, 9.35) had higher odds of late antenatal care attendance compared with their counterparts. Conclusions. The study showed that majority of the pregnant women attended late for first antenatal care. Hence, providing health education on the timing of antenatal care is important. PMID:26543485

  20. Collective Bargaining Agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 3 and the Olympic College Association for Higher Education, Affiliated with the Washington Education Association and the National Education Association, July 1, 1988 to and Including June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympic Coll., Bremerton, WA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 3 and the Olympic College Association for Higher Education is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; a savings clause; association rights;…

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35–44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3–5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  2. Interplanetary magnetic field orientations associated with bidirectional electron heat fluxes detected at ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. A.; Gosling, J. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Bame, S. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical survey of interplanetary magnetic field orientations associated with bidirectional electron heat fluxes observed at ISEE 3 in orbit about the Sunward Lagrange point indicates that magnetic connection of the spacecraft to the earth's shock was frequently the source of the bidirectionality. When the interplanetary magnetic field was oriented within 5 deg of the earth-spacecraft line, backstreaming electrons from the bow shock were clearly observed approximately 18 percent of the time, and connections apparently occurred for angles as large as about 30-35 deg.

  3. Assessment of factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months: a cross-sectional study in Nouna district, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Aboubakary; Simboro, Seraphin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Dugas, Marylène; Graham, Janice; Bibeau, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Background The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is still in need of improvement. In Burkina Faso in 2003, for example, the Nouna health district had an immunization coverage rate of 31.5%, compared to the national rate of 52%. This study identifies specific factors associated with immunization status in Nouna health district in order to advance improved intervention strategies in this district and in those with similar environmental and social contexts. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 41 rural communities and one semi-urban area (urban in the text). Data on 476 children aged 12 to 23 months were analyzed from a representative sample of 489, drawn from the Nouna Health Research Centre's Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) database. The vaccination history of these children was examined. The relationships between their immunization status and social, economic and various contextual variables associated with their parents and households were assessed using Chi square test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression. Results The total immunization coverage was 50.2% (CI, 45.71; 54.69). Parental knowledge of the preventive value of immunization was positively related to complete immunization status (p = 0.03) in rural areas. Children of parents who reported a perception of communication problems surrounding immunization had a lower immunization coverage rate (p < 0.001). No distance related difference exists in terms of complete immunization coverage within villages and between villages outside the site of the health centres. Children of non-educated fathers in rural areas have higher rates of complete immunization coverage than those in the urban area (p = 0.028). Good communication about immunization and the importance of availability of immunization booklets, as well as economic and religious factors appear to positively affect children's immunization status. Conclusion Vaccination sites in remote areas are intended to provide a greater

  4. Prevalence, awareness and risk factors associated with Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ngaira, Jacqueline Asundula Malungu; Kimotho, James; Mirigi, Isaac; Osman, Saida; Ng’ang’a, Zipporah; Lwembe, Raphael; Ochwoto, Missiani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B Viral Infection (HBV) remains one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally accounting for 38-53% of chronic liver diseases and about 686,000 deaths annually. The prevalence of HBV is 9-20% in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in Kenya it is 5-30% among the general population and 9.4% among pregnant women. This study was aimed at identifying the prevalence, awareness and risk factors associated with HBV infections among pregnant women attending Antenatal clinic (ANC) at Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 287 pregnant women enrolled for three months (September to December 2014) from Nairobi and neighbouring counties. A structured questionnaire that captured social, demographic and explanatory variables was administered to the study participants. Blood samples were also drawn from the participants and tested for HBV using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) system. Results The study established that the prevalence of HBV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital was 3.8% with highest infection rate among the 20-24 years age group. Seventy six (60.8 %) of the participants reported sexual encounters in less than a month before the interview of which 5 (7.6%) reported encounters involving other partners apart from their spouses. HBV awareness among the study participants was 12.2%. Before the interview, those with at least tertiary education (Mean =1.33, SD = 1.131), were more informed about HBV infection as compared to those with primary and secondary education (Mean = 0.63, SD = 0.722; (Mean =0.31, SD= 0.664). In regards to assessment of the risk factors; type of family (χ² =19.753 df2 p<0.01), parity (χ² =7.128 df2 p<0.01), History of abortions (χ²=9.094 df1 p<0.01), early age (11-15 years) at first sexual encounter (χ² =8.185 df1 p<0.01) were significantly associated with HBV positivity. Conclusion The prevalence of HBV

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  6. Associations between Meteorological Parameters and Influenza Activity in Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and Israeli Districts

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Gross, Diane; Jorgensen, Pernille; Buda, Silke; Bromberg, Michal; Kaufman, Zalman; Prosenc, Katarina; Socan, Maja; Vega Alonso, Tomás; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies in the literature have indicated that the timing of seasonal influenza epidemic varies across latitude, suggesting the involvement of meteorological and environmental conditions in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we investigated the link between meteorological parameters and influenza activity in 9 sub-national areas with temperate and subtropical climates: Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and all 6 districts in Israel. Methods We estimated weekly influenza-associated influenza-like-illness (ILI) or Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) incidence to represent influenza activity using data from each country’s sentinel surveillance during 2000–2011 (Spain) and 2006–2011 (all others). Meteorological data was obtained from ground stations, satellite and assimilated data. Two generalized additive models (GAM) were developed, with one using specific humidity as a covariate and another using minimum temperature. Precipitation and solar radiation were included as additional covariates in both models. The models were adjusted for previous weeks’ influenza activity, and were trained separately for each study location. Results Influenza activity was inversely associated (p<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations. Minimum temperature was inversely associated with influenza in all 3 temperate locations, but not in all subtropical locations. Inverse associations between influenza and solar radiation were found in most locations. Associations with precipitation were location-dependent and inconclusive. We used the models to estimate influenza activity a week ahead for the 2010/2011 period which was not used in training the models. With exception of Ljubljana and Israel’s Haifa District, the models could closely follow the observed data especially during the start and the end of epidemic period. In these locations, correlation coefficients between the observed and estimated ranged between 0.55 to 0.91and

  7. 3D modelling of hydrothermal alteration associated with VHMS deposits in the Kristineberg area, Skellefte district, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielowski, Riia M.; Jansson, Nils; Persson, Mac Fjellerad; Fagerström, Pia

    2016-01-01

    This contribution presents a 3D assessment of metamorphosed and deformed, hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, hosting the massive sulphide deposits of the Kristineberg area in the 1.9 Ga Skellefte mining district in northern Sweden, using six calculated alteration parameters: the Ishikawa alteration index, the chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and calculated net mass changes in MgO, SiO2, Na2O and Ba. The results, which are also available as film clips in the Supplementary data, confirm inferences from geological mapping; namely that the sericite- and chlorite-rich alteration zones have complex and cross-cutting geometries and that most of these zones are semi-regional in extent and range continuously from surface to over a kilometre deep. The major known massive sulphide deposits occur proximal to zones characterised by coincidence of high values for the alteration index and chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and large MgO gains, which corresponds to zones rich in magnesian silicates. These zones are interpreted as the original chlorite-rich, proximal parts the alteration systems, and form anomalies extending up to 400 m away from the sulphide lenses. In addition, the stratigraphically highest VHMS are hosted by rocks rich in tremolite, talc, chlorite and dolomite with lesser clinozoisite, which have high chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and low-medium alteration index values, reflecting a greater importance of some chlorite-carbonate alteration at this stratigraphic level. Vectoring towards massive sulphide deposits in this area can be improved by combining the AI and CCPI indexes with calculated mass changes for key mobile elements. Of the ones modelled in this study, MgO and SiO2 appear to be the most useful.

  8. Genome-wide association study of heat tolerance of developing leaves during vegetative growth stages in a sorghum association panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress reduces grain yield and quality worldwide. Enhancing heat tolerance of crops is one of the essential strategies required for sustaining agricultural production, especially as frequent temperature extremes escalates due to climate change. Although heat tolerance mechanisms have been stud...

  9. Overexpression of Colligin 2 in Glioma Vasculature is Associated with Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor 2.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Dana A M; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Zheng, Ping Pin; Kros, Johan M

    2010-10-20

    In previous studies we found expression of the protein colligin 2 (heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), SERPINH1) in glioma neovasculature while not in normal brain tissue. Generally, the regulation of heat shock gene expression in eukaryotes is mediated by heat shock factors (HSF). In mammals, three heat shock transcription factors, HSF-1, -2, and -4, have been isolated. Here we investigated the relation between the expression of colligin 2 and these heat shock factors at the mRNA level using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in different grades of astrocytic tumorigenesis, viz., low-grade glioma and glioblastoma. Endometrium samples, representing physiological angiogenesis, were included as controls. Since colligin 2 is a chaperon for collagens, the gene expression of collagen I (COL1A1) was also investigated. The blood vessel density of the samples was monitored by expression of the endothelial marker CD31 (PECAM1). Because NG2-immunopositive pericytic cells are involved in glioma neovascularization, the expression of NG2 (CSPG4) was also measured.We demonstrate overexpression of HSF2 in both stages of glial tumorigenesis (reaching significance only in low-grade glioma) and also minor elevated levels of HSF1 as compared to normal brain. There were no differences in expression of HSF4 between low-grade glioma and normal brain while HSF4 was downregulated in glioblastoma. In the endometrium samples, none of the HSFs were upregulated. In the low-grade gliomas SERPINH appeared to be slightly overexpressed with a parallel 4-fold upregulation of COL1A1, while in glioblastoma there was over 5-fold overexpression of SERPINH1 and more than 150-fold overexpression of COL1A1. In both the lowgrade gliomas and the glioblastomas overexpression of CSPG4 was found and overexpression of PECAM1 was only found in the latter. Our data suggest that the upregulated expression of colligin 2 in glioma is accompanied by upregulation of COL1A1, CSPG4, HSF2 and to a lesser extent

  10. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

  11. A Positive Feedback Loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN Modulates Long-Term Acquired Thermotolerance Illustrating Diverse Heat Stress Responses in Rice Varieties1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng-yi; Chai, Kuo-hsing; Ko, Swee-suak; Kuang, Lin-yun; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Charng, Yee-yung

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. ‘N22’ seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios. PMID:24520156

  12. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Arega Sadore, Abinet; Abebe Gebretsadik, Lakew; Aman Hussen, Mamusha

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777)), knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537)), and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368)) were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation. PMID:26839573

  13. Household Food Insecurity and Its Association with Nutritional Status of Children 6–59 Months of Age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ejajo, Tekle; Alemseged, Fissahaye; Massa, Desalegn

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. Food insecurity is one of the determinant factors of malnutrition in developing countries; however its role remains unclear. Objective. To assess household food insecurity and its association with the nutritional status of children 6–59 months of age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 20 to 30, 2014 on a sample of 508 mother/child pairs of 6–59-month-old children. Sample households with eligible children were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with nutritional status of children. P value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of household food insecurity was 75.8%. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children were 45.6%, 26.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Household food insecurity was significantly associated with underweight (AOR = 3.82; CI = 1.78–8.19) and stunting (AOR = 6.7; CI = 3.71–12.1) but not with wasting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Household food insecurity and the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting, among children 6 to 59 months, were high. Intervention programs should focus on improving household food insecurity and nutritional status of children.

  14. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13…

  15. Agreement, 1989-1992, between the Board of Community College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association, a Chapter of the Cook County College Teachers Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Community College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois, and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1989 to June 30, 1992, deals with the following topics: definitions; bargaining agent recognition;…

  16. Agreement between the Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, August 1, 1986-July 31, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian River Community Coll., FL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period August 1, 1986-July 1, 1987 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: recognition of AAUP, strikes and…

  17. Agreement between Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, July 1, 1979 thru June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian River Community Coll., FL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Indian River Community College District Board of Trustees and the Indian River Community College Chapter (125 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period July 1, 1979-June 30, 1981 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: recognition of AAUP,…

  18. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io from HISAKI satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kagitani, Masato; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Kimura, Tomoki; Murakami, Go; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Nozawa, Hiromasa; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in the Io plasma torus (IPT) was discovered by the Voyager spacecraft, showing evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, its detailed properties and the cause of electron heating are still open issues. The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph on board the HISAKI satellite continuously observed the IPT from the end of December 2013 to the middle of January 2014. The variation in the IPT brightness showed that clear periodicity associated with Io's orbital period (42 h) and that the bright region was located downstream of Io. The amplitude of the periodic variation was larger at short wavelengths than at long wavelengths. From spectral analyses, we found that Io-correlated brightening is caused by the increase in the hot electron population in the region downstream of Io. We also found that the brightness depends on the system III longitude and found primary and secondary peaks in the longitude ranges of 100-130° and 250-340°, respectively. Io's orbit crosses the center of the IPT around these longitudes. This longitude dependence suggests that the electron heating process is related to the plasma density around Io. The total radiated power from the IPT in January 2014 was estimated to be 1.4 TW in the wavelength range from 60 to 145 nm. The Io-correlated component produced 10% of this total radiated power. The interaction between Io and the IPT continuously produces a large amount of energy around Io, and 140 GW of that energy is immediately converted to hot electron production in the IPT.

  19. A nuclear protein associated with lethal heat shock of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Pipkin, J L; Hinson, W G; Lyn-Cook, L E; Burns, E R; Sheehan, D; Casciano, D A

    1992-09-01

    The responses to stress in living cells are well known. Thermal stress causes decreased protein synthesis as well as rapid induction of heat shock proteins (hsps), or alternately termed stress proteins (sps). The exposure of cultured promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) to a 45 degrees C lethal heat shock for 1 h elicited synthesis and phosphorylation of a polypeptide M(r) 48,000 and pI 7.5 (p 48) as visualized by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel ultra-microelectrophoresis. p 48, which was not observed at sublethal temperatures (39 and 41 degrees C), was synthesized during all phases of the cell cycle but was phosphorylated only in G0 + G1 and S-phases. The appearance of p 48 was marked by a concomitant and reciprocal reduction in hsps or sps 70 and 90. Distinct protease V8 fragment maps of p 48, hsps 70 and 90 in conjunction with immunochemical determination indicated vast differences in their primary structures. These facts suggest that p 48 was not formed from coalesced breakdown products of hsps 70 or 90. Western blotting showed that p 48 possessed the same immunochemical determinants as two other proteins with the same molecular mass but different isoelectric points. In an association assay, p 48 was shown to bind with actins and hsp 90 from HL-60 nuclei.

  20. Strengthening of Ocean Heat Uptake Efficiency Associated with the Recent Climate Hiatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Kamae, Youichi; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Oka, Akira; Sato, Makiko; Ishii, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Kimoto, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    The rate of increase of global-mean surface air temperature (SAT(sub g)) has apparently slowed during the last decade. We investigated the extent to which state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) can capture this hiatus period by using multimodel ensembles of historical climate simulations. While the SAT(sub g) linear trend for the last decade is not captured by their ensemble means regardless of differences in model generation and external forcing, it is barely represented by an 11-member ensemble of a GCM, suggesting an internal origin of the hiatus associated with active heat uptake by the oceans. Besides, we found opposite changes in ocean heat uptake efficiency (k), weakening in models and strengthening in nature, which explain why the models tend to overestimate the SAT(sub g) trend. The weakening of k commonly found in GCMs seems to be an inevitable response of the climate system to global warming, suggesting the recovery from hiatus in coming decades.

  1. Heat-shock protein dysregulation is associated with functional and pathological TDP-43 aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Hou, Shin-Chen; Way, Tzong-Der; Wong, Chi-Huey; Wang, I.-Fan

    2013-11-01

    Conformational disorders are involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major contributors to neurodegenerative disease; however, ROS that affect the structural changes in misfolded disease proteins have yet to be well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the intrinsic propensity of TDP-43 to aggregate drives the assembly of TDP-43-positive stress granules and soluble toxic TDP-43 oligomers in response to a ROS insult via a disulfide crosslinking-independent mechanism. Notably, ROS-induced TDP-43 protein assembly correlates with the dynamics of certain TDP-43-associated chaperones. The heat-shock protein (HSP)-90 inhibitor 17-AAG prevents ROS-induced TDP-43 aggregation, alters the type of TDP-43 multimers and reduces the severity of pathological TDP-43 inclusions. In summary, our study suggests that a common mechanism could be involved in the pathogenesis of conformational diseases that result from HSP dysregulation.

  2. Heat shock transcription factor 1-deficiency attenuates overloading-associated hypertrophy of mouse soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Koya, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Sono; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Ikuta, Akihiro; Suzuki, Miho; Ohira, Tomotaka; Egawa, Tatsuro; Nakai, Akira; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Beppu, Moroe; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (p<0.05). Significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor mRNAs were observed in HSF1-null, but not in wild-type, mice following 2 weeks of overloading. Overloading-related increases of IL-6 and AFT3 mRNA expressions seen after 2 weeks of overloading tended to decrease after 4 weeks in both types of mice. In HSF1-null mice, however, the significant overloading-related increase in the expression of IL-6, not ATF3, mRNA was noted even at 4th week. Inhibition of muscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  3. Secondary Trauma and Job Burnout and Associated Factors among HIV Lay Counsellors in Nkangala District, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary trauma and job burnout and associated factors in a sample of 71 HIV lay counsellors in South Africa. Results indicate that 49.5% were not satisfied with their work environment and 51.4% were potentially secondary traumatic stress cases. In univariate analysis, seeing more HIV counselling and testing…

  4. Agreement between Board of Trustees, West Kern Community College District and Taft College Faculty Association, 1988-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft Coll., CA.

    This contractual agreement outlines the terms of employment in effect from 1988 to 1989. The 12 articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1) parties to the agreement; (2) recognition of the association as exclusive representative; (3) definition of terms; (4) professional dues or fees and payroll deductions; (5) personal and…

  5. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  6. Heat shock factor 2 is associated with the occurrence of lung cancer by enhancing the expression of heat shock proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yun-Hua; Cheng, Hong-Zhong; Peng, Hao; Tang, Shi-Cong; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly lung cancer. Heat shock proteins and their upstream heat shock factors are involved in the occurrence of cancer and have been widely researched. However, the role of heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) in lung cancer remains unclear. In the present study, expression levels of HSF2 in lung cancer tissues from 50 lung cancer patients were detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and 76% (38/50) were upregulated compared with the matched normal tissues. This suggested possible involvement of HSF2 in lung cancer. To additionally investigate the role of HSF2 in lung cancer occurrence, a plasmid encoding HSF2 was constructed. HSF2 was over expressed in normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and lung cancer A549 cells. The results showed that HSF2 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and cell migration in BEAS-2B and A549 cells. Additional experiments showed that the HSF2-induced cell proliferation and cell migration were dependent on induction of HSPs, particularly HSP27 and HSP90, as co-transfection of HSP27 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or HSP90 siRNA attenuated HSF2-induced cell growth and migration. In conclusion, the present study showed that HSF2 is aberrantly expressed in lung cancer, and it may be an upstream regulator of HSPs, which may strongly affect cell growth and cell migration. Additional studies are required to explain the detailed mechanism between lung cancer, HSF2, HSPs and other possible signaling pathways. PMID:28101237

  7. Association Between Health Symptoms and Particulate Matter from Traffic and Residential Heating − Results from RHINE III in Tartu

    PubMed Central

    Pindus, Mihkel; Orru, Hans; Maasikmets, Marek; Kaasik, Marko; Jõgi, Rain

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traffic and residential heating are the main sources of particulate matter (PM) in Northern Europe. Wood is widely used for residential heating and vehicle numbers are increasing. Besides traffic exhaust, studded tires produce road dust that is the main source of traffic-related PM10. Several studies have associated total PM mass with health symptoms; however there has been little research on the effects of PM from specific sources. Objective: To study the health effects resulting from traffic and local heating PM. Methods: Data on respiratory and cardiac diseases were collected within the framework of RHINE III (2011/2012) in Tartu, Estonia. Respondents’ geocoded home addresses were mapped in ArcGIS and linked with local heating-related PM2.5, traffic-related PM10 and total PM2.5 concentrations. Association between self-reported health and PM was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The annual mean modelled exposure for local heating PM2.5 was 2.3 μg/m3, for traffic PM10 3.3 μg/m3 and for all sources PM2.5 5.6 μg/m3. We found relationship between traffic induced PM10 as well as all sources induced PM2.5 with cardiac disease, OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.06−1.93) and 1.42 (95% CI 1.02−1.95), respectively. However, we did not find any significant association between residential heating induced particles and self-reported health symptoms. People with longer and better confirmed exposure period were also significantly associated with traffic induced PM10, all sources induced PM2.5 and cardiac diseases. Conclusion: Traffic-related PM10 and all sources induced PM2.5 associated with cardiac disease; whereas residential heating induced particles did not. PMID:27843509

  8. The origin of the initial heat associated with a single impulse in mammalian non-myelinated nerve fibres

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, J. V.; Keynes, R. D.; Ritchie, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the temperature changes associated with the passage of a single impulse in rabbit desheated vagus nerves. 2. The initial changes consist of an evolution of positive heat followed by a reabsorption of most of it; i.e. there is a phase of positive and a phase of negative heat production. 3. The size of the positive heat, its time of onset, and the time of onset of the negative heat have been measured by an analogue method of analysis. In addition, these parameters, together with the size of the negative heat and the duration of both phases of initial heat, have been studied with the aid of a computer, and also by conventional heat block analysis. 4. At about 5° C the measured positive heat is 7·2 μcal/g. impulse. It starts as soon as the compound action potential reaches the thermopile and lasts for about 107 msec. 5. This positive heat decreases with increasing temperature, the ratio of heat at 4° C to that at 14° C being 1·86. 6. The measured negative heat at about 5° C is 4·9 μcal/g. impulse. It starts 102 msec after the onset of positive heat, and lasts for about 240 msec. 7. When the sodium of Locke solution is replaced by lithium the positive heat is reduced by 19%, but the negative heat is increased by 22%. 8. In potassium-free solutions the positive heat is hardly affected (increase of 5%), but the negative heat is more than doubled. As a result the nerve may become briefly colder than its initial temperature by about 2 μ° C. 9. The effect of sodium-deficient solutions on the positive heat is somewhat variable, but the negative heat is consistently diminished. 10. Replacement of the chloride of Locke solution by sulphate or nitrate has little effect on the positive heat. The negative heat is reduced in size by 26% and in duration by 22%. 11. Replacement of most of the sodium of Locke solution by barium reduces or abolishes the negative heat, and increases the measured size of the positive heat nearly threefold. 12

  9. Oxygen isotope, aeromagnetic, and gravity anomalies associated with hydrothermally altered zones in the Yankee Fork mining district, Custer County, Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Champion, D.E.; McIntyre, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Anomalous geochemical and geophysical properties correlate spatially with epithermal Ag-Au deposits in altered volcanic rocks. Areas of low 18O, low magnetic susceptibilities, low remanent magnetizations and relatively high rock densities are much larger than the zones of obvious (not shown) hydrothermal alteration. Low aeromagnetic intensities and positive Bouguer anomalies are also associated with the altered rock, as which has delta 18O <6per mille. The altering and mineralizing fluids were Tertiary meteoric waters.-G.J.N.

  10. Preliminary conceptual design for geothermal space heating conversion of school district 50 joint facilities at Pagosa Springs, Colorado. GTA report no. 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engen, I. A.

    1981-11-01

    This feasibility study and preliminary conceptual design effect assesses the conversion of a high school and gym, and a middle school building to geothermal space heating is assessed. A preliminary cost benefit assessment made on the basis of estimated costs for conversion, system maintenance, debt service, resource development, electricity to power pumps, and savings from from reduced natural gas consumption concluded that an economic conversion depended on development of an adequate geothermal resource (approximately 1500F, 400 gpm). Material selection assumed that the geothermal water to the main supply system was isolated to minimize effects of corrosion and deposition, and that system compatible components are used for the building modifications. Asbestos cement distribution pipe, a stainless steel heat exchanger, and stainless steel lined valves were recommended for the supply, heat transfer, and disposal mechanisms, respectively. A comparison of the calculated average gas consumption cost, escalated at 10% per year, with conversion project cost, both in 1977 dollars, showed that the project could be amortized over less than 20 years at current interest rates.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature during heat stress experience lower milk yield and fertility. Given that rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable in dairy cattle, genetic selection for regulation of body temperature should reduce effects of heat stress on production. One goal...

  12. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Acoustic streaming induced by ultrasonic flexural vibrations and associated enhancement of convective heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Loh, Byoung-Gook; Hyun, Sinjae; Ro, Paul I; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2002-02-01

    Acoustic streaming induced by ultrasonic flexural vibrations and the associated convection enhancement are investigated. Acoustic streaming pattern, streaming velocity, and associated heat transfer characteristics are experimentally observed. Moreover, analytical analysis based on Nyborg's formulation is performed along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation using a numerical solver CFX 4.3. Two distinctive acoustic streaming patterns in half-wavelength of the flexural vibrations are observed, which agree well with the theory. However, acoustic streaming velocities obtained from CFD simulation, based on the incompressible flow assumption, exceed the theoretically estimated velocity by a factor ranging from 10 to 100, depending upon the location along the beam. Both CFD simulation and analytical analysis reveal that the acoustic streaming velocity is proportional to the square of the vibration amplitude and the wavelength of the vibrating beam that decreases with the excitation frequency. It is observed that the streaming velocity decreases with the excitation frequency. Also, with an open-ended channel, a substantial increase in streaming velocity is observed from CFD simulations. Using acoustic streaming, a temperature drop of 40 degrees C with a vibration amplitude of 25 microm at 28.4 kHz is experimentally achieved.

  14. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves over the Chickasaw Nation in the South Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Basara Richter, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (>2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (>1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  15. Association between physical activity levels and physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district.

    PubMed

    Laudani, Luca; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sawacha, Zimi; della Croce, Ugo; Cereatti, Andrea; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining adequate levels of physical activity is known to preserve health status and functional independence as individuals grow older. However, the relationship between determinants of physical activity (volume and intensity) and physiological factors underlying mobility (cardio-respiratory fitness, neuromuscular function and functional abilities) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively quantified physical activity and a spectrum of physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district. Experiments were carried out on 24 young (28 ± 2 years), 24 middle-aged (48 ± 2 years) and 24 older (70 ± 3 years) gender-matched volunteers. Physical activity was monitored by a wearable activity monitor to quantify volume and intensity of overall physical activity and selected habitual activities over 24 hours. Ventilatory threshold was assessed during an incremental cycling test. Torque, muscle fiber conduction velocity and agonist-antagonist coactivation were measured during maximal voluntary contraction of knee extensors and flexors. Ground reaction forces were measured during sit-to-stand and counter-movement jump. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify the participants' physical activity levels based on parameters of volume and intensity. Two clusters of physical activity volume (i.e., high and low volume) and three clusters of physical activity intensity (i.e. high, medium and low intensity) were identified in all participants. Cardio-respiratory fitness was associated with volume of overall physical activity as well as lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing. On the other hand, neuromuscular function and functional abilities showed a significant association with intensity of overall physical activity as well as postural transition, walking and stair climbing. As a practical application, the relative role played by volume and intensity

  16. Identification of genes associated with heat tolerance in Arctic charr exposed to acute thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Nicole L; McGowan, Colin R; Cooper, Glenn A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

    2011-06-15

    Arctic charr is an especially attractive aquaculture species given that it features the desirable tissue traits of other salmonids and is bred and grown at inland freshwater tank farms year round. It is of interest to develop upper temperature tolerant (UTT) strains of Arctic charr to increase the robustness of the species in the face of climate change and to enable production in more southern regions. We used a genomics approach that takes advantage of the well-studied Atlantic salmon genome to identify genes that are associated with UTT in Arctic charr. Specifically, we conducted an acute temperature trial to identify temperature tolerant and intolerant Arctic charr individuals, which were subject to microarray and qPCR analysis to identify candidate UTT genes. These were compared with genes annotated in a quantitative trait locus (QTL) region that was previously identified as associated with UTT in rainbow trout and Arctic charr and that we sequenced in Atlantic salmon. Our results suggest that small heat shock proteins as well as HSP-90 genes are associated with UTT. Furthermore, hemoglobin expression was significantly downregulated in tolerant compared with intolerant fish. Finally, QTL analysis and expression profiling identified COUP-TFII as a candidate UTT gene, although its specific role is unclear given the identification of two transcripts, which appear to have different expression patterns. Our results highlight the importance of using more than one approach to identify candidate genes, particularly when examining a complicated trait such as UTT in a highly complex genome for which there is no reference genome.

  17. Criteria for the diagnosis of heat-related deaths: National Association of Medical Examiners. Position paper. National Association of Medical Examiners Ad Hoc Committee on the Definition of Heat-Related Fatalities.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, E R; Graham, M A; Jentzen, J M; Lifschultz, B D; Luke, J L; Mirchandani, H G

    1997-03-01

    The National Association of Medical Examiners Ad Hoc Committee on the Definition of Heat-Related Fatalities recommends the following definition of "heat-related death": a death in which exposure to high ambient temperature either caused the death or significantly contributed to it. The committee also recommends that the diagnosis of heat-related death be based on a history of exposure to high ambient temperature and the reasonable exclusion of other causes of hyperthermia. The diagnosis may be established from the circumstances surrounding the death, investigative reports concerning environmental temperature, and/or measured antemortem body temperature at the time of collapse. In cases where the measured antemortem body temperature at the time of collapse was > or = 105 degrees F (> or = 40.6 degrees C), the cause of death should be certified as heat stroke or hyperthermia. Deaths may also be certified as heat stroke or hyperthermia with lower body temperatures when cooling has been attempted prior to arrival at the hospital and/or when there is a clinical history of mental status changes and elevated liver and muscle enzymes. In cases where the antemortem body temperature cannot be established but the environmental temperature at the time of collapse was high, an appropriate heat-related diagnosis should be listed as the cause of death or as a significant contributing condition.

  18. Whole-genome analysis reveals that active heat shock factor binding sites are mostly associated with non-heat shock genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Sarah E; Moses, Alan M; Razak, Zak; Robert, Francois; Westwood, J Timothy

    2011-01-14

    During heat shock (HS) and other stresses, HS gene transcription in eukaryotes is up-regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor (HSF). While the identities of the major HS genes have been known for more than 30 years, it has been suspected that HSF binds to numerous other genes and potentially regulates their transcription. In this study, we have used a chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray (ChIP-chip) approach to identify 434 regions in the Drosophila genome that are bound by HSF. We have also performed a transcript analysis of heat shocked Kc167 cells and third instar larvae and compared them to HSF binding sites. The heat-induced transcription profiles were quite different between cells and larvae and surprisingly only about 10% of the genes associated with HSF binding sites show changed transcription. There were also genes that showed changes in transcript levels that did not appear to correlate with HSF binding sites. Analysis of the locations of the HSF binding sites revealed that 57% were contained within genes with approximately 2/3rds of these sites being in introns. We also found that the insulator protein, BEAF, has enriched binding prior to HS to promoters of genes that are bound by HSF upon HS but that are not transcriptionally induced during HS. When the genes associated with HSF binding sites in promoters were analyzed for gene ontology terms, categories such as stress response and transferase activity were enriched whereas analysis of genes having HSF binding sites in introns identified those categories plus ones related to developmental processes and reproduction. These results suggest that Drosophila HSF may be regulating many genes besides the known HS genes and that some of these genes may be regulated during non-stress conditions.

  19. Examining Fund Balance in Michigan School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidin, Zainin

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the financial profiles of 550 public school districts in Michigan and highlights the association between school district fund balance and the following eleven indicators: enrollment, percent enrollment change, percent of students receive free and reduced lunch (FRL), percent of special education students, percent of English…

  20. District Data-Informed Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H., III; Eller, Benjamin

    A descriptive research project was conducted to investigate how 57 public school districts in the United States used data-informed processes and data support tools like the Quality School Portfolio (QSP) to address key district questions. The research project was a partnership among the American Association of School Administrators, the National…

  1. Heat Capacity Changes Associated with DNA Duplex Formation: Salt- and Sequence-Dependent Effects†

    PubMed Central

    Mikulecky, Peter J.; Feig, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Duplexes are the most fundamental elements of nucleic acid folding. Although it has become increasingly clear that duplex formation can be associated with a significant change in heat capacity (ΔCp), this parameter is typically overlooked in thermodynamic studies of nucleic acid folding. Analogy to protein folding suggests that base stacking events coupled to duplex formation should give rise to a ΔCp due to the release of waters solvating aromatic surfaces of nucleotide bases. In previous work, we showed that the ΔCp observed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for RNA duplex formation depended on salt and sequence. In the present work, we apply calorimetric and spectroscopic techniques to a series of designed DNA duplexes to demonstrate that both the salt dependence and sequence dependence of ΔCps observed by ITC reflect perturbations to the same fundamental phenomenon: stacking in the single-stranded state. By measuring the thermodynamics of single strand melting, one can accurately predict the ΔCps observed for duplex formation by ITC at high and low ionic strength. We discuss our results in light of the larger issue of contributions to ΔCp from coupled equilibria and conclude that observed ΔCps can be useful indicators of intermediate states in nucleic acid folding phenomena. PMID:16401089

  2. Impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat waves on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat waves were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat waves (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat waves (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat waves have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.

  3. Characterization of physiological response and identification of associated genes under heat stress in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xue, Da-Wei; Jiang, Hua; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Guo, Long-Biao; Zeng, Da-Li; Dong, Guo-Jun; Sun, Guo-Chang; Qian, Qian

    2012-12-01

    Global warming, which is caused by greenhouse gas emissions, makes food crops more vulnerable to heat stress. Understanding the heat stress-related mechanisms in crops and classifying heat stress-related genes can increase our knowledge in heat-resistant molecular biology and propel developments in molecular design breeding, which can help rice cope with unfavorable temperatures. In this study, we carried out a physiological analysis of rice plants after heat stress. The results show a dramatic increase in malondialdehyde contents and SOD activities. We successfully isolated 11 heat-related rice genes with known function annotation through DNSH, which is an improved SSH method for screening long cDNA fragments. The reanalysis of microarray data from public database revealed that all these genes displayed various expression patterns after heat stress, drought, cold and salt. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR was also performed to validate the expression of these genes after heat stress. The expressions in 10 genes were all significantly changed except for contig 77, which is a CBL-interacting protein kinase. Several reports have been published about the members of the same gene family.

  4. Genome wide association of changes in feeding behavior due to heat stress in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts pork production. Grow-finish production losses include decreased growth, reduced feed intake, and mortality. Pigs change their feeding behavior to decrease heat production when temperatures are elevated. Identification of pigs that are more tolerant of warmer temperatu...

  5. Organic compounds characteristics associated with heat-induced increases of water repellency in Australian eucalypt forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Ground surface heating during wildfires often leads to increased water repellency in soils. The effect of elevated soil temperature on water repellency has been investigated in many laboratory-based studies and temperature thresholds for increases in, and destruction of, water repellency have been established. However, little is known about the changes in organic compounds patterns and their chemical structure that associated with these changes. Here we report on the characterisation of the chemical changes of organic compounds associated with heat-induced increases in water repellency in Eucalypt soils of different repellency levels. Fires are very common in eucalypt forest environments and soils under eucalypt species exhibit one of the most severe repellency levels, providing an ideal study case. Three SE Australian eucalypt forest soils from different locations (two sands and one sandy loam) were heated in the laboratory for 10 min at 300° C. Laboratory heating resulted in extreme repellency in the three soils studied. Heated and unheated control samples were then extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with iso-propanol/ammonia mixture (IPA/NH3 95:5). Extraction led to the elimination of any water repellency present both in the original (heated) and the control samples. Organic compounds in the IPA/NH3 solvent were measured in extracts of increasing polarity in order to solubilise the residue. Before heating, the total solvent extracts from the soils with sandy texture were dominated by n-alkanols, terpenoids, C16 acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol and polar compounds such as glycerol, monosaccharides and glycosides. Fatty acids with chain length over C20 were detected in the sandy soils, while the soil of heavier texture (sandy loam) lacked longer than C20 fatty acids and had lower concentrations of alkanols (exceeding C26 chain lenght) and alkanes (C29, C31). Alkane patterns were characterized by the predominance of C21 - C31 homologues with a

  6. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant, with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 850-950 °C. In this concept, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, a nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. This paper assesses the issues pertaining to shell-and-tube and compact heat exchangers. A detailed thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop inside both printed circuit and shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The analysis included evaluation of the role of key process parameters, geometrical factors in heat exchanger designs, and material properties of structural alloys. Calculations were performed for helium-to-helium, helium-to-helium/nitrogen, and helium-to-salt heat exchangers.

  7. Assessments of surface latent heat flux associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxia; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    To understand the accuracy and uncertainty of surface latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the LHF from each of the six global reanalysis datasets is compared with LHF based on in situ data and the objectively analyzed air-sea flux (OAFlux), in terms of tropical intraseasonal variability. The reanalysis products used in this study include the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), three generations of reanalysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP R1, R2 and CFSR), and the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). We find that the intraseasonal LHF of the reanalysis products agrees well with the OAFlux over the tropical oceans in terms of patterns, but there is a significant spread in amplitude among the reanalysis products. Both ERA-I and MERRA show smaller biases in the power spectral analysis, while the other reanalysis products (NCEP R1, NCEP R2, CFSR, and 20CR) tend to overestimate the intraseasonal LHF when compared with the TAO buoy products and OAFlux. The role of anomalous LHF in supporting the MJO convection identified by previous TAO buoy data studies is confirmed by the long-term global reanalyses. The feature of increasing LHF accompanied by growing MJO observed in the recent MJO field campaign in the central Indian Ocean (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) is also well captured by the reanalysis products. Among the reanalysis datasets, MERRA has the smallest bias in temporal variability of LHF during the DYNAMO/CINDY2011 period.

  8. Pressure distribution and aerodynamic coefficients associated with heat addition to supersonic air stream adjacent to two-dimensional supersonic wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Serafini, John S; Gregg, John L

    1952-01-01

    The modifications in the pressure distributions and the aerodynamic coefficients associated with additions of heat to the two-dimensional supersonic in viscid flow field adjacetnt to the lower surface of of a 5-percent-thickness symmetrical circular-arc wing are presented in this report. The pressure distributions are obtained by the use of graphical method which gives the two-dimensional supersonic inviscid flow field obtained with moderate heat addition. The variation is given of the lift-drag ratio and of the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and moment with free stream Mach number, angle of attack, and parameters defining extent and amount of heat addition. The six graphical solutions used in this study included Mach numbers of 3.0 and 5.0 and angles of attack of 0 degrees and 2 degrees.

  9. On a Time-Optimal Control Problem Associated with the Heat Exchange Process

    SciTech Connect

    Albeverio, Sergio Alimov, Shavkat

    2008-02-15

    The initial-boundary problem for the heat conduction equation inside a bounded domain is considered. It is supposed that on the boundary of this domain the heat exchange according to Newton's law takes place. The control parameter is equal to the magnitude of output of hot or cold air and is defined on a given part of the boundary. An estimate of the minimal time for achieving the given average temperature is found.

  10. Individual and Household Level Risk Factors Associated with Malaria in Nchelenge District, a Region with Perennial Transmission: A Serial Cross-Sectional Study from 2012 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Chaponda, Mike; Shields, Timothy M.; Sichivula, James; Muleba, Mbanga; Mulenga, Modest; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Curriero, Frank C.; Moss, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The scale-up of malaria control interventions has resulted in substantial declines in transmission in some but not all regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding factors associated with persistent malaria transmission despite control efforts may guide targeted interventions to high-risk areas and populations. Methods Household malaria surveys were conducted in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, in northern Zambia. Structures that appeared to be households were enumerated from a high-resolution satellite image and randomly sampled for enrollment. Households were enrolled into cross-sectional (single visit) or longitudinal (visits every other month) cohorts but analyses were restricted to cross-sectional visits and the first visit to longitudinal households. During study visits, a questionnaire was administered to adults and caretakers of children and a blood sample was collected for a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) from all household residents. Characteristics associated with RDT positivity were analyzed using multi-level models. Results A total of 2,486 individuals residing within 742 households were enrolled between April 2012 and July 2015. Over this period, 51% of participants were RDT positive. Forty-three percent of all RDT positive individuals were between the ages of 5 and 17 years although this age group comprised only 30% of study participants. In a multivariable model, the odds being RDT positive were highest in 5–17 year olds and did not vary by season. Children 5–17 years of age had 8.83 higher odds of being RDT positive compared with those >18 years of age (95% CI: 6.13, 12.71); there was an interaction between age and report of symptoms, with an almost 50% increased odds of report of symptoms with decreasing age category (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.11, 2.00). Conclusions Children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 17 were at the highest risk of malaria infection throughout the year. School-based programs may be effective at

  11. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE. I. OBSERVATIONAL ASPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Pontieu, Bart De; Doorsselaere, Tom Van; Yokoyama, Takaaki

    2015-08-10

    Transverse magnetohydrodynamic waves have been shown to be ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and can, in principle, carry sufficient energy to generate and maintain the Sun’s million-degree outer atmosphere or corona. However, direct evidence of the dissipation process of these waves and subsequent heating has not yet been directly observed. Here we report on high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution observations of a solar prominence that show a compelling signature of so-called resonant absorption, a long hypothesized mechanism to efficiently convert and dissipate transverse wave energy into heat. Aside from coherence in the transverse direction, our observations show telltale phase differences around 180° between transverse motions in the plane-of-sky and line-of-sight velocities of the oscillating fine structures or threads, and also suggest significant heating from chromospheric to higher temperatures. Comparison with advanced numerical simulations support a scenario in which transverse oscillations trigger a Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) at the boundaries of oscillating threads via resonant absorption. This instability leads to numerous thin current sheets in which wave energy is dissipated and plasma is heated. Our results provide direct evidence for wave-related heating in action, one of the candidate coronal heating mechanisms.

  12. Mild heat treatments induce long-term changes in metabolites associated with energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sarup, Pernille; Petersen, Simon Metz Mariendal; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Loeschcke, Volker; Malmendal, Anders

    2016-11-01

    Heat-induced hormesis, the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. Yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the long-term effects of repeated mild heat treatments on the metabolome of male Drosophila melanogaster. 10 days after the heat treatment, metabolic aging appears to be slowed down, and a treatment response with 40 % higher levels of alanine and lactate and lower levels of aspartate and glutamate were measured. All treatment effects had disappeared 16 days later. Metabolic reprogramming has been associated with the life extending effects of dietary restriction. The metabolite changes induced by the hormetic treatment suggest that the positive effects might not be limited to the repair pathways induced, but that there also is a change in energy metabolism. A possible direct link between changes in energy metabolism and heat induced increase in Hsp70 expression is discussed.

  13. Heat-induced phytohormone changes are associated with disrupted early reproductive development and reduced yield in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Cui, Kehui; Wang, Wencheng; Li, Qian; Fahad, Shah; Hu, Qiuqian; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Peng, Shaobing

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress causes morphological and physiological changes and reduces crop yield in rice (Oryza sativa). To investigate changes in phytohormones and their relationships with yield and other attributes under heat stress, four rice varieties (Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, Liangyoupeijiu, and Shanyou 63) were grown in pots and subjected to three high temperature treatments plus control in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 d during the early reproductive phase. Yield reductions in Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, and Liangyoupeijiu were attributed to reductions in spikelet fertility, spikelets per panicle, and grain weight. The adverse effects of high temperature were alleviated by application of exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) in the heat-susceptible Liangyoupeijiu. High temperature stress reduced active cytokinins, gibberellin A1 (GA1), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but increased abscisic acid (ABA) and bound cytokinins in young panicles. Correlation analyses and application of exogenous 6-BA revealed that high temperature-induced cytokinin changes may regulate yield components by modulating the differentiation and degradation of branches and spikelets, panicle exsertion, pollen vigor, anther dehiscence, and grain size. Heat-tolerant Shanyou 63 displayed minor changes in phytohormones, panicle formation, and grain yield under high temperature compared with those of the other three varieties. These results suggest that phytohormone changes are closely associated with yield formation, and a small reduction or stability in phytohormone content is required to avoid large yield losses under heat stress. PMID:27713528

  14. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Fertility Reduction upon Heat Stress Reveals Developmental Stage-Specific QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bac-Molenaar, Johanna A.; Fradin, Emilie F.; Becker, Frank F.M.; Rienstra, Juriaan A.; van der Schoot, J.; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.

    2015-01-01

    For crops that are grown for their fruits or seeds, elevated temperatures that occur during flowering and seed or fruit set have a stronger effect on yield than high temperatures during the vegetative stage. Even short-term exposure to heat can have a large impact on yield. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana to study the effect of short-term heat exposure on flower and seed development. The impact of a single hot day (35°C) was determined in more than 250 natural accessions by measuring the lengths of the siliques along the main inflorescence. Two sensitive developmental stages were identified, one before anthesis, during male and female meiosis, and one after anthesis, during fertilization and early embryo development. In addition, we observed a correlation between flowering time and heat tolerance. Genome-wide association mapping revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) strongly associated with the heat response. These QTLs were developmental stage specific, as different QTLs were detected before and after anthesis. For a number of QTLs, T-DNA insertion knockout lines could validate assigned candidate genes. Our findings show that the regulation of complex traits can be highly dependent on the developmental timing. PMID:26163573

  15. California's Districts of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a California state law established in 2010 that created "Districts of Choice." The District of Choice law was meant to encourage districts to compete for students by offering innovative programs and this-school-fits-my-child options that parents wanted. This designation meant that children from any…

  16. Association between School District Policies That Address Chronic Health Conditions of Students and Professional Development for School Nurses on Such Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S. Everett; Brener, Nancy D.; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2015-01-01

    Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic…

  17. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  18. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  19. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by Rosa damascena associated with an increased sensitivity to heat.

    PubMed

    Schriner, Samuel E; Katoozi, Niki S; Pham, Kevin Q; Gazarian, Maral; Zarban, Asghar; Jafari, Mahtab

    2012-04-01

    Rosa damascena, or Damask rose, is a rose hybrid commonly harvested for rose oil used in perfumery and for rose water used to flavor food. The petal extract of R. damascena was recently found to decrease Drosophila melanogaster mortality without impairing reproductive fitness or metabolic rate. Here, we report that R. damascena extended both mean and maximum lifespan of the fly. The extract also protected against oxidative stress in flies, predominantly in females. However, it did not alter mitochondrial respiration or content, superoxide production, or the major antioxidant defenses, superoxide dismutase and catalase. The extract increased survival in both sexes when exposed to reduced iron, though surprisingly, it sensitized both sexes to heat stress (survival at 37°C), and appeared to down-regulate the major heat shock protein HSP70 and the small mitochondrial heat shock protein HSP22, at 25°C and after heat shock (4 h at 37°C). We hypothesize that R. damascena extends lifespan by protecting against iron, which concomitantly leads to decreased HSP expression and compromising heat tolerance.

  20. Effect of pH on subunit association and heat protection of soybean alpha-galactosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. E.; Sarikaya, A.; Herrmann, K. M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Soybeans contain the enzyme alpha-galactosidase, which hydrolyzes alpha-1, 6 linkages in stachyose and raffinose to give sucrose and galactose. We have found that galactose, a competitive product inhibitor of alpha-galactosidase, strongly promotes the heat stability of the tetrameric form of the enzyme at pH 4.0 and at temperatures of up to 70 degrees C for 60 min. Stachyose and raffinose also protect alpha-galactosidase from denaturation at pH 4.0 although to a lesser extent. Glucose and mannose have little effect. At pH 7.0 the enzyme is a monomer, and galactose has no effect on the heat stability of the enzyme. In the absence of heat protection of the enzyme by added sugars, a series deactivation mechanism was found to describe the deactivation data. In comparison, a unimolecular, non-first order deactivation model applies at pH 4.0, where heat protection effects were observed. At a temperature above 60 degrees C, simple deactivation is a suitable model. The results suggest that alpha-galactosidase conformation and heat stability are directly related.

  1. Advective heat transport associated with regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Frondini, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we show that the main springs of the central Apennine transport a total amount of heat of ˜2.2×109 J s-1. Most of this heat (57%) is the result of geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. This result indicates that a large area of the central Apennines is very hot with heat flux values >300 mW m-2. These values are higher than those measured in the magmatic and famously geothermal provinces of Tuscany and Latium and about 1/3 of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone. This finding is surprising because the central Apennines have been thought to be a relatively cold area. Translated by CO2 rich fluids, this heat anomaly suggests the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area support the presence of such an intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity anomaly in seismic waves. Our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the basis of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

  2. Reliability prediction for the SLOWPOKE demonstration reactor building heating demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, D.J. ); Cole, D.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE demonstration reactor (SDR) is a new prototype heating reactor, nominally 2 MW(thermal), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at the Whiteshell Laboratories. This project is part of a program to demonstrate the concept of supplying low-grade heat up to 10 MW(thermal) to localized district heating grids from an unpressurized nuclear heating source using a low-enriched, CANDU-type fuel. Reactor thermal-hydraulic and core physics commissioning experiments and analysis up to 1.2 MW(thermal) were completed in 1990. This report presents that part of the safety and reliability analysis program that provided reliability predictions for the associated building heating demonstration (BHD) systems. Proposed upgrades to test the 10-MW(thermal) core design have delayed the long-term heat demonstration commissioning tests.

  3. Hydrothermal carbonization of sugarcane bagasse via wet torrefaction in association with microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Ye, Song-Ching; Sheen, Herng-Kuang

    2012-08-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization of sugarcane bagasse using wet torrefaction is studied. The biomass is torrefied in water or dilute sulfuric acid solution and microwaves are employed to heat the solutions where the reaction temperature is fixed at 180 °C. The effects of acid concentration, heating time and solid-to-liquid ratio on the performance of wet torrefaction are investigated. It is found that the addition of sulfuric acid and increasing heating time are conducive to carbonizing bagasse. The calorific value of bagasse can be increased up to 20.3% from wet torrefaction. With the same improvement in calorific value, the temperature of wet torrefaction is lower than that of dry torrefaction around 100 °C, revealing that wet torrefaction is a promising method to upgrade biomass as fuel. The calorific value of torrefied biomass can be predicted well based on proximate, elemental or fiber analysis, and the last one gives the best estimation.

  4. Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Jim H.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Miller, Mark A.; Johnson, Karen L.

    2007-03-01

    Radiative heating of the atmosphere affects cloud evolution on the cloud scale and it influences large-scale vertical motion. Obtaining good estimates of radiative heating rate profiles has been difficult due to a lack of cloud profile observations. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has been measuring cloud property distributions at sites around the globe including three in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) region. We have analyzed a month of these remote sensing observations at Manus and Nauru to calculate time series of vertical cloud property profiles and radiative heating rates. This data set will be an important tool for describing radiative processes in the tropics and assessing the simulation of these processes in dynamical models.

  5. Association between enteric protozoan parasites and gastrointestinal illness among HIV- and tuberculosis-infected individuals in the Chowke district, southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Irisarri-Gutiérrez, María José; Mingo, Marta Hernández-de; de Lucio, Aida; Gil, Horacio; Morales, Lucía; Seguí, Raimundo; Nacarapa, Edy; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Esteban, José Guillermo; Carmena, David

    2017-03-14

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique. A total of 99 stool specimens were initially screened by direct microscopy and further confirmed and characterised by molecular methods. DNA sequence analyses of the genes encoding the small subunit ribosomal RNA and the 60-kDa glycoprotein were used for the typing and sub-typing of Cryptosporidium isolates, respectively. G. intestinalis-positive isolates by real-time PCR were subsequently typed at the glutamate dehydrogenase locus. Differential diagnosis of E. histolytica/dispar was achieved by real-time PCR. G. intestinalis (8.1%) was the enteric protozoan more frequently detected, followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (7.1%), and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (6.1%). Two HIV-infected (but not TB-infected) patients harbour G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. co-infections. Two (29%) G. intestinalis isolates were successfully characterised, revealing the presence of known AII and novel BIV genotypes. Four (57%) Cryptosporidium isolates were unmistakeable assigned to C. hominis, identifying two (IbA10G2 and IdA22) sub-types. Cryptosporidium infections were not associated to diarrhoea in HIV-positive patients, probably because improved immune function in the affected individuals due to antiretroviral therapy. G. intestinalis was considered a non-opportunistic pathogen, whereas the presence of E. histolytica could not be confirmed

  6. Couverture vaccinale et facteurs associés à la non complétude vaccinale des enfants de 12 à 23 mois du district de santé de Djoungolo-Cameroun en 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ba Pouth, Simon Franky Baonga; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kobela, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction En 2011 le district de santé de Djoungolo a connu deux épidémies de rougeole avec un taux de complétude vaccinale de 69% selon les données du district. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la couverture vaccinale et les facteurs associés à la non complétude vaccinale des enfants de 12 à 23 mois du district de Djoungolo en 2012. Méthodes Une étude transversale à base communautaire a été menée en 2012. Au total 210 mères / nourrices d'enfants de 12 à 23 mois du district de Djoungolo, sélectionnées selon la méthode OMS de sondage en grappe 30 X 7, ont été interrogées sur les vaccins reçus par l'enfant avant l’âge d'un an et les raisons de non vaccination à l'aide d'un questionnaire structuré. Une analyse de régression logistique multivariée de type backward a été faite pour les variables ayant obtenu une valeur p < 0,2 à l'analyse univariée en utilisant le logiciel EPI Info version 3.5.3. Une association était significative lorsque p < 0,05. Résultats La complétude vaccinale était de 64,3%, variant de 85,7% pour le BCG à 66,2% pour le Vaccin anti rougeoleux. La régression logistique multivariée a montré que les mères qui avaient peur des effets secondaires (P=0,0454), qui ne connaissaient pas l'importance de la vaccination (P=0,0139), qui avaient connu des occasions manquées de vaccination (P=0,0055), qui mettaient plus d'une heure pour vacciner leur enfant (P=0,0005) et qui ne maitrisaient pas le calendrier de vaccination (P=0,00001) étaient significativement associées à la non complétude vaccinale des enfants. Conclusion La couverture vaccinale du district est en deçà des objectifs. Pour l'améliorer nous recommandons le renforcement de l’éducation des parents et une réorganisation des services de vaccination. PMID:25452836

  7. Effect Modification of the Association between Short-term Meteorological Factors and Mortality by Urban Heat Islands in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Goggins, William B.; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Ng, Edward; Ren, Chao; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior studies from around the world have indicated that very high temperatures tend to increase summertime mortality. However possible effect modification by urban micro heat islands has only been examined by a few studies in North America and Europe. This study examined whether daily mortality in micro heat island areas of Hong Kong was more sensitive to short term changes in meteorological conditions than in other areas. Method An urban heat island index (UHII) was calculated for each of Hong Kong’s 248 geographical tertiary planning units (TPU). Daily counts of all natural deaths among Hong Kong residents were stratified according to whether the place of residence of the decedent was in a TPU with high (above the median) or low UHII. Poisson Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used to estimate the association between meteorological variables and mortality while adjusting for trend, seasonality, pollutants and flu epidemics. Analyses were restricted to the hot season (June-September). Results Mean temperatures (lags 0–4) above 29°C and low mean wind speeds (lags 0–4) were significantly associated with higher daily mortality and these associations were stronger in areas with high UHII. A 1°C rise above 29°C was associated with a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7%, 7.6%) increase in natural mortality in areas with high UHII but only a 0.7% (95% CI: −2.4%, 3.9%) increase in low UHII areas. Lower mean wind speeds (5th percentile vs. 95th percentile) were associated with a 5.7% (95% CI: 2.7, 8.9) mortality increase in high UHII areas vs. a −0.3% (95% CI: −3.2%, 2.6%) change in low UHII areas. Conclusion The results suggest that urban micro heat islands exacerbate the negative health consequences of high temperatures and low wind speeds. Urban planning measures designed to mitigate heat island effects may lessen the health effects of unfavorable summertime meteorological conditions. PMID:22761684

  8. Temperature and Moisture Dependent Dielectric Properties of Legume Flours Associated with Dielectric Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric property data are important in developing thermal treatments using radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) energy and essential to estimate the heating uniformity in electromagnetic fields. Dielectric properties of flour samples from four legumes (chickpea, green pea, lentil, and soybean)...

  9. Identification of molecular markers associated with low chill/heat tolerance in raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New genetic markers were developed which are linked to cold and heat tolerant raspberries. Raspberry is a cool season crop, and as such, cannot tolerate the high temperatures of the South during the normal growing season. Expanding the commercial growth range of raspberry production to the southern...

  10. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  11. Simulated spatiotemporal response of ocean heat transport to freshwater enhancement in North Atlantic and associated mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Gao, Yongqi

    2011-06-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) transports a large amount of heat to northern high latitudes, playing an important role in the global climate change. Investigation of the freshwater perturbation in North Atlantic (NA) has become one of the hot topics in the recent years. In this study, the mechanism and pathway of meridional ocean heat transport (OHT) under the enhanced freshwater input to the northern high latitudes in the Atlantic are investigated by an ocean-sea ice-atmosphere coupled model. The results show that the anomalous OHT in the freshwater experiment (FW) is dominated by the meridional circulation kinetic and ocean thermal processes. In the FW, OHT drops down during the period of weakened AMOC while the upper tropical ocean turns warmer due to the retained NA warm currents. Conversely, OHT recovers as the AMOC recovers, and the mechanism can be generalized as: 1) increased ocean heat content in the tropical Southern Ocean during the early integration provides the thermal condition for the recovery of OHT in NA; 2) the OHT from the Southern Ocean enters the NA through the equator along the deep Ekman layer; 3) in NA, the recovery of OHT appears mainly along the isopycnic layers of 24.70-25.77 below the mixing layer. It is then transported into the mixing layer from the "outcropping points" in northern high latitudes, and finally released to the atmosphere by the ocean-atmosphere heat exchange.

  12. Induction of HSP70 is associated with vincristine resistance in heat-shocked 9L rat brain tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. C.; Lin, K. Y.; Chen, K. D.; Lai, Y. K.

    1992-01-01

    The most prominent cellular changes in heat-shock response are induction of HSPs synthesis and reorganisation of cytoskeleton. Vincristine was used as a tool to evaluate the integrity of microtubules in 9L rat brain tumour cells recovering from heat-shock treatment. Cells treated at 45 degrees C for 15 min and recovered under normal growing condition became resistant to vincristine-inflicted cytotoxicity and microtubule destruction. Among all HSPs, the level of HSP70 and the degree of vincristine resistance are best correlated. HSP70 and tubulin were found to be associated with each other as they were co-immunoprecipitated by either anti-HSP70 or anti-beta-tubulin monoclonal antibody. The current studies establish for the first time that HSP70 can complex with tubulin in cells and this association may stabilise the organisation of microtubules thus protect the heat-treated cells from vincristine damage. These findings are noteworthy in combining hyperthermia and chemotherapy in the management of malignant diseases. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1419602

  13. Lower hybrid heating associated with mode conversion on the Wisconsin toroidal octupole

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, T L; Scharer, J E

    1980-09-01

    Wave heating experiments and wave propagation measurements in the lower hybrid range of frequencies are described. A T antenna launches up to 40 kW of wave power at 140 MHz with better than 95% coupling efficiency. Ion temperature increases of ..delta..T/sub i/ = 37 eV are measured with ..delta..T/sub parallel//T/sub io/ = 12. Ion heating is strongly localized near the lower hybrid turning point for a peak value of (k/sub parallel//..omega..)(KT/sub i//m/sub e/)/sup 1/2/ approx. = 0.3 corresponding to an upshifted k/sub parallel/ spectrum. Wavelength measurements indicate that the upshift in k/sub parallel/ occurs in the interior of the plasma. Other wave measurements show the existence of a large amplitude weakly damped fast wave component in addition to the slow wave.

  14. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-04-05

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made a preliminary assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. Two IHX designs namely, shell and tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in the assessment. Printed circuit heat exchanger, among various compact heat exchanger (HX) designs, was selected for the analysis. Irrespective of the design, the material considerations for the construction of the HX are essentially similar, except may be in the fabrication of the units. As a result, we have reviewed in detail the available information on material property data relevant for the construction of HX and made a preliminary assessment of several relevant factors to make a judicious selection of the material for the IHX. The assessment included four primary candidate alloys namely, Alloy 617 (UNS N06617), Alloy 230 (UNS N06230), Alloy 800H (UNS N08810), and Alloy X (UNS N06002) for the IHX. Some of the factors addressed in this report are the tensile, creep, fatigue, creep fatigue, toughness properties for the candidate alloys, thermal aging effects on the mechanical properties, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code compliance

  15. High levels of nuclear heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Santagata, Sandro; Hu, Rong; Lin, Nancy U; Mendillo, Marc L; Collins, Laura C; Hankinson, Susan E; Schnitt, Stuart J; Whitesell, Luke; Tamimi, Rulla M; Lindquist, Susan; Ince, Tan A

    2011-11-08

    Heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) is the master transcriptional regulator of the cellular response to heat and a wide variety of other stressors. We previously reported that HSF1 promotes the survival and proliferation of malignant cells. At this time, however, the clinical and prognostic significance of HSF1 in cancer is unknown. To address this issue breast cancer samples from 1,841 participants in the Nurses' Health Study were scored for levels of nuclear HSF1. Associations of HSF1 status with clinical parameters and survival outcomes were investigated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. The associations were further delineated by Kaplan-Meier analysis using publicly available mRNA expression data. Our results show that nuclear HSF1 levels were elevated in ∼80% of in situ and invasive breast carcinomas. In invasive carcinomas, HSF1 expression was associated with high histologic grade, larger tumor size, and nodal involvement at diagnosis (P < 0.0001). By using multivariate analysis to account for the effects of covariates, high HSF1 levels were found to be independently associated with increased mortality (hazards ratio: 1.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.17; P < 0.0013). This association was seen in the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive population (hazards ratio: 2.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.03; P < 0.0001). In public expression profiling data, high HSF1 mRNA levels were also associated with an increase in ER-positive breast cancer-specific mortality. We conclude that increased HSF1 is associated with reduced breast cancer survival. The findings indicate that HSF1 should be evaluated prospectively as an independent prognostic indicator in ER-positive breast cancer. HSF1 may ultimately be a useful therapeutic target in cancer.

  16. Air-density-dependent model for analysis of air heating associated with streamers, leaders, and transient luminous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riousset, Jeremy A.; Pasko, Victor P.; Bourdon, Anne

    2010-12-01

    Blue and gigantic jets are transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere that form when conventional lightning leaders escape upward from the thundercloud. The conditions in the Earth's atmosphere (i.e., air density, reduced electric field, etc.) leading to conversion of hot leader channels driven by thermal ionization near cloud tops to nonthermal streamer forms observed at higher altitudes are not understood at present. This paper presents a formulation of a streamer-to-spark transition model that allows studies of gas dynamics and chemical kinetics involved in heating of air in streamer channels for a given air density N under assumption of constant applied electric field E. The model accounts for the dynamic expansion of the heated air in the streamer channel and resultant effects of E/N variations on plasma kinetics, the vibrational excitation of nitrogen molecules N2(v), effects of gains in electron energy in collisions with N2(v), and associative ionization processes involving N2(A3Σu+) and N2(a'1Σu-) species. The results are in excellent agreement with available experimental data at ground and near-ground air pressures and demonstrate that for the air densities corresponding to 0-70 km altitudes the kinetic effects lead to a significant acceleration of the heating, with effective heating times scaling closer to 1/N than to 1/N2 predicted on the basis of similarity laws for Joule heating. This acceleration is attributed to a strong reduction in electron losses due to three-body attachment and electron-ion recombination processes with reduction of air pressure.

  17. Epigenetic Changes are Associated with Programmed Cell Death Induced by Heat Stress in Seedling Leaves of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Zhao, Lin; Hou, Haoli; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yapei; Li, Hui; Gao, Fei; Yan, Shihan; Li, Lijia

    2015-05-01

    Histone modification plays a crucial role in regulation of chromatin architecture and function, responding to adverse external stimuli. However, little is known about a possible relationship between epigenetic modification and programmed cell death (PCD) in response to environmental stress. Here, we found that heat stress induced PCD in maize seedling leaves which was characterized by chromatin DNA laddering and DNA strand breaks detected by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) test. The activities of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were progressively increased over time in the heat-treated seedlings. However, the concentration of H2O2 remained at relatively lower levels, while the concentration of superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) was increased, accompanied by the occurrence of higher ion leakage rates after heat treatment. The total acetylation levels of histones H3K9, H4K5 and H3 were significantly increased, whereas the di-methylation level of histone H3K4 was unchanged and the di-methylation level of histone H3K9 was decreased in the seedling leaves exposed to heat stress compared with the control seedlings, accompanied by increased nucleolus size indicative of chromatin decondensation. Furthermore, treatment of seedlings with trichostatin A (TSA), which always results in genomic histone hyperacetylation, caused an increase in the [Formula: see text] level within the cells. The results suggested that heat stress persistently induced [Formula: see text], leading to PCD in association with histone modification changes in the maize leaves.

  18. Advection and dispersion heat transport mechanisms in the quantification of shallow geothermal resources and associated environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Mar; García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Velasco, Violeta

    2016-02-01

    Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs) are increasingly being used to exploit shallow geothermal energy. This paper presents a new methodology to provide a response to the need for a regional quantification of the geothermal potential that can be extracted by BHEs and the associated environmental impacts. A set of analytical solutions facilitates accurate calculation of the heat exchange of BHEs with the ground and its environmental impacts. For the first time, advection and dispersion heat transport mechanisms and the temporal evolution from the start of operation of the BHE are taken into account in the regional estimation of shallow geothermal resources. This methodology is integrated in a GIS environment, which facilitates the management of input and output data at a regional scale. An example of the methodology's application is presented for Barcelona, in Spain. As a result of the application, it is possible to show the strengths and improvements of this methodology in the development of potential maps of low temperature geothermal energy as well as maps of environmental impacts. The minimum and maximum energy potential values for the study site are 50 and 1800 W/m(2) for a drilled depth of 100 m, proportionally to Darcy velocity. Regarding to thermal impacts, the higher the groundwater velocity and the energy potential, the higher the size of the thermal plume after 6 months of exploitation, whose length ranges from 10 to 27 m long. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in the calculation of heat exchange rate and its impacts for different scenarios and for a wide range of Darcy velocities. The results of this analysis lead to the conclusion that the consideration of dispersion effects and temporal evolution of the exploitation prevent significant differences up to a factor 2.5 in the heat exchange rate accuracy and up to several orders of magnitude in the impacts generated.

  19. High transcript levels of heat-shock genes are associated with shorter lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Manière, X; Krisko, A; Pellay, F X; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Matic, I

    2014-12-01

    Individual lifespans of isogenic organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes, fruit flies, and mice, vary greatly even under identical environmental conditions. To study the molecular mechanisms responsible for such variability, we used an assay based on the measurement of post-reproductive nematode movements stimulated by a moderate electric field. This assay allows for the separation of individual nematodes based on their speed. We show that this phenotype could be used as a biomarker for aging because it is a better predictor of lifespan than chronological age. Fast nematodes have longer lifespans, fewer protein carbonyls, higher heat-shock resistance, and higher transcript levels of the daf-16 and hsf-1 genes, which code for the stress response transcription factors, than slow nematodes. High transcript levels of the genes coding for heat-shock proteins observed in slow nematodes correlate with lower heat-shock resistance, more protein carbonyls, and shorter lifespan. Taken together, our data suggests that shorter lifespan results from early-life damage accumulation that causes subsequent faster age-related deterioration.

  20. Hsp70-Hsp40 Chaperone Complex Functions in Controlling Polarized Growth by Repressing Hsf1-Driven Heat Stress-Associated Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianhua; Oliferenko, Snezhana

    2013-01-01

    How the molecular mechanisms of stress response are integrated at the cellular level remains obscure. Here we show that the cellular polarity machinery in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes dynamic adaptation to thermal stress resulting in a period of decreased Cdc42 activity and altered, monopolar growth. Cells where the heat stress-associated transcription was genetically upregulated exhibit similar growth patterning in the absence of temperature insults. We identify the Ssa2-Mas5/Hsp70-Hsp40 chaperone complex as repressor of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Cells lacking this chaperone activity constitutively activate the heat-stress-associated transcriptional program. Interestingly, they also exhibit intermittent monopolar growth within a physiological temperature range and are unable to adapt to heat stress. We propose that by negatively regulating the heat stress-associated transcription, the Ssa2-Mas5 chaperone system could optimize cellular growth under different temperature regiments. PMID:24146635

  1. Hypertension is associated with greater heat exchange during exercise recovery in a hot environment

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, S. F.; Teles, M. C.; Ribeiro, V. G. C.; Magalhães, F. C.; Mendonça, V. A.; Peixoto, M. F. D.; Leite, L. H. R.; Coimbra, C. C.; Lacerda, A. C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with systemic arterial hypertension have a higher risk of heat-related complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the thermoregulatory responses of hypertensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in the heat. A total of eight essential hypertensive (H) and eight normotensive (N) male subjects (age=46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years, body mass index=25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure=98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively) rested for 30 min, performed 1 h of treadmill exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption, and rested for 1 h after exercise in an environmental chamber at 38°C and 60% relative humidity. Skin and core temperatures were measured to calculate heat exchange parameters. Mean arterial pressure was higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects throughout the experiment (P<0.05, unpaired t-test). The hypertensive subjects stored less heat (H=-24.23±3.99 W·m−2 vs N=-13.63±2.24 W·m−2, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), experienced greater variations in body temperature (H=-0.62±0.05°C vsN=-0.35±0.12°C, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), and had more evaporated sweat (H=-106.1±4.59 W·m−2 vs N=-91.15±3.24 W·m−2, P=0.01, unpaired t-test) than the normotensive subjects during the period of recovery from exercise. In conclusion, essential hypertensive subjects showed greater sweat evaporation and increased heat dissipation and body cooling relative to normotensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in hot conditions. PMID:26517335

  2. Classical heat transport and spontaneous fluctuations associated with a temperature filament in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Alexander Thomas

    1999-11-01

    We study electron heat transport and spontaneous fluctuations during the DC injection of an electron beam by a 3 mm diameter crystal of LaB 6 at 20 eV and 200 mA, into a magnetized plasma with an ambient magnetic field of 500-1500 G. Thermalization of the beam current and subsequent transport of the electron heat creates a filamentary region about 1 cm wide, on the order of the electron skin depth, c/wpe. This ``temperature filament'' extends along the field about 5 m into the 10 m long, 40 cm wide plasma column, with a peak temperature 5-20 times greater than the 0.2-0.5 eV temperature of the bulk plasma. The plasma density, on the order of 1 × 1012 cm-3, is unperturbed in the filament because the energy of the beam is below the ionization potential of helium. In the temperature filament, under quiescent conditions, we observe simultaneous axial and radial electron heat transport that occurs at the classically predicted rates within the limits of uncertainty in the electron temperature measurement of about 20%. This is based on a comparison of space-time measurements of the filament temperature with the prediction of a computer code developed specifically to model 2-dimensional classical electron heat conduction in the beamheated filament. Langmuir probes were used to measure the temperature profile of the filament, and the spontaneous fluctuations in the filament region. Non-classical or so-called anomalous transport is observed after the onset of fluctuations. Initially these fluctuations are highly coherent with a frequency on the order of 0.1 fci and an m = 1 spiral shape in the x-y plane, having a density fluctuation amplitude, dn/n, of 20% and a magnetic fluctuation amplitude, δB/ B, of.01%. Measurements of the transverse magnetic fluctuation vectors confirm the m = 1 nature of the mode. These fluctuations are identified as drift- Alfven waves. Later in time, a low-frequency fluctuation occurs, on the order of.02 fci, which is confined to the radial center

  3. Hypertension is associated with greater heat exchange during exercise recovery in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, S F; Teles, M C; Ribeiro, V G C; Magalhães, F C; Mendonça, V A; Peixoto, M F D; Leite, L H R; Coimbra, C C; Lacerda, A C R

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with systemic arterial hypertension have a higher risk of heat-related complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the thermoregulatory responses of hypertensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in the heat. A total of eight essential hypertensive (H) and eight normotensive (N) male subjects (age=46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years, body mass index=25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure=98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively) rested for 30 min, performed 1 h of treadmill exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption, and rested for 1 h after exercise in an environmental chamber at 38°C and 60% relative humidity. Skin and core temperatures were measured to calculate heat exchange parameters. Mean arterial pressure was higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects throughout the experiment (P<0.05, unpaired t-test). The hypertensive subjects stored less heat (H=-24.23±3.99 W·m-2vs N=-13.63±2.24 W·m-2, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), experienced greater variations in body temperature (H=-0.62±0.05°C vsN=-0.35±0.12°C, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), and had more evaporated sweat (H=-106.1±4.59 W·m-2vs N=-91.15±3.24 W·m-2, P=0.01, unpaired t-test) than the normotensive subjects during the period of recovery from exercise. In conclusion, essential hypertensive subjects showed greater sweat evaporation and increased heat dissipation and body cooling relative to normotensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in hot conditions.

  4. On the glacial and interglacial thermohaline circulation and the associated transports of heat and freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarotta, M.; Falahat, S.; Brodeau, L.; Döös, K.

    2014-11-01

    The thermohaline circulation (THC) and the oceanic heat and freshwater transports are essential for understanding the global climate system. Streamfunctions are widely used in oceanography to represent the THC and estimate the transport of heat and freshwater. In the present study, the regional and global changes of the THC, the transports of heat and freshwater and the timescale of the circulation between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ≈ 21 kyr ago) and the present-day climate are explored using an Ocean General Circulation Model and streamfunctions projected in various coordinate systems. We found that the LGM tropical circulation is about 10% stronger than under modern conditions due to stronger wind stress. Consequently, the maximum tropical transport of heat is about 20% larger during the LGM. In the North Atlantic basin, the large sea-ice extent during the LGM constrains the Gulf Stream to propagate in a more zonal direction, reducing the transport of heat towards high latitudes by almost 50% and reorganising the freshwater transport. The strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation depends strongly on the coordinate system. It varies between 9 and 16 Sv during the LGM, and between 12 to 19 Sv for the present day. Similar to paleo-proxy reconstructions, a large intrusion of saline Antarctic Bottom Water takes place into the Northern Hemisphere basins and squeezes most of the Conveyor Belt circulation into a shallower part of the ocean. These different haline regimes between the glacial and interglacial period are illustrated by the streamfunctions in latitude-salinity coordinates and thermohaline coordinates. From these diagnostics, we found that the LGM Conveyor Belt circulation is driven by an enhanced salinity contrast between the Atlantic and the Pacific basin. The LGM abyssal circulation lifts and makes the Conveyor Belt cell deviate from the abyssal region, resulting in a ventilated upper layer above a deep stagnant layer, and an

  5. Associations between Heat-Stable (O) and Heat-Labile (HL) Serogroup Antigens of Campylobacter jejuni: Evidence for Interstrain Relationships within Three O/HL Serovars

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C. J.; Fox, A. J.; Jones, D. M.; Wareing, D. R. A.; Hutchinson, D. N.

    1998-01-01

    A comparative examination of the heat-stable (O) and heat-labile (HL) serogrouping results for 9,024 sporadic human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni revealed conserved associations between specific O and HL antigens (O/HL serovars). Forty-nine percent of the isolates which grouped for both O and HL antigens belonged to one of three serovars: O 4 complex/HL 1 (17.9%), O 1/HL 2 (16.8%), or O 50/HL 7 (14.5%). Other common serovars were O 2/HL 4 (8.3%), O 6/HL 6 (8.1%), O 53/HL 11 (4.5%), O 19/HL 17 (3.3%), O 5/HL 9 (3.3%), O 9/HL 9 (3.2%), and O 23/HL 5 (3.1%). These 10 serovars accounted for 83.1% of the serogroupable isolates. A large number of strains (41.3%) could be typed by only one of the two methods or could not be serogrouped (11%). Strains belonging to three serovars, O 2/HL 4, O 50/HL 7, and O 23/HL 5, were further characterized by combining data from expressed features (O/HL serogroups, phage groups, and biotypes) with restriction fragment length polymorphism genotypes. These polyphasic data demonstrated that within each serovar, individual isolates showed substantial conservation of both genomic and phenotypic characteristics. The essentially clonal nature of the three serovars confirmed the potential of combined O and HL serogrouping as a practical and phylogenetically valid method for investigating the epidemiology of sporadic C. jejuni infection. PMID:9665996

  6. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  7. A cellular protein that associates with the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus is also a heat-shock protein.

    PubMed Central

    Oppermann, H; Levinson, W; Bishop, J M

    1981-01-01

    A single viral protein (pp60src) mediates neoplastic transformation of cells infected with Rous sarcoma virus. Immunoprecipitation of pp60src has revealed two cellular proteins (Mr 50,000 and 89,000) that appear to associate with pp60src in a specific manner. Neither of the cellular proteins has been well characterized, but it is thought that both may participate in the function of pp60src. Treatment of avian cells with unphysiological temperature or certain chemical agents amplifies the production of several proteins in the manner of the "heat shock" response earlier described for Drosophila. We report here that one of these proteins, with a molecular weight of 89,000 is identical to the 89-kilodalton protein found associated with pp60src. The 89-kilodalton protein is a major constituent of both uninfected and infected cells, even in the absence of inducing agents, but only a small fraction of this protein appears to associate with pp60src in cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus. The complex containing pp60src and the 89-kilodalton protein can be precipitated by an immune reaction involving pp60src alone. The complexed form of the 89-kilodalton protein did not react directly with antibodies but regained its reactivity subsequent to release from the complex. We conclude that the 89-kilodalton protein is bound to pp60src in a relatively stable complex. We suggest that the 89-kilodalton protein may have overlapping roles in viral oncogenesis and the heat shock response, and that evidence on the function of the protein in either setting may illuminate its function in the other. In addition, it may prove profitable to search for other overlaps between the cellular response to heat shock and the neoplastic transformation of cells by pp60src. Images PMID:6262754

  8. Cloud radiative forcing induced by layered clouds and associated impact on the atmospheric heating rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qiaoyi; Li, Jiming; Wang, Tianhe; Huang, Jianping

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative analysis of cloud fraction, cloud radiative forcing, and cloud radiative heating rate (CRH) of the single-layered cloud (SLC) and the multi-layered cloud (MLC), and their differences is presented, based on the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR and 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR products on the global scale. The CRH at a given atmospheric level is defined as the cloudy minus clear-sky radiative heating rate. The statistical results show that the globally averaged cloud fraction of the MLC (24.9%), which is primarily prevalent in equatorial regions, is smaller than that of the SLC (46.6%). The globally averaged net radiative forcings (NET CRFs) induced by the SLC (MLC) at the top and bottom of the atmosphere (TOA and BOA) and in the atmosphere (ATM) are-60.8 (-40.9),-67.5 (-49.6), and 6.6 (8.7) W m-2, respectively, where the MLC contributes approximately 40.2%, 42.4%, and 57% to the NET CRF at the TOA, BOA, and in the ATM, respectively. The MLC exhibits distinct differences to the SLC in terms of CRH. The shortwave CRH of the SLC (MLC) reaches a heating peak at 9.75 (7.5) km, with a value of 0.35 (0.60) K day-1, and the differences between SLC and MLC transform from positive to negative with increasing altitude. However, the longwave CRH of the SLC (MLC) reaches a cooling peak at 2 (8) km, with a value of-0.45 (-0.42) K day-1, and the differences transform from negative to positive with increasing altitude. In general, the NET CRH differences between SLC and MLC are negative below 7.5 km. These results provide an observational basis for the assessment and improvement of the cloud parameterization schemes in global models.

  9. Thermal ground-water discharge and associated convective heat flux, Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Backsen, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho. The area has a rural population dependent on ground-water irrigation. Temperature of the ground water ranges from 15 C to more than 80 C. Ground water for irrigation is obtained from flowing and pumped wells. Discharge of thermal ground water from 104 irrigation wells and from 5 hot springs in 1978 was about 50,500 acre-feet. Convective heat flux from the geothermal system associated with this discharge was 4.97 x 10 to the 7th power calories per second. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. National Athletic Trainers' Association Releases New Guidelines for Exertional Heat Illnesses: What School Nurses Need to Know.

    PubMed

    VanScoy, Rachel M; DeMartini, Julie K; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-05-01

    Exertional heat illnesses (EHI) occur in various populations and settings. Within a school setting, there are student athletes who take part in physical activity where the risk of EHI is increased. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) released an updated position statement on EHI in September of 2015. This article is a summary of the position statement. The sports medicine team, including school nurses and athletic trainers, provides quality health care to these physically active individuals. Thus, it is important for school nurses to understand the prevention, recognition, and treatment of EHI.

  11. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE. II. NUMERICAL ASPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, P.; Okamoto, T. J.; Doorsselaere, T. Van; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-08-10

    Transverse magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and may be responsible for generating the Sun’s million-degree outer atmosphere. However, direct evidence of the dissipation process and heating from these waves remains elusive. Through advanced numerical simulations combined with appropriate forward modeling of a prominence flux tube, we provide the observational signatures of transverse MHD waves in prominence plasmas. We show that these signatures are characterized by a thread-like substructure, strong transverse dynamical coherence, an out-of-phase difference between plane-of-the-sky motions and line-of-sight velocities, and enhanced line broadening and heating around most of the flux tube. A complex combination between resonant absorption and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs) takes place in which the KHI extracts the energy from the resonant layer and dissipates it through vortices and current sheets, which rapidly degenerate into turbulence. An inward enlargement of the boundary is produced in which the turbulent flows conserve the characteristic dynamics from the resonance, therefore guaranteeing detectability of the resonance imprints. We show that the features described in the accompanying paper through coordinated Hinode and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations match the numerical results well.

  12. Breed-specific ancestry studies and genome-wide association analysis highlight an association between the MYH9 gene and heat tolerance in Alaskan sprint racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Huson, Heather J; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Rimbault, Maud; Byers, Alexandra M; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2012-02-01

    Alaskan sled dogs are a genetically distinct population shaped by generations of selective interbreeding with purebred dogs to create a group of high-performance athletes. As a result of selective breeding strategies, sled dogs present a unique opportunity to employ admixture-mapping techniques to investigate how breed composition and trait selection impact genomic structure. We used admixture mapping to investigate genetic ancestry across the genomes of two classes of sled dogs, sprint and long-distance racers, and combined that with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify regions that correlate with performance-enhancing traits. The sled dog genome is enhanced by differential contributions from four non-admixed breeds (Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Husky, German Shorthaired Pointer, and Borzoi). A principal components analysis (PCA) of 115,000 genome-wide SNPs clearly resolved the sprint and distance populations as distinct genetic groups, with longer blocks of linkage disequilibrium (LD) observed in the distance versus sprint dogs (7.5-10 and 2.5-3.75 kb, respectively). Furthermore, we identified eight regions with the genomic signal from either a selective sweep or an association analysis, corroborated by an excess of ancestry when comparing sprint and distance dogs. A comparison of elite and poor-performing sled dogs identified a single region significantly associated with heat tolerance. Within the region we identified seven SNPs within the myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) that were significantly associated with heat tolerance in sprint dogs, two of which correspond to conserved promoter and enhancer regions in the human ortholog.

  13. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  14. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  15. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  16. Environmental Assessment and (FONSI) Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    An analysis is presented of the environmental impacts of replacing the Winnett School District's existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. The report first covers the background and need for action, along with the alternative actions…

  17. Effect of heat and moisture exchangers on the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Auxiliadora-Martins, M; Menegueti, M G; Nicolini, E A; Alkmim-Teixeira, G C; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F; Martins-Filho, O A; Basile-Filho, A

    2012-12-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains one of the major causes of infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with the length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We compared the frequency of VAP 10 months prior to (pre-intervention group) and 13 months after (post-intervention group) initiation of the use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) filter. This is a study with prospective before-and-after design performed in the ICU in a tertiary university hospital. Three hundred and fourteen patients were admitted to the ICU under mechanical ventilation, 168 of whom were included in group HH (heated humidifier) and 146 in group HME. The frequency of VAP per 1000 ventilator-days was similar for both the HH and HME groups (18.7 vs 17.4, respectively; P = 0.97). Duration of mechanical ventilation (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.48) and length of ICU stay (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.39) did not differ between the HH and HME groups. The chance of developing VAP was higher in patients with a longer ICU stay and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. This finding was similar when adjusted for the use of HME. The use of HME in intensive care did not reduce the incidence of VAP, the duration of mechanical ventilation, or the length of stay in the ICU in the study population.

  18. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

  19. Multilocus adaptation associated with heat resistance in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Bay, Rachael A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of tolerance to future climate change depends on the standing stock of genetic variation for resistance to climate-related impacts, but genes contributing to climate tolerance in wild populations are poorly described in number and effect. Physiology and gene expression patterns have shown that corals living in naturally high-temperature microclimates are more resistant to bleaching because of both acclimation and fixed effects, including adaptation. To search for potential genetic correlates of these fixed effects, we genotyped 15,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 individual tabletop corals, Acropora hyacinthus, within a natural temperature mosaic in backreef lagoons on Ofu Island, American Samoa. Despite overall lack of population substructure, we identified 114 highly divergent SNPs as candidates for environmental selection, via multiple stringent outlier tests, and correlations with temperature. Corals from the warmest reef location had higher minor allele frequencies across these candidate SNPs, a pattern not seen for noncandidate loci. Furthermore, within backreef pools, colonies in the warmest microclimates had a higher number and frequency of alternative alleles at candidate loci. These data suggest mild selection for alternate alleles at many loci in these corals during high heat episodes and possible maintenance of extensive polymorphism through multilocus balancing selection in a heterogeneous environment. In this case, a natural population harbors a reservoir of alleles preadapted to high temperatures, suggesting potential for future evolutionary response to climate change.

  20. A novel method to identify and characterise peptide mimotopes of heat shock protein 70-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz, Blanca; Madrigal-Estebas, Laura; Todryk, Stephen; James, Tharappel C; Doherty, Derek G; Bond, Ursula

    2006-04-08

    The heat shock protein, Hsp70, has been shown to play an important role in tumour immunity. Vaccination with Hsp70-peptide complexes (Hsp70-PCs), isolated from autologous tumour cells, can induce protective immune responses. We have developed a novel method to identify synthetic mimic peptides of Hsp70-PCs and to test their ability to activate T-cells. Peptides (referred to as "recognisers") that bind to Hsp70-PCs from the human breast carcinoma cell line, MDA-MB-231, were identified by bio-panning a random peptide M13 phage display library. Synthetic recogniser peptides were subsequently used as bait in a reverse bio-panning experiment to identify potential Hsp70-PC mimic peptides. The ability of the recogniser and mimic peptides to prime human lymphocyte responses against tumour cell antigens was tested by stimulating lymphocytes with autologous peptide-loaded monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Priming and subsequent stimulation with either the recogniser or mimic peptide resulted in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion by the lymphocytes. Furthermore, DCs loaded with Hsp70, Hsp70-PC or the recogniser or the mimic peptide primed the lymphocytes to respond to soluble extracts from breast cells. These results highlight the potential application of synthetic peptide-mimics of Hsp70-PCs, as modulators of the immune response against tumours.

  1. Detection of Supersonic Downflows and Associated Heating Events in the Transition Region above Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleint, L.; Antolin, P.; Tian, H.; Judge, P.; Testa, P.; De Pontieu, B.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Reeves, K. K.; Wuelser, J. P.; McKillop, S.; Saar, S.; Carlsson, M.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Lemen, J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A.; Golub, L.; Hansteen, V.; Jaeggli, S.; Kankelborg, C.

    2014-07-01

    Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph data allow us to study the solar transition region (TR) with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.''33. On 2013 August 30, we observed bursts of high Doppler shifts suggesting strong supersonic downflows of up to 200 km s-1 and weaker, slightly slower upflows in the spectral lines Mg II h and k, C II 1336, Si IV 1394 Å, and 1403 Å, that are correlated with brightenings in the slitjaw images (SJIs). The bursty behavior lasts throughout the 2 hr observation, with average burst durations of about 20 s. The locations of these short-lived events appear to be the umbral and penumbral footpoints of EUV loops. Fast apparent downflows are observed along these loops in the SJIs and in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, suggesting that the loops are thermally unstable. We interpret the observations as cool material falling from coronal heights, and especially coronal rain produced along the thermally unstable loops, which leads to an increase of intensity at the loop footpoints, probably indicating an increase of density and temperature in the TR. The rain speeds are on the higher end of previously reported speeds for this phenomenon, and possibly higher than the free-fall velocity along the loops. On other observing days, similar bright dots are sometimes aligned into ribbons, resembling small flare ribbons. These observations provide a first insight into small-scale heating events in sunspots in the TR.

  2. Association of serum antibodies to heat-shock protein 65 with carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Willeit, J; Marosi, M; Kleindienst, R; Oberhollenzer, F; Kiechl, S; Stulnig, T; Luef, G; Wick, G

    1993-01-30

    Arteriosclerotic lesions can be induced in normocholesterolaemic rabbits by immunisation with heat-shock protein (hsp) 65, a stress protein expressed in high concentrations in human atherosclerotic lesions. If an immune reaction to hsp65 also plays a part in human atherogenesis, it should be possible to detect anti-hsp65 antibodies in patients with atherosclerotic lesions. To study the possible relation between immune reaction to hsp65 and atherosclerosis, 867 normal inhabitants of South Tyrol, aged 40-79 years, were selected randomly for determination of serum antibodies against hsp65, simultaneous sonographic assessment of carotid atherosclerotic lesions, and evaluation of established risk factors--ie, blood cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, thyroid antigens, and rheumatoid factors were also measured. Serum anti-hsp65 antibodies were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in subjects aged 60-79 years with carotid atherosclerosis compared with those without lesions, and increased antibody concentration was independent of age, sex, and other established risk factors. On the other hand, the incidence and titres of autoantibodies did not correlate with carotid atherosclerotic lesions. Our data provide the first evidence of a strong correlation between anti-hsp65 antibodies and carotid atherosclerosis, suggesting that hsp65 might be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  3. DETECTION OF SUPERSONIC DOWNFLOWS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING EVENTS IN THE TRANSITION REGION ABOVE SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kleint, L.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Antolin, P.; Tian, H.; Testa, P.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Saar, S.; Golub, L.; Judge, P.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; Jaeggli, S.; and others

    2014-07-10

    Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph data allow us to study the solar transition region (TR) with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.''33. On 2013 August 30, we observed bursts of high Doppler shifts suggesting strong supersonic downflows of up to 200 km s{sup –1} and weaker, slightly slower upflows in the spectral lines Mg II h and k, C II 1336, Si IV 1394 Å, and 1403 Å, that are correlated with brightenings in the slitjaw images (SJIs). The bursty behavior lasts throughout the 2 hr observation, with average burst durations of about 20 s. The locations of these short-lived events appear to be the umbral and penumbral footpoints of EUV loops. Fast apparent downflows are observed along these loops in the SJIs and in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, suggesting that the loops are thermally unstable. We interpret the observations as cool material falling from coronal heights, and especially coronal rain produced along the thermally unstable loops, which leads to an increase of intensity at the loop footpoints, probably indicating an increase of density and temperature in the TR. The rain speeds are on the higher end of previously reported speeds for this phenomenon, and possibly higher than the free-fall velocity along the loops. On other observing days, similar bright dots are sometimes aligned into ribbons, resembling small flare ribbons. These observations provide a first insight into small-scale heating events in sunspots in the TR.

  4. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P.V.; Patel, S.V.; Bhalani, K.D.; Shah, D.; Shah, V.S.; Mehta, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. Results: The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. Interpretation & conclusions: The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings. PMID:22825606

  5. Minor ion heating in spectra of linearly and circularly polarized Alfvén waves: Thermal and non-thermal motions associated with perpendicular heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chuanfei

    2014-02-01

    Minor ion (such as He2+) heating via nonresonant interaction with spectra of linearly and circularly polarized Alfvén waves (LPAWs and CPAWs hereafter) is studied. The obtained analytic solutions are in good agreement with the simulation results, indicating that newborn ions are heated by low-frequency Alfvén waves with finite amplitude in low-beta plasmas such as the solar corona. The analytic solutions also reproduce the preferential heating of heavy ions in the solar wind. In the presence of parallel propagating Alfvén waves, turbulence-induced particle motion is clearly observed in the wave (magnetic field) polarized directions. After the waves diminish, the newborn ions are heated, which is caused by the phase difference (randomization) between ions due to their different parallel thermal motions. The heating is dominant in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The perpendicular heating, η =(Ti⊥R-Ti0⊥R)/Ti0⊥R (where Ti0⊥R and Ti⊥R are the perpendicular temperature of species i before and after genuine heating, respectively), in the spectrum of CPAWs is a factor of two stronger than that of LPAWs. Moreover, we also study the effect of field-aligned differential flow speed of species i relative to H+, δvip=(vi-vp).B /|B| (where vi and vp denote vector velocities of the H+ and species i, respectively), on the perpendicular heating. It reveals that large drift speed, vd=δvip, has an effect on reducing the efficiency of perpendicular heating, which is consistent with observations.

  6. 36 CFR 67.5 - Standards for Evaluating Significance within Registered Historic Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., materials, workmanship, feeling and association adds to the district's sense of time and place and... which does not add to the district's sense of time and place and historical development; or one...

  7. Separation of an associated 90K heat shock protein from the glucocorticoid receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Miller-Diener, A.; Kirsch, T.; Grove, B.; Robertson, N.; Litwack, G.

    1986-05-01

    A 90K heat shock protein(HSP), observed to copurify with the glucocorticoid receptor(GR), can be separated from the complex by 2 methods, allowing investigation of the role of HSP on kinase activity that was previously reported to be inherent to purified activated GR. Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ stabilized unactivated rat hepatic GR complexes have been purified to >10,000-fold using a purification scheme that involves batchwise treatment of cytosol with phosphocellulose/DNAcellulose, elution from an affinity resin, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Samples were subjected to 10-20% gradient SDS-PAGE. Proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose and blotted against monoclonal antibodies to GR(3A6), HSP or nonspecific IgM/G. Immunoblots indicated that HSP was separated from unactivated GR complexes at the affinity step prior to elution of GR with active steroid. GR eluted from the resin with /sup 3/H Triamcinolone acetonide or /sup 3/H Dexamethasone mesylate had an apparent M/sub r/ = 94-96,000 for the steroid binding subunit and is recognized by 3A6. Purification of GR minus the affinity step resulted in copurification of HSP throughout the procedure. However, after Sephadex G75 filtration and subsequent incubation at 25/sup 0/C, 30 min., HSP was separated from activated (DNA binding) GR on DEAE cellulose-52. HSP did not enhance or inhibit /sup 32/P incorporation of the 94K steroid binding subunit nor did it affect phosphorylation of histones by GR.

  8. Brain activity associated with the electrodermal reactivity to acute heat pain.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Audrey-Anne; Duquette, Marco; Roy, Mathieu; Lepore, Franco; Duncan, Gary; Rainville, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    Pain is associated with the activation of many brain areas involved in the multiple dimensions of the experience. Several of those brain areas may also contribute to the monitoring and regulation of autonomic activity but this aspect of pain responses has been largely overlooked in human imaging studies. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study relied on blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal to investigate subject-related differences in brain activity associated with the individual differences in electrodermal responses evoked by 30 s noxious (pain) and innocuous (warm) thermal stimuli. Pain-related activity (pain-warm) was found in the thalamus, somatosensory cortices (leg area of SI/MI, SII, and insula), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the amygdala. Brain activation related to stimulus-evoked electrodermal activity was identified by modeling the predicted BOLD responses with the magnitude of each subject's skin conductance reactivity. Subjects showing larger skin conductance reactivity to the innocuous and/or noxious stimuli displayed larger stimulus-evoked brain responses in the somato-motor cortices (SI/MI, SII, and insula), the perigenual and supracallosal ACC, the orbitofrontal cortex and the medulla. Further analyses revealed brain activation more specifically associated with the pain-related skin conductance reactivity in the supracallosal ACC, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus. These findings demonstrate that individual differences in electrodermal reactivity partly reflect differences in pain-evoked brain responses, consistent with a role of these structures in the monitoring/regulation of pain-related autonomic processes.

  9. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV.

  10. Association constants and heats of formation of heteroassociates of anions of sulphophthaleine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    The tendency of anions of sulphophthaleine dyes to heteroassociation was studied in aqueous solutions of phenol red, bromophenol blue, bromocresol green, bromocresol purple, and bromothymol blue. It was spectrophotometrically determined that single-(Han-) and double-charged anions (An2-) of sul-phophthaleines can form stable heteroassociates of composition Ct+ · HAn- and (Ct+)2 · An2- with cations (Ct+) of polymethine dyes, pinacyanol, and quinaldine red. The values of enthalpy formation of ions of dyes and heteroassociates were calculated using semi-empirical methods, then correlated with experimentally determined values of equilibrium association constants.

  11. NDVI anomalies associated with the European drought and heat wave of 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, Suzanne; Los, Sietse; North, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The European drought and heat wave of 2003 is commonly used as an example of extreme summer climate conditions that are likely to become more common towards the end of the 21st century, under predicted climate change scenarios. The extreme conditions are known to have had an impact on biomass primary productivity as reflected in remotely sensed vegetation indices and fAPAR, flux-tower measurements, and the results from a variety of modelling approaches. Early remote sensing analyses were based on relatively short time series of data, 4 or 5 years only. We are now able to make use of 12 years of MODIS observations to highlight the statistical significance of the widespread and persistent anomalies in vegetation greenness in 2003 compared with other summers so far this century. Anomalies in excess of 2 standard deviations initially occur at the start of June in central and eastern France. By the end of July they are common also over Germany, by mid August have spread to the French border with Spain, and by the end of August are common over the north-western corner of France, England and eastern Scotland. Using the One-Degree Daily resolution Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation data and European Re-Analysis Interim 2 m air temperatures we are able to show where and whether either precipitation or temperature has the greatest impact on summer vegetation greenness. With the exception of mountainous regions such as the Alps and northern and western parts of the United Kingdom, summer NDVI anomalies are highly correlated with precipitation anomalies of the preceding month. The picture for temperature is more geographically variable with summer NDVI anomalies in southern France, Italy and central England and north-eastern Scotland being negatively correlated with temperature, and northern and western coasts of France and Germany being positively correlated with temperature. In addition, we analyse the anomalies in conjunction with vegetation height from

  12. Are specialized endotracheal tubes and heat-and-moisture exchangers cost-effective in preventing ventilator associated pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Gentile, Michael A; Siobal, Mark S

    2010-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious complication of mechanical ventilation via an artificial airway. As with all nosocomial infections, VAP increases costs, morbidity, and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). VAP prevention is a multifaceted priority of the intensive care team, and can include the use of specialized artificial airways and heat-and-moisture exchangers (HME). Substantial evidence supports the use of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that allow subglottic suctioning; silver-coated and antiseptic-impregnated ETTs; ETTs with thin-walled polyurethane cuffs; and HMEs, but these devices also can have adverse effects. Controversy still exists regarding the evidence, cost-effectiveness, and disadvantages and risks of these devices.

  13. Integrating Small RNA Sequencing with QTL Mapping for Identification of miRNAs and Their Target Genes Associated with Heat Tolerance at the Flowering Stage in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Yang, Tifeng; Yu, Ting; Zhang, Shaohong; Mao, Xingxue; Zhao, Junliang; Wang, Xiaofei; Dong, Jingfang; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Although, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be associated with heat tolerance at the seedling stage in rice, their involvement in heat tolerance at the flowering stage is still unknown. In this study, small RNA profiling was conducted in a heat-tolerant variety Gan-Xiang-Nuo (GXN) and a heat-sensitive variety Hua-Jing-Xian-74 (HJX), respectively. Totally, 102 miRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) under heat stress. Compared to HJX, GXN had more DE miRNAs and its DE miRNAs changed earlier under heat stress. Plant Ontology (PO) analysis of the target genes revealed that many DE miRNAs were involved in flower development. As a parallel experiment, QTL mapping was also conducted and four QTLs for heat tolerance at the flowering stage were identified using chromosome single-segment substitution lines derived from GXN and HJX. Further, through integrating analysis of DE miRNAs with QTLs, we identified 8 target genes corresponding to 26 miRNAs within the four QTL regions. Some meaningful target genes such as LOC_Os12g42400, SGT1, and pectinesterase were within the QTL regions. The negative correlation between miR169r-5p and its target gene LOC_Os12g42400 was confirmed under heat stress, and overexpression of miR169r-5p enhanced heat tolerance at flowering stage in rice. Our results demonstrate that the integrated analysis of genome-wide miRNA profiling with QTL mapping can facilitate identification of miRNAs and their target genes associated with the target traits and the limited candidates identified in this study offer an important source for further functional analysis and molecular breeding for heat tolerance in rice. PMID:28174587

  14. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave – SST associations

    PubMed Central

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations. PMID:27412238

  15. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave – SST associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations.

  16. Upper Animas Mining District

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Web page provides narrative of What's New?, Site Description, Site Risk, Cleanup Progress, Community Involvement, Next Steps, Site Documents, FAQ, Contacts and LInks for the Upper Animas Mining District site in San Juan County, Colorado.

  17. Petrogenesis of the Kuangshancun and Hongshan intrusive complexes from the Handan-Xingtai district: Implications for iron mineralization associated with Mesozoic magmatism in the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Xiao, Long; Zhan, Qiongyao; Wu, Jianxun; Zhu, Dan; Huang, Wan; Bai, Ming; Zhang, Yanhai

    2015-12-01

    The Handan-Xingtai district in eastern China exposes numerous late Mesozoic intrusions. Among these, the Kuangshancun intrusive complex is one of the major ore-related intrusions whereas the Hongshan complex is barren, although both intrusions display similar geochemical characteristics. The Kuangshancun complex consists of diorite and monzonite, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 133.7 ± 1 Ma. The Hongshan complex mainly consists of syenite and shows zircon U-Pb age of 134.5 ± 1 Ma. The mineral chemistry of plagioclase from both complexes reveals normal zoning, consistent with the fractional crystallization process. Rocks of the Kuangshancun complex show SiO2 in the range of 58.92-63.84 wt.%, Na2O of 4.63-8.81 wt.%, and Al2O3 of 16.14-18.18 wt.%, together high Sr/Y (14-54) and high LaN/YbN (8.30-16.18) ratios. They show enrichment in LREE and depletion in HREE and HFSE, with no remarkable Eu anomalies, similar to the features of adakites. The whole rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.706661 to 0.706722 and εNd (t = 134 Ma) between -15.26 and -15.12, which are consistent with zircon 176Hf/177Hf ratios of 0.281940-0.282059 and εHf (t) values of -27.0 to -22.7. Samples of the Hongshan complex show SiO2 in the range of 56.57-68.16 wt.%, high Sr/Y (19-112) and high LaN/YbN (11.39-16.82) ratios. The zircon εHf (t) values are in the range of -15.9 to -12.8 and εNd (t = 134 Ma) is between -9.82 and -8.62. The Kuangshancun complex was derived through partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle contaminated by lower continental crust components. The Hongshan complex was also derived from the EM I-like mantle source. However, the calculated zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ and Eu/Eu∗ ratios indicate that the source magma of the Kuangshancun complex were characterized by higher oxygen fugacity as compared to that the Hongshan complex. The high oxidation states and high water contents are considered as possible key factors that led to the iron mineralization in the

  18. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  19. Airport and city-centre temperatures in the evaluation of the association between heat and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de'Donato, F. K.; Stafoggia, M.; Rognoni, M.; Poncino, S.; Caranci, N.; Bisanti, L.; Demaria, M.; Forastiere, F.; Michelozzi, P.; Pelosini, R.; Perucci, C. A.

    2008-03-01

    A variety of ambient exposure indicators have been used to evaluate the impact of high temperature on mortality and in the identification of susceptible population sub-groups, but no study has evaluated how airport and city centre temperatures differ in their association with mortality during summer. This study considers the differences in temperatures measured at the airport and in the city centre of three Italian cities (Milan, Rome and Turin) and investigates the impact of these measures on daily mortality. The case-crossover design was applied to evaluate the association between daily mean apparent temperature (MAT) and daily total mortality. The analysis was conducted for the entire population and for subgroups defined by demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status and chronic comorbidity (based on hospitalisation during the preceding 2 years). The percentage risk of dying, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), on a day with MAT at the 95th percentile with respect to the 25th percentile of the June-September daily distribution was estimated. Airport and city-centre temperature distributions, which vary among cities and between stations, have a heterogeneous impact on mortality. Milan was the city with the greatest differences in mean MAT between airport and city stations, and the overall risk of dying was greater when airport MAT (+47% increase, 95%CI 38-57) was considered in comparison to city MAT (+37% increase, 95%CI 30-45). In Rome and Turin, the results were very similar for both apparent temperature measures. In all cities, the elderly, women and subjects with previous psychiatric conditions, depression, heart and circulation disorders and cerebrovascular disease were at higher risk of dying during hot days, and the degree of effect modification was similar using airport or city-centre MAT. Studies on the impact of meteorological variables on mortality, or other health indicators, need to account for the possible differences between airport and

  20. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  1. Spatial distribution and health risk assessment of toxic metals associated with receptor population density in street dust: a case study of Xiandao District, Changsha, Middle China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Huang, Jinhui; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Xiaolong; Liu, Wenchu; Wu, Haipeng; Yuan, Yujie; He, Xiaoxiao; Lai, Mingyong

    2015-05-01

    Spatial characteristics of the properties (dust organic material and pH), concentrations, and enrichment levels of toxic metals (Ni, Hg, Mn and As) in street dust from Xiandao District (Middle China) were investigated. Method of incorporating receptor population density into noncarcinogenic health risk assessment based on local land use map and geostatistics was developed to identify their priority pollutants/regions of concern. Mean enrichment factors of studied metals decreased in the order of Hg ≈ As > Mn > Ni. For noncarcinogenic effects, the exposure pathway which resulted in the highest levels of exposure risk for children and adults was ingestion except Hg (inhalation of vapors), followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard indexes (HIs) for As, Hg, Mn, and Ni to children and adults revealed the following order: As > Hg > Mn > Ni. Mean HI for As exceeded safe level (1) for children, and the maximum HI (0.99) for Hg was most approached the safe level. Priority regions of concern were indentified in A region at each residential population density and the areas of B at high and moderate residential population density for As and the high residential density area within A region for Hg, respectively. The developed method was proved useful due to its improvement on previous study for making the priority areas of environmental management spatially hierarchical and thus reducing the probability of excessive environmental management.

  2. Geographic Analysis of Alaska Lake Districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The state of Alaska has over 400,000 lakes greater than 0.01 km2 in surface area covering approximately 3.3% of the landscape. As in most lake-rich regions, these lakes are unevenly distributed on the landscape. So in order to better understand how lakes are organized on the landscape and relate this geographic organization to other climatologic, geologic, and biogeographic characteristics, we analyzed the spatial distribution of Alaska lakes. Using a combination of numerical abundance and surface-area extent of lakes, we selected lake density thresholds to identify and delineate 22 lake districts in Alaska. The total area of these 22 lakes districts occupy 16% of Alaska, yet encompass 64% of lakes and 76% of lake surface-area. The three largest lake districts are associated with the Yukon-Kuskokwin Delta, the Northern Arctic Coastal Plain, and the mountain front of the Alaskan Range on the Alaska Peninsula. Interestingly, these largest lake districts are covered by >17% lakes, while most of the smaller lake districts we identified have <10% lake cover. Of the remaining smaller lake districts, 9 are associated with mountain fronts or intermountain basins, 4 are associated with coastal plains, 3 are associated with floodplains and deltas, and 3 occur in high-elevation or mountain terrain. The highest numerical lake densities occur at deltas, while relatively lower densities occur in mountainous areas where individual lakes are often larger in surface area and likely volume. Comparison of these lake districts were made to permafrost distribution, glacial history, lithology, watershed position, and regional hydrologic budgets and regimes to better understand where lake-rich regions occur, why, and how they might change in the future. Ten of the 22 lake districts occur in areas dominated by continuous permafrost, 6 occur in areas of discontinuous or sporadic permafrost, and the other 6 occur in regions without perennially frozen soils. The majority of lake districts

  3. Heat-Induced Cytokinin Transportation and Degradation Are Associated with Reduced Panicle Cytokinin Expression and Fewer Spikelets per Panicle in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Cui, Kehui; Wang, Wencheng; Li, Qian; Fahad, Shah; Hu, Qiuqian; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Mohapatra, Pravat K.; Peng, Shaobing

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinins (CTKs) regulate panicle size and mediate heat tolerance in crops. To investigate the effect of high temperature on panicle CTK expression and the role of such expression in panicle differentiation in rice, four rice varieties (Nagina22, N22; Huanghuazhan, HHZ; Liangyoupeijiu, LYPJ; and Shanyou63, SY63) were grown under normal conditions and subjected to three high temperature treatments and one control treatment in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 days during the early reproductive stage. The high temperature treatments significantly reduced panicle CTK abundance in heat-susceptible LYPJ, HHZ, and N22 varieties, which showed fewer spikelets per panicle in comparison with control plants. Exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine application mitigated the effect of heat injury on the number of spikelets per panicle. The high temperature treatments significantly decreased the xylem sap flow rate and CTK transportation rate, but enhanced cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) activity in heat-susceptible varieties. In comparison with the heat-susceptible varieties, heat-tolerant variety SY63 showed less reduction in panicle CTK abundance, an enhanced xylem sap flow rate, an improved CTK transport rate, and stable CKX activity under the high temperature treatments. Enzymes involved in CTK synthesis (isopentenyltransferase, LONELY GUY, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase) were inhibited by the high temperature treatments. Heat-induced changes in CTK transportation from root to shoot through xylem sap flow and panicle CTK degradation via CKX were closely associated with the effects of heat on panicle CTK abundance and panicle size. Heat-tolerant variety SY63 showed stable panicle size under the high temperature treatments because of enhanced transport of root-derived CTKs and stable panicle CKX activity. Our results provide insight into rice heat tolerance that will facilitate the development of rice varieties with tolerance to high temperature. PMID:28367158

  4. [Association between single nucleotide polymorphismsin human heat shock protein 70 gene and susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Li, Y H; Chen, G S; Jiao, J; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Gu, G Z; Zhang, H L; Zheng, Y X; Yu, S F

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at rs1043618, rs2075800, and rs2763979 in human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene and susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Methods: A case-control study was performed, and 5 934 workers exposed to noise in an iron and steel plant in Henan, China, who underwent physical examination from 2006 to 2015, were enrolled as study subjects. According to the criteria of binaural average high - frequency (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz) hearing threshold≥40 dB (HL) and monauralaverage speech-frequency (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) hearing threshold≥26 dB (HL) on the basis of binauralhigh frequency loss measured by pure tone audiometry, as well as the exclusion of NIHL, a total of 286 workers were enrolled as hearing loss group; after the adjustment for sex, type of work, age (difference≤5 years) , and working years of noise exposure (difference ≤2 years) , 286 workers were enrolled as control group. A 2 ml blood genomic DNA extraction kit was used to perform DNA extraction for the peripheral blood samples, and a multiple SNP typing kit was used to determine the genotypes at the three loci in 572 samples. The association between the SNPs at the three loci and susceptibility to NIHL was analyzed. Results: In all workers, the equivalent sound level (L(Aeq)) of noise was 75.0~96.8 dB (A) . The hearing loss group had a significantly higher binauralhigh - frequencyhearing threshold than the control group (t=56.908, P<0.05) . With CC+TC genotype as control, TT genotype at rs2763979 in HSP70 gene was associated with the susceptibility to NIHL (OR=1.731, 95%CI 1.021-2.935) . In the group with cumulative noise exposure of 96 dB (A) ·year, TT genotype at rs2763979was associated with the susceptibility to NIHL (OR=5.694, 95%CI 1.256-25.817) . The rs1043618 and rs2075800 loci of HSP70 were not associated with the susceptibility to NIHL (both P>0.05) . After the adjustment for

  5. Attenuated contact heat-evoked potentials associated with sensory and social-emotional symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Yi-Ling; Wu, Shao-Wei; Chu, Chih-Pang; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Chao, Chi-Chao; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Sensory disturbance is associated with socio-emotional problems in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most studies assess sensory symptoms by self-reports, which are largely limited by the language ability and self-awareness of the individuals. This study aims to investigate sensory disturbance by contact heat-evoked potentials (CHEP) in ASD individuals, and to examine the clinical correlates of CHEP parameters. We compared the CHEP parameters and reported pain between 31 ASD individuals (aged 20.5 ± 5.2 years) and and 22 typically-developing controls (TD, aged 21.4 ± 2.6), and correlated the CHEP parameters with self-reported sensory symptoms and attention/socio-emotional symptoms. We found that ASD individuals showed smaller P2-wave amplitudes than TD, even though they reported a similar level of pain. In TD individuals, a smaller P2-wave amplitude was related to higher scores on ‘low registration,’ ‘attention to detail,’ and ‘attention switching difficulties.’ In ASD individuals, longer N2-wave latency was related to higher scores on ‘sensory sensitivity’ and socio-emotional problems; while higher reported pain was associated with higher scores on ‘low registration,’ overall autistic severity, and longer N2-wave latency. Our findings of attenuated CHEP response in ASD, which was associated with sensory symptoms and socio-emotional problems, suggest a potential role for CHEP in studying sensory disturbances in ASD. PMID:28139664

  6. School District Wellness Policy Quality and Weight-Related Outcomes among High School Students in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…

  7. 36 CFR 67.5 - Standards for evaluating significance within registered historic districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... significance within registered historic districts. 67.5 Section 67.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... REVENUE CODE § 67.5 Standards for evaluating significance within registered historic districts. (a... association adds to the district's sense of time and place and historical development. (2) A building...

  8. 36 CFR 67.5 - Standards for evaluating significance within registered historic districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... significance within registered historic districts. 67.5 Section 67.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... REVENUE CODE § 67.5 Standards for evaluating significance within registered historic districts. (a... association adds to the district's sense of time and place and historical development. (2) A building...

  9. 36 CFR 67.5 - Standards for evaluating significance within registered historic districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... significance within registered historic districts. 67.5 Section 67.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... REVENUE CODE § 67.5 Standards for evaluating significance within registered historic districts. (a... association adds to the district's sense of time and place and historical development. (2) A building...

  10. Proteomic changes associated with expression of a gene (ipt) controlling cytokinin synthesis for improving heat tolerance in a perennial grass species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Gianfagna, Thomas; Huang, Bingru

    2010-07-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are known to regulate leaf senescence and affect heat tolerance, but mechanisms underlying CK regulation of heat tolerance are not well understood. A comprehensive proteomic study was conducted to identify proteins altered by the expression of the adenine isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene controlling CK synthesis and associated with heat tolerance in transgenic plants for a C(3) perennial grass species, Agrostis stolonifera. Transgenic plants with two different inducible promoters (SAG12 and HSP18) and a null transformant (NT) containing the vector without ipt were exposed to 20 degrees C (control) or 35 degrees C (heat stress) in growth chambers. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis were performed to identify protein changes in leaves and roots in response to ipt expression under heat stress. Transformation with ipt resulted in protein changes in leaves and roots involved in multiple functions, particularly in energy metabolism, protein destination and storage, and stress defence. The abundance levels of six leaf proteins (enolase, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2, putative oxygen-evolving complex, Rubisco small subunit, Hsp90, and glycolate oxidase) and nine root proteins (Fd-GOGAT, nucleotide-sugar dehydratase, NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, ferredoxin-NADP reductase precursor, putative heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2, ascorbate peroxidase, dDTP-glucose 4-6-dehydratases-like protein, and two unknown proteins) were maintained or increased in at least one ipt transgenic line under heat stress. The diversity of proteins altered in transgenic plants in response to heat stress suggests a regulatory role for CKs in various metabolic pathways associated with heat tolerance in C(3) perennial grass species.

  11. Air-sea heat fluxes associated to mesoscale eddies in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and their dependence on different regional conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyba, Inés M.; Saraceno, Martín; Solman, Silvina A.

    2016-11-01

    Heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere largely represent the link between the two media. A possible mechanism of interaction is generated by mesoscale ocean eddies. In this work we evaluate if eddies in Southwestern Atlantic (SWA) Ocean may significantly affect flows between the ocean and the atmosphere. Atmospherics conditions associated with eddies were examined using data of sea surface temperature (SST), sensible (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) from NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. On average, we found that NCEP-CFSR reanalysis adequately reflects the variability expected from eddies in the SWA, considering the classical eddy-pumping theory: anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies cause maximum positive (negative) anomalies with maximum mean anomalies of 0.5 °C (-0.5 °C) in SST, 6 W/m2 (-4 W/m2) in SHF and 12 W/m2 (-9 W/m2) in LHF. However, a regional dependence of heat fluxes associated to mesoscale cyclonic eddies was found: in the turbulent Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) region they are related with positive heat flux anomaly (ocean heat loss), while in the rest of the SWA they behave as expected (ocean heat gain). We argue that eddy-pumping do not cool enough the center of the cyclonic eddies in the BMC region simply because most of them trapped very warm waters when they originate in the subtropics. The article therefore concludes that in the SWA: (1) a robust link exists between the SST anomalies generated by eddies and the local anomalous heat flow between the ocean and the atmosphere; (2) in the BMC region cyclonic eddies are related with positive heat anomalies, contrary to what is expected.

  12. Enabling District Structure: The Relationship between Perceived District Structure and Principal Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, Kathleen Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    American public school districts must deal with increased turnover and a shortage of qualified leadership due in part to the daunting responsibility associated with the increasingly complex role of the school principal. As more schools deal with difficulties associated with principal recruitment and retention, those qualities of effective leaders…

  13. District wellness policies and school-level practices in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia; Hoffman, Pamela; Kubik, Martha Y.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the strength of district wellness policies with corresponding school-level practices reported by principals and teachers. Design District-level wellness policy data was collected from school district websites and, if not available online, by requests made to district administrators in the fall of 2013. The strength of district policies was scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool. School-level data were drawn from the 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles principal and teacher surveys and National Center for Education Statistics Common Core Data. Generalized estimating equations which accounted for school-level demographics and the nesting of up to two schools within some districts were used to examine 10 district policy items and 14 school-level practices of relevance to nutrition standards, nutrition education and wellness promotion, and physical activity promotion. Setting/Subjects Statewide sample of 180 districts and 212 public schools in Minnesota. Results The mean number of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods and beverages available for students to purchase at school was inversely related to the strength of district wellness policies regulating vending machines and school stores (p=0.01). The proportion of schools having a joint use agreement for shared use of physical activity facilities was inversely related to the strength of district policies addressing community use of school facilities (p=0.03). No associations were found between the strength of other district policies and school-level practices. Conclusions Nutrition educators and other health professionals should assist schools in periodically assessing their wellness practices to ensure compliance with district wellness policies and environments supportive of healthy behaviors. PMID:25990324

  14. Novel regulatory factors of HSF-1 activation: facts and perspectives regarding their involvement in the age-associated attenuation of the heat shock response.

    PubMed

    Shamovsky, Ilya; Gershon, David

    2004-01-01

    An attenuated response to stress is characteristic of senescence. Heat shock (HS), a significant form of stress, is delayed and reduced in aging organisms. In the response to heat shock, heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) is activated by trimerization of its monomeric subunits. This then initiates the transcription of a series of heat shock genes (hsp genes) that encode chaperone proteins protective against heat stress. Using a promoter binding electromobility shift assay (EMSA), we have found no activation of this transcription factor in the brains of old (36 months) rats in response to exposure to 41 degrees C for 1h while strong activation is elicited in young (6 months) animals. Since brains of young and old rats had approximately the same amount of HSF-1 subunits, we anticipated the presence of auxiliary regulatory factors essential for the activation of HSF-1 and the initiation of heat shock gene transcription. We describe three novel auxiliary factors--the proteins I-HSF [HSF inhibitor] and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1alpha) and a large non-coding RNA (HSR)--that participate in regulation and activation of HSF-1 in early stages of heat shock gene transcription. I-HSF inhibits trimerization of HSF-1 at normal temperatures. HSR and EF-1alpha form a complex with HSF-1 and facilitate its trimerization and binding to heat shock element (HSE) in the promoters of hsps. It is proposed that structural changes in any one or a combination of these factors in response to heat shock may contribute to the age-associated attenuation in the response to stress.

  15. Proteins associated with heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass as affected by foliar application of nitrogen, cytokinins, and an ethylene inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Huang, Bingru

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress causes premature leaf senescence in cool-season grass species. The objective of this study was to identify proteins regulated by nitrogen, cytokinins, and ethylene inhibitor in relation to heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants (cv. Penncross) were foliar sprayed with 18 mM carbonyldiamide (N source), 25 μM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, ethylene inhibitor), 25 μM zeatin riboside (ZR, cytokinin), or a water control, and then exposed to 20/15°C (day/night) or 35/30°C (heat stress) in growth chambers. All treatments suppressed heat-induced leaf senescence, as shown by higher turf quality and chlorophyll content, and lower electrolyte leakage in treated plants compared to the untreated control. A total of 49 proteins were responsive to N, AVG, or ZR under heat stress. The abundance of proteins in photosynthesis increased, with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase affected by all three treatments, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein by AVG and N or Rubisco activase by AVG. Proteins for amino acid metabolism were upregulated, including alanine aminotransferase by three treatments and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase by AVG and N. Upregulated proteins also included catalase by AVG and N and heat shock protein by ZR. Exogenous applications of AVG, ZR, or N downregulated proteins in respiration (enolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehygrogenase) under heat stress. Alleviation of heat-induced senescence by N, AVG, or ZR was associated with enhanced protein abundance in photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism and stress defense systems (heat shock protection and antioxidants), as well as suppression of those imparting respiration metabolism.

  16. Using NASA Earth Science Datasets for National Climate Assessment Indicators: Urban Impacts of Heat Waves Associated with Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoff, N.; Weber, S.; Zell, E. R.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-induced heat waves have been increasing globally in the past 5-10 years and are projected to continue increasing throughout the 21st century. In urban areas, heat waves are exacerbated by the non-climate stressor of urban heat islands (UHIs). The vulnerability of a city's population to heat waves reflects exposure to extreme heat events, sensitivity of the population to impacts, such as adverse health effects, and adaptive capacity to prepare for and respond to heat waves. Socially and economically vulnerable populations are especially at risk to the impacts of heat waves, due to increasing energy costs, air pollution, and heat-related illness and mortality. NASA earth science datasets, combined with socioeconomic data, can be used to create indicators that characterize vulnerability to urban heat events and address the effectiveness of adaptation measures designed to reduce local temperatures. The indicator development process should include engagement from local stakeholders and end users from the onset to ensure local relevance and, ultimately, indicator uptake and sustainability. This presentation will explore the process of working with urban stakeholders in Philadelphia to develop a set of policy-relevant, interdisciplinary vulnerability indicators focused on extreme heat events in urban areas. Ambient and land surface temperature, land cover classifications, NDVI, and US Census data are used to create a basket of indicators that reflect urban heat wave duration and intensity, UHI exposure, socioeconomic vulnerability, and adaptation effectiveness. These indicators can be assessed at the city level and also comparatively among different parts of a city to help quantify and track heat wave impacts on vulnerable populations and the effectiveness of adaptation measures.

  17. Ocular temperature elevation induced by threshold in vivo exposure to 1090-nm infrared radiation and associated heat diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G.

    2014-10-01

    An in vivo exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090-nm infrared radiation (IRR) requires a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. The present study aims to determine the ocular temperature evolution and the associated heat flow at the same exposure conditions. Two groups of 12 rats were unilaterally exposed within the dilated pupil with a close to collimated beam between lens and retina. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples. Within 5 min after exposure, the lens light scattering was measured. In one group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye, expressed as a confidence interval (0.95), was 11±3°C at the limbus, 16±6°C in the vitreous behind lens, and 16±7°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. In the other group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye was 9±1°C at the limbus and 26±11°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. The difference of forward light scattering between exposed and contralateral not exposed eye was 0.01±0.09 tEDC. An exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090-nm IRR for 8 s induces a temperature increase of 10°C at the limbus and 26°C close to the retina. IRR cataract is probably of thermal origin.

  18. Reduced Contractility and Motility of Prostatic Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts after Inhibition of Heat Shock Protein 90

    PubMed Central

    Henke, Alex; Franco, Omar E.; Stewart, Grant D.; Riddick, Antony C.P.; Katz, Elad; Hayward, Simon W.; Thomson, Axel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) can stimulate malignant progression and invasion of prostatic tumour cells via several mechanisms including those active in extracellular matrix; Methods: We isolated CAF from prostate cancer patients of Gleason Score 6–10 and confirmed their cancer-promoting activity using an in vivo tumour reconstitution assay comprised of CAF and BPH1 cells. We tested the effects of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors upon reconstituted tumour growth in vivo. Additionally, CAF contractility was measured in a 3D collagen contraction assay and migration was measured by scratch assay; Results: HSP90 inhibitors dipalmitoyl-radicicol and 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) reduced tumour size and proliferation in CAF/BPH1 reconstituted tumours in vivo. We observed that the most contractile CAF were derived from patients with lower Gleason Score and of younger age compared with the least contractile CAF. HSP90 inhibitors radicicol and 17-DMAG inhibited contractility and reduced the migration of CAF in scratch assays. Intracellular levels of HSP70 and HSP90 were upregulated upon treatment with HSP90 inhibitors. Inhibition of HSP90 also led to a specific increase in transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) levels in CAF; Conclusions: We suggest that HSP90 inhibitors act not only upon tumour cells, but also on CAF in the tumour microenvironment. PMID:27563925

  19. Ocular temperature elevation induced by threshold in vivo exposure to 1090-nm infrared radiation and associated heat diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G

    2014-01-01

    An in vivo exposure to 197  W/cm 2 1090-nm infrared radiation (IRR) requires a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. The present study aims to determine the ocular temperature evolution and the associated heat flow at the same exposure conditions. Two groups of 12 rats were unilaterally exposed within the dilated pupil with a close to collimated beam between lens and retina. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples. Within 5 min after exposure, the lens light scattering was measured. In one group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye, expressed as a confidence interval (0.95), was 11±3°C at the limbus, 16±6°C in the vitreous behind lens, and 16±7°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. In the other group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye was 9±1°C at the limbus and 26±11°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. The difference of forward light scattering between exposed and contralateral not exposed eye was 0.01±0.09 tEDC. An exposure to 197  W/cm 2 1090-nm IRR for 8 s induces a temperature increase of 10°C at the limbus and 26°C close to the retina. IRR cataract is probably of thermal origin.

  20. The upregulation of heat shock protein 70 expression in areca quid chewing-associated oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Ho, Yung-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2008-09-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is an important stress-induced protein. Areca quid chewing is a major risk factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to compare HSP70 expression in normal human oral epithelium and OSCC and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP70 expression. 41 OSCC and 10 normal epithelium specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry and analyzed by the clinico-pathological profiles. The oral epithelial cell line GNM cells were challenged with arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, by using Western blot analysis. Furthermore, glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), AP-1 inhibitor curcumin, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059, and protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine were added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. The results from immunohistochemistry demonstrated that HSP70 expression was significantly higher in OSCC specimens (p<0.05). No significant difference in HSP70 expression was observed with respect to age, sex, T category, and stage (p>0.05). The low HSP70 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.005). The high HSP70 expression was found in poor differentiated tumor groups (p=0.036). Arecoline was found to elevate HSP70 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p<0.05). The addition of NAC, curcumin, PD98059, and staurosporine markedly inhibited the arecoline-induced HSP70 expression (p<0.05). Taken together, HSP70 expression is significantly upregulated in areca quid chewing-associated OSCC. HSP70 could be used clinically as a marker for tumors possessing the potential for differentiation as well as lymph node metastasis. In addition, arecoline-induced HSP70 expression was downregulated by NAC, curcumin, PD98059, and staurosporine.

  1. Heat Shock Protein 90 Associates with the Per-Arnt-Sim Domain of Heme-free Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Anindya; Dai, Yue; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Seeger, Franziska; Ghosh, Arnab; Garcin, Elsa D.; Montfort, William R.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Misra, Saurav; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) drives heme insertion into the β1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) β1, which enables it to associate with a partner sGCα1 subunit and mature into a nitric oxide (NO)-responsive active form. We utilized fluorescence polarization measurements and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to define molecular interactions between the specific human isoforms hsp90β and apo-sGCβ1. hsp90β and its isolated M domain, but not its isolated N and C domains, bind with low micromolar affinity to a heme-free, truncated version of sGCβ1 (sGCβ1(1–359)-H105F). Surprisingly, hsp90β and its M domain bound to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain of apo-sGC-β1(1–359), which lies adjacent to its heme-binding (H-NOX) domain. The interaction specifically involved solvent-exposed regions in the hsp90β M domain that are largely distinct from sites utilized by other hsp90 clients. The interaction strongly protected two regions of the sGCβ1 PAS domain and caused local structural relaxation in other regions, including a PAS dimerization interface and a segment in the H-NOX domain. Our results suggest a means by which the hsp90β interaction could prevent apo-sGCβ1 from associating with its partner sGCα1 subunit while enabling structural changes to assist heme insertion into the H-NOX domain. This mechanism would parallel that in other clients like the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and HIF1α, which also interact with hsp90 through their PAS domains to control protein partner and small ligand binding interactions. PMID:26134567

  2. Competency: District Views from Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyo, John

    1979-01-01

    Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

  3. Re-Os systematics and age of pyrite associated with stratiform Zn-Pb mineralization in the Howards Pass district, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Karen D.; Selby, David; Falck, Hendrik; Slack, John F.

    2016-05-01

    Stratiform Zn-Pb deposits hosted in unmetamorphosed carbonaceous and siliceous mudstones of the Ordovician to Silurian Duo Lake Formation define the Howards Pass district in Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories, western Canada. Collectively, the deposits are amongst the largest in the world, containing drill-indicated and inferred resources of 423 Mt at 4.84 % Zn and 1.59 % Pb. Sulphide textures include (a) fine-scale laminations of sphalerite, galena, and pyrite from <0.05 mm to 1 cm thick, interbedded with carbonaceous sedimentary rock; (b) layers of coarse sulphide that are structurally controlled by microfolds; and (c) veins that cut bedding and sulphide laminations. The finely interlaminated nature of sulphides with mudstone has been used as evidence for syngenetic mineralizing processes, whereas paleomagnetic data determined on coarse layered sulphides suggest a Middle Jurassic age of mineralization. Here, we present new rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotopic data for 12 pyrite separates obtained from 4 laminated sulphide-rich samples from the XY Central (XYC) and Don (DON) deposits and for 1 unmineralized organic-rich mudstone ˜20 m stratigraphically below the sulphide-bearing zone. Pyrite separates that lack mudstone inclusions ("pure") from the XYC deposit contain 2.2 to 4.0 ppb Re and 93.4 to 123.4 ppt Os; pure pyrite from the DON deposit is significantly more enriched in Re and Os (34-37 ppb Re; 636.8-694.9 ppt Os). The 187Re/188Os values of pure pyrite separates from the XYC and DON deposits range from 137.6 to 197 and 182.1 to 201.4, respectively. Regression of all pure pyrite Re-Os data from both deposits yields an isochron age of 442 ± 14 Ma (MSWD = 7.4) and an initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) value of 0.71 ± 0.07. The Re-Os age indicates that the early phase of pyrite precipitation (and by inference, sphalerite and galena) occurred during the early Silurian, consistent with biostratigraphic ages of the host rocks. The Osi value of ˜0.8 for earliest

  4. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the

  5. Re-Os systematics and age of pyrite associated with stratiform Zn-Pb mineralization in the Howards Pass district, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Karen D.; Selby, David; Falck, Hendrik; Slack, John F.

    2017-03-01

    Stratiform Zn-Pb deposits hosted in unmetamorphosed carbonaceous and siliceous mudstones of the Ordovician to Silurian Duo Lake Formation define the Howards Pass district in Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories, western Canada. Collectively, the deposits are amongst the largest in the world, containing drill-indicated and inferred resources of 423 Mt at 4.84 % Zn and 1.59 % Pb. Sulphide textures include (a) fine-scale laminations of sphalerite, galena, and pyrite from <0.05 mm to 1 cm thick, interbedded with carbonaceous sedimentary rock; (b) layers of coarse sulphide that are structurally controlled by microfolds; and (c) veins that cut bedding and sulphide laminations. The finely interlaminated nature of sulphides with mudstone has been used as evidence for syngenetic mineralizing processes, whereas paleomagnetic data determined on coarse layered sulphides suggest a Middle Jurassic age of mineralization. Here, we present new rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotopic data for 12 pyrite separates obtained from 4 laminated sulphide-rich samples from the XY Central (XYC) and Don (DON) deposits and for 1 unmineralized organic-rich mudstone ˜20 m stratigraphically below the sulphide-bearing zone. Pyrite separates that lack mudstone inclusions ("pure") from the XYC deposit contain 2.2 to 4.0 ppb Re and 93.4 to 123.4 ppt Os; pure pyrite from the DON deposit is significantly more enriched in Re and Os (34-37 ppb Re; 636.8-694.9 ppt Os). The 187Re/188Os values of pure pyrite separates from the XYC and DON deposits range from 137.6 to 197 and 182.1 to 201.4, respectively. Regression of all pure pyrite Re-Os data from both deposits yields an isochron age of 442 ± 14 Ma (MSWD = 7.4) and an initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) value of 0.71 ± 0.07. The Re-Os age indicates that the early phase of pyrite precipitation (and by inference, sphalerite and galena) occurred during the early Silurian, consistent with biostratigraphic ages of the host rocks. The Osi value of ˜0.8 for earliest

  6. Districts for 104th Congress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1990-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that reflected the reapportionment and delineation of congressional districts based on the 1990 census. The next (104th) Congress reflects redelineation of districts that occurred for six states: Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, South Carolina, and Virginia. Congressional Districts U.S. House of Representatives Census TIGER/Line Files

  7. SMUDGEO #1, Sacramento Municipal Utility District First Geothermal Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Keilman, Lee R.

    1980-12-01

    This description of the SMUDGEO No.1 geothermal power plant of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) and its associated well field development has been prepared to acquaint persons with the project.

  8. KPNA3-knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak associated with the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) by reducing heat shock factor transport into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wei, Guoqing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Li, Kedong; Zhang, Congfen; Dai, Lishang; Sun, Yu; Liu, Dongran; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

    2016-01-10

    In this study, we investigated the role of karyopherin alpha 3 in the heat shock response in male silkworm pupae. Karyopherin alpha recognizes the classical nuclear location sequence on proteins and transports them into the nucleus by forming a trimetric complex with karyopherin beta. Three predicted karyopherin alphas (KPNA1, KPNA2 and KPNA3) have been identified from the silkworm Bombyx mori. Pull-down assay result showed that KPNA3 can pull down heat shock transcription factor (HSF) from proteins extracted from tissues using non-denature lysis buffer. After 45 °C heat shock on male B. mori pupae for 30 min, we identified two heat shock protein (HSP) mRNA expression peaks correlating with HSP19.9, HSP20.4 and HSP25.4 at 4 h (peak 1) and 24 h (peak 2). The second peak was eliminated after knockdown of KPNA3. Similar results were obtained following knockdown of HSF, which is the trans-activating factor of heat shock. However, KPNA3 knockdown was not accompanied by the decreased HSF protein levels at 24 h after heat shock which were observed following HSF knockdown. We also expressed recombinant protein GST-KPNA3 and His-HSF in Escherichia coli to perform GST pull-down assay and the result confirmed the interaction between KPNA3 and HSF. We concluded that KPNA3 knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak in the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae by reducing HSF transport into the nucleus.

  9. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  10. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy.

  11. Districts Weigh Obesity Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

  12. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  13. Districts Shun Stimulus Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

  14. The Importance of Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Heron, Tara; Jones, Paul; Albone, Stephen; Henderson, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Effectiveness studies have largely concentrated on the school as the unit of analysis, although an increasing number have directed their attention to the teacher as the main unit of interest. But policy is often directed through organisations at the district level or what is sometimes known as the Education Authority (EA). Few studies have…

  15. School District Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Joseph L.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the effective management of purchasing processes in a school district. These processes include obtaining materials, supplies, and equipment of maximum value for the least expense, and receiving, storing, and distributing the items obtained. The chapter opens with an overview of…

  16. Districts Delivering Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The idea is not new: Offer courses remotely, build in variety and the students will come. This article discusses how public schools are investing in offering online courses, catering to students' specific learning needs and to remote locations. Several surveys conducted in recent years show that school districts nationwide are embracing this…

  17. District-Level Downsizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make…

  18. FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

    CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

  19. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  20. A District's Journey to Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

  1. Strategies and factors associated with preparing for competing in the heat: a cohort study at the 2015 IAAF World Athletics Championships

    PubMed Central

    Périard, Julien D; Racinais, Sébastien; Dahlström, Örjan; Spreco, Armin; Bargoria, Victor; Halje, Karin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Assess exertional heat illness (EHI) history and preparedness in athletes competing in a World Athletics Championships under hot/humid conditions and identify the factors associated with preparedness strategies. Methods Of the 207 registered national teams invited to participate in the study, 50 (24%) accepted. The 957 athletes (49% of all 1965 registered) in these teams were invited to complete a precompetition questionnaire evaluating EHI history, heat stress prevention (heat acclimatisation, precooling and hydration) and recovery. Responses from 307 (32%) athletes were separated in field events, sprints, middle-distance and long-distance running, and decathlon/heptathlon for analysis. Results 48% of athletes had previously experienced EHI symptoms and 8.5% had been diagnosed with EHI. 15% heat acclimatised (∼20 days) before the championships. 52% had a precooling strategy, ice slurry ingestion (24%) being the most prevalent and women using it more frequently than men (p=0.005). 96% of athletes had a fluid consumption strategy, which differed between event categories (p<0.001). The most common volumes planned on being consumed were 0.5–1 L (27.2%) and ≥2 L (21.8%), water being the most frequent. 89% of athletes planned on using at least one recovery strategy. Female sex (p=0.024) and a previous EHI diagnosis increased the likelihood of using all 3 prevention strategies (p<0.001). Conclusions At a World Championships with expected hot/humid conditions, less than one-fifth of athletes heat acclimatised, half had a precooling strategy and almost all a hydration plan. Women, and especially athletes with an EHI history, were more predisposed to use a complete heat stress prevention strategy. More information regarding heat acclimatisation should be provided to protect athlete health and optimise performance at major athletics competitions in the heat. PMID:27815238

  2. Genome-wide association analysis for heat tolerance at flowering detected a large set of genes involved in adaptation to thermal and other stresses.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Tanguy; Bueno, Crisanta; Frouin, Julien; Jacquin, Laval; Courtois, Brigitte; Ahmadi, Nourollah

    2017-01-01

    Fertilization sensitivity to heat in rice is a major issue within climate change scenarios in the tropics. A panel of 167 indica landraces and improved varieties was phenotyped for spikelet sterility (SPKST) under 38°C during anthesis and for several secondary traits potentially affecting panicle micro-climate and thus the fertilization process. The panel was genotyped with an average density of one marker per 29 kb using genotyping by sequencing. Genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) were conducted using three methods based on single marker regression, haplotype regression and simultaneous fitting of all markers, respectively. Fourteen loci significantly associated with SPKST under at least two GWAS methods were detected. A large number of associations was also detected for the secondary traits. Analysis of co-localization of SPKST associated loci with QTLs detected in progenies of bi-parental crosses reported in the literature allowed to narrow -down the position of eight of those QTLs, including the most documented one, qHTSF4.1. Gene families underlying loci associated with SPKST corresponded to functions ranging from sensing abiotic stresses and regulating plant response, such as wall-associated kinases and heat shock proteins, to cell division and gametophyte development. Analysis of diversity at the vicinity of loci associated with SPKST within the rice three thousand genomes, revealed widespread distribution of the favourable alleles across O. sativa genetic groups. However, few accessions assembled the favourable alleles at all loci. Effective donors included the heat tolerant variety N22 and some Indian and Taiwanese varieties. These results provide a basis for breeding for heat tolerance during anthesis and for functional validation of major loci governing this trait.

  3. Genome-wide association analysis for heat tolerance at flowering detected a large set of genes involved in adaptation to thermal and other stresses

    PubMed Central

    Lafarge, Tanguy; Bueno, Crisanta; Frouin, Julien; Jacquin, Laval; Courtois, Brigitte; Ahmadi, Nourollah

    2017-01-01

    Fertilization sensitivity to heat in rice is a major issue within climate change scenarios in the tropics. A panel of 167 indica landraces and improved varieties was phenotyped for spikelet sterility (SPKST) under 38°C during anthesis and for several secondary traits potentially affecting panicle micro-climate and thus the fertilization process. The panel was genotyped with an average density of one marker per 29 kb using genotyping by sequencing. Genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) were conducted using three methods based on single marker regression, haplotype regression and simultaneous fitting of all markers, respectively. Fourteen loci significantly associated with SPKST under at least two GWAS methods were detected. A large number of associations was also detected for the secondary traits. Analysis of co-localization of SPKST associated loci with QTLs detected in progenies of bi-parental crosses reported in the literature allowed to narrow -down the position of eight of those QTLs, including the most documented one, qHTSF4.1. Gene families underlying loci associated with SPKST corresponded to functions ranging from sensing abiotic stresses and regulating plant response, such as wall-associated kinases and heat shock proteins, to cell division and gametophyte development. Analysis of diversity at the vicinity of loci associated with SPKST within the rice three thousand genomes, revealed widespread distribution of the favourable alleles across O. sativa genetic groups. However, few accessions assembled the favourable alleles at all loci. Effective donors included the heat tolerant variety N22 and some Indian and Taiwanese varieties. These results provide a basis for breeding for heat tolerance during anthesis and for functional validation of major loci governing this trait. PMID:28152098

  4. Accountability under Constraint: The Relationship between Collective Bargaining Agreements and California Schools' and Districts' Performance under No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; McEachin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine how the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) negotiated between teachers' unions and districts is associated with schools' and districts' performance under accountability pressures in California. They find that CBA restrictiveness is associated with the increased likelihood that districts will be in Program Improvement (PI)…

  5. Building a Construction Curriculum for Your School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Embracing the notion of going green, an affluent school district in Pennsylvania spent $83 million as part of the high school's renovation and expansion project. The three-level addition is now equipped with self-dimming lights, energy-efficient windows, a rooftop solar water heater, and a geothermal cooling and heating system. As a bonus for…

  6. Cross-Sectional Study of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among School Aged Children in Rural and Urban Settings of Fogera and Libo Kemkem Districts, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little information is available on malnutrition-related factors among school-aged children ≥5 years in Ethiopia. This study describes the prevalence of stunting and thinness and their related factors in Libo Kemkem and Fogera, Amhara Regional State and assesses differences between urban and rural areas. Methods In this cross-sectional study, anthropometrics and individual and household characteristics data were collected from 886 children. Height-for-age z-score for stunting and body-mass-index-for-age z-score for thinness were computed. Dietary data were collected through a 24-hour recall. Bivariate and backward stepwise multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess malnutrition-associated factors in rural and urban communities. Results The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 42.7% in rural areas and 29.2% in urban areas, while the corresponding figures for thinness were 21.6% and 20.8%. Age differences were significant in both strata. In the rural setting, fever in the previous 2 weeks (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.23–2.32), consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29–0.91) and consumption of the family's own cattle products (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.27–0.93), among others factors were significantly associated with stunting, while in the urban setting, only age (OR: 4.62; 95% CI: 2.09–10.21) and years of schooling of the person in charge of food preparation were significant (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.97). Thinness was statistically associated with number of children living in the house (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03–1.60) and family rice cultivation (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41–0.99) in the rural setting, and with consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10–0.67) and literacy of head of household (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09–0.65) in the urban setting. Conclusion The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in rural areas, whereas no significant differences were observed for thinness

  7. Factors Associated with Awareness, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Common Eye Diseases in the General Population in a Rural District in Bangladesh: The Bangladesh Population-based Diabetes and Eye Study (BPDES)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Fakir M. Amirul; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Islam, Silvia Z.; Finger, Robert P.; Critchley, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the awareness, attitudes, and practices associated with common eye diseases and eye care utilization in a rural district of Bangladesh. Methods Data were collected using a multilevel cluster random sampling technique from 3104 adults aged ≥30 years from the Banshgram union with a questionnaire assessing the awareness, attitudes and practice about diabetes and common eye diseases, educational attainment, socio-economic status, and medical history. Results Participants were aged between 30 and 89 years with a mean (SD) age of 51 (12) years and 65% were female. The majority of participants had heard of cataracts (90%), trachoma (86%) and Pterygium (84%), yet only 4% had heard of diabetic retinopathy (DR), 7% of glaucoma and 8% of Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, 58% of participants did not know vision loss could be prevented. Factors associated with lower awareness regarding common eye diseases were increasing age, lack of formal schooling, and lower socio-economic status. A lower proportion (57%) of people with no schooling compared to those who had attained at least secondary school certificate education (72%) reported that they knew that vision loss could be prevented (p<0.001). Overall 51% of people had heard of at least six (67%) out of nine items relating to awareness of common eye diseases. This included 41% of participants aged 65 years or older compared to 61% of those aged 30–35 years (p<0.001). Only 4% had an eye check at least once a year and higher education and better SES were associated with higher frequency of eye checks. Conclusions In rural Bangladesh awareness of cataract, trachoma and pterygium was good but limited in relation to the potentially blinding conditions of glaucoma, DR, and AMD. The results show a large gap between public awareness and treatment practices about common eye diseases. Public health promotion should be designed to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:26200458

  8. Intestinal Schistosomiasis among Primary Schoolchildren in Two On-Shore Communities in Rorya District, Northwestern Tanzania: Prevalence, Intensity of Infection and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Buza, Joram; Mpolya, Emmanuel A.; Kinung'hi, Safari M.

    2016-01-01

    In Tanzania, Schistosoma mansoni is of great public health importance. Understanding the prevalence and infection intensity is important for targeted, evidence-based control strategies. This study aimed at studying the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of S. mansoni among schoolchildren in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Busanga and Kibuyi villages. Sampled 513 schoolchildren provided stool specimens which were examined using kato-katz method. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 84.01%, with geometric mean egg intensity of 167.13 (95% CI: 147.19–189.79) eggs per gram of stool (epg). Other parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%) and hookworms (1.4%). The geometric mean infection intensity in Busanga and Kibuyi were 203.70 (95% CI: 169.67–244.56) and 135.98 (95% CI: 114.33–161.73) epg, respectively. Light, moderate, and heavy infection intensities were 34.11%, 39.91%, and 25.99%, respectively. Village of residence, parent's level of education, toilet use, and treatment history were predictors of infection. The high prevalence and infection intensity in this study were associated with village, parent's level of education, inconsistent toilet use, and treatment history. To control the disease among at-risk groups, these factors need to be considered in designing integrated schistosomiasis control interventions. PMID:27822385

  9. Heat stress: a major contributor to poor animal welfare associated with long-haul live export voyages.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Malcolm P; Cambridge, Heather; Foster, Susan F; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations by the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry into high mortalities on live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the Northern hemisphere summer suggest that animal welfare may be compromised by heat stress. The live export industry has generated a computer model that aims to assess the risk of heat stress and to contain mortality levels on live export ships below certain arbitrary limits. Although the model must be complied with under Australian law, it is not currently available for independent scientific scrutiny, and there is concern that model and the mandated space allowances are inadequate. This review appraises the relevant literature on heat stress in sheep and cattle, including laboratory studies aimed at mimicking the ambient temperatures and humidity levels likely to be encountered on live export voyages. Animal welfare is likely to be very poor as a result of heat stress in some shipments.

  10. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling requirement (CR), together with heat requirement (HR), determines blooming date (BD) and climatic distribution of genotypes of temperate tree species. However, information on the genetic components underlying these important traits remains unknown or fragmentary. Here the identification o...

  11. Modulation of the heat shock response is associated with acclimation to novel temperatures but not adaptation to climatic variation in the ants Aphaenogaster picea and A. rudis.

    PubMed

    Helms Cahan, Sara; Nguyen, Andrew D; Stanton-Geddes, John; Penick, Clint A; Hernáiz-Hernández, Yainna; DeMarco, Bernice B; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    Ecological diversification into thermally divergent habitats can push species toward their physiological limits, requiring them to accommodate temperature extremes through plastic or evolutionary changes that increase persistence under the local thermal regime. One way to withstand thermal stress is to increase production of heat shock proteins, either by maintaining higher baseline abundance within cells or by increasing the magnitude of induction in response to heat stress. We evaluated whether environmental variation was associated with expression of three heat shock protein genes in two closely-related species of woodland ant, Aphaenogaster picea and A. rudis. We compared adult workers from colonies collected from 25 sites across their geographic ranges. Colonies were maintained at two different laboratory temperatures, and tested for the independent effects of environment, phylogeny, and acclimation temperature on baseline and heat-induced gene expression. The annual maximum temperature at each collection site (Tmax) was not a significant predictor of either baseline expression or magnitude of induction of any of the heat shock protein genes tested. A phylogenetic effect was detected only for basal expression of Hsp40, which was lower in the most southern populations of A. rudis and higher in a mid-range population of possible hybrid ancestry. In contrast, a higher acclimation temperature significantly increased baseline expression of Hsc70-4, and increased induction of Hsp40 and Hsp83. Thus, physiological acclimation to temperature variation appears to involve modulation of the heat shock response, whereas other mechanisms are likely to be responsible for evolutionary shifts in thermal performance associated with large-scale climate gradients.

  12. Association of elevated blood pressure and impaired vasorelaxation in experimental Sprague-Dawley rats fed with heated vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor control of blood pressure leads to hypertension which is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to explore possible mechanisms of elevation in blood pressure following consumption of heated vegetable oil. Methods Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups: Group I (control) - normal rat chow, Group II - fresh soy oil, Group III - soy oil heated once, Group IV - soy oil heated twice, Group V - soy oil heated five times, Group VI - soy oil heated ten times. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline level and at a monthly interval for six months. Plasma nitric oxide, heme oxygenase and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were measured prior to treatment, at month-three and month-six later. At the end of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and thoracic aortas were taken for measurement of vascular reactivity. Results Blood pressure increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the repeatedly heated oil groups compared to the control and fresh soy oil groups. Consumption of diet containing repeatedly heated oil resulted higher plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme level and lower nitric oxide content and heme oxygenase concentration. Reheated soy oil groups exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, and greater contraction to phenylephrine. Conclusion As a result of consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil, an elevation in blood pressure was observed which may be due to the quantitative changes in endothelium dependent and independent factors including enzymes directly involved in the regulation of blood pressure. PMID:20573259

  13. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  14. A Bayesian Model Averaging Approach for Estimating the Relative Risk of Mortality Associated with Heat Waves in 105 U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Bobb, Jennifer F.; Dominici, Francesca; Peng, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Estimating the risks heat waves pose to human health is a critical part of assessing the future impact of climate change. In this paper we propose a flexible class of time series models to estimate the relative risk of mortality associated with heat waves and conduct Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to account for the multiplicity of potential models. Applying these methods to data from 105 U.S. cities for the period 1987–2005, we identify those cities having a high posterior probability of increased mortality risk during heat waves, examine the heterogeneity of the posterior distributions of mortality risk across cities, assess sensitivity of the results to the selection of prior distributions, and compare our BMA results to a model selection approach. Our results show that no single model best predicts risk across the majority of cities, and that for some cities heat wave risk estimation is sensitive to model choice. While model averaging leads to posterior distributions with increased variance as compared to statistical inference conditional on a model obtained through model selection, we find that the posterior mean of heat wave mortality risk is robust to accounting for model uncertainty over a broad class of models. PMID:21447046

  15. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  16. Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and associated risk factors among children residing at high altitude in Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goswami, Ravinder; Sharma, Brij; Sharma, Neetu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Singh, Gajendra; Sareen, Neha; Sati, Hem Chandra; Gupta, Aakriti; Sofi, Nighat Yaseen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Vitamin D is important for bone development in children. A high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been documented from different parts of India. However, limited data are available on VDD among children residing at high altitude region of country. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of VDD and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 6–18 years in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2014–2015. A total of 626 children in the age group of 6–18 years were enrolled from 30 clusters which were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method. A minimum of 20 children in the age group of 6–18 years per cluster were selected using random number tables. The data on socioeconomic status, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and biochemical parameters of bone and mineral metabolism were assessed. Results: Ninety-three percent of school-age children were found Vitamin D deficient as per serum 25(OH) D levels of <20 ng/ml. The prevalence was significantly higher among females. Conclusion: A high prevalence of VDD was found in children residing in high altitude region. PMID:28217519

  17. Impact of changes in antibiotic policy on Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) over a five-year period in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Khan, R; Cheesbrough, J

    2003-06-01

    The impact of changes in antibiotic policy on Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), over a five-year period between 1995 and 2000, were studied in the Preston Acute Hospitals Trust. In 1996 the policy was changed in the Preston Acute Hospitals Trust from cefotaxime to ceftriaxone for initial treatment of severe sepsis or pneumonia in medical patients. Over the next nine months the average number of patients with C. difficile toxin-positive stools per quarter increased from 16 to 39. The predicted use of ceftriaxone exceeded by 65% an estimate based on prior use of cefotaxime. A policy of restricted duration of ceftriaxone was introduced, and although this reduced usage by over 50%, CDAD continued at an average of 9.2 cases per month, despite withdrawal of oral cephalosporins in December 1998. In August 1999 levofloxacin was substituted for ceftriaxone in the policy. The incidence of CDAD fell progressively to five cases per month by 2000. It would appear that a short (typically three dose) course of third-generation cephalosporin poses a similar risk for CDAD as a more prolonged course. The six-month delay in the decline of CDAD after virtual withdrawal of cephalosporins may reflect a slowly diminishing environmental reservoir.

  18. District Size, Teacher Qualifications, and Pupil Performance in Maine School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Finds no relationships between school district size and academic achievement in Maine's eighth grade students. Provides evidence that school systems within single level jurisdiction vary in the level of pupil achievement produced. Reports positive significant relationship that better qualified teachers are associated with larger school systems.…

  19. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Obol, James Henry; Arony, Denis Anywar; Wanyama, Ronald; Moi, Kenneth Luryama; Bodo, Bongomin; Odong, Patrick Olwedo; Odida, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nodding syndrome was first reported in Uganda in 2003 among internally displaced populations. Risk factors for the syndrome remain unknown. We therefore explored vitamin B6 deficiency and resulting high 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) levels as risk factor for nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda. Methods Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. Cases were children/young adults with nodding syndrome. Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. Data on socio-demographic and other risk factors was collected using questionnaires. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes for assay of 3-HK and vitamin B6 using sandwich ELISA. Conditional logistic regression model was used to assess associations. Results 66 cases and 73 controls were studied. Factors associated with nodding syndrome were being positive for 3-HK (AOR=4.50, p=0.013), vitamin B6 concentration below mean (AOR=7.22, P=0.001), child being taken care of by mother only (AOR=5.43, p=0.011), child being taken care of by guardian (AOR=5.90, p=0.019) and child consuming relief food at weaning (AOR=4.05, p=0.021). Conclusion Having low vitamin B6 concentration which leads to a build up of 3-hydroxykynurenine concentration in cases as a main risk factor. Therefore, cases should be treated with vitamin B6 and community members should be sensitise to ensure adequate dietary intake of vitamin B6 so that the risk of nodding syndrome among children is averted. We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised 3-HK concentration. PMID:27642461

  20. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model. Results and conclusions All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature x¯ =29.7), often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989). Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170–220 W/m2), with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo) while working. When analysing heat strain – in terms of core temperature and dehydration – and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the first time the PHS

  1. Changes in the Intensity and Frequency of Atmospheric Blocking and Associated Heat Waves During Northern Summer Over Eurasia in the CMIP5 Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, Chunho

    2012-01-01

    The Russia heat wave and wild fires of the summer of 2010 was the most extreme weather event in the history of the country. Studies show that the root cause of the 2010 Russia heat wave/wild fires was an atmospheric blocking event which started to develop at the end of June and peaked around late July and early August. Atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010 was anomalous in terms of the size, duration, and the location, which shifted to the east from the normal location. This and other similar continental scale severe summertime heat waves and blocking events in recent years have raised the question of whether such events are occurring more frequently and with higher intensity in a warmer climate induced by greenhouse gases. We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of the occurrence and intensity of atmospheric blocking and associated heat waves for northern summer over Eurasia based on CMIPS model simulations. To examine the global warming induced change of atmospheric blocking and heat waves, experiments for a high emissions scenario (RCP8.S) and a medium mitigation scenario (RCP4.S) are compared to the 20th century simulations (historical). Most models simulate the mean distributions of blockings reasonably well, including major blocking centers over Eurasia, northern Pacific, and northern Atlantic. However, the models tend to underestimate the number of blockings compared to MERRA and NCEPIDOE reanalysis, especially in western Siberia. Models also reproduced associated heat waves in terms of the shifting in the probability distribution function of near surface temperature. Seven out of eight models used in this study show that the frequency of atmospheric blocking over the Europe will likely decrease in a warmer climate, but slightly increase over the western Siberia. This spatial pattern resembles the blocking in the summer of 2010, indicating the possibility of more frequent occurrences of heat waves in western Siberia. In this talk, we will also

  2. Near Work Related Behaviors Associated with Myopic Shifts among Primary School Students in the Jiading District of Shanghai: A School-Based One-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui; He, Xiangui; Qu, Xiaomei; Shi, Huijing; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the characteristics of various near work related behaviors among primary students and their associations with changes in myopia related ocular biometric parameters during one-year of follow up. Methods A school-based sample of 4,814 primary 1st to 4th grade students aged 6–10 years old were selected by cluster randomization based on probability proportion to size in 2013. At baseline, students together with their parents filled in a self-administered questionnaire on 9 aspects of near work related behaviors and some important covariants of myopia. A comprehensive set of eye examinations including axial length (AL) and cycloplegic refraction was conducted both at baseline and one year later. Results With the grade level increase, students did increasingly better at finding various ways to have an eye break, but they were increasingly likely to continuously do long-time near work without an eye break. Keeping a reasonable eye distance and correct hand posture for reading, writing, or watching TV became worse for the first time before grade 2, but then became better at grade 3. In contrast, selecting appropriate lighting environments or situations and keeping a balanced diet became better for the first time before grade 2, but then became worse at grade 3. At one-year follow up, the mean AL increased by 0.32 ± 0.35 mm, the ratio of AL divided by the mean corneal radius of curvature (AL/CR ratio) increased by 0.032 ± 0.054, the myopic spherical equivalent (SE) increased by -0.51 ± 0.51 diopters and the incidence of myopia was 16.0% (237/1,477). After controlling for the confounding effects of parental myopia, student’s age, gender, height, daily near work time, daily outdoor activity time and all of the other near work related behaviors, keeping a reasonable distance when reading, writing and watching TV was associated with elongation of the AL [standard coefficient beta = -0.062, P = 0.004], a change in SE [beta = -0.072, P = 0.020] and

  3. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together.

  4. Transport and frictional properties of core samples from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project and its association with the heat generation due to frictional heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, W.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takahashi, M.; Masuda, K.; Hirono, T.; Lin, W.; Soh, W.; Song, S.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) was started from 2002 to investigate the faulting mechanism of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. TCDP was succeeded in penetrating the Chelungpu fault and recovered core samples from two holes, Hole A and Hole B. In Hole B, three fault zones, FZB1136 (1134-1137 m), FZB1194 (1194-1197 m), and FZB1243 (1242-1244 m), were recognized in the core samples (Hirono et al., 2006). Micro- textual observation and rock magnetic analyses of fault zones implied the evidence of heat generation, though the temperature did not reach the melting point. Borehole temperature measurement in Hole A observed the very low temperature anomaly around the fault zone (Kano et al., 2006). These results suggest the low degree of the frictional heating due to very low friction during the slip. The possible low friction might be explained by the slip within clay rich fault gouge with low shear strength. The other possible mechanisms are dynamic weakening behaviors of the fault zone, such as thermal pressurization and elast-hydrodynamic lubrication. To demonstrate the assumptions, the transport properties and the strength of the fault rocks are measured using core samples. Core samples of three fault zones in Hole B (FZB1136, FZB1194, and FZB1243) are selected for our laboratory experiments. Permeability and specific storage for fault rocks were measured under high confining pressure up to 100 MPa. Nitrogen gas was used as a pore fluid, and gas permeability was transformed to water permeability from gas permeability dependence on pore pressure of Klinkenberg equation. In FZB1136, permeability for fault breccia showed around 10-16 m2 at 1km depth which is similar value to that for host rock of siltstone and fracture rocks. In FZB1194, permeability of black fault gouge was about 10^{-15} m2, is larger than surrounding rocks. Frictional tests were also conducted using fault gouge samples with less than 100 μm of grain size. Tests are performed under the

  5. Strong and consistently synergistic inactivation of spores of spoilage-associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by high pressure and heat compared with inactivation by heat alone.

    PubMed

    Olivier, S A; Bull, M K; Stone, G; van Diepenbeek, R J; Kormelink, F; Jacops, L; Chapman, B

    2011-04-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (F(z)(121.1)(°)(C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa)) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log(10) reduction/minute at F(T)(z)(121.1)(°)(C)) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (F(T)(z)). The use of the F(T)(z) approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes.

  6. Strong and Consistently Synergistic Inactivation of Spores of Spoilage-Associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by High Pressure and Heat Compared with Inactivation by Heat Alone ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, S. A.; Bull, M. K.; Stone, G.; van Diepenbeek, R. J.; Kormelink, F.; Jacops, L.; Chapman, B.

    2011-01-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (Fz121.1°C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log10 reduction/minute at FTz121.1°C) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (FTz). The use of the FTz approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes. PMID:21278265

  7. Genetic Dissection of Drought and Heat Tolerance in Chickpea through Genome-Wide and Candidate Gene-Based Association Mapping Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Gaur, Pooran Mal; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Gangarao, N. V. P. R.; Fikre, Asnake; Kimurto, Paul; Sharma, Prakash C.; Sheshashayee, M. S.; Tobita, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Ito, Osamu; Killian, Andrzej; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions) for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1–7 seasons and 1–3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore) and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia). Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20) was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs), both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM) analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70) was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP) were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance. PMID:24801366

  8. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  9. The cellular proteins which can associate specifically with polyomavirus middle T antigen in human 293 cells include the major human 70-kilodalton heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Pallas, D C; Morgan, W; Roberts, T M

    1989-11-01

    We compared the proteins which associate with middle T antigen (MT) of polyomavirus in human cells infected with Ad5(pymT), a recombinant adenovirus which directs the overexpression of MT, with the MT-associated proteins (MTAPs) previously identified in murine fibroblasts expressing MT. MTAPs of 27, 29, 36, and 63 kilodaltons (kDa) appeared to be fairly well conserved between the two species, as judged by comigration on two-dimensional gels. Several 61-kDa MTAP species detected in MT immunoprecipitates from both cell sources also comigrated on these gels. However, no protein comigrating precisely with the murine 85-kDa MTAP could be detected in the human cells. Furthermore, two proteins of 72 and 74 kDa associated with wild-type MT in the infected human cells but not in murine fibroblasts expressing MT. It had been previously reported for murine cells that the 70-kDa heat shock protein associates with a particular mutant MT but not with wild-type MT (G. Walter, A. Carbone, and W.J. Welch, J. Virol. 61:405-410, 1987). By the criteria of comigration on two-dimensional gels, tryptic peptide mapping, and immunoblotting, we showed that the 72- and 74-kDa proteins that associate with wild-type MT in human cells are the major human 70-kDa heat shock proteins.

  10. Differences in the heat stress associated with white sportswear and being semi-nude in exercising humans under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a wet bulb globe temperature of greater than 28 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Michio; Kume, Masashi; Tuneoka, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher ( P < 0.001-0.05), or tended to be higher ( P < 0.07), in the WS than SP trials at the end of the third 20-min exercise session. The total sweat loss ( m sw,tot) was also significantly higher in the WS than in the SP trials ( P < 0.05). However, during the 20 % exercise, the m sw,tot during exercise, and the ΔTes, RPE and TS at the end of the second and third sessions of exercise did not differ significant between conditions. The heat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 ), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that

  11. Differences in the heat stress associated with white sportswear and being semi-nude in exercising humans under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a wet bulb globe temperature of greater than 28 °C.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Michio; Kume, Masashi; Tuneoka, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature (Tsk) was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher (P<0.001-0.05), or tended to be higher (P<0.07), in the WS than SP trials at the end of the third 20-min exercise session. The total sweat loss (m sw,tot) was also significantly higher in the WS than in the SP trials (P<0.05). However, during the 20 % exercise, the m sw,tot during exercise, and the ΔTes, RPE and TS at the end of the second and third sessions of exercise did not differ significant between conditions. The heat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 Tsk), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that

  12. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  13. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  14. The role of repeatedly heated soybean oil in the development of hypertension in rats: association with vascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Kamisah, Yusof; Faizah, Othman; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2012-01-01

    Thermally oxidized oil generates reactive oxygen species that have been implicated in several pathological processes including hypertension. This study was to ascertain the role of inflammation in the blood pressure raising effect of heated soybean oil in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the following diets, respectively, for 6 months: basal diet (control); fresh soybean oil (FSO); five-time-heated soybean oil (5HSO); or 10-time-heated soybean oil (10HSO). Blood pressure was measured at baseline and monthly using tail-cuff method. Plasma prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) were measured prior to treatment and at the end of the study. After six months, the rats were sacrificed, and the aortic arches were dissected for morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. Blood pressure was increased significantly in the 5HSO and 10HSO groups. The blood pressure was maintained throughout the study in rats fed FSO. The aortae in the 5HSO and 10HSO groups showed significantly increased aortic wall thickness, area and circumferential wall tension. 5HSO and 10HSO diets significantly increased plasma TXA2/PGI2 ratio. Endothelial VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were significantly increased in 5HSO, as well as LOX-1 in 10HSO groups. In conclusion, prolonged consumption of repeatedly heated soybean oil causes blood pressure elevation, which may be attributed to inflammation. PMID:22974219

  15. Characteristics of districts in Pakistan with persistent transmission of wild poliovirus, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Lowther, S A; Mir, T; Bile, M K; Abdul Hafiz, R; Mounts, A W

    2004-01-01

    We sought to identify factors associated with being a reservoir district for wild poliovirus in Pakistan. Differences between reservoir and non-reservoir districts were identified using acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data, population census statistics and data from a survey of district health officials (DHOs). Of the 11 poliovirus reservoir districts identified, population density was significantly higher (median 550 persons/km2) than the non-reservoirs (median 175 persons/km2). DHOs from reservoir districts more often reported that planning was affected by refugees and they had more frequent DHO transfers compared with non-reservoir districts. Multivariate analysis confirmed that reservoirs more often had high population density and frequent DHO transfers. Assessment of district-level and management characteristics can supplement surveillance methods to further improve health programmes.

  16. Mapping QTLs associated with agronomic and physiological traits under terminal drought and heat stress conditions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Sirous; Heidari, Bahram; Pakniyat, Hassan; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Wheat crops frequently experience a combination of abiotic stresses in the field, but most quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have focused on the identification of QTLs for traits under single stress field conditions. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from SeriM82 × Babax was used to map QTLs under well-irrigated, heat, drought, and a combination of heat and drought stress conditions in two years. A total of 477 DNA markers were used to construct linkage groups that covered 1619.6 cM of the genome, with an average distance of 3.39 cM between adjacent markers. Moderate to relatively high heritability estimates (0.60-0.70) were observed for plant height (PHE), grain yield (YLD), and grain per square meter (GM2). The most important QTLs for days to heading (DHE), thousand grain weight (TGW), and YLD were detected on chromosomes 1B, 1D-a, and 7D-b. The prominent QTLs related to canopy temperature were on 3B. Results showed that common QTLs for DHE, YLD, and TGW on 7D-b were validated in heat and drought trials. Three QTLs for chlorophyll content in SPAD unit (on 1A/6B), leaf rolling (ROL) (on 3B/4A), and GM2 (on 1B/7D-b) showed significant epistasis × environment interaction. Six heat- or drought-specific QTLs (linked to 7D-acc/cat-10, 1B-agc/cta-9, 1A-aag/cta-8, 4A-acg/cta-3, 1B-aca/caa-3, and 1B-agc/cta-9 for day to maturity (DMA), SPAD, spikelet compactness (SCOM), TGW, GM2, and GM2, respectively) were stable and validated over two years. The major DHE QTL linked to 7D-acc/cat-10, with no QTL × environment (QE) interaction increased TGW and YLD. This QTL (5.68 ≤ LOD ≤ 10.5) explained up to 19.6% variation in YLD in drought, heat, and combined stress trials. This marker as a candidate could be used for verification in other populations and identifying superior allelic variations in wheat cultivars or its wild progenitors to increase the efficiency of selection of high yielding lines adapted to end-season heat and drought stress conditions.

  17. APA District Branch / State Association Directory

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boeckman, Executive Director 772 E Capitol Ave Jefferson City, MO 65101-4009 Phone : (573) 635-5070 Fax : ( ... Seth Stein, J.D., Executive Director 400 Garden City Plz Ste 202 Garden City, NY 11530-3336 ...

  18. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line R27E... Irrigation Districts which lies west of township line R28E. (c) District No. 3—The counties of...

  19. Inhibition of c-Kit signaling is associated with reduced heat and cold pain sensitivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Marta; Milenkovic, Nevena; le Coutre, Philipp; Westermann, Jörg; Lewin, Gary R

    2014-07-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit is critically involved in the modulation of nociceptive sensitivity in mice. Ablation of the c-Kit gene results in hyposensitivity to thermal pain, whereas activation of c-Kit produces hypersensitivity to noxious heat, without altering sensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimuli. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Kit signaling in human pain perception. We hypothesized that subjects treated with Imatinib or Nilotinib, potent inhibitors of tyrosine kinases including c-Kit but also Abl1, PDFGFRα, and PDFGFRβ, that are used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), would experience changes in thermal pain sensitivity. We examined 31 asymptomatic CML patients (14 male and 17 female) receiving Imatinib/Nilotinib treatment and compared them to 39 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (12 male and 27 female). We used cutaneous heat and cold stimulation to test normal and noxious thermal sensitivity, and a grating orientation task to assess tactile acuity. Thermal pain thresholds were significantly increased in the Imatinib/Nilotinib-treated group, whereas innocuous thermal and tactile thresholds were unchanged compared to those in the control group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the biological effects of c-Kit inhibition are comparable in mice and humans in that c-Kit activity is required to regulate thermal pain sensitivity but does not affect innocuous thermal and mechanical sensation. The effect on experimental heat pain observed in our study is comparable to those of several common analgesics; thus modulation of the c-Kit pathway can be used to specifically modulate noxious heat and cold sensitivity in humans.

  20. Required conditions for and coincident 1/1-mode activity associated with the nonlocal electron heat transport effect on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Kissick, M.W.; Callen, J.D.; Fredrickson, E.D.

    1997-08-01

    A database of 71 distinct and randomly collected cold pulse cases from TFTR is analyzed. Observations show a striking parameter regime cutoff for the presence of nonlocal transient transport and coincident MHD (1/1-mode) activity as well as for changes in the radial speed of the nonlocal transport effect and changes in the sawtooth period. A nontrivial link is demonstrated between electron heat transport and MHD properties through observation of a common cutoff in the parameter n{sub e}(0)/T{sub e}(0){sup 1/2} and a common threshold in injection size for radial speed and sawtooth period changes. Auxiliary heating (via energetic neutral beams) destroys whatever process is responsible for the nonlocal transport effect, unless the discharge contains significant amounts of injected tritium. These observations are preliminary, but they represent important circumstantial evidence for mysterious propagation of changes in some MHD-related phenomenon as being responsible for a large fraction of electron heat transport. This propagation is then probably a function of n{sub e}(0)/T{sub e}(0){sup 1/2}, ion mass, and possibly beam power. An analysis of Ohmic cases shows that the cutoff in n{sub e}(0)/T{sub e}{sup 1/2} indicates the nonlocal transport effects may occur when the electrons are collisionally thermally decoupled from the ions.

  1. Evaluating Heating and Moisture Variability Associated with MJO Events in a Low-Dimension Dynamic Model with Observations and Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachnik, J. P.; Waliser, D. E.; Majda, A.; Stechmann, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the leading mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics. Despite its importance toward determining large-scale variability at both low-latitudes and the extratropics, MJO prediction often suffers from low skill regarding event initiation and its overall simulation remains a challenge in many global climate models (GCMs). The MJO 'skeleton' model, originally developed by Majda and Stechmann (2009), is a new low-order dynamic model that is capable of reproducing several salient features of the MJO despite its many simplifications relative to higher-order GCMs. Among their successes, the newest version of the skeleton model is able to reproduce the intermittent generation of MJO events, including organization into MJO wave trains that experience both growth and decay. This study presents an analysis of initiation events in the skeleton model. Higher-order features, such as the organization into wave trains, are examined herein and we document the simulated heating and moisture variability in the model compared to satellite-derived observations and reanalyses. We likewise present a composite analysis of the thermodynamic fields related to the initiation of primary and successive MJO events, as well as those precursor conditions leading to quiescent periods of the MJO. Time permitting, we also evaluate the multi-scale structures and other aspects of heating and moisture variability in the model (e.g., asymmetry between active and inactive periods) compared to distributions of integrated heating and moisture in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations and other datasets.

  2. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  3. Redesigning the District Operating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  4. A Tale of Two Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

  5. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  6. Congressional Districting: A Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Jan Witold; Cronic, Jason P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the controversies and consequences involved in drawing proper districts for federal and state representatives. Discusses the Supreme Court's role in deciding these questions. Provides definitions and related court cases concerning gerrymandering and malapportionment, the two most common abuses of the districting process. (MJP)

  7. Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make…

  8. Case-case study of factors associated to hMLH1, hMSH2, and hMSH6 protein expression among endometrial cancer patients of the University District Hospital of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    González, Lorena; Ortiz, Ana P.; Suárez, Erick; Umpierre, Sharee; Marcos, Maria J.; Billoch, Jorge; Joy, Leilani; Charneco, Eileen; Lacourt, Mercedes Y.; Bernabe-Dones, Raúl D.; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system deficiencies. Women affected by LS present a 40 to 60% lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (EC). Objective This case-case study aims to determine the frequency of the hMLH1, hMSH2, and hMSH6 MMR proteins and the factors (age, family history of cancer [FHC] related to LS, and body mass index [BMI]) associated to their absence in EC patients attending the University District Hospital of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Method/Materials Twenty cases were preliminary evaluated for the MMR protein expression by immunohistochemistry testing and classified as positive-cases (presence of protein) or negative-cases (absence of protein). The statistical analysis was based on the logistic regression model using the Maximum Likelihood estimation (MLE). The Bayesian approach was used to determine the posterior probability {posterior Pr[OR>1]}. Results Results showed absence for at least one MMR protein in 25% of the cases; 15% for hMLH1 and 10% for hMSH2. None of the cases showed an absence for hMSH6. The MLE demonstrated that women diagnosed with EC before the age of 50 (OR: 12.4; 95%CI = 0.5–322.7), having FHC related to LS (OR: 17.7; 95%CI = 0.6–534.6), and having lower BMI (OR: 2.38; 95%CI = 0.39–14.28) present higher odds than their counterparts of lacking an MMR protein, once adjusting for potential predictors (p > .05). The posterior probability that an excess risk of lacking an MMR protein occurs was ≥ 95% for each predictor. Conclusion Our study in this Hispanic population supports previous studies in that younger age, FHC, and lower BMI are associated with increased odds of having an absence of MMR protein expression. Further studies with larger sample sizes should be performed. PMID:22635031

  9. Heat Pipe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  10. Relationship between temperatures and fault slips on the upper surface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath the Kanto district, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shoichi; Takagi, Rumi; Matsumoto, Takumi

    2015-05-01

    To elucidate the relationship between interplate temperatures and generation mechanisms for megathrust earthquakes and slow slip events (SSEs) in the Kanto district, central Japan, we performed numerical simulations on the thermal state. For this purpose, we newly developed a 2-D box-type thermal convection model that is able to handle the subduction of two oceanic plates: the young oceanic Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts following subduction of the old oceanic Pacific (PAC) plate beneath it. To constrain temperatures on the upper surface of the PHS plate, we used high-density Hi-net heat flow data on land. We found that low heat flow in the Kanto district was caused mostly by subduction of the cold PHS plate. To explain the heat flow distribution in the Kanto district in more detail, we needed to incorporate frictional heating at the plate interface on the seaward side of the corner of the mantle wedge, and temperature changes due to surface erosion and sedimentation associated with crustal deformation during the Quaternary on land into the models. The most suitable pore pressure ratio to explain the heat flow data was 0.98. The thermally estimated seismogenic zone corresponded well to the fault planes of the 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquake and the western half of the 1707 Genroku Kanto earthquake. The eastern half of the fault plane of the 1707 Genroku Kanto earthquake could be divided into two areas; the northwestern fault plane corresponded to the thermally estimated seismogenic zone, whereas the relationship between the southeastern fault plane and interplate temperatures was ambiguous. The off-Boso SSEs occurred on the plate interface at temperatures lower than approximately 250 °C, and the slipped region passed through the 150 °C isotherm, corresponding to the clay mineral phase transformation from smectite to illite. This might suggest that the SSEs occurred in relation to a dehydration process.

  11. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... District. District means each of the geographical divisions of the production area established pursuant...

  12. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... District. District means each of the geographical divisions of the production area established pursuant...

  13. Identification of heat risk patterns in the U.S. National Capital Region by integrating heat stress and related vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Christoph; Özceylan, Dilek

    2013-06-01

    The increase in the number and severity of weather extremes (including excessive heat) potentially associated with climate change has highlighted the needs for research into risk assessment and risk reduction measures. Extreme heat events, the focus of this paper, have been consistently reported as the leading cause of weather-related mortality in the United States in recent years. In order to fully understand impact potentials and analyze risk in its individual components both the spatially and temporally varying patterns of heat and the multidimensional characteristics of vulnerability have to be considered. In this paper we present a composite index aggregating these factors to assess heat related risk for the U.S. National Capital Region in 2010. The study reveals how risk patterns are in part driven by the geographic variations of vulnerability, generally showing a clear difference between high-risk urban areas and wide areas of low risk in the suburban and rural environments. This pattern is particularly evident for the core center of the study area around the District of Columbia, which is largely characterized by high index values despite not having experienced the peak of the heat stress as compared to other regions in the metropolitan area. The article aims to set a framework for local-level heat stress risk assessment that can provide valuable input and decision support for climate adaptation planning as well as emergency managers aiming at risk reduction and optimization of resource distribution.

  14. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... tributaries, has created a variety of landforms within the viticultural area, including alluvial fans... precipitation of 11.5 inches; Winkler Region II climate. El Pomar District High terraces, alluvial fans, and... rainfall of 10.4 inches; transitional Winkler Region III to IV climate. San Miguel District Alluvial...

  15. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  16. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  17. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  18. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  19. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  20. Genetic diversity of the Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray collection of the USDA National Plant Germplasm system using targeted region amplified polymorphism markers designed from genes associated with heat and drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular genetic relationships among 222 accessions of the Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray collection were assessed using Targeted Region Amplified Polymorphic (TRAP) markers designed from sequences of genes associated with heat and drought tolerance. Genetic relationships were compared to reactions ...

  1. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  2. Ticoflux I - Seismic Results: Deep Crustal Faulting Associated With Localized Very High Heat Flow in the Cocos Plate Offshore Northern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, E.; Fisher, A.; Wheat, G.; Hutnak, M.; Cherkaoui, A.; Bodzin, R.; Friedmann, P.; Cleary, R.

    2001-12-01

    Anomalously low heat flow was documented in the Middle America Trench off northern Costa Rica (Langseth and Silver, 1996) and confirmed by ODP drilling. Understanding the fluid and thermal structure of the incoming crust is a primary input to the Subduction Factory. Ticoflux I greatly increased the number of heat flow stations and obtained 1800 km of 480 channel MCS data and accompanying hydrosweep swath bathymetry, along with 43 gravity and piston cores. Twenty km from the region of ultra low heat flow (5-8 mW/sq m), we found abnormally high values (up to 643 mW/sq m) associated with a basement high. Dipping northward from this high is a low angle fault (approx. 25 degrees) that cuts the entire oceanic crust to depths of 2 seconds below the sediment-basement interface. We have imaged the fault on three parallel seismic lines and one crossing line. The fault surface varies from planar to sinuous in these sections, whereas the crossing line runs parallel to the fault and images as a non-dipping reflection deep in the crust. The local juxtaposition between very low and very high heat flow may be understood in terms of thermally driven fluid flow, and geochemical studies support a source of fluids either deep within the oceanic crust or derived from the adjacent subduction zone. The sense of displacement along the fault has not been determined, though a component of normal slip is likely. It strikes at a high angle to the magnetic anomalies but no transform trends are reported here. The fault appears to be an older feature of the crust because Plio-Pleistocene sediments are not clearly displaced, yet high reflectivity of the fault surface may indicate high porosity in the fault zone, possibly supported by elevated fluid pressures.

  3. District of Columbia District Attorney Establishment Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2009-11-03

    12/01/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, Post Office, and the District of Columbia. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. MECHANICAL ENERGY FLUXES ASSOCIATED WITH SATURATED CORONAL HEATING IN M DWARFS: COMPARISON WITH PREDICTIONS OF A TURBULENT DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect

    Mullan, D. J.; MacDonald, J.

    2016-02-20

    Empirically, the X-ray luminosity L{sub X} from M dwarfs has been found to have an upper limit of about 0.2% of the bolometric flux L{sub bol}. In the limit where magnetic fields in M dwarfs are generated in equipartition with convective motions, we use stellar models to calculate the energy flux of Alfvén waves F{sub A} as a function of depth in the sub-surface convection zone. Since Alfvén waves have the optimal opportunity for wave modes to reach the corona, we suggest that F{sub A} sets an upper limit on the mechanical flux F{sub mech} which causes coronal heating. This suggestion accounts quantitatively for the “saturated” values of L{sub X}/L{sub bol} which have been reported empirically for M dwarfs.

  5. Advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications: International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Michael G.

    1992-11-01

    Following a program definition phase of 2 years, Task 18 of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating & Cooling program commenced a 5 year research phase in April 1992. Task 18 investigates a wide range of advanced glazing materials and glazing systems which include monolithic and granular aerogels, transparent insulation materials, chromogenic materials, evacuated glazings, low-emittance coatings, solar collector covers, angular selective transmittance thin films, holographic and light guide materials, and frame and edge seal technology. In addition to materials-centered research, Task 18 concentrates on measurement of key glazing properties such as total energy transmittance, U-value, and spectral directional optical properties, and through the use of building energy analysis software tools the identification of appropriate applications, control strategies, and energy and environmental benefits to be derived from advanced glazing products. Fifteen OECD countries are participating in Task 18 which is led by the United Kingdom.

  6. Containment loads due to direct containment heating and associated hydrogen behavior: Analysis and calculations with the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D C; Bergeron, K D; Carroll, D E; Gasser, R D; Tills, J L; Washington, K E

    1987-05-01

    One of the most important unresolved issues governing risk in many nuclear power plants involves the phenomenon called direct containment heating (DCH), in which it is postulated that molten corium ejected under high pressure from the reactor vessel is dispersed into the containment atmosphere, thereby causing sufficient heating and pressurization to threaten containment integrity. Models for the calculation of potential DCH loads have been developed and incorporated into the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis. Using CONTAIN, DCH scenarios in PWR plants having three different representative containment types have been analyzed: Surry (subatmospheric large dry containment), Sequoyah (ice condenser containment), and Bellefonte (atmospheric large dry containment). A large number of parameter variation and phenomenological uncertainty studies were performed. Response of DCH loads to these variations was found to be quite complex; often the results differ substantially from what has been previously assumed concerning DCH. Containment compartmentalization offers the potential of greatly mitigating DCH loads relative to what might be calculated using single-cell representations of containments, but the actual degree of mitigation to be expected is sensitive to many uncertainties. Dominant uncertainties include hydrogen combustion phenomena in the extreme environments produced by DCH scenarios, and factors which affect the rate of transport of DCH energy to the upper containment. In addition, DCH loads can be aggravated by rapid blowdown of the primary system, co-dispersal of moderate quantities of water with the debris, and quenching of de-entrained debris in water; these factors act by increasing steam flows which, in turn, accelerates energy transport. It may be noted that containment-threatening loads were calculated for a substantial portion of the scenarios treated for some of the plants considered.

  7. On the glacial and inter-glacial thermohaline circulation and the associated transports of heat and freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarotta, M.; Falahat, S.; Brodeau, L.; Döös, K.

    2014-03-01

    The change of the thermohaline circulation (THC) between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ≈ 21 kyr ago) and the present day climate are explored using an Ocean General Circulation Model and stream functions projected in various coordinates. Compared to the present day period, the LGM circulation is reorganised in the Atlantic Ocean, in the Southern Ocean and particularly in the abyssal ocean, mainly due to the different haline stratification. Due to stronger wind stress, the LGM tropical circulation is more vigorous than under modern conditions. Consequently, the maximum tropical transport of heat is slightly larger during the LGM. In the North Atlantic basin, the large sea-ice extent during the LGM constrains the Gulf Stream to propagate in a more zonal direction, reducing the transport of heat towards high latitudes and reorganising the freshwater transport. The LGM circulation is represented as a large intrusion of saline Antarctic Bottom Water into the Northern Hemisphere basins. As a result, the North Atlantic Deep Water is shallower in the LGM simulation. The stream functions in latitude-salinity coordinates and thermohaline coordinates point out the different haline regimes between the glacial and interglacial period, as well as a LGM Conveyor Belt circulation largely driven by enhanced salinity contrast between the Atlantic and the Pacific basin. The thermohaline structure in the LGM simulation is the result of an abyssal circulation that lifts and deviates the Conveyor Belt cell from the area of maximum volumetric distribution, resulting in a ventilated upper layer above a deep stagnant layer, and an Atlantic circulation more isolated from the Pacific. An estimation of the turnover times reveal a deep circulation almost sluggish during the LGM, and a Conveyor Belt cell more vigorous due to the combination of stronger wind stress and shortened circulation route.

  8. Leadership Academies: A District Office Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates district-level administrators' perceptions regarding the value of the partnership academies. The article uses input from seven district administrators who provided feedback regarding the value of the district and university partnership, specific benefits to the district, the differences between participants who envision…

  9. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  10. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No... assessment (EA) involving Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management Districts (Districts). In this..., Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District final CCP'' in the subject...

  11. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  12. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  13. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  14. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  15. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  16. Asthma, Allergy and Eczema among Adults in Multifamily Houses in Stockholm (3-HE Study) - Associations with Building Characteristics, Home Environment and Energy Use for Heating

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR = 1.74) and mould odour (OR = 1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR = 1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR = 1.48) and mould odour (OR = 2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR = 1.76) and mould odour (OR = 2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR = 1.47), humid air (OR = 1.73) and mould odour (OR = 2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29–0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.51–0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness

  17. Asthma, allergy and eczema among adults in multifamily houses in Stockholm (3-HE study)--associations with building characteristics, home environment and energy use for heating.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR = 1.74) and mould odour (OR = 1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR = 1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR = 1.48) and mould odour (OR = 2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR = 1.76) and mould odour (OR = 2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR = 1.47), humid air (OR = 1.73) and mould odour (OR = 2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.51-0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.06-2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness. Energy saving may have consequences for allergy and eczema. More

  18. Phase II Archaeological Testing of the Helmkamp Site (11MS2025) in Support of the Proposed Grassy Lake Pump Station and Associated Ditch Work, Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Madison County, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Archeology , Inc. (if applicable) US Army Engineer District, St. Louis 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code...NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. St. Louis, Missouri 63103-2833 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Phase II Archeological Testing of the Helmkamp Site (1...identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Phase II Archeological Testing of the Helmkamp Site (1 1MS2025) in Support of the Proposed Grassy Lake

  19. Effect of Common Drinking Water Disinfectants, Chlorine and Heat, on Free Legionella and Amoebae-Associated Legionella

    PubMed Central

    Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sarah; Puertas-Bennasar, Antoni; Araujo, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine and thermal treatments are the most commonly used procedures to control and prevent Legionella proliferation in drinking water systems of large buildings. However, cases of legionellosis still occur in facilities with treated water. The purpose of this work was to model the effect of temperature and free chlorine applied in similar exposure conditions as in drinking water systems on five Legionella spp. strains and two amoebal strains of the genera Acanthamoeba. Inactivation models obtained were used to determine the effectiveness of the treatments applied which resulted more effective against Legionella than Acanthamoeba, especially those in cystic stages. Furthermore, to determine the influence of the relationship between L. pneumophila and Acanthamoeba spp. on the treatment effectiveness, inactivation models of the bacteria-associated amoeba were also constructed and compared to the models obtained for the free living bacteria state. The Legionella-amoeba association did not change the inactivation models, but it reduced the effectiveness of the treatments applied. Remarkably, at the lowest free chlorine concentration, 0.5 mg L-1, as well as at the lowest temperatures, 50°C and 55°C, the influence of the Legionella-amoeba associate state was the strongest in reducing the effectiveness of the treatments compared to the free Legionella state. Therefore, the association established between L. pneumophila and amoebae in the water systems indicate an increased health risk in proximal areas of the system (close to the tap) where lower free chlorine concentrations and lower temperatures are commonly observed. PMID:26241039

  20. Effect of Common Drinking Water Disinfectants, Chlorine and Heat, on Free Legionella and Amoebae-Associated Legionella.

    PubMed

    Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sarah; Puertas-Bennasar, Antoni; Araujo, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine and thermal treatments are the most commonly used procedures to control and prevent Legionella proliferation in drinking water systems of large buildings. However, cases of legionellosis still occur in facilities with treated water. The purpose of this work was to model the effect of temperature and free chlorine applied in similar exposure conditions as in drinking water systems on five Legionella spp. strains and two amoebal strains of the genera Acanthamoeba. Inactivation models obtained were used to determine the effectiveness of the treatments applied which resulted more effective against Legionella than Acanthamoeba, especially those in cystic stages. Furthermore, to determine the influence of the relationship between L. pneumophila and Acanthamoeba spp. on the treatment effectiveness, inactivation models of the bacteria-associated amoeba were also constructed and compared to the models obtained for the free living bacteria state. The Legionella-amoeba association did not change the inactivation models, but it reduced the effectiveness of the treatments applied. Remarkably, at the lowest free chlorine concentration, 0.5 mg L-1, as well as at the lowest temperatures, 50°C and 55°C, the influence of the Legionella-amoeba associate state was the strongest in reducing the effectiveness of the treatments compared to the free Legionella state. Therefore, the association established between L. pneumophila and amoebae in the water systems indicate an increased health risk in proximal areas of the system (close to the tap) where lower free chlorine concentrations and lower temperatures are commonly observed.

  1. The dimethylthiourea-induced attenuation of cisplatin nephrotoxicity is associated with the augmented induction of heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Takayuki Kato, Akihiko; Yasuda, Hideo; Miyaji, Takehiko; Luo, Jinghui; Sakao, Yukitoshi; Ito, Hideaki; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Hishida, Akira

    2009-01-15

    Dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a potent hydroxyl radical scavenger, affords protection against cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute renal failure (ARF). Since the suppression of oxidative stress and the enhancement of heat shock proteins (HSPs) are both reported to protect against CDDP-induced renal damage, we tested whether increased HSP expression is involved in the underlying mechanisms of the DMTU-induced renal protection. We examined the effect of DMTU treatment on the expression of HSPs in the kidney until day 5 following a single injection of CDDP (5 mg/kg BW). DMTU significantly inhibited the CDDP-induced increments of serum creatinine, the number of 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive tubular cells, and tubular damage score (p < 0.05). CDDP significantly increased renal abundances of HO-1, HSP60, HSP72 and HSP90 at days 1, 3, and 5. DMTU significantly augmented only the expression of HSP60 expression mainly in the cytoplasm of the proximal tubular cells at days 1 and 3 in CDDP-induced ARF. DMTU also inhibited the CDDP-induced increment of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein, in the fraction of organelles/membranes at day 3. The findings suggest that DMTU may afford protection against CDDP-induced ARF, partially through the early induction of cytoplasmic HSP60, thereby preventing the Bax-mediated apoptosis in renal tubular c0010el.

  2. Paternal epigenetic effects of population density on locust phase-related characteristics associated with heat-shock protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Li, Shaoqin; Ren, Qiang; Tong, Xiwen; Zhang, Xia; Kang, Le

    2015-02-01

    Many species exhibit transgenerational plasticity by which environmental cues experienced by either parent can be transmitted to their offspring, resulting in phenotypic variants in offspring to match ancestral environments. However, the manner by which paternal experiences affect offspring plasticity through epigenetic inheritance in animals generally remains unclear. In this study, we examined the transgenerational effects of population density on phase-related traits in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Using an experimental design that explicitly controls genetic background, we found that the effects of crowd or isolation rearing on phase plasticity could be inherited to the offspring. The isolation of gregarious locusts resulted in reduced weight in offspring eggs and altered morphometric traits in hatchlings, whereas crowding of solitarious locusts exhibited opposite effects. The consequences of density changes were transmitted by both maternal and paternal inheritance, although the expression of paternal effects was not as pronounced as that of maternal effects. Prominent expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsps), such as Hsp90, Hsp70 and Hsp20.6, could be triggered by density changes. Hsps were significantly upregulated upon crowding but downregulated upon isolation. The variation in parental Hsp expression was also transmitted to the offspring, in which the pattern of inheritance was consistent with that of phase characteristics. These results revealed a paternal effect on phase polyphenism and Hsp expression induced by population density, and defined a model system that could be used to study the paternal epigenetic inheritance of environmental changes.

  3. Cost-Saving Strategies and Shared Services among School Districts in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Jeffrey; Penska, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    School districts across New York State have implemented numerous innovative cost-saving measures in the 1990s, according to February 1993 New York State School Boards Association survey of 722 school superintendents. Districts achieved substantial savings in financial management, plant management, personnel management, and school support services…

  4. How Can Organizational and Sociocultural Learning Theories Shed Light on District Instructional Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how organizational and sociocultural learning theories can help us to understand the problem of system-wide instructional reform in school districts. After briefly summarizing the central challenges facing leaders in such districts, the article reviews key ideas associated with each theoretical lens and considers how each…

  5. Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 1F, School Districts. Technical Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Data User Services Div.

    This report provides technical documentation associated with a 1980 Census of Population and Housing Summary Tape File 1F--the School Districts File. The file contains complete-count data of population and housing aggregated by school district. Population items tabulated include age, race (provisional data), sex, marital status, Spanish origin…

  6. A Multilevel, Statewide Investigation of School District Anti-Bullying Policy Quality and Student Bullying Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Amy L.; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying…

  7. Grant Funding to Implement PREPaRE Training in Your School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Leslie Z.

    2010-01-01

    Implementing an effective crisis management program in a school district has associated costs. The most precious resource in a school system is time. Time is necessary for acquiring and practicing new skills, and for developing and implementing strategies to introduce and expand the change throughout a school or district. Implementing an effective…

  8. The Importance of a Small Rural School District to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard Kent

    2013-01-01

    Hallsburg ISD is a small, rural, K-6 school district struggling to sustain its operations due to reduced funding from the state, decreased enrollment, and a decrease in the local tax base. This Problem in Practice Record of Study examines the sustainability issues associated with this school district and its importance to the community. Key…

  9. GLADE: Supporting LGBT Staff and Students in a Community College District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Vincent; Greenhalgh, Mark; Oja, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    LGBT community college employee organizations are still a rare phenomena. This article describes the history, purpose, and structure of the North Orange County Community College District Gay and Lesbian Association of District Employees (GLADE), and it was written collectively by the group. We offer this as one model that supports lesbian, gay,…

  10. Heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, P. V.

    1982-11-01

    Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

  11. Overview of direct use R&D at the Geo-Heat Center

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    Geo-Heat Center research, during the past year, on geothermal district heating and greenhouse projects is intended to improve the design and cost effectiveness of these systems. The largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S., proposed at Reno, is describe and is one of 271 collocated sites in western states could benefit from the research. The geothermal district heating research investigated a variety of factors that could reduce development cost for residential areas. Many greenhouse operators prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. As facilities using these types of heating systems expand they could benefit from peaking with fossil fuels. It is possible to design a geothermal heating system for only 60% of the peak heat loss of a greenhouse and still meet over 90% of the annual heat energy needs of the structure. The design and cost effectiveness of this novel approach is summarized.

  12. Spatial distribution and the interdecadal change of leading modes of heat budget of the mixed-layer in the tropical Pacific and the association with ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Huang, Bohua

    2016-03-01

    Using heat budget diagnosis of ocean mixed layer from the Global Ocean Data Assimilation System, the spatial distribution of the leading modes of the heat budget was examined. The analysis was for the tropical Pacific in 1979-2013 and was based on combined empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis. The interdecadal changes of the leading modes and their associations with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were also analyzed. The first leading CEOF mode (CEOF1) corresponds to the ENSO mature phase. The contribution from the zonal advection was relatively small along the equator, except the region near the Pacific coast of Central America. The vertical entrainment and diffusion (surface heat flux) had pronounced maxima with positive (negative) values along the equatorial central and eastern Pacific. The meridional advection displayed a different spatial pattern with large positive values on both sides of the equator and smaller values along the equator. The total meridional advection anomaly was mainly determined by advection of anomalous temperature by climatological current responsible for broadening of the ENSO SSTA pattern meridionally. The zonal advection varied almost simultaneously with the tendency of ocean temperature anomaly in the mixed layer. The second leading CEOF mode (CEOF2) included contribution to SSTA tendency during the ENSO developing phase. The distribution pattern and amplitude of the zonal advection in the eastern Pacific in CEOF2 was similar to but with opposite sign to that in CEOF1. The amplitudes of the other dynamical and thermodynamical terms were smaller than that in CEOF1 and spatial distributions displayed an opposite variation between the Pacific coast of Central America and central and eastern tropical Pacific in CEOF2. A comparison of two periods (1979-1999 and 2000-2013) suggested that coupling in the tropical Pacific weakened at ENSO time scales and shifted to a relatively higher frequency regime (from 2 to 4 years averaged

  13. Polar tongue of ionization (TOI) and associated Joule heating intensification investigated during the magnetically disturbed period of 1-2 October 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate storm-enhanced density (SED) and polar tongue of ionization (TOI) over North America under southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions. We focus on the 30 September to 1 October 2001 medium magnetic storm's recovery phase (Period 1) and on the last substorm (Period 2) of the following 2 October substorm series. We aim to study the SED-TOI structure in the time frame of solar wind energy input to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and in terms of Joule heating. We utilize GPS total electron content maps tracking SED plume and polar TOI, and spectrogram images detecting polar rain and precipitation void and thus evidencing dayside merging. The variations of merging electric (E) field (EM) and its mapped-down polar equivalent (EP), energy input efficiency (EIeff), and modeled Joule heating rate (QJoule) are monitored. Results show multiple Joule heating intensification points implying multiple energy deposition points at high latitudes where the magnetic pole was one of the preferred locations. During the higher EIeff (~1.5%) Period 2, the polar TOI was associated with a well-defined strong QJoule intensification and with polar rain (or void) on the dayside (or nightside). During the lower EIeff (~0.5%) Period 1, only weak QJoule intensification occurred in the absence of both polar TOI and polar rain. We highlight the polar TOI's potential impact on the thermosphere. We conclude that (i) strong (EM ≈ 5 mV/m during Period 2) or weak (EM ≈ 0.5-2 mV/m during Period 1) EM facilitated energy deposition close to the magnetic pole and (ii) EIeff could be used as a diagnostic of the polar TOI's intensity.

  14. A study of urban heat island and its association with particulate matter during winter months over Delhi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Puneeta; Kumar, Dinesh; Prakash, Amit; Masih, Jamson; Singh, Manoj; Kumar, Surendra; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Day and night time thermal mapping of Delhi has been done with MODIS satellite data for the months of November and December for years 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. The study reveals the formation of day time "cool island" over central parts of Delhi which are found to be cooler by a maximum of 4-6 °C than the surrounding rural areas. During the night time, however, the central parts of Delhi are found to be warmer by a maximum of 4-7 °C or even more than the surrounding rural areas thus confirming the formation of nocturnal urban heat island over Delhi. Measurements of solar spectral irradiance over Delhi reveal significantly lower values as compared to a rural site located south-west of Delhi, during the low wind conditions in the months of November and December. Analysis of average monthly temporal data of surface wind speed and particulate matter concentration over Delhi reveals a strong anti-correlation between wind speed and particulate matter concentration. High values of particulate matter during low wind conditions seem to favor the so called "cool island" over Delhi. Analysis of radiosonde data of 975 hPa and 850 hPa temperatures over Delhi during November and December from 1973 to 2010 reveals a warming trend at the 850 hPa level and an overall declining trend of ∆T between 975 hPa temperatures and 850 hPa temperatures, thus indicating a weakening of vertical thermal gradients over Delhi during these months. The study suggests that urban areas behave more like moderators of diurnal temperature variation in low wind conditions.

  15. Multiple Types of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 6 in a Hospital Heated-Water System Associated with Sporadic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Visca, Paolo; Goldoni, Paola; Lück, P. Christian; Helbig, Jürgen H.; Cattani, Lorena; Giltri, Giuseppe; Bramati, Simone; Pastoris, Maddalena Castellani

    1999-01-01

    Five sporadic cases of nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease were documented from 1989 to 1997 in a hospital in northern Italy. Two of them, which occurred in a 75-year-old man suffering from ischemic cardiopathy and in an 8-year-old girl suffering from acute leukemia, had fatal outcomes. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 was isolated from both patients and from hot-water samples taken at different sites in the hospital. These facts led us to consider the possibility that a single clone of L. pneumophila serogroup 6 had persisted in the hospital environment for 8 years and had caused sporadic infections. Comparison of clinical and environmental strains by monoclonal subtyping, macrorestriction analysis (MRA), and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) showed that the strains were clustered into three different epidemiological types, of which only two types caused infection. An excellent correspondence between the MRA and AP-PCR results was observed, with both techniques having high discriminatory powers. However, it was not possible to differentiate the isolates by means of ribotyping and analysis of rrn operon polymorphism. Environmental strains that antigenically and chromosomally matched the infecting organism were present at the time of infection in hot-water samples taken from the ward where the patients had stayed. Interpretation of the temporal sequence of events on the basis of the typing results for clinical and environmental isolates enabled the identification of the ward where the patients became infected and the modes of transmission of Legionella infection. The long-term persistence in the hot-water system of different clones of L. pneumophila serogroup 6 indicates that repeated heat-based control measures were ineffective in eradicating the organism. PMID:10364584

  16. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz