Science.gov

Sample records for district heating association

  1. Geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

    1982-01-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  2. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  3. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  5. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  6. Midland, South Dakota geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This article describes historical aspects and present usage of geothermal district heating systems in the town of Midland, South Dakota. The use of geothermal resources exists due to a joint venture between the school district and the city back in the early 1960`s. A total of approximately 30,000 square feet (2800 square meters) of floor space is heated using geothermal energy in Midland. This provides an estimated annual saving in propane cost of $15,000 to the community.

  7. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  8. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  9. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  10. Alternative institutional vehicles for geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.; Gardner, T.C.; King, D.; Nimmons, J.T.

    1980-06-01

    The attributes of various institutional entities which might participate in various phases of geothermal heating applications are described. Public entities considered include cities, counties, and special districts. Private entities discussed include cooperative organizations and non-member-owned private enterprises. The powers, authority and manner of operation of each of the institutional entities are reviewed. Some of the public utility regulatory implications which may affect choices among available alternatives are considered. (MHR)

  11. Generic model for district heating: a geothermal appliance

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, A.

    1980-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is developing a model desgined to assess the engineering and economic requirements which must be addressed when the implementation of district heating is seriously considered. A brief overview of the structure of the BNL District Heating Model is presented, including a discussion of the function of each of its major program components. The model is composed of four submodels, each of which serves a distinct function in the analysis of district heating. These are the Heat Demand, Heat Source, District Heating, and Market analysis Submodels. (MHR)

  12. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  13. Prospects for district heating in the United States.

    PubMed

    Karkheck, J; Powell, J; Beardsworth, E

    1977-03-11

    Large-scale district heating, using waste heat rejected by electric power plants and other sources, is presented as a means of reducing significantly the amount of fossil fuel consumed for residential and commercial space and water heating in the United States. Analysis of the technical and economic aspects of model district heating systems for nine U.S. urban areas shows that district heat service to residential and commercial consumers would be economically attractive. Projections of national service levels show that up to half of the U.S. population could be served by district heating at costs that are competitive with the present costs of imported oil and also with projected costs of new energy forms. An advantage of district heat over the latter is that it is a proved, simple technology.

  14. U. S. cities checking cogeneration potential for district heating, cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    A recently approved DOE grant program provides the impetus for cities to assess the potential for using district heating and cooling systems in communities and to enlist local bankers, industrial firms, businesses and utilities in the assessment effort. Projected community benefits under locally owned district heating and cooling systems include enhanced urban development potential, increased job opportunities, stability of energy costs, and maintenance of environmental quality. The district heating and cooling systems will take hot water or steam derived from coal, gas or waste energy from factories, from burning trash and deliver it through a network of underground pipes to heat or cool buildings and supply hot water.

  15. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  16. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-07-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO{sub 2} accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO{sub 2} saving of 48 kg CO{sub 2}/GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO{sub 2}/GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  17. Energy recovery from waste incineration: assessing the importance of district heating networks.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, T; Christensen, T H; Astrup, T

    2010-07-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO(2) accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO(2) saving of 48 kg CO(2)/GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO(2)/GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  18. Energy recovery from waste incineration: assessing the importance of district heating networks.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, T; Christensen, T H; Astrup, T

    2010-07-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO(2) accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO(2) saving of 48 kg CO(2)/GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO(2)/GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration. PMID:20385481

  19. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: District Heat Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) District Heat Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  20. Geothermal-district-heating assessment model for decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, A.

    1981-11-01

    A methodology developed to assess the economic feasibility of district heating for any community in the United States is described. The overall philosophy which has guided its development is the conviction that district heating must be examined on a site-by-site basis. To support this approach, a set of extensive, in-house supporting data bases has been created and useful external data bases with national coverage have been identified. These data bases provide information at a sufficient level of detail to permit a first-cut examination of the district heating potential of a community without requiring outside data collection (allowing a substantial cost and time savings). The results of this blind look at a community permit a rapid, yet adequate estimate of district heating potential, costs, and energy savings. The data utilized in the initial examination can be supplemented or replaced by more detailed information obtained from on-site data collection, if the first results are promising. The fact that the data and methodology are computerized allows many locations within the community, alternate heat sources, ownership options, pipe technologies, etc. to be examined in a short period of time. The structure of the District Heating Model (DHM) (the methodology in computerized form) is described followed by a discussion of the application of the model to Provo, UT.

  1. Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

  2. District cooling and heating development in Stamford, CT. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes the development options for introducing district cooling and heating in downtown Stamford, Connecticut. A district energy system as defined for the Stamford project is the production of chilled and hot water at a central energy plant, and its distribution underground to participating building in the vicinity. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of a district energy system in conjunction with cogeneration as a means to encourage energy conservation and provide the city with an economic development tool. Analysis of the system configuration focused on selecting an arrangement which offered a realistic opportunity for implementation. Three main alternatives were investigated: (1) construction of an 82 MW cogeneration plant and a district heating and cooling system to serve downtown buildings, (2) construction of a small (4 MW) in-fence cogeneration plant combined with cooling and heating, and (3) construction of a district cooling and heating plant to supply selected buildings. Option (1) was determined to be unfeasible at this time due to low electricity prices. The analysis demonstrated that alternatives (2) and (3) were feasible. A number of recommendations are made for detailed cost estimates and ownership, leasing, and financial issues. 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Pumps, valves and piping for cogeneration and district heating

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, W.

    1993-01-01

    The two concepts of cogeneration (cogen) and district heating (DH) have certain points of similarity. They are both quite old, fell into disuse some decades ago, have had a renaissance of late, and often are plagued by economics that are only marginal. At present, however, both cogeneration and district heating ride a wave of popular fancy and regulatory whim, all of which has had as one result the inducing of swarms of lawyers and financial soldiers of fortune to flock to the standards, for at least the time being. Although the finances of the two technologies frequently call for innovation, at least the fluid-handling engineering problems are not extraordinary. Pressures, temperatures, flow rates, and corrosion dangers are nearly always within readily mastered limits. The major difficulties arise generally either from the indifference and parsimony of the owners or from the ignorance of the plant management and operations personnel. This report intends to be only a general perspective which the reader must enlarge upon by such other aids as POWER special reports on narrower sectors. Retain in mind the basic definitions for the two technologies: Cogeneration is a simultaneous production of both useful thermal energy (as steam, hot water, or hot gas) and electric power from a fuel source. District heating is the supplying of thermal energy in steam or water to remote and usually noncontiguous locations which are often under separate ownership. District cooling, the increasingly popular supplement to district heating, supplies chilled water under similar circumstances.

  4. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection.

  5. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. PMID:26159562

  6. Philip, South Dakota geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    The geothermal heating project in Philip, South Dakota which uses the waste water from the Haakon School has now been in operation for 15 years. This project was one of the 23 cost shared by the U.S. DOE starting in 1978, of which 15 became operational. This article describes the geothermal heating system for eight buildings in downtown Philip.

  7. Net energy analysis of district solar heating with seasonal heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P. D.; Kangas, M. T.

    1983-10-01

    A net energy analysis of district solar heating using seasonal heat storage has been performed. The use of seasonal heat storage is of great importance in northern latitudes when the solar contribution is to be increased. Different system alternatives were considered. Net energy ratios for the most favorable options were found to be between 3 and 5.

  8. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonina, Alona; Bolonins, Genadijs; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2014-12-01

    District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with reduced district heating supply temperature. Conclusions on the benefits of new operation modes are introduced.

  9. Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

  10. Modular cogeneration in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.; Aalto, P.; Gleason, T.C.J.; Skalafuris, A.J.

    1987-12-01

    The use of prepackaged cogeneration systems of modular size (100 kWe - 10 MWe) in conjunction with district heating and cooling is proposed as a way to enhance the energy conservation potential of both cogeneration and district energy systems. This report examines the technical and institutional aspects of this marriage of technologies, and develops a research agenda whose goal is to define this potential use of cogeneration more accurately and to develop the generic technology base needed to bring it to actuality. 11 refs.

  11. District heating systems in Oradea, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Oradea is located on the Crisul Repede River, in the northwestern corner of Romania almost due west of Budapest, Hungary. The city has a population around half a million people and can trace its origins back to the Neolithic Age. It was an urban settlement beginning in the 13th century and has been an economic and cultural center for the region. It is a geothermal city with 12 wells drilled within the city limits, six in the nearby Felix Spa and five in the Bors geothermal area to the west, with one doublet set at Nufarul. Currently, there are a variety of geothermal uses in the area, including space and greenhouse heating, domestic hot water supply, process heat, balneology and swimming pools. Wellhead temperatures range from 70 to 105{degrees}C with artesian flows of from 5 to 25 L/s. The present installed capacity is 25 MWt and the heat supply is estimated at 60,000 MWh per year (216,000 GJ/yr). With pumping, the production would double and adding four more doublets, the installed capacity be increased to 65 MWt.

  12. Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

    1980-03-01

    The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

  13. Geothermal district heating system feasibility analysis, Thermopolis, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.; Mickley, M.C.

    1982-04-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a district heating system to serve the residential, commercial, and public sectors in Thermopolis. The project geothermal resource assessment, based on reviews of existing information and data, indicated that substantial hot water resources likely exist in the Rose Dome region 10 miles northeast of Thermopolis, and with quantities capable of supporting the proposed geothermal uses. Preliminary engineering designs were developed to serve the space heating and hot water heating demands for buildings in the Thermopolis-East Thermopolis town service area. The heating district design is based on indirect geothermal heat supply and includes production wells, transmission lines, heat exchanger units, and the closed loop distribution and collection system necessary to serve the individual customers. Three options are presented for disposal of the cooled waters-reinjection, river disposal, and agricultural reuse. The preliminary engineering effort indicates the proposed system is technically feasible. The design is sized to serve 1545 residences, 190 businesses, and 24 public buildings. The peak design meets a demand of 128.2 million Btu at production rates of 6400 gpm.

  14. Feasibility analysis of geothermal district heating for Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-23

    An analysis of the geothermal resource at Lakeview, Oregon, indicates that a substantial resource exists in the area capable of supporting extensive residential, commercial and industrial heat loads. Good resource productivity is expected with water temperatures of 200{degrees}F at depths of 600 to 3000 feet in the immediate vicinity of the town. Preliminary district heating system designs were developed for a Base Case serving 1170 homes, 119 commercial and municipal buildings, and a new alcohol fuel production facility; a second design was prepared for a downtown Mini-district case with 50 commercial users and the alcohol plant. Capital and operating costs were determined for both cases. Initial development of the Lakeview system has involved conducting user surveys, well tests, determinations of institutional requirements, system designs, and project feasibility analyses. A preferred approach for development will be to establish the downtown Mini-district and, as experience and acceptance are obtained, to expand the system to other areas of town. Projected energy costs for the Mini-district are $10.30 per million Btu while those for the larger Base Case design are $8.20 per million Btu. These costs are competitive with costs for existing sources of energy in the Lakeview area.

  15. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-07-01

    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders.

  16. Preliminary business plan: Plzen district heating system upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The district heating system of the City of Plzen, Czech Republic, needs to have physical upgrades to replace aging equipment and to comply with upcoming environmental regulations. Also, its ownership and management are being changed as a result of privatization. As majority owner, the City has the primary goal of ensuring that the heating needs of its customers are met as reliably and cost-effectively as possible. This preliminary business plan is part of the detailed analysis (5 reports in all) done to assist the City in deciding the issues. Preparation included investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of market value of assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flow. The district heating system consists of the Central Plzen cogeneration plant, two interconnected heating plants [one supplying both hot water and steam], three satellite heating plants, and cooperative agreements with three industrial facilities generating steam and hot water. Most of the plants are coal-fired, with some peaking units fired by fuel oil.

  17. Possibility of using adsorption refrigeration unit in district heating network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur; Jaworski, Maciej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50 °C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25 °C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.

  18. The analysis of thermal network of district heating system from investor point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulics of a thermal network of a district heating system is a very important issue, to which not enough attention is often paid. In this paper the authors want to point out some of the important aspects of the design and operation of thermal networks in district heating systems. The design boundary conditions of a heat distribution network and the requirements on active pressure - circulation pump - influencing the operation costs of the centralized district heating system as a whole, are analyzed in detail. The heat generators and the heat exchange stations are designed according to the design heat loads after thermal insulation, and modern boiler units are installed in the heating plant.

  19. District heating and cooling: a 28-city assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meshenberg, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    Findings of a project that assessed the potential for construction of district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in 28 US cities are presented. The project sought to determine whether DHC could promote local community and economic development. In the preliminary assessment, 17 of the cities identified up to 23 projects that could be built within three to five years. Most of these projects would rely on nonscarce heat sources such as refuse or geothermal energy, and to improve financial feasibility, the majority would cogenerate electricity along with heat. Many would use existing power plants or industrial boilers to hold down capital costs. Overall, the projects could generate as amany as 24,000 jobs and retain $165 million that otherwise could leave the communities, thereby helping to stabilize local economies.

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District`s elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  1. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  2. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90{degrees}C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15{degrees}C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  3. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90[degrees]C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15[degrees]C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  4. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.I.; Lorsch, H.G.

    1991-03-31

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMS) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMS, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literature values. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. For 10% and 25% PCM/water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent above the value for water, respectively. Within the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

  5. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  6. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  7. Techno-economic analysis of renewable energy source options for a district heating project

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-09-01

    With the increased interest in exploiting renewable energy sources for district heating applications, the economic comparison of viable options has been considered as an important step in making a sound decision. In this paper, the economic performance of several energy options for a district heating system in Vancouver, British Columbia, is studied. The considered district heating system includes a 10 MW peaking/ backup natural gas boiler to provide about 40% of the annual energy requirement and a 2.5 MW base-load system. The energy options for the base-load system include: wood pellet, sewer heat, and geothermal heat. Present values of initial and operating costs of each system were calculated over 25-year service life of the systems, considering depreciation and salvage as a negative cost item. It was shown that the wood pellet heat producing technologies provided less expensive energy followed by the sewer heat recovery, geothermal and natural gas systems. Among wood pellet technologies, the grate burner was a less expensive option than powder and gasifier technologies. It was found that using natural gas as a fuel source for the peaking/backup system accounted for more than 40% of the heat production cost for the considered district heating center. This is mainly due to the high natural gas prices which cause high operating costs over the service life of the district heating system. Variations in several economic inputs did not change the ranking of the technology options in the sensitivity analysis. However, it was found that the results were more sensitive to changes in operating costs of the system than changes in initial investment. It is economical to utilize wood pellet boilers to provide the base-load energy requirement of district heating systems Moreover, the current business approach to use natural gas systems for peaking and backup in district heating systems could increase the cost of heat production significantly.

  8. Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

  9. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District Heating system. [using cogeneration heat production and aquifiers for heat storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District heating project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district heating systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is based on cogeneration and the storage of heat in aquifers.

  11. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  12. Economics of power plant district and process heating in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-04-01

    The economic feasibility of utilizing hot water from nuclear reactors to provide district heating for private residences in Richland, Washington, and space and process heating for nearby offices, part of the Hanford Reservation, and the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant is assessed. Specifically, the practicality of using hot water from the Washington Public Power Supply System's WNP-1 reactor, which is currently under construction on the Hanford Reservation, just north of the City of Richland is established. World-wide experience with district heating systems and the advantages of using these systems are described. The GEOCITY computer model used to calculate district heating costs is described and the assumptions upon which the costs are based are presented. District heating costs for the city of Richland, process heating costs for the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant, district heating costs for the Horn Rapids triangle area, and process heating costs for the 300 and 3000 areas are discussed. An economic analysis is discussed and institutional restraints are summarized. (MCW)

  13. Improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondurov, E. P.; Kruglikov, P. A.; Smolkin, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    Ways for improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants are considered as a possible approach to improving the nuclear power plant energy efficiency. The results of thermal tests carried out at one of single-circuit NPPs in Russia with a view to reveal the possibilities of improving the existing heat-transfer equipment of the turbine district heating installation without making significant investments in it were taken as a basis for the analysis. The tests have shown that there is certain energy saving potential in some individual units and elements in the turbine district heating installation's process circuit. A significant amount of thermal energy can be obtained only by decreasing the intermediate circuit temperature at the inlet to the heater of the first district-heating extraction. The taking of this measure will also lead to an additional amount of generated electricity because during operation with the partially loaded first heater, the necessary amount of heat has to be obtained from the peaking heater by reducing live steam. An additional amount of thermal energy can also be obtained by eliminating leaks through the bypass control valves. The possibility of achieving smaller consumption of electric energy for power plant auxiliaries by taking measures on reducing the available head in the intermediate circuit installation's pump unit is demonstrated. Partial cutting of pump impellers and dismantling of control valves are regarded to be the most efficient methods. The latter is attributed to qualitative control of the turbine district heating installation's thermal load. Adjustment of the noncondensable gas removal system will make it possible to improve the performance of the turbine district heating installation's heat-transfer equipment owing to bringing the heat-transfer coefficients in the heaters to the design level. The obtained results can be used for estimating the energy saving potential at other

  14. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  15. Geothermal district heating and cooling of hotel/casinos in downtown Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cerci, Y.; Kanoglu, M.; Cengel, Y.A.; Turner, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, potential revenues from the proposed geothermal district heating/cooling system for the hotel/casino complexes in downtown Reno, Nevada are estimated by analyzing their actual electricity and natural gas bills during 1993 through 1994. The geothermal system appears to be feasible, and financially very attractive. The geothermal district system can meet the entire heating and cooling requirements of the hotel/casinos, generating total potential revenues of $3,486,000 per year. Also, other buildings around the downtown area such as Saint Mary`s Hospital, several motels, business complexes, Washoe County School District Building, and even the UNR campus will add extra potential revenues, if these buildings are connected to the geothermal grid. Since most buildings around the downtown use central heating and cooling system, the retrofit costs for the both system should be minimal.

  16. Application of an intermediate LWR for electricity production and hot-water district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a 400 MWe Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) for supplying district heat to the Minneapolis/St. Paul area. A total of three CNSS reactor sites, located various distances from the Minneapolis-St. Paul area load center, are evaluated. The distance from the load center is determined by the credited safety features of the plant design. Each site is also evaluated for three different hot water supply/return temperatures providing a total of nine CNSS study cases. The cost of district heat delivered to the load center is determined for each case.

  17. Geothermal district-heating potential for casinos/hotels in Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-30

    Results from the pre-feasibility study of a geothermal district heating system for greater Reno and the pre-feasibility study of providing geothermal heat to casinos/hotels located in downtown Reno by connection to the proposed district heating system (DHS) are combined. Geothermal sources were selected from published data. Potential users were selected from aerial and city planning maps, and published building and demographic information. Energy consumption data from the electric and gas utility was matched with consumption information from surveys of representative buildings by category and climatic data. As an example, a written survey was mailed to the casino/hotels and two on-site visits were made. Retrofit methodology and cost were examined for the casino/hotels and representative buildings. Based on the pre-feasibility studies, a geothermal district heating system for Reno appears technically and economically feasible. Furthermore, additional economic savings are achieved when the Reno casinos/hotels are connected to the DHS. Steamboat Hot Springs and a geothermal area east of downtown are the most promising geothermal sources for the DHS. The City of Reno has a large yearly heat load with an average heating degree days per year of 6022/sup 0/F days and a heating season greater than eight months.

  18. Blueprint for financing geothermal district heating in California

    SciTech Connect

    Grattan, J.P.; Hansen, D.P.

    1981-03-01

    The current legal and investment climate surrounding geothermal development is depicted. Changes that would make the climate more favorable to direct heat geothermal development are recommended. The Boise, Susanville, and Brady Hot Springs projects are analyzed. (MHR)

  19. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  20. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  1. Direct-use geothermal district heating projects in the US. A summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fornes, A.O.

    1981-10-01

    Brief summaries of geothermal district heating projects are presented for the following: Boise, Idaho; Elko, Nevada; Ephrata, Washington; Hawthorne, Nevada; Klamath Falls, Oregon; Lakeview, Oregon; Madison County, Idaho; North Bonneville, Washington; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Preston, Idaho; Reno, Nevada; Susanville, California; Thermopolis, Wyoming; and Utah State Prison, Utah. (MHR)

  2. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  3. District heating system, College Industrial Park, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The College Industrial Park (CIP) is located to the northwest of the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) campus. Waste water from the OIT campus geothermal heating system flows through an open ditch to the south of the Park. Being aware of this, city personnel have requested the Geo-Heat Center design a distribution network for the Park to eventually utilize an estimated 600 GPM of the 130/sup 0/F waste water. Geothermal water from each campus building is discharged into storm drains which also collect surface run off from parking lots, roofs and grounds. Waste water temperatures are generally between 120/sup 0/F and 130/sup 0/F, however, it may drop as low as 90/sup 0/F when mixing occurs with large amounts of surface run off. Peak heating load requirements for the OIT campus are estimated to be 17.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour for 567,000 square feet of space. Peak flow rate of geothermal fluid to satisfy this load is then 593 GPM based on a net 60/sup 0/F temperature differential. Three wells are available to supply the necessary flow. A Lithium-Bromide Absorption Chiller (185 ton) was installed in 1980 to provide space cooling. The chiller requires a constant flow rate of 550 GPM and discharges 170/sup 0/F water to the storm drains during summer months.

  4. Effects of heat recovery for district heating on waste incineration health impact: a simulation study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone; De Leo, Giulio A

    2013-02-01

    The construction of waste incinerators in populated areas always causes substantial public concern. Since the heat from waste combustion can be recovered to power district heating networks and allows for the switch-off of domestic boilers in urbanized areas, predictive models for health assessment should also take into account the potential benefits of abating an important source of diffuse emission. In this work, we simulated the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants from a waste incinerator under construction in Parma (Italy) into different environmental compartments and estimated the potential health effect of both criteria- (PM(10)) and micro-pollutants (PCDD/F, PAH, Cd, Hg). We analyzed two emission scenarios, one considering only the new incinerator, and the other accounting for the potential decrease in pollutant concentrations due to the activation of a district heating network. We estimated the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimation on health risk through Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we analyzed the robustness of health risk to alternative assumptions on: a) the geographical origins of the potentially contaminated food, and b) the dietary habits of the exposed population. Our analysis showed that under the specific set of assumptions and emission scenarios explored in the present work: (i) the proposed waste incinerator plant appears to cause negligible harm to the resident population; (ii) despite the net increase in PM(10) mass balance, ground-level concentration of fine particulate matter may be curbed by the activation of an extensive district heating system powered through waste combustion heat recovery and the concurrent switch-off of domestic/industrial heating boilers. In addition, our study showed that the health risk caused by waste incineration emissions is sensitive to assumptions about the typical diet of the resident population, and the geographical origins of food production.

  5. Heat pump associations, alliances, and allies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Associations, Alliances, and Allies, a seminar and workshop sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, was held in Memphis, Tennessee, April 10--11, 1991. The focus of the meeting was relationships forged between electric utilities and trade allies that sell residential heat pumps. one hundred and seven representatives of electric utilities, dealer/contractors, manufacturers, and consultants attended. Electric utility trade ally programs run the gamut from coop advertising to heat pump association to elaborate technician training programs. All utility participants recognize the important programs, since it is the trade ally who sells, installs, and services heat pumps, while it is the electric utility who gets blamed if the heat pumps fail to operate properly or are inefficient. Heat pumps are efficient and effective, but their efficiency and effectiveness depends critically upon the quality of installation and maintenance. A utility can thus help to ensure satisfied customers and can also help to achieve its own load shape objectives by working closely with its trade allies, the dealers, contractors, manufacturers, and distributors. Attendees spent the morning sessions of the two day meeting in plenary sessions, hearing about utility and dealer heat pump programs and issues. Afternoon roundtable discussions provided structured forums to discuss: Advertising; Heat pump association startup and operation; Rebates and incentives; Technician training school and centers; Installation inspection and dealer qualification; and Heat pump association training. These proceedings report on the papers presented in the morning plenary sessions and summarize the main points discussed in the afternoon workshops.

  6. A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

    1991-01-04

    Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9[degrees]C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

  7. Efficiency and supply resource options for the upgrade of the Plzen district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    We examined options for meeting the district heating system steam and hot water heating loads associated with the Plzefi Central Heating Plant, two interconnected boilers serving the Kosutka and Bory regions, and the distributed systems in the Letna/Doubravka and Svetovar regions. The assessment applied integrated resource planning to combine the separate supply and demand-side assessments conducted for the system. Four system load scenarios were examined-high and low growth with and without programmatic efficiency. Hot water loads ranged from the current level of 277 megawatts thermal (MW{sub t}) to 320 MW{sub t} in a high growth scenario without efficiency to 253 MW{sub t} in a low growth scenario with programmatic efficiency. The high growth scenario includes an addition of approximately 50 MW{sub t} load from the connection of distributed boilers. An additional 250 MW{sub t} load served by distributed boilers may provide additional potential for system expansion. Steam loads are projected to increase from 93 MW{sub t} to 100 MW{sub t} in the high growth scenario and. decrease to 89 MW{sub t}, in the low growth scenario. Two system expansion cases were considered. The moderate system expansion provided for the Heat Line East I connection to serve the Letna/Doubravka region and the fall system expansion case further provided for the Heat Line East II connection to serve the Svetovar region. In the moderate case, the life of the Svetovar plant is extended to continue as a stand-alone system. Four central plant supply configurations providing for additional cogeneration capacity were applied to the load scenarios: 1. Life extension to existing facilities with a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 2003, 2. Retirement of some existing units and a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 3. Retirement of some existing units and a new gas- fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 4. Gas: Retirement of some exiting units a new gas-fired cogeneration unit in 1997.

  8. Biomass district heating in the Tug Hill, NY: Feasibility and regional economic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Aaron

    Biomass district heating (BDH) has the potential to stimulate rural economies in the Tug Hill region of New York State by establishing a local industry and providing lower cost heat compared to the local alternative, #2 fuel oil. However, the competitiveness and economic impact of BDH networks in rural villages is largely unknown. This study proposes a methodology to provide initial assessments of the feasibility of BDH in rural communities. BDH would deliver heat below the cost of the local alternative in eight of the ten study villages examined. Capital costs comprised over 80% of the project costs, illuminating the importance of reaching a sufficient heat density; however, specific building heat was a stronger determinant of a village's feasibility. An input-output analysis determined that BDH would generate $18.6 million in output and create 143 jobs throughout the three county region, a significant impact if concentrated around the study villages.

  9. IRP applied to district heating in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, M.; Secrest, T.; Zeman, J.; Popelka, A.

    1994-08-01

    The cities of Plzen, Czech Republic, and Handlova, Republic of Slovakia, are examining options for meeting the thermal energy requirements of their citizens with consideration of both economics and the environment. Major energy related issues faced by the cities are: the frequent need to replace and/or implement a major rehabilitation of the central heating plants and the transmission and distribution systems that supply the consumers; and the need to reduce emissions in order to comply with more stringent environmental regulations and improve air quality; and the need to minimize consumer energy bills, particularly to accommodate the upcoming decontrol of energy prices and to minimize non-payment problems. The intent of the integrated resource planning (IRP) projects is to present analyses of options to support the cities` decision-making processes, not to provide specific recommendations or guidance for the cities to follow.

  10. Reduction in air emissions attainable through implementation of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air emissions associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such emissions. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum reductions in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air emissions credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air emissions that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development.

  11. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekret, Robert; Nitkiewicz, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  12. Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district heating sector: a production function approach.

    PubMed

    Furtenback, Orjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

  13. Economic Assessment of Rural District Heating by Bio-Steam Supplied by a Paper Mill in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova, Mariya; Beaudry, Catherine; Taoussi, Abdelaziz; Trepanier, Martin; Paris, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the feasibility of district heating in a small town adjacent to a Kraft pulp mill in eastern Canada. A detailed heat demand analysis is performed for all buildings using a geographical information system and archived data provided by the municipality. The study shows that the entire space heating requirement of the town…

  14. Application of Service Oriented Architecture for Sensors and Actuators in District Heating Substations

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  15. Application of service oriented architecture for sensors and actuators in district heating substations.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-08-21

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation.

  16. Application of service oriented architecture for sensors and actuators in district heating substations.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  17. Evaluation of the heating operation and transmission district: Feasibility of cogeneration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.H.; Gilday, L.T.; Moss, M.E.

    1995-11-01

    The General Services Administration, through its National Capital Region, operates a district heating system - called the Heating Operation and Transmission District - that provides steam to approximately 100 government buildings in Washington, D.C. HOTD is examining a host of options that will improve its ability to provide reliable, environmentally sound, and cost-effective service to its customers. This report evaluates one of those options - cogeneration, a technology that would enable HOTD to produce steam and electricity simultaneously. The study concluded that, under current regulations, cogeneration is not attractive economically because the payback period (15 years) exceeds Federal return-on-investment guidelines. However, if the regulatory environment changes to allow wheeling (transmission of power by a non-utility power producer to another user), cogeneration would be attractive; HOTD would save anywhere from $38 million to $118 million and the investment would pay back in 7 to 10 years. Although incorporating cogeneration into the HOTD system has no strong benefit at this time, the report recommends that GSA reevaluate cogeneration in one or two years because Federal regulations regarding wheeling are under review. It also recommends that GSA work with the District of Columbia government to develop standards for cogeneration.

  18. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  19. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  20. Factors Associated with Adoption of Evidence-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula in US School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with the adoption of evidence-based substance use prevention curricula (EBC) in a national sample of school districts. Substance abuse prevention coordinators in public school districts (n = 1593), which were affiliated with a random sample of schools that served students in Grades 5-8, completed a written…

  1. Agreement Between Central Michigan University and Central Michigan University District of Michigan Association of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant.

    This document presents the agreement between the Central Michigan University (CMU) and Central Michigan University, District of Michigan Association of Higher Education. The agreement covers the purpose and intent, recognition, aid to other collective bargaining agents, deduction of district dues and initiation fees, special conferences, grievance…

  2. Institutional and financial guide to geothermal district heating, serial no. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    General planning considerations which affect nearly every community are reviewed, and alternative operating structures which are available to communities are reviewed, including local governments, nonprofit cooperatives, private enterprises, and joint ventures. The financing options available to publicly-owned and privately-owned district heating systems are then summarized. The geothermal production and distribution activities most appropriate to each type of operating structure are reviewed, along with typical equity and debt funding sources. The tax advantages for private developers are described, as are the issues of customer contracts and service prices, and customer retrofit financing. The treatment is limited to an introductory overview.

  3. Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates Reno, Nevada residential geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, F.; McKay, G.; McKay, S.; Flynn, T.

    1995-12-31

    Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates is the largest privately-owned and operated residential geothermal district heating system in the State of Nevada. The system has operated for ten years and presently services 95 homes. Geothermal energy is used to heat homes, domestic water, spas, swimming pools, and greenhouses. Four homes have installed driveway deicing systems using geothermal energy. This paper briefly describes the geothermal resource, wells, system engineering, operation, applications, and economics. The accompanying posters illustrate the geothermal area, system design, and various applications. The resource is part of the Moana geothermal field, located in southwest Reno. Excluding the Warren-Manzanita Estates, the well-known Moana field supports nearly 300 geothermal wells that supply fluids to individual residences, several motels, a garden nursery, a few churches, and a municipal swimming pool. The Warren-Manzanita Estates is ideally suited for residential district space heating because the resource is shallow, moderate-temperature, and chemically benign. The primary reservoir rock is the Kate Peak andesite, a Tertiary volcanic lahar that has excellent permeability within the narrow fault zones that bisect the property. The Kate Peak formation is overlain by impermeable Tertiary lake sediments and alluvium. Two production wells, each about 240 m deep, are completed near the center of the residential development at the intersection of two fault zones. Geothermal fluids are pumped at a rate of 15 to 25 l/s (260-400 gpm) from one of two wells at a temperature of 95{degrees}C (202{degrees}F) to two flat-plate heat exchangers. The heat exchangers transfer energy from the geothermal fluids to a second fluid, much like a binary geothermal power plant.

  4. Fourth Master Agreement between the University of the District of Columbia and University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association/NEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Univ., Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the University of the District of Columbia and the University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association, an affiliate of the National Education Association, for the period October 1, 1988 to September 30, 1993 is presented. The agreement's 33 articles cover the following: purpose and intent, scope…

  5. Draft Master Agreement between the University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association/NEA and the University of District of Columbia, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Univ., Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the University of the District of Columbia and the University of the District of Columbia Faculty Association Chapter (600 members) of the National Education Association covering the period October 1, 1985-September 30, 1987 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit scope and…

  6. Benefits of advanced working fluids for DHC (district heating and cooling) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, U.S.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-09-01

    DHC projects have positive economic and community development rewards. Today the US DHC industry has moved beyond a market consisting of institutional and military-base systems to community energy systems which cover the central business district and adjoining high density areas as well as communities that need revitalization and new development. One day DHC may be a national industry when DHC is married to electric utilities by recovering waste heat from nuclear or coal power plants (rather than wasting it causing thermal pollution) and supplying heat to customers through the DHC loop as is done in several European countries. These cogenerative DHC systems will make a significant impact on energy conservation and create the most reliable and efficient electric utility systems. The objectives of this paper, are to review the benefits and barriers of conventional DHC technology, introduce the concepts of advanced working fluids and consider the potential benefits of these advanced working fluids for DHC systems. 5 refs.

  7. City of New York preparing of a district heating and cooling systems Project (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-27

    The project with the greatest, and most immediate potential, is the Brooklyn Navy Yard Complex, which included the Brooklyn Navy Yard Industrial Complex, nearby public housing apartments, Brooklyn Hospital, Cumberland Hospital, the Red Hook Sewage Treatment Plant and Pratt Institute. Initial engineering investigation indicates that five, and probably six, of the 160,000 lb/hr, 500 psi boilers in the generating plant at the Navy Yard can be economically refurbished, and could produce up to 900,000 lbs/hr of steam. Further, at least two of the on site turbines appear to be refurbishable, making possible cogeneration of electricity with district heating and/or cooling. The NYCEO research has shown that an innovative system, using pressurized hot water and heat exchangers (to generate low pressure steam for individual apartment houses) is an effective means to satisfy the heating requirements of New York City's apartment buildings, many of which are already steam heated, while reducing their energy costs and oil consumption. This approach takes advantage of a modern hot water system, while avoiding the disadvantage of expensive building retrofit. Preliminary studies have shown that thermal energy costs to Yard tenants, among the highest anywhere in the USA, will be reduced. These savings will increase long term tenant occupancy as well as ability to create and hold jobs in the area.

  8. Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

  9. Feasibility and Supply Analysis of U.S. Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoning

    Geothermal energy is a globally distributed sustainable energy with the advantages of a stable base load energy production with a high capacity factor and zero SOx, CO, and particulates emissions. It can provide a potential solution to the depletion of fossil fuels and air pollution problems. The geothermal district heating and cooling system is one of the most common applications of geothermal energy, and consists of geothermal wells to provide hot water from a fractured geothermal reservoir, a surface energy distribution system for hot water transmission, and heating/cooling facilities to provide water and space heating as well as air conditioning for residential and commercial buildings. To gain wider recognition for the geothermal district heating and cooling (GDHC) system, the potential to develop such a system was evaluated in the western United States, and in the state of West Virginia. The geothermal resources were categorized into identified hydrothermal resources, undiscovered hydrothermal resources, near hydrothermal enhanced geothermal system (EGS), and deep EGS. Reservoir characteristics of the first three categories were estimated individually, and their thermal potential calculated. A cost model for such a system was developed for technical performance and economic analysis at each geothermally active location. A supply curve for the system was then developed, establishing the quantity and the cost of potential geothermal energy which can be used for the GDHC system. A West Virginia University (WVU) case study was performed to compare the competiveness of a geothermal energy system to the current steam based system. An Aspen Plus model was created to simulate the year-round campus heating and cooling scenario. Five cases of varying water flow rates and temperatures were simulated to find the lowest levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for the WVU case study. The model was then used to derive a levelized cost of heat as a function of the population density

  10. Agreement between Rancho Santiago Community College District and the Faculty Association of Rancho Santiago Community College District for the Fiscal Year 1989-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rancho Santiago Community Coll. District, Santa Ana, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Rancho Santiago Community College District Board of Trustees and the Faculty Association for the Rancho Santiago Community College District is presented. This contract, covering faculty at Rancho Santiago Community College and its off-campus centers, applies to the period from July 1, 1989 through…

  11. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-11-27

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  12. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  13. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  14. Small and medium-sized high-temperature reactors for generation of electricity, process steam and district heat

    SciTech Connect

    Schoening, J.

    1988-01-01

    The HTR reactor line of BBC/HRB has been designed to cover the requirements in the market of nuclear power energy of the time being and in the future. Cornerstones of the group's future HTR line are the HTR 500 (550 MWe) and the HTR 100 (100 MWe) for the generation of electricity and process steam, with the possibility of heat extraction for district heating. The HTR 500 design characteristics, reasons for choice of a 500 MW design, economics of the HTR 500, the HTR 100 design characteristics, process heat application, and small heating reactors are discussed in the paper.

  15. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2011-05-01

    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality.

  16. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2011-05-01

    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

  17. Air Heating Associated with Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riousset, J. A.; Pasko, V. P.; Bourdon, A.

    2009-12-01

    The understanding of ambient gas heating processes initiated by needle-shaped filaments of ionization, called streamers, embedded in originally cold air (near room temperature) represents a long standing problem, which is of interest for studies of long laboratory sparks and natural lightning discharges [e.g., Gallimberti et al., C. R. Physique, 3, 1335, 2002]. The observed phenomenology of a subset of the recently observed transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere, which originate from thundercloud tops [e.g, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 21549, 2001; Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; Krehbiel et al., Nature Geoscience, 1, 233, 2008; Cummer et al., Nature Geoscience, 2, 617, 2009, Riousset et al., JGR, 10.1029/2009JA014286, 2009, in press], indicate that these events may be related to conventional lightning leader processes and therefore are associated with significant heating of the air in the regions of atmosphere through which they propagate [Pasko and George, JGR, 107, 1458, 2002]. Many of the small scale features observed in sprites at higher altitudes [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., GRL, 104, L11105, 2007, and references therein] can be interpreted in terms of corona streamers, which, after appropriate scaling with air density, are fully analogous to those, which initiate spark discharges in relatively short (several cm) gaps at near ground pressure [Liu et al., JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009, and references therein] and which constitute building blocks of streamer zones of conventional lightning leaders in long gaps [Gallimberti et al., 2002]. The recent reports of infrasound bursts originating from 60-80 km altitudes in sprites, with durations consistent with the optical widths of the sprites [e.g., Farges, in Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications, p. 417, Betz et al., (eds.), Springer, 2009], provide an additional motivation for studies of the heating of the ambient air and associated chemical effects

  18. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling. Final report, September 25, 1990--September 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  19. MIC mitigation in a 100 MW district heating peak load unit.

    PubMed

    Olesen, B H; Lorenzen, J; Kjellerup, B V; Odum, S; Nielsen, P H; Frølund, B

    2004-01-01

    During inspection of AISI316 stainless steel plate heat exchangers in a district heating peak load unit, localised corrosion attacks along with indications of microbiological activity were found on the boiler side beneath patches of sturdy black deposits. Bacteria and sulphide were detected within black deposits. Thorough investigation of the boiler system revealed several incidents of localised corrosion on low alloy steel along with deposits of organic matter and bacteria primarily in places with stagnant water or places operating at a low flow rate. A relatively large amount of bacteria was detected within the system, primarily in deposits and around corrosion sites. The observations suggested the combination of deposits and bacterial activity, being the major reason for the observed corrosion. Prior to the investigation, the boiler system had operated with cat-/anion-exchanged, de-aerated water for 3 years, during which the water fulfilled strict chemical limits set to minimise corrosion. Based on these findings, the system has been modified in order to minimise the risk of microbiologically influenced corrosion and a monitoring program for fouling and corrosion has been established.

  20. A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems. Progress report, September 25, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

    1991-01-04

    Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9{degrees}C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

  1. Eighty-seventh annual conference of the International District Energy Association

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The proceedings of the 87th Annual Conference of the International District Energy Association are presented. Thirty pages were presented at the Conference which was held on June 8-12, 1996 in Washington, D.C. A separate abstract and indexing have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Desulfovibrio alkalitolerans sp. nov., a novel alkalitolerant, sulphate-reducing bacterium isolated from district heating water.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, Lone; Nielsen, Marie Bank; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2006-05-01

    A novel alkalitolerant, sulphate-reducing bacterium (strain RT2T) was isolated from alkaline district heating water. Strain RT2T was a motile vibrio (0.5-0.8 microm wide and 1.4-1.9 microm long) and grew at pH 6.9-9.9 (optimum at pH 9.0-9.4) and at 16-47 degrees C (optimum at 43 degrees C). The genomic DNA G+C content was 64.7 mol%. A limited number of compounds were used as electron donors with sulphate as electron acceptor, including lactate, pyruvate, formate and hydrogen/acetate. Sulphite and thiosulphate also served as electron acceptors. Based on physiological and genotypic properties, the isolate was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio, for which the name Desulfovibrio alkalitolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RT2T (=DSM 16529T=JCM 12612T). The strain is the first alkali-tolerant member of the genus Desulfovibrio to be described.

  3. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  4. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  5. Heat-Pipe-Associated Localized Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pan-Jo; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Jang, Ju-Chan; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The present study focused on how to improve the maximum power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system and move heat to any suitable space using a TEG associated with a loop thermosyphon (loop-type heat pipe). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the power output, the temperature difference of the thermoelectric module (TEM), and the heat transfer performance associated with the characteristic of the researched heat pipe. Currently, internal combustion engines lose more than 35% of their fuel energy as recyclable heat in the exhaust gas, but it is not easy to recycle waste heat using TEGs because of the limited space in vehicles. There are various advantages to use of TEGs over other power sources, such as the absence of moving parts, a long lifetime, and a compact system configuration. The present study presents a novel TEG concept to transfer heat from the heat source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any location. This simple and novel design for a TEG can be applied to future hybrid cars. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate power of around 1.8 V with T TEM = 58°C. The heat transfer performance of a loop-type heat pipe with various working fluids was investigated, with water at high heat flux (90 W) and 0.05% TiO2 nanofluid at low heat flux (30 W to 70 W) showing the best performance in terms of power generation. The heat pipe can transfer the heat to any location where the TEM is installed.

  6. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p<0.05) in cattle (1076/1475; 72.9%) than in buffaloes (957/2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies. PMID:19782414

  7. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  8. Geologic and grade-tonnage information on Tertiary epithermal precious- and base-metal vein districts associated with volcanic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosier, Dan L.; Menzie, W. David; Kleinhampl, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Data on grades, tonnages, and geology of selected Tertiary epithermal precious- and base-metal vein districts associated with volcanic rocks were tabulated for ease of examination and comparison of characteristics between districts. There are 215 districts listed, with a cumulative tonnage of 709 million metric tons and average grades of 4.7 g/t Au, 224 g/t Ag, 0.16 percent Cu, 0.55 percent Pb, and 0.83 percent Zn, representing about 60 percent of world districts.

  9. Phase 1 feasibility study: district heating and cooling using wastewater effluent and sea water in Olympia, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of district heating and cooling (DHC) using low-temperature hydrothermal sources in conjunction with heat pumps has been assessed on a preliminary basis for downtown Olympia and the Capitol Campus. The conclusion is that DHC can provide thermal energy at approximately 75 to 85% of the lowest competing fuel cost in the community. Three potential hydrothermal sources for DHC were evaluated: treated wastewater effluent from the LOTT plant; surface water from Capitol Lake or Budd Inlet; and waste process water from the Olympia Brewery. LOTT effluent and Budd Inlet sea water were both found to be favorable sources, possessing heat pump output potentials far in excess of the service area's heating or cooling demands. Capitol Lake was found to be an unfavorable source because its maximum potential as a heat pump source falls below the service area's thermal demands. The Olympia Brewery was also eliminated because its waste heat was likewise insufficient to meet winter demands, and it requires a costly transmission pipeline to the service area. However, it should be noted that at some point in the future the Brewery could become a DHC customer if its large demand for conventionally-fueled process heat becomes too costly.

  10. Assessment and implementation of a district heating system upgrade for the city of Plzen, Czech Republic: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Marousek, J. Popelka, A.

    1994-06-01

    The City of Plzen, Czech Republic, is considering options to upgrade its district heating system for compliance with emissions regulations and replacement of some existing heat generation units. This assessment examined two coal-fired and two-gas fired heat generation configurations coupled with buildings sector energy efficiency for meeting load growth from the current level of 370MWt to 420 and 367MWt for high and low growth scenarios, respectively. The supply and efficiency options were integrated and characterized by capital requirement, levelized energy cost, typical residential energy bill, and emissions. Life extension to the existing facilities required the least capital investment and provided the lowest levelized energy cost; efficiency increased the per unit price of energy and reduced the typical energy bill; connection of a satellite system provided for a lower weighted average energy cost of energy over life extension to the satellite boiler serving the system; and the gas-fired configurations provided for the greatest reduction in emissions.

  11. Association Between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    PubMed

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-12-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not in such states to (1) have an IAQ management program (p < .001); (2) require schools to conduct periodic inspections of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (p < .05); of the building for cracks, leaks, or past water damage (p < .01); for mold (p < .01); for clutter that prevents effective cleaning and maintenance (p < .05); of the plumbing system (p < .01); and for condensation in and around school facilities (p < .001); (3) have an engine idling reduction program ( < .001); (4) have a policy to purchase low-emitting products (p < .05); and (5) require IPM strategies (p < .05). Increasing the number of states that provide IAQ-related assistance to school districts and schools may improve school IAQ.

  12. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  13. Infant respiratory symptoms associated with indoor heating sources.

    PubMed

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Belanger, Kathleen; Beckett, William; Bracken, Michael B; Holford, Theodore R; Gent, Janneane; Jankun, Thomas; McSharry, Jean-Ellen; Leaderer, Brian P

    2002-10-15

    This study examined the effects of indoor heating sources on infant respiratory symptoms during the heating season of the first year of life. Mothers delivering babies between 1993 and 1996 at 12 hospitals in Connecticut and Virginia were enrolled. Daily symptom and heating source use information about their infant was obtained every 2 weeks during the first year of life. Heating sources included fireplace, wood stove, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use. Four health outcomes were analyzed by reporting period: days of wheeze, episodes of wheeze, days of cough, and episodes of cough. A large percentage of infants had at least one episode of cough (88%) and wheeze (33%) during the heating season of the first year of life. Wood stove, fireplace, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use was intermittent across the study period. In adjusted Poisson regression models controlling for important confounders, gas space heater use was associated with episodes and days of wheeze. Wood stove use was associated with total days of cough, and kerosene heater use was associated with episodes of cough. Fireplace use was not associated with any of the respiratory symptoms. Use of some heating sources appears related to respiratory symptoms in infants.

  14. Infant respiratory symptoms associated with indoor heating sources.

    PubMed

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Belanger, Kathleen; Beckett, William; Bracken, Michael B; Holford, Theodore R; Gent, Janneane; Jankun, Thomas; McSharry, Jean-Ellen; Leaderer, Brian P

    2002-10-15

    This study examined the effects of indoor heating sources on infant respiratory symptoms during the heating season of the first year of life. Mothers delivering babies between 1993 and 1996 at 12 hospitals in Connecticut and Virginia were enrolled. Daily symptom and heating source use information about their infant was obtained every 2 weeks during the first year of life. Heating sources included fireplace, wood stove, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use. Four health outcomes were analyzed by reporting period: days of wheeze, episodes of wheeze, days of cough, and episodes of cough. A large percentage of infants had at least one episode of cough (88%) and wheeze (33%) during the heating season of the first year of life. Wood stove, fireplace, kerosene heater, and gas space heater use was intermittent across the study period. In adjusted Poisson regression models controlling for important confounders, gas space heater use was associated with episodes and days of wheeze. Wood stove use was associated with total days of cough, and kerosene heater use was associated with episodes of cough. Fireplace use was not associated with any of the respiratory symptoms. Use of some heating sources appears related to respiratory symptoms in infants. PMID:12379555

  15. Factors associated with uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision, Mazowe District, Zimbabwe, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rupfutse, Maxwell; Tshuma, Cremence; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Gombe, Notion; Bangure, Donewell; Wellington, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is the surgical removal of the foreskin by a trained health worker. VMMC was introduced in Zimbabwe in 2009. It is of concern that the programme performance has been below expectations nationally and in Mazowe district. Zimbabwe is unlikely to meet its 2015 target of circumcising 1 200 000 men aged between 15 and 29 years and unlikely to enjoy maximum benefits of VMMC which include prevention of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer. We therefore broadly aimed at identifying factors influencing the level of VMMC uptake in Mazowe district. Methods An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out in Mazowe district. A multi-stage probability sampling strategy was used to select 300 men aged between 18 and 49 years. Pretested interviewer administered questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Quantitative data was analysed using Epi info where odds ratios and p-values were calculated. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results Being of Shona origin (AOR= 7.69 (95%CI 1.78-33.20)), fear of pain (AOR= 7.09 (95%CI 2.58-19.47)) and fear of poor wound healing (AOR= 2.68 (95%CI 1.01-7.08)) were independently associated with being uncircumcised while having a circumcised friend and encouragement by a friend or relative were independently associated with being circumcised. Conclusion Fear of pain, fear of poor wound healing and encouragement by a friend or relative were associated with circumcision status. Widening use of surgical devices and third part referrals may assist in scaling up the programme. PMID:25918577

  16. Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kagira, John Maina; Kanyari, Paul Njuki; Githigia, Samuel Maina; Maingi, Ndicho; Ng'ang'a, James Chege; Gachohi, John Mwangi

    2012-03-01

    Nematode infections are a serious constraint to pig production, especially where free range pig keeping is practiced. This study investigated the epidemiology of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs from 135 farms were sampled for faeces that were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces using the McMaster technique. The nematode eggs were also identified to genus and species based on morphology. A questionnaire on risk factors was also administered to the pig owners. The overall prevalence and mean nematode EPG were 84.2% and 2,355, respectively. The nematode eggs were identified as those belonging to Oesophagostomum spp. (75%), Strongyloides ransomi (37%), Ascaris suum (18%), Metastrongylus spp. (11%), Trichuris suis (7%) and Physocephalus sexalatus (3%). The prevalence of nematodes was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with the amount of rainfall in the division of the pigs' origin (all nematodes except S. ransomi). The prevalence of nematodes was also associated with the age of the pigs. A lower burden of nematodes was associated (p < 0.05) with a history of deworming (A. suum) and the provision of night housing (S. ransomi and Metastrongylus spp.). In conclusion, this study has provided information on nematode infections and the associated risk factors for free range pigs in Busia District, which can be used when implementing integrated control measures.

  17. Napa Valley Community College District and Napa Valley College Faculty Association/CTA/NEA 1988-89 Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa Valley Community Coll. District, Napa, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of the Napa Valley Community College District and the Napa Valley College Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, in effect from June 1988 through July 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  18. Agreement: Desert Community College District, College of the Desert Faculty Association CTA/NEA, January 13, 1989-June 30, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desert Community Coll. District, Palm Desert, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Desert Community College District and the College of the Desert Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from January 13, 1989 through June 30, 1989, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent…

  19. The geothermal potential of the Campania volcanic district and new heat exchanger technologies for exploitation of highly urbanised areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal research in Campania region (Italy), started since the 1930, and continued until the '80 by the SAFEN, ENEL and AGIP companies. Such exploration activity highlighted that most of the volcanic districts of the Campania Region have a very high geothermal gradient and heat flow. In particular, inside the Campi Flegrei caldera and at Ischia island the geothermal gradient measured inside the deep wells reaches temperatures above 100° C between few tens and few hundreds of metres of depth, while the heat flow varies between 120-160 mWm-2 at Agnano and Mofete (Campi Flegrei main drill sites) to more than 500 mWm-2 at Ischia island (south-western sector). A general review of the available literature data (temperature at depth, stratigraphic sections, logs etc.) of the deep wells (down to 3 km b.s.l.) allowed us to quantify the geothermal potential (thermal and electric) of such district. The geothermal potential is about 6 GWy for the Campi Flegrei (Mofete and S. Vito sectors) and 11 GWy for the Ischia island (south-western sector) showing a geothermal reservoir with water and vapour dominant respectively. This results in strong potential interest for economic exploitation of the geothermal resource, both in the range of low-medium enthalpy at few hundreds of meters depth and of high enthalpy at depths of 1-2 km. In this study we try to model the effectiveness of new technologies of boreholes heat exchangers, which would allow to avoid fluid withdrawal, then strongly decreasing the environmental impact. The proposed technology consists of a double-pipe placed in a borehole heat exchange that can work coupled with an ORC. The two pipes, one inside the other, are located in the well in order to transfer the thermal energy to the working fluid during the descent in the external pipe and then go back through the internal pipe properly isolated. We propose a complete design of the borehole heat exchangers. The design activity is performed on a theoretical basis

  20. Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

    2013-01-01

    A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR.

  1. Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

    2013-01-01

    A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR. PMID:23210742

  2. Study of the causes and identification of the dominant mechanisms of failure of bellows expansion joints used in district heating system pipelines at MOEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Semenov, V. N.; Shipkov, A. A.; Shepelev, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    The results of laboratory studies of material properties and of numerical and analytical investigations to assess the stress-strain state of the metal of the bellows expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK subjected to corrosion failure are presented. The main causes and the dominant mechanisms of failure of the expansion joints have been identified. The influence of the initial crevice defects and the operating conditions on the features and intensity of destruction processes in expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK has been established.

  3. The interactive association between heat shock factor 1 and heat shock proteins in primary myocardial cells subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu; Chen, Hongbo; Cheng, Yanfen; Nasir, Mohammad Abdel; Kemper, Nicole; Bao, Endong

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a heat shock transcription factor that rapidly induces heat shock gene transcription following thermal stress. In this study, we subjected primary neonatal rat myocardial cells to heat stress in vitro to create a model system for investigating the trends in expression and association between various heat shock proteins (HSPs) and HSF1 under adverse environmental conditions. After the cells were subjected to heat stress at 42˚C for different periods of time, HSP and HSF1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis in the heat-stressed cells. The HSF1 expression levels significantly increased in the cells following 120 min of exposure to heat stess compared to the levels observed at the beginning of heat stress exposure. HSP90 followed a similar trend in expression to HSF1, whereas HSP70 followed an opposite trend. However, no significant changes were observed in the crystallin, alpha B (CRYAB, also known as HSP beta-5) expression levels during the 480‑min period of exposure to heat stress. The interaction between the HSPs and HSF1 was analyzed by STRING 9.1, and it was found that HSF1 interacted with HSP90 and HSP70, and that it did not play a role in regulating CRYAB expression. Based on our findings, HSP70 may suppress HSF1 in rat myocardial cells under conditions of heat stress. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that HSF1 is not the key factor for all HSPs, and this was particularly the case for CRYAB.

  4. The prevalence and characteristics associated with mother-infant bed-sharing in Klang district, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L; Ghani, S N; Moy, F M

    2009-12-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of mother-infant bed-sharing practice in Klang district, Malaysia. Data was collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire for a four month period in 2006. A total of 682 mother-infant pairs attending government health clinics were included in the study. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers, information on the infants, bed-sharing and breastfeeding practices were collected. The mean maternal age was 28.4 +/- 5.1 years while the mean infant gestational age was 38.8 +/- 1.8 weeks. The study showed the prevalence of bed-sharing was 73.5% (95% CI: 70.0, 76.7). In multivariate analysis; area of interview, maternal occupation, family income, breastfeeding and infant birth weight were associated with bed-sharing after adjusted for maternal ethnicity, age, marital status, educational level, parity, infant gender and infant gestational age. In conclusion, bed-sharing is a common practice in Klang district, Malaysia, not specific to ethnicity, but strongly associated with low family income and breastfeeding.

  5. Association between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not…

  6. Root carbon and protein metabolism associated with heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingru; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Xu, Jichen

    2012-05-01

    Extensive past efforts have been taken toward understanding heat tolerance mechanisms of the aboveground organs. Root systems play critical roles in whole-plant adaptation to heat stress, but are less studied. This review discusses recent research results revealing some critical physiological and metabolic factors underlying root thermotolerance, with a focus on temperate perennial grass species. Comparative analysis of differential root responses to supraoptimal temperatures by a heat-adapted temperate C3 species, Agrostis scabra, which can survive high soil temperatures up to 45 °C in geothermal areas in Yellow Stone National Park, and a heat-sensitive cogeneric species, Agrostis stolonifera, suggested that efficient carbon and protein metabolism is critical for root thermotolerance. Superior root thermotolerance in a perennial grass was associated with a greater capacity to control respiratory costs through respiratory acclimation, lowering carbon investment in maintenance for protein turnover, and efficiently partitioning carbon into different metabolic pools and alternative respiration pathways. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that root thermotolerance was associated with an increased maintenance of stability and less degradation of proteins, particularly those important for metabolism and energy production. In addition, thermotolerant roots are better able to maintain growth and activity during heat stress by activating stress defence proteins such as those participating in antioxidant defence (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) and chaperoning protection (i.e. heat shock protein).

  7. Root carbon and protein metabolism associated with heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingru; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Xu, Jichen

    2012-05-01

    Extensive past efforts have been taken toward understanding heat tolerance mechanisms of the aboveground organs. Root systems play critical roles in whole-plant adaptation to heat stress, but are less studied. This review discusses recent research results revealing some critical physiological and metabolic factors underlying root thermotolerance, with a focus on temperate perennial grass species. Comparative analysis of differential root responses to supraoptimal temperatures by a heat-adapted temperate C3 species, Agrostis scabra, which can survive high soil temperatures up to 45 °C in geothermal areas in Yellow Stone National Park, and a heat-sensitive cogeneric species, Agrostis stolonifera, suggested that efficient carbon and protein metabolism is critical for root thermotolerance. Superior root thermotolerance in a perennial grass was associated with a greater capacity to control respiratory costs through respiratory acclimation, lowering carbon investment in maintenance for protein turnover, and efficiently partitioning carbon into different metabolic pools and alternative respiration pathways. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that root thermotolerance was associated with an increased maintenance of stability and less degradation of proteins, particularly those important for metabolism and energy production. In addition, thermotolerant roots are better able to maintain growth and activity during heat stress by activating stress defence proteins such as those participating in antioxidant defence (i.e. superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) and chaperoning protection (i.e. heat shock protein). PMID:22328905

  8. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.

  9. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastware toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  10. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  11. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeringer, M. R.; Crist, W. K.; Dunn, J. R.

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of sub-surface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Eight wells about 400-feet deep, one 600-foot well and one 2232-foot well were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  12. Collective Bargaining Agreement by and Between Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10, July 1973-June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Park Technical Inst., Fond du Lac, WI.

    This is the collective bargaining agreement between the Moraine Park Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District and the Faculty Association of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education District 10 covering the period July 1973-June 1974. Contents cover academic freedom; advancement on the salary schedule; aggrieved person; arbitration and…

  13. Monitoring and characterisation of bacteria in corroding district heating systems using fluorescence in situ hybridisation and microautoradiography.

    PubMed

    Kjellerup, B V; Olesen, B H; Nielsen, J L; Frølund, B; Odum, S; Nielsen, P H

    2003-01-01

    Presence of biofilm and biocorrosion has been observed in Danish district heating (DH) systems despite very good water quality that was expected to prevent significant microbial growth. The microbiological water quality was investigated in order to identify the dominating bacterial groups on surfaces with corrosion problems. Water samples from 29 DH systems were investigated for the total number of bacteria and presence of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRBs). SRBs were found to be present in more than 80% of the DH systems. The microbial population in samples from 2 DH system (biofilm from a test coupon and an in situ sample from a heat exchanger) was investigated with fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and the results showed significant differences in population composition. Betaproteobacteria was the dominant population in both samples. SRBs were present in both samples but were most numerous in the biofilm from the test coupon. Examination of functional groups based on uptake of radiolabelled acetate (microautoradiography) showed presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria despite the fact that oxygen is not anticipated in DH systems.

  14. Integrated assessment of supply and efficiency resources for the district heating system, City of Handlova, Republic of Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This city needs to replace its old district heating system which is unreliable and expensive to maintain. Current plant is owned by a state-run utility; the plant is scheduled for privatization, and the city is examining options for its upgrade. Analysis and preparation for this activity is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses and in this integrated demand/supply report. Preliminary projections indicate the cost of heating from a cost per unit of energy basis and from the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova on a total cost per year basis. The centralized coal cogeneration option is the least expensive on a levelized energy cost both with and without energy efficiency. Centralized coal/gas dual-fuel cogeneration is a close second, and the decentralized gas natural gas boilers is significantly more expensive. When the effect of building efficiency measures is evaluated, efficiency always increases the cost on a levelized energy cost basis, but on a levelized cost per flat basis, both centralized systems with buildings efficiency are less expensive than without.

  15. Contractual Agreement Between the Board of Junior College District No. 506 and Sauk Valley College Faculty Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauk Valley Coll., Dixon, IL.

    This document presents the contractual agreement between the Board of Junior College District No. 506 and Sauk Valley College Faculty Association. Articles of the agreement cover recognition procedures, agreement, appeal procedures, no-strike clause, faculty personnel policies, faculty tenure policy, academic freedom, criteria for selection and…

  16. Perinatal and infant mortality in Wales: inter-district variations and associations with socio-environmental characteristics.

    PubMed

    West, R R

    1988-06-01

    Stillbirth rates, perinatal death rates, early and late neonatal death rates and (post-neonatal) infant death rates are reported for Wales since local government and NHS reorganization in 1974. The time trends in these rates show declining mortality, in full weight and in low birthweight babies. Analysis of average rates for the period 1974-81 inclusive in the 37 local authority districts within Wales demonstrate wide variations, with PMRs ranging from 11.5 to 22.5 per 1000. Many highly statistically significant associations were evident between socioeconomic characteristics of the districts and stillbirth rates but few with neonatal death rates and none with infant death rates.

  17. Heat tolerance testing: association between heat intolerance and anthropometric and fitness measurements.

    PubMed

    Lisman, Peter; Kazman, Josh B; O'Connor, Francis G; Heled, Yuval; Deuster, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated associations between heat intolerance, as determined by performance on a heat tolerance test (HTT), and anthropometric measurements (body surface-to-mass ratio, percent body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference) and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]). Relationships between predictive variables and specific physiological measurements recorded during the HTT were examined. A total of 34 male and 12 female participants, recruited from the military community, underwent anthropometric measurements, a maximal aerobic exercise test, and a standardized HTT, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at 5 km/h at 2% grade for 120 minutes at 40°C and 40% relative humidity. VO2max negatively correlated with maximum core temperature (r = -0.30, p < 0.05) and heart rate (HR) (r = -0.48, p < 0.01) although percent body fat showed a positive correlation with maximum HR (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). VO2max was the only independent attribute that significantly influenced both the maximum HR and core temperature attained during HTT. Logistic regression analyses indicated that VO2max was the only independent parameter (OR = 0.89, p = 0.026) that significantly contributed to overall HTT performance. Low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with heat intolerance, as defined by HTT performance, and can be addressed as a preventative measure for exertional heat illness. This study provides further evidence that the HTT can be an effective tool for assessment of thermoregulatory patterns.

  18. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Board of Trustees of Lower Columbia College District 13 and Lower Columbia Faculty Association, 1987-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower Columbia Coll., Longview, WA.

    This contractual agreement between the Board of Trustees of Lower Columbia College (LCC) District 13 and the Lower Columbia College Faculty Association outlines the terms of employment for all academic employees of the district. The 13 articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1) recognition of the association as exclusive…

  19. Thermoregulatory adaptations associated with training and heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1998-04-01

    The large metabolic heat load generated as a consequence of muscular work requires activation of thermoregulatory mechanisms in order to prevent an excessive and potentially dangerous rise in body temperature during exercise. Although the horse has highly efficient heat dissipatory mechanisms, there are a number of circumstances in which the thermoregulatory system may be overwhelmed, resulting in the development of critical hyperthermia. The risk for development of life-threatening hyperthermia is greatest when (1) the horse is inadequately conditioned for the required level of physical performance; (2) exercise is undertaken in hot and particularly, in hot and humid ambient conditions; and (3) there is an impairment to thermoregulatory mechanisms (e.g., severe dehydration, anhidrosis). Both exercise training under cool to moderate ambient conditions and a period of repeated exposure to, and exercise in, hot ambient conditions (heat acclimation) will result in a number of physiologic adaptations conferring improved thermoregulatory ability. These adaptations include an expanded plasma volume, greater stability of cardiovascular function during exercise, and an improved efficiency of evaporative heat loss as a result of alterations in the sweating response. Collectively, these adjustments serve to attenuate the rise in core body temperature in response to a given intensity of exercise. The magnitude of the physiologic adaptations occurring during exercise training and heat acclimation is a reflection of the thermal load imposed on the horse. Therefore, when compared with a period of training in cool conditions, the larger thermal stimulus associated with repeated exercise in hot ambient conditions will invoke proportionally greater thermoregulatory adaptations. Although it is not possible to eliminate the effects of adverse environmental conditions on exercise performance, it is clear that a thorough exercise training program together with a subsequent period of

  20. Association and Diffusion of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on the State and District Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School district wellness policies designed to reduce obesity and promote student health and well-being often lack specific requirements or any mandate that schools comply with the policy. Researchers, educators, and policymakers have called for states to take an active role in shaping district policies. The objective of this study was…

  1. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  2. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of bacteria in biofilms from metal surfaces of an alkaline district heating system.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Kjellerup, Birthe Venø; Egli, Konrad; Frølund, Bo; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2007-08-01

    District heating systems (DHS) are extreme aqueous environments characterized by high temperatures, high pH (9.5-10.0), and low nutrient availability. Culture-independent and culture-dependent techniques showed that DHS may nevertheless harbour geno- and phenotypically diverse bacterial biofilm communities. Approximately 50% of the cells in biofilms growing on mild steel coupons in rotortorque reactors connected to the return line (40 degrees C) of a Danish DHS were detectable by FISH analysis and thus were probably metabolically active. A bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library generated from the biofilms was dominated by proteobacterial phylotypes (closely related to known aerobic species) and by phylotypes affiliated to the anaerobic class Clostridia. Anoxic enrichment cultures derived from biofilms primarily contained 16S rRNA gene and dsrAB (encoding major subunits of dissimilatory sulfite reductase) phylotypes affiliated to the latter class. Alkalitolerant and neutrophilic anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the DHS, including novel Gram-positive and deltaproteobacterial sulfate-reducers and sulfite-reducers constituting novel Gram-positive lineages. In total, 39 distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes representing ten classes were identified. The detection of several alkalitolerant, sulfide-producing, and, thus, potentially biocorrosive species underlines the need to maintain a high water quality in the DHS in order to prevent the proliferation of these species.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wafula, Solomon Tsebeni; Ssemugabo, Charles; Namuhani, Noel; Musoke, David; Ssempebwa, John; Halage, Abdullah Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tungiasis is an endemic but neglected health problem in Uganda especially in resource poor communities. It is largely affecting rural communities in the Eastern, West Nile and Central regions. This study assessed prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda. Methods This was a cross sectional study that used a semi-structured questionnaire and observational checklist to collect quantitative data from 422 households in 12 villages. Prevalence of tungiasis was defined as presence of Tunga penetrans in the skin of any household member at the time of data collection. Results The prevalence of tungiasis was 22.5%. However, a big percentage 41.5% of households were reported to have had T. penetrans in the previous month while 49.5% had T. penetrans for more than one month. Majority (90.5%)of the participants used a pin, needle, or thorn to remove sand flea from infected body parts. Having dirty feet (AOR 3.86, CI (1.76-8.34)), dirty clothes (AOR 3.46, CI (2.00-5.97)), cracked house floor (AOR =6.28, CI (3.28-12.03)), dirty floor (AOR 3.21, CI (1.38-7.46)), littered compounds (AOR= 2.95, CI (1.66-5.26)) and rearing cattle (AOR 2.38, CI (1.28-4.45)) were associated with tungiasis. However, practicing preventive measures (AOR 0.51, CI (0.29-0.90)) was found protective for disease. Conclusion Tungiasis is still a prevalent health problem in rural communities in Eastern Uganda due to a number of individual (host) and environmental factors. There is need to increase awareness regarding improvement in sanitation and hygiene to enable communities’ implements interventions for prevention of T. penetrans.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wafula, Solomon Tsebeni; Ssemugabo, Charles; Namuhani, Noel; Musoke, David; Ssempebwa, John; Halage, Abdullah Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tungiasis is an endemic but neglected health problem in Uganda especially in resource poor communities. It is largely affecting rural communities in the Eastern, West Nile and Central regions. This study assessed prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda. Methods This was a cross sectional study that used a semi-structured questionnaire and observational checklist to collect quantitative data from 422 households in 12 villages. Prevalence of tungiasis was defined as presence of Tunga penetrans in the skin of any household member at the time of data collection. Results The prevalence of tungiasis was 22.5%. However, a big percentage 41.5% of households were reported to have had T. penetrans in the previous month while 49.5% had T. penetrans for more than one month. Majority (90.5%)of the participants used a pin, needle, or thorn to remove sand flea from infected body parts. Having dirty feet (AOR 3.86, CI (1.76-8.34)), dirty clothes (AOR 3.46, CI (2.00-5.97)), cracked house floor (AOR =6.28, CI (3.28-12.03)), dirty floor (AOR 3.21, CI (1.38-7.46)), littered compounds (AOR= 2.95, CI (1.66-5.26)) and rearing cattle (AOR 2.38, CI (1.28-4.45)) were associated with tungiasis. However, practicing preventive measures (AOR 0.51, CI (0.29-0.90)) was found protective for disease. Conclusion Tungiasis is still a prevalent health problem in rural communities in Eastern Uganda due to a number of individual (host) and environmental factors. There is need to increase awareness regarding improvement in sanitation and hygiene to enable communities’ implements interventions for prevention of T. penetrans. PMID:27642416

  5. Dental fluorosis associated with drinking water from hot springs in Choma district in southern province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Shitumbanuma, V; Tembo, F; Tembo, J M; Chilala, S; Van Ranst, E

    2007-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the high incidence of mottled teeth among residents of an area with hot springs in the Choma District of the Southern Province of Zambia. A survey involving 128 pupils was conducted at a Basic School to collect data on pupil's backgrounds and their main sources of drinking water between birth and age 7. A dental specialist examined the pupils' teeth and samples of drinking water were collected from locations where the majority of the pupils lived. It was analysed for fluorides and other drinking water quality parameters. Results of the survey showed a highly significant (P < 0.001) association between pupils' main sources of drinking water between birth and age 7 and the incidence of discoloured teeth. All (100%) pupils who drank water from hot springs before age 7 had moderate to severe fluorosis, while the majority (96.7%) of the pupils who drank water from other sources had no dental fluorosis. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 5.95 to 10.09 mg/l in water from hot springs, and from 0.03 to 0.6 mg/l in water from other sources. Fluoride levels in water from hot spring water samples exceeded the 1.5 mg/l WHO guideline value for drinking water, while those in water from other sources were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than this. We conclude that the high prevalence of mottled teeth among residents of the study area is a case of endemic dental fluorosis associated with drinking water from hot springs containing high concentrations of fluoride.

  6. Heat Capacity Changes Associated with Nucleic Acid Folding

    PubMed Central

    Mikulecky, Peter J.; Feig, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas heat capacity changes (ΔCPs) associated with folding transitions are commonplace in the literature of protein folding, they have long been considered a minor energetic contributor in nucleic acid folding. Recent advances in the understanding of nucleic acid folding and improved technology for measuring the energetics of folding transitions have allowed a greater experimental window for measuring these effects. We present in this review a survey of current literature that confronts the issue of ΔCPs associated with nucleic acid folding transitions. This work helps to gather the molecular insights that can be gleaned from analysis of ΔCPs and points toward the challenges that will need to be overcome if the energetic contribution of ΔCP terms are to be put to use in improving free energy calculations for nucleic acid structure prediction. PMID:16429398

  7. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (P<0.05) or for good student behavior (P<0.05). School-level respondents in the West and the Midwest were less likely to report that food was not used as a reward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools.

  8. Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, alkalitolerant, sulfite-reducing bacterium isolated from a district heating plant.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Bank; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2006-12-01

    A novel alkalitolerant, anaerobic bacterium, designated strain sk.kt5(T), was isolated from a metal coupon retrieved from a corrosion-monitoring reactor of a Danish district heating plant (Skanderborg, Jutland). The cells of strain sk.kt5(T) were motile, rod-shaped (0.4-0.6 x 2.5-9.6 microm), stained Gram-positive and formed endospores. Strain sk.kt5(T) grew at pH 7.6-10.5 (with optimum growth at pH 8.0-9.5), at temperatures in the range 23-44 degrees C (with optimum growth at 35-37 degrees C), at NaCl concentrations in the range 0-5 % (w/v) (with optimum growth at 0-0.5 %) and required yeast extract for growth. Only a limited number of substrates were utilized as electron donors, including betaine, formate, lactate, methanol, choline and pyruvate. Elemental sulfur, sulfite, thiosulfate, nitrate and nitrite, but not sulfate or Fe(III) citrate, were used as electron acceptors. The G+C content of the DNA was 41.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data for the dsrAB genes [encoding the major subunits of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] and the 16S rRNA gene placed strain sk.kt5(T) within a novel lineage in the class Clostridia of the phylum Firmicutes. Taken together, the physiological and genotypic data suggest that strain sk.kt5(T) represents a novel species within a novel genus, for which the name Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans is sk.kt5(T) (=JCM 12761(T)=DSM 16504(T)).

  9. Using reclaimed water as make-up water for a district heating system: a case study in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Yajun, Zhang; Huizhen, Wang; Ping, Xu; Cuimin, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Make-up water used for a district heating system in Beijing is about 63 kg/m(2).a, so the total quantity of make-up water is over 10 million m(3) per year. Water deficiency is very serious in Beijing. Using reclaimed water as make-up water is one of the important measures to relieve water crises of the city. This study is mainly on nanofiltration (NF) process. The reclaimed water for the experiment is the effluent of The Sixth Water Plant, an urban reclaimed water plant in Beijing. Micro-filter (MF) and activated carbon filtration are used as pretreatment units to eliminate turbidity, organic matter in reclaimed water to avoid contamination and scale on the surface of NF membrane. Four SAEHAN NE-90 membrane elements with an array of 2-1-1 are selected for the NF unit and the flow rate is controlled around 1 m(3)/h. Through the test, it has been verified that NF membrane has high removal rate to the salt and impurity of reclaimed water. The average salt removal rate of the system is more than 94%, while the rejections of bivalent ions are more than 98%. The removal rates of organic matter, NH(3)-N and TP are 77%, 96% and 84% respectively. Temperature is a main influence of the process. When temperature is increasing, the permeate flux is increasing as well. The operating pressure is an important factor effecting membrane flux also. By the data comparison it is confirmed that the appropriate operating pressure and the water recovery of NF system are 0.75 MPa and 63.5% respectively.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Taenia Solium Infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0

  11. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-07-14

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  12. Gastrointestinal helminthiasis: prevalence and associated determinants in domestic ruminants of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Iqbal, Zafar; Hussain, Altaf

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated determinants (e.g., sex, age, on-farm management and husbandry) of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in the domestic animals of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, 1,140 cattle, 1,140 buffaloes, 660 goats, 840 sheep, and 156 camels were randomly selected and their fecal samples were screened every other week for a year using a modified floatation technique. The samples positive for strongyle-type eggs had the parasite species identified using coproculture. It was found that the prevalence of GI helminths was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in sheep (44.17%; 371/840) than in other livestock. Sheep were followed in order by goats (40.15%; 265/660), buffaloes (39.82%; 454/1,140), and cattle (33.68%; 384/1,140). The important helminth species identified were Fasciola (F.) gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara vitulorum, Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Ostertagia spp., Cooperia spp., Strongyloides spp., Moniezia spp., and Trichuris spp. The prevalence of GI helminths except F. hepatica and F. gigantica was significantly higher in grazing animals, females (P < 0.05) and young (P < 0.05) of all the host species when compared with stall-fed animals, males and adults, respectively. Using ponds and rivers/canals as drinking water were found to have significant influence (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of GI helminths. The results provide a baseline data for planning future research and control strategies against GI helminthes.

  13. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

  14. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; DeMartini, Julie K.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E. Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Miller, Kevin C.; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N.; Yeargin, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background  Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Recommendations  Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses. PMID:26381473

  15. Association of child health and household amenities in high focus states in India: a district-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Jitendra; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Yadav, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess household amenities in districts of high focus states and their association with child health in India. Design The data for the study are extracted from Annual Health Survey (AHS) and Census 2011. Settings Districts in high focus states in India. Participants Information regarding children below 5 years of age and women aged 15–49 has been extracted from the AHS (2010–2011), and household amenities information has been obtained from the Census (2011). Measures Household amenities were assessed from the census at the district level in the high focus states. Child health indicators and wealth index were borrowed from AHS and used in this study to check their linkage with household amenities. Results Absence of drinking water from a treated source, improved sanitation, usage of clean cooking fuel and drainage facility in the household were adversely associated with the incidence of acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea, infant mortality rate (IMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR). The mean IMR declined from 64 to 54 for districts where a high proportion of household have improved sanitation. The result of ordinary least square regression shows that improved sanitation has a negative and statistically significant association (β=−0.0067, p<0.01) with U5MR. Conclusions Although child healthcare services are important in addressing child health issues, they barely touch on the root of the problem. Building toilets and providing safe drinking water, clean cooking fuel and drainage facilities at the household level, may prevent a number of adverse child health issues and may reduce the burden on the healthcare system in India. PMID:25968003

  16. Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. )

    1990-09-01

    K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

  17. Associations between heat shock protein 70 genetic polymorphisms and calving traits in crossbred Brahman cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stressors such as heat, cold, toxins, and oxygen deprivation are known to induce heat shock proteins. Genetic polymorphisms associated with heat shock protein genes have been associated with decreased male and female fertility. Our objectives were to 1) confirm single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) ...

  18. Geographical variation in relative risks associated with heat: Update of Spain's Heat Wave Prevention Plan.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J; Carmona, R; Mirón, I J; Ortiz, C; León, I; Linares, C

    2015-12-01

    A decade after the implementation of prevention plans designed to minimise the impact of high temperatures on health, some countries have decided to update these plans in order to improve the weakness detected in these ten years of operation. In the case of Spain, this update has fundamentally consisted of changing the so-called "threshold" or "trigger" temperatures used to activate the plan, by switching from temperature values based on climatological criteria to others obtained by epidemiological studies conducted on a provincial scale. This study reports the results of these "trigger" temperatures for each of Spain's 52 provincial capitals, as well as the impact of heat on mortality by reference to the relative risks (RRs) and attributable risks (ARs) calculated for natural as well as circulatory and respiratory causes. The results obtained for threshold temperatures and RRs show a more uniform behaviour pattern than those obtained using temperature values based on climatological criteria; plus a clear decrease in RRs of heat-associated mortality due to the three causes considered, at both a provincial and regional level as well as for Spain as a whole. The updating of prevention plans is regarded as crucial for optimising the operation of these plans in terms of reducing the effect of high temperatures on population health.

  19. Characterization of Heat Waves in the Sahel and associated mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Boutheina; Pohl, Benjamin; Moron, Vincent; Rome, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Large efforts are made to investigate the heat waves (HW) in developed countries because of their devastating impacts on society, economy and environment. This interest increased after the intense event over Europe during summer 2003. However, HWs are still understudied over developing countries. This is particularly true in West Africa, and especially in the Sahel, where temperatures recurrently reach critical values, such as during the 2010 HW event. Understanding the Sahelian HWs and associated health risks constitute the main objective of ACASIS, a 4-year project funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche. Our work contributes to this project and aims at characterizing the Sahelian HWs and understanding the mechanisms associated with such extreme events. There is no universal definition of a HW event, since it is highly dependent on the sector (human health, agriculture, transport...) and region of interest. In our case, a HW is defined when the heat index of the day and of the night exceeds the 90th percentile for at least 3 consecutive days (Rome et al. 2016, in preparation). This index combines temperature and relative humidity in order to determine the human-perceived equivalent temperature (definition adapted from Steadman, 1979). Intrinsic properties of Sahelian HW are analyzed from the Global Summary of the Day (GSOD) synoptic observations and ERA-interim reanalyses over 1979-2014 during boreal spring seasons (April-May-June), the warmest period of the year in the Central Sahel. ERA-interim captures well the observed interannual variability and seasonal cycle at the regional scale, as well as the 1979-2014 increasing linear trend of springtime HW occurrences in the Sahel. Reanalyses, however, overestimate the duration, spatial extent of HW, and underestimate their intensity. For both GSOD and ERA-interim, we show that, over the last three decades, Sahelian HWs tend to become more frequent, last longer, cover larger areas and reach higher

  20. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

  1. Chlorophyll loss associated with heat-induced senescence in bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-08-01

    Heat stress-induced leaf senescence is characterized by the loss of chlorophyll from leaf tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine genetic variations in the level of heat-induced leaf senescence in hybrids of colonial (Agrostis capillaris)×creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) contrasting in heat tolerance, and determine whether loss of leaf chlorophyll during heat-induced leaf senescence was due to suppressed chlorophyll synthesis and/or accelerated chlorophyll degradation in the cool-season perennial grass species. Plants of two hybrid backcross genotypes ('ColxCB169' and 'ColxCB190') were exposed to heat stress (38/33°C, day/night) for 28 d in growth chambers. The analysis of turf quality, membrane stability, photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll content demonstrated significant variations in the level of leaf senescence induced by heat stress between the two genotypes, with ColXCB169 exhibiting a lesser degree of decline in chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency and membrane stability than ColXCB190. The assays of enzymatic activity or gene expression of several major chlorophyll-synthesizing (porphobilinogen deaminase, Mg-chelatase, protochlorophyllide-reductase) and chlorophyll-degrading enzymes (chlorophyllase, pheophytinase, and chlorophyll-degrading peroxidase) indicated heat-induced decline in leaf chlorophyll content was mainly due to accelerated chlorophyll degradation, as manifested by increased gene expression levels of chlorophyllase and pheophytinase, and the activity of pheophytinase (PPH), while chlorophyll-synthesizing genes and enzymatic activities were not differentially altered by heat stress in the two genotypes. The analysis of heat-induced leaf senescence of pph mutants of Arabidopsis further confirmed that PPH could be one enzymes that plays key roles in regulating heat-accelerated chlorophyll degradation. Further research on enzymes responsible in part for the loss of chlorophyll during heat

  2. Master Contract: San Joaquin Delta College Teachers Association/CTA/NEA and San Joaquin Delta Community College District, July 1987-June 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Joaquin Delta Community Coll. District, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the San Joaquin Delta Community College District Board of Trustees and the San Joaquin Delta College Teachers Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1987 through June 1990, deals with the following topics:…

  3. Collective Bargaining Agreement, 1989-1992, between College of the Desert Faculty Association CTA/NEA and Desert Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desert Community Coll. District, Palm Desert, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Desert Community College District Board of Trustees and the College of the Desert Faculty Association/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from November 17, 1989 through June 30, 1992, deals with the following topics: bargaining…

  4. Development of Technologies on Innovative Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (10) Application to a Small District-Heating Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tadashi Narabayashi; Yoichiro Shimadu; Toshiiro Murase; Masatoshi Nagai; Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori

    2006-07-01

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to use as a passive ECCS pump and also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. In order to develop a high reliability passive ECCS pump and a compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. We carried out experiments to observe the internal behavior of the water jet as well as measure the velocity of steam jet using a laser Doppler velocimetry. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was also conducted by using a CFD code with the separate two-phase flow models. With regard to the simplified feed-water system, size of four-stage SI system is almost the same as the model SI that had done the steam and water test that pressures were same as that of current ABWR. The authors also conducted the hot water supply system test in the snow for a district heating. With regard to the SI core cooling system, the performance tests results showed that the low-pressure SI core cooling system will decrease the PCT to almost the same as the saturation temperature of the steam pressure in a pressure vessel. As it is compact equipment, SI is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, while its simple structure ensures high reliability of its operation, thereby greatly contributing to the simplification of the power plant for not only an ABWR power plant but also a small PWR/ BWR for district heating system. (authors)

  5. Conservation laws and associated Lie point symmetries admitted by the transient heat conduction problem for heat transfer in straight fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndlovu, Partner; Moitsheki, Rasselo

    2013-08-01

    Some new conservation laws for the transient heat conduction problem for heat transfer in a straight fin are constructed. The thermal conductivity is given by a power law in one case and by a linear function of temperature in the other. Conservation laws are derived using the direct method when thermal conductivity is given by the power law and the multiplier method when thermal conductivity is given as a linear function of temperature. The heat transfer coefficient is assumed to be given by the power law function of temperature. Furthermore, we determine the Lie point symmetries associated with the conserved vectors for the model with power law thermal conductivity.

  6. Numerical prediction of turbulent oscillating flow and associated heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, W. J.; Patankar, S. V.; Ibele, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial point for further development of engines is the optimization of its heat exchangers which operate under oscillatory flow conditions. It has been found that the most important thermodynamic uncertainties in the Stirling engine designs for space power are in the heat transfer between gas and metal in all engine components and in the pressure drop across the heat exchanger components. So far, performance codes cannot predict the power output of a Stirling engine reasonably enough if used for a wide variety of engines. Thus, there is a strong need for better performance codes. However, a performance code is not concerned with the details of the flow. This information must be provided externally. While analytical relationships exist for laminar oscillating flow, there has been hardly any information about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow, which could be introduced into the performance codes. In 1986, a survey by Seume and Simon revealed that most Stirling engine heat exchangers operate in the transitional and turbulent regime. Consequently, research has since focused on the unresolved issue of transitional and turbulent oscillating flow and heat transfer. Since 1988, the University of Minnesota oscillating flow facility has obtained experimental data about transitional and turbulent oscillating flow. However, since the experiments in this field are extremely difficult, lengthy, and expensive, it is advantageous to numerically simulate the flow and heat transfer accurately from first principles. Work done at the University of Minnesota on the development of such a numerical simulation is summarized.

  7. Coupled heat and fluid flow modeling of the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Alaska: Implications for the genesis of the Red Dog Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garven, G.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Victor Valley College Agreement between the Victor Valley Community College District and the Victor Valley College California Teachers Association Chapter 1170. July 1989 - June 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor Valley Community Coll. District, Victorville, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Victor Valley College Board of Trustees and the Victor Valley College California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1989 through June 1992, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; district and…

  9. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in Homa Bay District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and leads to economic losses to the pig production industry. Due to scarcity of data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Kenya, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis within Homa Bay district. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010, and a total of 392 pigs were recruited in a household survey, with all being tested by ante-mortem lingual palpation (together with questionnaire data on pig production, occurrence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis, risk factors and awareness of porcine cysticercosis collected from the households from which pigs were sampled). Sufficient serum was collected from 232 of the pigs to be tested for the presence of circulating parasite antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). Results Seventy six pigs were found positive by the Ag-ELISA (32.8%, 95% C.I. 26.8-39.2%), while by tongue inspection cysticerci were detected in 22/ 392 pigs (5.6% 95% C.I. 3.6-8.4%). The most important risk factor for porcine cysticercosis in the Homa Bay area was for pigs to belong to a farm where latrine use by members of the household was not evident (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37). Conclusion The present findings indicate that porcine cysticercosis is endemic in Homa Bay District, and that latrine provision, in conjunction with free-range pig keeping contributes significantly to porcine cysticercosis transmission. PMID:23217158

  10. Alkalic rocks and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Powderhorn District, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, J.C.; Hedlund, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Alkalic igneous rocks and related concentrations of thorium, niobium, rare-earth elements, titanium, and other elements have long been known in the Powderhorn mining district and have been explored intermittently for several decades. The deposits formed chiefly about 570 m.y. (million years) ago in latest Precambrian or Early Cambrian time. They were emplaced in lower Proterozoic (Proterozoic X) metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and plutonic rocks. The complex of alkalic rocks of Iron Hill occupies 31 km 2 (square kilometers) and is composed of pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, nepheline syenite, and carbonatite, in order of generally decreasing age. Fenite occurs in a zone, in places more than 0.6 km (kilometer) wide, around a large part of the margin of the complex and adjacent to alkalic dikes intruding Precambrian host rock. The alkalic rocks have a radioactivity, chiefly due to thorium, greater than that of the surrounding Powderhorn Granite (Proterozoic X) and metamorphic rocks. The pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, and nepheline syenite, which form more than 80 percent of the complex, have fairly uniform radioactivity. Radioactivity in the carbonatite stock, carbonatite dikes, and the carbonatite-pyroxenite mixed rock zone, however, generally exceeds that in the other rocks of the complex. The thorium concentrations in the Powderhorn district occur in six types of deposits: thorite veins, a large massive carbonatite body, carbonatite dikes, trachyte dikes, magnetite-ilmeniteperovskite dikes or segregations, and disseminations in small, anomalously radioactive plutons chiefly of granite or quartz syenite that are older than rocks of the alkalic complex. The highest grade thorium concentrations in the district are in veins that commonly occur in steeply dipping, crosscutting shear or breccia zones in the Precambrian rocks. They range in thickness from a centimeter or less to 5 m (meters) and are as much as 1 km long. The thorite veins are composed chiefly of

  11. The partition of energy associated with tropical heat sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva-Dias, P. L.; Paegle, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    Data sets derived from observations during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) have permitted the study of the behavior of the tropical atmosphere to an extent not possible before. The present summary discusses characteristics of the tropical atmosphere which may be a result of tropical heating. It is shown that the meridional component of the divergent wind is of the same order of magnitude an he rotational meridional wind for the planetary tropical scales. Furthermore, the first and second internal modes dominate over most of the tropics, and it is shown that gravity and Kelvin codes are the main contributors to the total tropical divergence. Comparison with averaged station precipitation data and heating estimates obtained from Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Science (GLAS)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) show good correspondence between areas with maximum internal mode energy and regions with pronounced latent heat release.

  12. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Daping; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Yong; Chen, Wei; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang

    2013-01-01

    Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on. PMID:24135822

  13. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  14. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  15. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume begins with an Introduction summarizing the history, methodology and scope of the study, the project team members and the private and public groups consulted in the course of the study. The Load and Service Area Assessment follows, including: a compilation and analysis of existing statistical thermal load data from census data, industrial directories, PSE and G records and other sources; an analysis of responses to a detailed, 4-page thermal load questionnaire; data on public buildings and fuel and energy use provided by the New Jersey Dept. of Energy; and results of other customer surveys conducted by PSE and G. A discussion of institutional questions follows. The general topic of rates is then discussed, including a draft hypothetical Tariff for Thermal Services. Financial considerations are discussed including a report identifying alternative ownership/financing options for district heating systems and the tax implications of these options. Four of these options were then selected by PSE and G and a financial (cash-flow) analysis done (by the PSE and G System Planning Dept.) in comparison with a conventional heating alternative. Year-by-year cost of heat ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) was calculated and tabulated, and the various options compared.

  16. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  17. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. Aim To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Results Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Conclusion Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis. PMID:26816986

  18. THIN CURRENT SHEETS AND ASSOCIATED ELECTRON HEATING IN TURBULENT SPACE PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Chasapis, A.; Retinò, A.; Sahraoui, F.; Canu, P.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Sundkvist, D.; Greco, A.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.

    2015-05-01

    Intermittent structures, such as thin current sheets, are abundant in turbulent plasmas. Numerical simulations indicate that such current sheets are important sites of energy dissipation and particle heating occurring at kinetic scales. However, direct evidence of dissipation and associated heating within current sheets is scarce. Here, we show a new statistical study of local electron heating within proton-scale current sheets by using high-resolution spacecraft data. Current sheets are detected using the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method which identifies regions of strong intermittency. We find that strong electron heating occurs in high PVI (>3) current sheets while no significant heating occurs in low PVI cases (<3), indicating that the former are dominant for energy dissipation. Current sheets corresponding to very high PVI (>5) show the strongest heating and most of the time are consistent with ongoing magnetic reconnection. This suggests that reconnection is important for electron heating and dissipation at kinetic scales in turbulent plasmas.

  19. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  20. Mapping QTL for the traits associated with heat tolerance in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature (heat) stress during grain filling is a major problem in most of the wheat growing areas. Developing heat-tolerant cultivars is becoming a principal breeding goal in the Southern and Central Great Plain areas of USA. Traits associated with high temperature tolerance can be used to d...

  1. Direct heating rates associated with gravity wave saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Erich

    2004-04-01

    Analysis of filtering out subscale motions is applied for internal gravity waves. This leads to a new perspective of the planetary-scale sensible heat budget of the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. In line with previous results of Becker and Schmitz, the present paper recapitulates that the dissipation of gravity wave kinetic energy and the local adiabatic conversion of mean enthalpy into gravity wave kinetic energy cannot be neglected, and that the net effect of both cools the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. In addition, the importance of the wave entropy flux-an effect which is ignored in customary gravity wave parameterizations for global circulation models-is stressed. We show that, when evaluated on the basis of Lindzen's saturation assumption, the wave entropy flux convergence behaves like a vertical diffusion of the mean stratification, where the wave-induced diffusion coefficient is involved with a Prandtl number of 2. This result imposes an upper bound of 2 for the effective Prandtl number which scales the combined entropy flux owing to turbulence and gravity waves. The direct heating rates generated by gravity wave saturation are assessed quantitatively, using an idealized general circulation model completed by a Lindzen-type gravity wave parameterization.

  2. Carbonatite associated with ultramafic diatremes in the Avon Volcanic District, Missouri, USA: Field, petrographic, and geochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, Ethan J.; Ghulam, Abduwasit; Encarnacion, John; Bridges, David L.; Luetkemeyer, P. Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report field, petrographic, and geochemical analyses of the southeast Missouri Avon Volcanic District intrusive rocks and present the first combined textural and geochemical evidence for the presence of a primary magmatic carbonatite phase among ultramafic dikes, pipes, and diatremes of olivine melilitite, alnöite, and calciocarbonatite. The δ13CVPDB values measured for primary calciocarbonatite as well as carbonates in olivine melilitite and alnöite rocks range from - 3.8‰ to - 8.2‰, which are within the typical range of mantle values and are distinct from values of the carbonate country rocks, 0.0‰ to - 1.3‰. The carbonate oxygen isotope compositions for the intrusive lithologies are in the range of 21.5‰ to 26.2‰ (VSMOW), consistent with post-emplacement low temperature hydrothermal alteration or kinetic fractionation effects associated with decompression and devolatilization. Metasomatized country rock and breccia-contaminated igneous lithologies have carbonate δ13CVPDB values gradational between primary carbonatite values and country rock values. Unaltered sedimentary dolomite breccia and mafic spheroids entrained by calciocarbonatite and the lack of microstratigraphic crystal growth typical of carbonate replacement, also exclude the possibility of hydrothermal replacement as the cause of the magmatic-textured carbonates. Rare earth element (REE) patterns for the alnöite, olivine melilitite, and carbonatite are similar to each other with strong light REE enrichment and heavy REE depletion relative to MORB. These patterns are distinct from those of country rock rhyolite and sedimentary carbonate. These data suggest that rocks of the Avon Volcanic District represent a single ultramafic-carbonatite intrusive complex possibly derived from a single mantle source.

  3. Agreement by and between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 11 and the Pierce College Faculty Association, 1989-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce Coll., Tacoma, WA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District number 11 in the state of Washington and the Pierce College Faculty Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from March 1, 1989 to February 29, 1992, deals with the following topics: the scope of the agreement; grievance and…

  4. 1972-73 Agreement Between Board of Junior College District No. 532 County of Lake and State of Illinois and College of Lake County Local United Professions Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Coll., Grayslake, IL.

    Presented in this document is the agreement between the Board of Junior College District No. 532 County of Lake and State of Illinois and the College of Lake County Local United Professions Association for the period from 1972-73. Covered in the articles of agreement are sections on negotiation procedures, leaves of absence, school calendar, use…

  5. Agreement between Cuyahoga Community College District and the American Association of University Professors Cuyahoga Community College Chapter, September 1, 1983 through September 1, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Cuyahoga Community College District and the Cuyahoga Community College chapter (310 members) of the American Association of University Professors covering the period September 1, 1983-September 1, 1986 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition, membership obligations, dues…

  6. Agreement between Cuyahoga Community College District and the American Association of University Professors Cuyahoga Community College Chapter, September 1, 1986-September 1, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Professors, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Cuyahoga Community College District and the college's chapter of the American Association of University Professors covering the period September 1, 1985-September 1, 1989 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition, membership obligations, dues checkoff, board of trustees'…

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  8. Heat Wave–Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Trinanes, Joaquin A.; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G.H.; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens. PMID:27314874

  9. Heat Wave-Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014.

    PubMed

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G H; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens. PMID:27314874

  10. Increased hospital admissions associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1990-2010

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael G.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with extreme heat events, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the impact of extreme heat events on hospitalization rates in the Pacific Northwest region. This study quantifies the historical (May to September 1990-2010) heat-morbidity relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County -King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the association between heat and all non-traumatic hospitalizations on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis using a piece-wise linear model approximation was used to estimate the effect that heat’s intensity has on hospitalizations, adjusted for temporal trends and day of the week. A non-statistically significant 2% [95% CI: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)] increase in hospitalization risk, on a heat day versus a non-heat day, was noted for all-ages, all non-traumatic causes. When considering the effect heat intensity has on admissions, we found a statistically significant 1.59% (95% CI: 0.9%, 2.29%) increase in admissions per degree increase in humidex above 37.4 °C. Admissions stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results with both relative risk and time series analyses for nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure and natural heat exposure hospitalizations. This study demonstrates that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased hospital admissions. When stratified by age and cause of admission, the non-elderly (less than 85) age groups experience significant risk for: nephritis and nephrotic syndromes, acute renal failure, natural heat exposure, COPD and asthma hospitalizations. PMID:25719287

  11. Carried or Defeated? Examining the Factors Associated with Passing School District Bond Elections in Texas, 1997-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Lee, Jooyoung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Across the United States, a large percentage of school districts are in need of facility improvements to provide safe and adequate buildings to facilitate student learning. To finance new construction, school districts traditionally have put proposals before local voters to fund construction through issuing long-term bonds to finance…

  12. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A; Hom, Elizabeth K; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10% (1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69% (95% CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0°C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks. PMID:25956805

  13. Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Fenske, Richard A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Ren, You; Lyons, Hilary; Yost, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in temperate climates. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the Pacific Northwest region in their analyses. This study quantified the historical (May to September, 1980-2010) heat-mortality relationship in the most populous Pacific Northwest County, King County, Washington. A relative risk (RR) analysis was used to explore the relationship between heat and all-cause mortality on 99th percentile heat days, while a time series analysis, using a piece-wise linear model fit, was used to estimate the effect of heat intensity on mortality, adjusted for temporal trends. For all ages, all causes, we found a 10 % (1.10 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.14)) increase in the risk of death on a heat day versus non-heat day. When considering the intensity effect of heat on all-cause mortality, we found a 1.69 % (95 % CI, 0.69, 2.70) increase in the risk of death per unit of humidex above 36.0 °C. Mortality stratified by cause and age produced statistically significant results using both types of analyses for: all-cause, non-traumatic, circulatory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and diabetes causes of death. All-cause mortality was statistically significantly modified by the type of synoptic weather type. These results demonstrate that heat, expressed as humidex, is associated with increased mortality on heat days, and that risk increases with heat's intensity. While age was the only individual-level characteristic found to modify mortality risks, statistically significant increases in diabetes-related mortality for the 45-64 age group suggests that underlying health status may contribute to these risks.

  14. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part I: Dynamic intake fraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature by proposing a novel, state-of-the-art approach to estimate incremental air quality and health impacts of proposed or installed district energy systems (DES), such as the growing biomass-based DES, on the immediately surrounding community where population density varies significantly during day as well as the micrometeorological conditions. Spatial and temporal dynamics of pollutant concentrations at sensitive receptors obtained from modeled actual source emissions, inclusion of site-specific terrain, land use and microclimatic characteristics, population density and breathing rates are examined based on their impacts on the exposure potential expressed by the intake fraction (iF). Overall, results revealed that when those parameters are changing, the increase of iF calculated based on average ambient concentrations at each receptor for the UBC campus for the day and night hours for September 2012, ranges from 6.2% to 43.0%: introducing actual spatial receptor distribution led to 43% increase of iF, combined spatial and population dynamics led to 11.3% increase of iF, while introducing temporal dynamics and varying breathing rates resulted in 6.2% and 21.4% increase in iF respectively, compared to the base case box model where receptors and population were treated as static and uniformly distributed across the modeling domain. It is thus essential to take into consideration temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric conditions and dispersion, population density and varying aspiration rates in accurately assessing the health impacts of DES located at densely populated urban communities.

  15. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at Olkalou District Hospital, Central Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muchemi, Onesmus Maina; Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-two percent of Low Birth Weight(LBW) infants are born in developing countries, 70% in Asia and 22% in Africa. WHO and UNICEF estimate LBW in Kenya as11% and 6%by 2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. The same survey estimated LBW to be 5.5% in Central Province, Kenya. Data in Olkalou hospital indicated that prevalence of LBW was high. However, factors giving rise to the problem remained unknown. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital. LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g. We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 women were randomly selected from 500mothers. Data was managed using Epi Info 3.3.2. Results The prevalence of LBW was 12.3% (n=40). The mean age of mothers was 25.6±6.2 years. Mean birth weight was 2928±533 grams. There were 51.1% (n=165) male neonates and 48.9% (n=158) females. The following factors were significantly associated with LBW:LBW delivery in a previous birth (OR=4.7, 95%C.I.=1.53-14.24), premature rapture of membranes (OR=2.95, 95%C.I.=1.14-7.62), premature births (OR=3.65, 95%C.I.=1.31-10.38), and female newborn (OR=2.32, 95%C.I.=1.15-4.70). On logistic regression only delivery of LBW baby in a previous birth (OR=5.07, 95%C.I.=1.59-16.21) and female infant (OR=3.37, 95%C.I.=1.14-10.00)were independently associated with LBW. Conclusion Prevalence of LBW in the hospital was higher than national estimates. Female infant and LBW baby in a previous birth are independent factors. Local prevention efforts are necessary to mitigate the problem. Population-based study is necessary to provide accurate estimates in the area. PMID:26090056

  16. Association between arsenic exposure from a coal-burning power plant and urinary arsenic concentrations in Prievidza District, Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Ranft, Ulrich; Miskovic, Peter; Pesch, Beate; Jakubis, Pavel; Fabianova, Elenora; Keegan, Tom; Hergemöller, Andre; Jakubis, Marian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To assess the arsenic exposure of a population living in the vicinity of a coal-burning power plant with high arsenic emission in the Prievidza District, Slovakia, 548 spot urine samples were speciated for inorganic As (Asinorg), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and their sum (Assum). The urine samples were collected from the population of a case-control study on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). A total of 411 samples with complete As speciations and sufficient urine quality and without fish consumption were used for statistical analysis. Although current environmental As exposure and urinary As concentrations were low (median As in soil within 5 km distance to the power plant, 41 micro g/g; median urinary Assum, 5.8 microg/L), there was a significant but weak association between As in soil and urinary Assum(r = 0.21, p < 0.01). We performed a multivariate regression analysis to calculate adjusted regression coefficients for environmental As exposure and other determinants of urinary As. Persons living in the vicinity of the plant had 27% higher Assum values (p < 0.01), based on elevated concentrations of the methylated species. A 32% increase of MMA occurred among subjects who consumed homegrown food (p < 0.001). NMSC cases had significantly higher levels of Assum, DMA, and Asinorg. The methylation index Asinorg/(MMA + DMA) was about 20% lower among cases (p < 0.05) and in men (p < 0.05) compared with controls and females, respectively. PMID:12782488

  17. Factors Associated With Heat Strain Among Workers at an Aluminum Smelter in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Bich N.; Dowell, Chad H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of heat strain and factors associated with heat strain among workers at an aluminum smelter in Texas. Methods Continuous core body temperature (Tc), heart rate, and pre- and postshift serum electrolytes, and urine specific gravity were measured, and symptom questionnaires were administered. Results Most participants (54%) had 1 or more signs of heat strain. Unacclimatized participants were significantly more likely to exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists–recommended Tc than acclimatized participants (88% vs 20%; P < 0.01). Participants who exceeded the Tc for their acclimatization status and/or exceeded the recommended sustained peak HR had a significantly lower body mass index than those who did not (27.6 vs 31.8 and 28.4 vs 32.4, respectively; P = 0.01). Conclusions Employees and management need to strictly adhere to a heat stress management program to minimize heat stress and strain. PMID:24458134

  18. Experimental evidence in support of Joule heating associated with geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution accelerometer measurements in the altitude region 140 to 300 km from a satellite in a near-polar orbit during a period of extremely high geomagnetic activity indicate that Joule heating is the primary source of energy for atmospheric heating associated with geomagnetic activity. This conclusion is supported by the following observational evidence: (1) There is an atmospheric response in the auroral zone which is nearly simulataneous with the onset of geomagnetic activity, with no significant response in the equatorial region until several hours later; (2) The maximum heating occurs at geographic locations near the maximum current of the auroral electrojet; and (3) There is evidence of atmospheric waves originating near the auroral zone at altitudes where Joule heating would be expected to occur. An analysis of atmospheric response time to this heat shows time delays are apparently independent of altitude but are strongly dependent upon geomagnetic latitude.

  19. Wireless sensor network for remote monitoring of parameters in distribution points of district utilities for heat and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Ilie, Ioana; Vasile, Alexandru; Svasta, Paul; Tapu, Adina

    2009-01-01

    Rigorous monitoring of technological parameters optimizes the activities and reduces energy losses in distribution points of heat and water from utility companies. Extra efficiency can be achieved by remote monitoring via Internet or GSM communications and using networks of wireless sensors for collecting data. Presented paper focuses on hardware and software design aspects of wireless sensors for measuring parameters required by water and heat distribution, with focus on flow and temperature measurement. The sensors consist of two modules - one control and communication unit and sensing unit. Sensing unit is specific to measured parameter (flow, temperature, humidity etc.) but control and communication unit is the same for all sensors. Software for sensing unit was developed and tested on a universal electronic module for industrial control. Sensors group together in a plug-and-play wireless mesh network and one of them is connected to an Internet/GSM communication module for remote access. Wireless sensors are battery based devices so energy management issues (hardware and software) play a big role in sensor design. Current consumption of different configurations and in different operation states is analyzed.

  20. Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers: findings of the Thai Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kjellstrom, Tord; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to work very fast. Nearly 20% of workers experienced occupational heat stress which strongly and significantly associated with occupational injury (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.87-2.42 for males and 1.89, 95%CI 1.64-2.18 for females). This study provides evidence connecting heat stress and occupational injury in tropical Thailand and also identifies several factors that increase heat exposure. The findings will be useful for policy makers to consider work-related heat stress problems in tropical Thailand and to develop an occupational health and safety program which is urgently needed given the looming threat of global warming.

  1. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, p<0.001). When sap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  2. Heat Death Associations with the built environment, social vulnerability and their interactions with rising temperature.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David P; Wilhalme, Holly; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Chester, Mikhail; English, Paul; Pincetl, Stephanie; Fraser, Andrew; Vangala, Sitaram; Dhaliwal, Satvinder K

    2016-09-01

    In an extreme heat event, people can go to air-conditioned public facilities if residential air-conditioning is not available. Residences that heat slowly may also mitigate health effects, particularly in neighborhoods with social vulnerability. We explored the contributions of social vulnerability and these infrastructures to heat mortality in Maricopa County and whether these relationships are sensitive to temperature. Using Poisson regression modeling with heat-related mortality as the outcome, we assessed the interaction of increasing temperature with social vulnerability, access to publicly available air conditioned space, home air conditioning and the thermal properties of residences. As temperatures increase, mortality from heat-related illness increases less in census tracts with more publicly accessible cooled spaces. Mortality from all internal causes of death did not have this association. Building thermal protection was not associated with mortality. Social vulnerability was still associated with mortality after adjusting for the infrastructure variables. To reduce heat-related mortality, the use of public cooled spaces might be expanded to target the most vulnerable. PMID:27583525

  3. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill.

  4. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  5. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill. PMID:18603362

  6. Exploring systems affected by the heat shock response in Plasmodium falciparum via protein association networks

    PubMed Central

    Lilburn, Timothy G.; Cai, Hong; Gu, Jianying; Zhou, Zhan; Wang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    The heat shock response is a general mechanism by which organisms deal with physical insults such as sudden changes in temperature, osmotic and oxidative stresses, and exposure to toxic substances. Plasmodium falciparum is exposed to drastic temperature changes as a part of its life cycle and maintains an extensive repertoire of heat shock response-related proteins. As these proteins serve to maintain the parasite in the face of anti-malarial drugs as well, better understanding of the heat shock-related systems in the malaria parasite will lead to therapeutic approaches that frustrate these systems, leading to more effective use of anti-malarials. Here we use protein association networks to broaden our understanding of the systems impacted by and/or implicated in the heat shock response. PMID:25539848

  7. Challenges associated with projecting urbanization-induced heat-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Hondula, David M; Georgescu, Matei; Balling, Robert C

    2014-08-15

    Maricopa County, Arizona, anchor to the fastest growing megapolitan area in the United States, is located in a hot desert climate where extreme temperatures are associated with elevated risk of mortality. Continued urbanization in the region will impact atmospheric temperatures and, as a result, potentially affect human health. We aimed to quantify the number of excess deaths attributable to heat in Maricopa County based on three future urbanization and adaptation scenarios and multiple exposure variables. Two scenarios (low and high growth projections) represent the maximum possible uncertainty range associated with urbanization in central Arizona, and a third represents the adaptation of high-albedo cool roof technology. Using a Poisson regression model, we related temperature to mortality using data spanning 1983-2007. Regional climate model simulations based on 2050-projected urbanization scenarios for Maricopa County generated distributions of temperature change, and from these predicted changes future excess heat-related mortality was estimated. Subject to urbanization scenario and exposure variable utilized, projections of heat-related mortality ranged from a decrease of 46 deaths per year (-95%) to an increase of 339 deaths per year (+359%). Projections based on minimum temperature showed the greatest increase for all expansion and adaptation scenarios and were substantially higher than those for daily mean temperature. Projections based on maximum temperature were largely associated with declining mortality. Low-growth and adaptation scenarios led to the smallest increase in predicted heat-related mortality based on mean temperature projections. Use of only one exposure variable to project future heat-related deaths may therefore be misrepresentative in terms of direction of change and magnitude of effects. Because urbanization-induced impacts can vary across the diurnal cycle, projections of heat-related health outcomes that do not consider place

  8. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, p<0.001). When sap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission. PMID:26551202

  9. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C.; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S.; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.3, p<0.001). When sap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9–1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents’ knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission. PMID:26551202

  10. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zerdo, Zerihun; Yohanes, Tsegaye; Tariku, Befikadu

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1–28.2), 16.2% (12.7–20.1), and 1.0% (0.3–2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. PMID:26941997

  11. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zerdo, Zerihun; Yohanes, Tsegaye; Tariku, Befikadu

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1-28.2), 16.2% (12.7-20.1), and 1.0% (0.3-2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. PMID:26941997

  12. Precipitation variability over the South Asian monsoon heat low and associated teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Sajjad; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Hagemann, Stefan; Jacob, Daniela; Mujumdar, M.; Krishnan, R.

    2011-04-01

    The present study examines the precipitation variability over the South Asian monsoon heat low region and associated teleconnections using high resolution (T106L31) climate simulations performed with the ECHAM5 model. It is found that an intensification of the heat low in response to enhanced precipitation/convection over northwestern India-Pakistan (NWIP) can induce large-scale circulation anomalies that resemble the northern summer circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) wave-like pattern extending well into the Asian monsoon region. Accordingly the wave-like response to rainfall increase over the heat low region is associated with anomalous ascent over northern China and descent over the South China Sea. Additionally, small but statistically significant lead-lag correlations between the heat low and precipitation over northern China further suggest that the detected signal pertains to the true features of the process. On the other hand, suppressed convection and rainfall over the heat low region do not reveal any significant large-scale circulation anomalies.

  13. Differential immunological effects of infrared irradiation and its associated heat in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Hong, Chien-Hui; Liao, Wei-Ting; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2016-02-01

    Infrared irradiation (IR) is the most abundant fraction of sunlight reaching the earth's surface and provides heat. The fever response of an animal is known to regulate its immune responses. However, the non-thermal immune responses of IR were difficult to assess owing to its close association with heat. We hypothesized that IR irradiation induced differential immunological responses, independent of its associated heat. With an IR machine coupled with a delicate temperature control system, we investigated the non-thermal immunological effects of IR in vivo. With heating at 37 °C or 39 °C using an electric blanket or IR irradiation, we measured the skin's physiological parameters, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pH, skin hydration, elasticity, sebum production, and skin blood flow. We also measured the number of Langerhans cells in epidermal sheets and draining lymph nodes. Lymph node cells were activated by anti-CD3 antibody and their production of interleukin (IL)-5, 10, 13, 17, and interferon (IFN)-γ was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The result showed that compared to heating alone, IR causes an enhanced activation of epidermal Langerhans cells, both in epidermal sheets and in draining lymph nodes. The activation of draining lymph node cells by anti-CD3 antibody in vitro induces both Th2 and Th1, but not Treg immune responses. Interestingly, IL-13, a Th2 cytokine, is induced the most. In contrast, physiological parameters and barrier functions of skin were not altered after IR irradiation. The study showed that IR alone without heat modulates immune responses in vivo, indicating that IR irradiation might regulate host immunity in a heat-independent manner.

  14. Associations between Grades and Physical Activity and Food Choices: Results from YRBS from a Large Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Beard, Jonathan; Young, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between television viewing time, physical activity level, food consumption patterns, and academic performance of adolescents in a large urban school district in the USA where health disparities are prevalent, particularly among minority residents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  15. Extraordinary heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl and associated large-scale conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; King, Andrew D.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Durre, Imke; Karoly, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually hot summer conditions occurred during the 1930s over the central United States and undoubtedly contributed to the severity of the Dust Bowl drought. We investigate local and large-scale conditions in association with the extraordinary heat and drought events, making use of novel datasets of observed climate extremes and climate reanalysis covering the past century. We show that the unprecedented summer heat during the Dust Bowl years was likely exacerbated by land-surface feedbacks associated with springtime precipitation deficits. The reanalysis results indicate that these deficits were associated with the coincidence of anomalously warm North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific surface waters and a shift in atmospheric pressure patterns leading to reduced flow of moist air into the central US. Thus, the combination of springtime ocean temperatures and atmospheric flow anomalies, leading to reduced precipitation, also holds potential for enhanced predictability of summer heat events. The results suggest that hot drought, more severe than experienced during the most recent 2011 and 2012 heat waves, is to be expected when ocean temperature anomalies like those observed in the 1930s occur in a world that has seen significant mean warming.

  16. Factors associated with recidivism among adolescents girls in conflict with the law in an institution in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallassi, Andrea Donatti; dos Santos, Samantha Lima; Santos, Vagner Dos; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Fischer, Benedikt; Galinkin, Ana Lúcia; Wagner, Gabriela Arantes

    2015-12-01

    Recidivism is a challenge for the Brazilian socio-educational system because it is associated with personal, social and environmental factors, especially among juvenile offenders. This study examined key characteristics and potential association with recidivism in 391 female adolescent offenders from a correctional institution in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil, between 2004 and 2011. Cross-sectional data on socio-demographics, drug use and offense characteristics from institutional information were examined. Associate factors with recidivism were examined using negative binomial regression analyses. 32.5% of offenders were recidivists at present admission and the mean frequency of recidivism among recidivists was 2.16. About half (53.6%) of the sample reported drug use. After the adjustment, recidivism was positively associated with: age; offender's drug use; residence status; offense type; and no family drug use. Factors associated with juvenile offenders' recidivism confirm findings from elsewhere, and should inform targeted interventions in Brazil.

  17. Factors associated with recidivism among adolescents girls in conflict with the law in an institution in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallassi, Andrea Donatti; dos Santos, Samantha Lima; Santos, Vagner Dos; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Fischer, Benedikt; Galinkin, Ana Lúcia; Wagner, Gabriela Arantes

    2015-12-01

    Recidivism is a challenge for the Brazilian socio-educational system because it is associated with personal, social and environmental factors, especially among juvenile offenders. This study examined key characteristics and potential association with recidivism in 391 female adolescent offenders from a correctional institution in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil, between 2004 and 2011. Cross-sectional data on socio-demographics, drug use and offense characteristics from institutional information were examined. Associate factors with recidivism were examined using negative binomial regression analyses. 32.5% of offenders were recidivists at present admission and the mean frequency of recidivism among recidivists was 2.16. About half (53.6%) of the sample reported drug use. After the adjustment, recidivism was positively associated with: age; offender's drug use; residence status; offense type; and no family drug use. Factors associated with juvenile offenders' recidivism confirm findings from elsewhere, and should inform targeted interventions in Brazil. PMID:26872233

  18. How Can We Fund Charter Districts? The Nuts & Bolts of Charter Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augenblick, John; Sharp, Jennifer

    The purpose of this paper is to explore funding issues related to charter districts. It begins with definitions of charter school and charter district. It continues with a brief discussion of public-school finance and some of the policy issues associated with distributing state funds to school districts, allowing school districts to generate…

  19. Genetic variation in heat shock protein 70 is associated with septic shock: narrowing the association to a specific haplotype.

    PubMed

    Kee, C; Cheong, K Y; Pham, K; Waterer, G W; Temple, S E L

    2008-12-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a major role in immune responses. Polymorphisms within the gene have been associated with development of septic shock. This study refines the region of the HSP70 gene associated with development of septic shock and confirms its functionality. Subjects (n = 31) were grouped into one of three haplotypes based on their HSPA1B-179C>T and HSPA1B1267A>G genotypes. Mononuclear cells from these subjects were stimulated with heat-killed bacteria (10(7 )colony-forming units/mL Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae) for 8 and 21 h. HSP70 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA and protein levels were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. The HSPA1B-179*C:1267*A haplotype was associated with significantly lower levels of HSPA1B mRNA and protein and higher production of TNF mRNA and protein compared to the other haplotypes. Induction of HSP70 was TNF independent. These results suggest that the HSPA1B-179C>T:1267A>G haplotype is functional and may explain the association of the HSP70 gene with development of septic shock.

  20. Techniques associated with thermal-vacuum testing of the OAO-C heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical problems associated with testing the two high-heat load pipes are discussed. One of these pipes was tested three times before being accepted. The first test resulted in the discovery of non-condensable hydrogen gas, which prevented the pipe from functioning properly. The second test was a repeat of the first, to see if all the gas had been removed. The third test was to see if any changes had occurred to the pipe as a result of saddle modifications. Saddle modifications were necessary because the epoxy binding agent between the saddles and the pipe had decomposed during the testing. The test problems discussed deal with the specially designed heat-removal devices, the mobile tilt table, the table position indicator, and the heat input mechanisms, all of which were necessary to conduct a high-heat load, thermal-vacuum test. The final results showed that the techniques used were adequate for thermal-vacuum testing of heat pipes.

  1. Reduced heat pain thresholds after sad-mood induction are associated with changes in thalamic activity.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd; Koschke, Mandy; Leuf, Tanja; Schlösser, Ralf; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    Negative affective states influence pain processing in healthy subjects in terms of augmented pain experience. Furthermore, our previous studies revealed that patients with major depressive disorder showed increased heat pain thresholds on the skin. Potential neurofunctional correlates of this finding were located within the fronto-thalamic network. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurofunctional underpinnings of the influence of sad mood upon heat pain processing in healthy subjects. For this purpose, we used a combination of the Velten Mood Induction procedure and a piece of music to induce sad affect. Initially we assessed heat pain threshold after successful induction of sad mood outside the MR scanner in Experiment 1. We found a highly significant reduction in heat pain threshold on the left hand and a trend for the right. In Experiment 2, we applied thermal pain stimuli on the left hand (37, 42, and 45 degrees C) in an MRI scanner. Subjects were scanned twice, one group before and after sad-mood induction and another group before and after neutral-mood induction, respectively. Our main finding was a significant group x mood-induction interaction bilaterally in the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus indicating a BOLD signal increase after sad-mood induction and a BOLD signal decrease in the control group. We present evidence that induced sad affect leads to reduced heat pain thresholds in healthy subjects. This is probably due to altered lateral thalamic activity, which is potentially associated with changed attentional processes.

  2. Mortality in Portugal associated with the heat wave of August 2003: early estimation of effect, using a rapid method.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, P J; Falcão, J M; Contreiras, M T; Paixão, E; Brandão, João; Batista, I

    2005-07-01

    During the first two weeks of August 2003, Portugal was affected by a severe heat wave. Following the identification in Portugal of the influence of heat waves on mortality in 1981 and 1991 (estimated excess of about 1900 and 1000 deaths respectively), the Observatorio Nacional de Saude (ONSA) - Instituto Nacional de Saude Dr. Ricardo Jorge, together with the Vigilancia Previsao e Informacao - Instituto de Meteorologia, created a surveillance system called iCARO, which has been in operation since 1999. iCARO identifies heat waves with potential influence on mortality [1]. Before the end of the 2003 heat wave, ONSA had produced a preliminary estimate of its effect on mortality. The results based on daily number of deaths from 1 June to 12 August 2003 were presented within 4 working days. Data was gathered from 31 National Civil registrars, covering the district capitals of all 18 districts of mainland Portugal, and representing approximately 40% of the mainland's mortality. The number of deaths registered in the period 30 July to 12 August was compared with the ones registered during 3 comparison periods: (in July): 1-14 July, 1-28 July, and 15-28 July). 15-28 July, the period best resembling the heat wave in time and characteristics, produced an estimation of 37.7% higher mortality rate then the value expected under normal temperature conditions. From this value, an estimate of 1316 death excess was obtained for mainland Portugal. The main purpose of this article is to present the method used to identify and assess the occurrence of an effect (excess mortality) during the heat wave of summer 2003. PMID:16088048

  3. Association of Climatic Variability, Vector Population and Malarial Disease in District of Visakhapatnam, India: A Modeling and Prediction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Srimath-Tirumula-Peddinti, Ravi Chandra Pavan Kumar; Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Sidagam, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Malarial incidence, severity, dynamics and distribution of malaria are strongly determined by climatic factors, i.e., temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity. The objectives of the current study were to analyse and model the relationships among climate, vector and malaria disease in district of Visakhapatnam, India to understand malaria transmission mechanism (MTM). Methodology Epidemiological, vector and climate data were analysed for the years 2005 to 2011 in Visakhapatnam to understand the magnitude, trends and seasonal patterns of the malarial disease. Statistical software MINITAB ver. 14 was used for performing correlation, linear and multiple regression analysis. Results/Findings Perennial malaria disease incidence and mosquito population was observed in the district of Visakhapatnam with peaks in seasons. All the climatic variables have a significant influence on disease incidence as well as on mosquito populations. Correlation coefficient analysis, seasonal index and seasonal analysis demonstrated significant relationships among climatic factors, mosquito population and malaria disease incidence in the district of Visakhapatnam, India. Multiple regression and ARIMA (I) models are best suited models for modeling and prediction of disease incidences and mosquito population. Predicted values of average temperature, mosquito population and malarial cases increased along with the year. Developed MTM algorithm observed a major MTM cycle following the June to August rains and occurring between June to September and minor MTM cycles following March to April rains and occurring between March to April in the district of Visakhapatnam. Fluctuations in climatic factors favored an increase in mosquito populations and thereby increasing the number of malarial cases. Rainfall, temperatures (20°C to 33°C) and humidity (66% to 81%) maintained a warmer, wetter climate for mosquito growth, parasite development and malaria transmission. Conclusions

  4. Molecular characterization of tospoviruses associated with ringspot disease in bell pepper from different districts of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshul; Kulshrestha, Saurabh

    2016-06-01

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an important cash crop for the farmers of Himachal Pradesh was found to be affected with tospovirus like disease. An extensive survey was conducted in the bell pepper grown areas in the five districts of Himachal Pradesh to identify and characterize the causative agent. Hence, 60 symptomatic bell pepper plants exhibiting characteristics symptoms were collected from Solan, Sirmaur, Hamirpur, Kangra and Bilaspur districts. Out of 60 samples, 53 samples were found to be positive by DAS-ELISA with tospovirus group specific antiserum. To confirm the presence of tospovirus, DAC-ELISA was performed using GBNV/CaCV polyclonal antiserum and DAS-ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies i.e. TSWV, GRSV. All the 53 samples were found negative for TSWV and GRSV and positive for GBNV/CaCV. Further, eleven infected isolates from both poly-house and open field conditions were selected for characterization at molecular level. RT-PCR was performed with N gene specific primers for TSWV, GBNV and CaCV. The eleven samples selected for molecular identification were further found to be negative for TSWV and positive for CaCV using RT-PCR. One of the samples from district Sirmaur was found to be positive for mixed infection of GBNV and CaCV. N gene phylogenetic analysis of CaCV/GBNV provided important information about the movement and evolution of tospoviruses in Himachal Pradesh.

  5. Molecular characterization of tospoviruses associated with ringspot disease in bell pepper from different districts of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshul; Kulshrestha, Saurabh

    2016-06-01

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an important cash crop for the farmers of Himachal Pradesh was found to be affected with tospovirus like disease. An extensive survey was conducted in the bell pepper grown areas in the five districts of Himachal Pradesh to identify and characterize the causative agent. Hence, 60 symptomatic bell pepper plants exhibiting characteristics symptoms were collected from Solan, Sirmaur, Hamirpur, Kangra and Bilaspur districts. Out of 60 samples, 53 samples were found to be positive by DAS-ELISA with tospovirus group specific antiserum. To confirm the presence of tospovirus, DAC-ELISA was performed using GBNV/CaCV polyclonal antiserum and DAS-ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies i.e. TSWV, GRSV. All the 53 samples were found negative for TSWV and GRSV and positive for GBNV/CaCV. Further, eleven infected isolates from both poly-house and open field conditions were selected for characterization at molecular level. RT-PCR was performed with N gene specific primers for TSWV, GBNV and CaCV. The eleven samples selected for molecular identification were further found to be negative for TSWV and positive for CaCV using RT-PCR. One of the samples from district Sirmaur was found to be positive for mixed infection of GBNV and CaCV. N gene phylogenetic analysis of CaCV/GBNV provided important information about the movement and evolution of tospoviruses in Himachal Pradesh. PMID:27366771

  6. Environment and farm factors associated with exposure to Theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, John M; Kitala, Phillip M; Ngumi, Priscilla N; Skilton, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to Theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere District, Kenya. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to T. parva infection epidemiology. Serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of T. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The association between the variables was assessed using a generalized estimation equation logistic regression model. The overall T. parva seroprevalence, accounting for correlation of responses, was 19.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14%, 25%). Two variables, "administrative division" and "presence of the vector tick on the farm", were significantly associated with the T. parva seroresponse. Respectively, cattle from farms in Gachoka, Evurore, and Mwea divisions were (and their 95% CI) 1.3 (0.36, 4.8), 4.4 (1.2, 15.9), and 15.2 (4.9, 47.1) times more likely to be seropositive relative to those from Siakago Division (P = 0.000). Cattle from farms in which the vector tick was present were 2.9 (1.2, 6.7) times more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.011). Results of this study suggested that both environmental and farm factors may be associated with T. parva infection epidemiology in Mbeere District. Under such circumstances, characterization of environmental suitability for the vector tick and corresponding environment-specific farm management practices in the district is required both for improved understanding of the disease and in planning disease control programs. PMID:20835912

  7. Environment and farm factors associated with exposure to Theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, John M; Kitala, Phillip M; Ngumi, Priscilla N; Skilton, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to Theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere District, Kenya. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to T. parva infection epidemiology. Serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of T. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The association between the variables was assessed using a generalized estimation equation logistic regression model. The overall T. parva seroprevalence, accounting for correlation of responses, was 19.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14%, 25%). Two variables, "administrative division" and "presence of the vector tick on the farm", were significantly associated with the T. parva seroresponse. Respectively, cattle from farms in Gachoka, Evurore, and Mwea divisions were (and their 95% CI) 1.3 (0.36, 4.8), 4.4 (1.2, 15.9), and 15.2 (4.9, 47.1) times more likely to be seropositive relative to those from Siakago Division (P = 0.000). Cattle from farms in which the vector tick was present were 2.9 (1.2, 6.7) times more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.011). Results of this study suggested that both environmental and farm factors may be associated with T. parva infection epidemiology in Mbeere District. Under such circumstances, characterization of environmental suitability for the vector tick and corresponding environment-specific farm management practices in the district is required both for improved understanding of the disease and in planning disease control programs.

  8. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  9. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed.

  10. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed. PMID:25605407

  11. Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating.

    PubMed

    Mathys, Werner; Stanke, Juliane; Harmuth, Margarita; Junge-Mathys, Elisabeth

    2008-03-01

    A total of 452 samples from hot water systems of randomly selected single family residences in the suburbs of two German cities were analysed for the occurrence of Legionella. Technical data were documented using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate possible factors promoting the growth of the bacterium in these small plumbing systems. All houses were supplied with treated groundwater from public water works. Drinking water quality was within the limits specified in the German regulations for drinking water and the water was not chlorinated. The results showed that plumbing systems in private houses that provided hot water from instantaneous water heaters were free of Legionella compared with a prevalence of 12% in houses with storage tanks and recirculating hot water where maximum counts of Legionella reached 100,000 CFU/100ml. The presence of L. pneumophila accounted for 93.9% of all Legionella positive specimens of which 71.8% belonged to serogroup 1. The volume of the storage tank, interrupting circulation for several hours daily and intermittently raising hot water temperatures to >60 degrees C had no influence on Legionella counts. Plumbing systems with copper pipes were more frequently contaminated than those made of synthetic materials or galvanized steel. An inhibitory effect due to copper was not present. Newly constructed systems (<2 years) were not colonized. The type of hot water preparation had a marked influence. More than 50% of all houses using district heating systems were colonized by Legionella. Their significantly lower hot water temperature is thought to be the key factor leading to intensified growth of Legionella. Although hot water systems using solar energy to supplement conventional hot water supplies operate at temperatures 3 degrees C lower than conventional systems, this technique does not seem to promote proliferation of the bacterium. Our data show convincingly that the temperature of the hot water is probably the most important

  12. Evaluation of the District of Columbia Energy Office Residential Conservation Assistance Program for Natural Gas-Heated Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, Lance Neil; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2007-03-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), with assistance from the District of Columbia Energy Office (DCEO) performed an evaluation of part of the DCEO Residential Conservation Assistance Program (RCAP). The primary objective of the evaluation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the DCEO weatherization program. Because Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds are used primarily for weatherization of single-family homes and because evaluating the performance of multi-family residences would be more complex than the project budget would support, ORNL and DCEO focused the study on gas-heated single-family homes. DCEO provided treatment information and arranged for the gas utility to provide billing data for 100 treatment houses and 434 control houses. The Princeton Scorkeeping Method (PRISM) software package was used to normalize energy use for standard weather conditions. The houses of the initial treatment group of 100 houses received over 450 measures costing a little over $180,000, including labor and materials. The average cost per house was $1,811 and the median cost per house was $1,674. Window replacement was the most common measure and accounted for about 35% of total expenditures. Ceiling and floor insulation was installed in 61 houses and accounts for almost 22% of the expenditures. Twenty-seven houses received replacement doors at an average cost of $620 per house. Eight houses received furnace or boiler replacements at an average cost of about $3,000 per house. The control-adjusted average measured savings are about 20 therms/year. The 95% confidence interval is approximately +20 to +60 therms/year. The average pre-weatherization energy consumption of the houses was about 1,100 therm/year. Consequently, the adjusted average savings is approximately 2% ({+-}4%)-not significantly different than zero. Most RCAP expenditures appear to go to repairs. While some repairs may have energy benefits, measures

  13. Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating.

    PubMed

    Mathys, Werner; Stanke, Juliane; Harmuth, Margarita; Junge-Mathys, Elisabeth

    2008-03-01

    A total of 452 samples from hot water systems of randomly selected single family residences in the suburbs of two German cities were analysed for the occurrence of Legionella. Technical data were documented using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate possible factors promoting the growth of the bacterium in these small plumbing systems. All houses were supplied with treated groundwater from public water works. Drinking water quality was within the limits specified in the German regulations for drinking water and the water was not chlorinated. The results showed that plumbing systems in private houses that provided hot water from instantaneous water heaters were free of Legionella compared with a prevalence of 12% in houses with storage tanks and recirculating hot water where maximum counts of Legionella reached 100,000 CFU/100ml. The presence of L. pneumophila accounted for 93.9% of all Legionella positive specimens of which 71.8% belonged to serogroup 1. The volume of the storage tank, interrupting circulation for several hours daily and intermittently raising hot water temperatures to >60 degrees C had no influence on Legionella counts. Plumbing systems with copper pipes were more frequently contaminated than those made of synthetic materials or galvanized steel. An inhibitory effect due to copper was not present. Newly constructed systems (<2 years) were not colonized. The type of hot water preparation had a marked influence. More than 50% of all houses using district heating systems were colonized by Legionella. Their significantly lower hot water temperature is thought to be the key factor leading to intensified growth of Legionella. Although hot water systems using solar energy to supplement conventional hot water supplies operate at temperatures 3 degrees C lower than conventional systems, this technique does not seem to promote proliferation of the bacterium. Our data show convincingly that the temperature of the hot water is probably the most important

  14. Heat flow anomaly associated with dike intrusion. II. [in earth crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horai, K.-I.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation reported by Horai (1974) is continued. A special case of the steady state temperature field associated with dike intrusion is studied, taking into account an infinite vertical downward extension of the isotherm of rectangular shape approximating the dike. The considered case represents a problem of two-dimensional steady state thermal conduction. The technique of conformal mapping used is identical to the method employed by Horai (1974). The characteristics of surface heat flow associated with an infinitesimal thin dike of certain temperature with the considered extension are shown in a graph.

  15. An instrument to monitor physiological and environmental parameters associated with heat stress on an ambulatory subject.

    PubMed

    Cassels, B M

    1991-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and construction of an instrument for use on an ambulatory subject which monitors selected physiological and environmental parameters that are a reflection of the degree of physiological strain associated with heat stress. The resulting instrument is rugged, reliable, and uses existing practical technology for in-the-field ambulatory monitoring, and provides minimal restriction to subject movement. The physiological parameters monitored (heart rate and skin temperature) were selected following examination of systemic, skin, and psychoneurotic heat disorders, with the environmental parameters (wind velocity, ambient temperature and relative humidity) based on existing heat stress indices' correlation with physiological parameters. A microprocessor is utilized for data acquisition, mathematical computation and long term storage, and software for downloading the data to a large mainframe computer is provided. Following calibration of the transduction circuits, the instrument was assembled and tested. Improvements are required to obtain the reliability originally envisaged. Additional field trials would see the collection of data to establish criteria to determine the values of the parameters monitored enabling prediction of the onset of heat stress in hot, humid environments.

  16. An analysis of a mixed convection associated with thermal heating in contaminated porous media.

    PubMed

    Krol, Magdalena M; Johnson, Richard L; Sleep, Brent E

    2014-11-15

    The occurrence of subsurface buoyant flow during thermal remediation was investigated using a two dimensional electro-thermal model (ETM). The model incorporated electrical current flow associated with electrical resistance heating, energy and mass transport, and density dependent water flow. The model was used to examine the effects of heating on sixteen subsurface scenarios with different applied groundwater fluxes and soil permeabilities. The results were analyzed in terms of the ratio of Rayleigh to thermal Peclet numbers (the buoyancy ratio). It was found that when the buoyancy number was greater than unity and the soil permeability greater than 10(-12) m(2), buoyant flow and contaminant transport were significant. The effects of low permeability layers and electrode placement on heat and mass transport were also investigated. Heating under a clay layer led to flow stagnation zones resulting in the accumulation of contaminant mass and transport into the low permeability layer. The results of this study can be used to develop dimensionless number-based guidelines for site management during subsurface thermal activities.

  17. Collection and Utilization of Animal Carcasses Associated with zoonotic Disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Doty, Jeffrey B; Moses, Cynthia; Ibata, Saturnin; Reynolds, Mary; Carroll, Darin

    2015-07-01

    The collection and consumption of animal carcasses is a common activity in forested areas of the Congo River basin and creates sustainability, conservation, and health concerns. Residents of the Tshuapa District reported collecting the remains of 5,878 animals from >30 species when surveyed about their wildlife consumption habits. Carcasses were discovered in varying degrees of decomposition and were often consumed at home or sold in local markets. The most commonly collected animals were Cricetomys gambianus (Northern giant pouched rat), Cercopithecus ascanius (red-tailed monkey), and Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel). Many of the species recorded may be hosts of zoonotic pathogens, creating concern for spillover events.

  18. Knowledge about Danger Signs of Obstetric Complications and Associated Factors among Postnatal Mothers of Mechekel District Health Centers, East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Gedefa; Mulaw, Zerfu; Seyoum, Tewodros; Bayu, Hinsermu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Developing countries like Ethiopia contributed highest level of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women awareness of obstetric danger sign to recognize complications to seek medical care early is the first intervention in an effort to decrease maternal death. Objective. To assess knowledge about danger signs of obstetric complications and associated factors among postnatal mothers at Mechekel district health centers, East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2014, in Mechekel district health centers. Systematic random sampling was used to select four hundred eleven study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the presence and strength of association. Results. According to this study, 55.1% participants were knowledgeable about danger signs of obstetric complications. Maternal and husband educational level ((AOR = 1.977, 95% CI: 1.052, 3.716) and (AOR = 3.163, 95% CI: 1.860, 5.3770), resp.), family monthly income ≥ 1500 (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI: 1.289, 6.770), being multipara (AOR = 7.463, 95% CI: 1.301, 12.800), ANC follow-up during last pregnancy (AOR = 2.184, 95% CI: 1.137, 4.196), and place of last delivery (AOR = 1.955, 95% CI: 1.214, 3.150) were variables found to be significantly associated with women's knowledge on danger signs of obstetric complications. Conclusion. Significant proportion of respondents were not knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs and factors like educational status, place of last delivery, and antenatal follow-up were found to be associated.

  19. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0·000) for F. gigantica and paramphistomes but not for S. bovis. The snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas.

  20. Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; George, Jasmine; Bhui, Kulpreet; Murari Saxena, Anand; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-11-01

    Repeated heating of vegetable oils at high temperatures during cooking is a very common cooking practice. Repeated heating of edible oils can generate a number of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which have been reported to have carcinogenic potential. Consumption of these repeatedly heated oils can pose a serious health hazard. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil (RCO), which is one of the commonly consumed cooking and frying medium. The PAH were analysed using HPLC in fresh CO, single-heated CO (SCO) and RCO. Results revealed the presence of certain PAH, known to possess carcinogenic potential, in RCO when compared with SCO. Oral intake of RCO in Wistar rats resulted in a significant induction of aberrant cells (P<0·05) and micronuclei (P<0·05) in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidative stress analysis showed a significant (P<0·05) decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase with a concurrent increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the liver. In addition, RCO given alone and along with diethylnitrosamine for 12 weeks induced altered hepatic foci as noticed by alteration in positive (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and negative (adenosine triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase) hepatospecific biomarkers. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute hepatic weight of RCO-supplemented rats was recorded (P<0·05). In conclusion, dietary consumption of RCO can cause a genotoxic and preneoplastic change in the liver.

  1. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io: the HISAKI observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshioka, K.; Kimura, T.; Murakami, G.; Kagitani, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Yoshikawa, I.; Nozawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in Io plasma torus (IPT) has been discovered by Voyager and show an evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, the amount of observation data is still limited to investigate its detail properties. In addition, the clear Io-correlated change has not been detected by EUVE and Cassini observations. Cause of the Io-correlated effect is still open issue. The HISAKI satellite was launched on Sep. 14, 2013 and started observation of IPT and Jovian aurora for more than two months since the end of Dec. 2013. EUV spectrograph onboard the HISAKI satellite covers wavelength range from 55 to 145 nm, a wide slit which had a field of view of 400 x 140 arc-second was chosen to measure radial distribution and time variation of IPT. Observation of IPT with HISAKI showed clear Io-correlated brightness change since the Voyager observation. The amplitude of the periodic variation associated with Io's orbital period was found. It also showed long-term variation during the HISAKI's observation period. Through the observation period, the amplitude was larger in the short wavelength than in long wavelength. The wavelength dependence suggests significant electron heating and/or hot electron production. The Io phase dependence shows that bright region is located just downstream of Io. These are evidence of local electron heating around/downstream of Io and consistent with the Voyager result. The brightness also depends on system-III longitude and has local maximum around 120 and 300 degrees. Based on an empirical model of IPT, electron density at Io also shows maxima around the same longitudes. This suggests that the electron heating process is related with plasma density at Io. Candidate mechanisms which are responsible for the electron heating will be discussed.

  2. Effects of heating appliances with different energy efficiencies on associations among work environments, physiological responses, and subjective evaluation of workload.

    PubMed

    Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ayabe, Makoto; Haruyama, Yasuo; Seo, Akihiko; Katamoto, Shizuo; Ito, Akiyoshi; Muto, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    To clarify the association between heat stress, physiological responses and subjective workload evaluations in kitchens using an induction heating stove (IH stove) or gas stove. The study design was an experimental trial involving 12 young men. The trial measured ambient dry-bulb temperature, globe temperature, wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and relative humidity; the subjects' weight, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen uptake, amount of activity, body temperature, subjective awareness of heat and workload before and after mock cooking for 30 min. The IH stove insignificantly increased heat indicators in the work environment and workers showed lower oxygen uptake, skin temperature, subjective awareness of heat and workload after heat exposure. Both physiological load and subjective awareness of heat and workload were slight in kitchens using the IH stove, which provided a better work environment.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Kassahun; Shegaze, Mulugeta; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gesesew, Hailay; Markos, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007) of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia. Objective To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors. Results The overall prevalence of active trachoma cases was 224 (36.7%) consisting of 207 (92.4%) trachomatous follicles, eight (3.6%) trachomatous intense, and nine (4.0%) combination of trachomatous follicle and trachomatous intense. Inadequate knowledge of family head about trachoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.8 [95% CI: 1.9, 4.2]); ≤10 m latrine distance (AOR =1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.09, 2.4]); presence of above two preschool children (AOR =2.2 [95% CI: 1.3, 3.7]), flies

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Kassahun; Shegaze, Mulugeta; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gesesew, Hailay; Markos, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007) of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia. Objective To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors. Results The overall prevalence of active trachoma cases was 224 (36.7%) consisting of 207 (92.4%) trachomatous follicles, eight (3.6%) trachomatous intense, and nine (4.0%) combination of trachomatous follicle and trachomatous intense. Inadequate knowledge of family head about trachoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.8 [95% CI: 1.9, 4.2]); ≤10 m latrine distance (AOR =1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.09, 2.4]); presence of above two preschool children (AOR =2.2 [95% CI: 1.3, 3.7]), flies

  5. Collective Bargaining Agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 3 and the Olympic College Association for Higher Education, Affiliated with the Washington Education Association and the National Education Association, July 1, 1988 to and Including June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympic Coll., Bremerton, WA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District No. 3 and the Olympic College Association for Higher Education is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1991, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; a savings clause; association rights;…

  6. Agreement Between the Board of Junior College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association, A Chapter of the Cook County College Teachers Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

    This document covers the agreement between the Board of Junior College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association Chapter of the Cook County College Teachers Union. Articles of the agreement cover: definitions; recognition; nondiscrimination; association and board relations; academic freedom;…

  7. Estimating seroprevalence and variation to four tick-borne infections and determination of associated risk factors in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, J M; Ngumi, P N; Kitala, P M; Skilton, R A

    2010-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne disease (TBD) parasites (Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina) was conducted on traditional smallholder mixed farms in Mbeere District in Kenya. The objective was to estimate the infections' seroprevalence and variation and identify associated risk factors. A total of 440 cattle in 80 farms, selected by stratified random sampling from the four divisions in the district, were surveyed. Information on animal and on each farm's management practices, particularly on tick control practices, was obtained by personal interview using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalences of serum antibodies were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The relationship between TBDs seroprevalence and the risk factors was assessed by multivariable analysis using standard logistic regression models and mixed models using the farm as a random effect. Overall estimation of seroprevalences and their 95% confidence limits were: T. parva (19% [14%, 25%]), T. mutans (25% [20%, 29%]), A. marginale (58% [52%, 64%]) and B. bigemina (19% [15%, 23%]). Analysis in presence of extra-binomial variation under Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) yielded relatively larger intra-farm correlation coefficient (ICC) (0.3) and variance-inflation factor (VIF) (2.35) values for T. parva than for the other parasites [range, 0.05-0.07 (for ICC) and 1.02-1.32 (for VIF)]. Both farm- and area-level variables had variably significant and large effects on all infections, but these were more pronounced on T. parva seroprevalence. Inclusion of farm random effect resulted in substantially higher estimate of farm variance component for T. parva infection (1.73) compared to other infections [range, 0.29-0.56], comparable ICC values with those under ANOVA analysis [range, 0.08-0.35] and a substantially better fit than the standard multivariable logistic regressions. The above results

  8. Numerical and theoretical analysis of beam vibration induced acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qun

    The purpose of this research is to numerically and analytically investigate the acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer, which are induced by a beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms. Analytical results show that the beam vibrating in standing waveforms scatters the acoustic waves into the free space, which have a larger attenuation coefficient and longer propagating traveling wavelength than those of the plane wave. In contrast to a constant Reynolds stress in the plane wave, the Reynolds stress generated by such acoustic wave is expected to drive the free space streaming away from the anti-nodes and towards nodes of the standing wave vibration. The sonic and ultrasonic streamings within the channel between the vibrating beam and a parallel stationary beam are also investigated. The acoustic streaming is utilized to cool the stationary beam, which has either a heat source attached to it or subjected to a uniform heat flux. The sonic streaming is found to be mainly the boundary layer streaming dominating the whole channel while the ultrasonic streaming is clearly composed of two boundary layer streamings near both beams and a core region streaming, which is driven by the streaming velocity at the edge of the boundary layer near the vibrating beam. The standing wave vibration of the beam induces acoustic streaming in a series of counterclockwise eddies, which is directed away from the anti-nodes and towards the nodes. The magnitude of the sonic streaming is proportional to o2A 2 while that of the ultrasonic streaming is proportional to o 3/2A2. Numerical results show that the acoustic streaming induced by the beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms has almost the same cooling efficiency for the heat source and the heat flux cases although the flow and temperature fields within the channel are different. The hysteresis of the ultrasonic streaming flow patterns associated with the change of the aspect ratio of the channel

  9. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  10. [Increase of mortality associated with emergency relocation of elderly nursing homes residents following flooding in the Var district, France, 2010].

    PubMed

    Mantey, Karine; Coccoz, Florence; Boulogne, Ophélie; Torrents, Romain; Guibert, Nicole; Six, Caroline; Malfait, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    On June 15th, 2010, the Var district was hit by heavy rain causing floods and mudslides. A nursing home for elderly people was subject to an emergency evacuation and had to relocate 140 residents in other hosting facilities in the region. A prospective cohort study was conducted through two evaluations of the residents' health conditions: before the flood and five months after they had returned in their homes. The monthly mortality data recorded in the facility in 2010 was compared with data from 2004 to 2009 of the same facility, and with the 2010 data from two other facilities located in the disaster area that had not evacuated their residents. The number of deaths recorded in the month following the floods was three times higher than the average number of expected deaths over the study period, and even twice higher during the second month. This excess mortality was not observed in the two other facilities studied in the disaster area. Most deceased arised in older people, more often in men, in state of high dependance and living in medical care units. These results suggest that despite the measures implemented by the rescue teams, the emergency displacement and relocation of elderly people, inevitable in this context, can have serious consequences. Where possible, the need for displacement must be discussed, prepared in advance, and followed by specific support for more vulnerable people. PMID:23250017

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels. PMID:27563257

  12. Level of Young People Sexual and Reproductive Health Service Utilization and Its Associated Factors among Young People in Awabel District, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayehu, Atitegeb; Kassaw, Teketo; Hailu, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently in Ethiopia, young people’s sexual and reproductive health services are limited and there is a growing issue of confidentiality and affordability of these health services. Moreover, the available services provided are not sensitive to the special needs of young people. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess young people’s sexual and reproductive health service utilization and its associated factors in Awabel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 randomly selected young people using a pre-tested structured questionnaires in Awabel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were entered into Epi data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The mean age of respondents were 17.80 (+ 2.65) years. About 41% of young people had utilized sexual and reproductive health services. Young people from families of higher family expenditure, lived with mothers, participated in peer education and lived near to a Health Center were more likely to utilize sexual and reproductive health services. Furthermore, those who had a parental discussion on sexual and reproductive health (AOR (95% C.I): 2.23 (1.43, 3.46)) and ever had sexual intercourse (AOR (95% C.I): 1.88 (1.30, 2.71)) were more likely to utilize the service than their counterparts. On the other hand, those young people lived with their father and had a primary level of educational attainment was less likely to utilize the service. Conclusion Utilization of sexual and reproductive health services is low which needs a great attention where; if not intervened, young people might engage in risky sexual activities. Therefore, it needs a concerted effort from all the concerned bodies to improve their service utilization and thereby reduce the burden of young people’s disease and disabilities associated with sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26992006

  13. Factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women in Mecha district, Western Amhara: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Taye, Bekele; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonen, Alemetsehaye

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron and folate supplementation can effectively control and prevent anaemia in pregnancy. In Ethiopia, all pregnant women are prescribed iron folate during their ANC visit. However, limited adherence is thought to be a major reason for the low effectiveness of iron supplementation programs. Therefore this study was done to investigate factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women who gave birth in the last 12 months before the survey in Mecha district. Methods Community based cross sectional study design was employed in Mecha district from June 25 - July 15/2013. A sample of 634 women who gave birth 12 months before the survey was included in the study. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique after allocating the total sample to each kebele proportionally. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured Amharic questionnaire. Collected data were edited, coded and entered to Epi info version 3.1 and exported to‘ SPSS version 16. Bivariate and multivariable analysis was computed. Results A total of 628 women who gave birth twelve months before the survey were enrolled. In this study only 20.4% of participants were compliant with iron foliate supplementation. In multivariable analysis, age of the mother, educational status of the mother, knowledge of anaemia and iron folate tablets, and history of anaemia during pregnancy were significantly associated with compliance to iron folate supplementation (P < .05). Belief that too many tablets would harm the baby and fear of side effects were the major reasons given for noncompliance. Conclusion Compliance to iron folate supplementation is very low in the study area. Increasing female education and increasing knowledge of women about anaemia and iron folate tablets are recommended to increase compliance to iron folate supplementation. PMID:26090001

  14. Association Between Occupational Heat Stress and Kidney Disease Among 37 816 Workers in the Thai Cohort Study (TCS)

    PubMed Central

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Kjellstrom, Tord; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between self-reported occupational heat stress and incidence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed kidney disease in Thai workers. Methods Data were derived from baseline (2005) and follow-up (2009) self-report questionnaires from a large national Thai Cohort Study (TCS). Analysis was restricted to full-time workers (n = 17 402 men and 20 414 women) without known kidney disease at baseline. We used logistic regression models to examine the association of incident kidney disease with heat stress at work, after adjustment for smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, and a large number of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Results Exposure to heat stress was more common in men than in women (22% vs 15%). A significant association between heat stress and incident kidney disease was observed in men (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01–2.16). The risk of kidney disease was higher among workers reporting workplace heat stress in both 2005 and 2009. Among men exposed to prolonged heat stress, the odds of developing kidney disease was 2.22 times that of men without such exposure (95% CI 1.48–3.35, P-trend <0.001). The incidence of kidney disease was even higher among men aged 35 years or older in a physical job: 2.2% exposed to prolonged heat stress developed kidney disease compared with 0.4% with no heat exposure (adjusted OR = 5.30, 95% CI 1.17–24.13). Conclusions There is an association between self-reported occupational heat stress and self-reported doctor-diagnosed kidney disease in Thailand. The results indicate a need for occupational health interventions for heat stress among workers in tropical climates. PMID:22343327

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-06-29

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35–44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3–5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  18. Associations between Meteorological Parameters and Influenza Activity in Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and Israeli Districts

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Gross, Diane; Jorgensen, Pernille; Buda, Silke; Bromberg, Michal; Kaufman, Zalman; Prosenc, Katarina; Socan, Maja; Vega Alonso, Tomás; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies in the literature have indicated that the timing of seasonal influenza epidemic varies across latitude, suggesting the involvement of meteorological and environmental conditions in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we investigated the link between meteorological parameters and influenza activity in 9 sub-national areas with temperate and subtropical climates: Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and all 6 districts in Israel. Methods We estimated weekly influenza-associated influenza-like-illness (ILI) or Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) incidence to represent influenza activity using data from each country’s sentinel surveillance during 2000–2011 (Spain) and 2006–2011 (all others). Meteorological data was obtained from ground stations, satellite and assimilated data. Two generalized additive models (GAM) were developed, with one using specific humidity as a covariate and another using minimum temperature. Precipitation and solar radiation were included as additional covariates in both models. The models were adjusted for previous weeks’ influenza activity, and were trained separately for each study location. Results Influenza activity was inversely associated (p<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations. Minimum temperature was inversely associated with influenza in all 3 temperate locations, but not in all subtropical locations. Inverse associations between influenza and solar radiation were found in most locations. Associations with precipitation were location-dependent and inconclusive. We used the models to estimate influenza activity a week ahead for the 2010/2011 period which was not used in training the models. With exception of Ljubljana and Israel’s Haifa District, the models could closely follow the observed data especially during the start and the end of epidemic period. In these locations, correlation coefficients between the observed and estimated ranged between 0.55 to 0.91and

  19. Local electron heating in the Io plasma torus associated with Io from HISAKI satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kagitani, Masato; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Kimura, Tomoki; Murakami, Go; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Nozawa, Hiromasa; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Io-correlated brightness change in the Io plasma torus (IPT) was discovered by the Voyager spacecraft, showing evidence of local electron heating around Io. However, its detailed properties and the cause of electron heating are still open issues. The extreme ultraviolet spectrograph on board the HISAKI satellite continuously observed the IPT from the end of December 2013 to the middle of January 2014. The variation in the IPT brightness showed that clear periodicity associated with Io's orbital period (42 h) and that the bright region was located downstream of Io. The amplitude of the periodic variation was larger at short wavelengths than at long wavelengths. From spectral analyses, we found that Io-correlated brightening is caused by the increase in the hot electron population in the region downstream of Io. We also found that the brightness depends on the system III longitude and found primary and secondary peaks in the longitude ranges of 100-130° and 250-340°, respectively. Io's orbit crosses the center of the IPT around these longitudes. This longitude dependence suggests that the electron heating process is related to the plasma density around Io. The total radiated power from the IPT in January 2014 was estimated to be 1.4 TW in the wavelength range from 60 to 145 nm. The Io-correlated component produced 10% of this total radiated power. The interaction between Io and the IPT continuously produces a large amount of energy around Io, and 140 GW of that energy is immediately converted to hot electron production in the IPT.

  20. Operational Issues and Trends Associated with the Pilot Introduction of Zinc for Childhood Diarrhoea in Bougouni District, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Winch, Peter J.; Gilroy, Kate E.; Doumbia, Seydou; Patterson, Amy E.; Daou, Zana; Diawara, Adama; Swedberg, Eric; Black, Robert E.; Fontaine, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea was introduced in a pilot area in southern Mali to prepare for a cluster-randomized effectiveness study and to inform policies on how to best introduce and promote zinc at the community level. Dispersible zinc tablets in 14-tablet blister packs were provided through community health centres and drug kits managed by community health workers (CHWs) in two health zones in Bougouni district, Mali. Village meetings and individual counselling provided by CHWs and head nurses at health centres were the principal channels of communication. A combination of methods were employed to (a) detect problems in communication about the benefits of zinc and its mode of administration; (b) identify and resolve obstacles to implementation of zinc through existing health services; and (c) describe household-level constraints to the adoption of appropriate home-management practices for diarrhoea, including administration of both zinc and oral rehydration solution (ORS). Population-based household surveys with caretakers of children sick in the previous two weeks were carried out before and four months after the introduction of zinc supplementation. Household follow-up visits with children receiving zinc from the health centres and CHWs were conducted on day 3 and 14 after treatment for a subsample of children. A qualitative process evaluation also was conducted to investigate operational issues. Preliminary evidence from this study suggests that the introduction of zinc does not reduce the use of ORS and may reduce inappropriate antibiotic use for childhood diarrhoea. Financial access to treatments, management of concurrent diarrhoea and fever, and high use of unauthorized drug vendors were identified as factors affecting the effectiveness of the intervention in this setting. The introduction of zinc, if not appropriately integrated with other disease-control strategies, has the potential to decrease the appropriate presumptive treatment of

  1. 3D modelling of hydrothermal alteration associated with VHMS deposits in the Kristineberg area, Skellefte district, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielowski, Riia M.; Jansson, Nils; Persson, Mac Fjellerad; Fagerström, Pia

    2016-01-01

    This contribution presents a 3D assessment of metamorphosed and deformed, hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, hosting the massive sulphide deposits of the Kristineberg area in the 1.9 Ga Skellefte mining district in northern Sweden, using six calculated alteration parameters: the Ishikawa alteration index, the chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and calculated net mass changes in MgO, SiO2, Na2O and Ba. The results, which are also available as film clips in the Supplementary data, confirm inferences from geological mapping; namely that the sericite- and chlorite-rich alteration zones have complex and cross-cutting geometries and that most of these zones are semi-regional in extent and range continuously from surface to over a kilometre deep. The major known massive sulphide deposits occur proximal to zones characterised by coincidence of high values for the alteration index and chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and large MgO gains, which corresponds to zones rich in magnesian silicates. These zones are interpreted as the original chlorite-rich, proximal parts the alteration systems, and form anomalies extending up to 400 m away from the sulphide lenses. In addition, the stratigraphically highest VHMS are hosted by rocks rich in tremolite, talc, chlorite and dolomite with lesser clinozoisite, which have high chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index and low-medium alteration index values, reflecting a greater importance of some chlorite-carbonate alteration at this stratigraphic level. Vectoring towards massive sulphide deposits in this area can be improved by combining the AI and CCPI indexes with calculated mass changes for key mobile elements. Of the ones modelled in this study, MgO and SiO2 appear to be the most useful.

  2. Operational issues and trends associated with the pilot introduction of zinc for childhood diarrhoea in Bougouni district, Mali.

    PubMed

    Winch, Peter J; Gilroy, Kate E; Doumbia, Seydou; Patterson, Amy E; Daou, Zana; Diawara, Adama; Swedberg, Eric; Black, Robert E; Fontaine, Olivier

    2008-06-01

    Zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea was introduced in a pilot area in southern Mali to prepare for a cluster-randomized effectiveness study and to inform policies on how to best introduce and promote zinc at the community level. Dispersible zinc tablets in 14-tablet blister packs were provided through community health centres and drug kits managed by community health workers (CHWs) in two health zones in Bougouni district, Mali. Village meetings and individual counselling provided by CHWs and head nurses at health centres were the principal channels of communication. A combination of methods were employed to (a) detect problems in communication about the benefits of zinc and its mode of administration; (b) identify and resolve obstacles to implementation of zinc through existing health services; and (c) describe household-level constraints to the adoption of appropriate home-management practices for diarrhoea, including administration of both zinc and oral rehydration solution (ORS). Population-based household surveys with caretakers of children sick in the previous two weeks were carried out before and four months after the introduction of zinc supplementation. Household follow-up visits with children receiving zinc from the health centres and CHWs were conducted on day 3 and 14 after treatment for a subsample of children. A qualitative process evaluation also was conducted to investigate operational issues. Preliminary evidence from this study suggests that the introduction of zinc does not reduce the use of ORS and may reduce inappropriate antibiotic use for childhood diarrhoea. Financial access to treatments, management of concurrent diarrhoea and fever, and high use of unauthorized drug vendors were identified as factors affecting the effectiveness of the intervention in this setting. The introduction of zinc, if not appropriately integrated with other disease-control strategies, has the potential to decrease the appropriate presumptive treatment of

  3. Strengthening of Ocean Heat Uptake Efficiency Associated with the Recent Climate Hiatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Kamae, Youichi; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Oka, Akira; Sato, Makiko; Ishii, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Kimoto, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    The rate of increase of global-mean surface air temperature (SAT(sub g)) has apparently slowed during the last decade. We investigated the extent to which state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) can capture this hiatus period by using multimodel ensembles of historical climate simulations. While the SAT(sub g) linear trend for the last decade is not captured by their ensemble means regardless of differences in model generation and external forcing, it is barely represented by an 11-member ensemble of a GCM, suggesting an internal origin of the hiatus associated with active heat uptake by the oceans. Besides, we found opposite changes in ocean heat uptake efficiency (k), weakening in models and strengthening in nature, which explain why the models tend to overestimate the SAT(sub g) trend. The weakening of k commonly found in GCMs seems to be an inevitable response of the climate system to global warming, suggesting the recovery from hiatus in coming decades.

  4. A positive feedback loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN modulates long-term acquired thermotolerance illustrating diverse heat stress responses in rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-yi; Chai, Kuo-hsing; Ko, Swee-suak; Kuang, Lin-yun; Lur, Huu-sheng; Charng, Yee-yung

    2014-04-01

    Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. 'N22' seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios.

  5. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

  6. Observation of a heated electron population associated with the 6300 A SAR arc emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.; Slater, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Conjunctive observations of the Dynamics Explorer satellite pair and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory scanning photometer unit at Richland, WA have allowed identification of the low energy, heated, electron population associated with the 6300 A Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arc emission. Measurements over the SAR arc on day 296 of 1981 show an enhanced flux in the low altitude 5-12 eV electrons. Analysis of this electron population shows them to be fairly Maxwellian, with temperatures on the order of 9900 + or - 1100 K and an earthward field aligned velocity of approximately 275 + or - 60 km/sec. The electrons are not accompanied by ion precipitation. The ion loss cone is empty at least as high as 6000 km. This fact may cast some doubt as to the role of the ring current ions in the SAR arc production.

  7. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Arega Sadore, Abinet; Abebe Gebretsadik, Lakew; Aman Hussen, Mamusha

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777)), knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537)), and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368)) were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation. PMID:26839573

  8. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13 keynote…

  9. Agreement, 1989-1992, between the Board of Community College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association, a Chapter of the Cook County College Teachers Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Community College District No. 524, County of Cook and State of Illinois, and the Moraine Valley Faculty Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1, 1989 to June 30, 1992, deals with the following topics: definitions; bargaining agent recognition;…

  10. Agreement between the Board of Trustees of Community College District #509, Elgin Community College, and the Elgin Community College Faculty Association, IFT Chapter 3791, January 1, 1988 through December 31, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin Community Coll., IL.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Elgin Community College Faculty Association and the Board of Trustees of Community College District Number 509 is presented. This contract, covering the period from January 1, 1988 through December 31, 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and bargaining unit;…

  11. Polymorphisms of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and their association with heat-resistance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) functions as a molecular chaperone and plays an important role in the resistance of organisms to stress, particularly heat-stress. In our study, 12 exons and 11 introns of hsp90 were identified in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Twenty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including three non-synonymous mutations, were detected in the exons. Susceptible and resistant individuals were distinguished using a high-temperature (32 °C) challenge experiment. Three blocks with high linkage disequilibrium were detected among these SNPs. Five of the twenty-two SNPs were shown to be significantly associated with susceptibility/resistance to high temperature by correlation analysis (chi-square test, P < 0.05). To confirm the importance of these five SNPs, a heat-resistance strain (HRS) was selected through three generations. Using the common population as the control group, it was shown that the distributions of genotypes and alleles of SNP e10-1 and e11-6 were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05). SNP e10-1 was trimorphic, with three alleles (A, C and T) and five genotypes (AA, CC, AT, CT and AC). The allele frequency of SNP e2-3 was also significantly associated with this trait (P < 0.05). This is the first demonstration of SNPs related to heat-resistance in A. japonicus and supports the use of SNP markers in the selective breeding of sea cucumbers.

  12. Dynamics of single and multiple bubbles and associated heat transfer in nucleate boiling under low gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, D; Son, G; Dhir, V K; Chao, D; Logsdon, K

    2002-10-01

    Experimental studies and numerical simulation of growth and lift-off processes of single bubbles formed on designed nucleation sites have been conducted under low-gravity conditions. Merging of multiple bubbles and lift-off processes during boiling of water in the parabola flights of KC-135 aircraft were also experimentally studied. The heating area of the flat heater surface was discretized and equipped with a number of small heating elements that were separately powered in the temperature-control mode. As such, the wall superheat remained nearly constant during the growth and departure of the bubbles, whereas the local heat flux varied during the boiling process. From numerical calculation it is found that peak of heat flux occurs locally at the contact line of bubble and heater surface. Dry conditions exist inside the bubble base area, which is characterized through a zero heat flux region in the numerical calculation and a lower heat flux period in the experimental results. During the merger of multiple bubbles, dry-out continues. In both the numerical calculations and experimental results, the bubble lift-off is associated with an apparent increase in heat flux. Wall heat flux variation with time and spatial distribution during the growth of a single bubble from numerical simulations are compared with experimental data.

  13. The association of nutritional profile and prognosis of degenerative diseases associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at high altitude of district Ziarat, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Sultan Ahmad; Asif, Muhammad; Irfani, Tahir Mahmood; Hussain, Abrar; Cheema, Abdul Majeed; Malik, Arif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Rasool, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the present study the physiological parameters, their comparative analysis with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were studied. This study suggests life style, environmental and genetic adaptations in the studied population. Method One hundred and ninety eight subjects were selected from different towns of District Ziarat. General characteristics of the population according to their nutritional habits including, age, body mass index(BMI), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glycemia, triglycerides, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides (TG) were measured. Results Mean cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and triglyceride values were significantly higher in men than women and the values increased with increasing age in both men and women. HDL and glucose values were significantly higher in females than males. In men with various nutritional groups such as A, B and C, the mean cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL (P < 0.014), VLDL (P < 0.031) and triglyceride (P < 0.025) levels were significantly observed among comparable groups. However, in women with various nutritional groups such as A, B and C, the mean age (P < 0.047) and triglyceride values (P < 0.033) display statistically significant results. PMID:25561883

  14. Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure associated with classic heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Tan, W; Herzlich, B C; Funaro, R; Koutelos, K; Pagala, M; Amaladevi, B; Grob, D

    1995-10-01

    Classic heat stroke is a disorder of thermal regulation that predominantly affects elderly patients during heat waves. In contrast to exertional heat stroke, rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure are considered to be unusual manifestations of classic heat stroke. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of seven patients admitted to Maimonides Medical Center with classic heat stroke over a 3-day period during a heat wave in July 1993. Three of these patients with classic heat stroke had rhabdomyolysis, but no renal failure; two completely recovered; and one had an ataxic gait disturbance. Three additional patients had rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure; one of them completely recovered, one survived with quadriplegia, and one died. Our findings suggest that rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure are common manifestations of classic heat stroke. Recognition of this complication warrants rigorous hydration and alkalinization of the urine to prevent or attenuate myoglobinuric acute renal failure. PMID:7481965

  15. Structural features of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin that activates membrane-associated guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Shimonishi, Y

    2004-03-01

    Heat-stable enterotoxin (ST), a small peptide of 18 or 19 amino acid residues produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, is the cause of acute diarrhea in infants and travelers in developing countries. ST triggers a biological response by binding to a membrane-associated guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) which is located on intestinal epithelial cell membranes. This binding causes an increase in the concentration of cGMP as a second messenger in cells and activates protein kinase A and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Here we describe the crystal structure of an ST at 0.89 A resolution. The molecule has a ring-shaped molecular architecture consisting of six peptide molecules with external and internal diameters of approximately 35 and 7 A, respectively and a thickness of approximately 11 A. The conserved residues at the central portion of ST are distributed on the outer surface of the ring-shaped peptide hexamer, suggesting that the hexamer may be implicated in the association with GC-C through these invariant residues. PMID:15049831

  16. Heat shock response associated with hepatocarcinogenesis in a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

    PubMed

    Angileri, Francesca; Morrow, Geneviève; Roy, Vincent; Orejuela, Diana; Tanguay, Robert M

    2014-04-23

    Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl] cyclohexane-1,3-dione). However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC.

  17. A novel asthma camp intervention for childhood asthma among urban blacks. The Pediatric Lung Committee of the American Lung Association of the District of Columbia (ALADC) Washington, DC.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, S. B.; Coughlin, S. S.; Chamberlin, J.

    1992-01-01

    Following a needs assessment, the American Lung Association of the District of Columbia (ALADC) began a 3-year pilot program (1986 to 1989) to improve the health status of 5- to 10-year-old urban black asthmatic children. The authors hypothesized that participation in a 1-day asthma camp curriculum, using a collaborative multidisciplinary team approach between university and community-based staff, would provide an effective educational intervention to teach children and their families daily management strategies for asthma. The 84 participants (mean age: 9.6 years) were predominantly black (93%), male (73%), and from single-parent or single-guardian homes (52.7%). Follow-up interviews suggested that a high percentage of the children were using new techniques such as aerosol/inhalers (78%) and breathing/warm-up exercises (55%). Overall, participation in this novel program was associated with a clinically significant, 36% to 69% reduction in school absences, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. PMID:1578497

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature during heat stress experience lower milk yield and fertility. Given that rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable in dairy cattle, genetic selection for regulation of body temperature should reduce effects of heat stress on production. One goal...

  19. Secondary Trauma and Job Burnout and Associated Factors among HIV Lay Counsellors in Nkangala District, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secondary trauma and job burnout and associated factors in a sample of 71 HIV lay counsellors in South Africa. Results indicate that 49.5% were not satisfied with their work environment and 51.4% were potentially secondary traumatic stress cases. In univariate analysis, seeing more HIV counselling and testing…

  20. Agreement between Board of Trustees, West Kern Community College District and Taft College Faculty Association, 1988-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft Coll., CA.

    This contractual agreement outlines the terms of employment in effect from 1988 to 1989. The 12 articles in the agreement set forth provisions related to: (1) parties to the agreement; (2) recognition of the association as exclusive representative; (3) definition of terms; (4) professional dues or fees and payroll deductions; (5) personal and…

  1. Characteristics of Precipitation, Cloud, and Latent Heating Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K-M.; Wu, H-T.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of cloud and rainfall structures associated with Madden Julian oscillation (MJO) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. Two complementary indices are used to define MJO phases. Joint probability distribution functions (PDFs) of cloud-top temperature and radar echo-top height are constructed for each of the eight MJO phases. The genesis stage of MJO convection over the western Pacific (phases 1 and 2) features a bottom-heavy PDF, characterized by abundant warm rain, low clouds, suppressed deep convection, and higher sea surface temperature (SST). As MJO convection develops (phases 3 and 4), a transition from the bottom-heavy to top-heavy PDF occurs. The latter is associated with the development of mixed-phase rain and middle-to-high clouds, coupled with rapid SST cooling. At the MJO convection peak (phase 5), a top-heavy PDF contributed by deep convection with mixed-phase and ice-phase rain and high echo-top heights (greater than 5 km) dominates. The decaying stage (phases 6 and 7) is characterized by suppressed SST, reduced total rain, increased contribution from stratiform rain, and increased nonraining high clouds. Phase 7, in particular, signals the beginning of a return to higher SST and increased warm rain. Phase 8 completes the MJO cycle, returning to a bottom-heavy PDF and SST conditions similar to phase 1. The structural changes in rain and clouds at different phases of MJO are consistent with corresponding changes in derived latent heating profiles, suggesting the importance of a diverse mix of warm, mixed-phase, and ice-phase rain associated with low-level, congestus, and high clouds in constituting the life cycle and the time scales of MJO.

  2. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves over the Chickasaw Nation in the South Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Basara Richter, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (>2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (>1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  3. Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in settlement areas in the district of Juruena, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Irani Machado; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Galvão, Noemi Dreyer; Atanaka-Santos, Marina

    2012-09-01

    Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, Juruena, Mato Grosso in 2005 were analyzed. Two hundred settlers of both genders and aged 18 years and above were interviewed. The prevalence of malaria reported in 2005 was 33%. The prevalence ratio showed that the highest prevalence of malaria was found in individuals involved in gold mining activities (67%); who came from non-endemic areas (43%); had inadequate knowledge about the time of greatest activity of the vector (71%); and who reported being outside after 5 p.m. (59%). It was concluded that in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, factors such as occupation, origin, inadequate knowledge about where malaria is transmitted, inadequate knowledge about the time the mosquito usually bites and individual practices in relation to the peak period of mosquito activity were associated with malaria in 2005.

  4. Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in settlement areas in the district of Juruena, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Irani Machado; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Galvão, Noemi Dreyer; Atanaka-Santos, Marina

    2012-09-01

    Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, Juruena, Mato Grosso in 2005 were analyzed. Two hundred settlers of both genders and aged 18 years and above were interviewed. The prevalence of malaria reported in 2005 was 33%. The prevalence ratio showed that the highest prevalence of malaria was found in individuals involved in gold mining activities (67%); who came from non-endemic areas (43%); had inadequate knowledge about the time of greatest activity of the vector (71%); and who reported being outside after 5 p.m. (59%). It was concluded that in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, factors such as occupation, origin, inadequate knowledge about where malaria is transmitted, inadequate knowledge about the time the mosquito usually bites and individual practices in relation to the peak period of mosquito activity were associated with malaria in 2005. PMID:22996892

  5. Absence of association of autoinducer-2-based quorum sensing with heat and acid resistance of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yohan; Sofos, John N

    2010-09-01

    This study used various approaches to investigate the potential association of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) presence with thermal and acid resistance of Salmonella cultures. Salmonella Thompson strains RM1987N (luxS-positive; AI-2 positive) and RM1987NLUX (luxS-negative; AI-2 negative) were exposed to 55 °C (6 h) in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, while the luxS-negative S. Thompson strain and a Salmonella Typhimurium luxS-positive strain were exposed to 55 °C in AI-2-positive or -negative preconditioned (PC) media derived from S. Thompson and Escherichia coli O157:H7 luxS-positive and -negative strains. In addition, the luxS-negative S. Thompson strain was subjected to pH 3.5 PC media (35 °C, 6 h) with or without AI-2 activity, and acid-adapted or nonadapted S. Thompson strains were exposed to pH 3.0 LB broth (35 °C, 6 h). Surviving bacterial populations during exposure to 55 °C LB were not different between luxS-negative and -positive S. Thompson strains. In addition, heating at 55 °C of the luxS-negative S. Thompson strain in AI-2-positive and -negative PC media resulted in similar (P ≥ 0.05) survivor counts. Furthermore, surviving cell counts of S. Typhimurium (luxS-positive) in 55 °C AI-2-positive PC media were not different (P ≥ 0.05) than those in AI-2 negative PC media. No differences in surviving cell counts of the luxS-negative S. Thompson strain was found when exposed to pH 3.5 AI-2-positive and -negative PC media. Also, survivors of acid-adapted or nonadapted cells of luxS-negative and -positive S. Thompson strains were not different following exposure to pH 3.0 LB. The results indicated that, under the conditions of this study, AI-2-based quorum sensing did not appear to be associated with heat and acid resistance of Salmonella.

  6. Morbidity and mortality associated with the July 1980 heat wave in St Louis and Kansas City, Mo.

    PubMed

    Jones, T S; Liang, A P; Kilbourne, E M; Griffin, M R; Patriarca, P A; Wassilak, S G; Mullan, R J; Herrick, R F; Donnell, H D; Choi, K; Thacker, S B

    1982-06-25

    The morbidity and mortality associated with the 1980 heat wave in St Louis and Kansas City, Mo, were assessed retrospectively. Heat-related illness and deaths were identified by review of death certificates and hospital, emergency room, and medical examiners' records in the two cities. Data from the July 1980 heat wave were compared with data from July 1978 and 1979, when there were no heat waves. Deaths from all causes in July 1980 increased by 57% and 64% in St Louis and Kansas City, respectively, but only 10% in the predominantly rural areas of Missouri. About one of every 1,000 residents of the two cities was hospitalized for or died of heat-related illness. Incidence rates (per 100,000) of heatstroke, defined as severe heat illness with documented hyperthermia, were 26.5 and 17.6 for St Louis and Kansas City, respectively. No heatstroke cases occurred in July 1979. Heatstroke rates were ten to 12 times higher for persons aged 65 years or older than for those younger than 65 years. The ratios of age-adjusted heatstroke rates were approximately 3:1 for nonwhite v white persons and about 6:1 for low v high socioeconomic status. Public health preventive measures in future heat waves should be directed toward the urban poor, the elderly, and persons of other-than-white races. PMID:7087075

  7. The polymorphism in the promoter region of metallothionein 1 is associated with heat tolerance of scallop Argopecten irradians.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuanyan; Wang, Lingling; Jiang, Qiufen; Wang, Jingjing; Yue, Feng; Zhang, Huan; Sun, Zhibin; Song, Linsheng

    2013-09-10

    Metallothioneins (MTs), a superfamily of cysteine-rich proteins, perform multiple functions, such as maintaining homeostasis of essential metals, detoxification of toxic metals and scavenging of oxyradicals. In this study, the promoter region of a metallothionein (MT) gene from Bay scallop Argopecten irradians (designed as AiMT1) was cloned by the technique of genomic DNA walking, and the polymorphisms in this region were screened to find their association with susceptibility or tolerance to high temperature stress. One insert-deletion (ins-del) polymorphism and sixteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the amplified promoter region. Two SNPs, -375 T-C and -337 A-C, were selected to analyze their distribution in the two Bay scallop populations collected from southern and northern China coast, which were identified as heat resistant and heat susceptible stocks, respectively. There were three genotypes, T/T, T/C and C/C, at locus -375, and their frequencies were 25%, 61.1% and 13.9% in the heat susceptible stock, while 34.2%, 42.1% and 23.7% in the resistant stock, respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution of different genotypes between the two stocks (P>0.05). In contrast, at locus -337, three genotypes A/A, A/C and C/C were revealed with the frequencies of 11.6%, 34.9% and 53.5% in the heat susceptible stock, while 45.7%, 32.6% and 21.7% in the heat resistant stock, respectively. The frequency of C/C genotype in the heat susceptible stock was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that in the heat resistant stock, while the frequency of A/A in the heat resistant stock was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that in the heat susceptible stock. Furthermore, the expression of AiMT1 mRNA in scallops with C/C genotype was significantly higher than that with A/A genotype (P<0.05) after an acute heat treatment at 28°C for 120min. These results implied that the polymorphism at locus -337 of AiMT1 was associated with

  8. Physical mechanisms associated with long-range propagation of the signals from ionospheric heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Zavorotny, Valery U.; Rietveld, Michael T.

    2014-10-01

    Long-range propagation of heater-produced signals has been studied in experiments with the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association ionospheric heating facility and with several globally distributed receiving sites by Zalizovski et al. [2009]. Two distinctive components were present in the signals' spectra, and these can be attributed to two modes of propagation of the signals. One of the components is narrowband and stable; it obviously can be associated with the multihop ionospheric propagation of HF waves radiated by the side lobes of the heater's antenna array. Prominent features of the second component are its wider spectral band (up to few tens of hertz) and strong variations in the average Doppler frequency shift and in the power, which in many cases were synchronous at the different receiving sites. These effects are most likely produced by the ionospheric scattering and dynamics within the heater's main beam. The tricky part is to explain how a portion of the HF energy contained in the relatively narrow main beam of the heater is redirected toward the remote receiving locations. We suggest a robust mechanism explaining the long-range propagation of the wideband component of the heater-generated signal based on the theory of scattering from rough surfaces. This mechanism preserves all the observed properties of the remote signals. We show that mountain relief in the vicinity of the heater plays the role of the rough surface causing almost isotropic scattering of the heater's main beam after it is reflected by the ionosphere. Multiple scattering by natural and artificial field-aligned irregularities in the ionospheric layer may be related to the ground-scattered remote signals through its role in spatial redistribution of the heater's radiation.

  9. Heat Capacity Changes Associated with DNA Duplex Formation: Salt- and Sequence-Dependent Effects†

    PubMed Central

    Mikulecky, Peter J.; Feig, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Duplexes are the most fundamental elements of nucleic acid folding. Although it has become increasingly clear that duplex formation can be associated with a significant change in heat capacity (ΔCp), this parameter is typically overlooked in thermodynamic studies of nucleic acid folding. Analogy to protein folding suggests that base stacking events coupled to duplex formation should give rise to a ΔCp due to the release of waters solvating aromatic surfaces of nucleotide bases. In previous work, we showed that the ΔCp observed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for RNA duplex formation depended on salt and sequence. In the present work, we apply calorimetric and spectroscopic techniques to a series of designed DNA duplexes to demonstrate that both the salt dependence and sequence dependence of ΔCps observed by ITC reflect perturbations to the same fundamental phenomenon: stacking in the single-stranded state. By measuring the thermodynamics of single strand melting, one can accurately predict the ΔCps observed for duplex formation by ITC at high and low ionic strength. We discuss our results in light of the larger issue of contributions to ΔCp from coupled equilibria and conclude that observed ΔCps can be useful indicators of intermediate states in nucleic acid folding phenomena. PMID:16401089

  10. Upregulation of heat shock factor 1 transcription activity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Shulian; Ma, Wanli; Fei, Teng; Lou, Qiang; Zhang, Yaqin; Cui, Xiukun; Qin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Guangchao; Dong, Zheng; Ma, Yuanfang; Song, Zhengshun; Hu, Yanzhong

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is associated with tissue‑specific tumorigenesis in a number of mouse models, and has been used a as prognostic marker of cancer types, including breast and prostatic cancer. However, its role in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well understood. Using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining, it was identified that HSF1 and its serine (S) 326 phosphorylation, a biomarker of HSF1 activation, are significantly upregulated in human HCC tissues and HCC cell lines compared with their normal counterparts. Cohort analyses indicated that upregulation of the expression of HSF1 and its phospho‑S326 is significantly correlated with HCC progression, invasion and patient survival prognosis (P<0.001); however, not in the presence of a hepatitis B virus infection and the expression of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen. Knockdown of HSF1 with shRNA induced the protein expression of tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein, resulting in attenuated plc/prf5 cell growth and colony formation in vitro. Taken together, these data markedly support that HSF1 is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.

  11. Criteria for the diagnosis of heat-related deaths: National Association of Medical Examiners. Position paper. National Association of Medical Examiners Ad Hoc Committee on the Definition of Heat-Related Fatalities.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, E R; Graham, M A; Jentzen, J M; Lifschultz, B D; Luke, J L; Mirchandani, H G

    1997-03-01

    The National Association of Medical Examiners Ad Hoc Committee on the Definition of Heat-Related Fatalities recommends the following definition of "heat-related death": a death in which exposure to high ambient temperature either caused the death or significantly contributed to it. The committee also recommends that the diagnosis of heat-related death be based on a history of exposure to high ambient temperature and the reasonable exclusion of other causes of hyperthermia. The diagnosis may be established from the circumstances surrounding the death, investigative reports concerning environmental temperature, and/or measured antemortem body temperature at the time of collapse. In cases where the measured antemortem body temperature at the time of collapse was > or = 105 degrees F (> or = 40.6 degrees C), the cause of death should be certified as heat stroke or hyperthermia. Deaths may also be certified as heat stroke or hyperthermia with lower body temperatures when cooling has been attempted prior to arrival at the hospital and/or when there is a clinical history of mental status changes and elevated liver and muscle enzymes. In cases where the antemortem body temperature cannot be established but the environmental temperature at the time of collapse was high, an appropriate heat-related diagnosis should be listed as the cause of death or as a significant contributing condition.

  12. Impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat waves on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat waves were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat waves (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat waves (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat waves have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.

  13. Impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat waves on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat waves were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat waves (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat waves (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat waves have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.

  14. TRMM observations of latent heat distribution over the Indian summer monsoon region and associated dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, Kandula V.; Kishore Kumar, Karanam

    2016-05-01

    The latent heat released/absorbed in the Earth's atmosphere due to phase change of water molecule plays a vital role in various atmospheric processes. It is now well established that the latent heat released in the clouds is the secondary source of energy for driving the atmosphere, the Sun being the primary. In this context, studies on latent heat released in the atmosphere become important to understand the some of the physical processes taking place in the atmosphere. One of the important implications of latent heat release is its role in driving the circulations on various temporal and spatial scales. Realizing the importance of latent heat released in the clouds, a comprehensive study is carried out to understand its role in driving the mesoscale circulation. As Indian summer monsoon (ISM) serves as natural laboratory for studying the clouds and their microphysics, an attempt is made to explore the latent heat distribution over this region using 13 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations. The observed profiles of latent heating over ISM region showed large spatial and temporal variability in the magnitude thus reflecting the presence of organization of convection on mesoscale. The latent profiles in convective and stratiform regions are segregated to study the differences in their interaction with large-scale environment. Various re-analysis dataset were used to examine the role of latent heating distribution on the mesoscale circulation. The significance of the present study lies in establishing the vertical distribution of latent heating and their impact on the background circulation.

  15. Tissue localization of maize acetylcholinesterase associated with heat tolerance in plants

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Momonoki, Yoshie S.

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study reported that maize acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the coleoptile node is enhanced through a post-translational modification response to heat stress and transgenic plants overexpressing maize AChE gene had an elevated heat tolerance, which strongly suggests that maize AChE plays a positive, important role in maize heat tolerance. Here we present (1) maize AChE activity in the mesocotyl also enhances during heat stress and (2) maize AChE mainly localizes in vascular bundles including endodermis and epidermis in coleoptile nodes and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. PMID:22476469

  16. Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au association in the Southern Panagyurishte District, Bulgaria: the paired Vlaykov Vruh and Elshitsa deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht; Chiaradia, Massimo; Peytcheva, Irena; Fontignie, Denis; Ramboz, Claire; Bogdanov, Kamen

    2009-08-01

    Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa represents the best example of paired porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au deposits within the Late Cretaceous Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic and metallogenic belt of Eastern Europe. The two deposits are part of the NW trending Panagyurishte magmato-tectonic corridor of central Bulgaria. The deposits were formed along the SW flank of the Elshitsa volcano-intrusive complex and are spatially associated with N110-120-trending hypabyssal and subvolcanic bodies of granodioritic composition. At Elshitsa, more than ten lenticular to columnar massive ore bodies are discordant with respect to the host rock and are structurally controlled. A particular feature of the mineralization is the overprinting of an early stage high-sulfidation mineral assemblage (pyrite ± enargite ± covellite ± goldfieldite) by an intermediate-sulfidation paragenesis with a characteristic Cu-Bi-Te-Pb-Zn signature forming the main economic parts of the ore bodies. The two stages of mineralization produced two compositionally different types of ores—massive pyrite and copper-pyrite bodies. Vlaykov Vruh shares features with typical porphyry Cu systems. Their common geological and structural setting, ore-forming processes, and paragenesis, as well as the observed alteration and geochemical lateral and vertical zonation, allow us to interpret the Elshitsa and Vlaykov Vruh deposits as the deep part of a high-sulfidation epithermal system and its spatially and genetically related porphyry Cu counterpart, respectively. The magmatic-hydrothermal system at Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa produced much smaller deposits than similar complexes in the northern part of the Panagyurishte district (Chelopech, Elatsite, Assarel). Magma chemistry and isotopic signature are some of the main differences between the northern and southern parts of the district. Major and trace element geochemistry of the Elshitsa magmatic complex are indicative for the medium- to high-K calc-alkaline character of

  17. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  18. Preliminary conceptual design for geothermal space heating conversion of school district 50 joint facilities at Pagosa Springs, Colorado. GTA report no. 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engen, I. A.

    1981-11-01

    This feasibility study and preliminary conceptual design effect assesses the conversion of a high school and gym, and a middle school building to geothermal space heating is assessed. A preliminary cost benefit assessment made on the basis of estimated costs for conversion, system maintenance, debt service, resource development, electricity to power pumps, and savings from from reduced natural gas consumption concluded that an economic conversion depended on development of an adequate geothermal resource (approximately 1500F, 400 gpm). Material selection assumed that the geothermal water to the main supply system was isolated to minimize effects of corrosion and deposition, and that system compatible components are used for the building modifications. Asbestos cement distribution pipe, a stainless steel heat exchanger, and stainless steel lined valves were recommended for the supply, heat transfer, and disposal mechanisms, respectively. A comparison of the calculated average gas consumption cost, escalated at 10% per year, with conversion project cost, both in 1977 dollars, showed that the project could be amortized over less than 20 years at current interest rates.

  19. Characterization of physiological response and identification of associated genes under heat stress in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xue, Da-Wei; Jiang, Hua; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Guo, Long-Biao; Zeng, Da-Li; Dong, Guo-Jun; Sun, Guo-Chang; Qian, Qian

    2012-12-01

    Global warming, which is caused by greenhouse gas emissions, makes food crops more vulnerable to heat stress. Understanding the heat stress-related mechanisms in crops and classifying heat stress-related genes can increase our knowledge in heat-resistant molecular biology and propel developments in molecular design breeding, which can help rice cope with unfavorable temperatures. In this study, we carried out a physiological analysis of rice plants after heat stress. The results show a dramatic increase in malondialdehyde contents and SOD activities. We successfully isolated 11 heat-related rice genes with known function annotation through DNSH, which is an improved SSH method for screening long cDNA fragments. The reanalysis of microarray data from public database revealed that all these genes displayed various expression patterns after heat stress, drought, cold and salt. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR was also performed to validate the expression of these genes after heat stress. The expressions in 10 genes were all significantly changed except for contig 77, which is a CBL-interacting protein kinase. Several reports have been published about the members of the same gene family.

  20. Characterization of physiological response and identification of associated genes under heat stress in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xue, Da-Wei; Jiang, Hua; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Guo, Long-Biao; Zeng, Da-Li; Dong, Guo-Jun; Sun, Guo-Chang; Qian, Qian

    2012-12-01

    Global warming, which is caused by greenhouse gas emissions, makes food crops more vulnerable to heat stress. Understanding the heat stress-related mechanisms in crops and classifying heat stress-related genes can increase our knowledge in heat-resistant molecular biology and propel developments in molecular design breeding, which can help rice cope with unfavorable temperatures. In this study, we carried out a physiological analysis of rice plants after heat stress. The results show a dramatic increase in malondialdehyde contents and SOD activities. We successfully isolated 11 heat-related rice genes with known function annotation through DNSH, which is an improved SSH method for screening long cDNA fragments. The reanalysis of microarray data from public database revealed that all these genes displayed various expression patterns after heat stress, drought, cold and salt. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR was also performed to validate the expression of these genes after heat stress. The expressions in 10 genes were all significantly changed except for contig 77, which is a CBL-interacting protein kinase. Several reports have been published about the members of the same gene family. PMID:23037947

  1. Seasonal variation in food insecurity is associated with heating and cooling costs among low-income elderly Americans.

    PubMed

    Nord, Mark; Kantor, Linda S

    2006-11-01

    In this study we examine the association between household food insecurity and seasonally high heating and cooling costs. Logistic regression models, controlling for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, were estimated using data on household food security and economic and demographic data from the 1995-2001 Current Population Survey Food Security Supplements and state-level data on heating and cooling degree days from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Low-income households, especially those consisting entirely of elderly persons, experienced substantial seasonal differences in the incidence of very low food security (the more severe range of food insecurity) in areas with high winter heating costs and high summer cooling costs. In high-cooling states, the odds of very low food security for poor, elderly only households were 27% higher in the summer than in the winter. In high-heating states, the pattern was reversed for such households; the odds of very low food security were 43% lower in the summer. In light of recent sharp increases in home heating and cooling costs in many parts of the U.S., it is important to understand the extent to which households make tradeoffs between heating and cooling costs and other basic needs that affect their food security.

  2. Low-frequency waves and ion heating associated with double layers in the downward current region of the auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Naresh

    2009-06-01

    Recent observations by satellites in the auroral ionosphere have established the presence of strong narrowly localized electric fields parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Physically these fields are formed by two layers of opposite charges in close proximity existing self-consistently in the plasma; this is known as a double layer (DL). The DL field accelerates plasma particles to form beams which excite wave modes and saturate to form electron phase-space holes (EHs). Intense perpendicular heating of ions is concurrently observed, leading to speculations regarding the heating mechanism(s). In this thesis, we address this issue via numerical simulations and analysis. We have performed electrostatic kinetic simulations using the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations for conditions prevalent in the downward current region (DCR) of the auroral ionosphere. The simulations display low-frequency waves, EHs and ion heating, consistent with observations. We determine the relative importance of two proposed mechanisms for ion heating: stochastic heating due to EHs and due to wave-particle interactions at identifiable wave modes. Stochastic heating of ions via EH-ion scattering is estimated to account for approximately 10-15% of the observed increase in ion temperature in regions of intense wave activity. Spectral analysis shows that the energy exchange between waves and ions is concentrated at frequencies and wave numbers associated with nearly perpendicular magnetized ion wave modes and not EHs. We conclude that, in the vicinity of DLs in the DCR of the auroral ionosphere where both intense waves and EHs are present, wave-particle interactions are the principal mechanism of ion heating, with stochastic heating by electron phase-space holes playing a minor role.

  3. Novel SNPs in HSPB8 gene and their association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal indigenous cattle.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nishant; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Verma, Archana; Kumar, Rakesh; Das, Ramendra; Vineeth, M R

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are expressed in response to heat stress, and the polymorphism in HSP genes at single-nucleotide level has been reported to be associated with heat tolerance and production performance traits in cattle. HSPB8 gene has been mapped on Bos taurus autosome 17 (BTA-17) spanning nearly 13,252 bp and comprising three exons and two introns. The present study was conducted in Sahiwal cows (n = 108) reared in subtropical climate with the objectives to identify SNPs in all three exons and part of intron 1 of HSPB8 gene and to analyze their association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal cows. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded once during probable extreme hours in different seasons or Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), i.e., winter, spring, and summer. Heat tolerance coefficient (HTC) was also calculated to check the adaptability of the animals during the period of heat stress. The comparative sequence analysis revealed a total two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., g.507G>A in exon 1 and g.881T>C in intron 1 of HSPB8 gene. Out of these two identified SNPs, only one SNP, i.e., g.507G>A, was found to be significantly associated with heat tolerance indicator traits (RR, RT, and HTC) in Sahiwal cows. The perusal of results across different seasons showed the significant (P < 0.01) difference in RR, RT, and HTC between winter, spring, and summer seasons. RR, RT, and HTC were found to be significantly lower (P < 0.01) in GA as compared to GG genotype of g.507G>A SNP of HSPB8 gene. However, in case of another SNP, i.e., g.881T>C, located on intron 1, the RR, RT, and HTC were having non-significant association with the different genotypes, i.e., TT and TC. These findings may partly suggest that GA genotype of SNP g.507G>A of HSPB8 gene has a probable role in heat tolerance in Sahiwal cattle and can therefore be utilized as a marker in propagation of thermo-tolerance cattle in hot tropical and subtropical

  4. Novel SNPs in HSPB8 gene and their association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal indigenous cattle.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nishant; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Verma, Archana; Kumar, Rakesh; Das, Ramendra; Vineeth, M R

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are expressed in response to heat stress, and the polymorphism in HSP genes at single-nucleotide level has been reported to be associated with heat tolerance and production performance traits in cattle. HSPB8 gene has been mapped on Bos taurus autosome 17 (BTA-17) spanning nearly 13,252 bp and comprising three exons and two introns. The present study was conducted in Sahiwal cows (n = 108) reared in subtropical climate with the objectives to identify SNPs in all three exons and part of intron 1 of HSPB8 gene and to analyze their association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal cows. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded once during probable extreme hours in different seasons or Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), i.e., winter, spring, and summer. Heat tolerance coefficient (HTC) was also calculated to check the adaptability of the animals during the period of heat stress. The comparative sequence analysis revealed a total two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., g.507G>A in exon 1 and g.881T>C in intron 1 of HSPB8 gene. Out of these two identified SNPs, only one SNP, i.e., g.507G>A, was found to be significantly associated with heat tolerance indicator traits (RR, RT, and HTC) in Sahiwal cows. The perusal of results across different seasons showed the significant (P < 0.01) difference in RR, RT, and HTC between winter, spring, and summer seasons. RR, RT, and HTC were found to be significantly lower (P < 0.01) in GA as compared to GG genotype of g.507G>A SNP of HSPB8 gene. However, in case of another SNP, i.e., g.881T>C, located on intron 1, the RR, RT, and HTC were having non-significant association with the different genotypes, i.e., TT and TC. These findings may partly suggest that GA genotype of SNP g.507G>A of HSPB8 gene has a probable role in heat tolerance in Sahiwal cattle and can therefore be utilized as a marker in propagation of thermo-tolerance cattle in hot tropical and subtropical

  5. Organic compounds characteristics associated with heat-induced increases of water repellency in Australian eucalypt forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Ground surface heating during wildfires often leads to increased water repellency in soils. The effect of elevated soil temperature on water repellency has been investigated in many laboratory-based studies and temperature thresholds for increases in, and destruction of, water repellency have been established. However, little is known about the changes in organic compounds patterns and their chemical structure that associated with these changes. Here we report on the characterisation of the chemical changes of organic compounds associated with heat-induced increases in water repellency in Eucalypt soils of different repellency levels. Fires are very common in eucalypt forest environments and soils under eucalypt species exhibit one of the most severe repellency levels, providing an ideal study case. Three SE Australian eucalypt forest soils from different locations (two sands and one sandy loam) were heated in the laboratory for 10 min at 300° C. Laboratory heating resulted in extreme repellency in the three soils studied. Heated and unheated control samples were then extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with iso-propanol/ammonia mixture (IPA/NH3 95:5). Extraction led to the elimination of any water repellency present both in the original (heated) and the control samples. Organic compounds in the IPA/NH3 solvent were measured in extracts of increasing polarity in order to solubilise the residue. Before heating, the total solvent extracts from the soils with sandy texture were dominated by n-alkanols, terpenoids, C16 acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol and polar compounds such as glycerol, monosaccharides and glycosides. Fatty acids with chain length over C20 were detected in the sandy soils, while the soil of heavier texture (sandy loam) lacked longer than C20 fatty acids and had lower concentrations of alkanols (exceeding C26 chain lenght) and alkanes (C29, C31). Alkane patterns were characterized by the predominance of C21 - C31 homologues with a

  6. A practical cooling strategy for reducing the physiological strain associated with firefighting activity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Barr, D; Gregson, W; Sutton, L; Reilly, T

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether a practical cooling strategy reduces the physiological strain during simulated firefighting activity in the heat. On two separate occasions under high ambient temperatures (49.6 +/- 1.8 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) 13 +/- 2%), nine male firefighters wearing protective clothing completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km/h, 7.5% gradient) separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which firefighters were either cooled (cool) via application of an ice vest and hand and forearm water immersion ( approximately 19 degrees C) or remained seated without cooling (control). There was no significant difference between trials in any of the dependent variables during the first bout of exercise. Core body temperature (37.72 +/- 0.34 vs. 38.21 +/- 0.17 degrees C), heart rate (HR) (81 +/- 9 vs. 96 +/- 17 beats/min) and mean skin temperature (31.22 +/- 1.04 degrees C vs. 33.31 +/- 1 degrees C) were significantly lower following the recovery period in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). Core body temperature remained consistently lower (0.49 +/- 0.02 degrees C; p < 0.01) throughout the second bout of activity in cool compared to control. Mean skin temperature, HR and thermal sensation were significantly lower during bout 2 in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this practical cooling strategy is effective at reducing the physiological strain associated with demanding firefighting activity under high ambient temperatures.

  7. Assessments of surface latent heat flux associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxia; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    To understand the accuracy and uncertainty of surface latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the LHF from each of the six global reanalysis datasets is compared with LHF based on in situ data and the objectively analyzed air-sea flux (OAFlux), in terms of tropical intraseasonal variability. The reanalysis products used in this study include the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), three generations of reanalysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP R1, R2 and CFSR), and the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). We find that the intraseasonal LHF of the reanalysis products agrees well with the OAFlux over the tropical oceans in terms of patterns, but there is a significant spread in amplitude among the reanalysis products. Both ERA-I and MERRA show smaller biases in the power spectral analysis, while the other reanalysis products (NCEP R1, NCEP R2, CFSR, and 20CR) tend to overestimate the intraseasonal LHF when compared with the TAO buoy products and OAFlux. The role of anomalous LHF in supporting the MJO convection identified by previous TAO buoy data studies is confirmed by the long-term global reanalyses. The feature of increasing LHF accompanied by growing MJO observed in the recent MJO field campaign in the central Indian Ocean (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) is also well captured by the reanalysis products. Among the reanalysis datasets, MERRA has the smallest bias in temporal variability of LHF during the DYNAMO/CINDY2011 period.

  8. Association of Heat Production with FDG Accumulation by Murine Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) After Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Edward A.; Bonab, Ali A; Paul, Kasie; Yerxa, John; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Fischman, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cold stress results in increased accumulation of 18FDG in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Although it has been assumed that this effect is associated with increased thermogenesis by BAT, direct measurements of this phenomenon have not been reported. In the current investigation we evaluated the relationship between stimulation of 18FDG accumulation in BAT by three stressors and heat production measured in vivo by thermal imaging. Male SKH-1 hairless mice were subjected to full-thickness thermal injury (30% total body surface area), cold stress (4°C for 24 hours), or cutaneous wounds. Groups of 6 animals with each treatment were fasted over night and injected with 18FDG. Sixty minutes after injection the mice were sacrificed and biodistribution was measured. Other groups of six animals subjected to the three stressors were studied by thermal imaging and the difference in temperature between BAT and adjacent tissue was recorded (ΔT). Additional groups of 6 animals were studied by both thermal imaging and 18FDG biodistribution in the same animals. Accumulation of 18FDG by BAT was significantly (p <0.0001) increased by all 3 treatments (burn ~5 fold, cold: ~15 fold, and cutaneous wound ~15 fold) whereas accumulation by adjacent white adipose tissue (WAT) was unchanged. Compared with sham control mice; ΔTs in animals exposed to all three stressors showed significant (p<0.001) increases in temperature between BAT and adjacent tissue. The difference in ΔT between stressor groups was not significant, however, there was a highly significant linear correlation (r2=0.835, p<0.0001) between the ΔT measured in BAT vs. adjacent tissue and 18FDG accumulation. These results establish, for the first time, that changes in BAT temperature determined in vivo by thermal imaging parallel increases in 18FDG accumulation. PMID:21914754

  9. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant, with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 850-950 °C. In this concept, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, a nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. This paper assesses the issues pertaining to shell-and-tube and compact heat exchangers. A detailed thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop inside both printed circuit and shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The analysis included evaluation of the role of key process parameters, geometrical factors in heat exchanger designs, and material properties of structural alloys. Calculations were performed for helium-to-helium, helium-to-helium/nitrogen, and helium-to-salt heat exchangers.

  10. Small-scale fluctuations in barium drifts at high latitudes and associated Joule heating effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, L. D.; Larsen, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Most previous estimates of Joule heating rates, especially the contribution of small-scale structure in the high-latitude ionosphere, have been based on incoherent scatter or coherent scatter radar measurements. An alternative estimate can be found from the plasma drifts obtained from ionized barium clouds released from sounding rockets. We have used barium drift data from three experiments to estimate Joule heating rates in the high-latitude E region for different magnetic activity levels. In particular, we are interested in the contribution of small-scale plasma drift fluctuations, corresponding to equivalent electric field fluctuations, to the local Joule heating rate on scales smaller than those typically resolved by radar or other measurements. Since Joule heating is a Lagrangian quantity, the inherently Lagrangian estimates provided by the chemical tracer measurements are a full description of the effects of electric field variance and neutral winds on the heating, differing from the Eulerian estimates of the type provided by ground-based measurements. Results suggest that the small-scale contributions to the heating can be more than a factor of 2 greater than the mean field contribution regardless of geomagnetic conditions, and at times the small-scale contribution is even larger. The high-resolution barium drift measurements, moreover, show that the fine structure in the electric field can be more variable than previous studies have reported for similar conditions. The neutral winds also affect the heating, altering the height-integrated Joule heating rates by as much as 12%, for the cases studied here, and modifying the height distribution of the heating profile as well.

  11. Phenomena associated with bench and thermal-vacuum testing of super conductors - Heat pipes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Test failures of heat pipes occur when the functional performance is unable to match the expected design limits or when the power applied to the heat pipe (in the form of heat) is distributed unevenly through the system, yielding a large thermal gradient. When a thermal gradient larger than expected is measured, it normally occurs in the evaporator or condenser sections of the pipe. Common causes include evaporator overheating, condenser dropout, noncondensable gas formation, surge and partial recovery of evaporator temperatures, masking of thermal profiles, and simple malfunctions due to leaks and mechanical failures or flaws. Examples of each of these phenomena are described along with corresponding failure analyses and corrective measures.

  12. Numerical determination of entropy associated with excess heat in steady-state thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Naoko

    2016-08-01

    We numerically determine the global entropy for heat-conducting states, which is connected to the so-called excess heat considered as a basic quantity for steady-state thermodynamics in nonequilibrium. We adopt an efficient method to estimate the global entropy from the bare heat current and find that the obtained entropy agrees with the familiar local equilibrium hypothesis well. Our method possesses a wider applicability than local equilibrium and opens a possibility to compare thermodynamic properties of complex systems in nonequilibrium with those in the local equilibrium. We further investigate the global entropy for heat-conducting states and find that it exhibits both extensive and additive properties; however, the two properties do not degenerate each other differently from those at equilibrium. The separation of the extensivity and additivity makes it difficult to apply powerful thermodynamic methods to the nonequilibrium steady states.

  13. Numerical determination of entropy associated with excess heat in steady-state thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Naoko

    2016-08-01

    We numerically determine the global entropy for heat-conducting states, which is connected to the so-called excess heat considered as a basic quantity for steady-state thermodynamics in nonequilibrium. We adopt an efficient method to estimate the global entropy from the bare heat current and find that the obtained entropy agrees with the familiar local equilibrium hypothesis well. Our method possesses a wider applicability than local equilibrium and opens a possibility to compare thermodynamic properties of complex systems in nonequilibrium with those in the local equilibrium. We further investigate the global entropy for heat-conducting states and find that it exhibits both extensive and additive properties; however, the two properties do not degenerate each other differently from those at equilibrium. The separation of the extensivity and additivity makes it difficult to apply powerful thermodynamic methods to the nonequilibrium steady states. PMID:27627254

  14. Examining Fund Balance in Michigan School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidin, Zainin

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the financial profiles of 550 public school districts in Michigan and highlights the association between school district fund balance and the following eleven indicators: enrollment, percent enrollment change, percent of students receive free and reduced lunch (FRL), percent of special education students, percent of English…

  15. Districts as Institutional Actors in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorrer, Andrea K.; Skrla, Linda; Scheurich, James Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Intermittent attention to the district as the unit of study has left a void in our understanding of the complexities associated with the ability of district-level leaders to contribute to successful, systemic educational reform. In this article, the authors address this void by providing a narrative synthesis of previous findings,…

  16. Loss of Accreditation Rocks Georgia District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In the end, six months of management reforms and the hiring of an experienced urban superintendent failed to keep the Clayton County, Georgia, school district from becoming the nation's first district in nearly four decades to have its accreditation stripped. Last week's decision by the Atlanta-based Southern Association of Colleges and Schools…

  17. Characterization and factors associated with diarrhoeal diseases caused by enteric bacterial pathogens among children aged five years and below attending Igembe District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Karambu, Shirley; Matiru, Viviene; Kiptoo, Michael; Oundo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhoea remains a major public health problem in East African nations such as Kenya. Surveillance for a broad range of enteric pathogens is necessary to accurately predict the frequency of pathogens and potential changes in antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in Igembe District Hospital in Meru County to determine the burden and factors associated enteric bacterial infection among children aged five years and below. Stool samples were collected between March and July 2012. Bacterial pathogens were identified and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was ascertained. Questionnaire was administered to the 308 study participants to identify the modifiable risk factors. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.3. Results The study recruited 308 children. The mean age was 27.25 months, median of 26.0 months and age range between 2-60 months. The bacterial isolation rates were ETEC 9.1%, EPEC 6.8% and EAEC 12.3%, Salmonella paratyphoid (10.4%), Shigella flexineri (1.9%) and Shigella dysentriae (0.9%). Over 95%, of the isolates were resistance to amoxicillin, sulphinatozole, cotrimoxazole. Six factors were independently associated with diarrhoeal diseases, occupation of the parent/ guardian (miraa business) (OR=1.8, CI:1.44-4.99),care taker not washing hands after changing napkins (OR= 1.6, CI:1.2-19.7), child drank untreated water from the river (OR= 2.7, CI:2.4-9.9) child not exclusively breastfed (OR= 2.4, CI:2.1-10.5),child did not Wash hands before eating (OR=2.2, CI:1.91-16.3) and after visiting toilet (OR=3.7,CI:2.8-39.4). Eating of mangoes was found to be protective against diarrhoea (OR=0.5, CI:0.03-0.89). Conclusion The bacterial pathogens were found to be a significant cause of diarrhoea in the study participants. We established higher resistance to several commonly prescribed antibiotics. Several factors were significantly association with diarrhoea illness. We recommend

  18. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE. I. OBSERVATIONAL ASPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Pontieu, Bart De; Doorsselaere, Tom Van; Yokoyama, Takaaki

    2015-08-10

    Transverse magnetohydrodynamic waves have been shown to be ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and can, in principle, carry sufficient energy to generate and maintain the Sun’s million-degree outer atmosphere or corona. However, direct evidence of the dissipation process of these waves and subsequent heating has not yet been directly observed. Here we report on high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution observations of a solar prominence that show a compelling signature of so-called resonant absorption, a long hypothesized mechanism to efficiently convert and dissipate transverse wave energy into heat. Aside from coherence in the transverse direction, our observations show telltale phase differences around 180° between transverse motions in the plane-of-sky and line-of-sight velocities of the oscillating fine structures or threads, and also suggest significant heating from chromospheric to higher temperatures. Comparison with advanced numerical simulations support a scenario in which transverse oscillations trigger a Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) at the boundaries of oscillating threads via resonant absorption. This instability leads to numerous thin current sheets in which wave energy is dissipated and plasma is heated. Our results provide direct evidence for wave-related heating in action, one of the candidate coronal heating mechanisms.

  19. Investigation of Separation and the Associated Heat-Transfer and Pressure Distribution on Cone-Cylinder-Flare Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, John W.; Ferguson, Harold

    1962-01-01

    The separated region across the cylinder-flare junction of a conecylinder-flare configuration and its effect on the overall heat-transfer and pressure distributions were investigated at a Mach number of 4.98. Results are presented for pure laminar and transitional separation and for both laminar and turbulent attached flow on a 15 deg half-angle cone-cylinder model with conical flare afterbodies of 10 deg, 17 deg, 24 deg, and. 56 deg half-angles. The free-stream unit Reynolds number ranged from l.6x10(sup 6)to 5.5x(sup 6) ft(sup -1)and the wall temperature from T(sub w/T(sub aw) = 0.18 to 1.0. The extent of a pure laminar separation and a transitional separation was found to decrease with wall cooling, decreasing flare angle, and increasing unit Reynolds number. The heat transfer at reattachment and downstream was dependent on the type of separation - pure laminar or transitional. Low heat-transfer rates were found downstream of a pure laminar separation. For transitional separation, the heat transfer downstream of reattachment was at the high values associated with a thin turbulent boundary layer, with peak heating in the vicinity of reattachment.

  20. Heat-induced phytohormone changes are associated with disrupted early reproductive development and reduced yield in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao; Cui, Kehui; Wang, Wencheng; Li, Qian; Fahad, Shah; Hu, Qiuqian; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Peng, Shaobing

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress causes morphological and physiological changes and reduces crop yield in rice (Oryza sativa). To investigate changes in phytohormones and their relationships with yield and other attributes under heat stress, four rice varieties (Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, Liangyoupeijiu, and Shanyou 63) were grown in pots and subjected to three high temperature treatments plus control in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 d during the early reproductive phase. Yield reductions in Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, and Liangyoupeijiu were attributed to reductions in spikelet fertility, spikelets per panicle, and grain weight. The adverse effects of high temperature were alleviated by application of exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) in the heat-susceptible Liangyoupeijiu. High temperature stress reduced active cytokinins, gibberellin A1 (GA1), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but increased abscisic acid (ABA) and bound cytokinins in young panicles. Correlation analyses and application of exogenous 6-BA revealed that high temperature-induced cytokinin changes may regulate yield components by modulating the differentiation and degradation of branches and spikelets, panicle exsertion, pollen vigor, anther dehiscence, and grain size. Heat-tolerant Shanyou 63 displayed minor changes in phytohormones, panicle formation, and grain yield under high temperature compared with those of the other three varieties. These results suggest that phytohormone changes are closely associated with yield formation, and a small reduction or stability in phytohormone content is required to avoid large yield losses under heat stress. PMID:27713528

  1. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Fertility Reduction upon Heat Stress Reveals Developmental Stage-Specific QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bac-Molenaar, Johanna A.; Fradin, Emilie F.; Becker, Frank F.M.; Rienstra, Juriaan A.; van der Schoot, J.; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.

    2015-01-01

    For crops that are grown for their fruits or seeds, elevated temperatures that occur during flowering and seed or fruit set have a stronger effect on yield than high temperatures during the vegetative stage. Even short-term exposure to heat can have a large impact on yield. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana to study the effect of short-term heat exposure on flower and seed development. The impact of a single hot day (35°C) was determined in more than 250 natural accessions by measuring the lengths of the siliques along the main inflorescence. Two sensitive developmental stages were identified, one before anthesis, during male and female meiosis, and one after anthesis, during fertilization and early embryo development. In addition, we observed a correlation between flowering time and heat tolerance. Genome-wide association mapping revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) strongly associated with the heat response. These QTLs were developmental stage specific, as different QTLs were detected before and after anthesis. For a number of QTLs, T-DNA insertion knockout lines could validate assigned candidate genes. Our findings show that the regulation of complex traits can be highly dependent on the developmental timing. PMID:26163573

  2. Effect of pH on subunit association and heat protection of soybean alpha-galactosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. E.; Sarikaya, A.; Herrmann, K. M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Soybeans contain the enzyme alpha-galactosidase, which hydrolyzes alpha-1, 6 linkages in stachyose and raffinose to give sucrose and galactose. We have found that galactose, a competitive product inhibitor of alpha-galactosidase, strongly promotes the heat stability of the tetrameric form of the enzyme at pH 4.0 and at temperatures of up to 70 degrees C for 60 min. Stachyose and raffinose also protect alpha-galactosidase from denaturation at pH 4.0 although to a lesser extent. Glucose and mannose have little effect. At pH 7.0 the enzyme is a monomer, and galactose has no effect on the heat stability of the enzyme. In the absence of heat protection of the enzyme by added sugars, a series deactivation mechanism was found to describe the deactivation data. In comparison, a unimolecular, non-first order deactivation model applies at pH 4.0, where heat protection effects were observed. At a temperature above 60 degrees C, simple deactivation is a suitable model. The results suggest that alpha-galactosidase conformation and heat stability are directly related.

  3. Individual and Household Level Risk Factors Associated with Malaria in Nchelenge District, a Region with Perennial Transmission: A Serial Cross-Sectional Study from 2012 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Chaponda, Mike; Shields, Timothy M.; Sichivula, James; Muleba, Mbanga; Mulenga, Modest; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Curriero, Frank C.; Moss, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The scale-up of malaria control interventions has resulted in substantial declines in transmission in some but not all regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding factors associated with persistent malaria transmission despite control efforts may guide targeted interventions to high-risk areas and populations. Methods Household malaria surveys were conducted in Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, in northern Zambia. Structures that appeared to be households were enumerated from a high-resolution satellite image and randomly sampled for enrollment. Households were enrolled into cross-sectional (single visit) or longitudinal (visits every other month) cohorts but analyses were restricted to cross-sectional visits and the first visit to longitudinal households. During study visits, a questionnaire was administered to adults and caretakers of children and a blood sample was collected for a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) from all household residents. Characteristics associated with RDT positivity were analyzed using multi-level models. Results A total of 2,486 individuals residing within 742 households were enrolled between April 2012 and July 2015. Over this period, 51% of participants were RDT positive. Forty-three percent of all RDT positive individuals were between the ages of 5 and 17 years although this age group comprised only 30% of study participants. In a multivariable model, the odds being RDT positive were highest in 5–17 year olds and did not vary by season. Children 5–17 years of age had 8.83 higher odds of being RDT positive compared with those >18 years of age (95% CI: 6.13, 12.71); there was an interaction between age and report of symptoms, with an almost 50% increased odds of report of symptoms with decreasing age category (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.11, 2.00). Conclusions Children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 17 were at the highest risk of malaria infection throughout the year. School-based programs may be effective at

  4. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  5. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  6. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  7. Problems associated with application of a wellbore heat transmission computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, Z.V.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the discrepancies between actual temperature surveys and results obtained from a wellbore heat transmission computer code are presented for recent workover operations in well EE-2 at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal site. Several sources of error in modeling the thermal behavior of wellbores are considered. These are errors in the estimation of in-situ properties, particularly thermal conductivity, the failure to include frictional heating effects when high flow rates are involved, and error in reporting the flow rate history. These errors were also found to have a cumulative effect. A sensitivity analysis of the computed results to each error type is presented for countercurrent flow. It is concluded that all the errors considered can cause temperature discrepancies between measured and computed temperature. Wellbore codes should have provisions for variable thermal properties and frictional heating. In addition, modeling efforts should be coordinated with periodic temperature surveys so cumulative errors can be minimized.

  8. Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Jim H.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Miller, Mark A.; Johnson, Karen L.

    2007-03-01

    Radiative heating of the atmosphere affects cloud evolution on the cloud scale and it influences large-scale vertical motion. Obtaining good estimates of radiative heating rate profiles has been difficult due to a lack of cloud profile observations. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has been measuring cloud property distributions at sites around the globe including three in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) region. We have analyzed a month of these remote sensing observations at Manus and Nauru to calculate time series of vertical cloud property profiles and radiative heating rates. This data set will be an important tool for describing radiative processes in the tropics and assessing the simulation of these processes in dynamical models.

  9. Hydrothermal carbonization of sugarcane bagasse via wet torrefaction in association with microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Ye, Song-Ching; Sheen, Herng-Kuang

    2012-08-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization of sugarcane bagasse using wet torrefaction is studied. The biomass is torrefied in water or dilute sulfuric acid solution and microwaves are employed to heat the solutions where the reaction temperature is fixed at 180 °C. The effects of acid concentration, heating time and solid-to-liquid ratio on the performance of wet torrefaction are investigated. It is found that the addition of sulfuric acid and increasing heating time are conducive to carbonizing bagasse. The calorific value of bagasse can be increased up to 20.3% from wet torrefaction. With the same improvement in calorific value, the temperature of wet torrefaction is lower than that of dry torrefaction around 100 °C, revealing that wet torrefaction is a promising method to upgrade biomass as fuel. The calorific value of torrefied biomass can be predicted well based on proximate, elemental or fiber analysis, and the last one gives the best estimation.

  10. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  11. Temperature and Moisture Dependent Dielectric Properties of Legume Flours Associated with Dielectric Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric property data are important in developing thermal treatments using radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) energy and essential to estimate the heating uniformity in electromagnetic fields. Dielectric properties of flour samples from four legumes (chickpea, green pea, lentil, and soybean)...

  12. Association between School District Policies That Address Chronic Health Conditions of Students and Professional Development for School Nurses on Such Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S. Everett; Brener, Nancy D.; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2015-01-01

    Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic…

  13. Terms and Conditions of Employment in Collective Bargaining Agreements Negotiated by School Boards and Teachers Associations in Pennsylvania School Districts for 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dismuke, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the typical terms and conditions of employment in 2012-2013 negotiated agreements in Pennsylvania school districts, and to determine if there was a relationship between enrollment size and 5 selected terms and conditions of employment: base salary; highest salary; teacher contribution for one…

  14. Molecular characterization of the gene encoding an 18-kilodalton small heat shock protein associated with the membrane of Leuconostoc oenos.

    PubMed Central

    Jobin, M P; Delmas, F; Garmyn, D; Diviès, C; Guzzo, J

    1997-01-01

    In Leuconostoc oenos, different stresses such as heat, ethanol, and acid shocks dramatically induce the expression of an 18-kDa small heat shock protein called Lo 18. The corresponding gene (hsp18) was cloned from a genomic library of L. oenos constructed in Escherichia coli. A 2.3-kb DNA fragment carrying the hsp18 gene was sequenced. The hsp18 gene encodes a polypeptide of 148 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 16,938 Da. The Lo18 protein has a significant identity with small heat shock proteins of the alpha-crystallin family. The transcriptional start site was determined by primer extension. This experiment allowed us to identify the promoter region exhibiting high similarity to consensus promoter sequences of gram-positive bacteria, as well as E. coli. Northern blot analysis showed that hsp18 consists of a unique transcription unit of 0.6 kb. Moreover, hsp18 expression seemed to be controlled at the transcriptional level. This small heat shock protein was found to be peripherally associated with the membrane of L. oenos. PMID:9023938

  15. Is Knowledge Regarding Tuberculosis Associated with Stigmatising and Discriminating Attitudes of General Population towards Tuberculosis Patients? Findings from a Community Based Survey in 30 Districts of India

    PubMed Central

    Sagili, Karuna D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Chadha, Sarabjit S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigmatising and discriminating attitudes may discourage tuberculosis (TB) patients from actively seeking medical care, hide their disease status, and discontinue treatment. It is expected that appropriate knowledge regarding TB should remove stigmatising and discriminating attitudes. In this study we assessed the prevalence of stigmatising and discriminating attitudes towards TB patients among general population and their association with knowledge regarding TB. Method A cross-sectional knowledge, attitude and practice survey was conducted in 30 districts of India in January-March 2011. A total of 4562 respondents from general population were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires which contained items to measure stigma, discrimination and knowledge on TB. Result Of the 4562 interviewed, 3823 were eligible for the current analysis. Of these, 73% (95% CI 71.4–74.2) had stigmatising and 98% (95% CI 97.4–98.3) had discriminating attitude towards TB patients. Only 17% (95% CI 15.6–18.0) of the respondents had appropriate knowledge regarding TB with even lower levels observed amongst females, rural areas and respondents from low income groups. Surprisingly stigmatising (adjusted OR 1.31 (0.78–2.18) and discriminating (adjusted OR 0.79 (0.43–1.44) attitudes were independent of knowledge regarding TB. Conclusion Stigmatising and discriminating attitudes towards TB patients remain high among the general population in India. Since these attitudes were independent of the knowledge regarding TB, it is possible that the current disseminated knowledge regarding TB which is mainly from a medical perspective may not be adequately addressing the factors that lead to stigma and discrimination towards TB patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to review the messages and strategies currently used for disseminating knowledge regarding TB among general population and revise them appropriately. The disseminated knowledge should include medical

  16. Costs Associated with Implementation of Computer-Assisted Clinical Decision Support System for Antenatal and Delivery Care: Case Study of Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Dalaba, Maxwell Ayindenaba; Akweongo, Patricia; Williams, John; Saronga, Happiness Pius; Tonchev, Pencho; Sauerborn, Rainer; Mensah, Nathan; Blank, Antje; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Loukanova, Svetla

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study analyzed cost of implementing computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) in selected health care centres in Ghana. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Kassena-Nankana district (KND). CDSS was deployed in selected health centres in KND as an intervention to manage patients attending antenatal clinics and the labour ward. The CDSS users were mainly nurses who were trained. Activities and associated costs involved in the implementation of CDSS (pre-intervention and intervention) were collected for the period between 2009–2013 from the provider perspective. The ingredients approach was used for the cost analysis. Costs were grouped into personnel, trainings, overheads (recurrent costs) and equipment costs (capital cost). We calculated cost without annualizing capital cost to represent financial cost and cost with annualizing capital costs to represent economic cost. Results Twenty-two trained CDSS users (at least 2 users per health centre) participated in the study. Between April 2012 and March 2013, users managed 5,595 antenatal clients and 872 labour clients using the CDSS. We observed a decrease in the proportion of complications during delivery (pre-intervention 10.74% versus post-intervention 9.64%) and a reduction in the number of maternal deaths (pre-intervention 4 deaths versus post-intervention 1 death). The overall financial cost of CDSS implementation was US$23,316, approximately US$1,060 per CDSS user trained. Of the total cost of implementation, 48% (US$11,272) was pre-intervention cost and intervention cost was 52% (US$12,044). Equipment costs accounted for the largest proportion of financial cost: 34% (US$7,917). When economic cost was considered, total cost of implementation was US$17,128–lower than the financial cost by 26.5%. Conclusions The study provides useful information in the implementation of CDSS at health facilities to enhance health workers' adherence to practice guidelines

  17. Couverture vaccinale et facteurs associés à la non complétude vaccinale des enfants de 12 à 23 mois du district de santé de Djoungolo-Cameroun en 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ba Pouth, Simon Franky Baonga; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kobela, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction En 2011 le district de santé de Djoungolo a connu deux épidémies de rougeole avec un taux de complétude vaccinale de 69% selon les données du district. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la couverture vaccinale et les facteurs associés à la non complétude vaccinale des enfants de 12 à 23 mois du district de Djoungolo en 2012. Méthodes Une étude transversale à base communautaire a été menée en 2012. Au total 210 mères / nourrices d'enfants de 12 à 23 mois du district de Djoungolo, sélectionnées selon la méthode OMS de sondage en grappe 30 X 7, ont été interrogées sur les vaccins reçus par l'enfant avant l’âge d'un an et les raisons de non vaccination à l'aide d'un questionnaire structuré. Une analyse de régression logistique multivariée de type backward a été faite pour les variables ayant obtenu une valeur p < 0,2 à l'analyse univariée en utilisant le logiciel EPI Info version 3.5.3. Une association était significative lorsque p < 0,05. Résultats La complétude vaccinale était de 64,3%, variant de 85,7% pour le BCG à 66,2% pour le Vaccin anti rougeoleux. La régression logistique multivariée a montré que les mères qui avaient peur des effets secondaires (P=0,0454), qui ne connaissaient pas l'importance de la vaccination (P=0,0139), qui avaient connu des occasions manquées de vaccination (P=0,0055), qui mettaient plus d'une heure pour vacciner leur enfant (P=0,0005) et qui ne maitrisaient pas le calendrier de vaccination (P=0,00001) étaient significativement associées à la non complétude vaccinale des enfants. Conclusion La couverture vaccinale du district est en deçà des objectifs. Pour l'améliorer nous recommandons le renforcement de l’éducation des parents et une réorganisation des services de vaccination. PMID:25452836

  18. Turbulent reconnection and associated particle heating and acceleration in the Earth's magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Retino, Alessandro; Le Contel, Olivier; Matthaeus, William; Breuillard, Hugo; Sahraoui, Fouad; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Burch, Jim; Moore, Tom; Fuselier, Stephen; Torbert, Roy; Mauk, Barry; Pollock, Craig; Torkar, Klaus; Ergun, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental mechanism of energy dissipation and particle energization in space plasma. Spacecraft observations and numerical studies have established that it occurs in small-scale intermittent structures such as thin current sheets that form spontaneously in turbulent plasma. This kind of turbulent reconnection leads to significant particle heating and acceleration as well as to the dissipation of turbulent energy at kinetic scales. However, the extent of its contribution to turbulent dissipation has yet to be determined. Here we present results from in situ observations made by MMS and CLUSTER in the Earth's magnetosheath. A statistical study of a large number of thin current sheets allows us to establilsh their importance for dissipation while the in-depth study of reconnecting current sheets yields valuable insight into the exact mechanisms of particle heating and acceleration.

  19. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-04-05

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made a preliminary assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. Two IHX designs namely, shell and tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in the assessment. Printed circuit heat exchanger, among various compact heat exchanger (HX) designs, was selected for the analysis. Irrespective of the design, the material considerations for the construction of the HX are essentially similar, except may be in the fabrication of the units. As a result, we have reviewed in detail the available information on material property data relevant for the construction of HX and made a preliminary assessment of several relevant factors to make a judicious selection of the material for the IHX. The assessment included four primary candidate alloys namely, Alloy 617 (UNS N06617), Alloy 230 (UNS N06230), Alloy 800H (UNS N08810), and Alloy X (UNS N06002) for the IHX. Some of the factors addressed in this report are the tensile, creep, fatigue, creep fatigue, toughness properties for the candidate alloys, thermal aging effects on the mechanical properties, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code compliance

  20. Lower hybrid heating associated with mode conversion on the Wisconsin toroidal octupole

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, T L; Scharer, J E

    1980-09-01

    Wave heating experiments and wave propagation measurements in the lower hybrid range of frequencies are described. A T antenna launches up to 40 kW of wave power at 140 MHz with better than 95% coupling efficiency. Ion temperature increases of ..delta..T/sub i/ = 37 eV are measured with ..delta..T/sub parallel//T/sub io/ = 12. Ion heating is strongly localized near the lower hybrid turning point for a peak value of (k/sub parallel//..omega..)(KT/sub i//m/sub e/)/sup 1/2/ approx. = 0.3 corresponding to an upshifted k/sub parallel/ spectrum. Wavelength measurements indicate that the upshift in k/sub parallel/ occurs in the interior of the plasma. Other wave measurements show the existence of a large amplitude weakly damped fast wave component in addition to the slow wave.

  1. A new mechanism for excitation of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves and associated perpendicular ion heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguli, G.; Lee, Y. C.; Palmadesso, P.

    1985-01-01

    A new mechanism for exciting the kinetic ion cyclotron waves in the presence of a nonuniform electric field perpendicular to the external magnetic field is given. Application of this instability to various space plasmas is discussed. The new instability mechanism may provide a more efficient agent for perpendicular ion heating than other EIC generation processes, since the linear growth rate is insensitive to the temperature ratio.

  2. High transcript levels of heat-shock genes are associated with shorter lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Manière, X; Krisko, A; Pellay, F X; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Matic, I

    2014-12-01

    Individual lifespans of isogenic organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes, fruit flies, and mice, vary greatly even under identical environmental conditions. To study the molecular mechanisms responsible for such variability, we used an assay based on the measurement of post-reproductive nematode movements stimulated by a moderate electric field. This assay allows for the separation of individual nematodes based on their speed. We show that this phenotype could be used as a biomarker for aging because it is a better predictor of lifespan than chronological age. Fast nematodes have longer lifespans, fewer protein carbonyls, higher heat-shock resistance, and higher transcript levels of the daf-16 and hsf-1 genes, which code for the stress response transcription factors, than slow nematodes. High transcript levels of the genes coding for heat-shock proteins observed in slow nematodes correlate with lower heat-shock resistance, more protein carbonyls, and shorter lifespan. Taken together, our data suggests that shorter lifespan results from early-life damage accumulation that causes subsequent faster age-related deterioration.

  3. ASIC3 in muscle mediates mechanical, but not heat, hyperalgesia associated with muscle inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sluka, Kathleen A; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Benson, Christopher J; Eshcol, Jayasheel O; Price, Margaret P; Babinski, Kazimierz; Audette, Katherine M; Yeomans, David C; Wilson, Steven P

    2007-05-01

    Peripheral initiators of muscle pain are virtually unknown, but likely key to development of chronic pain after muscle insult. The current study tested the hypothesis that ASIC3 in muscle is necessary for development of cutaneous mechanical, but not heat, hyperalgesia induced by muscle inflammation. Using mechanical and heat stimuli, we assessed behavioral responses in ASIC3-/- and ASIC3+/+ mice after induction of carrageenan muscle inflammation. ASIC3-/- mice did not develop cutaneous mechanical hyperalgesia after muscle inflammation when compared to ASIC3+/+ mice; heat hyperalgesia developed similarly between groups. We then tested if the phenotype could be rescued in ASIC3-/- mice by using a recombinant herpes virus vector to express ASIC3 in skin (where testing occurred) or muscle (where inflammation occurred). Infection of mouse DRG neurons with ASIC3-encoding virus resulted in functional expression of ASICs. Injection of ASIC3-encoding virus into muscle or skin of ASIC3-/- mice resulted in ASIC3 mRNA in DRG and protein expression in DRG and the peripheral injection site. Injection of ASIC3-encoding virus into muscle, but not skin, resulted in development of mechanical hyperalgesia similar to that observed in ASIC3+/+ mice. Thus, ASIC3 in primary afferent fibers innervating muscle is critical to development of hyperalgesia that results from muscle insult.

  4. ASIC3 in muscle mediates mechanical, but not heat, hyperalgesia associated with muscle inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sluka, Kathleen A.; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Benson, Christopher J.; Eshcol, Jayasheel O.; Price, Margaret P.; Babinski, Kazimierz; Audette, Katherine M.; Yeomans, David C.; Wilson, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral initiators of muscle pain are virtually unknown, but likely key to development of chronic pain after muscle insult. The current study tested the hypothesis that ASIC3 in muscle is necessary for development of cutaneous mechanical, but not heat hyperalgesia induced by muscle inflammation. Using mechanical and heat stimuli, we assessed behavioral responses in ASIC3−/− and ASIC3+/+ mice after induction of carrageenan muscle inflammation. ASIC3−/−mice did not develop cutaneous mechanical hyperalgesia after muscle inflammation when compared to ASIC3+/+ mice; heat hyperalgesia developed similarly between groups. We then tested if the phenotype could be rescued in ASIC3−/− mice by using a recombinant herpes virus vector to express ASIC3 in skin (where testing occurred) or muscle (where inflammation occurred). Infection of mouse DRG neurons with ASIC3-encoding virus resulted in functional expression of ASICs. Injection of ASIC3-encoding virus into muscle or skin of ASIC3−/− mice resulted in ASIC3 mRNA in DRG and protein expression in DRG and the peripheral injection site. Injection of ASIC3-encoding virus into muscle, but not skin, resulted in development of mechanical hyperalgesia similar to that observed in ASIC3+/+ mice. Thus, ASIC3 in primary afferent fibers innervating muscle is critical to development of hyperalgesia that results from muscle insult. PMID:17134831

  5. Effect of halothane on isometric twitch and tetanus response and the associated heat production in striated muscle of frogs.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Matsumoto, Y; Frederickson, E L

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to determine the effect of halothane on isometric contraction of striated muscle and to measure the associated heat production. This basic information is necessary before studies more directly relating to malignant hyperthermia are undertaken. Sartorius muscles were isolate from Rana pipiens during winter and summer months. It appears from these experiments that there is a prolongation of the relaxation phase of the twitch and tetanus responses with low concentrations of halothane, with a more diffuse effect on the contractile process evident at higher administered concentrations. The results of heat measurements, using a sensitive thermopile-galvanometer system, are compatible with the hypotheses that this effect on relaxation could result from either an interference with calcium reuptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum or an increased affinity of the troponintropomyosin complex for available calcium. PMID:1080024

  6. Asymptotic expansion of the trace of the heat kernel associated to the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Genqian

    2015-10-01

    For a given bounded domain Ω with smooth boundary in a smooth Riemannian manifold (M, g), by decomposing the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator into a sum of the square root of the Laplacian and a pseudodifferential operator, and by applying Grubb's method of symbolic calculus for the corresponding pseudodifferential heat kernel operators, we establish a procedure to calculate all the coefficients of the asymptotic expansion of the trace of the heat kernel associated to Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator as t →0+. In particular, we explicitly give the first four coefficients of this asymptotic expansion. These coefficients provide precise information regarding the area and curvatures of the boundary of the domain in terms of the spectrum of the Steklov problem.

  7. Epigenetic Changes are Associated with Programmed Cell Death Induced by Heat Stress in Seedling Leaves of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Zhao, Lin; Hou, Haoli; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yapei; Li, Hui; Gao, Fei; Yan, Shihan; Li, Lijia

    2015-05-01

    Histone modification plays a crucial role in regulation of chromatin architecture and function, responding to adverse external stimuli. However, little is known about a possible relationship between epigenetic modification and programmed cell death (PCD) in response to environmental stress. Here, we found that heat stress induced PCD in maize seedling leaves which was characterized by chromatin DNA laddering and DNA strand breaks detected by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) test. The activities of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were progressively increased over time in the heat-treated seedlings. However, the concentration of H2O2 remained at relatively lower levels, while the concentration of superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) was increased, accompanied by the occurrence of higher ion leakage rates after heat treatment. The total acetylation levels of histones H3K9, H4K5 and H3 were significantly increased, whereas the di-methylation level of histone H3K4 was unchanged and the di-methylation level of histone H3K9 was decreased in the seedling leaves exposed to heat stress compared with the control seedlings, accompanied by increased nucleolus size indicative of chromatin decondensation. Furthermore, treatment of seedlings with trichostatin A (TSA), which always results in genomic histone hyperacetylation, caused an increase in the [Formula: see text] level within the cells. The results suggested that heat stress persistently induced [Formula: see text], leading to PCD in association with histone modification changes in the maize leaves.

  8. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included milk production data and milk composition data from over 75,000 and 44,000 Holstein cows, respectively, born between 2000 and 2010 in Florida, Georgia, and Texas. Conception dates were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress conceived (HSC) cows; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral conceived (TNC) contemporaries. Adjusted 305-d mature equivalent milk, protein percent and fat percent were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS. Milk production was significantly affected by periconceptional heat stress. When a significant difference or tendency for a difference was detected between the HSC and TNC cows, the TNC produced more milk in all but one comparison. The advantage in milk production for the TNC cows over the HSC cows ranged from 82 ± 42 to 399 ± 61 kg per lactation. Alterations in fat and protein percentage were variable and most often detected in first lactations (first > second or third). Overall, the most striking result of this study is the consistency of the relationship between HSC and milk production. The nature of this relationship suggests that heat stress at or around the time of conception impairs cow milk yield throughout her lifetime. PMID:26496650

  9. Advection and dispersion heat transport mechanisms in the quantification of shallow geothermal resources and associated environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Mar; García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Velasco, Violeta

    2016-02-01

    Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs) are increasingly being used to exploit shallow geothermal energy. This paper presents a new methodology to provide a response to the need for a regional quantification of the geothermal potential that can be extracted by BHEs and the associated environmental impacts. A set of analytical solutions facilitates accurate calculation of the heat exchange of BHEs with the ground and its environmental impacts. For the first time, advection and dispersion heat transport mechanisms and the temporal evolution from the start of operation of the BHE are taken into account in the regional estimation of shallow geothermal resources. This methodology is integrated in a GIS environment, which facilitates the management of input and output data at a regional scale. An example of the methodology's application is presented for Barcelona, in Spain. As a result of the application, it is possible to show the strengths and improvements of this methodology in the development of potential maps of low temperature geothermal energy as well as maps of environmental impacts. The minimum and maximum energy potential values for the study site are 50 and 1800 W/m(2) for a drilled depth of 100 m, proportionally to Darcy velocity. Regarding to thermal impacts, the higher the groundwater velocity and the energy potential, the higher the size of the thermal plume after 6 months of exploitation, whose length ranges from 10 to 27 m long. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in the calculation of heat exchange rate and its impacts for different scenarios and for a wide range of Darcy velocities. The results of this analysis lead to the conclusion that the consideration of dispersion effects and temporal evolution of the exploitation prevent significant differences up to a factor 2.5 in the heat exchange rate accuracy and up to several orders of magnitude in the impacts generated.

  10. Advection and dispersion heat transport mechanisms in the quantification of shallow geothermal resources and associated environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Mar; García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Velasco, Violeta

    2016-02-01

    Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs) are increasingly being used to exploit shallow geothermal energy. This paper presents a new methodology to provide a response to the need for a regional quantification of the geothermal potential that can be extracted by BHEs and the associated environmental impacts. A set of analytical solutions facilitates accurate calculation of the heat exchange of BHEs with the ground and its environmental impacts. For the first time, advection and dispersion heat transport mechanisms and the temporal evolution from the start of operation of the BHE are taken into account in the regional estimation of shallow geothermal resources. This methodology is integrated in a GIS environment, which facilitates the management of input and output data at a regional scale. An example of the methodology's application is presented for Barcelona, in Spain. As a result of the application, it is possible to show the strengths and improvements of this methodology in the development of potential maps of low temperature geothermal energy as well as maps of environmental impacts. The minimum and maximum energy potential values for the study site are 50 and 1800 W/m(2) for a drilled depth of 100 m, proportionally to Darcy velocity. Regarding to thermal impacts, the higher the groundwater velocity and the energy potential, the higher the size of the thermal plume after 6 months of exploitation, whose length ranges from 10 to 27 m long. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in the calculation of heat exchange rate and its impacts for different scenarios and for a wide range of Darcy velocities. The results of this analysis lead to the conclusion that the consideration of dispersion effects and temporal evolution of the exploitation prevent significant differences up to a factor 2.5 in the heat exchange rate accuracy and up to several orders of magnitude in the impacts generated. PMID:26605833

  11. Hypertension is associated with greater heat exchange during exercise recovery in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, S F; Teles, M C; Ribeiro, V G C; Magalhães, F C; Mendonça, V A; Peixoto, M F D; Leite, L H R; Coimbra, C C; Lacerda, A C R

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with systemic arterial hypertension have a higher risk of heat-related complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the thermoregulatory responses of hypertensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in the heat. A total of eight essential hypertensive (H) and eight normotensive (N) male subjects (age=46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years, body mass index=25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure=98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively) rested for 30 min, performed 1 h of treadmill exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption, and rested for 1 h after exercise in an environmental chamber at 38°C and 60% relative humidity. Skin and core temperatures were measured to calculate heat exchange parameters. Mean arterial pressure was higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects throughout the experiment (P<0.05, unpaired t-test). The hypertensive subjects stored less heat (H=-24.23±3.99 W·m-2vs N=-13.63±2.24 W·m-2, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), experienced greater variations in body temperature (H=-0.62±0.05°C vsN=-0.35±0.12°C, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), and had more evaporated sweat (H=-106.1±4.59 W·m-2vs N=-91.15±3.24 W·m-2, P=0.01, unpaired t-test) than the normotensive subjects during the period of recovery from exercise. In conclusion, essential hypertensive subjects showed greater sweat evaporation and increased heat dissipation and body cooling relative to normotensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in hot conditions.

  12. On the glacial and interglacial thermohaline circulation and the associated transports of heat and freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarotta, M.; Falahat, S.; Brodeau, L.; Döös, K.

    2014-11-01

    The thermohaline circulation (THC) and the oceanic heat and freshwater transports are essential for understanding the global climate system. Streamfunctions are widely used in oceanography to represent the THC and estimate the transport of heat and freshwater. In the present study, the regional and global changes of the THC, the transports of heat and freshwater and the timescale of the circulation between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ≈ 21 kyr ago) and the present-day climate are explored using an Ocean General Circulation Model and streamfunctions projected in various coordinate systems. We found that the LGM tropical circulation is about 10% stronger than under modern conditions due to stronger wind stress. Consequently, the maximum tropical transport of heat is about 20% larger during the LGM. In the North Atlantic basin, the large sea-ice extent during the LGM constrains the Gulf Stream to propagate in a more zonal direction, reducing the transport of heat towards high latitudes by almost 50% and reorganising the freshwater transport. The strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation depends strongly on the coordinate system. It varies between 9 and 16 Sv during the LGM, and between 12 to 19 Sv for the present day. Similar to paleo-proxy reconstructions, a large intrusion of saline Antarctic Bottom Water takes place into the Northern Hemisphere basins and squeezes most of the Conveyor Belt circulation into a shallower part of the ocean. These different haline regimes between the glacial and interglacial period are illustrated by the streamfunctions in latitude-salinity coordinates and thermohaline coordinates. From these diagnostics, we found that the LGM Conveyor Belt circulation is driven by an enhanced salinity contrast between the Atlantic and the Pacific basin. The LGM abyssal circulation lifts and makes the Conveyor Belt cell deviate from the abyssal region, resulting in a ventilated upper layer above a deep stagnant layer, and an

  13. Hypertension is associated with greater heat exchange during exercise recovery in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, S F; Teles, M C; Ribeiro, V G C; Magalhães, F C; Mendonça, V A; Peixoto, M F D; Leite, L H R; Coimbra, C C; Lacerda, A C R

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with systemic arterial hypertension have a higher risk of heat-related complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the thermoregulatory responses of hypertensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in the heat. A total of eight essential hypertensive (H) and eight normotensive (N) male subjects (age=46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years, body mass index=25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure=98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively) rested for 30 min, performed 1 h of treadmill exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption, and rested for 1 h after exercise in an environmental chamber at 38°C and 60% relative humidity. Skin and core temperatures were measured to calculate heat exchange parameters. Mean arterial pressure was higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects throughout the experiment (P<0.05, unpaired t-test). The hypertensive subjects stored less heat (H=-24.23±3.99 W·m-2vs N=-13.63±2.24 W·m-2, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), experienced greater variations in body temperature (H=-0.62±0.05°C vsN=-0.35±0.12°C, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), and had more evaporated sweat (H=-106.1±4.59 W·m-2vs N=-91.15±3.24 W·m-2, P=0.01, unpaired t-test) than the normotensive subjects during the period of recovery from exercise. In conclusion, essential hypertensive subjects showed greater sweat evaporation and increased heat dissipation and body cooling relative to normotensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in hot conditions. PMID:26517335

  14. Reliability prediction for the SLOWPOKE demonstration reactor building heating demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, D.J. ); Cole, D.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE demonstration reactor (SDR) is a new prototype heating reactor, nominally 2 MW(thermal), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at the Whiteshell Laboratories. This project is part of a program to demonstrate the concept of supplying low-grade heat up to 10 MW(thermal) to localized district heating grids from an unpressurized nuclear heating source using a low-enriched, CANDU-type fuel. Reactor thermal-hydraulic and core physics commissioning experiments and analysis up to 1.2 MW(thermal) were completed in 1990. This report presents that part of the safety and reliability analysis program that provided reliability predictions for the associated building heating demonstration (BHD) systems. Proposed upgrades to test the 10-MW(thermal) core design have delayed the long-term heat demonstration commissioning tests.

  15. Twenty-year progress report on the Copper Development Association do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heating manual and on the associated prototype heater

    SciTech Connect

    De Winter, F. )

    1994-07-01

    A prototype do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater was built of copper parts in 1973, combining the solar collector and a copper roof of the flat seam type. It has now heated a pool in Pasadena, California successfully for over 20 years. During those years the associated do-it-yourself manual has been distributed to about 100,000 readers, who have used to make an unknown number of heaters. Some have used the manual as the basis for a business, building repeated customer heater installations. The present paper represents a progress report.

  16. Data-Driven Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the…

  17. Cloud radiative forcing induced by layered clouds and associated impact on the atmospheric heating rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qiaoyi; Li, Jiming; Wang, Tianhe; Huang, Jianping

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative analysis of cloud fraction, cloud radiative forcing, and cloud radiative heating rate (CRH) of the single-layered cloud (SLC) and the multi-layered cloud (MLC), and their differences is presented, based on the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR and 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR products on the global scale. The CRH at a given atmospheric level is defined as the cloudy minus clear-sky radiative heating rate. The statistical results show that the globally averaged cloud fraction of the MLC (24.9%), which is primarily prevalent in equatorial regions, is smaller than that of the SLC (46.6%). The globally averaged net radiative forcings (NET CRFs) induced by the SLC (MLC) at the top and bottom of the atmosphere (TOA and BOA) and in the atmosphere (ATM) are-60.8 (-40.9),-67.5 (-49.6), and 6.6 (8.7) W m-2, respectively, where the MLC contributes approximately 40.2%, 42.4%, and 57% to the NET CRF at the TOA, BOA, and in the ATM, respectively. The MLC exhibits distinct differences to the SLC in terms of CRH. The shortwave CRH of the SLC (MLC) reaches a heating peak at 9.75 (7.5) km, with a value of 0.35 (0.60) K day-1, and the differences between SLC and MLC transform from positive to negative with increasing altitude. However, the longwave CRH of the SLC (MLC) reaches a cooling peak at 2 (8) km, with a value of-0.45 (-0.42) K day-1, and the differences transform from negative to positive with increasing altitude. In general, the NET CRH differences between SLC and MLC are negative below 7.5 km. These results provide an observational basis for the assessment and improvement of the cloud parameterization schemes in global models.

  18. Plasma antibodies to heat shock protein 60 and heat shock protein 70 are associated with increased risk of electrocardiograph abnormalities in automobile workers exposed to noise.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Yang, Miao; Yao, Huiling; Zheng, Jianru; Yang, Qiaoling; Chen, Sheng; Wei, Qingyi; Tanguay, Robert M; Wu, Tangchun

    2005-01-01

    In the living and working environment, stressful factors, such as noise, can cause health problems including cardiovascular diseases and noise-induced hearing loss. Some heat shock proteins (Hsps) play an important role in protecting cardiac cells against ischemic injury, and antibodies against these Hsps are associated with the development and prognosis of atherogenesis, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. Whether the presence of such antibodies is associated with abnormal electrocardiography (ECG) in stressed autoworkers exposed to chronic noise is presently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the association between the levels of plasma anti-Hsp60 and anti-Hsp70 with electrocardiograph abnormality in 396 autoworkers exposed to different noise levels by using Western blot, ECG, and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The results showed that the increase in levels of anti-Hsp70 was associated with a higher risk of ECG abnormalities characteristic of chronic myocardial ischemia (P < 0.05), conductive abnormality (P < 0.01), or heart displacement (P < 0.05); in contrast, elevated anti-Hsp60 was related to ECG abnormalities characteristic of sinus arrhythmia, chronic myocardial ischemia, and ectopic rhythm (P < 0.01 for all). Overall, high levels of both anti-Hsp70 and anti-Hsp60 were associated with significantly increased risk of ECG abnormalities (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73 and 95% confidence interval [Cl] = 1.04-2.86 for anti-Hsp70 and OR = 1.36 and 95% Cl = 1.07-1.72 for anti-Hsp60) with and without adjustment for cumulative noise exposure (OR = 1.96 and 95% Cl = 1.20-3.21 for anti-Hsp70 and OR = 3.93 and 95% Cl = 1.72-8.92 for anti-Hsp60). These findings suggest that the production of both anti-Hsp70 and anti-Hsp60 may be independent risk factors for the development and progression of abnormal ECG and therefore possibly cardiovascular diseases in autoworkers exposed to occupational noise.

  19. Thermal ground-water discharge and associated convective heat flux, Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Backsen, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho. The area has a rural population dependent on ground-water irrigation. Temperature of the ground water ranges from 15 C to more than 80 C. Ground water for irrigation is obtained from flowing and pumped wells. Discharge of thermal ground water from 104 irrigation wells and from 5 hot springs in 1978 was about 50,500 acre-feet. Convective heat flux from the geothermal system associated with this discharge was 4.97 x 10 to the 7th power calories per second. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. National Athletic Trainers' Association Releases New Guidelines for Exertional Heat Illnesses: What School Nurses Need to Know.

    PubMed

    VanScoy, Rachel M; DeMartini, Julie K; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-05-01

    Exertional heat illnesses (EHI) occur in various populations and settings. Within a school setting, there are student athletes who take part in physical activity where the risk of EHI is increased. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) released an updated position statement on EHI in September of 2015. This article is a summary of the position statement. The sports medicine team, including school nurses and athletic trainers, provides quality health care to these physically active individuals. Thus, it is important for school nurses to understand the prevention, recognition, and treatment of EHI. PMID:26941054

  1. National Athletic Trainers' Association Releases New Guidelines for Exertional Heat Illnesses: What School Nurses Need to Know.

    PubMed

    VanScoy, Rachel M; DeMartini, Julie K; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-05-01

    Exertional heat illnesses (EHI) occur in various populations and settings. Within a school setting, there are student athletes who take part in physical activity where the risk of EHI is increased. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) released an updated position statement on EHI in September of 2015. This article is a summary of the position statement. The sports medicine team, including school nurses and athletic trainers, provides quality health care to these physically active individuals. Thus, it is important for school nurses to understand the prevention, recognition, and treatment of EHI.

  2. 36 CFR 67.5 - Standards for evaluating significance within registered historic districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... association adds to the district's sense of time and place and historical development. (2) A building not contributing to the historic significance of a district is one which does not add to the district's sense of... past 50 years shall not be considered to contribute to the significance of a district unless a...

  3. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE. II. NUMERICAL ASPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, P.; Okamoto, T. J.; Doorsselaere, T. Van; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-08-10

    Transverse magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and may be responsible for generating the Sun’s million-degree outer atmosphere. However, direct evidence of the dissipation process and heating from these waves remains elusive. Through advanced numerical simulations combined with appropriate forward modeling of a prominence flux tube, we provide the observational signatures of transverse MHD waves in prominence plasmas. We show that these signatures are characterized by a thread-like substructure, strong transverse dynamical coherence, an out-of-phase difference between plane-of-the-sky motions and line-of-sight velocities, and enhanced line broadening and heating around most of the flux tube. A complex combination between resonant absorption and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs) takes place in which the KHI extracts the energy from the resonant layer and dissipates it through vortices and current sheets, which rapidly degenerate into turbulence. An inward enlargement of the boundary is produced in which the turbulent flows conserve the characteristic dynamics from the resonance, therefore guaranteeing detectability of the resonance imprints. We show that the features described in the accompanying paper through coordinated Hinode and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations match the numerical results well.

  4. The role of water vapor and its associated latent heating in extreme Beaufort coastal storm surge events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyakum, J. R.; Small, D. L.; Atallah, E.; Liu, N.; Kuo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    During the rather limited ice-free season that typically may occur from late July through early October, the Beaufort Sea region is susceptible to extreme windstorms, many of which produce damaging storm surges to low-lying coastal communities. During the most recent years, the ice-free season has lengthened, suggesting an increased vulnerability of coastal communities to cyclogenesis-related windstorms. Therefore, our research focuses on the dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for significant surface wind events during the ice-free season in this region. We demonstrate that these storm surge events are often associated with the generation of large-scale atmospheric circulation regomes conducive to North American droughts. Our analysis methodology includes the detailed synoptic-dynamic analysis, including numerical experiments, on a case of an especially long-lived extreme storm surge that occurred in September 1999. We utilize conventional surface and upper-air station data, along with satellite and ground-based water vapor data. We also utilize global and regional reanalysis data to document the synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments associated with the cyclogenesis events. Our numerical experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model include sensitivity testing with COSMIC-derived water vapor data, and sensitivity tests to illustrate the relative roles that latent heating plays in the storm surge event, at various stages in its lifecycle. A particularly important finding of our research on the devastating September 1999 storm surge event is that a relatively rare case of explosive cyclogenesis in the Gulf of Alaska is a key player in this Beaufort storm surge. The deep-tropospheric latent heating during the explosive cyclogenesis generates a dynamic tropopause ridge. This ridge in turn induces surface ridging that contributes to the strong west-northwesterlies associated with the storm surge. This generation of the dynamic

  5. Breed-specific ancestry studies and genome-wide association analysis highlight an association between the MYH9 gene and heat tolerance in Alaskan sprint racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Huson, Heather J; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Rimbault, Maud; Byers, Alexandra M; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2012-02-01

    Alaskan sled dogs are a genetically distinct population shaped by generations of selective interbreeding with purebred dogs to create a group of high-performance athletes. As a result of selective breeding strategies, sled dogs present a unique opportunity to employ admixture-mapping techniques to investigate how breed composition and trait selection impact genomic structure. We used admixture mapping to investigate genetic ancestry across the genomes of two classes of sled dogs, sprint and long-distance racers, and combined that with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify regions that correlate with performance-enhancing traits. The sled dog genome is enhanced by differential contributions from four non-admixed breeds (Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Husky, German Shorthaired Pointer, and Borzoi). A principal components analysis (PCA) of 115,000 genome-wide SNPs clearly resolved the sprint and distance populations as distinct genetic groups, with longer blocks of linkage disequilibrium (LD) observed in the distance versus sprint dogs (7.5-10 and 2.5-3.75 kb, respectively). Furthermore, we identified eight regions with the genomic signal from either a selective sweep or an association analysis, corroborated by an excess of ancestry when comparing sprint and distance dogs. A comparison of elite and poor-performing sled dogs identified a single region significantly associated with heat tolerance. Within the region we identified seven SNPs within the myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) that were significantly associated with heat tolerance in sprint dogs, two of which correspond to conserved promoter and enhancer regions in the human ortholog.

  6. Association and dissociation of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin from rat brush border membrane receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.B.; Thompson, M.R.; Overmann, G.J.; Giannella, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) binds to receptors on rat intestinal cells and brush border membranes (BBM). We devised experiments to examine the reversibility of ST binding. We found that both /sup 125/I-labeled ST and native ST were spontaneously dissociable from the BBM receptor. Radiolabeled ST bound to BBM was also dissociated by the addition of avid goat anti-ST antiserum. Furthermore, using a computer program for analysis of ligand binding, we calculated an apparent Ka of 10(8) liters/mol from competitive inhibition and saturation-binding data. This is significantly lower than the value previously reported by others. Our findings, of a lower Ka and a reversible ST-binding process, suggest that a therapeutic strategy of removing bound ST from its receptor or competing with the enterocyte receptor for unbound ST might be successful in terminating ST-induced secretion.

  7. Effect of heat and moisture exchangers on the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Auxiliadora-Martins, M.; Menegueti, M.G.; Nicolini, E.A.; Alkmim-Teixeira, G.C.; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F.; Martins-Filho, O.A.; Basile-Filho, A.

    2012-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains one of the major causes of infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with the length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We compared the frequency of VAP 10 months prior to (pre-intervention group) and 13 months after (post-intervention group) initiation of the use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) filter. This is a study with prospective before-and-after design performed in the ICU in a tertiary university hospital. Three hundred and fourteen patients were admitted to the ICU under mechanical ventilation, 168 of whom were included in group HH (heated humidifier) and 146 in group HME. The frequency of VAP per 1000 ventilator-days was similar for both the HH and HME groups (18.7 vs 17.4, respectively; P = 0.97). Duration of mechanical ventilation (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.48) and length of ICU stay (11 vs 12 days, respectively; P = 0.39) did not differ between the HH and HME groups. The chance of developing VAP was higher in patients with a longer ICU stay and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. This finding was similar when adjusted for the use of HME. The use of HME in intensive care did not reduce the incidence of VAP, the duration of mechanical ventilation, or the length of stay in the ICU in the study population. PMID:23044627

  8. Multilocus adaptation associated with heat resistance in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Bay, Rachael A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of tolerance to future climate change depends on the standing stock of genetic variation for resistance to climate-related impacts, but genes contributing to climate tolerance in wild populations are poorly described in number and effect. Physiology and gene expression patterns have shown that corals living in naturally high-temperature microclimates are more resistant to bleaching because of both acclimation and fixed effects, including adaptation. To search for potential genetic correlates of these fixed effects, we genotyped 15,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 individual tabletop corals, Acropora hyacinthus, within a natural temperature mosaic in backreef lagoons on Ofu Island, American Samoa. Despite overall lack of population substructure, we identified 114 highly divergent SNPs as candidates for environmental selection, via multiple stringent outlier tests, and correlations with temperature. Corals from the warmest reef location had higher minor allele frequencies across these candidate SNPs, a pattern not seen for noncandidate loci. Furthermore, within backreef pools, colonies in the warmest microclimates had a higher number and frequency of alternative alleles at candidate loci. These data suggest mild selection for alternate alleles at many loci in these corals during high heat episodes and possible maintenance of extensive polymorphism through multilocus balancing selection in a heterogeneous environment. In this case, a natural population harbors a reservoir of alleles preadapted to high temperatures, suggesting potential for future evolutionary response to climate change. PMID:25454780

  9. DETECTION OF SUPERSONIC DOWNFLOWS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING EVENTS IN THE TRANSITION REGION ABOVE SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kleint, L.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Antolin, P.; Tian, H.; Testa, P.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Saar, S.; Golub, L.; Judge, P.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; Jaeggli, S.; and others

    2014-07-10

    Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph data allow us to study the solar transition region (TR) with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.''33. On 2013 August 30, we observed bursts of high Doppler shifts suggesting strong supersonic downflows of up to 200 km s{sup –1} and weaker, slightly slower upflows in the spectral lines Mg II h and k, C II 1336, Si IV 1394 Å, and 1403 Å, that are correlated with brightenings in the slitjaw images (SJIs). The bursty behavior lasts throughout the 2 hr observation, with average burst durations of about 20 s. The locations of these short-lived events appear to be the umbral and penumbral footpoints of EUV loops. Fast apparent downflows are observed along these loops in the SJIs and in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, suggesting that the loops are thermally unstable. We interpret the observations as cool material falling from coronal heights, and especially coronal rain produced along the thermally unstable loops, which leads to an increase of intensity at the loop footpoints, probably indicating an increase of density and temperature in the TR. The rain speeds are on the higher end of previously reported speeds for this phenomenon, and possibly higher than the free-fall velocity along the loops. On other observing days, similar bright dots are sometimes aligned into ribbons, resembling small flare ribbons. These observations provide a first insight into small-scale heating events in sunspots in the TR.

  10. Health Seeking Behaviour and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in Lay Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Kassa Woreta, Hiwot; Mekonnen Kelkay, Mengistu; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke

    2016-01-01

    Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Out of the total population surveyed (29, 735), 663 (2.2%) individuals were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis suspects. Majority of the suspects reported that they had visited a modern health care facility. Those aged 15 to 34 and aged 35–54 had secondary educational level and above; those who were civil servants, those who were farmers, those who had previous history of tuberculosis treatment, and those who perceived that they were sick were more likely to visit a modern health care facility. The proportion of respondents who had taken traditional measures was found to be higher than some other districts. Improving the socioeconomic status of the community is recommended. PMID:27022483

  11. Genome-wide association mapping for identification of quantitative trait loci for rectal temperature during heat stress in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively affects the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. One strategy to reduce the magnitude of heat stress is to select individuals that are genetically resistant to heat stress. Most of the negative effects of heat stress on animal performance are a consequence of eit...

  12. Spatial analysis of the effect of the 2010 heat wave on stroke mortality in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Zhou, Lian; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun; Li, Tiantian

    2015-01-01

    To examine the spatial variation of stroke mortality risk during heat wave, we collected 418 stroke mortality cases with permanent addresses for a severe heat wave (July 28-August 15, 2010) and 624 cases for the reference period (July 29-August 16, 2009 and July 27-August 14, 2011) in Nanjing, China. Generalized additive models were used to explore the association between location and stroke mortality risk during the heat wave while controlling individual-level risk factors. Heat wave vulnerability was then applied to explain the possible spatial variations of heat-wave-related mortality risk. The overall risk ratio (95% confidence intervals) of stroke mortality due to the heat wave in Nanjing was 1.34 (1.21 to 1.47). Geolocation was found to be significantly associated with the heat-wave-related stroke mortality risk. Using alternative reference periods generated similar results. A district-level risk assessment revealed similar spatial patterns. The highest stroke mortality risk observed in Luhe district was due to the combination of high heat exposure and high vulnerability. Our findings provide evidence that stroke mortality risk is higher in rural areas during heat waves and that these areas require future interventions to reduce vulnerability. PMID:26034864

  13. Spatial analysis of the effect of the 2010 heat wave on stroke mortality in Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Zhou, Lian; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun; Li, Tiantian

    2015-01-01

    To examine the spatial variation of stroke mortality risk during heat wave, we collected 418 stroke mortality cases with permanent addresses for a severe heat wave (July 28–August 15, 2010) and 624 cases for the reference period (July 29–August 16, 2009 and July 27–August 14, 2011) in Nanjing, China. Generalized additive models were used to explore the association between location and stroke mortality risk during the heat wave while controlling individual-level risk factors. Heat wave vulnerability was then applied to explain the possible spatial variations of heat-wave-related mortality risk. The overall risk ratio (95% confidence intervals) of stroke mortality due to the heat wave in Nanjing was 1.34 (1.21 to 1.47). Geolocation was found to be significantly associated with the heat-wave-related stroke mortality risk. Using alternative reference periods generated similar results. A district-level risk assessment revealed similar spatial patterns. The highest stroke mortality risk observed in Luhe district was due to the combination of high heat exposure and high vulnerability. Our findings provide evidence that stroke mortality risk is higher in rural areas during heat waves and that these areas require future interventions to reduce vulnerability. PMID:26034864

  14. Minor ion heating in spectra of linearly and circularly polarized Alfvén waves: Thermal and non-thermal motions associated with perpendicular heating

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Chuanfei

    2014-02-15

    Minor ion (such as He{sup 2+}) heating via nonresonant interaction with spectra of linearly and circularly polarized Alfvén waves (LPAWs and CPAWs hereafter) is studied. The obtained analytic solutions are in good agreement with the simulation results, indicating that newborn ions are heated by low-frequency Alfvén waves with finite amplitude in low-beta plasmas such as the solar corona. The analytic solutions also reproduce the preferential heating of heavy ions in the solar wind. In the presence of parallel propagating Alfvén waves, turbulence-induced particle motion is clearly observed in the wave (magnetic field) polarized directions. After the waves diminish, the newborn ions are heated, which is caused by the phase difference (randomization) between ions due to their different parallel thermal motions. The heating is dominant in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The perpendicular heating, η=(T{sub i⊥}{sup R}−T{sub i0⊥}{sup R})/T{sub i0⊥}{sup R} (where T{sub i0⊥}{sup R} and T{sub i⊥}{sup R} are the perpendicular temperature of species i before and after genuine heating, respectively), in the spectrum of CPAWs is a factor of two stronger than that of LPAWs. Moreover, we also study the effect of field-aligned differential flow speed of species i relative to H{sup +}, δv{sub ip}=(v{sub i}−v{sub p})·B/|B| (where v{sub i} and v{sub p} denote vector velocities of the H{sup +} and species i, respectively), on the perpendicular heating. It reveals that large drift speed, v{sub d}=δv{sub ip}, has an effect on reducing the efficiency of perpendicular heating, which is consistent with observations.

  15. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

  16. NDVI anomalies associated with the European drought and heat wave of 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, Suzanne; Los, Sietse; North, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The European drought and heat wave of 2003 is commonly used as an example of extreme summer climate conditions that are likely to become more common towards the end of the 21st century, under predicted climate change scenarios. The extreme conditions are known to have had an impact on biomass primary productivity as reflected in remotely sensed vegetation indices and fAPAR, flux-tower measurements, and the results from a variety of modelling approaches. Early remote sensing analyses were based on relatively short time series of data, 4 or 5 years only. We are now able to make use of 12 years of MODIS observations to highlight the statistical significance of the widespread and persistent anomalies in vegetation greenness in 2003 compared with other summers so far this century. Anomalies in excess of 2 standard deviations initially occur at the start of June in central and eastern France. By the end of July they are common also over Germany, by mid August have spread to the French border with Spain, and by the end of August are common over the north-western corner of France, England and eastern Scotland. Using the One-Degree Daily resolution Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation data and European Re-Analysis Interim 2 m air temperatures we are able to show where and whether either precipitation or temperature has the greatest impact on summer vegetation greenness. With the exception of mountainous regions such as the Alps and northern and western parts of the United Kingdom, summer NDVI anomalies are highly correlated with precipitation anomalies of the preceding month. The picture for temperature is more geographically variable with summer NDVI anomalies in southern France, Italy and central England and north-eastern Scotland being negatively correlated with temperature, and northern and western coasts of France and Germany being positively correlated with temperature. In addition, we analyse the anomalies in conjunction with vegetation height from

  17. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    This study highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the global and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in southwest Australia. Results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies may form a necessary preconditioning for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity experiments based on pattern correlation analyses, and using both observations and coupled climate model simulations, indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are actually not associated with HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. The results presented here have interesting implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations.

  18. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations.

    PubMed

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-07-14

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations.

  19. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave – SST associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations.

  20. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave – SST associations

    PubMed Central

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations. PMID:27412238

  1. On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations.

    PubMed

    Boschat, Ghyslaine; Simmonds, Ian; Purich, Ariaan; Cowan, Tim; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights some caveats in using composite analyses to form physical hypotheses on the associations between environmental variables. This is illustrated using a specific example, namely the apparent links between heat waves (HWs) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In this case study, a composite analysis is performed to show the large-scale and regional SST conditions observed during summer HWs in Perth, southwest Australia. Composite results initially point to the importance of the subtropical South Indian Ocean, where physically coherent SST dipole anomalies appear to form a necessary condition for HWs to develop across southwest Australia. However, sensitivity tests based on pattern correlation analyses indicate that the vast majority of days when the identified SST pattern appears are overwhelmingly not associated with observed HWs, which suggests that this is definitely not a sufficient condition for HW development. Very similar findings are obtained from the analyses of 15 coupled climate model simulations. The results presented here have pertinent implications and applications for other climate case studies, and highlight the importance of applying comprehensive statistical approaches before making physical inferences on apparent climate associations. PMID:27412238

  2. Defensive Behavior against Noxious Heat Stimuli Is Declined with Aging Due to Decreased Pain-Associated Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Saurav; Kim, Man Su

    2015-01-01

    Aging is defined as a collective process that alters organism’s functional capacity and appearance over the course of life. Apart from an increase in susceptibility to many diseases, aging affects the cellular system that is responsible for decoding painful stimuli. Yet, aging-associated molecular mechanisms of pain perception remains elusive. Using Drosophila, we showed a decrease in temperature tolerance and a reduction in high temperature thermal avoidance with aging. Locomotor activity assay demonstrated that the age-dependent changes in heat nociception did not stem from the general decline in muscular activity. However, we identified pain-related gene expression alteration with aging. We anticipate that our findings would help opening a new window onto developing the optimal pain treatment for the elderly. PMID:25995829

  3. Airport and city-centre temperatures in the evaluation of the association between heat and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de'Donato, F. K.; Stafoggia, M.; Rognoni, M.; Poncino, S.; Caranci, N.; Bisanti, L.; Demaria, M.; Forastiere, F.; Michelozzi, P.; Pelosini, R.; Perucci, C. A.

    2008-03-01

    A variety of ambient exposure indicators have been used to evaluate the impact of high temperature on mortality and in the identification of susceptible population sub-groups, but no study has evaluated how airport and city centre temperatures differ in their association with mortality during summer. This study considers the differences in temperatures measured at the airport and in the city centre of three Italian cities (Milan, Rome and Turin) and investigates the impact of these measures on daily mortality. The case-crossover design was applied to evaluate the association between daily mean apparent temperature (MAT) and daily total mortality. The analysis was conducted for the entire population and for subgroups defined by demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status and chronic comorbidity (based on hospitalisation during the preceding 2 years). The percentage risk of dying, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), on a day with MAT at the 95th percentile with respect to the 25th percentile of the June-September daily distribution was estimated. Airport and city-centre temperature distributions, which vary among cities and between stations, have a heterogeneous impact on mortality. Milan was the city with the greatest differences in mean MAT between airport and city stations, and the overall risk of dying was greater when airport MAT (+47% increase, 95%CI 38-57) was considered in comparison to city MAT (+37% increase, 95%CI 30-45). In Rome and Turin, the results were very similar for both apparent temperature measures. In all cities, the elderly, women and subjects with previous psychiatric conditions, depression, heart and circulation disorders and cerebrovascular disease were at higher risk of dying during hot days, and the degree of effect modification was similar using airport or city-centre MAT. Studies on the impact of meteorological variables on mortality, or other health indicators, need to account for the possible differences between airport and

  4. Allele variants of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin are globally transmitted and associated with colonization factors.

    PubMed

    Joffré, Enrique; von Mentzer, Astrid; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Oezguen, Numan; Savidge, Tor; Dougan, Gordon; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally. PMID:25404692

  5. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P.V.; Patel, S.V.; Bhalani, K.D.; Shah, D.; Shah, V.S.; Mehta, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. Results: The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. Interpretation & conclusions: The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings. PMID:22825606

  6. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  7. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  8. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  9. Environmental Assessment and (FONSI) Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    An analysis is presented of the environmental impacts of replacing the Winnett School District's existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. The report first covers the background and need for action, along with the alternative actions…

  10. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV.

  11. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV. PMID:23061988

  12. District nursing in Dominica.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, P M; Luteijn, A J; Nasiiro, R S; Bruney, V; Smith, R J; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-10-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the use of a questionnaire. Check-ups for hypertension, diabetes, pregnancy and immunisations constituted 40% of all reasons for encounter. The district nurses dealt with 80% of all contacts; only 20% of all patients were referred to the district medical officer. There are several discouragements to the motivation of the nurses. In addition to being a nurse, all have their family and other obligations. Postgraduate training with diversified certification and upgrading of wages could contribute to a continued high motivation and increased job satisfaction.

  13. Changes in arterial blood pressure elicited by severe passive heating at rest is associated with hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Ichinose, Masashi; Honda, Yasushi; Tsuji, Bun; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The arterial blood pressure and ventilatory responses to severe passive heating at rest varies greatly among individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in ventilation seen during severe passive heating of resting humans is associated with a decrease in arterial blood pressure. Passive heating was performed on 18 healthy males using hot water immersion to the level of the iliac crest and a water-perfused suit. We then divided the subjects into two groups: MAP(NOTINC) (n = 8), whose mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) at the end of heating had increased by ≤3 mmHg, and MAP(INC) (n = 10), whose MAP increased by >3 mmHg. Increases in esophageal temperature (T (es)) elicited by the heating were similar in the two groups (+2.3 ± 0.3 vs. +2.4 ± 0.4 °C). Early during heating (increase in T (es) was <1.5 °C), MAP, minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]), and end-tidal CO(2) pressure ([Formula: see text]) were similar between the groups. However, during the latter part of heating (increase in T (es) was ≥1.5 °C), the increase in [Formula: see text] and decrease in [Formula: see text] were significantly greater or tended to be greater, while the increase in MAP was significantly smaller in MAP(NOTINC) than MAP(INC). Among all subjects, heating-induced changes in [Formula: see text] significantly and negatively correlated with heating-induced changes in MAP during the latter part of heating (r = -0.52 to -0.74, P < 0.05). These results suggest that, in resting humans, 25-50 % of the variation in the magnitude of the arterial blood pressure response to severe passive heating can be explained by the magnitude of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation.

  14. Nuclear heat shock protein 110 expression is associated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akiharu; Ogata, Kyoichi; Altan, Bolag; Yokobori, Takehiko; Ide, Munenori; Mochiki, Erito; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Kogure, Norimichi; Yanoma, Toru; Suzuki, Masaki; Bai, Tuya; Oyama, Tetsunari; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) expression is induced by the exposure to stress, such as fever, oxidative stress, chemical exposure, and irradiation. In cancer, HSP promotes the survival of malignant cells by inhibiting the induction of apoptosis. In colorectal cancer, a loss-of-function mutation of HSP110 (HSP110ΔE9) has been identified. HSP110ΔE9 inhibits the nuclear translocation of wild-type HSP110, which is important for its chaperone activity and anti-apoptotic effects. The patients carrying HSP110ΔE9 mutation exhibit high sensitivity to anticancer agents, such as oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil. There is still insufficient information about HSP110 localization, the clinicopathological significance of HSP110 expression, and its association with chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer. Here, we found that high nuclear expression of HSP110 in gastric cancer tissues is associated with cancer progression, poor prognosis, and recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy. In vitro results showed that HSP110 suppression increases the sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin of human gastric cancer cell lines. Our results suggest that nuclear HSP110 may be a new drug sensitivity marker for gastric cancer and a potential molecular therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer patients with acquired anticancer drug resistance. PMID:26943774

  15. Nuclear heat shock protein 110 expression is associated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Akiharu; Ogata, Kyoichi; Altan, Bolag; Yokobori, Takehiko; Ide, Munenori; Mochiki, Erito; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Kogure, Norimichi; Yanoma, Toru; Suzuki, Masaki; Bai, Tuya; Oyama, Tetsunari; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) expression is induced by the exposure to stress, such as fever, oxidative stress, chemical exposure, and irradiation. In cancer, HSP promotes the survival of malignant cells by inhibiting the induction of apoptosis. In colorectal cancer, a loss-of-function mutation of HSP110 (HSP110ΔE9) has been identified. HSP110ΔE9 inhibits the nuclear translocation of wild-type HSP110, which is important for its chaperone activity and anti-apoptotic effects. The patients carrying HSP110ΔE9 mutation exhibit high sensitivity to anticancer agents, such as oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil. There is still insufficient information about HSP110 localization, the clinicopathological significance of HSP110 expression, and its association with chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer. Here, we found that high nuclear expression of HSP110 in gastric cancer tissues is associated with cancer progression, poor prognosis, and recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy. In vitro results showed that HSP110 suppression increases the sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin of human gastric cancer cell lines. Our results suggest that nuclear HSP110 may be a new drug sensitivity marker for gastric cancer and a potential molecular therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer patients with acquired anticancer drug resistance. PMID:26943774

  16. Petrogenesis of the Kuangshancun and Hongshan intrusive complexes from the Handan-Xingtai district: Implications for iron mineralization associated with Mesozoic magmatism in the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Xiao, Long; Zhan, Qiongyao; Wu, Jianxun; Zhu, Dan; Huang, Wan; Bai, Ming; Zhang, Yanhai

    2015-12-01

    The Handan-Xingtai district in eastern China exposes numerous late Mesozoic intrusions. Among these, the Kuangshancun intrusive complex is one of the major ore-related intrusions whereas the Hongshan complex is barren, although both intrusions display similar geochemical characteristics. The Kuangshancun complex consists of diorite and monzonite, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 133.7 ± 1 Ma. The Hongshan complex mainly consists of syenite and shows zircon U-Pb age of 134.5 ± 1 Ma. The mineral chemistry of plagioclase from both complexes reveals normal zoning, consistent with the fractional crystallization process. Rocks of the Kuangshancun complex show SiO2 in the range of 58.92-63.84 wt.%, Na2O of 4.63-8.81 wt.%, and Al2O3 of 16.14-18.18 wt.%, together high Sr/Y (14-54) and high LaN/YbN (8.30-16.18) ratios. They show enrichment in LREE and depletion in HREE and HFSE, with no remarkable Eu anomalies, similar to the features of adakites. The whole rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.706661 to 0.706722 and εNd (t = 134 Ma) between -15.26 and -15.12, which are consistent with zircon 176Hf/177Hf ratios of 0.281940-0.282059 and εHf (t) values of -27.0 to -22.7. Samples of the Hongshan complex show SiO2 in the range of 56.57-68.16 wt.%, high Sr/Y (19-112) and high LaN/YbN (11.39-16.82) ratios. The zircon εHf (t) values are in the range of -15.9 to -12.8 and εNd (t = 134 Ma) is between -9.82 and -8.62. The Kuangshancun complex was derived through partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle contaminated by lower continental crust components. The Hongshan complex was also derived from the EM I-like mantle source. However, the calculated zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ and Eu/Eu∗ ratios indicate that the source magma of the Kuangshancun complex were characterized by higher oxygen fugacity as compared to that the Hongshan complex. The high oxidation states and high water contents are considered as possible key factors that led to the iron mineralization in the

  17. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  18. Spatial distribution and health risk assessment of toxic metals associated with receptor population density in street dust: a case study of Xiandao District, Changsha, Middle China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Huang, Jinhui; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Xiaolong; Liu, Wenchu; Wu, Haipeng; Yuan, Yujie; He, Xiaoxiao; Lai, Mingyong

    2015-05-01

    Spatial characteristics of the properties (dust organic material and pH), concentrations, and enrichment levels of toxic metals (Ni, Hg, Mn and As) in street dust from Xiandao District (Middle China) were investigated. Method of incorporating receptor population density into noncarcinogenic health risk assessment based on local land use map and geostatistics was developed to identify their priority pollutants/regions of concern. Mean enrichment factors of studied metals decreased in the order of Hg ≈ As > Mn > Ni. For noncarcinogenic effects, the exposure pathway which resulted in the highest levels of exposure risk for children and adults was ingestion except Hg (inhalation of vapors), followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard indexes (HIs) for As, Hg, Mn, and Ni to children and adults revealed the following order: As > Hg > Mn > Ni. Mean HI for As exceeded safe level (1) for children, and the maximum HI (0.99) for Hg was most approached the safe level. Priority regions of concern were indentified in A region at each residential population density and the areas of B at high and moderate residential population density for As and the high residential density area within A region for Hg, respectively. The developed method was proved useful due to its improvement on previous study for making the priority areas of environmental management spatially hierarchical and thus reducing the probability of excessive environmental management.

  19. Infant feeding practices in the first 6 months and associated factors in a rural and semiurban community in Mangochi District, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kamudoni, Penjani; Maleta, Kenneth; Shi, Zumin; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating infant feeding practices and their sociodemographic correlates in Mangochi District, Malawi. Questionnaire data from 157 rural and 192 semiurban mother-infant pairs were obtained. Early breastfeeding (< 1 hour after delivery) was practiced among 68.2% of the rural and 63% of the semiurban mothers. Colostrum was given by 96% of the sampled mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding rates in the sample at 2, 4, and 6 months were 39.1%, 27.5%, and 7.5%, respectively. At 4 months, exclusive breastfeeding was significantly higher in the semiurban (46.8%) than in the rural (4.7%) group. Living in the rural area (OR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.26-2.76) and giving birth outside a health facility (OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.00-1.85) were risk factors for stopping exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months. The results suggest that semiurban mothers are more likely to practice optimum breastfeeding and that health facilities have an important role in its promotion.

  20. SNP Identification by Transcriptome Sequencing and Candidate Gene-Based Association Analysis for Heat Tolerance in the Bay Scallop Argopecten irradians

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xuedi; Li, Li; Zhang, Shoudu; Meng, Fei; Zhang, Guofan

    2014-01-01

    The northern bay scallop Argopecten irradians irradians (Lamarck) and the southern bay scallop Argopecten irradians concentricus (Say) were introduced into China in the 1980s and 1990s, and are now major aquaculture molluscs in China. Here, we report the transcriptome sequencing of the two subspecies and the subsequent association analysis on candidate gene on the trait of heat tolerance. In total, RNA from six tissues of 67 and 42 individuals of northern and southern bay scallops, respectively, were used and 55.5 and 34.9 million raw reads were generated, respectively. There were 82,267 unigenes produced in total, of which 32,595 were annotated. Altogether, 32,206 and 23,312 high-quality SNPs were identified for northern and southern bay scallops, respectively. For case-control analysis, two intercrossed populations were heat stress treated, and both heat-susceptible and heat-resistant individuals were collected. According to annotation and SNP allele frequency analysis, 476 unigenes were selected, and 399 pairs of primers were designed. Genotyping was conducted using the high-resolution melting method, and Fisher’s exact test was performed for allele frequency comparison between the heat-susceptible and heat-resistant groups. SNP all-53308-760 T/C showed a significant difference in allele frequency between the heat-susceptible and heat-resistant groups. Notably, considerable difference in allele frequency at this locus was also observed between the sequenced natural populations. These results suggest that SNP all-53308-760 T/C may be related to the heat tolerance of the bay scallop. Moreover, quantitative expression analysis revealed that the expression level of all-53308 was negatively correlated with heat tolerance of the bay scallop. PMID:25121601

  1. Absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  2. Proteomic changes associated with expression of a gene (ipt) controlling cytokinin synthesis for improving heat tolerance in a perennial grass species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Gianfagna, Thomas; Huang, Bingru

    2010-07-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are known to regulate leaf senescence and affect heat tolerance, but mechanisms underlying CK regulation of heat tolerance are not well understood. A comprehensive proteomic study was conducted to identify proteins altered by the expression of the adenine isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene controlling CK synthesis and associated with heat tolerance in transgenic plants for a C(3) perennial grass species, Agrostis stolonifera. Transgenic plants with two different inducible promoters (SAG12 and HSP18) and a null transformant (NT) containing the vector without ipt were exposed to 20 degrees C (control) or 35 degrees C (heat stress) in growth chambers. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis were performed to identify protein changes in leaves and roots in response to ipt expression under heat stress. Transformation with ipt resulted in protein changes in leaves and roots involved in multiple functions, particularly in energy metabolism, protein destination and storage, and stress defence. The abundance levels of six leaf proteins (enolase, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2, putative oxygen-evolving complex, Rubisco small subunit, Hsp90, and glycolate oxidase) and nine root proteins (Fd-GOGAT, nucleotide-sugar dehydratase, NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, ferredoxin-NADP reductase precursor, putative heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2, ascorbate peroxidase, dDTP-glucose 4-6-dehydratases-like protein, and two unknown proteins) were maintained or increased in at least one ipt transgenic line under heat stress. The diversity of proteins altered in transgenic plants in response to heat stress suggests a regulatory role for CKs in various metabolic pathways associated with heat tolerance in C(3) perennial grass species.

  3. Neuropathy- and Myopathy-Associated Mutations in Human Small Heat Shock Proteins: Characteristics and Evolutionary History of the Mutation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Benndorf, Rainer; Martin, Jody L.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Wertheim, Joel O.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in four of the ten human small heat shock proteins (sHSP) are associated with various forms of motor neuropathies and myopathies. In HspB1, HspB3, and HspB8 all known mutations cause motor neuropathies, whereas in HspB5 they cause myopathies. Several features are common to the majority of these mutations: (i) they are missense mutations, (ii) most associated disease phenotypes exhibit a dominant inheritance pattern and late disease onset, (iii) in the primary protein sequences, the sites of most mutations are located in the conserved α-crystallin domain and the variable C-terminal extensions, and (iv) most human mutation sites are highly conserved among the vertebrate orthologs and have been historically exposed to significant purifying selection. In contrast, a minor fraction of these mutations deviate from these rules: they are (i) frame shifting, nonsense, or elongation mutations, (ii) associated with recessive or early onset disease phenotypes, (iii) positioned in the N-terminal domain of the proteins, and (iv) less conserved among the vertebrates and were historically not subject to a strong selective pressure. In several vertebrate sHSPs (including primate sHSPs), homologous sites differ from the human sequence and occasionally even encode the same amino acid residues that cause the disease in humans. Apparently, a number of these mutations sites are not crucial for the protein function in single species or entire taxa, and single species even seem to have adopted mechanisms that compensate for potentially adverse effects of 'mutant-like' sHSPs. The disease-associated dominant sHSP missense mutations have a number of cellular consequences that are consistent with gain-of-function mechanisms of genetic dominance: dominant-negative effects, the formation of cytotoxic amyloid protein oligomers and precipitates, disruption of cytoskeletal networks, and increased downstream enzymatic activities. Future therapeutic concepts should aim for reducing these

  4. Heat Shock Protein 90 Associates with the Per-Arnt-Sim Domain of Heme-free Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Anindya; Dai, Yue; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Seeger, Franziska; Ghosh, Arnab; Garcin, Elsa D.; Montfort, William R.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Misra, Saurav; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) drives heme insertion into the β1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) β1, which enables it to associate with a partner sGCα1 subunit and mature into a nitric oxide (NO)-responsive active form. We utilized fluorescence polarization measurements and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to define molecular interactions between the specific human isoforms hsp90β and apo-sGCβ1. hsp90β and its isolated M domain, but not its isolated N and C domains, bind with low micromolar affinity to a heme-free, truncated version of sGCβ1 (sGCβ1(1–359)-H105F). Surprisingly, hsp90β and its M domain bound to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain of apo-sGC-β1(1–359), which lies adjacent to its heme-binding (H-NOX) domain. The interaction specifically involved solvent-exposed regions in the hsp90β M domain that are largely distinct from sites utilized by other hsp90 clients. The interaction strongly protected two regions of the sGCβ1 PAS domain and caused local structural relaxation in other regions, including a PAS dimerization interface and a segment in the H-NOX domain. Our results suggest a means by which the hsp90β interaction could prevent apo-sGCβ1 from associating with its partner sGCα1 subunit while enabling structural changes to assist heme insertion into the H-NOX domain. This mechanism would parallel that in other clients like the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and HIF1α, which also interact with hsp90 through their PAS domains to control protein partner and small ligand binding interactions. PMID:26134567

  5. Ocular temperature elevation induced by threshold in vivo exposure to 1090-nm infrared radiation and associated heat diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G.

    2014-10-01

    An in vivo exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090-nm infrared radiation (IRR) requires a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. The present study aims to determine the ocular temperature evolution and the associated heat flow at the same exposure conditions. Two groups of 12 rats were unilaterally exposed within the dilated pupil with a close to collimated beam between lens and retina. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples. Within 5 min after exposure, the lens light scattering was measured. In one group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye, expressed as a confidence interval (0.95), was 11±3°C at the limbus, 16±6°C in the vitreous behind lens, and 16±7°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. In the other group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye was 9±1°C at the limbus and 26±11°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. The difference of forward light scattering between exposed and contralateral not exposed eye was 0.01±0.09 tEDC. An exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090-nm IRR for 8 s induces a temperature increase of 10°C at the limbus and 26°C close to the retina. IRR cataract is probably of thermal origin.

  6. Ocular temperature elevation induced by threshold in vivo exposure to 1090-nm infrared radiation and associated heat diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G

    2014-01-01

    An in vivo exposure to 197  W/cm 2 1090-nm infrared radiation (IRR) requires a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. The present study aims to determine the ocular temperature evolution and the associated heat flow at the same exposure conditions. Two groups of 12 rats were unilaterally exposed within the dilated pupil with a close to collimated beam between lens and retina. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples. Within 5 min after exposure, the lens light scattering was measured. In one group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye, expressed as a confidence interval (0.95), was 11±3°C at the limbus, 16±6°C in the vitreous behind lens, and 16±7°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. In the other group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye was 9±1°C at the limbus and 26±11°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. The difference of forward light scattering between exposed and contralateral not exposed eye was 0.01±0.09 tEDC. An exposure to 197  W/cm 2 1090-nm IRR for 8 s induces a temperature increase of 10°C at the limbus and 26°C close to the retina. IRR cataract is probably of thermal origin.

  7. Reduced Contractility and Motility of Prostatic Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts after Inhibition of Heat Shock Protein 90

    PubMed Central

    Henke, Alex; Franco, Omar E.; Stewart, Grant D.; Riddick, Antony C.P.; Katz, Elad; Hayward, Simon W.; Thomson, Axel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) can stimulate malignant progression and invasion of prostatic tumour cells via several mechanisms including those active in extracellular matrix; Methods: We isolated CAF from prostate cancer patients of Gleason Score 6–10 and confirmed their cancer-promoting activity using an in vivo tumour reconstitution assay comprised of CAF and BPH1 cells. We tested the effects of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors upon reconstituted tumour growth in vivo. Additionally, CAF contractility was measured in a 3D collagen contraction assay and migration was measured by scratch assay; Results: HSP90 inhibitors dipalmitoyl-radicicol and 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) reduced tumour size and proliferation in CAF/BPH1 reconstituted tumours in vivo. We observed that the most contractile CAF were derived from patients with lower Gleason Score and of younger age compared with the least contractile CAF. HSP90 inhibitors radicicol and 17-DMAG inhibited contractility and reduced the migration of CAF in scratch assays. Intracellular levels of HSP70 and HSP90 were upregulated upon treatment with HSP90 inhibitors. Inhibition of HSP90 also led to a specific increase in transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) levels in CAF; Conclusions: We suggest that HSP90 inhibitors act not only upon tumour cells, but also on CAF in the tumour microenvironment. PMID:27563925

  8. Proteins associated with heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass as affected by foliar application of nitrogen, cytokinins, and an ethylene inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Huang, Bingru

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress causes premature leaf senescence in cool-season grass species. The objective of this study was to identify proteins regulated by nitrogen, cytokinins, and ethylene inhibitor in relation to heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants (cv. Penncross) were foliar sprayed with 18 mM carbonyldiamide (N source), 25 μM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, ethylene inhibitor), 25 μM zeatin riboside (ZR, cytokinin), or a water control, and then exposed to 20/15°C (day/night) or 35/30°C (heat stress) in growth chambers. All treatments suppressed heat-induced leaf senescence, as shown by higher turf quality and chlorophyll content, and lower electrolyte leakage in treated plants compared to the untreated control. A total of 49 proteins were responsive to N, AVG, or ZR under heat stress. The abundance of proteins in photosynthesis increased, with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase affected by all three treatments, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein by AVG and N or Rubisco activase by AVG. Proteins for amino acid metabolism were upregulated, including alanine aminotransferase by three treatments and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase by AVG and N. Upregulated proteins also included catalase by AVG and N and heat shock protein by ZR. Exogenous applications of AVG, ZR, or N downregulated proteins in respiration (enolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehygrogenase) under heat stress. Alleviation of heat-induced senescence by N, AVG, or ZR was associated with enhanced protein abundance in photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism and stress defense systems (heat shock protection and antioxidants), as well as suppression of those imparting respiration metabolism.

  9. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  10. Using NASA Earth Science Datasets for National Climate Assessment Indicators: Urban Impacts of Heat Waves Associated with Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoff, N.; Weber, S.; Zell, E. R.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-induced heat waves have been increasing globally in the past 5-10 years and are projected to continue increasing throughout the 21st century. In urban areas, heat waves are exacerbated by the non-climate stressor of urban heat islands (UHIs). The vulnerability of a city's population to heat waves reflects exposure to extreme heat events, sensitivity of the population to impacts, such as adverse health effects, and adaptive capacity to prepare for and respond to heat waves. Socially and economically vulnerable populations are especially at risk to the impacts of heat waves, due to increasing energy costs, air pollution, and heat-related illness and mortality. NASA earth science datasets, combined with socioeconomic data, can be used to create indicators that characterize vulnerability to urban heat events and address the effectiveness of adaptation measures designed to reduce local temperatures. The indicator development process should include engagement from local stakeholders and end users from the onset to ensure local relevance and, ultimately, indicator uptake and sustainability. This presentation will explore the process of working with urban stakeholders in Philadelphia to develop a set of policy-relevant, interdisciplinary vulnerability indicators focused on extreme heat events in urban areas. Ambient and land surface temperature, land cover classifications, NDVI, and US Census data are used to create a basket of indicators that reflect urban heat wave duration and intensity, UHI exposure, socioeconomic vulnerability, and adaptation effectiveness. These indicators can be assessed at the city level and also comparatively among different parts of a city to help quantify and track heat wave impacts on vulnerable populations and the effectiveness of adaptation measures.

  11. Warning! Slippery Road Ahead: Internet Access and District Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Joan M.

    1995-01-01

    As schools merge onto the information highway, districts must address their liability associated with Internet access. Schools need a practical policy supporting high access to global educational resources while limiting district liability. USENET provides easy access to controversial and pornographic materials. This article outlines federal…

  12. KPNA3-knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak associated with the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) by reducing heat shock factor transport into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wei, Guoqing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Li, Kedong; Zhang, Congfen; Dai, Lishang; Sun, Yu; Liu, Dongran; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

    2016-01-10

    In this study, we investigated the role of karyopherin alpha 3 in the heat shock response in male silkworm pupae. Karyopherin alpha recognizes the classical nuclear location sequence on proteins and transports them into the nucleus by forming a trimetric complex with karyopherin beta. Three predicted karyopherin alphas (KPNA1, KPNA2 and KPNA3) have been identified from the silkworm Bombyx mori. Pull-down assay result showed that KPNA3 can pull down heat shock transcription factor (HSF) from proteins extracted from tissues using non-denature lysis buffer. After 45 °C heat shock on male B. mori pupae for 30 min, we identified two heat shock protein (HSP) mRNA expression peaks correlating with HSP19.9, HSP20.4 and HSP25.4 at 4 h (peak 1) and 24 h (peak 2). The second peak was eliminated after knockdown of KPNA3. Similar results were obtained following knockdown of HSF, which is the trans-activating factor of heat shock. However, KPNA3 knockdown was not accompanied by the decreased HSF protein levels at 24 h after heat shock which were observed following HSF knockdown. We also expressed recombinant protein GST-KPNA3 and His-HSF in Escherichia coli to perform GST pull-down assay and the result confirmed the interaction between KPNA3 and HSF. We concluded that KPNA3 knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak in the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae by reducing HSF transport into the nucleus.

  13. Beyond Backpacks and Bus Tokens: Next Steps for a District Homeless Student Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Low, Justin A.; Skrla, Linda

    2015-01-01

    How policies get translated and enacted by school districts frame how students experience reforms associated with federal law. This qualitative case study of a Northern California school district explores the importance of integrating homeless student initiatives within all aspects of the district functioning. Drawing from the equity framework of…

  14. School District Wellness Policy Quality and Weight-Related Outcomes among High School Students in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…

  15. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the

  16. Re-Os systematics and age of pyrite associated with stratiform Zn-Pb mineralization in the Howards Pass district, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Karen D.; Selby, David; Falck, Hendrik; Slack, John F.

    2016-05-01

    Stratiform Zn-Pb deposits hosted in unmetamorphosed carbonaceous and siliceous mudstones of the Ordovician to Silurian Duo Lake Formation define the Howards Pass district in Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories, western Canada. Collectively, the deposits are amongst the largest in the world, containing drill-indicated and inferred resources of 423 Mt at 4.84 % Zn and 1.59 % Pb. Sulphide textures include (a) fine-scale laminations of sphalerite, galena, and pyrite from <0.05 mm to 1 cm thick, interbedded with carbonaceous sedimentary rock; (b) layers of coarse sulphide that are structurally controlled by microfolds; and (c) veins that cut bedding and sulphide laminations. The finely interlaminated nature of sulphides with mudstone has been used as evidence for syngenetic mineralizing processes, whereas paleomagnetic data determined on coarse layered sulphides suggest a Middle Jurassic age of mineralization. Here, we present new rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotopic data for 12 pyrite separates obtained from 4 laminated sulphide-rich samples from the XY Central (XYC) and Don (DON) deposits and for 1 unmineralized organic-rich mudstone ˜20 m stratigraphically below the sulphide-bearing zone. Pyrite separates that lack mudstone inclusions ("pure") from the XYC deposit contain 2.2 to 4.0 ppb Re and 93.4 to 123.4 ppt Os; pure pyrite from the DON deposit is significantly more enriched in Re and Os (34-37 ppb Re; 636.8-694.9 ppt Os). The 187Re/188Os values of pure pyrite separates from the XYC and DON deposits range from 137.6 to 197 and 182.1 to 201.4, respectively. Regression of all pure pyrite Re-Os data from both deposits yields an isochron age of 442 ± 14 Ma (MSWD = 7.4) and an initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) value of 0.71 ± 0.07. The Re-Os age indicates that the early phase of pyrite precipitation (and by inference, sphalerite and galena) occurred during the early Silurian, consistent with biostratigraphic ages of the host rocks. The Osi value of ˜0.8 for earliest

  17. National collegiate athletic association strength and conditioning coaches' knowledge and practices regarding prevention and recognition of exertional heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Anna S; Hoffman, Jay R; Clark, Margaret H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and determine content knowledge of National Collegiate Athletic Association Strength and Conditioning Coaches (SCCs) regarding prevention and recognition of exertional heat stroke (EHS) and to determine whether the type of professional certification is an indicator of enhanced content knowledge. A questionnaire was e-mailed to 1305 SCCs and was used to assess SCC's EHS knowledge in the areas of extrinsic risk factors (ERF), intrinsic risk factors (IRF), recognition of EHS (R), and general training safety knowledge (TSK). The 319 SCC participants who responded were separated into 4 groups based on certification: Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialists (CSCS) (116), Strength and Conditioning Coach Certification (SCCC) (46), combined CSCS/SCCC (62), or no certification (NC) (95). Only 2.2% of the total coaches surveyed scored ≥90% on the total score, whereas 47% earned a score ≤59%. When comparing across certifications, NC scored significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) on total score, and the IRF and TSK constructs than CSCS, SCCC, and CSCS/SCCC. CSCS/SCCC coaches performed significantly better on the total score than SCCC (p = 0.047), whereas a trend toward a higher score (p = 0.085) was seen in CSCS compared with SCCC. CSCS coaches and the combined CSCS/SCCC certifications scored significantly higher (p < 0.000) than NC in the ERF and R constructs. In conclusion, SCCs seemed to lack essential knowledge to prevent or recognize EHS in each of the factors assessed. It is recommended that consideration be given to include EHS prevention and recognition competencies as part of the professional preparation and certification requirements for SCCs. PMID:24402452

  18. Neighbourhood and dwelling characteristics associated with the self-reported adverse health effects of heat in most deprived urban areas: a cross-sectional study in 9 cities.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem

    2015-03-01

    Dwelling and neighbourhood characteristics associated with the prevalence of self-reported heat-induced adverse health effects are not well known. We interviewed 3485 people in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities in Québec, Canada. The prevalence of heat-induced adverse health effects was 46%, out of which one fourth led to medical consultation. Multivariate analyses showed that dissatisfaction with the summer dwelling temperature, which refers to home heat exposure, and perception that the neighbourhood is polluted due to traffic, were determinant, even after adjusting for current health status. These risk indicators can be used to identify subgroups at high risk and as priority-setting criteria for urban renewal programs for the hotter climate to come.

  19. Neighbourhood and dwelling characteristics associated with the self-reported adverse health effects of heat in most deprived urban areas: a cross-sectional study in 9 cities.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Abdous, Belkacem

    2015-03-01

    Dwelling and neighbourhood characteristics associated with the prevalence of self-reported heat-induced adverse health effects are not well known. We interviewed 3485 people in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities in Québec, Canada. The prevalence of heat-induced adverse health effects was 46%, out of which one fourth led to medical consultation. Multivariate analyses showed that dissatisfaction with the summer dwelling temperature, which refers to home heat exposure, and perception that the neighbourhood is polluted due to traffic, were determinant, even after adjusting for current health status. These risk indicators can be used to identify subgroups at high risk and as priority-setting criteria for urban renewal programs for the hotter climate to come. PMID:25598449

  20. Heat stress: a major contributor to poor animal welfare associated with long-haul live export voyages.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Malcolm P; Cambridge, Heather; Foster, Susan F; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations by the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry into high mortalities on live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the Northern hemisphere summer suggest that animal welfare may be compromised by heat stress. The live export industry has generated a computer model that aims to assess the risk of heat stress and to contain mortality levels on live export ships below certain arbitrary limits. Although the model must be complied with under Australian law, it is not currently available for independent scientific scrutiny, and there is concern that model and the mandated space allowances are inadequate. This review appraises the relevant literature on heat stress in sheep and cattle, including laboratory studies aimed at mimicking the ambient temperatures and humidity levels likely to be encountered on live export voyages. Animal welfare is likely to be very poor as a result of heat stress in some shipments.

  1. District nurses' role in managing medication dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2016-08-01

    A survey commissioned by the Patients Association (2015) has shown that the risky practice of altering solid-form medication to assist patients with swallowing difficulties is a daily occurrence in care homes. District nurses and community matrons who provide care to patients and assist staff in care homes are well-placed to raise awareness of the impact that tampering with tablets has on patient safety. It is essential that district nurses and community matrons discharge their duty of care to patients in care homes by supporting effective medication management that meets the individual needs of those patients. This article considers the legal and professional standards that must inform a district nurse's support of medication management for a patient with swallowing difficulties residing in a care home. PMID:27479856

  2. SMUDGEO #1, Sacramento Municipal Utility District First Geothermal Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Keilman, Lee R.

    1980-12-01

    This description of the SMUDGEO No.1 geothermal power plant of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) and its associated well field development has been prepared to acquaint persons with the project.

  3. Cross-Sectional Study of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among School Aged Children in Rural and Urban Settings of Fogera and Libo Kemkem Districts, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little information is available on malnutrition-related factors among school-aged children ≥5 years in Ethiopia. This study describes the prevalence of stunting and thinness and their related factors in Libo Kemkem and Fogera, Amhara Regional State and assesses differences between urban and rural areas. Methods In this cross-sectional study, anthropometrics and individual and household characteristics data were collected from 886 children. Height-for-age z-score for stunting and body-mass-index-for-age z-score for thinness were computed. Dietary data were collected through a 24-hour recall. Bivariate and backward stepwise multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess malnutrition-associated factors in rural and urban communities. Results The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 42.7% in rural areas and 29.2% in urban areas, while the corresponding figures for thinness were 21.6% and 20.8%. Age differences were significant in both strata. In the rural setting, fever in the previous 2 weeks (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.23–2.32), consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29–0.91) and consumption of the family's own cattle products (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.27–0.93), among others factors were significantly associated with stunting, while in the urban setting, only age (OR: 4.62; 95% CI: 2.09–10.21) and years of schooling of the person in charge of food preparation were significant (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.97). Thinness was statistically associated with number of children living in the house (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03–1.60) and family rice cultivation (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41–0.99) in the rural setting, and with consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10–0.67) and literacy of head of household (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09–0.65) in the urban setting. Conclusion The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in rural areas, whereas no significant differences were observed for thinness

  4. Factors Associated with Awareness, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Common Eye Diseases in the General Population in a Rural District in Bangladesh: The Bangladesh Population-based Diabetes and Eye Study (BPDES)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Fakir M. Amirul; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Islam, Silvia Z.; Finger, Robert P.; Critchley, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the awareness, attitudes, and practices associated with common eye diseases and eye care utilization in a rural district of Bangladesh. Methods Data were collected using a multilevel cluster random sampling technique from 3104 adults aged ≥30 years from the Banshgram union with a questionnaire assessing the awareness, attitudes and practice about diabetes and common eye diseases, educational attainment, socio-economic status, and medical history. Results Participants were aged between 30 and 89 years with a mean (SD) age of 51 (12) years and 65% were female. The majority of participants had heard of cataracts (90%), trachoma (86%) and Pterygium (84%), yet only 4% had heard of diabetic retinopathy (DR), 7% of glaucoma and 8% of Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, 58% of participants did not know vision loss could be prevented. Factors associated with lower awareness regarding common eye diseases were increasing age, lack of formal schooling, and lower socio-economic status. A lower proportion (57%) of people with no schooling compared to those who had attained at least secondary school certificate education (72%) reported that they knew that vision loss could be prevented (p<0.001). Overall 51% of people had heard of at least six (67%) out of nine items relating to awareness of common eye diseases. This included 41% of participants aged 65 years or older compared to 61% of those aged 30–35 years (p<0.001). Only 4% had an eye check at least once a year and higher education and better SES were associated with higher frequency of eye checks. Conclusions In rural Bangladesh awareness of cataract, trachoma and pterygium was good but limited in relation to the potentially blinding conditions of glaucoma, DR, and AMD. The results show a large gap between public awareness and treatment practices about common eye diseases. Public health promotion should be designed to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:26200458

  5. Competency: District Views from Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyo, John

    1979-01-01

    Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

  6. Accountability under Constraint: The Relationship between Collective Bargaining Agreements and California Schools' and Districts' Performance under No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; McEachin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine how the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) negotiated between teachers' unions and districts is associated with schools' and districts' performance under accountability pressures in California. They find that CBA restrictiveness is associated with the increased likelihood that districts will be in Program Improvement (PI)…

  7. Districts for 104th Congress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1990-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that reflected the reapportionment and delineation of congressional districts based on the 1990 census. The next (104th) Congress reflects redelineation of districts that occurred for six states: Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, South Carolina, and Virginia. Congressional Districts U.S. House of Representatives Census TIGER/Line Files

  8. The Role of School District Science Coordinators in the District-Wide Appropriation of an Online Resource Discovery and Sharing Tool for Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Victor R.; Leary, Heather M.; Sellers, Linda; Recker, Mimi

    2014-06-01

    When introducing and implementing a new technology for science teachers within a school district, we must consider not only the end users but also the roles and influence district personnel have on the eventual appropriation of that technology. School districts are, by their nature, complex systems with multiple individuals at different levels in the organization who are involved in supporting and providing instruction. Varying levels of support for new technologies between district coordinators and teachers can sometimes lead to counterintuitive outcomes. In this article, we examine the role of the district science coordinator in five school districts that participated in the implementation of an online resource discovery and sharing tool for Earth science teachers. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted and coded interviews with district coordinators and teachers to examine the varied responsibilities associated with the district coordinator and to infer the relationships that were developed and perceived by teachers. We then examine and discuss two cases that illustrate how those relationships could have influenced how the tool was adopted and used to differing degrees in the two districts. Specifically, the district that had high support for online resource use from its coordinator appeared to have the lowest level of tool use, and the district with much less visible support from its coordinator had the highest level of tool use. We explain this difference in terms of how the coordinator's promotion of teacher autonomy took distinctly different forms at those two districts.

  9. A Cross-sectional Study of Correlation of Body Image Anxiety with Social Phobia and Their Association with Depression in the Adolescents from a Rural Area of Sangli District in India

    PubMed Central

    Waghachavare, Vivek Baliram; Quraishi, Sanjay R.; Dhumale, Girish B.; Gore, Alka D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%), 193 (19.4%) and 326 (32.7%) participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004) and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001) were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents. PMID:25709801

  10. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together.

  11. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model. Results and conclusions All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature x¯ =29.7), often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989). Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170–220 W/m2), with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo) while working. When analysing heat strain – in terms of core temperature and dehydration – and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the first time the PHS

  12. Changes in the Intensity and Frequency of Atmospheric Blocking and Associated Heat Waves During Northern Summer Over Eurasia in the CMIP5 Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, Chunho

    2012-01-01

    The Russia heat wave and wild fires of the summer of 2010 was the most extreme weather event in the history of the country. Studies show that the root cause of the 2010 Russia heat wave/wild fires was an atmospheric blocking event which started to develop at the end of June and peaked around late July and early August. Atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010 was anomalous in terms of the size, duration, and the location, which shifted to the east from the normal location. This and other similar continental scale severe summertime heat waves and blocking events in recent years have raised the question of whether such events are occurring more frequently and with higher intensity in a warmer climate induced by greenhouse gases. We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of the occurrence and intensity of atmospheric blocking and associated heat waves for northern summer over Eurasia based on CMIPS model simulations. To examine the global warming induced change of atmospheric blocking and heat waves, experiments for a high emissions scenario (RCP8.S) and a medium mitigation scenario (RCP4.S) are compared to the 20th century simulations (historical). Most models simulate the mean distributions of blockings reasonably well, including major blocking centers over Eurasia, northern Pacific, and northern Atlantic. However, the models tend to underestimate the number of blockings compared to MERRA and NCEPIDOE reanalysis, especially in western Siberia. Models also reproduced associated heat waves in terms of the shifting in the probability distribution function of near surface temperature. Seven out of eight models used in this study show that the frequency of atmospheric blocking over the Europe will likely decrease in a warmer climate, but slightly increase over the western Siberia. This spatial pattern resembles the blocking in the summer of 2010, indicating the possibility of more frequent occurrences of heat waves in western Siberia. In this talk, we will also

  13. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    PubMed

    Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Gaur, Pooran Mal; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N; Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Gangarao, N V P R; Fikre, Asnake; Kimurto, Paul; Sharma, Prakash C; Sheshashayee, M S; Tobita, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Ito, Osamu; Killian, Andrzej; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions) for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore) and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia). Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20) was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs), both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM) analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70) was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP) were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance.

  14. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  15. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  16. How High Poverty Districts Improve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togneri, Wendy; Anderson, Stephen E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes results of study of five high-poverty districts' successful efforts to improve academic achievement: Adline Independent School District (Texas), Chula Vista Elementary School District (California), Kent County Public Schools (Maryland), Minneapolis Public Schools (Minnesota), and Providence Public Schools (Rhode Island). Focuses on…

  17. FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

    CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

  18. Pribram uranium district

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    Pribram is one of the largest and richest vein uranium districts in the world. The Pribram district has accounted for about 60 percent of Czechoslovakia`s total uranium production. The Pribram uranium district is located about 60 kilometers southwest of Prague, in Cezechslovakia`s central Bohemia region. This district contains perigranitic, monometallic, vein-type uranium deposits. The deposits are within a northeast-southwest elongated area, about 20 kilometers long and 1-2 kilometers wide, located between Oboriste in the northeast and Tresko in the southwest. Several thousand veins have been discovered; about 1,600 have been mined. Most of the veins are grouped in clusters, which are intense accumulations of veins paralleling or intersecting each other within a narrow segment. Until this year, all uranium production was exported to the USSR, with only the amount required for Czechoslovakia`s nuclear power stations being returned (as fabricated fuel). Most of Czechoslovakia`s present and future uranium production will come from sandstone deposits in the North Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, such as Hamr and Straz.

  19. District Leadership Conference Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual provides usable guidelines and planning forms and materials for planning district leadership conferences, which were designed and initiated in Washington State to meet the problems in student enrollment and, consequently, Distributive Education Clubs of America membership. The conferences have become a useful means to increase…

  20. School District Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Joseph L.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the effective management of purchasing processes in a school district. These processes include obtaining materials, supplies, and equipment of maximum value for the least expense, and receiving, storing, and distributing the items obtained. The chapter opens with an overview of…

  1. District-Level Downsizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

  2. Districts Delivering Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The idea is not new: Offer courses remotely, build in variety and the students will come. This article discusses how public schools are investing in offering online courses, catering to students' specific learning needs and to remote locations. Several surveys conducted in recent years show that school districts nationwide are embracing this…

  3. School District Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.

    This book is devoted exclusively to the budgeting process in school districts, unlike the more common generic budgeting texts. As such, it allows an in-depth treatment of both conceptual and practical aspects of budgeting in a single volume. By default, school business officials have had to rely on the state education accounting manual as their…

  4. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  5. Districts Shun Stimulus Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

  6. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

  7. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  8. Districts Weigh Obesity Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

  9. School District Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    Minnesota spends more for education than most states and has increased its financial commitment steadily over the past 15 years. Because of the state's dominant role in education funding, legislators have enacted measures requiring all local school districts to follow uniform financial accounting and reporting standards (UFARS). Since 1980, the…

  10. Strong and consistently synergistic inactivation of spores of spoilage-associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by high pressure and heat compared with inactivation by heat alone.

    PubMed

    Olivier, S A; Bull, M K; Stone, G; van Diepenbeek, R J; Kormelink, F; Jacops, L; Chapman, B

    2011-04-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (F(z)(121.1)(°)(C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa)) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log(10) reduction/minute at F(T)(z)(121.1)(°)(C)) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (F(T)(z)). The use of the F(T)(z) approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes. PMID:21278265

  11. Strong and consistently synergistic inactivation of spores of spoilage-associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by high pressure and heat compared with inactivation by heat alone.

    PubMed

    Olivier, S A; Bull, M K; Stone, G; van Diepenbeek, R J; Kormelink, F; Jacops, L; Chapman, B

    2011-04-01

    The inactivation of spores of four low-acid food spoilage organisms by high pressure thermal (HPT) and thermal-only processing was compared on the basis of equivalent thermal lethality calculated at a reference temperature of 121.1°C (F(z)(121.1)(°)(C, 0.1 MPa or 600 MPa)) and characterized as synergistic, not different or protective. In addition, the relative resistances of spores of the different spoilage microorganisms to HPT processing were compared. Processing was performed and inactivation was compared in both laboratory and pilot scale systems and in model (diluted) and actual food products. Where statistical comparisons could be made, at least 4 times and up to around 190 times more inactivation (log(10) reduction/minute at F(T)(z)(121.1)(°)(C)) of spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus sporothermodurans, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was achieved using HPT, indicating a strong synergistic effect of high pressure and heat. Bacillus coagulans spores were also synergistically inactivated in diluted and undiluted Bolognese sauce but were protected by pressure against thermal inactivation in undiluted cream sauce. Irrespective of the response characterization, B. coagulans and B. sporothermodurans were identified as the most HPT-resistant isolates in the pilot scale and laboratory scale studies, respectively, and G. stearothermophilus as the least in both studies and all products. This is the first study to comprehensively quantitatively characterize the responses of a range of spores of spoilage microorganisms as synergistic (or otherwise) using an integrated thermal-lethality approach (F(T)(z)). The use of the F(T)(z) approach is ultimately important for the translation of commercial minimum microbiologically safe and stable thermal processes to HPT processes.

  12. Acetyl salicylic acid protected against heat stress damage in chicken myocardial cells and may associate with induced Hsp27 expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Xu, Jiao; Song, Erbao; Tang, Shu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Kemper, N; Hartung, J; Bao, Endong

    2015-07-01

    We investigated whether acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) protects chicken myocardial cells from heat stress-mediated damage in vivo and whether the induction of Hsp27 expression is connected with this function. Pathological changes, damage-related enzyme levels, and Hsp27 expression were studied in chickens following heat stress (40 ± 1 °C for 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, or 24 h, respectively) with or without ASA administration (1 mg/kg BW, 2 h prior). Appearance of pathological lesions such as degenerations and karyopyknosis as well as the myocardial damage-related enzyme activation indicated that heat stress causes considerable injury to the myocardial cells in vivo. Myocardial cell injury was most serious in chickens exposed to heat stress without prior ASA administration; meanwhile, ASA pretreatment acted protective function against high temperature-induced injury. Hsp27 expression was induced under all experimental conditions but was one-fold higher in the ASA-pretreated animals (0.3138 ± 0.0340 ng/mL) than in untreated animals (0.1437 ± 0.0476 ng/mL) 1 h after heat stress exposure, and such an increase was sustained over the length of the experiment. Our findings indicate that pretreatment with ASA protects chicken myocardial cells from acute heat stress in vivo with almost no obvious side effects, and this protection may involve an enhancement of Hsp27 expression. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this effect require further investigation.

  13. DIARRHEA OUTBREAK IN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, ASSOCIATED WITH A HEAT-STABLE CYTOTOXIC ENTEROTOXIN PRODUCED BY Aeromonas caviae.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Carolina Amaral; Martins, Luciano Moura; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Falavina Dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura; Hofer, Ernesto; Yano, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities of twenty Aeromonas caviae strains were examined. They originated from fecal specimens of patients with acute diarrhea during an outbreak in Brazil in 2004. Culture supernatants of fourteen strains (70%) caused fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal intestinal loops and in suckling mice assays, and also showed a cytotoxic activity in Vero and Caco-2 cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic factors were heat-stable after culture supernatants treatment at 100 ºC. The results revealed that A. caviae strains produce a putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, a heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin that could be linked to the diarrhea outbreak that took place in Brazil.

  14. Characteristics of Illinois School Districts That Employ School Nurses.

    PubMed

    Searing, Lisabeth M; Guenette, Molly

    2016-08-01

    Research indicates that school nursing services are cost-effective, but the National Association of School Nurses estimates that 25% of schools do not have a school nurse (SN). The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of Illinois school districts that employed SNs. This was a secondary data analysis of Illinois School Report Card system data as well as data obtained from district websites regarding SNs. Employment of an SN was determined for 95% of the 862 existing districts. Binary logistic regression analysis found that district size was the largest significant predictor of employment of an SN. Other factors included the type of district and diversity of the teaching staff as well as the percentage of students receiving special education services or with limited English proficiency. These findings indicate where to focus advocacy and policy efforts to encourage employment of SNs. PMID:26446878

  15. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  16. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  17. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Obol, James Henry; Arony, Denis Anywar; Wanyama, Ronald; Moi, Kenneth Luryama; Bodo, Bongomin; Odong, Patrick Olwedo; Odida, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nodding syndrome was first reported in Uganda in 2003 among internally displaced populations. Risk factors for the syndrome remain unknown. We therefore explored vitamin B6 deficiency and resulting high 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) levels as risk factor for nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda. Methods Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. Cases were children/young adults with nodding syndrome. Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. Data on socio-demographic and other risk factors was collected using questionnaires. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes for assay of 3-HK and vitamin B6 using sandwich ELISA. Conditional logistic regression model was used to assess associations. Results 66 cases and 73 controls were studied. Factors associated with nodding syndrome were being positive for 3-HK (AOR=4.50, p=0.013), vitamin B6 concentration below mean (AOR=7.22, P=0.001), child being taken care of by mother only (AOR=5.43, p=0.011), child being taken care of by guardian (AOR=5.90, p=0.019) and child consuming relief food at weaning (AOR=4.05, p=0.021). Conclusion Having low vitamin B6 concentration which leads to a build up of 3-hydroxykynurenine concentration in cases as a main risk factor. Therefore, cases should be treated with vitamin B6 and community members should be sensitise to ensure adequate dietary intake of vitamin B6 so that the risk of nodding syndrome among children is averted. We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised 3-HK concentration. PMID:27642461

  18. Near Work Related Behaviors Associated with Myopic Shifts among Primary School Students in the Jiading District of Shanghai: A School-Based One-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui; He, Xiangui; Qu, Xiaomei; Shi, Huijing; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the characteristics of various near work related behaviors among primary students and their associations with changes in myopia related ocular biometric parameters during one-year of follow up. Methods A school-based sample of 4,814 primary 1st to 4th grade students aged 6–10 years old were selected by cluster randomization based on probability proportion to size in 2013. At baseline, students together with their parents filled in a self-administered questionnaire on 9 aspects of near work related behaviors and some important covariants of myopia. A comprehensive set of eye examinations including axial length (AL) and cycloplegic refraction was conducted both at baseline and one year later. Results With the grade level increase, students did increasingly better at finding various ways to have an eye break, but they were increasingly likely to continuously do long-time near work without an eye break. Keeping a reasonable eye distance and correct hand posture for reading, writing, or watching TV became worse for the first time before grade 2, but then became better at grade 3. In contrast, selecting appropriate lighting environments or situations and keeping a balanced diet became better for the first time before grade 2, but then became worse at grade 3. At one-year follow up, the mean AL increased by 0.32 ± 0.35 mm, the ratio of AL divided by the mean corneal radius of curvature (AL/CR ratio) increased by 0.032 ± 0.054, the myopic spherical equivalent (SE) increased by -0.51 ± 0.51 diopters and the incidence of myopia was 16.0% (237/1,477). After controlling for the confounding effects of parental myopia, student’s age, gender, height, daily near work time, daily outdoor activity time and all of the other near work related behaviors, keeping a reasonable distance when reading, writing and watching TV was associated with elongation of the AL [standard coefficient beta = -0.062, P = 0.004], a change in SE [beta = -0.072, P = 0.020] and

  19. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING...

  20. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING...

  1. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING...

  2. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  3. The role of repeatedly heated soybean oil in the development of hypertension in rats: association with vascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Kamisah, Yusof; Faizah, Othman; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2012-01-01

    Thermally oxidized oil generates reactive oxygen species that have been implicated in several pathological processes including hypertension. This study was to ascertain the role of inflammation in the blood pressure raising effect of heated soybean oil in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the following diets, respectively, for 6 months: basal diet (control); fresh soybean oil (FSO); five-time-heated soybean oil (5HSO); or 10-time-heated soybean oil (10HSO). Blood pressure was measured at baseline and monthly using tail-cuff method. Plasma prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) were measured prior to treatment and at the end of the study. After six months, the rats were sacrificed, and the aortic arches were dissected for morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. Blood pressure was increased significantly in the 5HSO and 10HSO groups. The blood pressure was maintained throughout the study in rats fed FSO. The aortae in the 5HSO and 10HSO groups showed significantly increased aortic wall thickness, area and circumferential wall tension. 5HSO and 10HSO diets significantly increased plasma TXA2/PGI2 ratio. Endothelial VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were significantly increased in 5HSO, as well as LOX-1 in 10HSO groups. In conclusion, prolonged consumption of repeatedly heated soybean oil causes blood pressure elevation, which may be attributed to inflammation. PMID:22974219

  4. Building a Construction Curriculum for Your School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Embracing the notion of going green, an affluent school district in Pennsylvania spent $83 million as part of the high school's renovation and expansion project. The three-level addition is now equipped with self-dimming lights, energy-efficient windows, a rooftop solar water heater, and a geothermal cooling and heating system. As a bonus for…

  5. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  6. Differences in the heat stress associated with white sportswear and being semi-nude in exercising humans under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a wet bulb globe temperature of greater than 28 °C.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Michio; Kume, Masashi; Tuneoka, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature (Tsk) was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher (P<0.001-0.05), or tended to be higher (P<0.07), in the WS than SP trials at the end of the third 20-min exercise session. The total sweat loss (m sw,tot) was also significantly higher in the WS than in the SP trials (P<0.05). However, during the 20 % exercise, the m sw,tot during exercise, and the ΔTes, RPE and TS at the end of the second and third sessions of exercise did not differ significant between conditions. The heat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 Tsk), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that

  7. Differences in the heat stress associated with white sportswear and being semi-nude in exercising humans under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a wet bulb globe temperature of greater than 28 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Michio; Kume, Masashi; Tuneoka, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher ( P < 0.001-0.05), or tended to be higher ( P < 0.07), in the WS than SP trials at the end of the third 20-min exercise session. The total sweat loss ( m sw,tot) was also significantly higher in the WS than in the SP trials ( P < 0.05). However, during the 20 % exercise, the m sw,tot during exercise, and the ΔTes, RPE and TS at the end of the second and third sessions of exercise did not differ significant between conditions. The heat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 ), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that

  8. Cornwall combined heat and power system

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, E.; Andersson, B.; Eriksson, L.; Doyle, R.

    1995-09-01

    The production of a small amount of locally generated electric energy in order to stabilize future costs was an attractive idea to Cornwall Electric. A combined heat and power project would enable Cornwall Electric to reduce fuel sensitivity risk and generally provide a balanced portfolio. Based on this, FVB & Cornwall Electric developed a smaller co-generation and district heating proposal. This system was installed during the summer and autumn of 1994 and the district heating portion was commissioned just before Christmas 1994. There are 11 buildings connected to the system of which two are hospitals that were converted from steam to hot water heating. The co-generation portion of the project was commissioned during February 1995 and consists of 2 x 2.5 MW{sub el} spark ignited reciprocating engines running on natural gas. Waste heat, in the form of hot water, will be recovered off the two engines to be utilized by the district heating system. The heat from the engines will provide 90% of the yearly heating energy that the connected buildings require. The paper will describe how the original project was re-conceived and how barriers, that appeared during the development and marketing of the new service, were overcome. It will also describe, in detail, the design of the co-generation plant and the district heating system. In addition, this paper will discuss problems that were encountered during construction and how they were dealt with including the experience gained during the construction and commissioning of the project.

  9. Expression of heat shock protein-coding genes associated with anhydrobiosis in an African chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Oleg; Cornette, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In order to survive in extreme environments, organisms need to develop special adaptations both on physiological and molecular levels. The sleeping chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki, inhabiting temporary water pools in semi-arid regions of Africa, is the only insect to have evolutionarily acquired the ability to withstand prolonged complete desiccation at larval stage, entering a state called anhydrobiosis. Even after years in a dry state, larvae are able to revive within a short period of time, completely restoring metabolism. Because of the possible involvement of stress proteins in the preservation of biomolecules during the anhydrobiosis of the sleeping chironomid, we have analyzed the expression of genes encoding six heat shock proteins (Pv-hsp90, Pv-hsp70, Pv-hsc70, Pv-hsp60, Pv-hsp20, and Pv-p23) and one heat shock factor (Pv-hsf1) in dehydrating, rehydrating, and heat-shocked larvae. All examined genes were significantly up-regulated in the larvae upon dehydration and several patterns of expression were detected. Gene transcript of Pv-hsf1 was up-regulated within 8 h of desiccation, followed by large shock proteins expression reaching peak at 24–48 h of desiccation. Heat-shock-responsive Pv-hsp70 and Pv-hsp60 showed a two-peak expression: in dehydrating and rehydrating larvae. Both small alpha-crystallin heat shock proteins (sHSP) transcripts were accumulated in the desiccated larvae, but showed different expression profiles. Both sHSP-coding genes were found to be heat-inducible, and Pv-hsp20 was up-regulated in the larvae at the early stage of desiccation. In contrast, expression of the second transcript, corresponding to Pv-p23, was limited to the late stages of desiccation, suggesting possible involvement of this protein in the glass-state formation in anhydrobiotic larvae. We discuss possible roles of proteins encoded by these stress genes during the different stages of anhydrobiosis in P. vanderplanki. Electronic supplementary material The

  10. Synoptic climatological study on precipitation in the Hokuriku District of Central Japan associated with the cold air outbreak in early winter (With Comparison to that in midwinter for the 1983/1984 winter)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Nishimura, Nanako; Haga, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    In midwinter, heavy snowfall events are often brought in the Japan Sea side of the Japan Islands by the organized convective snowfall systems in the cold air outbreak situations. However, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher from November to early December ("early winter"), the "wintertime pressure pattern" often appears due to the considerable development of the Siberian high already in that season. Since the seasonal cycle in East Asia shows great variety with many rapid seasonal transitions influenced by the Asian monsoon system, detailed comparison of the daily precipitation climatology and the relating atmospheric processes in the cold air outbreak situations between early winter and midwinter would give us an interesting information for comprehending the overall aspects of such seasonal cycle there. Thus the present study firstly examined the daily precipitation climatology mainly at Takada, as an example for Hokuriku District, during the early to mid- winter of 1970/71 to 2009/10. Then the detailed analyses were made for the 1983/1984 winter (one of the coldest winters during that period) based on the operational meteorological data by JMA, including the ocean buoy data in the southern part of the Japan Sea for evaluating the sensible and the latent heat fluxes from the sea (referred to as SH and LH, respectively). The total precipitation at Takada in early winter was as large as in midwinter, although it was brought mainly not as snow but as rain. Such large climatological value was mainly reflected by the precipitation in the "wintertime pressure pattern" with large contribution of the days with more than 30 mm/day. Interestingly, mean daily precipitation in the "wintertime pressure pattern" in early winter was greater than in midwinter. It is noted that such features were generally found even in the latter half of the analysis period when the warmer winter years appeared more frequently than in the former half

  11. Sea breeze analysis based on LES simulations and the particle trace calculations in MM21 district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Toru; Soga, Yuta; Goto, Koji; Sadohara, Satoru; Takahashi, Keiko

    2016-04-01

    We have performed thermal and wind environment LES simulations in MM21 district in Yokohama. The used simulation model is MSSG (Multi-Scale Simulator for the Geo-environment). The spatial resolution is about 5[m] in horizontal and vertical axis. We have also performed the particle trace calculations in order to investigate the route of the sea-breeze. We have found the cool wind is gradually warmed/heated up as flowing into the district, then it blows up and is diffused. We will also discuss the contributions of the DHC (District Heating & Cooling) system in the area.

  12. DIARRHEA OUTBREAK IN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, ASSOCIATED WITH A HEAT-STABLE CYTOTOXIC ENTEROTOXIN PRODUCED BY Aeromonas caviae

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Ana Carolina Amaral; MARTINS, Luciano Moura; GATTI, Maria Silvia Viccari; FALAVINA DOS REIS, Cristhiane Moura; HOFER, Ernesto; YANO, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In the present study enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities of twenty Aeromonas caviaestrains were examined. They originated from fecal specimens of patients with acute diarrhea during an outbreak in Brazil in 2004. Culture supernatants of fourteen strains (70%) caused fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal intestinal loops and in suckling mice assays, and also showed a cytotoxic activity in Vero and Caco-2 cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic factors were heat-stable after culture supernatants treatment at 100 ºC. The results revealed that A. caviaestrains produce a putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, a heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin that could be linked to the diarrhea outbreak that took place in Brazil. PMID:26422161

  13. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  14. Inhibition of c-Kit signaling is associated with reduced heat and cold pain sensitivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Marta; Milenkovic, Nevena; le Coutre, Philipp; Westermann, Jörg; Lewin, Gary R

    2014-07-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit is critically involved in the modulation of nociceptive sensitivity in mice. Ablation of the c-Kit gene results in hyposensitivity to thermal pain, whereas activation of c-Kit produces hypersensitivity to noxious heat, without altering sensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimuli. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Kit signaling in human pain perception. We hypothesized that subjects treated with Imatinib or Nilotinib, potent inhibitors of tyrosine kinases including c-Kit but also Abl1, PDFGFRα, and PDFGFRβ, that are used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), would experience changes in thermal pain sensitivity. We examined 31 asymptomatic CML patients (14 male and 17 female) receiving Imatinib/Nilotinib treatment and compared them to 39 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (12 male and 27 female). We used cutaneous heat and cold stimulation to test normal and noxious thermal sensitivity, and a grating orientation task to assess tactile acuity. Thermal pain thresholds were significantly increased in the Imatinib/Nilotinib-treated group, whereas innocuous thermal and tactile thresholds were unchanged compared to those in the control group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the biological effects of c-Kit inhibition are comparable in mice and humans in that c-Kit activity is required to regulate thermal pain sensitivity but does not affect innocuous thermal and mechanical sensation. The effect on experimental heat pain observed in our study is comparable to those of several common analgesics; thus modulation of the c-Kit pathway can be used to specifically modulate noxious heat and cold sensitivity in humans.

  15. Evaluating Heating and Moisture Variability Associated with MJO Events in a Low-Dimension Dynamic Model with Observations and Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachnik, J. P.; Waliser, D. E.; Majda, A.; Stechmann, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the leading mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics. Despite its importance toward determining large-scale variability at both low-latitudes and the extratropics, MJO prediction often suffers from low skill regarding event initiation and its overall simulation remains a challenge in many global climate models (GCMs). The MJO 'skeleton' model, originally developed by Majda and Stechmann (2009), is a new low-order dynamic model that is capable of reproducing several salient features of the MJO despite its many simplifications relative to higher-order GCMs. Among their successes, the newest version of the skeleton model is able to reproduce the intermittent generation of MJO events, including organization into MJO wave trains that experience both growth and decay. This study presents an analysis of initiation events in the skeleton model. Higher-order features, such as the organization into wave trains, are examined herein and we document the simulated heating and moisture variability in the model compared to satellite-derived observations and reanalyses. We likewise present a composite analysis of the thermodynamic fields related to the initiation of primary and successive MJO events, as well as those precursor conditions leading to quiescent periods of the MJO. Time permitting, we also evaluate the multi-scale structures and other aspects of heating and moisture variability in the model (e.g., asymmetry between active and inactive periods) compared to distributions of integrated heating and moisture in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations and other datasets.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles changes associated with constant heat stress in pigs as measured by bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yue; Cui, Yanjun; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress affects muscle development and meat quality in food animals; however, little is known regarding its regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level, such as via DNA methylation. In this study, we aimed to compare the DNA methylation profiles between control and heat-stressed pigs to identify candidate genes for skeletal muscle development and meat quality. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was used to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the longissimus dorsi muscles of the pigs. Both groups showed similar proportions of methylation at CpG sites but exhibited different proportions at non-CpG sites. A total of 57,147 differentially methylated regions were identified between the two groups, which corresponded to 1,422 differentially methylated genes. Gene ontogeny and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that these were mainly involved in energy and lipid metabolism, cellular defense and stress responses, and calcium signaling pathways. This study revealed the global DNA methylation pattern of pig muscle between normal and heat stress conditions. The result of this study might contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in pig muscle development and meat quality. PMID:27264107

  17. Heating with waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Beabout, R.W.

    1986-09-02

    Most of the power consumed in the gaseous diffusion process is converted into heat of compression, which is removed from the process gas and rejected into the atmosphere by recirculating cooling water over cooling towers. The water being handled through the X-333 and X-330 Process Buildings can be heated to 140 to 150/sup 0/F for heating use. The Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant is provided with a recirculating heating water (RHW) system which uses X-330 water and wasted heat. The RHW flow is diagrammed. (DLC)

  18. The pleasant heat? Evidence for thermal-emotional implicit associations occurring with semantic and physical thermal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Penny; Ho, Hsin-Ni; Koizumi, Ai; Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2015-01-01

    The association between thermal and emotional experiences in interpersonal relations is intuitively apparent and has been confirmed by previous studies. However, research has not yet elucidated whether such an association is grounded in mental processes occurring at an intrapersonal (internal) level. In two experiments we examined whether the thermal-emotional associations can be observed at an intrapersonal level. We looked at the speed and accuracy of stimuli categorization. Experiment 1 examined the implicit semantic association between temperature (warm versus cold) and emotional valence (positive versus negative). Experiment 2 examined the association between experience of physical temperature and emotional valence. In both experiments warm-positive/cold-negative associations were demonstrated. These results suggest a conceptual and perceptual mapping in the mental representation of emotion and temperature, which occurs at an intrapersonal level, and which might serve as the ground to the interpersonal thermal-emotional interactions. PMID:25483026

  19. [Heat waves: health impacts].

    PubMed

    Marto, Natália

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health

  20. Geographic determinants of leprosy in Karonga District, Northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Sterne, J A; Pönnighaus, J M; Fine, P E; Malema, S S

    1995-12-01

    Researchers do not understand how geographical differences relate to the risk of contracting leprosy. The study of such differences, however, may provide clues about the natural history of the disease. The authors report findings from an analysis of the geographical distribution of leprosy in Karonga District, a rural area in Northern Malawi, between 1979 and 1989. Findings are based data from two total population surveys. The areas of residence were determined using aerial photographs, which allowed the identification of households, roads, rivers, and the lake shore. Analysis revealed that incidence rates were 2-3 times higher in the north compared to the south of the district, and lowest in the semi-urban district capital. The north has higher rainfall and more fertile soil. There was no overall association between the incidence of leprosy and population density, although the highest rates were observed in the least densely populated areas. Considering the entire district, incidence rates increased with increasing distance from a main road, but declined with increasing distance from a river or from the shore of Lake Malawi. This negative association with proximity to rivers may reflect the larger number of rivers in the north of the district. Apparent differences in incidence rates between groups speaking different languages reflected confounding by area of residence. The authors conclude that there is a marked variation, not explained by socioeconomic or cultural factors, in the incidence of leprosy within Karonga District. These results are consistent with literature which associates the environment, especially proximity to water, with leprosy.

  1. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  2. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  3. Characterization of Mutants of Human Small Heat Shock Protein HspB1 Carrying Replacements in the N-Terminal Domain and Associated with Hereditary Motor Neuron Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muranova, Lydia K.; Weeks, Stephen D.; Strelkov, Sergei V.; Gusev, Nikolai B.

    2015-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties of the mutations G34R, P39L and E41K in the N-terminal domain of human heat shock protein B1 (HspB1), which have been associated with hereditary motor neuron neuropathy, were analyzed. Heat-induced aggregation of all mutants started at lower temperatures than for the wild type protein. All mutations decreased susceptibility of the N- and C-terminal parts of HspB1 to chymotrypsinolysis. All mutants formed stable homooligomers with a slightly larger apparent molecular weight compared to the wild type protein. All mutations analyzed decreased or completely prevented phosphorylation-induced dissociation of HspB1 oligomers. When mixed with HspB6 and heated, all mutants yielded heterooligomers with apparent molecular weights close to ~400 kDa. Finally, the three HspB1 mutants possessed lower chaperone-like activity towards model substrates (lysozyme, malate dehydrogenase and insulin) compared to the wild type protein, conversely the environmental probe bis-ANS yielded higher fluorescence with the mutants than with the wild type protein. Thus, in vitro the analyzed N-terminal mutations increase stability of large HspB1 homooligomers, prevent their phosphorylation-dependent dissociation, modulate their interaction with HspB6 and decrease their chaperoning capacity, preventing normal functioning of HspB1. PMID:25965061

  4. Characteristics of districts in Pakistan with persistent transmission of wild poliovirus, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Lowther, S A; Mir, T; Bile, M K; Abdul Hafiz, R; Mounts, A W

    2004-01-01

    We sought to identify factors associated with being a reservoir district for wild poliovirus in Pakistan. Differences between reservoir and non-reservoir districts were identified using acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data, population census statistics and data from a survey of district health officials (DHOs). Of the 11 poliovirus reservoir districts identified, population density was significantly higher (median 550 persons/km2) than the non-reservoirs (median 175 persons/km2). DHOs from reservoir districts more often reported that planning was affected by refugees and they had more frequent DHO transfers compared with non-reservoir districts. Multivariate analysis confirmed that reservoirs more often had high population density and frequent DHO transfers. Assessment of district-level and management characteristics can supplement surveillance methods to further improve health programmes.

  5. Characteristics of districts in Pakistan with persistent transmission of wild poliovirus, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Lowther, S A; Mir, T; Bile, M K; Abdul Hafiz, R; Mounts, A W

    2004-01-01

    We sought to identify factors associated with being a reservoir district for wild poliovirus in Pakistan. Differences between reservoir and non-reservoir districts were identified using acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data, population census statistics and data from a survey of district health officials (DHOs). Of the 11 poliovirus reservoir districts identified, population density was significantly higher (median 550 persons/km2) than the non-reservoirs (median 175 persons/km2). DHOs from reservoir districts more often reported that planning was affected by refugees and they had more frequent DHO transfers compared with non-reservoir districts. Multivariate analysis confirmed that reservoirs more often had high population density and frequent DHO transfers. Assessment of district-level and management characteristics can supplement surveillance methods to further improve health programmes. PMID:16335650

  6. District, state or regional veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Gosser, H S; Morehouse, L G

    1998-08-01

    The district, regional or state laboratory is the local laboratory to which veterinarian practitioners usually submit samples, and consequently these laboratories are usually the first to observe a suspected disease problem. In most countries, these laboratories are under the jurisdiction of the State or region in which they are located. In the United States of America (USA), most veterinary diagnostic laboratories are State-associated and operate under the aegis of either the State Department of Agriculture or a university. The national laboratory provides reference assistance to the State laboratories. In the USA, the national Laboratory (the National Veterinary Services Laboratories) acts as a consultant to confirm difficult diagnoses and administer performance tests for State-associated laboratories. District, state or regional laboratories need to share information regarding technological advances in diagnostic procedures. This need was met in the USA by the formation of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD) in the late 1950s. Another requirement of district, state or regional diagnostic laboratories is a method to confirm quality assurance, which was fulfilled in the USA by an accreditation programme established through the AAVLD. The Accreditation Committee evaluates laboratories (on request) in terms of organisation, personnel, physical facilities and equipment, records, finance and budget. Those laboratories which meet the standards as established in the 'Essential Requirements for Accreditation' are given accreditation status, which indicates that they have the expertise and facilities to perform tests on food-producing animals for shipment in national or international commerce and on companion, laboratory or zoo animals. While confidentiality of test records is most important, it is becoming necessary to release certain types of animal disease test information if a country is to participate in the exportation of animals

  7. Advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications: International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Michael G.

    1992-11-01

    Following a program definition phase of 2 years, Task 18 of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating & Cooling program commenced a 5 year research phase in April 1992. Task 18 investigates a wide range of advanced glazing materials and glazing systems which include monolithic and granular aerogels, transparent insulation materials, chromogenic materials, evacuated glazings, low-emittance coatings, solar collector covers, angular selective transmittance thin films, holographic and light guide materials, and frame and edge seal technology. In addition to materials-centered research, Task 18 concentrates on measurement of key glazing properties such as total energy transmittance, U-value, and spectral directional optical properties, and through the use of building energy analysis software tools the identification of appropriate applications, control strategies, and energy and environmental benefits to be derived from advanced glazing products. Fifteen OECD countries are participating in Task 18 which is led by the United Kingdom.

  8. On the glacial and inter-glacial thermohaline circulation and the associated transports of heat and freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarotta, M.; Falahat, S.; Brodeau, L.; Döös, K.

    2014-03-01

    The change of the thermohaline circulation (THC) between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ≈ 21 kyr ago) and the present day climate are explored using an Ocean General Circulation Model and stream functions projected in various coordinates. Compared to the present day period, the LGM circulation is reorganised in the Atlantic Ocean, in the Southern Ocean and particularly in the abyssal ocean, mainly due to the different haline stratification. Due to stronger wind stress, the LGM tropical circulation is more vigorous than under modern conditions. Consequently, the maximum tropical transport of heat is slightly larger during the LGM. In the North Atlantic basin, the large sea-ice extent during the LGM constrains the Gulf Stream to propagate in a more zonal direction, reducing the transport of heat towards high latitudes and reorganising the freshwater transport. The LGM circulation is represented as a large intrusion of saline Antarctic Bottom Water into the Northern Hemisphere basins. As a result, the North Atlantic Deep Water is shallower in the LGM simulation. The stream functions in latitude-salinity coordinates and thermohaline coordinates point out the different haline regimes between the glacial and interglacial period, as well as a LGM Conveyor Belt circulation largely driven by enhanced salinity contrast between the Atlantic and the Pacific basin. The thermohaline structure in the LGM simulation is the result of an abyssal circulation that lifts and deviates the Conveyor Belt cell from the area of maximum volumetric distribution, resulting in a ventilated upper layer above a deep stagnant layer, and an Atlantic circulation more isolated from the Pacific. An estimation of the turnover times reveal a deep circulation almost sluggish during the LGM, and a Conveyor Belt cell more vigorous due to the combination of stronger wind stress and shortened circulation route.

  9. Containment loads due to direct containment heating and associated hydrogen behavior: Analysis and calculations with the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D C; Bergeron, K D; Carroll, D E; Gasser, R D; Tills, J L; Washington, K E

    1987-05-01

    One of the most important unresolved issues governing risk in many nuclear power plants involves the phenomenon called direct containment heating (DCH), in which it is postulated that molten corium ejected under high pressure from the reactor vessel is dispersed into the containment atmosphere, thereby causing sufficient heating and pressurization to threaten containment integrity. Models for the calculation of potential DCH loads have been developed and incorporated into the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis. Using CONTAIN, DCH scenarios in PWR plants having three different representative containment types have been analyzed: Surry (subatmospheric large dry containment), Sequoyah (ice condenser containment), and Bellefonte (atmospheric large dry containment). A large number of parameter variation and phenomenological uncertainty studies were performed. Response of DCH loads to these variations was found to be quite complex; often the results differ substantially from what has been previously assumed concerning DCH. Containment compartmentalization offers the potential of greatly mitigating DCH loads relative to what might be calculated using single-cell representations of containments, but the actual degree of mitigation to be expected is sensitive to many uncertainties. Dominant uncertainties include hydrogen combustion phenomena in the extreme environments produced by DCH scenarios, and factors which affect the rate of transport of DCH energy to the upper containment. In addition, DCH loads can be aggravated by rapid blowdown of the primary system, co-dispersal of moderate quantities of water with the debris, and quenching of de-entrained debris in water; these factors act by increasing steam flows which, in turn, accelerates energy transport. It may be noted that containment-threatening loads were calculated for a substantial portion of the scenarios treated for some of the plants considered.

  10. Heat Pipe Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  11. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line R27E... Irrigation Districts which lies west of township line R28E. (c) District No. 3—The counties of...

  12. The School District Organization Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook describes procedures for school-district reorganization in California. Following the introductory chapter, chapter 2 offers a historical overview of school-district reorganization in California. Chapters 3 and 4 outline the organization and responsibilities of the county committee and the role and responsibilities of the State Board…

  13. Redesigning the District Operating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  14. The Recentralization of School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of five decentralized school districts reveals many reasons why recentralization could occur, including lack of accountability provisions, lack of effectiveness, retrenchment, central office reluctance to share power, and union hostility. Unless districts approach decentralization thoughtfully and with commitment, they may abandon the…

  15. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  16. Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

  17. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  18. Relationship between temperatures and fault slips on the upper surface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath the Kanto district, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shoichi; Takagi, Rumi; Matsumoto, Takumi

    2015-05-01

    To elucidate the relationship between interplate temperatures and generation mechanisms for megathrust earthquakes and slow slip events (SSEs) in the Kanto district, central Japan, we performed numerical simulations on the thermal state. For this purpose, we newly developed a 2-D box-type thermal convection model that is able to handle the subduction of two oceanic plates: the young oceanic Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts following subduction of the old oceanic Pacific (PAC) plate beneath it. To constrain temperatures on the upper surface of the PHS plate, we used high-density Hi-net heat flow data on land. We found that low heat flow in the Kanto district was caused mostly by subduction of the cold PHS plate. To explain the heat flow distribution in the Kanto district in more detail, we needed to incorporate frictional heating at the plate interface on the seaward side of the corner of the mantle wedge, and temperature changes due to surface erosion and sedimentation associated with crustal deformation during the Quaternary on land into the models. The most suitable pore pressure ratio to explain the heat flow data was 0.98. The thermally estimated seismogenic zone corresponded well to the fault planes of the 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquake and the western half of the 1707 Genroku Kanto earthquake. The eastern half of the fault plane of the 1707 Genroku Kanto earthquake could be divided into two areas; the northwestern fault plane corresponded to the thermally estimated seismogenic zone, whereas the relationship between the southeastern fault plane and interplate temperatures was ambiguous. The off-Boso SSEs occurred on the plate interface at temperatures lower than approximately 250 °C, and the slipped region passed through the 150 °C isotherm, corresponding to the clay mineral phase transformation from smectite to illite. This might suggest that the SSEs occurred in relation to a dehydration process.

  19. Analysis of CO2 convection mechanisms associated to surface heating, by combining remote sensing data and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Marivi; Curcoll, Roger; Font, Anna; Morgu, Josep Anton; Rod, Xavier

    Assessing the mechanisms involved in the variability of carbon fluxes is crucial for the under-standing of the changing earth dynamics. In that sense, the aim of this work is to analyze CO2 convection mechanisms at a regional scale in the boundary layer and the lower troposphere by means of cross correlation of land surface temperature data, radio-soundings, wind speeds and in situ measurements of CO2 atmospheric mixing ratios. Since data is easier to acquire, ground level horizontal CO2 fluxes have been widely studied. In the contrary, vertical ones are still subject to uncertainties, even if they are necessary to understand 3D CO2 variability in the atmosphere. In particular, this paper focuses on the relationship between surface heating, convection and CO2 concentrations at different heights and, more generally, on the energy transfer between the surface and the air. The monitored area corresponds to a region on the North Eastern Iberian Peninsula, mainly devoted to agricultural activities. Different types of land covers are observed. On the one hand, in situ data has been collected by several flights during 2007 along the parallel 42o N following the "Crown" aircraft sampling approach [1] that integrates CO2 data obtained through horizontal transects and vertical profiles. This particular configuration is especially well suited for the evaluation of both horizontal and vertical CO2 fluxes. On the other hand, the radiometric land surface temperatures are obtained from the MODIS instrument onboard the Terra and the Aqua satellites. Besides, a flight campaign with an airborne sensor along the same transect in the parallel 42o N has been proposed in the scope of the MIDAS-6 project recently submitted. This project plans to improve soil moisture and ocean salinity products of the SMOS sensor recently launched and to demonstrate its applications. This will allow the study of moisture patterns in the monitored area at two different scales: that of the data collected

  20. Effect of Common Drinking Water Disinfectants, Chlorine and Heat, on Free Legionella and Amoebae-Associated Legionella

    PubMed Central

    Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sarah; Puertas-Bennasar, Antoni; Araujo, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine and thermal treatments are the most commonly used procedures to control and prevent Legionella proliferation in drinking water systems of large buildings. However, cases of legionellosis still occur in facilities with treated water. The purpose of this work was to model the effect of temperature and free chlorine applied in similar exposure conditions as in drinking water systems on five Legionella spp. strains and two amoebal strains of the genera Acanthamoeba. Inactivation models obtained were used to determine the effectiveness of the treatments applied which resulted more effective against Legionella than Acanthamoeba, especially those in cystic stages. Furthermore, to determine the influence of the relationship between L. pneumophila and Acanthamoeba spp. on the treatment effectiveness, inactivation models of the bacteria-associated amoeba were also constructed and compared to the models obtained for the free living bacteria state. The Legionella-amoeba association did not change the inactivation models, but it reduced the effectiveness of the treatments applied. Remarkably, at the lowest free chlorine concentration, 0.5 mg L-1, as well as at the lowest temperatures, 50°C and 55°C, the influence of the Legionella-amoeba associate state was the strongest in reducing the effectiveness of the treatments compared to the free Legionella state. Therefore, the association established between L. pneumophila and amoebae in the water systems indicate an increased health risk in proximal areas of the system (close to the tap) where lower free chlorine concentrations and lower temperatures are commonly observed. PMID:26241039