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Sample records for district meghalaya india

  1. Sexuality and 'silence' among Khasi youth of Meghalaya, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    War, Ryntihlin Jennifer; Albert, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sex education has been well documented in the literature, but there exists a lack of research involving indigenous youth in India. This paper describes perceptions, knowledge and attitudes towards sex education, sexuality, pre-marital sex, rape and homosexuality among indigenous students from the matrilineal Khasi tribe attending a university in Meghalaya in northeast India. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected during and after reproductive health, sexuality and life skills courses. Despite the impression of sexual permissiveness of indigenous peoples that exists in India, students reported a societal silence on issues related to sexuality. Lack of appropriate words in the indigenous language potentially contributes to this silence. Although co-habitation is common and culturally acceptable, students disapproved of pre-marital sex. The influence of Christianisation was also perceived in the frequent reference to sin and guilt associated with masturbation, homosexuality, pre-marital sex and abortion. Students reported that the sex education received in school was 'childish' and inadequate for their adult needs. Many had unrealistic images of what constituted 'normal' sex and also blamed women for rape. The majority of indigenous students expressed the need for non-judgmental fora for discussions on sexual health and for sexuality education.

  2. Investigations on microbial diversity of Jakrem hot spring, Meghalaya, India using cultivation-independent approach.

    PubMed

    Panda, Amrita Kumari; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; De Mandal, Surajit

    2015-06-01

    Jakrem hot water spring is located in the West Khasi Hill District of the state of Meghalaya, and is one of the most popular hot springs of the state. There is a populist belief among the inhabitants and people that the hot spring water has got curative properties against various skin ailments. This is the first report on V3 hyper-variable region of 16S rDNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this less known hot spring from Meghalaya, India. Metagenome comprised of 10, 74,120 raw sequences with a sequence length of 151 bp and 56.35% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP056897. A total of 8, 77, 364 pre-processed reads were clustered into 694 OTUs (operational taxonomical units) comprising of 14 bacterial phyla including unknown phylum demonstrating 49 families. Hot spring bacterial community is dominated by Firmicutes (61.60%), Chloroflexi (21.37%), Cyanobacteria (12.96%) and unclassified bacteria (1.2%) respectively.

  3. Investigations on microbial diversity of Jakrem hot spring, Meghalaya, India using cultivation-independent approach

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Amrita Kumari; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; De Mandal, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Jakrem hot water spring is located in the West Khasi Hill District of the state of Meghalaya, and is one of the most popular hot springs of the state. There is a populist belief among the inhabitants and people that the hot spring water has got curative properties against various skin ailments. This is the first report on V3 hyper-variable region of 16S rDNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this less known hot spring from Meghalaya, India. Metagenome comprised of 10, 74,120 raw sequences with a sequence length of 151 bp and 56.35% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP056897. A total of 8, 77, 364 pre-processed reads were clustered into 694 OTUs (operational taxonomical units) comprising of 14 bacterial phyla including unknown phylum demonstrating 49 families. Hot spring bacterial community is dominated by Firmicutes (61.60%), Chloroflexi (21.37%), Cyanobacteria (12.96%) and unclassified bacteria (1.2%) respectively. PMID:26484205

  4. First report of Chilli veinal mottle virus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Dutta, Ram; Roy, Somnath; Ngachan, S V

    2014-01-01

    The present study confirms the occurrence of Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) under the genus Potyvirus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya based on mechanical transmission assay, transmission electron microscopy, RT-PCR and sequence analysis. This is the first record of Chivmv in Naga chilli in North-East India.

  5. Gastrointestinal parasitism of goats in hilly region of Meghalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Meena; Laha, R.; Goswami, A.; Goswami, A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infections in goats of hilly region of Meghalaya. Materials and Methods: A total of 834 fecal samples of goats were screened for 1 year (2014-2015) using flotation techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infections in goats was 28.65%. Season-wise highest infections were recorded during rainy season (34.92%) followed by cool (26.87%), hot (26.62%), and cold (20.39%) seasons. Helminths and protozoa infections were recorded in 63.60% and 23.02% animals, respectively. Among the helminths, Strongyle spp. (32.63%) was recorded highest followed by Trichuris spp. (12.55%), Moniezia spp. (10.04%), and Trichuris spp. (8.36%). Among protozoa, only Eimeria spp. was detected. Seven different species of Eimeria spp. were identified, viz., Eimeria christenseni, Eimeria hirci, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Eimeria arloingi, and Eimeria kocharii for the first time from Meghalaya. Maximum egg per gram and oocyst per gram of feces were recorded in the month of August (932.4) and September (674.05), respectively. Mixed infections were recorded in 13.38% samples. Coproculture of goat fecal samples revealed the presence of Haemonchus contortus (72.16%), Oesophagostomum spp. (14.41%), Strongyloides spp. (8.91%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (4.50%) larvae. Conclusion: This study indicates that GI helminths and protozoa infections are prevalent in goats of this hilly region of Meghalaya, throughout the year and highly prevalent during rainy season. PMID:28246451

  6. The K-T Transition in Meghalaya, NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Berner, Z.; Ateequzzaman, K.; Stueben, D.

    2008-12-01

    produced in the hypolimnion. Sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, biostratigraphic and paleoecological studies of the Um Sohryngkew Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, reveal biotic and environmental changes about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province (DVP). Upper Cretaceous sediments consist mainly of conglomerates, glauconitic sandstone, sandy shale, calcareous shale with a few shell beds and rare coal pockets, all of which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental terrains. High kaolinite and illite indicate high humidity and high runoff. The K-T transition is in calcareous silty shale and marked by a 1 cm thin "rust colored" layer with high anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). In the Danian, kaolinite remains the dominant clay mineral, suggesting humid climatic conditions. In contrast, semi-arid climate conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous Deccan Traps province, which appears to be linked to "mock aridity" (Harris and Van Couvering, 1995, Khadkikar et al., 1999). Microfossil assemblages define the K-T boundary. Nannofossils are common throughout the Upper Maastrichtian interval. Assemblages dominated by Micula decussata and Watzenueria barnesae along with common Ceratolithioides kampteneri and Lithraphidites quadratus are typical of the low latitude Tethys and Micula prinsii attests to the presence of the terminal Maastrichtian. Dinoflagellate cysts are common to abundant with increased frequencies of peridiniods, terrestrial organic matter and framboidal pyrite in the uppermost Maastrichtian. This suggests high nutrient loading possibly leading to stressful eutrophic conditions. Dinogymnium and Alisogymnium species have their last occurrences at the K-T boundary. The first appearence of Danian nannofossil species Neobiscutum romeinii and Biantholithus sparsus appear at 5 cm and 15 cm above the K-T boundary

  7. Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Theophilus, P. K.

    2009-05-01

    The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX showed interesting microfabric features showing strong resemblance with fossilised bacteria, calcified filaments, needle calcite and numerous nano scale calcite crystals, highly weathered and disintegrated crystals of calcite, that point towards a significant microbial influence in its genesis. Thin section petrography showed laminated stromatolitic features. The microorganisms identified by conventional isolation and further evaluation of isolates by molecular techniques include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, and Actinomycetes. Microscopic observations also showed unidentifiable cocci and four unidentifiable strains of CaSO4 (gypsum) precipitating bacteria. Experimental studies confirmed that these bacteria are able to precipitate calcium minerals (calcite, gypsum, minor amounts of dolomite) in the laboratory. These results allow us to postulate that species like these may contribute to active biogenic influence in the cave formations at Meghalaya.

  8. REE mineralization in the carbonatites of the sung valley ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite complex, Meghalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Mohd.; Ranjith, A.; Umrao, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous Sung Valley Ultramafic-Alkaline-Carbonatite (SUAC) complex intruded the Proterozoic Shillong Group of rocks and located in the East Khasi Hills and West Jaintia Hills districts of Meghalaya. The SUAC complex is a bowl-shaped depression covering an area of about 26 km2 and is comprised serpentinised peridotite forming the core of the complex with pyroxenite rim. Alkaline rocks are dominantly ijolite and nepheline syenite, occur as ring-shaped bodies as well as dykes. Carbonatites are, the youngest intrusive phase in the complex, where they form oval-shaped bodies, small dykes and veins. During the course of large scale mapping in parts of the Sung Valley complex, eleven carbonatite bodies were delineated. These isolated carbonatite bodies have a general NW-SE and E-W trend and vary from 20-125 m long and 10-40 m wide. Calcite carbonatite is the dominant variety and comprises minor dolomite and apatite and accessory olivine, magnetite, pyrochlore and phlogopite. The REE-bearing minerals identified in the Sung Valley carbonatites are bastnäsite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), belovite-(Ce), britholite-(Ce) and pyrochlore that are associated with calcite and apatite. The presence of REE carbonates and phosphates associated with REE-Nb bearing pyrochlore enhances the economic potential of the Sung Valley carbonatites. Trace-element geochemistry also reveals an enrichment of LREEs in the carbonatites and average ΣREE value of 0.102% in 26 bed rock samples. Channel samples shows average ΣREE values of 0.103 wt%. Moreover, few samples from carbonatite bodies has indicated relatively higher values for Sn, Hf, Ta and U. Since the present study focuses surface evaluation of REE, therefore, detailed subsurface exploration will be of immense help to determine the REE and other associated mineralization of the Sung Valley carbonatite prospect.

  9. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic Mylliem granitoids, Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Jyotisankar; Saha, Abhishek; Ganguly, Sohini; Balaram, V.; Krishna, A. Keshav; Hazra, Sampa

    2011-06-01

    The Mylliem granitoids of the Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India, represent one of the disharmonic Neoproterozoic igneous plutons, which are intrusive into low-grade Shillong Group of metasediments. Field studies indicate that the Mylliem granitoids cover an area of about 40 km2 and is characterized by development of variable attitude of primary foliations mostly marked along the margin of the pluton. Xenoliths of both Shillong Group of metasediments and mafic rocks have been found to occur within Mylliem granitoids. Structural study of the primary foliation is suggestive of funnel-shaped intrusion of Mylliem granitoids with no appreciable evidence of shearing. Petrographically, Mylliem granitoids are characterized by pink to white phenocrysts of prismatic microcline/perthite and lath-shaped plagioclase (An20-An29). Groundmass material is characterized by quartz, microcline, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite. Sphene and apatite occur as accessory minerals. Petrographically Mylliem granitoids have been discriminated as granite and granodiorite according to IUGS system of classification. Critical evaluation of geochemical data and variation trends of major oxides/trace elements suggests a significant role of fractional crystallization in the evolution of Mylliem pluton. Th/U ratios (3.22-6.77) indicate a relatively higher abundance of Th over U. Chondrite-normalized REE diagram characteristically shows an enriched LREE pattern and prominent negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.16-0.42) indicating the significant role of plagioclase fractionation from the parent magma. An overall strong REE fractionation pattern has been envisaged for Mylliem granitoids. The strong REE fractionation of the Mylliem granitoids is depicted by (Ce/Yb) N values, which show a range of 1.39 to 1.65. The aluminium saturation index (ASI) (ranging from 1.0 to 1.3), A/CNK ratios (ranging from 1.4 to 2.11) and A/NK ratios (ranging from 1.75 to 2.43) provide evidences for the peraluminous, S

  10. Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus and goatpox virus from an outbreak in goats with high mortality in Meghalaya state, India

    PubMed Central

    Karim, A.; Bhattacharjee, U.; Puro, K.; Shakuntala, I.; Sanjukta, R.; Das, S.; Ghatak, S.; Sen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We describe a laboratory investigation carried out to confirm the etiology of the heavy mortality (37 animals died out of total 44, i.e. 84%) in goats in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya, Northeast region of India in December 2015. The clinical signs observed were abortion, diarrhea, high fever (up to 104°F), pox lesion in the skin, and respiratory distress. Materials and Methods: The samples comprising whole blood, sera, and pox lesion were collected from the animals (n=7) from an outbreak for the screening of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and poxviruses. The whole blood and sera were used for screening of PPR virus (PPRV) by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and antibody by competitive ELISA as well as detection of PPRV partial N gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The skin lesions were used for the detection of poxvirus by PCR. Results: The results showed the presence of PPR antigens (58-80%) in the samples by sandwich ELISA and antibody in all the sera samples ranging from 9% to 41% positivity in competitive ELISA. Four samples were positive for PPRV partial N gene. The skin lesion screened for poxvirus was also found to be positive for I3L gene of goatpox virus. Conclusion: We confirm the outbreak of disease in goats with high mortality is a case of mixed infection of PPR and goatpox detected for the first time in Northeast India. PMID:27733807

  11. Crustacean-borne infections with microphallid metacercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from focal areas in Meghalaya, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, L M; Prasad, P K; Biswal, D K; Chatterjee, A; Tandon, V

    2013-06-01

    During a survey of edible Crustacea for recovery of infective stages (metacercariae) of potential helminthozoonoses of trematode origin in north-east India, the crab species Barytelphusa lugubris mansoniana, collected from suspected foci of lungfluke infection in Meghalaya and Assam, was found to harbour metacercarial cysts that were different from the earlier reported infection, in which the lungfluke Paragonimus was confirmed to be implicated. Using morphological criteria, this metacercaria was identified as Microphallus indicus Mukherjee & Ghosh, 1967 of the trematode family Microphallidae. The present study extends the previous work by providing molecular characterization of this parasite using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and the partial large ribosomal subunit DNA, lsr. These target regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trematode universal primers and sequenced. In BLAST analysis the query sequences were found close to members of Microphallidae and closest to the genus Microphallus.

  12. Cross-sectional reference values of upper arm anthropometry of the Khasi tribal adolescents of Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debashis; Sun, Deimaphishisha; Banerjee, Indraneel; Singh, Y Momo; Kalita, Jennifer G; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra

    2010-01-01

    The Khasi tribal people in India with their distinct ethnic identity have relative geographic isolation from the rest of the country. Although chronic energy deficiency has been documented in this population, their nutritional status has not been re-evaluated following a decade of economic growth in India. In this study, the nutritional status of an ethno-homogenous sample of contemporary Khasi tribal adolescent cohort of age 11+ to 17+ years in the state of Meghalaya, India has been assessed by cross sectional analysis. This was achieved through the use of the following derived anthropometric measurements - total upper arm area (TUA), upper arm muscle area (UMA), upper arm fat area (UFA), and arm fat index (AFI). A total of 670 adolescents (335 boys; 335 girls) participated in this study. In comparison with North American NHANES 1999-2002 standards, UMA, a measure of upper arm muscle mass, was lower at all age groups in Khasi girls. Conversely, in Khasi boys, AFI, a marker of upper arm fat mass was lower at all age groups, thereby showing a gender dimorphic difference in upper limb muscle and fat proportions. We conclude that in upper arm indirect anthropometry, contemporary Khasi adolescent children remain nutritionally deficient with gender dimorphic muscle and fat proportions.

  13. From jhum to broom: Agricultural land-use change and food security implications on the Meghalaya Plateau, India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Rabi Narayan; Nayak, Debendra Kumar; Andersen, Peter; Måren, Inger Elisabeth

    2016-02-01

    Human population growth in the developing world drives land-use changes, impacting food security. In India, the dramatic change in demographic dynamics over the past century has reduced traditional agricultural land-use through increasing commercialization. Here, we analyze the magnitude and implications for the farming system by the introduction of cash-cropping, replacing the traditional slash and burn rotations (jhum), of the tribal people on the Meghalaya Plateau, northeast India, by means of agricultural census data and field surveys conducted in seven villages. Land-use change has brought major alterations in hill agricultural practices, enhanced cash-cropping, promoted mono-cropping, changed food consumption patterns, underpinned the emergence of a new food system, and exposed farmers and consumers to the precariousness of the market, all of which have both long- and short-term food security implications. We found dietary diversity to be higher under jhum compared to any of the cash-crop systems, and higher under traditional cash-cropping than under modern cash-cropping.

  14. Lizard Wears Shades. A Spectacled Sphenomorphus (Squamata: Scincidae), from the Sacred Forests of Mawphlang, Meghalaya, North-east India.

    PubMed

    Datta-Roy, Aniruddha; Das, Indraneil; Bauer, Aaron M; Tron, Ronald K Lyngdoh; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    A new species of lygosomatine scincid lizard is described from the sacred forests of Mawphlang, in Meghalaya, northeastern India. Sphenomorphus apalpebratus sp. nov. possesses a spectacle or brille, an unusual feature within the Scincidae, and a first for the paraphyletic genus Sphenomorphus. The new species is compared with other members of the genus to which it is here assigned, as well as to members of the lygosomatine genera Lipinia and Scincella from mainland India, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and southeast Asia, to which it also bears resemblance. The new taxon is diagnosable in exhibiting the following combination of characters: small body size (SVL to 42.0 mm); moveable eyelids absent; auricular opening scaleless, situated in a shallow depression; dorsal scales show a line of demarcation along posterior edge of ventral pes; midbody scale rows 27-28; longitudinal scale rows between parietals and base of tail 62-64; lamellae under toe IV 8-9; supraoculars five; supralabials 5-6; infralabials 4-5; subcaudals 92; and dorsum golden brown, except at dorsal margin of lateral line, which is lighter, with four faintly spotted lines, two along each side of vertebral row of scales, that extend to tail base. The new species differs from its congeners in the lack of moveable eyelids, a character shared with several distantly related scincid genera.

  15. Zn(II) and Cu(II) removal by Nostoc muscorum: a cyanobacterium isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Smita; Diengdoh, Omega L; Syiem, Mayashree B; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kiran, Mothe Gopi

    2015-03-01

    Nostoc muscorum was isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India, and its potential to remove Zn(II) and Cu(II) from media and the various biochemical alterations it undergoes during metal stress were studied. Metal uptake measured as a function of the ions removed by N. muscorum from media supplemented independently with 20 μmol/L ZnSO4 and CuSO4 established the ability of this cyanobacterium to remove 66% of Zn(2+) and 71% of Cu(2+) within 24 h of contact time. Metal binding on the cell surface was found to be the primary mode of uptake, followed by internalization. Within 7 days of contact, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) mediated dissimilar effects on the organism. For instance, although chlorophyll a synthesis was increased by 12% in Zn(2+)-treated cells, it was reduced by 26% in Cu(2+)-treated cells. Total protein content remained unaltered in Zn(2+)-supplemented medium; however, a 15% reduction was noticed upon Cu(2+) exposure. Copper enhanced both photosynthesis and respiration by 15% and 19%, respectively; in contrast, photosynthesis was unchanged and respiration dropped by 11% upon Zn(2+) treatment. Inoculum age also influenced metal removal ability. Experiments in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (a photosynthetic inhibitor), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (an uncoupler), and exogenous ATP established that metal uptake was energy dependent, and photosynthesis contributed significantly towards the energy pool required to mediate metal removals.

  16. Interpolation study on ambient gamma levels in parts of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya (India): Preliminary findings for U exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukreti, B. M.; Sharma, G. K.; Kumar, Pramod; Hamilton, Sandeep

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses an experimental approach to examine uranium exploration avenue over the geologically extended parts of Mahadek basin in Meghalaya, amid some of the environmental constraints. Study comprises periodic measurements of prevailing ambient gamma levels across 320 georeference points, in relation to the major litho units of Mahadek basin, covering 673 line km of Khasi Hills. Acquired sample data points were then analysed in geostatistical software (SurferTM) to develop analytical model of sample variogram having bearing on the uranium exploration in the area. Study findings have given encouraging surface indicators with mostly elevated gamma levels over the parts of West Khasi Hills. Delineated gamma anomalous zones are lithologically well correlated including to that of existing uranium occurrences in the basin. Identified anomalous zones over the parts of West Khasi Hills by this study work, are mainly associated with the Mahadek sandstone (Upper and Lower Mahadek) and Precambrian basement granites. Lower Mahadek sandstone is host rock for uranium mineralisation in the basin. Initial findings suggest with the closer spatial resolution (˜1 km) of sample data points, the approach adopted by the study work holds promising application in locating potential uranium exploration targets especially to the extended and inaccessible parts of the basin.

  17. Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria that promote growth of ethnomedicinal plants in the subtropical forests of Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Nongkhlaw, Fenella Mary War; Joshi, S R

    2014-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the endophytic and epiphytic bacteria associated with selected ethnomedicinal plants from the pristine subtropical forests of Meghalaya and analyse them for plant growth promotion and antagonistic ability. This study is an attempt to explore plant associated bacteria which are beneficial to host plants, and thus aid in the conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of the studied subtropical forests, which are dwindling due to exploitation. The plant growth promotion parameters like indole acetic acid (IAA) production, mineral phosphate solubilisation, acid phosphatase activity, presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (ACC) gene, nitrogen fixation, cellulose digestion, chitin and pectin degrada- tion were screened among the isolates. The study revealed significant differences in bacterial population not only between the epiphytic and endophytic microhabitats, but also amongst the host plants. Out of the 70 isolated plant associated bacteria, Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea sp., and Lysinibacillus sp. showed potent plant growth promotion properties. Bacillus siamensis C53 and B. subtilis cenB showed significant antagonistic activity against the tested pathogens. This study indicated the isolates inhabiting the plants prevalent in the subtropical sacred forests could be explored for use as plant growth promoters while practising the cultiva- tion and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants.

  18. 210-Polonium studies in some environmental and biological matrices of Domiasiat uranium deposit area, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Marbaniang, Deswyn G; Poddar, Raj K; Nongkynrih, Phlis; Khathing, Darlando T

    2010-03-01

    The study was performed using a silicon surface barrier alpha spectrometer at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Through the study, the observed (210)Po activity in water sample from different locations in the Domiasiat area ranges from 0.04 to 0.69 Bq/l. The daily and annual intake of (210)Po through water was also estimated and the mean value of 0.72 and 263.61 Bq, respectively, were observed. It is observed that the effective doses through water were higher than the World Health Organization recommended dose of 0.05 mSv/year. The total annual effective doses through terrestrial ingestion for all the locations was studied and the mean annual effective dose was observed to be 0.315 mSv, which, when compared to the worldwide and the Indian values, was observed to be slightly higher. The mean activity in soil is found to be 124.8 +/-5.7 Bq/kg and in meat the activity is 0.43 +/-0.05 Bq/kg. In fishes, an activity of 0.48 +/-0.07 Bq/kg in Garra lamta, 0.29 +/-0.02 Bq/kg in Neolissocheilus hexaganolepis, and 3.3 +/-0.1 Bq/kg in Macrobrachium sp. is observed. Activity concentration in plant samples was analyzed and the activity ranges from 0.020 +/-0.002 to 9.69 +/-0.35 Bq/kg. Committed effective dose by the adult population of the Domiasiat area through intake of (210)Po through these food items was also determined and compared with the Indian average value and the worldwide average value.

  19. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  20. Dimension and Socio-demographic Correlates of Domestic Violence: A study from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Borah, Prasanta Kr; Kundu, Azad S; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2017-02-11

    Present study was aimed to find out dimension and socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence in Assam, Sikkim and Meghalaya, Northeast India. Two districts from each state were selected at random and women aged 18-35 years from rural and urban localities were interviewed to obtain relevant information. The study included a total of 2249 participants (Rural = 1577 and Urban = 672) from Assam (650), Sikkim (1148) and Meghalaya (451). Domestic violence was recorded in 26.4% of study participants and highest in Meghalaya. Of all types, psychological violence was predominant. A number of socio-demographic factors have been identified as independent predictors for domestic violence in pooled and state specific analysis. Findings of our study may help in formulating strategies to prevent domestic violence.

  1. Peer review among district health officers in Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, V

    1989-09-01

    A management information system in Maharashtra State, India, was used to obtain primary health care performance data for review at monthly meetings of peers, including District Health Officers, Auxiliary Nurse Midwives and Multipurpose Workers. The meetings were conducted in a problem solving, educational atmosphere. The effect of this process was marked improvement in health worker motivation and performance.

  2. Folk Medicine of Nasik District (Maharashtra), India

    PubMed Central

    Patil, M.V.; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The study concerns the first -hand information on 50 ethnomedicinal plants traditional used by aborigines and rural folks of Nasik district, Maharashtra, for the treatment of various human ailments and disorders. The paper gives botanical identity, local name, family and mode of administration. PMID:22557009

  3. Cyanobacteria in wetlands of the industrialized Sambalpur District of India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyanobacteria are common components of phytoplankton communities in most freshwater ecosystems. Proliferations of cyanobacteria are often caused by high nutrient loading, and as such can serve as indicators of declining water quality. Massive industrialization in developing countries, like India, has polluted fresh water bodies, including wetlands. Many industries directly discard their effluents to nearby water sources without treatment. In the Sambalpur District of India effluents reach the reservoir of the worlds largest earthen dam i.e Hirakud Dam. This study examines cyanobacteria communities in the wetlands of Sambalpur District, Odisha, India, including areas subjected to industrial pollution. Result & Discussion The genera Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium were dominant genera of polluted wetlands of Sambalpur districts. A positive correlation was found between total cyanobacterial species and dissolved oxygen levels, but cyanobacterial diversity was inversely related to BOD, COD, TSS, and TDS. High dissolved oxygen content was also associated with regions of lower cyanobacteria biomass. Conclusion Cyanobacterial abundance was positively correlated to content of oxidisable organic matter, but negatively correlated to species diversity. Lower dissolved oxygen was correlated to decreased diversity and increased dominance by Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Chroococcus, Phormidium species, observed in regions characterized by deteriorated water quality. PMID:23845058

  4. A Synoptic Account of Flora of Solapur District, Maharashtra (India)

    PubMed Central

    Garad, Krushnadeoray U.; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinum solapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district. PMID:25632259

  5. Epidemiology of Malaria in Amritsar District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal; Mittal, Mridula; Sharma, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Objective Malaria is today one of the major causes of human suffering, both in terms of increasing morbidity/mortality and stunting intellectual/ economic growth. In a developing country like India, it has devastating socioeconomic consequences. The present study was therefore carried out to study the epidemiology of malaria in Amritsar district. Methods Diagnosed cases of Malaria reported from 1st January to 31st December 2009 in the erstwhile District of Amritsar were collected from the District Epidemiologist of Amritsar and Taran Taaran and studied. A total of 314 patients were studied. Data was assessed, systematically compiled and statistically analyzed. Results Most (84%) of the malaria patients in our study were less than 45 years of age. Male patients (57%) outnumbered females (43%). The majority of patients with malaria (98%) were from rural areas and 68.5% of the studied patients belonged to upper lower socioeconomical class according to Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale. The majority (83%) of patients took treatment from Registered Medical Practitioners/quacks. Out of the total patients, only 14% used mosquito nets, 13% used repellents, and 7% had wire gauze doors in their homes Conclusion The people living in rural areas were found to be more vulnerable to malaria. The disease was found to be more prevalent among the lower socio economic strata and young population leading to considerable adverse effect on health and economy. Our study aims to stress the estimation of the true burden of malaria. PMID:24715945

  6. Fertility transition and adverse child sex ratio in districts of India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Rajbhar, Mamta

    2014-11-01

    Demographic research in India over the last two decades has focused extensively on fertility change and gender bias at the micro-level, and less has been done at the district level. Using data from the Census of India 1991-2011 and other sources, this paper shows the broad pattern of fertility transition and trends in the child sex ratio in India, and examines the determinants of the child sex ratio at the district level. During 1991-2011, while the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) declined by 1.2 children per woman, the child sex ratio fell by 30 points in the districts of India. However, the reduction in fertility was slower in the high-fertility compared with the low-fertility districts. The gender differential in under-five mortality increased in many districts of India over the study period. The decline in the child sex ratio was higher in the transitional compared with the low-fertility districts. The transitional districts are at higher risk of a low child sex ratio due to an increased gender differential in mortality and increase in the practice of sex-selective abortions. The sex ratio at birth and gender differential in mortality explains one-third of the variation, while region alone explains a quarter of the variation in the child sex ratio in the districts of India.

  7. Traditional herbal remedies in Buldhana District (Maharashtra, India)

    PubMed Central

    Ahirrao, Ya; Patil, PS; Aher, UP; Dusing, YA; Patil, DA

    2009-01-01

    The paper documents traditional herbal remedies from buldhana district of Maharashtra (India). The plant parts most commonly used are bark, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds, apart from plant products like latex and gum. The medicaments include recipes like decoction, infusion, paste, ash, extract juice, besides gum and latex. There are mainly used afresh. Occasionally, these are supplemented by domestic edible substances of plant-origin. The reliance on herbal medicines for healthcare is associated with traditional belief of effectiveness as well as poor economic status. Role of homestead gardens in native phytotherapy is being focused for the first time from this region. The first-hand information adduced is desired to divulge new lead molecules or will add new sources of herbal medicine. PMID:22557332

  8. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 μSv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure.

  9. Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

    2012-01-01

    Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels…

  10. Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which most studies of child mortality rely, rarely include variables that measure these factors. This paper introduces these variables into an analysis of 284 districts from nine high focus states in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on the mortality indicator was accessed from the recently conducted Annual Health Survey of 2011 and other socioeconomic and geographic variables from Census 2011, District Level Household and Facility Survey (2007–08), Department of Economics and Statistics Divisions of the concerned states. Displaying high spatial dependence (spatial autocorrelation) in the mortality indicator (outcome variable) and its possible predictors used in the analysis, the paper uses the Spatial-Error Model in an effort to negate or reduce the spatial dependence in model parameters. The results evince that the coverage gap index (a mixed indicator of district wise coverage of reproductive and child health services), female literacy, urbanization, economic status, the number of newborn care provided in Primary Health Centers in the district transpired as significant correlates of under-five mortality in the nine high focus states in India. The study identifies three clusters with high under-five mortality rate including 30 districts, and advocates urgent attention. Conclusion Even after controlling the possible biophysical and geographical variables, the study reveals that the health program initiatives have a major role to play in reducing under-five mortality rate in the high focus states in India

  11. Assessment of soil and ground water quality in rewa district of Vindhyan Plateau (India).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, A P; Tripathi, I P; Kumar, M Suresh

    2013-01-01

    A systematic seasonal study has been carried out to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of ground water and soils in Rewa district of India. The drinking water in the study area is supplied mainly through Public Health Engineering (PHE) department from river (Bichhia, Bihar) and ground water. Water and soil samples were collected from different locations in the Rewa district, i.e. 10 hand pumps and 10 bore wells around all over the district. Regular monitoring was carried out during summer, rainy and winter seasons, to study the seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters and metals concentration. The parameters like pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulphate, phosphate and heavy metals were estimated for water and soil samples collected from the Rewa district. The results obtained are discussed, correlated with probable sources of contamination and suggested the measures to minimize the pollution.

  12. Assessment of soil and ground water quality in Rewa district of Vindhyan Plateau (India).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, A P; Tripathi, I P; Kumar, M Suresh

    2013-01-01

    A systematic seasonal study has been carried out to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of ground water and soils in Rewa district of India. The drinking water in the study area is supplied mainly through Public Health Engineering (PHE) department from river (Bichhia, Bihar) and ground water. Water and soil samples were collected from different locations in the Rewa district, i.e. 10 hand pumps and 10 bore wells around all over the district. Regular monitoring was carried out during summer, rainy and winter seasons, to study the seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters and metals concentration. The parameters like pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulphate, phosphate and heavy metals were estimated for water and soil samples collected from the Rewa district. The results obtained are discussed, correlated with probable sources of contamination and suggested the measures to minimize the pollution.

  13. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future.

  14. Selenium status in food grains of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Sharma, Anita; Singh, Devender

    2008-09-01

    The selenium status in the food grains of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India was estimated by using the HG-AAS technique. The areas where lesser rains were received or less irrigation water was available in northern Indian states viz. Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana had higher selenium levels in food grains. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their food grains, except for slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna.

  15. Selenium status in soils of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Han, Sang-Do

    2005-04-01

    The HG-AAS technique was used to estimate the soil selenium status of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India. The drier lands where lesser rains were received or where less irrigation water was available in Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana states had above normal soil selenium levels. These soils were also found to be alkaline. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their soils, except with slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. The results were also confirmed using the ICP-OES technique.

  16. Fluorine distribution in waters of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamohana Rao, N. V.; Rao, N.; Surya Prakash Rao, K.; Schuiling, R. D.

    1993-04-01

    Geochemical and hydrochemical studies were conducted in Nalgonda District (A.P.), to explore the causes of high fluorine in waters, causing a widespread incidence of fluorosis in the local population. Samples of granitic rocks, soils, stream sediments, and waters were analyzed for F and other salient chemical parameters. Samples from the area of Hyderabad city were analyzed for comparison. The F content of waters in areas with endemic fluorosis ranges from 0.4 to 20 mg/l. The low calcium content of rocks and soils, and the presence of high levels of sodium bicarbonate in soils and waters are important factors favoring high levels of F in waters.

  17. Kala-azar epidemic in Varanasi district, India.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.; Kumar, P.; Chowdhary, R. K.; Pai, K.; Mishra, C. P.; Kumar, K.; Pandey, H. P.; Singh, V. P.; Sundar, S.

    1999-01-01

    Reports at the Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, of a large number of kala-azar cases from one particular village in Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the situation using standard techniques. The overall prevalence and case fatality of the disease were 12.9% and 10.5%, respectively. A history of fever and hepatosplenomegaly was noted for all the cases. The case definition was the presence of parasites in bone marrow or splenic aspirate smears. The disease was more prevalent among adults, but occurred also among children. However, there was no clear linear relationship between the prevalence of the disease and age group. Kala-azar occurred among males and females, and its prevalence did not correlate significantly with income. Since the disease vector continues to be present in the study area, the health authorities should take strong steps to control the disease. PMID:10361752

  18. Mapping of Malaria Vectors at District Level in India: Changing Scenario and Identified Gaps.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam; Lingala, Mercy Aparna L; Sarkar, Soma; Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2017-02-01

    Malaria is one of the six major vector-borne diseases in India, the endemicity of which changes with changes in ecological, climatic, and sociodevelopmental conditions. The anopheline vectors are greatly affected by ecological conditions such as deforestation, urbanization, climate and lifestyle. Despite the advent of tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS), the updated information on the distribution of anopheline vectors of malaria is not available. In India, the plan for vector control is organized at subcentral level but information about vectors is unavailable even at the district level. Therefore, a systematic presentation of vector distribution has been made to provide maps in respect of major vector species. A search of the literature for major vector species, that is, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles minimus, and Anopheles dirus sensu lato, since 1927 till 2015 was carried out. Data have been presented as present, absent, and no information about vector species during pre-eradication (1927-1958), posteradication (1959-1999), and current scenario (2000-2015). Vectors' distribution and malaria endemicity were mapped using Arc GIS. Of 630 districts of India, major vectors An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. stephensi were present in 420, 241, and 243 districts, respectively. In 183 districts, there is no information on any major malaria vector species although 27 of them from the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur, and Mizoram are highly endemic for malaria, having incidences of 2-40 cases/1000/year. The identified gaps in vector distribution, particularly in malaria endemic areas, necessitate further surveys so as to generate the missing information.

  19. Geochemical and statistical evaluation of groundwater in Imphal and Thoubal district of Manipur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinam, Jayalakshmi Devi; Ramanathan, AL.; Singh, Gurmeet

    2012-04-01

    In order to identify the hydrogeochemical process controlling the quality of groundwater, an extensive study was carried out in Imphal and Thoubal district of Manipur, India. The objectives of the studies were to delineate the spatial and temporal variability in groundwater quality and understand its suitability for human uses. In the study area groundwater samples from 45 location have been collected during the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for the major ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43-, F-, Fe and silica. The water quality of both districts was good for domestic and agricultural uses except for few samples. These saline samples were localized and were due to the inherent lithology of the study area. Three major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO3 type, mixed Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types in Imphal district and Ca-HCO3, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Ca-Cl type in Thoubal district) were identified. The mineral stability diagrams indicated that the groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite and Ca-montmorillonite whereas Gibbs plot showed that the chemical composition of ground water in both districts is controlled by the natural weathering processes irrespective of seasons. Among the chemical weathering processes, silicate weathering was dominant. The results were supported by Wilcox plot and USSL diagrams. The study reflected the overall suitability of groundwater for anthropogenic use.

  20. Recent Outbreaks of Diphtheria in Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Patgiri, Saurav Jyoti; Saikia, Lahari; Paul, Debosmita

    2016-01-01

    Diphtheria is still a significant child health problem in countries with low immunization coverage. Reports of diphtheria in adult population are also increasing. Here we describe three recent outbreaks of diphtheria in Dibrugarh district, Assam in two consecutive years. The study was undertaken in Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh after the diagnosis of two Diphtheria cases in the month of September and October 2015 and another in January 2016. Outbreak investigation was done after defining operational definition and throat swabs were collected from thirty three (33) individuals including three (3) index cases and thirty (30) close contacts. Diagnosis was done by clinical findings, direct microscopy, bacteriological culture and in-house designed multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the isolates for the expression of Corynebacterium diphtheriae specific rpoB gene and tox gene. Out of the 10 confirmed cases, 2 and 7 were in the first two outbreaks while only one in the third outbreak respectively. All the cases were of age > 10 years, unimmunized or partially immunized. The overall mortality was 20%. PCR results revealed all the culture positive isolates to be tox gene positive. Diphtheria is a resurgent problem in our region with a significant age shift towards adult. PMID:27630847

  1. Matching services with local preferences: managing primary education services in a rural district of India.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanian, R

    1999-02-01

    India's poorest households have particularly little access to education. Urgent reforms are therefore needed to improve the universal availability of quality basic services and universal access to those services. At least 32 million children in India are estimated to not be enrolled and attending school. These children must be brought into schools in order to meet the goal of Universal Elementary Education (UEE). Widespread support exists for the decentralization of public services due to the equity and efficiency benefits associated with it. In particular, decentralization is seen to facilitate the matching of services with local preferences, increasing the chances of meeting policy goals. This approach is explored in the context of research conducted in a village of Raichur district, where poor households' preferences with regard to school timing are analyzed. Sections consider the equity and efficiency merits of decentralization, the agenda for improving education service delivery in India, users' relationship to the education system in Raichur district, how preferences are revealed, whose preferences are important in the conflict between local and policy perspectives, preference heterogeneity in the village context, and whether aspects of education services can be selectively decentralized.

  2. Disseminated giant porokeratosis and porokeratosis of Mibelli in Bankura and Bardhaman districts, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sankha; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Bar, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-01

    Porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM) is a rare genodermatosis. It is caused by proliferation of abnormal clones of epidermal cells in response to several stimuli, the most important of which is sunlight. Giant porokeratosis is thought to be a variant of PM. We report two cases of disseminated PM and one case of disseminated giant porokeratosis from the Bankura and Bardhaman districts of West Bengal in India; presenting to a single observer in the summer of 2012. Interestingly we have noted that the majority of cases of porokeratosis in India have been reported from West Bengal. Few patients with a single lesion of giant porokeratosis have been reported in world literature. As far as we know, this is the first case report of disseminated giant porokeratosis in world literature.

  3. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    PubMed

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  4. Spiralothelphusa gibberosa, a new freshwater crab (Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from Thrissur district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Pati, S K; Devi, A R Sudha

    2015-05-27

    A new species of freshwater crab, Spiralothelphusa gibberosa n. sp. is described from rice fields near Kizhoor in Thrissur district of Kerala in southern India. The new species is easily differentiated from its congeners by its first male pleopod (G1), which has a long, less strongly twisted terminal segment and distal portion of subterminal segment in addition to a setose hump on the outer margin of the non-twisted portion. Key to the species of the genus Spiralothelphusa Bott, 1968, is provided. We recognized S. wuellerstorfi (Heller, 1862), as a new record to Maharashtra based on specimens wrongly identified as S. hydrodroma (Herbst, 1794), by Pati & Sharma (2014).

  5. Relationship between household literacy and educational engagement: Analysis of data from Rajkot district, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

    2012-02-01

    Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels and the household's engagement in the education of its child members. The findings on educational engagement were also compared across households with different wealth and income levels. Uniformly, indicators of household literacy levels were found to be more important in understanding a household's educational engagement than a household's wealth and income levels.

  6. A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people. PMID:24093789

  7. Assessment of hand pump waters in three tribal dominated districts of southern Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B K; Sharma, L L; Durve, V S

    2008-04-01

    Udaipur, Banswara and Dungarpur districts of southern Rajasthan (India) have dominance of tribal population. In these districts besides other water resources, hand pumps are catering the need for drinking water. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of chemical and bacteriological status for comparing the water quality with the prevailing standards. 18 hand pumps were studied for selected water quality parameters such as, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, NO3 -N, EC, orthophosphate, TDS, TSS, BOD, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, following the standard methods. The data on chemical parameters revealed that in all 18 hand pumps the water quality was within the permissible level of WHO. However, in eight hand pumps the faecal coliforms were higher (2-6 MPN/100 mL) than the permissible limit which confirm organic contamination in these drinking water resources. On the basis of this study, suitable remedial measures for protection of water quality have been suggested.

  8. Chronic kidney disease in two coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, India: role of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D V; Gunasekar, A

    2013-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported in a few coastal regions of Srikakulam district and Chimakurthy mandal (~30-40 km away from the coast) in the Prakasham district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Some medical experts and the local population have apprehensions that the drinking water is the sole reason for this disease in these areas. As the source of drinking water for these two regions is only groundwater, major ions and trace elements were measured on waters from different sources to identify the causative element(s), if any. Comparison of hydrochemical data of both the areas indicates that groundwater in Srikakulam coastal region is less mineralized than that of the Prakasham region, which may be due to geological, hydrological and climatic reasons. However, the concentrations of various inorganic chemicals are within the permissible limits of drinking water. Hence, for the inorganic chemicals to cause ill health, including CKD, is unlikely or is ruled out in the study areas.

  9. Osteo-dental fluorosis in relation to age and sex in tribal districts of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L; Choubisa, Leela; Choubisa, Darshana

    2010-07-01

    An association between the incidence of osteo-dental fluorosis with age and sex was studied in 18621 residents of 73 villages of two tribal districts, Dungarpur and Udaipur of Rajasthan (India). The mean fluoride (F) concentration in drinking water sources of these villages varied from 1.0 to 6.1 mg/L. Out of 11205 individuals of Dungarpur and 7416 of Udaipur districts, 8090 (72.1%) and 2914 (39.2%) exhibited evidence of dental fluorosis respectively. The maximum incidence of dental fluorosis was encountered in the age group of 13-20 years and minimum in the age group of 5 to 12 years in both the districts. Regarding the incidence of skeletal fluorosis, 21 years of age revealed 27.6% in Dungarpur and 12.0% in Udaipur. Whereas 44 years showed maximum incidence of skeletal fluorosis, its minimum incidence was found in the age group of 21-28 years. Severity of fluorosis could be associated with the advancing of age and F concentration. Moreover, males showed relatively a higher incidence of dental and skeletal fluorosis compared to their counterparts. Chi square test revealed the association between the incidence of fluorosis with that of age and sex was non-significant except for dental fluorosis in Dungarpur district (p < 0.05). Those villages having almost same F level, showed a variable incidence of fluorosis because of frequency of F intake and duration of F exposure besides other determinants.

  10. Major Sites of Cancer Occurrence Among Men and Women in Gandhinagar District, India

    PubMed Central

    Jivarajani, Parimal J.; Patel, Himanshu V.; Mecwan, Rupal R.; Solanki, Jayesh B.; Pandya, Vishruti B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examines major cancer sites among the population of Gandhinagar district, India during the year 2009-2011. Objective: To study leading cancer incidents and mortality and their age distribution in both sexes in Gandhinagar district. Materials and Methods: Primary data were collected from various sources and entered in computer and analyzed. Quality checks were done, and duplicate cases were eliminated. For mortality data, death registration units were contacted. Results: Total 2360 incident cases (1374 males and 986 females) and 736 mortality cases (464 males and 272 females) were recorded during the year 2009-2011 in Gandhinagar district. Among males, the leadings sites were mouth, tongue, lung, esophagus, hypopharynx, and larynx, whereas in females they were breast, cervix, ovary, mouth, tongue and myeloid leukemia. Majority of cases were found in the age group of 35-64 years and the proportion in male and female in this age group was 62.51% and 71.05%, respectively. Conclusion: The study helps to understand the possible cancer patterns in Gandhinagar district. Foremost causes of cancer in leading sites in males were tobacco related, and the proportion of cancers associated with tobacco was 53% in our study. It highlights the possibility of easy and early detection of cancers, especially by oral cancer screening in the population. Further, the findings highlight the need of cancer cervix and breast screening among the women at regular intervals through camp approach in the community, as these are the most common sites (40% of female cancers). PMID:25657514

  11. A study of nine anthroposcopic traits among the three tribes of the Bastar District in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Datta, U; Mitra, M; Singhrol, C S

    1989-03-01

    Nine anthroposcopic traits, namely palmar and plantar digital formulae, hand-clasping, armfolding, handedness, tongue rolling and folding, ear lobe attachment and legfolding have been studied in the three tribal populations--Murias, Bisonhorn Marias and Halbas--from the Bastar District in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). An attempt has been made to compare the results of the present study with other population groups of Central India.

  12. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Women’s Infertility and Treatment Seeking Behavior in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is an emergent issue in India. Until recently, very few studies have understood the patterns and consequences of infertility in India. Family planning programs in India also viewed exclusively the patterns and determinants of overfertility rather than infertility. Furthermore, there is the lack of information about treatment seeking behavior of infertile couples. Therefore, this paper aimed to examine the extent of infertility and treatment seeking behavior among infertile women in India. An attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic factors on treatment seeking behavior. Methods: The study used the data from the District Level Household and Facility Survey carried out in India during 2007–08. Several statistical techniques such as chi-square test, proportional hazard model and binary logistic regression model were used for the analysis. Results: Approximately, 8% of currently married women suffered from infertility in India and most of them were secondary infertile (5.8%). Within India, women’s infertility rate was the highest in west Bengal (13.9 percent) and the lowest in Meghalaya (2.5 percent). About 80% of infertile women sought treatment but a substantial proportion (33%) received non-allopathic and traditional treatment due to expensive modern treatment and lack of awareness. Conclusion: In the context of policy response, it can be said that there is a need to improve the existing services and quality of care for infertile women. Treatment for infertility should be integrated into the larger reproductive health packages. PMID:27141468

  13. Availability and use of emergency obstetric care services in four districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Das, Dilip Kumar; Misra, Raghunath; Roy, Rabindra Nath; Ghosh, Debdatta; Mitra, Kaninika

    2005-09-01

    Process indicators have been recommended for monitoring the availability and use of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services. A health facility-based study was carried out in 2002 in four districts of West Bengal, India, to analyze these process indicators. Relevant records and registers for 2001 of all studied facilities in the districts were reviewed to collect data using a pre-designed schedule. The numbers of basic and comprehensive EmOC facilities were inadequate in all the four districts compared to the minimum acceptable level. Overall, 26.2% of estimated annual births took place in the EmOC facilities (ranged from 16.2% to 45.8% in 4 districts) against the required minimum of 15%. The rate of caesarean section calculated for all expected births in the population varied from 3.5% to 4.4% in the four districts with an overall rate of 4%, which is less than the minimum target of 5%. Only 29.9% of the estimated number of complications (which is 15% of all births) was managed in the EmOC facilities. The combined case-fatality rate in the basic/comprehensive EmOC facilities was 1.7%. Major obstetric complications contributed to 85.7% of maternal deaths, and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia was the most common cause. It can be concluded that all the process indicators, except proportion of deliveries in the EmOC facilities, were below the acceptable level. Certain priority measures, such as making facilities fully functional, effective referral and monitoring system, skill-based training, etc., are to be emphasized to improve the situation.

  14. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Aim The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. Materials and methods The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean’s index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p < 0.05). Bivariate analysis was performed to identify significant risk factors that affected prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) on χ2 were entered into multiple logistic regressions to assess their independent effects. Results In this study, we analyzed risk factors for both prevalence and severity of fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Conclusion Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. How to cite this article Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District

  15. Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India

    PubMed Central

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons. PMID:24396770

  16. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  17. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth: a multilevel study in three districts of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Mariano; Vora, Kranti; Costa, Ayesha De

    2016-01-01

    Background Bypassing available facilities for childbirth has important implications for maternal health service delivery and human resources within a health system. The results are the additional expenses imposed on the woman and her family, as well as the inefficient use of health system resources. Bypassing often indicates a lack of confidence in the care provided by the facility nearest to the mother, which implies a level of dysfunctionality that the health system needs to address. Over the past decade, India has experienced a steep rise in the proportion of facility births. The initiation of programs promoting facility births resulted in a rise from 39% in 2005 to 85% in 2014. There have been no reports on bypassing facilities for childbirth from India. In the context of steeply rising facility births, it is important to quantify the occurrence of and study the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and facility functionality to bypassing. Objectives 1) To determine the extent of bypassing health facilities for childbirth among rural mothers in three districts of Gujarat, India, 2) to identify associations between the functionality of an obstetric care (OC) facility and it being bypassed, and 3) to assess the relative contribution of maternal and facility characteristics to bypassing. Design A cross-sectional survey of 166 public and private OC facilities reporting ≥30 births in the 3 months before the survey was conducted in three purposively selected districts (Dahod, Sabarkantha, and Surendranagar) in the state of Gujarat, India. Besides information on each facility, data from 946 women giving birth at these facilities were also gathered. Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Results Off all mothers, 37.7% bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth. After adjusting for maternal characteristics, for every one-unit increase in the facility's emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions, the odds

  18. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth: a multilevel study in three districts of Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Mariano; Vora, Kranti; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Background Bypassing available facilities for childbirth has important implications for maternal health service delivery and human resources within a health system. The results are the additional expenses imposed on the woman and her family, as well as the inefficient use of health system resources. Bypassing often indicates a lack of confidence in the care provided by the facility nearest to the mother, which implies a level of dysfunctionality that the health system needs to address. Over the past decade, India has experienced a steep rise in the proportion of facility births. The initiation of programs promoting facility births resulted in a rise from 39% in 2005 to 85% in 2014. There have been no reports on bypassing facilities for childbirth from India. In the context of steeply rising facility births, it is important to quantify the occurrence of and study the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and facility functionality to bypassing. Objectives 1) To determine the extent of bypassing health facilities for childbirth among rural mothers in three districts of Gujarat, India, 2) to identify associations between the functionality of an obstetric care (OC) facility and it being bypassed, and 3) to assess the relative contribution of maternal and facility characteristics to bypassing. Design A cross-sectional survey of 166 public and private OC facilities reporting ≥30 births in the 3 months before the survey was conducted in three purposively selected districts (Dahod, Sabarkantha, and Surendranagar) in the state of Gujarat, India. Besides information on each facility, data from 946 women giving birth at these facilities were also gathered. Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Results Off all mothers, 37.7% bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth. After adjusting for maternal characteristics, for every one-unit increase in the facility's emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions, the odds

  19. Cattle mortality in the Thane district, India: a study of cause/effect relationships.

    PubMed

    Dogra, R K; Murthy, R C; Srivastava, A K; Gaur, J S; Shukla, L J; Varmani, B M

    1996-02-01

    An unexpected mortality of more than 300 cattle was investigated near a metal recovery factory located in a rural area of the Thane district of India. The factory was engaged in reclaiming lead, aluminum, tin, and zinc from discarded lead storage batteries and soft drink cans. The environmental samples (soil, leaves, grass, slag, water, and sediment), human blood and hair and animal samples (blood, urine, peritoneal fluid, liver, kidney, cow dung, ribs, and femur), collected for analysis revealed toxic levels of lead, cadmium, and chromium. Clinical examination of factory workers and school children revealed cough, fever, gastric problems, abdominal pain, skin lesions (scabies), and blue line on gums. Histopathological examination of animal tissues revealed chronic pathology with lead inclusion bodies in hepatocytes and renal tubules. Based on environmental, clinical, analytical, and histopathological observations, the mortality has been attributed to toxic levels of metals in the body and the malnourished status of the animals.

  20. Dynamics of Forest Malaria Transmission in Balaghat District, Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeru; Chand, Sunil K.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Chand, Gyan; Mishra, Ashok K.; Shukla, Man M.; Mahulia, Man M.; Sharma, Ravendra K.

    2013-01-01

    Background An epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India to understand the dynamics of forest malaria transmission in a difficult and hard to reach area where indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets were used for vector control. Methods This community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2012 in Baihar and Birsa Community Health Centres of district Balaghat for screening malaria cases. Entomological surveillance included indoor resting collections, pyrethrum spray catches and light trap catches. Anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein. Findings Plasmodium falciparum infection accounted for >80% of all infections. P. vivax 16.5%, P. malariae 0.75% and remaining were mixed infections of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. More than, 30% infections were found in infants under 6 months of age. Overall, an increasing trend in malaria positivity was observed from 2010 to 2012 (chi-square for trend  =  663.55; P<0.0001). Twenty five Anopheles culicifacies (sibling species C, D and E) were positive for circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum (44%) and P. vivax (56%). Additionally, 2 An. fluviatilis, were found positive for P. falciparum and 1 for P. vivax (sibling species S and T). An. fluviatilis sibling species T was found as vector in forest villages for the first time in India. Conclusion These results showed that the study villages are experiencing almost perennial malaria transmission inspite of indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Therefore, there is a need for new indoor residual insecticides which has longer residual life or complete coverage of population with long lasting insecticide treated nets or both indoor residual spray and long lasting bed nets for effective vector control. There is a need to undertake a well designed case control study to evaluate the efficacy of these

  1. Prevalence & factors associated with chronic obstetric morbidities in Nashik district, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Agarwal, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: In India, community based data on chronic obstetric morbidities (COM) are scanty and largely derived from hospital records. The main aim of the study was to assess the community based prevalence and the factors associated with the defined COM - obstetric fistula, genital prolapse, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and secondary infertility among women in Nashik district of Maharashtra State, India. Methods: The study was cross-sectional with self-reports followed by clinical and gynaecological examination. Six primary health centre areas in Nashik district were selected by systematic random sampling. Six months were spent on rapport development with the community following which household interviews were conducted among 1560 women and they were mobilized to attend health facility for clinical examination. Results: Of the 1560 women interviewed at household level, 1167 women volunteered to undergo clinical examination giving a response rate of 75 per cent. The prevalence of defined COM among 1167 women was genital prolapse (7.1%), chronic PID (2.5%), secondary infertility (1.7%) and fistula (0.08%). Advancing age, illiteracy, high parity, conduction of deliveries by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and obesity were significantly associated with the occurrence of genital prolapse. History of at least one abortion was significantly associated with secondary infertility. Chronic PID had no significant association with any of the socio-demographic or obstetric factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings provided an insight in the magnitude of community-based prevalence of COM and the factors associated with it. The results showed that COM were prevalent among women which could be addressed by interventions at personal, social and health services delivery level. PMID:26609041

  2. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

    2013-05-01

    Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

  3. Hepatitis E virus: A leading cause of waterborne viral hepatitis in Northwest Districts of Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Maninder; Sidhu, Shailpreet K.; Singh, Kanwardeep; Devi, Pushpa; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Nachhatar Jit

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) caused by enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) poses a major health problem in developing countries such as India. Despite improving sanitation, heath awareness, and socioeconomic conditions, these infections continue to occur both in sporadic as well as in epidemic forms in different parts of India. AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the total as well as age-specific prevalence rates of HAV and HEV in the outbreaks of waterborne hepatitis in districts surrounding Amritsar region of Punjab. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the Virology Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Government Medical College, Amritsar, during the study period of January 2015–March 2016. Samples from suspected outbreaks of AVH occurring in various districts around Amritsar were included as a part of the study. A total of 95 sera were tested for IgM antibody to HEV and HAV using IgM capture ELISA kit. RESULTS: Out of the total 95 samples received, 73 samples (76.84%) were positive for HAV/HEV. Out of the total positive cases, 65 (68.42%) had HEV infection, 2 (2.1%) had HAV, and 6 cases (6.31%) were coinfected with both HAV and HEV. The 21–30 years age group (25 cases) was identified as the most susceptible group for HEV infection. The coinfected subjects presented a wider range of age distribution (1–10 years: 1; 11–20 years: 3; 21–30 years: 1; 31–40 years: 1). Seasonal distribution of data revealed bimodal peaks for HEV infection. CONCLUSION: There should be some surveillance system to regularly monitor the portability of drinking water from time to time to avoid such preventable outbreaks in future. PMID:28367028

  4. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in

  5. District-level variations in childhood immunizations in India: The role of socio-economic factors and health infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi

    2015-11-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against measles and DPT are part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) set up in 1974, with the aim of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, immunization rates are sub-optimal in developing countries such as India, with wide heterogeneity observed across districts and socio-economic characteristics. The aim of this paper is to examine district-level variations in the propensity to vaccinate a child in India for measles and DPT3, and analyse the extent to which these immunizations are given age-inappropriately, either prematurely or delayed. The present study uses data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3) collected in 2008, and the final sample contains detailed information on 42157 children aged between 12 and 60 months, across 549 Indian districts for whom we have complete information on immunization history. Our empirical study analyses: (i) the district-level average immunization rates for measles and DPT3, and (ii) the extent to which these immunizations have been given age-appropriately. A key contribution of this paper is that we link the household-level data at the district level to data on availability and proximity to health infrastructure and district-level socio-economic factors. Our results show that after controlling for an array of socio-economic characteristics, across all our models, the district's income per capita is a strong predictor of better immunization outcomes for children. Mother's education level at the district-level has a statistically significant and positive influence on immunization outcomes across all our models.

  6. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  7. Intention toward optimal breastfeeding among expecting mothers in Angul district of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Deepanjali; Pillai, Anil Kumar Kuttappan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the prenatal breastfeeding intention and its predictors in Odisha, a state in India. Data were collected from 218 rural pregnant women of Angul district of Odisha, India in 2012. About 33% of the women lacked the intention to exclusively breastfeed their babies for 6 months. Prelacteal feeding was intended by one-third of the women while 61.5% of the women intended to feed water during the first 6 months of birth. Women of an older age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.55], with more education (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08-1.32), belonging to lower castes [other backward caste (OBC)-OR = 21.33; 95% CI = 4.29-106.0, scheduled caste (SC)-OR = 22.77; 95% CI = 2.47-199.1, scheduled tribe (ST)-OR = 26.16; 95% CI = 4.10-174.8), and lesser number of living sons (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.22-0.94) were more likely to have a higher intention for optimal breastfeeding than those of a lower age, with less education, belonging to a higher caste, and with more number of living sons. Awareness generation programs need to be strengthened to educate pregnant women with appropriate and recommended breastfeeding guidelines to establish optimal breastfeeding practices.

  8. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development. PMID:25183132

  9. Radon levels in drinking water and soil samples of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sudhir; Rani, Asha; Mehra, Rohit

    2016-07-01

    Radon causes lung cancer when it is trapped inside the lungs. Therefore it is very important to analyze the radon concentration in water and soil samples. In the present investigation, water and soil samples collected from 20 different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India have been studied by using RAD7. The measured radon concentration in water samples varies from 0.5 to 15Bql(-1). The observed values lie within the safe limit as set by UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose due to radon in water corresponding to all studied locations has been found to be well within the safe limit of 0.1mSvy(-1) as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (EU, 1998). The measurements carried out on radon concentration in soil samples reveal a variation from 1750 to 9850Bqm(-3). These results explore that the water of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts is suitable for drinking purpose without posing any health hazard but soil hazards depend upon its permeability and radon concentration.

  10. Assessment of Groundwater quality in Krishnagiri and Vellore Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugasundharam, A.; Kalpana, G.; Mahapatra, S. R.; Sudharson, E. R.; Jayaprakash, M.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation has been assessed in north and eastern part of Krishnagiri district, South-western part of Vellore district and contiguous with Andhra Pradesh states, India. A total of 31 groundwater samples were collected in the study area. The groundwater quality assessment has been carried out by evaluating the physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, HCO3^{ - } , Cl-, SO4^{2 - } , Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+. The dominant cations are in the order of Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ while the dominant anions have the trends of Cl- > HCO3^{ - } > SO4^{2 - } > CO3. The quality of the water is evaluated using Wilcox diagram and the results reveals that most of the samples are found to be suitable for irrigation. Based on these parameters, groundwater has been assessed in favor of its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose.

  11. Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Chikungunya in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, SK; Kadri, SM; Venkatesh, Srinivas; Lal, S; Katyal, RK

    2007-01-01

    After about three decades, Chikungunya infection has re-emerged in India and the first cases were reported in December, 2005. The outbreak has currently affected about 8 states in the country. Although known to be commonly non fatal, since the present outbreak involved a large population, it has been raised as an issue of public health concern and also attracted wide media attention. The clinico-epidemiological and entomological review of the Chikungunya outbreak situation in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, which started in December 2005, revealed that it is under control. However, preventive efforts need to continue and disease surveillance for early detection of potential outbreaks further strengthening. Given the significantly high House Index, all the three study areas remain at significant risk of outbreaks in the future if appropriate control measures are not put in place. Community support and participation is also crucial for the prevention of future outbreaks and improving the health and well being of population in the districts. PMID:21475442

  12. Indigenous knowledge of zootherapeutic use among the Biate tribe of Dima Hasao District, Assam, Northeastern India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study addresses the use of zootherapy in the traditional healthcare system of the Biate tribe of Dima Hasao district, Assam, India. It sought to identify the different species used for zootherapeutic use with the detailed methods of usages to create awareness and contribute to the conservation and sustainable utilization of the resources. Method 15 Biate villages within the district of Dima Hasao were surveyed through semi-structured questionnaires and informal interviews. Detailed information on the uses of each animal was recorded. Species were identified using standard literature. Fidelity level (FL) was calculated to demonstrate the percentage of respondents claiming the use of a certain animal for the same major purposes. Result The study documents 34 species for the treatment of about 34 different ailments. The largest number of species reported was mammals with17 species. Maximum number of species has been reported for the treatment of diabetes and its high fidelity levels warrants in-depth studies to establish its pharmacological activity. The usages documented herein are unique to the Biate tribe. Very often, these animals are hunted and sold openly at the local markets in the lure of quick money. A 300 gm live Gekko gecko may fetch a sum of 2,50,000 Indian Rupees (INR), and smoked meat of Hoolock hoolock cost approximately 250–300 INR per kg. Animals are also hunted for its hide. The unrestricted hunting of species like Capricornis sumatraensis has almost wiped out the population within the district. Some species are also reared as pets while some are used for display as a sign of expertise in hunting. The present study has documented the usage of at least 15 animals listed in the IUCN Red List. Conclusion The study illustrates the in-depth knowledge of the Biate tribe on zootherapy. Systematic investigation to identify the active ingredient may lead to the development of new drugs, which would prompt protection of these valuable

  13. Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State.

  14. Geo - hydrological investigations and impact of water harvesting structures on groundwater potential in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayana, K V; Krishnaiah, S; Khokalay, Murthy Rao V

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the data pertaining to the rainfall, its departure from normal, moving mean rainfall, depth of water levels in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, groundwater availability, groundwater utilization and impact of storage of water in large water bodies are analyzed graphically. The results indicate that the groundwater is over exploited in many places in Anantapur District (India). The groundwater levels found fluctuating, when compared the observations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Hence, it is concluded that the construction of water harvesting structures at suitable locations will have a definite impact on the groundwater potential in Anantapur District.

  15. Nitrate contamination of shallow aquifer groundwater in the central districts of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Garg, Sunil; Sondhi, S K; Taneja, D S

    2012-01-01

    The increasing trend in nitrogenous fertilizer use and extensive irrigation in the agricultural production system in Punjab, India are the reasons of contamination of groundwater, which is the main source of drinking water. A study was conducted to determine the extent of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) contamination of groundwater in the shallow aquifers of Ludhiana district. Pre and post-monsoon groundwater samples from hand pumps of 36 villages, located at or near the nodes of 6-12 km grid, were collected during the years 1998 and 1999 and were analyzed for NO3-N concentration. During the period of study, the NO3-N concentration in 34.7%, 37.5%, 15.3%, 11.1% and 1.4% of the groundwater samples was between 0-5 mg/L, 6-10 mg/L, 11-15 mg/L, 16-20 mg/L and 21-25 mg/L, respectively. Around 72% of the groundwater samples were safe and did not exceed the critical limit of NO3-N concentration (10 mg/L) prescribed for drinking water. Although, statistically no change in the mean NO3-N concentration level has been observed during the study period and is within the safe limit in most of the samples (72%), yet there is every possibility of further contamination of groundwater due to continuous high N-fertilizer use and over irrigation which necessitates judicious and efficient N-fertilizer and irrigation water use in Punjab (India).

  16. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  17. Integrated Approach for Keshampet Watershed Mahabubnagar District, Andhra Pradesh, India - Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, S.

    2001-12-01

    The present study area deals with the application of Remote Sensing ( RS ) and Geographical Information Systems ( GIS ) techniques of keshempet watershed for suggesting the two treatment plans namely engineering and gully control work and biotech treatment measures for water resource development and catchment area treatment with a view to control soil erosion from the watershed as well to increase the ground water recharge. The study area falls in the co-ordinates 780 8' 30" and 780 13' E longitudes and 160 20' and 160 24' N latitudes in part of Mahbubnagar district, Anhdra Pradesh, India. The present study area occupies an area of 2870 ha. The satellite data used is IRS 1C PAN and LISS IV merged data, dated March 1997 and April 1997. GIS software used are ARC / INFO and ARCView. Land Use / Land Cover map , Hydrogeomorphology map and soil maps are prepared by interpreting the imagery visually and through intensive ground truth. The other relevant maps namely slope, drainage maps are prepared with the help of 1:50000 scale, Survey of India toposheets. A critical examination of each one of the thematic maps is carried out to identify various land resources and their spatial distribution to assess the watershed for its sustainability. The information obtained from this study is then integrated to develop an action plan for land and water resources development. Based on this action plan check dams (14), mini percolation tanks ( 7 ), farm tanks ( 4 ), desiltation tanks ( 13 ) are proposed for the treatment plans. This action plan can be used for the upliftment of socio-economic condition of the study area. In this research paper, a number of thematic layers and relevant data are presented.

  18. Factors Affecting Tooth Retention among Adult Population of Dharwad District, India

    PubMed Central

    Inamdar, Nurul Ameen; Prasad, K V V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral health in relation to general health is influen-ced by the retention of teeth. Understanding factors affecting tooth retention will help health and social policy-makers to translate the knowledge on tooth retention into action programs for improving oral health of the people and hence enhance tooth retention. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting tooth retention among adult population of Dharwad district, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1100 subjects (616 urban and 484 rural) residing in Dharwad district, Karnataka, India, was conducted. Self-designed questionnaire was prepared and data were collected on socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene practices, diet practices, adverse oral habits and frequency of dental visits by the interview method and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), unpaired t-test and backward stepwise multiple regression. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between the two quantitative variables. Results A total of 66.72% subjects retained all 28 teeth and mean number of teeth retained by the study subjects were 25.33 (90.46%). There was gradual reduction in tooth retention with increase in age. Males (95.8%) compared to females (94.07%), unmarried (98.8%) than married subjects (93.3%) and subjects with intermediate or post high school diploma (97.5%) than those who were illiterate (89.5%) and other low educational level study subjects retained more teeth. Further mean values of tooth retention for other socio demographic factors i.e., occupation, income and family size were not statistically significant (p≤0.05). In addition, subjects using tooth brush (96.6%) and tooth paste (96.6%) for cleaning the teeth, subjects practicing mixed diet (96.6%) and subjects who never visited the dentist (96.5%) in their lifetime showed statistically significant greater tooth

  19. Occlusal Traits of Primary Dentition among Pre-School Children of Mehsana District, North Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Gordhanbhai Patel, Dhvani; Ranadheer, Eraveni; Kalgudi, Jayasudha; Santokì, Jaysukh; Chaudhary, Shaila

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Aesthetic and functional problems in the dentofacial complex among children are often attributed to the disturbances in the dentofacial growth and development. This can be recognized during routine dental visits. This study pursued to assess the occlusion of the primary dentition in three to five-year-old children. Aim To study the occlusal traits of the primary dentition in a group of three to five-year-old North Gujarat children of Mehsana district and the variation in their occlusion relative to age and gender in the same group. Materials and Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey based on clinical examination and photographic evaluation of the primary dentition, 383 preschool children aged three to five years who were randomly selected from preschools in Mehsana district, Gujarat, India, using a multistage sampling technique. The study group was evaluated for the several occlusal parameters that include primary molar relation based on Baume classification and canine relation, overjet, overbite were assessed using Foster and Hamilton criteria. Chi-square test was performed to carry out statistical analysis. The p-value<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results Out of 383 participants, 55.35% had flush terminal plane; 43.34% mesial step molar relationship and 1.31% distal step molar relationship, 63.2% had straight profile, 95.8% had Class I canine relationship, 71.3% primate spaces, 56.7% physiologic spaces. Flush terminal plane was common at three years while, mesial step at four to five years, and Class I canine relationship was prevalent in both age groups. Flush terminal plane was more common in female participants than the males. Amongst other occlusal characteristics, increased overbite and open bite were prevalent. Conclusion It was found that the flush terminal plane molar relationship, straight profile, Class I canine relationship, primate spacing, increased overbite and open bite predominated. PMID:28274054

  20. Fluoride in groundwater, Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba

    2009-05-01

    Excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis on human beings in many States of the country (India), including Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater quality in the Varaha River Basin located in the Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh has been studied, with reference to fluoride content, for its possible sources for implementing appropriate management measures, according to the controlling mechanism of fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The area occupied by the river basin is underlain by the Precambrian Eastern Ghats, over which the Recent sediments occur. Results of the chemical data of the groundwater suggest that the considerable number of groundwater samples show fluoride content greater than that of the safe limit prescribed for drinking purpose. Statistical analysis shows that the fluoride has a good positive relation, with pH and bicarbonate. This indicates an alkaline environment, as a dominant controlling mechanism for leaching of fluoride from the source material. Other supplementary factors responsible for the occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater are evapotranspiration, long contact time of water with the aquifer material, and agricultural fertilizers. A lack of correlation between fluoride and chloride, and a high positive correlation between fluoride and bicarbonate indicate recharge of the aquifer by the river water. However, the higher concentration of fluoride observed in the groundwater in some locations indicates insufficient dilution by the river water. That means the natural dilution did not perform more effectively. Hence, the study emphasizes the need for surface water management structures, with people's participation, for getting more effective results.

  1. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced.

  2. Chemical analysis of groundwater of Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrita; Choudhary, Sunil K

    2011-10-01

    The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from hundred handpumps in five villages of the Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar, India indicates that the water samples in the area were slightly alkaline and the concentration of total hardness and heavy metal like arsenic were above the drinking water specifications as prescribed by World Health Organization (1999) and ISI (2003); whereas other chemical parameters were well within the permissible limit. The results of the present study suggest that the groundwater sources under investigation were suitable for domestic purposes including drinking except for arsenic. The concentration of arsenic in most of the handpumps analyzed was high, and that might be attributed to the excessive withdrawal of the groundwater and changes in the geo-chemical environment of the Ganga river. Moreover, the Ganga River System itself carries high sediment bed loads which contain several trace elements, including arsenic. Some effective measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge techniques are urgently required and suggested for water quality management in this region.

  3. The bacteriological quality of drinking water in Haldwani block of Nainital district, Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Vinita; Jha, Sanjay Kumar; Bag, Arundhati; Singhai, Monil; Rawat, Chandra Mohan Singh

    2012-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality of water in Haldwani block, Nainital District, India. Stratified random sampling was used to categorize water sources and consumer points. In total, 108 samples were collected: 15 from the Gola river, 51 from water taps, 24 from water treatment plants and 18 from tube wells. Samples were tested for coliforms by the most probable number technique. Identification of species was done by standard procedures. Of 108 water samples, 58.8% were found to be polluted. All samples of water (n = 15) from different sites of the Gola river were found to be highly contaminated. Out of 24 water treatment plant samples, four samples were found unsatisfactory, while more than half (51.6%) of its supplies to water taps were polluted. From tube wells and their water taps, 88.8 and 60% samples were found safe for drinking respectively. Bacterial contamination of water treatment plants and their supplies indicates significant disparities in the efficiency of water treatment processes. Contamination of water taps of tube wells suggests leakage of pipes. There is an urgent need to improve these services to ensure the supply of safe water for consumers.

  4. Growth profile of Baiga children--a primitive tribe of District Dindori of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Qamra, Suneel; Shrivastava, Praval; Roy, Jyotirmoy

    2012-09-01

    The present study has been carried out on 795 Baiga children (453 males and 342 females) of Baiga-chak area of Dindori district in Madhya Pradesh (MP) varying between 1-18 years of age with an aim to understand their growth profile using cross sectional design. Fourteen body measurements (weight, height, sitting height, lengths, breadths, circumferences and skin folds) were studied. Four indices namely Sitting height/Leg length, Bicristal breadth/Biacro-mial breadth, Head circumference/Chest circumference & Cephalic index were computed to study the proportionate body changes. All body measurements except for skin folds increased progressively in each age group showing insignificant difference between boys and girls in most of age groups with no evident peak velocity during pubertal age in both sexes. However skin folds showed inconsistent pattern with each successive age. The present children were slightly heavier and taller than tribal children of other areas but lighter and shorter than Bharia children. However, these children were comparable with all India rural children but found below 10th percentile when compared with National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards. The absence of peak velocity and poor growth in studied children may be due to low intensity of growth rate. Proportionate changes observed in the present study were similar to Indian Punjabi girls.

  5. Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

  6. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2016-07-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  7. Natural radionuclides in ceramic building materials available in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Rajamannan, B; Viruthagiri, G; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-10-01

    The activity concentrations of radium, thorium and potassium can vary from material to material and they should be measured as the radiation is hazardous for human health. Thus, studies have been planned to obtain the radioactivity of ceramic building materials used in Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India. The radioactivity of some ceramic materials used in this region has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyzer. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, from the selected ceramic building materials, were in the range of 9.89-30.75, 24.68-70.4, 117.19-415.83 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity, absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and annual effective dose rate associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiation hazards of the natural radioactivity in the ceramic building materials. It was found that none of the results exceeds the recommended limit value.

  8. Potential fluoride contamination in the drinking water of Marks Nagar, Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2010-06-01

    This study was conducted in the summer season (May, 2007). The fluoride concentration along with other physico-chemical parameters in ground water samples was determined in Marks Nagar of Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (India), since it is the only source of drinking water for the villagers. The fluoride concentration in the water varied from 0.8 to 13.9 mgl(-1) with a mean of 4.02 mgl(-1). The correlation analysis revealed that fluoride had a positive correlation with pH, CO(3), HCO(3), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), whereas a negative correlation with Ca and Mg was found. A soil profile was also dug in the area to assess depth-wise fluoride content in the soil. The soil samples and underneath calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) concretion were analyzed for fluoride content. The percent of soluble fluoride to total fluoride in the soil varied from 25.15 to 4.76% down the soil profile. The soluble fluoride was found to decrease with the increase in the clay content in the soil. The total leachable fluoride in CaCO(3) concretions was found to be 6.08%. It was inferred from this study that the soil and underneath layer of CaCO(3) concretions may be the potential source of fluoride contamination in the shallow drinking water sources of the area.

  9. Drinking Water Quality Assessment Studies for an Urbanized Part of the Nagpur District, Central India.

    PubMed

    Varade, Abhay M; Yenkie, Rajshree; Shende, Rahul; Kodate, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    The water quality of Hingna area of Nagpur district, Central India was assessed for its suitability as drinking water. 22 water samples, representing both the surface and groundwater sources, were collected and analysed for different inorganic constituents by using the standard procedures. The result depicted abundance of major ions; Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ = HCO3- > Cl- > SO4(2-) > NO3-. The concentrations of different elements in water were compared with the drinking water standards defined by World Health Organization (WHO). The hydro-chemical results reveal that most of the samples were within the desirable limits of the drinking water quality. However, few samples of the area, showed higher values of total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), and magnesium (Mg) indicating their 'hard water type' nature and found to be unfit for the drinking purpose. Such poor water quality of these samples is found due to the combined effect of urbanization and industrial activities. The potential health risks associated with various water parameters have also been documented in this paper.

  10. Heavy metal contamination of drinking water in Kamrup district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Sutapa; Sarma, Hari Prasad

    2011-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the heavy metal concentration of the drinking water with respect to zinc, copper, cadmium, manganese, lead and arsenic in Kamrup district of Assam, India. Ground water samples were collected from tube wells, deep tube wells and ring wells covering all the major hydrogeological environs. Heavy metals in groundwater are estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer Analyst 200. Data were assessed statistically to find the distribution pattern and other related information for each metal. The study revealed that a good number of the drinking water sources were contaminated with cadmium, manganese and lead. Arsenic concentrations although did not exceeded WHO limits but was found to be slightly elevated. Copper and zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. An attempt has also been made to ascertain the possible source of origin of the metals. Positive and significant correlation existing between manganese with zinc and copper indicates towards their similar source of origin and mobility. In view of the present study and the level of heavy metal contamination, it could be suggested to test the potability of the water sources before using it for drinking purpose.

  11. Haematological changes in fluorotic adults and children in fluoride endemic regions of Gaya district, Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Shahla; Ranjan, Sumeet; D'Souza, Doris

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater used for drinking and cooking was analysed for fluoride (F), and health surveys were conducted in Bodh Gaya, Amas and Bankebazaar blocks of the Gaya district, Bihar, India. Amas and Bankebazaar blocks were F endemic areas with mean F = 2.36 ± 0.23 mg/L (N = 27). Bodh Gaya was considered as control area with mean F = 0.59 ± 0.03 mg/L (N = 11). Health survey showed that more than 50 % of adults and more than 55 % of children had complaints of gastro-intestinal (GI) disturbances in the F endemic areas, while less than 20 % of adults and less than 10 % of children complained of GI problems in the control areas. Haematological analyses were conducted on age- and sex-matched fluorotic subjects (N = 93) of F endemic areas, and non-fluorotic subjects (N = 52) of control area showed lowered haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in the fluorotic subjects, suggesting the occurrence of anaemia in the fluorotic subjects.

  12. Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

    2006-11-01

    Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes.

  13. Geochemical signatures of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur district, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, S.; Balasubramanian, N.; Gowtham, B.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-11-01

    An attempt has been made to identify the chemical processes that control the hydrochemistry of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur coastal village of Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, south India. The parameters such as pH, EC, TDS and major ion concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and NO3 of the groundwater were analyzed. Abundances of these ions are in the following order Na > Ca > Mg > K and HCO3 > Cl > SO4 > NO3. The dominant water types are in the order of NaCl> mixed CaMgCl > CaHCO3 > CaNaHCO3. Water types (mixed CaHCO3, mixed CaMgCl and NaCl) suggest that the mixing of high salinity water caused from surface contamination sources such as irrigation return flow, domestic wastewater and septic tank effluents with existing water followed by ion exchange reaction processes, silicate weathering and evaporation are responsible for the groundwater chemistry of the study area. The above statement is further supported by Gibbs plot where most of the samples fall within the evaporation zone.

  14. Variations of soil radon concentrations along Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Jaishi, Hari Jaishi; Tiwari, Raghavendra Prasad; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-11-01

    The present study concerns measurements of radon emissions from soil carried out during March to July 2013 at Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India. In this study, continuous radon monitoring in soil was done by using LR-115 type II nuclear track detector (Kodak-Pathe, France make), and the exposed films were replaced weekly. A negative correlation coefficient (-0.47) between radon concentration and barometric pressure was found during the investigation period. The average radon concentration was observed to be 1785.71 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation of 633.07 Bq m(-3). The maximum and minimum values of radon concentration during this period were found to be 3693.88 and 904.76 Bq m(-3), respectively. An anomalous increase in radon concentration was observed on 112th day (i.e. on 14 June 2013) during the investigation period just 1 d prior to the event of M 3.5, which occurred within 120-km distance from the monitoring site.

  15. Genetic diversity and relationships among the tribes of Meghalaya compared to other Indian and Continental populations.

    PubMed

    Langstieh, B T; Reddy, B Mohan; Thangaraj, K; Kumar, V; Singh, Lalji

    2004-08-01

    The autosomal AmpFLSTR markers validated and widely used for forensic applications are used in this study to examine the extent of diversity and genetic relationships among nine Meghalaya populations. Altogether, 932 chromosomes from 9 populations were analyzed using 9 tetrameric AmpFLSTR loci. The included populations were all seven subtribes of the Austro-Asiatic Mon-Khmer-speaking Khasi and the neighboring Tibeto-Burman Garo. The Lyngngam, which are linguistically closer to the Khasi but are culturally intermediate between the Khasi and the Garo, are also included in the study. Although most of the microsatellite loci are highly polymorphic in each of these populations, the allele distributions are fairly uniform across the Meghalaya populations, suggesting relative homogeneity among them. Concurrent with this, the coefficient of gene differentiation (G(ST)) is observed to be low (0.026+/-0.002). This is naturally reflected in the lack of clear differentiation and clustering pattern of the Meghalaya tribes based on either geographic proximity or the historical or current affiliations of these tribes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggests no significant population structure. The structure analysis further suggests that, barring War-Khasi and Pnar, no other population shows any semblance of genetic identity. Even the position of the linguistically distinct Garo is not portrayed as separate from the Khasi. However, when comparable data from other Indian, Southeast Asian, and other continental populations were analyzed, the Meghalaya populations formed a compact cluster clearly separated from other populations, suggesting genetic identity of the Meghalaya populations as a whole. These results are concurrent with the hypothesis of a common and recent origin of these Meghalaya populations, whose genetic differentiation is overwhelmed by the homogenizing effect of continuous gene flow.

  16. Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

  17. Impact of extension interventions in improving livelihood of dairy farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Garai, Suman; Garai, Sanchita; Maiti, Sanjit; Meena, B S; Ghosh, M K; Bhakat, Champak; Dutta, T K

    2017-03-01

    Livestock is a one of the major sources of livelihood for most of the small and marginal farmers in India, particularly for rural households who live in below poverty line. Extension interventions have long been seen as a key element for enabling farmers to obtain information and technologies that can improve their livelihoods. It is also recognized that extension is an important factor in promoting dairy development. Ex-post-facto cause to effect research design was applied in this study to trace out the impact of extension interventions in improving knowledge, attitude, adoption towards scientific dairy farming practices and improvement in milk production of dairy animal and income from dairying which will be resulted into improved livelihood of rural poor in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Therefore, 60 dairy farmers of experimental villages who were considered as beneficiaries and 60 dairy farmers of control villages who were considered as non-beneficiaries were selected as sample for the study. It was found that beneficiaries had significantly higher score in all the five components of livelihood improvement with its all sub components, i.e., knowledge, attitude, adoption of scientific dairy farming practices, milk production per household per day and monthly income from dairying except disease control, and marketing component of adoption. Hence, it may be concluded that extension interventions had a significant impact on improving livelihood of rural dairy farmers in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

  18. Comprehensive Index for Community Health Assessment of Typical District Administrative Units in Maharashtra State, India

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Prakash Prabhakarrao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health administrators require status of health of different administrative units under them. Use of large number of indicators may create confusion and uncertainty about health status. Availability of a comprehensive index is certainly useful. Objective: To evolve one comprehensive health index for a district as unit and measure district wise disparity. Materials and Methods: Ten indicators from categories of health outcomes, health system, determinants of health, and utilization of services were considered. Data for districts in Maharashtra State were obtained from different sources.For each indicator the best performing district was given score of 100 and other districts were given marks proportionately. Results: The comprehensive index for the state was 0.52. The district scoring lowest value of 0.36 was a tribal district and scoring highest value of 0.66 was a nontribal district. Conclusion: Computing such index of districts for monitoring and allocation of resources may be useful managerial tool. PMID:27890979

  19. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India. PMID:27293984

  20. Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  1. Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhadra, A

    2010-07-01

    The ground water quality of District Nainital (Uttarakhand, India) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for drinking and irrigation applications. This is a two-part series paper and this paper examines the suitability of ground water including spring water for drinking purposes. Forty ground water samples (including 28 spring samples) were collected during pre- and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for various water quality constituents. The hydrochemical and bacteriological data was analyzed with reference to BIS and WHO standards and their hydrochemical facies were determined. The concentration of total dissolved solids exceeds the desirable limit of 500 mg/L in about 10% of the samples, alkalinity values exceed the desirable limit of 200 mg/L in about 30% of the samples, and total hardness values exceed the desirable limit of 300 mg/L in 15% of the samples. However, no sample crosses the maximum permissible limit for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride. The concentration of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride are well within the desirable limit at all the locations. The bacteriological analysis of the samples does not show any sign of bacterial contamination in hand pump and tube-well water samples. However, in the case of spring water samples, six samples exceed the permissible limit of ten coliforms per 100 ml of sample. It is recommended that water drawn from such sources should be properly disinfected before being used for drinking and other domestic applications. Among the metal ions, the concentration of iron and lead exceeds the permissible limit at one location whereas the concentration of nickel exceeds the permissible limit in 60 and 32.5% of the samples during pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The grouping of samples according to their hydrochemical facies indicates that majority of the samples fall in Ca-Mg-HCO(3) hydrochemical facies.

  2. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region.

  3. Factors controlling the salinity in groundwater in parts of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Subba Rao, N

    2008-03-01

    Groundwater chemistry has been studied to examine the associated hydrogeochemical processes operating for the development of salinity in the groundwater in parts of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study area is underlain by charnockites and granitic gneisses associated with schists of the Precambrian Eastern Ghats. Groundwater is the main resource for irrigation besides drinking. Chemical parameters, pH, EC, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO(2-)3, HCO3-, Cl-, SO(2-)4, NO3-, F- and SiO2, are taken into account. Groundwater is of brackish type. Na+-Cl- facies dominates the groundwater. Examination of compositional relations and mineral saturation states shows that the ion exchange of Ca2+ for adsorbed Na+, evapotranspiration, dissolution of soil salts, dissolution of NaCl and CaSO4, and precipitation of CaCO3 are the dominant hydrogeochemical processes associated with the groundwater composition in the area. Evapotranspiration causes accumulation of salts in the soil/weathered zone. These salts reach the water table by leaching through infiltrating recharge water. A positive relation between depth to water table and TDS with season supports this inference. The effects of human activities, such as intensive and long-term irrigation, irrigation-return-flow, application of unlimited agricultural fertilizers and recycling of saline groundwater, act to further increase the salinity in the groundwater. Therefore, the groundwater quality increases towards the flow path, while the post-monsoon groundwater shows higher concentrations of TDS, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO(2-)4, NO3- F- and SiO2 ions. The study could help to understand the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the aquifer system for taking effective management measures to mitigate the inferior groundwater quality for sustainable development.

  4. Ground water geochemistry of Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh, India and mechanism of arsenic release.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Nickson, R T; Chauhan, Divya; Iyengar, L; Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini

    2009-03-01

    Threat to human health worldwide due to the natural contamination of arsenic in ground waters has led to extensive studies on factors controlling the distribution of arsenic and conditions leading to arsenic mobilization in different arsenic contaminated areas. Another aspect of the arsenic crisis, especially in South Asia, is the degree of spatial variability of ground water arsenic concentrations. Thus it becomes necessary to study the source and the processes involved in arsenic mobilization into ground water under such conditions. An arsenic contaminated area namely, Ballia district of UP was chosen for this study. A set of 56 samples were collected from India Mark II hand pumps (30-33 m depth) thrice in a year namely pre-monsoon (April '07), monsoon (July '06) and winter seasons (December '06). Nine samples were also collected from deep bore well hand pumps (66-75 m) to study the difference in geochemistry with the shallow pumps. Various water quality parameters like As(III), As(V), sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, bicarbonate, ammonia, were determined. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 0 to 468 microg L(-1) in ground water collected from depths of 30-33 m. In the deeper wells (66-75 m), arsenic concentrations ranged from 12 to 20 microg L(-1). Most samples contained both As(III) and As(V) and the concentration of As(III) was generally equal/higher than As(V). Not much variation of arsenic concentration was observed when sampled in summer, monsoon and winter seasons. Correlation studies among various water quality parameters revealed that reductive dissolution of FeOOH was the most probable mechanism for release of arsenic.

  5. Spatial variability of groundwater quality of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district (Bihar, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, D. K.; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Shit, Pravat Kumar; Kumar, S.; Mandal, Jajati; Padbhushan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the quality of groundwater of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district of Bihar state, which lies on the southern region of Indo-Gangetic plains in India. Fifty-nine samples from different sources of water in the block have been collected to determine its suitability for drinking and irrigational purposes. From the samples electrical conductivity (EC), pH and concentrations of Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), carbonate ion (CO{3/2-}), Bicarbonate ion (HCO{3/-}), Chloride ion (Cl-), and Fluoride (F-) were determined. Surface maps of all the groundwater quality parameters have been prepared using radial basis function (RBF) method. RBF model was used to interpolate data points in a group of multi-dimensional space. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is employed to scrutinize the best fit of the model to compare the obtained value. The mean value of pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and F- are found to be 7.26, 0.69, 38.98, 34.20, 16.92, 1.19, 0.02, and 0.28, respectively. Distribution of calcium concentration is increasing to the eastern part and K+ concentrations raise to the downstream area in the southwestern part. Low pH concentrations (less than 6.71) occur in eastern part of the block. Spatial variations of hardness in Sabour block portraying maximum concentration in the western part and maximum SAR (more than 4.23) were recorded in the southern part. These results are not exceeding for drinking and irrigation uses recommended by World Health Organization. Therefore, the majority of groundwater samples are found to be safe for drinking and irrigation management practices.

  6. Community based maternal death review: lessons learned from ten districts in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Samiksha; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Thippaiah, Anitha; Upadhyaya, Sanjeev; Krishna, Murali; Shukla, Rajan; Srikrishna, S R

    2015-07-01

    Maternal death is as much a social phenomenon as a medical event. Maternal death review (MDR), a strategy for monitoring maternal deaths, provides information on medical, social and health system factors that should be addressed to redress gaps in service provision or utilisation. To strengthen MDR implementation in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The project involved development of state specific guidelines, technical assistance in operationalization and analysing processes and findings of MDR in ten districts. 284 deaths were recorded over 6 months (April-September 2012) of which 193 (75.4 %) could be reviewed. Post-partum haemorrhage (24 %) and hypertensive disorders (27.4 %) followed by puerperal sepsis in the post-partum period (16.8 %) were the leading causes of maternal deaths. 68.3 % deaths occurred at health facilities. 67 % of mothers dying during the natal or post-natal period, delivered at home, though the death occurred in a health facility. Type 1 delay (58.9 %) was the most common underlying cause of death, followed by type 3 delay (33.3 %). Under or nil reporting from the facilities was observed. Program staff could identify broad areas of intervention but lacked capacity to monitor, analyse, interpret and utilize the generated information to develop feasible actionable plans. Information gathered was incomplete and inaccurate in many cases. Challenges observed showed that it will require more time and continuous committed efforts of health staff for implementation of high quality MDR. Successful implementation will improve the response of the health system and contribute to improved maternal health.

  7. Sacred Groves of Parinche Valley of Pune District of Maharashtra, India and their Importance.

    PubMed

    Waghchaure, Chandrakant K; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Gunale, Venkat R; Antia, Noshir H; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2006-04-01

    Sacred groves are protected areas of forests because of religious beliefs and constitute an important aspect of the cultural life of various communities throughout the world. The source of this culture can be traced back to prehistoric times. The sacred groves of Parinche valley, Pune district of Maharashtra, India were studied to understand their status and importance in relation to common natural resource bases and cultural aspects. Through formal interviews and non-participatory observation undertaken in all seasons between October 2002 and February 2004, 14 sacred groves were documented. Both EMIC and ETIC dimensions were incorporated in the choice of subjects. The results show that they are important for various communities as a common natural resource base. They promote cultural bonding among various communities and maintain harmony in social life. This can be evidenced during annual village festivals and family celebrations, which invariably take place within the premises of sacred groves. They are also important for biodiversity as many groves function like mini sanctuaries and harbour endemic and threatened plant species. The natural vegetation of the groves comprises many medicinal plants that are regularly harvested by local medicine men ( Vaidus ). Water is a precious resource, especially during summer months, and the perennial water sources that are present in the sacred groves are the only remaining water sources for seven villages. There is a compunction, on the other hand, of the sacred groves being influenced by urbanization, resulting in the building of concrete temples by clearing natural vegetation and planting ornamental and other economically useful trees in the cleared areas of the groves. Such actions alter these fragile ecosystems and deplete or destroy the natural resource base for which this ancient culture is believed to have been originally evolved. We conclude here that sacred groves were originally a common natural resource which were

  8. Prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness and severe visual impairment in a tribal district of Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Dhake, Praful V.; Dole, Kuldeep; Khandekar, Rajiv; Deshpande, Madan

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present the outcomes of a survey conducted in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. It was based on “Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness” methodology and conducted in 2009 in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: We examined persons of 50 years and older ages. Ophthalmic assistants noted the distant vision [best corrected vision (BCV) and as presented]. Ophthalmologist examined eyes of persons with vision less than 6/18. The principal cause of impairment in each eye and the most “preventable” or “treatable” cause were assigned. We calculated the prevalence rates of bilateral blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), and moderate visual impairment (MVI). Result: We examined 2,005/2,300 persons (response rate 87.2%). The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the BCV was 1.63% (95% CI 1.11–2.15), 5.93% (95% CI 4.96–6.90), and 14.6% (95% CI 13.2–16.1), respectively. The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the presented vision was 1.87% (1.32–2.42), 6.72% (95% CI 5.70–7.74), and 19% (95% CI 17.4–20.6), respectively. Unoperated cataract was responsible for 77% of different visual disabilities. The coverage of existing cataract surgery service was 9.4%. Lack of knowledge about cataract surgery was the main cause of unoperated cataract among 41% of interviewed participants with cataract and SVI. Conclusion: Unoperated cataract was the main curable cause of visual disabilities in tribal population of India. Increasing awareness and offering cataract surgeries at affordable cost in the district would reduce visual disabilities. PMID:22279401

  9. Mosquito records from a hot and dry climatic area experiencing frequent outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis, Bellary district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, P C; Jamgaonkar, A V

    2008-03-01

    Mosquito species occurring in Bellary district, Karnataka, India were surveyed for Japanese encephalitis (JE) and West Nile virus (WNV) from 2001 to 2003. A total of 37 mosquito species in 6 genera were recovered from larval and adult habitats. Aedes, Anopheles and Culex were represented by 11 species each, Mansonia by 2 species, and Armigeres and Lutzia by a single species. A total of 68,506 mosquitoes belonging to 20 species were collected at dusk. Most (74.6%) were Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and occurred in 2 peaks of abundance in February (304 per man hour density [PMHD]) and October (465 PMHD). The mosquito fauna of Bellary district is not diverse, possibly because of the hot and dry climatic conditions in the area.

  10. High prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti infection as detected by immunochromatographic card testing in five districts of Orissa, India, previously considered to be non-endemic.

    PubMed

    Foo, Patricia K; Tarozzi, Alessandro; Mahajan, Aprajit; Yoong, Joanne; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Kopf, Daniel; Blackburn, Brian G

    2011-02-01

    India accounts for over one-third of the world's burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF). Although most coastal districts of Orissa state (eastern India) are LF-endemic, the western districts of Orissa are considered non-endemic. During a large-scale insecticide-treated bed net/microfinance trial, we tested one randomly selected adult (age 15-60 years) for LF from a random sample of microfinance-member households in five districts of western Orissa, using immunochromatographic card testing (ICT). Overall, 354 (adjusted prevalence 21%, 95%CI 17-25%) of 1563 persons were ICT positive, with district-wide prevalence rates ranging from 15-32%. This finding was not explained by immigration, as only 3% of subjects had ever lived in previously known LF-endemic districts. These results therefore suggest ongoing autochthonous transmission in districts where LF control programs are not operational. Our results highlight the importance of broad, systematic surveillance for LF in India and call for the implementation of LF control programs in our study districts.

  11. Association of Climatic Variability, Vector Population and Malarial Disease in District of Visakhapatnam, India: A Modeling and Prediction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Srimath-Tirumula-Peddinti, Ravi Chandra Pavan Kumar; Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Sidagam, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Malarial incidence, severity, dynamics and distribution of malaria are strongly determined by climatic factors, i.e., temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity. The objectives of the current study were to analyse and model the relationships among climate, vector and malaria disease in district of Visakhapatnam, India to understand malaria transmission mechanism (MTM). Methodology Epidemiological, vector and climate data were analysed for the years 2005 to 2011 in Visakhapatnam to understand the magnitude, trends and seasonal patterns of the malarial disease. Statistical software MINITAB ver. 14 was used for performing correlation, linear and multiple regression analysis. Results/Findings Perennial malaria disease incidence and mosquito population was observed in the district of Visakhapatnam with peaks in seasons. All the climatic variables have a significant influence on disease incidence as well as on mosquito populations. Correlation coefficient analysis, seasonal index and seasonal analysis demonstrated significant relationships among climatic factors, mosquito population and malaria disease incidence in the district of Visakhapatnam, India. Multiple regression and ARIMA (I) models are best suited models for modeling and prediction of disease incidences and mosquito population. Predicted values of average temperature, mosquito population and malarial cases increased along with the year. Developed MTM algorithm observed a major MTM cycle following the June to August rains and occurring between June to September and minor MTM cycles following March to April rains and occurring between March to April in the district of Visakhapatnam. Fluctuations in climatic factors favored an increase in mosquito populations and thereby increasing the number of malarial cases. Rainfall, temperatures (20°C to 33°C) and humidity (66% to 81%) maintained a warmer, wetter climate for mosquito growth, parasite development and malaria transmission. Conclusions

  12. Health System Competency for Maternal Health Services in Balasore District and Jaleswar Block, Balasore, Odisha, India: An Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A competent health system is of paramount importance in delivering the desired health services in a particular community. Aim The broad objective of this study was to assess the health system competency for the maternal health services in Balasore District and Jaleswar block of Balasore district, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods A mixed method approach was adopted in order to understand the health system competency for maternal health services in the study area. Results There was poor accessibility through road, poor electricity connection and piped water for the health care centers in the district. Even, existing Primary Health Centres (PHCs) lack ECG and X-Ray machines for proper diagnostic services which jeopardize the catering of health services. Community Health Centres (CHC) lack basic diagnostic and ambulance services making the tribal pockets inaccessible. The tribal dominated Jaleswar block shows poor performance in terms of total registered Antenatal Checkups (ANC) (only 77%). A gradual decrease in the rate of ANC, from first to fourthcheckup, was observed in the district. Conclusion Lack of public health infrastructure in general and non-compliance to Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) in particular, affect the health of tribal women resulting in lack of interest in availing the institutional delivery services and other pertinent maternal health services. PMID:27656464

  13. Local climate assessments in data scarce mountain areas; for example Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Salzmann, Nadine; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    High-mountain regions like the Himalayas and their adjacent downstream areas are often highly affected by climate change, climate variability and/or related extremes. As a result of cascading effects of rising air temperatures, melting glaciers, thawing permafrost - as well as anthropogenic water usage or changes in forest and agro-biodiversity - potential impacts on people's livelihood has broadened and increased. However, climate impacts assessments on physical and societal systems are often limited due to the scarcity of reliable long-term observations, particularly in remote high-mountain regions, which additionally also hampers robustness of future projections. Since livelihoods in remote high-mountain regions are particularly vulnerable to climate related impacts, and have typically only low adaptive capacities, studies assessing climate variability pattern of the past and for the future (climate baselines) are a fundamental requirement for sound impact assessments, and as such for preparing and planning adequate adaptation measures. Within the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation Programme (IHCAP) an integrated vulnerability and hazard and risk assessment is being conducted for the Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh, India, for the sake of supporting adaptation planning there. Related to these studies, the present work aims to provide an approach and according results for climatological baseline generation for regions without respective observations available or accessible. Here, we use observational gridded data sets (CRU, Delaware) and Reanalyses (ERA-20C, JRA-55, NCEP CFSR, ERA-i, NCEP/NCAR-R1) to provide spatially and temporally continuous data. For the grid boxes covering the area of interest, the time series for temperature are analysed and possible trends and variations are assessed for the time window 1981-2010, as well as the entire time line of the respective gridded dataset. The analyses reveal that the mean annual air temperatures over all levels

  14. Factors precipitating outbreaks of measles in district Kangra of North India: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Surender Nikhil; Vidya, Ramachandran; Gupta, Naveen; Gupte, Mohan D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Globally, measles is the fifth killer disease among children under five years of age. Despite high immunization coverage in Himachal, outbreaks are occurring. Upon two outbreaks in a hilly district in North India, a case control study was conducted to identify factors contributing to outbreaks and to recommend remedial measures to prevent further outbreaks. Materials and Methods: Factors were reviewed under three heads: program related, health care providers, and beneficiaries related. Cold chain maintenance was determined and responses were compared between workers from study Shahpur and control Nagrota Bagwan blocks. All 69 mothers of age and sex matched children with measles were enrolled. A pre-designed pre-tested data collection instrument was used. For statistical analysis, the odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (C.I.) among women of children exposed and unexposed to selected characteristics were calculated. Results: Poor cold chain maintenance and gaps in knowledge of health workers supplemented with beneficiary-related issues precipitated outbreaks in case area. Univariate analysis yielded strong statistical significance to 17 variables. Important statistically significant variables are educational status; OR 27.63 (C.I. 9.46-85.16); occupation; OR 0.35 (C.I. 0.16-0.75); income; OR 5.49 (C.I. 2.36-13.00); mode of transport to health care facility; OR 8.74 (C.I. 2.90-28.23); spread of illness from one person to another; OR 5.60 (95% C.I. 1.40-25.97); first help for sick child OR 2.12 (C.I. 1.00-4.50), and place of visit after recovery; OR 3.92 (C.I. 1.80-8.63). Multiple logistic regression yielded significant association with educational status, drinking water sources, and time taken to reach the nearest health facility. Conclusion: Measles outbreaks were confirmed in high immunization coverage areas. We recommend 2nd dose opportunity for measles (MR) between 5 and 17 years; refresher trainings to workers; mobile

  15. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. Aim To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Results Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Conclusion Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis. PMID:26816986

  16. Visceral Leishmaniasis Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Saran District of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Diana; Dixon, Kandice; Garlapati, Rajesh; Gendernalik, Alex; Poché, David; Poché, Richard

    2013-01-01

    India is one of three countries that account for an estimated 300,000 of 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurring annually. Bihar State is the most affected area of India, with more than 90% of the cases. Surveys were conducted in two villages within the Saran district of Bihar, India, from 2009 to July of 2011 to assess risk factors associated with VL. Forty-five cases were identified, and individuals were given an oral survey. The results indicated that men contracted the disease more than women (58%), and cases over the age of 21 years accounted for 42% of the total VL cases. April to June showed the highest number of new cases. Of 135 households surveyed for sleeping conditions, 95% reported sleeping outside, and 98% slept in beds. Proximity to VL cases was the greatest risk factor (cluster 1 relative risk = 11.89 and cluster 2 relative risk = 138.34). The VL case clustering observed in this study can be incorporated in disease prevention strategies to more efficiently and effectively target VL control efforts. PMID:23382167

  17. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  18. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  19. Development Of Index To Assess Drought Conditions Using Geospatial Data A Case Study Of Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhajer, Vaidehi; Prabhakar, Sumati; Rama Chandra Prasad, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan province of India was known to suffer with frequent drought due to poor and delayed monsoon, abnormally high summer-temperature and insufficient water resources. However flood-like situation prevails in the drought prone Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan as torrential rains are seen to affect the region in the recent years. In the present study, detailed analysis of meteorological, hydrological and satellite data of the Jaisalmer district has been carried out for the years 2006-2008. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) and Effective Drought Index (EDI) have been used to quantify the precipitation deficit. Standardized Water-Level Index (SWI) has been developed to assess ground-water recharge-deficit. Vegetative drought indices like Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index 2 have been calculated. We also introduce two new indices Soil based Vegetation Condition Index (SVCI) and Composite Drought Index (CDI) specifically for regions like Jaisalmer where aridity in soil and affects vegetation and water-level.

  20. Oral health status and treatment needs among 10126 school children in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Radhakrishna, A. Naga; Kambalimath, Halaswamy V.; Chandrasekhar, Shalini; Deepthi, B.; Ramakrishna, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Oral diseases are affecting a large percentage of children worldwide. This study with Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry collaboration was taken up with the aim to evaluate the oral health status and treatment needs in school-going children of the West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 10126 school children who were randomly selected from 32 schools in West Godavari district. To find the significance of the obtained number of cases for different age groups, Chi-square test of significance was used. Results: The prevalence of dental conditions are as follows: Dental caries 63.5%, periodontal diseases 13.6%, dental anomalies 3.6%, dental trauma 3.2%, and orthodontic treatment 25.1%. Among the different age groups, 11–14 years age group has the highest prevalence of oral health problems. Females were more affected with dental caries (P = 0.17), orthodontic treatment needs (P = 0.12), and dental anomalies (P = 0.86) compared to males which was statistically insignificant. The highest prevalence of dental conditions in the case of females was observed during the age of 11–14 years, and in males, the peak was seen in the 15–18 years age group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that school-going children in West Godavari district suffer from a high prevalence of dental conditions and have higher treatment needs. PMID:27382536

  1. New record of the bush cricket, Zvenella yunnana Gorochov (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Podoscirtinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Mal, Jhabar; Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2014-10-07

    The first record of a known species of bush cricket, Zvenella yunnana (Gryllidae: Podoscirtinae), collected from the North-eastern province, Meghalaya (India) is reported. Previously, the species was reported from Thailand and the Indo-China region (Gorochov, 1985, 1988). The other congeneric species reported is Zvenella geniculata (Chopard) from Thailand. The morphological characterization of Z. yunnana has been presented with suitable illustrations.

  2. Development and piloting of a plan for integrating mental health in primary care in Sehore district, Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Shrivastava, Sanjay; Murhar, Vaibhav; Samudre, Sandesh; Ahuja, Shalini; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background The large treatment gap for mental disorders in India underlines the need for integration of mental health in primary care. Aims To operationalise the delivery of the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Plan interventions for priority mental disorders and to design an integrated mental healthcare plan (MHCP) comprising packages of care for primary healthcare in one district. Method Mixed methods were used including theory of change workshops, qualitative research to develop the MHCP and piloting of specific packages of care in a single facility. Results The MHCP comprises three enabling packages: programme management, capacity building and community mobilisation; and four service delivery packages: awareness for mental disorders, identification, treatment and recovery. Challenges were encountered in training primary care workers to improve identification and treatment. Conclusions There are a number of challenges to integrating mental health into primary care, which can be addressed through the injection of new resources and collaborative care models. PMID:26447172

  3. Study of fractures in Precambrian crystalline rocks using field technique in and around Balarampur, Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Monalisa; Acharya, Tapas

    2015-12-01

    Location of recharge zone in Precambrian crystalline rock is still unclear. The present study attempts to perform a detailed analysis of the joints/fractures developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in and around Balarampur in Purulia district of West Bengal, India using bedrock data. The analysis shows that the orientations of major fracture trends are variable along with varying lithological units and structural affinities. The application of lithology-based analysis technique identifies highly predominant fracture frequency and fracture aperture in mica schist and phyllite in the area. This property is not evident in the granite gneiss and epidiorite. The moderate to high fracture permeability value is also associated with the fractures occurring in the shear zone. Mica schist and phyllite associated with the shear zone may represent a permeable recharge zone in the region.

  4. Evaluating the Burden of Lymphedema Due to Lymphatic Filariasis in 2005 in Khurda District, Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Victoria; Little, Kristen; Wiegand, Ryan; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 1.1 billion people worldwide are at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF), and the global burden of LF-associated lymphedema is estimated at 16 million affected people, yet country-specific estimates are poor. Methodology/Principal Findings A house-to-house morbidity census was conducted to assess the burden and severity of lymphedema in a population of 1,298,576 persons living in the LF-endemic district of Khurda in Odisha State, India. The burden of lymphedema in Khurda is widespread geographically, and 1.3% (17,036) of the total population report lymphedema. 51.3% of the patients reporting lymphedema were female, mean age 49.4 years (1–99). Early lymphedema (Dreyer stages 1 & 2) was reported in two-thirds of the patients. Poisson regression analysis was conducted in order to determine risk factors for advanced lymphedema (Dreyer stages 4–7). Increasing age was significantly associated with advanced lymphedema, and persons 70 years and older had a prevalence three times greater than individuals ages 15–29 (aPR: 3.21, 95% CI 2.45, 4.21). The number of adenolymphangitis (ADL) episodes reported in the previous year was also significantly associated with advanced lymphedema (aPR 4.65, 95% CI 2.97–7.30). This analysis is one of the first to look at potential risk factors for advanced lymphedema using morbidity census data from an entire district in Odisha State, India. Significance These data highlight the magnitude of lymphedema in LF-endemic areas and emphasize the need to develop robust estimates of numbers of individuals with lymphedema in order to identify the extent of lymphedema management services needed in these regions. PMID:27548382

  5. Office blood pressure measurement practices among community health providers (medical and paramedical) in northern district of India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Bishav; Aslam, Naved; Ralhan, Upma; Sharma, Sarit; Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Vivudh Pratap; Takkar, Shibba; Wander, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 24% of all coronary heart disease deaths in India. Appropriate blood pressure measurement techniques are the cornerstone of clinical acumen. Despite the clear guidelines on BP measurement technique, there seems to be large inter-observer variations. Aim & methods A prospective, observational study was done to assess the knowledge and to study the current practices of office BP measurement among the 400 medical and paramedical staff working in various hospitals of a northern district of India. A single observer under the supervision of investigators observed all the participants and a proforma was filled based on AHA guidelines. After observing BP measurement technique scoring was done (≤8 question correct = inaccurate practices, >9 questions correct = accurate practices). Similarly, the knowledge was assessed by giving a pretested questionnaire. Results 5.85 % of the medical staff had excellent knowledge and 80% of the doctors and 62% of the paramedical staff had good knowledge about BPM. Only 1.47% (3 doctors) and 0.5% (1 nurse) had accurate practices. There was no correlation between knowledge and practices. Conclusions We conclude that the right technique and knowledge of blood pressure measurement among community health providers is inadequate and warrants further interventions to improve. PMID:25173197

  6. First report of ivermectin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Punjab districts of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Prerna, Mranalini; Rath, Shitanshu S

    2015-11-30

    The larval immersion test (LIT) was used on the progenies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from four districts of the Punjab state, India to test the resistance to ivermectin. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larval ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of ivermectin were utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50%(LC50), 95%(LC95), resistance ratios (RR50, RR95) and the resistance levels (RL). Values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) for LIT ranged from 0.900 to 0.978, and the RR50 and RR95 values against ivermectin ranged from 2.97 to 8.85 and 2.42 to 8.47, respectively, indicating resistance status in all field isolates. On the basis of RR values, three field isolates (BAT, GUR, HOS) showed level II, whereas PTK isolate showed presence of level I resistance status against ivermectin. This appears to be the first report of ivermectin resistance in R. (B.) microplus from Punjab, India.

  7. Gaps in need, demand, and effective demand for dental care utilization among residents of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, Y.; Chakravarty, Kalyan K.; Simhadri, Kavya; Ghenam, Alexis; Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Vundavalli, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To identify the relation between need, demand, and effective demand for dental services in Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed among populations residing in the rural and urban areas of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were collected from 3102 individuals who were selected through multiphase random sampling. Data regarding self-perceived dental need, dental service utilization, and barriers for utilization were collected through s pretested questionnaire followed by type-III clinical examination to assess the normative need of the individuals. Chi-square test was used to compare independent and dependent variables, and further comparison was done with multivariate logistic regression analysis for significant variables. Results: Less than half (40%) of the participants perceived a need for dental care. Among the people who perceived need for care, only 21.4% utilized dental care and 78.6% of them had unmet dental needs. The two main reasons for not seeking dental care was lack of money, i.e., unaffordable dental treatment (48%) and having the perception that they do not have any dental problem (19.4%). Conclusions: There is an enormous difference between normative need, demand, and actual utilization rates in dental care, and hindrances for effective demand need to be addressed to improve dental care delivery system. PMID:27652242

  8. Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries in Children of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, South India: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandra, KS; Arunkumar, Vasa A; Sahana, Suzan; Pushpalatha, HM

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and its risk factors in children of West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. Study design A sample of 1,897 children between 24 and 71 months of age based on stratified cluster random sampling were clinically examined for dental caries using mouth mirror under day light. The parents/caregivers of each child were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using independent sample Student’s t-test and chi-square test. Results Out of the total 1,897 children, 796 were affected with ECC showing an overall prevalence of 41.9%, with boys showing a higher prevalence rate of 44.8% compared to girls (39.9%). Statistically significant correlations were found between ECC and consumption of sugary snacks (p < 0.0001) and mouth rinsing habit (p < 0.001). Conclusion A higher prevalence of ECC was observed and most of the teeth were not restored. How to cite this article Koya S, Ravichandra KS, Arunkumar VA, Sahana S, Pushpalatha HM. Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries in Children of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, South India: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):251-255. PMID:27843258

  9. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and document the information regarding usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants utilized by rural farmers and traditional herbal healers for livestock healthcare in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhnad, Central India. Methods The remote villages of Tikamgarh district were regularly visited from July 2011 to June 2012. Following the methods of Jain and Goel (1995) information regarding the usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was collected. Results A total of 41 plant species in 39 genera and 25 families were used traditionally with various plant parts and their combinations for the treatment of more than 36 diseases in the studied area. Trees (17 species) were found to be the most used Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (6 species) and grasses (3) in descending order. The most common diseases cough, diarrhoea and fever were treated by 04 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species. Conclusions The present study recommended that the crop and medicinal plant genetic resources cannot be conserved and protected without conserving/managing of the agro-ecosystem or natural habitat of medicinal plants and the socio-cultural organization of the local people. The same may be applied to protect indigenous knowledge, related to the use of medicinal and other wild plants. Introduction of medicinal plants in degraded government and common lands could be another option for promoting the rural economy together with environmental conservation, but has not received attention in the land rehabilitation programs in this region. PMID:25183130

  10. HIV testing among pregnant wives of migrant men in a rural district of India: urgent call for scale up.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Enisha; Nayak, Hiralal; Das, Madhumita; Nanda, Priya

    2013-01-01

    In India, despite the fact that more pregnant women are being tested for HIV under the purview of the Prevention of Parent-to-Child HIV Transmission program, official figures indicate low rates of HIV testing, evidencing missed opportunities for HIV prevention. The present study examined the prevalence of HIV testing and the barriers to testing among pregnant women, whose vulnerability to HIV is enhanced by their spouses' risky behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to January 2011 among 357 women who had given birth in the last two years in a district in Orissa. Only one-third of women had been tested for HIV during pregnancy. Women with more than six years of education (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.06-5.39), having knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (OR: 12.37, 95% CI: 5.55-27.58), having discussions with spouses about HIV (OR: 3.56, 95% CI: 1.61-7.86), and seeking antenatal care in government district hospitals and private clinics as opposed to peripheral community health centers, were more likely to receive HIV testing during pregnancy. The findings point to the need to widen HIV testing to community-based services, increase coverage of HIV/sexually transmitted infection awareness and prevention programs, and encourage spousal communication through quality counseling.

  11. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  12. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  13. Prevalence, causes of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district on the western coastal strip of India

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shailbala; Gogate, Parikshit; Vora, Siddharth; Ainapure, Sachin; Hingane, Ramkrishna N; Kulkarni, Anil N; Shammanna, B R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Konkan coast of India is geographically distinct and its pattern of blindness has never been mapped. Aim: To study the prevalence and causes of blindness and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district of West Coast. Subjects: Individual aged > 50 years. Materials and Methods: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness used to map blindness pattern in the district. Statistical analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Amongst those examined 1415 (51.7%) had visual acuity (VA) >20/60, 924 (33.8%, confidence interval (C.I) 30.5%-36.8%) had VA 20/200-<20/60(visual impairment), 266 (9.7%, C.I. 6.1%-13.3%) had VA < 20/200-20/400 (severe visual impairment) and 132 (4.8%, C. I. 1.1%-8.5%) had VA < 20/400 (blindness by WHO standards). There was no significant gender difference in prevalence of blindness, but blindness and visual impairment was more in older and rural residing individuals. Amongst those with presenting vision < 20/200 in better eye, 309 (82.4%) had cataract, 36 (9.7%) had corneal scars, 13 (3.5%) had diabetic retinopathyand 3 (0.8%) had glaucoma. Cataract surgical coverage for the district was only 30.5%; 32% for males and 28.4% for females. Unable to afford, lack of knowledge and lack of access to services were the commonest barriers responsible for cataract patients not seeking care. Amongst those who had undergone cataract surgery, only 50% had visual acuity ≥ 20/60.46.9% of the population had spectacles for near, but only 53.3% of the population had presenting near vision < N10. Conclusion: Cataract, refractive errors and diabetes were significant causes of visual impairment and blindness. PMID:24618491

  14. Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

  15. Some Less Known Ethnomedicinal uses from Mysore and coorg districts, Karnataka, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, R. D.; Singh, N. P.

    2001-01-01

    Present communication deals with 51 less known uses belonging to 39 medicinal plants which are being used traditionally in Karnataka, and are not well known for its said efficacies for curing respective disorders. Each use has been given under correct botanical name, family, local name, locality in particular district and finally the collection number PMID:22557008

  16. Arsenic contamination in the Kanker district of central-east India: geology and health effects.

    PubMed

    Pandey, P K; Sharma, R; Roy, M; Roy, S; Pandey, M

    2006-10-01

    This paper identifies newer areas of arsenic contamination in the District Kanker, which adjoins the District Rajnandgaon where high contamination has been reported earlier. A correlation with the mobile phase episodes of arsenic contamination has been identified, which further hinges on the complex geology of the area. Arsenic concentrations in both surface and groundwater, aquatic organisms (snail and water weeds) soil and vegetation of Kanker district and its adjoining area have been reported here. The region has been found to contain an elevated level of arsenic. All segments of the ecoysystem are contaminated with arsenic at varying degrees. The levels of arsenic vary constantly depending on the season and location. An analysis of groundwater from 89 locations in the Kanker district has shown high values of arsenic, iron and manganese (mean: 144, 914 and 371 microg L(-1), respectively). The surface water of the region shows elevated levels of arsenic, which is influenced by the geological mineralised zonation. The most prevalent species in the groundwater is As(III), whereas the surface water of the rivers shows a significant contamination with the As(V) species. The analysis shows a bio-concentration of the toxic metals arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. Higher arsenic concentrations (groundwater concentrations greater than 50 microg L(-1)) are associated with sedimentary deposits derived from volcanic rocks, hence mineral leaching appears to be the source of arsenic contamination. Higher levels of arsenic and manganese in the Kanker district have been found to cause impacts on the flora and fauna. A case study of episodic arsenical diarrhoea is presented.

  17. Present susceptibility status of rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), vector of plague against organochlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroids 1. The Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Shyamal, Biswas; Ravi Kumar, R; Sohan, Lal; Balakrishnan, N; Veena, Mittal; Shiv, Lal

    2008-03-01

    The susceptibility status of Xenopsylla cheopis, the efficient vector of human plague in India was assessed in erstwhile plague endemic areas of Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu following standard WHO techniques. The studies revealed the development of resistance in rat fleas to DDT--4.0%, Malathion--5.0%, Deltamethrin--0.05% and tolerance to Permethrin--0.75% in all the four blocks of Nilgiris hill district. Development of resistance may be due to the extensive use of insecticides in tea plantations and agricultural sectors where the domestic/peri-domestic rodents find their natural habitats and intermingle with each other.

  18. Evidence of Self-correction of Child Sex Ratios in India: A District-Level Analysis of Child Sex Ratios From 1981 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Bishai, David

    2015-04-01

    Sex ratios in India have become increasingly imbalanced over the past decades. We hypothesize that when sex ratios become very uneven, the shortage of girls will increase girls' future value, leading sex ratios to self-correct. Using data on children under 5 from the last four Indian censuses, we examine the relationship between the sex ratio at one point in time and the change in sex ratio over the next 10 years by district. Fixed-effects models show that when accounting for unobserved district-level characteristics--including total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, percentage literate, percentage rural, percentage scheduled caste, percentage scheduled tribe, and a time trend variable--sex ratios are significantly negatively correlated with the change in sex ratio in the successive 10-year period. This suggests that self-corrective forces are at work on imbalanced sex ratios in India.

  19. HEPATOPROTECTIVE PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBALS OF WYNADU, MALAPPURAM AND PALGHAT DISTRICTS OF KERALA, INDIA.

    PubMed Central

    Asha, V.V; Pushpangadan, P.

    2002-01-01

    An intensive survey was carried out in Wynadu, Palghat and malappuram districts of Kerala to identify plants used by the tribals were identified in the survey. A brief account of 15 plant species used as single plant remedy for alleviating liver ailments by the tribals is given in this report. This ethnomedical information can lead the development of useful drugs against liver diseases. PMID:22557068

  20. Assessing spatial occurrence of ground level ozone around coal mining areas of Chandrapur District, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Salve, Pradeep R; Satapathy, Deepty Ranjan; Katpatal, Yashwant B; Wate, Satish R

    2007-10-01

    Stratospheric input and photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere are the two main sources determining the ozone levels in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Because of the importance of ozone in controlling the atmospheric chemistry and its decisive role in the heat balance of atmosphere, leading to climate change, the examination of its formation and destruction are of great interest. This study characterized the distribution of Ground level Ozone (GLO) in Chandrapur district is lying between 19 degrees 25'N to 20 degrees 45'N and 78 degrees 50'E to 80 degrees 10'E. Continuous ozone analyzer was used to quantify GLO at thirteen locations fixed by Global Positioning System (GPS) during the winter of 2005-2006. The daily GLO at all the locations ranged between 6.4 and 24.8 ppbv with an average and standard deviation of 14.9 +/- 6.5 ppbv. The maximum and minimum concentration occurs during 1300-1600 h and 0300-0500 h may be due to high solar radiation facilitating photochemical production of O(3) and downward mixing from the overlying air mass and in situ destruction of ozone by deposition and/or the reaction between O(3) and NO. GIS based spatial distribution of GLO in Chandrapur district is indicates that the central core of the district and southern sites experienced elevated levels of GLO relative to the northern and western areas. The sites near by Chandrapur city are particularly affected by elevated GLO. The average variation of GLO with temperature shows a significant correlation of r = 0.55 indicating a direct relationship between GLO and temperature. Similarly an attempt has been made to compare the GLO monitored data in Chandrapur district with the reported values for other locations in Indian cities. This generated database helps regulatory agencies to identify locations where the natural resources and human health could be at risk.

  1. Study on prevalence of Fasciolosis in buffaloes at Anand and Ahmedabad districts, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Suchit S.; Hasnani, Jigar J.; Patel, P. V.; Chauhan, Vandip D.; Hirani, Nitin D.; Shukla, Ravi; Dhamsaniya, Hitesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of Fasciolosis in buffaloes by a collection of fecal and liver samples from Anand and Ahmedabad districts’ local slaughter houses. Materials and Methods: Fecal and liver samples were collected during ante- and post-mortem examination, respectively, and brought to the department laboratory preserved in 10% formalin for further processing. Fecal samples were processed with qualitative examination viz.; sedimentation technique for identification of the ova. Liver samples were also examined for the presence of gross parasites. Results: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of December (25.97% fecal and 33.33% liver samples) and lowest in the month of May (10.71% fecal and 11.76% liver samples) at Anand district. In the area of Ahmedabad district, the highest prevalence rate was recorded in the month of October and February (26.98%) and lowest in the month of May (10.34%) for the fecal and highest prevalence was observed in the month of February (26.98%) and lowest in May (11.11%) for the liver samples. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the heavy infection is present in Anand and Ahmedabad districts, especially in the month of winter followed by monsoon and the least in summer. PMID:27047167

  2. Disparity in maternal, newborn and child health services in high focus states in India: a district-level cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Ashish; Pandey, C M; Chauhan, Rajesh K; Singh, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the level and trend in the coverage gap of a set of interventions of maternal and child health services using a summary index and to assess the disparity in usage of maternal and child health services in the districts of high focus states of India. Design Data for the present study are taken from the Annual Health Survey (AHS), 2010–2013 and Census of India, 2011. Settings This study used secondary data from states having higher mortality and fertility rates, termed as high focus states in India. Participants District-level information regarding children aged 12–23 months and ever married women aged 15–49 years has been extracted from the AHS (2010–2013), and household amenities, female literacy and main workforce information has been obtained from the Census of India 2011. Measures 2 summary indexes were calculated first for maternal and child health services and another for socioeconomic and development status, using data from AHS and Census. Cronbach's α was used to assess the internal consistency of the items used in the index. Results The result shows that the coverage gap is highest in Uttar Pradesh (37%) and lowest in Madhya Pradesh (21%). Converge gap and socioeconomic development are negatively correlated (r=−0.49, p=0.01). The average coverage gap was highest in the lowest quintile of socioeconomic development. There was an absolute change of 1.5% per year in coverage gap during 2009–2013. In regression analysis, the coefficient of determination was 0.24, β=−30.05, p=0.01 for a negative relationship between socioeconomic development and coverage gap. Conclusions There is a significant disparity in the usage of maternal and child healthcare services in the districts of India. Resource-rich people (urban residents and richest quintile) are way ahead of marginalised people (rural residents and poorest quintile) in the usage of healthcare services. PMID:27496225

  3. Ethno- medico - botanical studies of Badaga population In the Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2008-01-01

    The study grains to explore ethno-medicobotany of Badaga population in the Nilgiri hills of Tamilnadu, South India. Ethno botanical field survey and personal discussion methods have been adopted in the collection of data. A list of 71 flowering plants belonging to 42 families, 67 genera and 70 species are employed by the Badaga popu-lation in their native system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. In reviewing ethnomedical information, data on folk herbal remedies and their various methods of applications for treating a wide range of ailments have been furnished. A brief description of plants, their habitat, family and local Badaga names are outlined here. PMID:22557279

  4. Ethnobotany, traditional knowledge and socioeconomic importance of native drink among the Oraon tribe of Malda district in India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Rai, Ritu; Kar, Pallab; Sen, Arnab; Sarker, Dilip De

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Preparation of daily traditional drink by the indigenous tribes is a common phenomenon in India. Oraon tribes in Malda district of West Bengal, India are very much practiced in making of their own native brew, known as Chullu. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the whole Chullu procedure technology of the region and its socioeconomic effect on Oraon. Ethnomedicinal investigation of local plants involved in Chullu preparation was another aspect of this study. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted from April 2012 to June 2013. Consecutive field surveys were performed to collect information from Chullu producers to focus the procedure technology of local brew by means of semi-structured individual interviews, informal interviews and group discussion. A semi-structured questionnaire process was also performed to obtain the information regarding the ethnic use of plant species involved in Chullu preparation. Results: The present study revealed that four medicinal plant species along with rice having strong local ethnomedicinal value were used to prepare this indigenous drink. Oraon prepare the brew using their unique home-made distillation process. Commercialization of this local brew represents an alternative income to develop their economic condition, especially for poor households. The index of importance value was considered to evaluate the importance, usage, and knowledge of the five studied species. Conclusion: It could be concluded that practices of Chullu preparation represent a bonding between ethnic knowledge and Oraon people of the province. Commercialization of Chullu may be considered as a source of alternative way of income for poor households in the region. PMID:26401382

  5. Oral Health Status of Underground Coal Mine Workers of Ramakrishnapur, Adilabad District, Telangana, India - A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Irram; Mohammad, Shakeel Anjum; Peddireddy, Parthasarathi Reddy; Mocherla, Monica; Koppula, Yadav Rao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Standard of living and quality of life of people has been improved by the expanding industrial activity, but at the other end it has created many occupational hazards. Coal mining is one of the major age old industries throughout the world and in India. Till date very less literature is available worldwide and in India concerning the oral health status of laborers in this field. Aim To assess the oral health status of underground coal mine workers, oral hygiene practices, alcohol and tobacco habits. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the underground coal mine workers of a coal mine located in Adilabad district, Telangana, according to the criteria described in the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form (2013). Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics were done. Results A total of 356 workers participated in the study. Ninety percent of the subjects were with tobacco and/or alcohol habits. Dental caries was prevalent in more than half (55.6%) of the study subjects with a mean DMFT of 2.32±2.99. About 48.3% study subjects were with untreated dental caries and 20.3% subjects were with missing teeth. DMFT ≤=6 was seen in 45.5% of subjects and 10.1% have DMFT scores ≥=7. Periodontal disease was the most prevalent condition seen in the population with 94.4% subjects having unhealthy periodontium in terms of gingival bleeding and/or periodontal pockets. About 186 (52.25%) and 145 (40.73%) of subjects were with 0-3mm and 4-5mm loss of attachment respectively. Fourteen percent of population showed dental traumatic injuries. Conclusion The findings highlighted the high caries prevalence, higher periodontal disease, traumatic injuries which requires immediate intervention. PMID:26894171

  6. Geochemical study of laterites of the Jamnagar district, Gujarat, India: Implications on parent rock, mineralogy and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, R. R.; Randive, K. R.

    2011-11-01

    The laterite deposits occur in a linear stretch along the northern Arabian Sea coast in the Jamnagar and Porbandar districts of, Gujarat state, India. These deposits are characterised by presence of gibbsite, kaoline, calcite, quartz, anatase, natroalunite, goethite and hematite, and relicts of mafic minerals and plagioclase. On the basis of petro-mineralogy and geochemistry, these deposits are grouped as aluminous laterites (Fe 2O 3 - 1.45-3.84%, Av. 3.13, Al 2O 3 - 39.31-57.24, Av. 45.80) and laterites (Fe 2O 3 - 9.84-32.21, Av. 25.13%, Al 2O 3 - 34.74-49.59, Av. 41.27). The major, trace and REE characteristics of laterites indicate that these were formed in situ by the alteration of parent rocks of trachytic/andesitic composition, and the process of bauxitisation followed the path of destruction of kaolinite and deferruginisation. The correlation patterns of several trace and rare earth elements and their preferential enrichment have indicated that there is an influence of precursor rock on the distribution of trace elements. The Jamnagar laterite deposits occur as capping over the Deccan Trap basaltic lava flows and pyroclasic deposits. Lateritisation prevailed during Palaeocene age when India was separated from the Seychelles and passing over the equator. During this time climate, morphology and drainage conditions were favourable for lateritisation that result in the formation of Jamnagar and other laterite deposits within the Deccan Province. Flood basaltic provinces of Deccan, Columbia, North Australia and Hawaii appear good location for hosting laterite deposits due to their wide areal extent, small geological time span and uniform chemical composition. However, comparison of the major flood basaltic provinces of the world has indicated that their palaeopositions along with palaeoclimate, morphology and drainage are equally important factors for facilitating lateritisation.

  7. Assessment and Availability of Trauma Care Services in a District Hospital of South India; A Field Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Uthkarsh, Pallavi Sarji; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Reddy, Sai Sabharish; Rajanna, Mandya Siddalingaiah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the availability of trauma care services in a district referral hospital of Southern India. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed during 2013 in a tertiary healthcare centre in Southern Indian. A detailed assessment of trauma care services was done in a 400 bed speciality hospital which is an apex referral hospital in the public health system using a check list based on WHO guidelines for evaluation of essential trauma care services, along with in-depth interviews of hospital stake holders and key informants. Results: The hospital had physical infrastructure in terms of emergency room, inpatient wards, operation theatres, intensive care unit and blood bank facilities. The recently constructed designated building for trauma care services was not operational and existing facilities were used beyond capacity. A designated trauma team was lacking and speciality services for managing polytrauma were deficient and thus, existing personnel were performing multiple tasks. Neurosurgeons and rehabilitative nursing staff were unavailable, and a radiographer was not available on a 24/7 basis. Existing nursing personnel had not received any formal training in trauma care and standard operating protocols were not available for trauma care. Resources for acute resuscitation were partially adequate. The hospital lacked adequate resources to manage head, abdomen, chest and spine injuries, and most of the polytrauma cases were referred to nearby city hospitals. Conclusion: District hospital, the only referral hospital in public health system for trauma victims of that region, had inadequate resources to manage trauma victims, which was probably responsible for delay in trauma care, improper referrals, high cost of care and poor outcomes. PMID:27331066

  8. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Results: Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71. PMID:24453447

  9. Hydrogeochemical controls on mobilization of arsenic and associated health risk in Nagaon district of the central Brahmaputra Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Patel, Arbind Kumar; Das, Aparna; Kumar, Pankaj; Goswami, Ritusmita; Deka, Parismita; Das, Nilotpal

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, elevated concentration of arsenic (As) in groundwater in the northeastern states of India has become a major cause of concern. Since many regions of the Brahmaputra plains are reported with groundwater As contamination, an attempt was made to study the As contamination and factors governing its release in the Nagaon district in Brahmaputra floodplain, based on various water types, relation of As with other major ions and with various depth profiles. The origin of groundwater mineralization and the processes responsible for As enrichment in groundwater was determined by calculating saturation index using PHREEQC code. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out for identification of As-releasing mechanism based on rock-water interaction. Principle component analysis of physicochemical parameters revealed the association of As with SiO2 and Cl(-) in pre-monsoon and the fact that alkaline condition favors release of As. The relation between As and Fe shows that reductive dissolution of solid Fe oxide and hydroxide phases could be the source of As in Nagaon district. The result of hierarchical cluster analysis indicates that As release could also be associated with the agrochemicals application. Health risk assessment revealed that children are more susceptible to carcinogenic as well as non-carcinogenic health impact with consumption of As-contaminated drinking water. The male population is more susceptible to cancer as compared to females as the average water consumption is higher in case of male. Overall, the study highlights the health risk assessment is a matter of chief concern in this study as the younger generation are at higher risk.

  10. Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Manchanda, Neha; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Jeet, Gursimer; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Various models of referral transport services have been introduced in different States in India with an aim to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Most of the research on referral transport has focussed on coverage, quality and timeliness of the service with not much information on cost and efficiency. This study was undertaken to analyze the cost of a publicly financed and managed referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, and to assess its cost and technical efficiency. Methods: Data on all resources spent for delivering referral transport service, during 2010, were collected from three districts of Haryana State. Costs incurred at State level were apportioned using appropriate methods. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to assess the technical efficiency of ambulances. To estimate the efficient scale of operation for ambulance service, the average cost was regressed on kilometres travelled for each ambulance station using a quadratic regression equation. Results: The cost of referral transport per year varied from ₹5.2 million in Narnaul to ₹9.8 million in Ambala. Salaries (36-50%) constituted the major cost. Referral transport was found to be operating at an average efficiency level of 76.8 per cent. Operating an ambulance with a patient load of 137 per month was found to reduce unit costs from an average ₹ 15.5 per km to ₹ 9.57 per km. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the publicly delivered referral transport services in Haryana were operating at an efficient level. Increasing the demand for referral transport services among the target population represents an opportunity for further improving the efficiency of the underutilized ambulances. PMID:24521648

  11. Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: an assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India).

    PubMed

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H P

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contamination status of groundwater in Brahmaputra flood plain Barpeta District, Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River flows from the southern part of the district and its many tributaries flow from north to south. Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are estimated by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200. The quantity of heavy metals in drinking water should be checked time to time; as heavy metal accumulation will cause numerous problems to living being. Forty groundwater samples were collected mainly from tube wells from the flood plain area. As there is very little information available about the heavy metal contamination status in the heavily populated study area, the present work will help to be acquainted with the suitability of groundwater for drinking applications as well as it will enhance the database. The concentration of iron exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 0.3 mg/L in about 80% of the samples, manganese values exceed 0.4 mg/L in about 22.5% of the samples, and lead values also exceed limit in 22.5% of the samples. Cd is reported in only four sampling locations and three of them exceed the WHO permissible limit (0.003 mg/L). Zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. Therefore, pressing awareness is needed for the betterment of water quality; for the sake of safe drinking water. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  12. Description of a new evacanthine leafhopper species Sophonia chandrai sp. nov., with new record of Chudania axona (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Naresh M; Ramamurthy, V V

    2013-01-01

    A new evacanthine leafhopper, Sophonia chandrai sp. nov., is described from Manipur, India. The Chinese species, Chudania axona Zhang and Yang is recorded from Meghalaya, India and redescribed. A detailed morphological description, illustrations and photographs are provided. Material is deposited in the National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India. A key to the known species of Chudania from the Indian sub-continent is also included.

  13. Burden of Self-Reported Noncommunicable Diseases in 26 Villages of Anand District of Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Raithatha, Shyamsundar J; Gupta, Shanti; Raj, Ravi; Kharod, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for 53% of deaths and 44% of disability adjusted life years lost in India. A survey was undertaken to measure the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use and self-reported NCDs in a rural community in western part of India. Methodology. Trained Village Health Workers did the survey in the years 2012-13 under supervision. The data was collected for five NCDs, namely, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, heart disease, and mental illnesses. Results. 18,269 households with a population of 89755 were covered. Prevalence of any form of tobacco use in the age group of >20 years was 34.5 and 52.7% and 15.2% in males and females, respectively. Prevalence of any NCD was 5.3% with a slightly higher prevalence in females (5.4%) than males (5.2%) in the age group of 20-69 years. Prevalence of NCD multimorbidity (≥2 NCDs) was 0.7% in the age group of 20-69 years. 80.7% of hypertensives and 94.9% of diabetics were taking treatment. More females than males were taking antihypertensive treatment. Conclusion. Tobacco use was high. Prevalence of NCDs was less than that reported in other studies. Data generated from this study can be useful in planning a community based NCD programme.

  14. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of surface water quality of Pratapgarh district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    The hydrogeochemical study of surface water in Pratapgarh district has been carried out to assess the major ion chemistry and water quality for drinking and domestic purposes. For this purpose, twenty-five surface water samples were collected from river, ponds and canals and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, hardness, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), major anions (HCO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-) and dissolved silica concentration. The analytical results show mildly acidic to alkaline nature of surface water resources of Pratapgarh district. HCO3 - and Cl- are the dominant anions, while cation chemistry is dominated by Na+ and Ca2+. The statistical analysis and data plotted on the Piper diagram reveals that the surface water chemistry is mainly controlled by rock weathering with secondary contributions from agriculture and anthropogenic sources. Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 -, Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- and Na+-HCO3 --Cl- are the dominant hydrogeochemical facies in the surface water of the area. For quality assessment, values of analysed parameters were compared with Indian and WHO water quality standards, which shows that the concentrations of TDS, F-, NO3 -, Na+, Mg2+ and total hardness are exceeding the desirable limits in some water samples. Water Quality Index (WQI) is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of any water body. The computed WQI values of Pratapgarh district surface water range from 28 to 198 with an average value of 82, and more than half of the study area is under excellent to good category.

  15. Predictors of knowledge towards malaria of rural tribal communities in Dhalai District of Tripura, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Debbarma, A

    2013-10-01

    Reduction of malarial morbidity and mortality is one of the top public health priorities in Tripura and the Country. To achieve these targets it is imperative to have active community participation to control malaria. Community participation in turn depends on people's knowledge and attitude towards the disease. This study was conducted to examine the factors that predict the knowledge of rural tribal communities in Dhalai district of Tripura towards malaria. This community based epidemiological cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Dhalai district of Tripura. A pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting socio-demographic and malaria-related KAP information was administered to the 216 adult respondents from a representative sample of households. As a whole, there were 147(68.1%) illiterate respondents. Out of them, 89(41.2%) persons were male and 58(26.9%) were female. Correct knowledge about the cause of malaria was 2.77 times higher in males than females and 11.53 times higher in literate tribal people than in illiterate. Correct knowledge about the symptoms fever, chills, and rigors of malaria were also higher in male sex and in literate tribal people. Use of smoke as preventive measure was very high among the respondents. Common predictors of correct knowledge about etiology and clinical features of malaria were in male Tripuri and Reang community. Use of smoke for killing of adult mosquito was predicted by illiteracy. Promotion of literacy and participation in health education are vital component in terms of knowledge and practice.

  16. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

  17. Skill of frontline workers implementing integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: experience from a district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Akhil B; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mandal, Nirmal K; Panja, Tanamy K; Sinha, Nirmalya; Mitra, Kaninika

    2011-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Purulia district, West Bengal, India, to assess the skill of 155 frontline workers implementing Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) and the logistic support thereof. The skills of counting respiratory rate, assessing immunization status in both age groups, assessment of breastfeeding in young infants and plotting of weight in a growth chart in case of children aged 2-59 months were acquired by majority of workers. Around two-thirds workers synthesized correct classification and nearly 60% gave appropriate management of at least one subgroup. In 30-40% cases, carers received feeding advices. Around 50% casesheets were complete and timely report submission rate was nearly 70%. Necessary equipments were available with majority of workers except the utensils for preparation of ORS. The supply of essential drugs varied from 33.5 to 71.6%. These findings suggest that IMNCI program offered a scope for capacity-building and infrastructure strengthening of the health system.

  18. DOTS-based tuberculosis treatment and control during civil conflict and an HIV epidemic, Churachandpur District, India.

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Alison J.; Toole, Mike; Lalnuntluangi, Baby; Muana, V.; Deutschmann, Peter

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To pilot the WHO guidelines on DOTS for tuberculosis (TB) among displaced people affected by conflict in Churachandpur District, Manipur State, north-east India, which has endured an HIV epidemic, injecting drug use, civil unrest, high levels of TB, and poor TB treatment and prevention services for many years. METHODS: Prerequisites for TB control programmes were established. WHO guidelines and protocols were adapted for local use. Outreach workers were appointed from each ethnic group involved in the conflict, and training was conducted. Quality control and evaluation processes were introduced. FINDINGS: TB was diagnosed in 178 people between June and December 1998. Of the 170 with pulmonary disease, 85 were smear-positive. Successful outcomes were recorded in 91% of all patients and in 86% of smear-positive cases of pulmonary TB. The default rate and the mortality rate were low at 3% each. HIV positive serostatus was the only factor associated with a poor treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: TB treatment and control were possible in a conflict setting and WHO targets for cure were attainable. The factors associated with the success of the programme were strong local community support, the selection of outreach workers from each ethnic group to allow access to all areas and patients, the use of directly observed therapy three times a week instead of daily in the interest of increased safety, and the limiting of distances travelled by both outreach workers and patients. PMID:12132001

  19. Site specific toxicological risk from fluoride exposure through ingestion of vegetables and cereal crops in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2011-05-01

    A study was carried out to assess toxicological risk from the fluoride (F) exposure due to ingestion of vegetables and cereal crops such as rice and wheat grown in potentially fluoridated area (brick kiln and sodic areas), of different age groups in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Fluoride contents in vegetables and cereal were found to be in the order brick kiln sites>sodic sites>normal sites. Among vegetables maximum F concentration was found in spinach and mint, whereas in cereal crops, wheat accumulated more F than rice. The exposure dose of F was determined using estimated daily intake (EDI) and bio-concentration factor (BCF) of F. The children of age group 3-14 years in the potentially fluoridated area were found to be at the risk of fluorosis. The mean BCF value of F was the highest in mint (36.6 mg/kg(dwt) plant/mg/kg(dwt) soil), followed by spinach (33.99 mg/kg(dwt) plant.mg/kg(dwt) soil).

  20. Population fluctuation of soil and plant parasitic nematodes at Khangabok Wangbal Government silkfarm, Wangbal, Thoubal district Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Chanu, L Bina; Mohilal, N; Shah, M Manjur

    2010-12-01

    The population fluctuation of nematodes around the rhizospheric regions of mulberrry plants at Khangabok Wangbal Government Silk farm, Wangbal, Thoubal District, Manipur, India was studied in relation to environmental factors like soil moisture content, soil pH, soil temperature, rainfall and moisture content of air for a consecutive period of three years, 2006-2008. During 2006, nematode population was highest in the month of May with very high rainfall (174.2 mm). Positive correlation of nematode population was found with soil temperature, soil pH, rainfall and relative humidity and negative correlation with soil moisture. During 2007, nematode population was highest in the month of May with least soil moisture and highest rainfall (15.1 p.c. and 190.6 mm). Nematode population had positive correlations with soil moisture, temperature, pH, rainfall and relative humidity of air. During 2008, nematode population was highest in the month of April with highest soil temperature of 24.8 degrees C, 66.0 p.c. moderate relative humidity and 21.0 mm rainfall. There were positive correlation with soil temperature and pH, and negative correlation with soil moisture, rainfall and relative humidity. Lowest nematode population was found during January (2006), and during December (2007, 2008) there were negligible rain and sometimes no rainfall at all. Among all dorylaimids, tylenchids, aphelenchids and mononchids, Helicotylenchus sp. pertain the most numerous nematode species in all the three years and seasons.

  1. Costs and consequences of a cash transfer for hospital births in a rural district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-08-01

    The Janani Suraksha Yojana, India's "safe motherhood program," is a conditional cash transfer to encourage women to give birth in health facilities. Despite the program's apparent success in increasing facility-based births, quantitative evaluations have not found corresponding improvements in health outcomes. This study analyses original qualitative data collected between January, 2012 and November, 2013 in a rural district in Uttar Pradesh to address the question of why the program has not improved health outcomes. It finds that health service providers are focused on capturing economic rents associated with the program, and provide an extremely poor quality care. Further, the program does not ultimately provide beneficiaries a large net monetary transfer at the time of birth. Based on a detailed accounting of the monetary costs of hospital and home deliveries, this study finds that the value of the transfer to beneficiaries is small due to costs associated with hospital births. Finally, this study also documents important emotional and psychological costs to women of delivering in the hospital. These findings suggest the need for a substantial rethinking of the program, paying careful attention to incentivizing health outcomes.

  2. Feeding practices and early childhood caries: a cross-sectional study of preschool children in kanpur district, India.

    PubMed

    Prakasha Shrutha, Santhebachalli; Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Giri, Kolli Yada; Alam, Sarwar

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children's health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3-5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3-5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur district, India. Dental caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria. A pretested questionnaire with 9 questions was used for collecting information regarding mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. Chi-square test (χ (2)) and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 48% with mean dmft of 2.03 ± 2.99. Boys (57%) were affected more than girls (43%) which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Caries prevalence was high and statistically significant (P < 0.05) among those who were breast fed for longer duration, during nighttime, those falling asleep with bottle, and those fed with additional sugar in milk. Conclusion. Determining the role of feeding practices on early childhood caries can help in the development of appropriate oral health promotion strategies.

  3. Primordial radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) measurements for soils of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Badhan, K; Mehra, R

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the activity concentration and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) for the soil of different villages of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India using a high-purity germanium detector based on high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil samples have been found to be 28.58, 50.95 and 569.59 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which gives the total gamma dose rate contribution of 68.50 nGy h(-1). To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the effective dose rate have been calculated. The calculated radium equivalent activity values are on the lower side of the recommended safe limit value of 370 Bq kg(-1) by Organization of Economic and Control Department. The calculated value of external health hazard index is lower than unity.

  4. Hydrogeochemical processes and impact of tanning industries on groundwater quality in Ambur, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kanagaraj, G; Elango, L

    2016-12-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and the impact of tanning industries on groundwater in Ambur, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Thirty groundwater samples were collected during pre monsoon (July 2015) and post monsoon (January 2016) from the open and shallow wells around this region and were analyzed for major ions and chromium. The major ion concentration follows the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) (cations) and Cl(-) > HCO3(-) > SO4(2-) > NO3(-) (anions) for both seasons. The high concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and Cr around the tannery regions indicate the impact of effluent discharged from tannery units. In general, the groundwater of this study area is of Na(+)-Cl(-) type, which is due to the mixing of tannery effluent and cation exchange process. Ionic ratio indicates that the silicate weathering influences the groundwater chemistry. The permissible limit of chromium in the groundwater exceeds in over 50 % of the sampling wells. The factor analysis reveals that the dominant source for ionic contents is due to tannery effluents and cation exchange processes. To overcome this situation, it is essential to improve the performance of the effluent treatment plants so as to remove the salinity of wastewater and to plan for rainfall recharge structures for improving the groundwater recharge.

  5. RADIATION DOSE DUE TO RADON AND HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES OF JAMMU DISTRICT, JAMMU & KASHMIR, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Kaur, M; Sharma, S; Mehra, R; Sharma, D K; Mishra, R

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation, radon concentration and heavy metal analysis were carried out in drinking water samples in Jammu district, Jammu & Kashmir, India. The radon concentration was measured by using RAD-7, portable alpha particle detector. The values of radon concentration in drinking water samples were also compared within the safe limit recommended by different health agencies. The total annual effective dose ranged from 53.04 to 197.29 µSv y(-1) The annual effective dose from few locations from the studied area was found to be greater than the safe limit (100 µSv y(-1)) suggested by World Health Organisation (WHO) and EU Council. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of eight elements were analysed, viz. arsenic, mercury, zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Heavy metals are considered to be the major pollutants of water sources. The results were compared with the limits of WHO, EU and Indian organisations. The trace metal analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit in all the samples.

  6. Assessment of nitrate contamination due to groundwater pollution in north eastern part of Anantapur District, A.P. India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A G S; Niranjan Kumar, K; Subba Rao, D; Sambashiva Rao, S

    2009-01-01

    The north eastern part of Anantapur district is in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, is significant as it is covered by varied geological formations and has different land use and irrigation practices. Though ground water is the major drinking water source, deterioration in its quality is going unchecked. In such agro-economy based rural areas, the nitrate contamination is rampant and much attention has not been drawn towards this anthropogenic pollution. In the study area ground water samples from different hydrogeological set-up have been collected during the pre and post monsoon seasons and analysed for the major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, CO(3), HCO(3), Cl, SO(4), NO(3) and F. The study revealed that 65% of the samples were found to be unsuitable for drinking purposes in the pre monsoon season and 45% in the post monsoon due to excess nitrate (>45 mg/l) content in the ground water. Among the different seasons and environs, nitrate was in highest concentration in the granitic terrain and canal command areas during pre monsoon season. The nitrate was found to decrease with depth in all the hydrogeological set-ups in both the seasons. Intense agriculture practices, improper sewerage and organic waste disposal methods were observed to contribute nitrate to the shallow and moderately deep aquifers.

  7. Evaluation of the groundwater quality feasibility zones for irrigational purposes through GIS in Omalur Taluk, Salem District, South India.

    PubMed

    Karunanidhi, D; Vennila, G; Suresh, M; Subramanian, S K

    2013-10-01

    The present work is employed in Omalur Taluk (study area 538.10 km(2)), Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India. Eighty-nine groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon (May) 2011 and were analyzed for major cations and anions. The irrigational parameters like; EC, Kelley's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values, Mg(2+) hazards, HCO3 (-) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) have been worked out to know the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational purpose. Wilcox diagram indicates that out of 89 samples, 39 samples belong to good permissible category and Doneen diagram revealed that 98.88 % of the groundwater samples fall in Class I. The plotting of SAR values in USSL diagram indicates that all the samples have low SAR value. Out of 89 samples, 44 samples were in C3-S1 field. This implies that no alkali hazard is anticipated to the crops. In 44 locations (49.44 %), samples fall within C3-S1 category. This category is suitable for irrigation purpose. However, the concentration of bicarbonate was in significant amount showing 82 % of sites under "increasing problem" and the 4 % sites under "Severe Problem" zones. Finally, the above-said results are taken into a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. To understand the spatial distribution of unsuitable zones, ArcGIS was employed. The present work reveals that groundwater in the Omalur Taluk is of good quality and is suitable for all uses including interbrain water transfer in the region.

  8. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  9. An outbreak of scrub typhus in Bishnupur district of Manipur, India, 2007.

    PubMed

    Singh, S Ibungochouba; Devi, K Purnamala; Tilotama, Rajkumari; Ningombam, Somorjit; Gopalkrishna, Y; Singh, Thokchom Biren; Murhekar, Manoj V

    2010-07-01

    Seasonal outbreaks of febrile illness with eschar have been occurring in Bishnupur district of Manipur since 2001. The aetiology of these outbreaks was unknown. We investigated a similar outbreak in 2007 in order to confirm the aetiology and identify its risk factors. We identified 38 patients who met the case definition (attack rate: 3.4/1000), including two deaths (case fatality ratio = 5.3%). Half of the female patients had eschar on the perineal area. The clinical picture and Weil-Felix positivity suggested that the outbreak was due to scrub typhus. The disease was more common among individuals who defecated or urinated in the jungle or bushy areas from a squatting position. We recommended educating the community about the common symptoms of the disease, encouraging them to seek early treatment from public health facilities and suggested that they be taught to avoid defecating/urinating from a squatting position in the jungle.

  10. Heavy metal concentration in the coastal wetlands of Thiruvananthapuram district, southern India.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K S; Joseph, Sabu; Thomas, Jobin

    2010-04-01

    Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the surficial sediments of the four coastal wetlands, viz. Poovar, Poonthura, Akkulam-Veli and Kadinamkulam-Anjengo-Akathumuri of Thiruvananthapuram are presented in this study. Further the statistical tools like contamination factor (CF), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI) are used to assess the heavy metal pollution. Among the wetlands, Poonthura and Akkulam-Veli were polluted by the heavy metals, as very high values are observed for Pb and Cu indicating high build up of these metals in the sediments. The highest value of CF can be attributed to anthropogenic inputs mainly from urban domestic sewage and land run-off. Based on the value of CF, PLI and Igeo, the Poonthura and Akkulam-Veli wetlands are identified as potential 'hot spots' in the district.

  11. Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in Erode District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kavidha, R; Elangovan, K

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the recurring environmental issues regarding hazardous waste, global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, groundwater contamination, disaster mitigation and removal of pollutant have become the focus of environmental attention. In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. In order to assess the quality and/or suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation in Erode District, 144 water samples each in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon during the year 2007 were collected and analyzed for various parameters. These parameters were compared with IS: 10500-1991 drinking water standards. Out of 144 samples, 29 samples exceeded the permissible limit for both the monsoons, 71 samples were within the permissible limit for both the monsoons and the remaining samples exceeded the permissible limit for any one of the monsoon. During both monsoons, except some samples, most of the samples were suitable for drinking and irrigation.

  12. Geochemical evaluation of fluoride contamination of groundwater in the Thoothukudi District of Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singaraja, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Thivya, C.; Thilagavathi, R.; Sarathidasan, J.

    2014-09-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that has been shown to cause significant effects on human health through drinking water. Different forms of fluoride exposure are of importance and have shown to affect the body's fluoride content and thus increasing the risks of fluoride-prone diseases. Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth; however, low concentrations of fluoride intensify the risk of tooth decay. Fluoride can also be quite detrimental at higher concentrations at skeletal fluorosis. The Thoothukudi District is a hard rock and alluvial plain marked as one of the Fluoride-increase area in Tamilnadu due to occurrence of various rock types including fluoride-bearing minerals. The F- content of groundwater can thus originate from the dissolution of Fluoride-bearing minerals in the bed rock. Hundred representative groundwater samples from Thoothukudi District were collected during two different seasons. Samples were analysed for F-, other major cations and anions. The study area is chiefly composed of hornblende biotite gneiss, charnockite, alluvio marine, fluvial marine and granite with small patches of quartzite and sandstone. Higher concentration of fluoride is observed during pre-monsoon (3.3 mg l-1) compared to the post-monsoon (2.4 mg l-1) due to the dilution effect. Spatial distribution and factor score show that higher concentrations of F- are noted in the north and central part of the study area owing to lithology. Bicarbonate is well correlated with F- which explains that both ions were derived from the weathering. While F- has a very weak correlation with pH which may be due to the increase of alkalinity resulting from the increase of carbonate and bicarbonate ions.

  13. Landscape Heterogeneity mapping for Access to Tribal health care in Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, B.; Prashanthi Devi, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Nilgiris district in Tamilnadu has a rich biodiversity in terms of flora, fauna and ethnic population. The district is basically a mountainous region, situated at an elevation of 2000 to 2,600 meters above MSL and constituting of several hill and Steep Mountain valleys. This region houses six tribes who are mainly forest dwellers and live in close settlements depending on the forest resources for their livelihood. The Tribes of Nilgiris have been diagnosed and monitored for Sickle cell Anemia which is a disease of major concern among these ethnic populations. This genetic disorder developed due to the sickling of Red Blood Cells has increased during the past few decades. The Tribes, as they live in close encounter with the forest regions and have strict social cultural barriers, face difficulty in availing treatment or counseling from the Sickle Cell Research Center (SCRC) and other NGOs like NAWA and AHWINI in the region. It was observed that many factors such as landscape terrain, climatic conditions and improper roads tend to hinder the access to appropriate health care. The SCRC in Gudalur region is a facility established to monitor the disease cases inspite of these influencing factors. On analyzing the year bound age wise classification among male and female patients, certain dropouts in cases were observed which may be due to inaccessible condition or migration of the patient. In our study, Landscape heterogeneity mapping for different climatic seasons was done in ArcGIS 10.1. For this, contour and terrain maps, road networks and villages were prepared and factors that determine Terrain Difficulty were assessed. Vegetation mapping using IRS satellite images for the study region was attempted and associated with the landscape map. A risk analysis was proposed based on terrain difficulty and access to the nearest Health care Center. Based on this, the above factors alternate routes were suggested to access the difficult areas.

  14. Groundwater quality assessment using geospatial and statistical tools in Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.

    2016-11-01

    The water quality study of Salem district, Tamil Nadu has been carried out to assess the water quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. For this purpose, 59 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), major anions (HCO3 -, CO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO2 - + NO3 -, and SO4 2-), major cations (Ca2+ Mg2+, Na+, and K+), alkalinity (ALK), and hardness (HAR). To assess the water quality, the following chemical parameters were calculated based on the analytical results, such as Piper plot, water quality index (WQI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH), Kelly index (KI), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC). Wilcox diagram represents that 23% of the samples are excellent to good, 40% of the samples are good to permissible, 10% of the samples are permissible to doubtful, 24% of the samples are doubtful unsuitable, and only 3% of the samples are unsuitable for irrigation. SAR values shows that 52% of the samples indicate high-to-very high and low-to-medium alkali water. KI values indicate good quality (30%) and not suitable (70%) for irrigation purposes. RSC values indicate that 89% of samples are suitable for irrigation purposes. MH reveals that 17% suitable and 83% samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes and for domestic purposes the excellent (8%), good (48%), and poor (44%). The agricultural waste, fertilizer used, soil leaching, urban runoff, livestock waste, and sewages are the sources of poor water quality. Some samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes due to high salinity, hardness, and magnesium concentration. In general, the groundwater of the Salem district was polluted by agricultural activities, anthropogenic activities, ion exchange, and weathering.

  15. Geospatial modelling for groundwater quality mapping: a case study of Rupnagar district, Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, S.; Kaur, A.; Litoria, P.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Over period of time, the water usage and management is under stress for various reasons including pollution in both surface and subsurface. The groundwater quality decreases due to the solid waste from urban and industrial nodes, rapid use of insecticides and pesticides in agricultural practices. In this study, ground water quality maps for Rupnagar district of Punjab has been prepared using geospatial interpolation technique through Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach. IDW technique has been used for major ground water quality parameters observed from the field samples like Arsenic, Hardness, pH, Iron, Fluoride, TDS, and Sulphate. To assess the ground water quality of the Rupnagar district, total 280 numbers of samples from various sources of tubewells for both pre and post monsoon have collected. Out of which, 80 to 113 samples found Iron with non potable limits ranging 0.3-1.1mg/l and 0.3-1.02mg/l according to BIS standard for both the seasons respectively. Chamkaur Sahib, Rupnagar, Morinda blocks have been found non potable limit of iron in both pre & post-monsoon. 11 to 52 samples in this region have sulphate with permissible limits in both the season ranging 200-400mg/l and 201-400mg/l. But arsenic had acceptable limit in both the season. Various parameters-wise ground water quality map is generated using the range values of drinking water quality to know the distribution of different parameters and diversification in the concentration of different elements. These maps are very much needful for human being to expand awareness among the people to maintain the Cleanness of water at their highest quality and purity levels to achieve a healthy life.

  16. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  17. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making.

  18. Groundwater hydrochemistry of a sugarcane cultivation belt in parts of Muzaffarnagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, R.; Khan, M. Muqtada A.; Absar, A.

    2006-04-01

    The Kali-Hindon is a watershed in the most productive central Ganga plain of India. The whole area is a fertile track with sugarcane being the principal crop. Systematic sampling was carried out to assess the source of dissolved ions, impact of sugar factories and the quality of groundwater. Thirty-six samples were collected covering an area of 395 km2. The quality of groundwater is suitable for irrigational purposes but is rich in SO4 which is not best for human consumption. Graphical treatment of major ion chemistry helps identify six chemical types of groundwater. All possible species such as Na Cl, K Cl, Na HCO3, Na SO4, Ca HCO3, Mg HCO3, Ca SO4 and Mg SO4 are likely to occur in the groundwater system. The most conspicuous change in chemistry of groundwater is relative enrichment of SO4. The interpretation of data reveals that SO4 has not been acquired through water rock interaction. The source of SO4 is anthropogenic. Sugar factories alone are responsible for this potential environmental hazard.

  19. First report of the Gondwana genus Beatogordius from India, with further records of two Chordodes species (Gordiida, Nematomorpha).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun K; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Limatemjen

    2017-01-01

    Three horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) are recorded from Nagaland, India. The first species is Chordodes combiareolatus, which was recently described from Nagaland. The second is Chordodes cf. furnessi, earlier reported from Meghalaya, and some new observations are added. The third is a new species, described as Beatogordius nagalandissp. n. This is the first report of the genus Beatogordius in India and this observation fits well into the Gondwana distribution of the genus. The species is quite similar to Beatogordius chinensis, reported from South China.

  20. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1).

  1. Origin and evolution of Gneiss-Charnockite rocks of Dharmapuri District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. Rameshwar; Narayana, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A low- to high-grade transition area in Dharmapuri district was investigated petrologically and geochemically. The investigation confirmed the presence of a continuous section through a former lower crust, with felsic charnockites predominating the lower part and felsic gneisses the upper part. The structure of original gneisses is preserved in charnockites and the latter show petrographic evidence for prograde metamorphism. The prograde metamorphism is of isochemical nature as revealed by the similarity of compositions of tonalitic gneisses and tonalitic charnockites. However, the depletion of LIL elements particularly Rb, caused variation in K/Rb ratios from low values (345) in the gneisses in upper part to higher values (1775) in the charnockites in the lower crust. This variation in K/Rb ratio in a north to south traverse is related to the progressive break-down of hydrous minerals under decreasing H2O and increasing CO2 fluid conditions. Metasomatism and partial melting has also taken place to a limited extent along shear planes and weak zones. During cooling the H2O circulation affected substantial auto-regression in the transition zone resulting in the formation of second generation biotite.

  2. Correlation between water fluoride levels and dental caries in Davangere District, India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S; Anuradha, K P

    2003-01-01

    Areas with natural fluoride in the drinking water are natural laboratories where the effect of fluoride on dental caries can be studied in a real life situation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of dental caries and to study its correlation with fluoride in the drinking water in Davangere District. 1128 school children in the age groups of 12 and 15 years from 12 villages with different concentrations of fluoride in drinking water were studied. Ion Selective electrode method (Orion, USA) was used to estimate Fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Dentition Status (WHO, 1997) was used to assess dental caries status. Results showed that there was a significant trend towards reduction in dental caries with increase in water fluoride levels. A negative correlation between fluoride levels and mean DMFT was seen among the subjects with the Karl Pearson's Correlation Co efficient being -0.65 and -0.72 for the 12 and 15 year olds respectively. It was concluded from the study that although dental caries was negatively associated with increasing fluoride levels, the problem of attendant dental fluorosis should also be considered seriously.

  3. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions.

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation use in Alathur Block, Perambalur District, Tamilnadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafar Ahamed, A.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Loganathan, K.; Manikandan, K.

    2013-12-01

    The suitability of groundwater for irrigation uses was assessed in Alathur Block located in Perambalur District of the state of Tamil Nadu. Groundwater samples from ten villages were analyzed in two seasons for major cations, anions and other parameters such as electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Kelly's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), magnesium ratio, % sodium, chloro-alkaline indices, residual sodium carbonate and permeability index to know the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. Piper trilinear diagram interpretations were made to know the suitability of chemical type of the groundwater. It reveals that the subsurface water is alkaline (Na + K) than the alkaline earth (Ca + Mg) type. According to the SAR values plotted in the USSL Staff diagram, most of the groundwater samples belong to class high-salinity hazard and low-sodium hazard (C3-S1) and high-salinity hazard and medium-sodium hazard (C3-S2), which indicate that the groundwater of most stations require a special type of irrigation method.

  5. Assessment of fluoride contaminations in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivya, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Rao, M. S.; Thilagavathi, R.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manikandan, S.

    2015-07-01

    The fluoride contamination in drinking water is already gone to the alarming level and it needs the immediate involvement and attention of all people to solve this problem. Fluoride problem is higher in hard rock terrains in worldwide and Madurai is such type of hard rock region. Totally 54 samples were collected from the Madurai district of Tamilnadu with respect to lithology. The samples collected were analysed for major cations and anions using standard procedures. The higher concentration of fluoride is noted in the Charnockite rock types of northern part of the study area. 20 % of samples are below 0.5 ppm and 6 % of samples are above 1.5 ppm exceeding the permissible limit. The affinity between the pH and fluoride ions in groundwater suggests that dissolution of fluoride bearing minerals in groundwater. The higher concentration of fluoride ions are observed in the lower EC concentration. The isotopic study suggests that fluoride is geogenic in nature. In factor scores, fluoride is noted in association with pH which indicates the dissolution process.

  6. Indigenous knowledge of plants in local healthcare management practices by tribal people of Malda district, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Sarker, Dilip De; Kar, Pallab; Gupta, Piyali Sen; Sen, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed at exploring the indigenous knowledge of native tribes on the utilization of wild plant species for local healthcare management in Malda district of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Successive field surveys were carried out from July 2012 to August 2013 in search of traditional healers or practitioners who ceaselessly use their worthy knowledge to treat several ailments for human purposes. The information was collected by means of open-ended conversations, semi-structured questionnaire, group discussion, etc. Information obtained from the informants was also cross verified to check the authenticity. Results: The present study revealed that a total of 53 medicinal plants belonging to the 37 families are frequently used to treat 44 types of ailments with 88 herbal preparations. Of 53 plants, herbs possess the highest growth forms (32%) that were used in making traditional preparation, followed by shrubs (24%), trees (23%), climbers (17%), and parasites (4%). Roots comprised the major plant parts used (25%), followed by leaves (21%), seeds (17%), bark (13%), whole plant (8%) and fruits (6%) to prepare the medicinal formulations. The chief ailments treated in this province were azoospermia, diabetes, menstrual disorder, dysentery, rheumatism, etc. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the documentation of the ethnobotanical knowledge in management of local healthcare is the first step, which will open new door for the researchers in the field of modern drug development. PMID:26401370

  7. Assessment of Universal Healthcare Coverage in a District of North India: A Rapid Cross-Sectional Survey Using Tablet Computers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarundeep; Roy, Pritam; Jamir, Limalemla; Gupta, Saurav; Kaur, Navpreet; Jain, D. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective A rapid survey was carried out in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar District of Punjab state in India to ascertain health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket health expenditures. Methods Using multistage cluster sampling design, 1,008 households (28 clusters x 36 households in each cluster) were selected proportionately from urban and rural areas. Households were selected through a house-to-house survey during April and May 2014 whose members had (a) experienced illness in the past 30 days, (b) had illness lasting longer than 30 days, (c) were hospitalized in the past 365 days, or (d) had women who were currently pregnant or experienced childbirth in the past two years. In these selected households, trained investigators, using a tablet computer-based structured questionnaire, enquired about the socio-demographics, nature of illness, source of healthcare, and healthcare and household expenditure. The data was transmitted daily to a central server using wireless communication network. Mean healthcare expenditures were computed for various health conditions. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure was defined as more than 10% of the total annual household expenditure on healthcare. Chi square test for trend was used to compare catastrophic expenditures on hospitalization between households classified into expenditure quartiles. Results The mean monthly household expenditure was 15,029 Indian Rupees (USD 188.2). Nearly 14.2% of the household expenditure was on healthcare. Fever, respiratory tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases were the common acute illnesses, while heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases were the more common chronic diseases. Hospitalizations were mainly due to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal problems, and accidents. Only 17%, 18%, 20% and 31% of the healthcare for acute illnesses, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations and childbirth was sought in the government health facilities. Average expenditure in government health

  8. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India's extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step.

  9. Fluoride distribution in groundwater and survey of dental fluorosis among school children in the villages of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J P; Lata, Suman; Kataria, Sudhir K; Kumar, Sunil

    2009-08-01

    Fluoride concentration of groundwater reserves occurs in many places in the world. A critical area for such contamination in India is alluvial soil of the plain region, consisting of five blocks (Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, Beri, Matanhail, and Sahalawas) of the Jhajjar District adjacent to the National Capital Territory of India, New Delhi. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between water fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India. The fluoride content in underground drinking water sources was found to vary in villages. Hence, the villages were categorized as high-fluoride villages (1.52-4.0 mg F/l) and low/normal-fluoride villages (0.30-1.0 mg F/l). The source of dental fluorosis data was school-going children (7-15 years) showing different stages and types of fluorosis who were permanent resident of these villages. The fraction of dental fluorosis-affected children varied from 30% to 94.85% in the high-fluoride villages and from 8.80% to 28.20% in the low/normal-fluoride villages. The results of the present study revealed that there existed a significant positive correlation between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental fluorosis in high-fluoride villages (r = 0.508; p < 0.001) and insignificant correlation in low-fluoride villages.

  10. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  11. Morphological characterization of some representative species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae; Gryllinae; Gryllini) from India.

    PubMed

    Mal, Jhabar; Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-05-05

    Morphological characterization of some common species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Gryllidae: Gryllinae) from India is presented. In all, 5 species were identified that included two, Loxoblemmus equestris Saussure and Loxoblemmus haani Saussure, from the sub-humid regions of Rajasthan (South West India) and Madhya Pradesh (Central India); while three species, Loxoblemmus taicoun Saussure, Loxoblemmus jacobsoni Chopard and Loxoblemmus intermedius Chopard from the humid hilly regions of Meghalaya and Assam (North East India). Of the 5 reported species, based on the comparative linear measurements, L. haani is relatively larger than the other species encountered.

  12. Regional flood reconstruction in Kullu District (Himachal Pradesh, India): implication for Disaster Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Stoffel, Markus; Trappmann, Daniel; Shekhar, Mayank; Bhattacharyya, Amalava

    2016-04-01

    simultaneously in more than two catchments, and that in 15% of the cases more than four catchments were affected. By contrast, 44% of event years were related with one specific catchment, corroborating the assumption that large-scale atmospheric conditions and specific weather and/or geomorphic conditions may operate as triggers of floods in Kullu district. The inclusion of peak discharge data related with these ungauged extreme flood events into the regional flood frequency evidenced that flood hazard was systematically underestimated. Our results allowed to highlight the potential causes of three paradigmatic cases of flood disaster incidents at Kullus district, suggesting that the lack of knowledge on past flood disaster could play an important role in Disaster Risk managment (DRM) at three actors-levels i.e. civil engineering, local authorities and inhabitants. These observations show that reliable DRM implementation is conditioned by lack of data to characterize the flood process, and therefore put in value the palaeohydrological approach used in this study.

  13. Alkaline rocks of Samchampi-Samteran, District Karbi-Anglong, Assam, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, S.; Sengupta, S. K.; Gaur, R. K.; Absar, A.

    1999-03-01

    The Samchampi-Samteran alkaline igneous complex (SAC) is a near circular, plug-like body approximately 12 km2 area and is emplaced into the Precambrian gneissic terrain of the Karbi Anglong district of Assam. The host rocks, which are exposed in immediate vicinity of the intrusion, comprise granite gneiss, migmatite, granodiorite, amphibolite, pegmatite and quartz veins. The SAC is composed of a wide variety of lithologies identified as syenitic fenite, magnetite ± perovskite ± apatite rock, alkali pyroxenite, ijolite-melteigite, carbonatite, nepheline syenite with leucocratic and mesocratic variants, phonolite, volcanic tuff, phosphatic rock and chert breccia. The magnetite ± perovskite ± apatite rock was generated as a cumulus phase owing to the partitioning of Ti, Fe at a shallow level magma chamber (not evolved DI = O1). The highly alkaline hydrous fluid activity indicated by the presence of strongly alkalic minerals in carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks suggests that the composition of original melt was more alkalic than those now found and represent a silica undersaturated ultramafic rock of carbonated olivine-poor nephelinite which splits with falling temperature into two immiscible fractions—one ultimately crystallises as alkali pyroxenite/ijolite and the other as carbonatite. The spatial distribution of varied lithotypes of SAC and their genetic relationships suggests that the silicate and carbonate melts, produced through liquid immiscibility, during ascent generated into an array of lithotypes and also reaction with the country rocks by alkali emanations produced fenitic aureoles (nephelinisation process). Isotopic studies (δ18O and δ13C) on carbonatites of Samchampi have indicated that the δ13C of the source magma is related to contamination from recycled carbon.

  14. Suitability of village pond waters for irrigation-a case study from district Ludhiana, India.

    PubMed

    Toor, A S; Khurana, M P S; Sidhu, B S; Khera, Jaspreet Singh; Brar, Kiranvir K

    2011-01-01

    The village ponds were used for storing rainwater for animals and recharging of underground water. Recent developments like public water supply for household purpose, provision of household wastewater concrete channels, and toilet septic tanks have polluted the village ponds. The infiltration of water has decreased due to non-cleaning of silt from the pond beds. Increased discharge of wastewater from households, coupled with a low infiltration rate, has inundated these ponds. People have abandoned the use of this water for animals. An effort has been made to assess the suitability of this water for irrigation in the vicinity so as to clean these ponds. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from the village ponds in the Ludhiana district of Punjab. The samples were analyzed for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), nitrogen, water soluble P and K, as well as micronutrients and pollutant elements. The total solids content of these waters were on the higher side. Considering TSS, BOD, and COD, some of these waters are unsafe for their disposal in river or water bodies. Electrical conductivity ranged from 693 to 5050 μmhos/cm, and RSC varied between -1.9 and 22.8 meq/l. The inorganic N (NH+₄+ NO-₃-N) and total Kjeldahl N ranged from 3 to 30 and 8 to 41 mg/l, respectively. The amount of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn) present in pond water indicated its high nutrient value. The content of the pollutant elements such as nickel, cadmium, and lead was below the maximum permissible limits, thereby indicating its suitability for irrigation. According to the EC and RSC criteria, 18% of the samples were fit, 31% were marginal, and 51% were unfit for irrigation. The data indicate that these waters are a good source of nutrients for agriculture.

  15. Study on radionuclides in granite quarries of Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, C; Sannappa, J; Karunakara, N

    2008-01-01

    Studies on natural radiation levels and radionuclides were carried out extensively in the environment of granite quarries of Kanakapura, Ramanagara Taluks and Bidadi Hobli in Bangalore rural District and Bangalore city. The indoor and outdoor gamma exposure rate in air was measured using an environmental dosemeter, and it is converted into absorbed dose using suitable conversion factor. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in rock samples and also in soil samples were measured using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The results reveal that the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in rocks are found to be vary from 32.2 to 163.6, 128.3 to 548.6 and 757.4 to 1418.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 93.2, 306.2 and 1074.4 Bq kg(-1). Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples were found to vary from 32.4 to 55.2, 39.9 to 214.3 and 485.4 to 1150.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 40.7, 93.1 and 750.4 Bq kg(-1). The average activity levels of all these radionuclides are above the global average. This is consistent with the geological and geo-chemical significance of the rocks of the area under investigation. The results of these systematic investigations are discussed in detail and compared with the literature values represented for other environments.

  16. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged.

  17. Level of Fluoride in Soil, Grain and Water in Jalgaon District, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Vishwakarma, Prashanth; Jadhav, Harish Chaitram; Khairnar, Mahesh Ravindra; Deshmukh, Manjiri Abhay; Wadgave, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has an influence on both oral as well as systemic health. The major source of fluoride to body is through drinking water as well as through diet. Staple diet mainly depends on local environmental factors, food grains grown locally, its availability etc. Determination of fluoride level in these food grains is important. So, estimation of the amount of fluoride in grains and its relation to the sources of fluoride used for their cultivation viz., soil and water is important. Aim To estimate the relation of fluoride concentration in grains (Jowar) with respect to that of soil and water used for their cultivation. Materials and Methods Fifteen samples each of soil, water and grains were collected using standardized method from the same farm fields of randomly selected villages of Jalgaon district. Fluoride ion concentration was determined in laboratory using SPADNS technique. Mean difference in fluoride levels in between the groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey test. Linear regression method was applied to analyse the association of the fluoride content of grain with water and soil. Results There was a significant difference in between mean fluoride levels of soil and water (p<0.001) and in between soil and grain (p<0.001); however, difference in between mean fluoride levels of water and grain was found to be non significant (p=0.591). Also fluoride levels in all the three groups showed significant association with each other. Conclusion Fluoride level of soil, grains and water should be adjusted to an optimum level. Soil has positive correlation with respect to uptake of fluoride by Jowar grains. So, Jowar grains with optimum fluoride content should be made available in the commercial markets so that oral and general health can be benefitted. PMID:28384970

  18. Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.

    2012-07-01

    Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

  19. Space Based Information Support for Decentralised Planning (SIS-DP)-A case study in Balangir District,Odisha, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Dash, S. K.; Thakur, R. R.; Jonna, S.; Tripathi, S.

    2014-11-01

    The state government is now focusing on decentralized planning and created administrative infrastructure for Gram Panchayat (Village Community) level planning in participatory way. The people are now opening up and started taking part in planning process at grass root level. In order to involve the people and make planning exercise more effective, National Remote Sensing Centre(ISRO), Dept. of Space(DOS) have begun activities using GIS and Communication Technology(Geo-Ict). Considering the potential of Geo-Ict a project titled "Space Based Information Support for Decentralized Planning (SIS-DP)" was launched by NRSC/ISRO under PC-NNRMS, DOS, Govt. of India. Odisha Space Applications Centre as a partner institution, have ful-filled the commitment of generating thematic information on 1 : 10 K from High resolution satellite data (Ortho-Rectified Cartosat-1 & LISS-IV data) for the state of Odisha. Thematic information on Land use, Settlements, Infrastructure and drainage have been generated and started dissemination to the users. The attribute information available from line department have also been linked to spatial framework of the SIS-DP layers. In the present study Bolangir, a drought prone and backward district is taken up. Total 285 thematic maps have been prepared at Gram Panchayat level keeping a buffer of 1.5 km to locally adjust any discrepancies in the boundary. User workshop and awareness campaigns were conducted and feed backs have been collected on Land Utilization Types (LUT). It is felt that extension of these services to the entire State have a strong bearing on improved strategy and planning process by the State.

  20. Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in Patna district (capital of Bihar) in the middle Ganga plain, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ahamed, Sad; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shyamapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the extent and severity of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination in five blocks in Patna district, Bihar, India along with As in biological samples and its health effects such as dermatological, neurological and obstetric outcome in some villages. We collected 1365 hand tube-well water samples and analyzed for As by the flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 61% and 44% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1466 μg/l. Our medical team examined 712 villagers and registered 69 (9.7%) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical skin lesions were also observed in 9 children of 312 screened. We analyzed 176 biological samples (hair, nail and urine). Out of these, 69 people had arsenical skin lesions and rest without skin lesions. We found 100% of the biological samples had As above the normal levels (concentrations of As in hair, nail and urine of unexposed individuals usually ranges from 20 to 200 μg/kg, 20-500 μg/kg and <100 μg/l, respectively), indicating many people are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 40.5% of 37 arsenicosis patients with 73.3% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 26.7% for sensor-motor. Among patients, different clinical and electrophysiological neurological features and abnormal quantitative sensory perception thresholds were also noted. The study also found that As exposed women with severe skin lesions had adversely affected their pregnancies. People including children in the affected areas are in danger. To combat As situation in affected areas, villagers urgently need (a) provision of As-safe water for drinking and cooking, (b) awareness about the danger of As toxicity, and (c) nutritious food.

  1. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis Among Primary School Children in Rural Areas of Chidambaram Taluk, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, S; Kalyani, C; Vijayarani, MP; Jayakodi, P; Felix, AJW; Nagarajan, S; Arunmozhi, P; Krishnan, V

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean's fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997). Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls) were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI) score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ‘borderline’ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6). A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors associated with the

  2. Examining sex differentials in the uptake and process of HIV testing in three high prevalence districts of India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Saju; Kielmann, Karina; Kudale, Abhay; Sheikh, Kabir; Shinde, Swati; Porter, John; Rangan, Sheela

    2010-03-01

    Sex differentials in the uptake of HIV testing have been reported in a range of settings, however, men's and women's testing patterns are not consistent across these settings, suggesting the need to set sex differentials against gender norms in patient testing behaviour and provider practices. A community-based, cross-sectional survey among 347 people living with HIV in three HIV high prevalence districts of India examined reasons for undergoing an HIV test, location of testing and conditions under which individuals were tested. HIV testing was almost always provider-initiated for men. Men were more likely to be advised to test by a private practitioner and to test in the private sector. Women were more likely to be advised to test by a family member, and to test in the public sector. Men were more likely to receive pre-test information than women, when tested in the private sector. Men were also more likely to receive direct disclosure of their HIV positive status by a health provider, regardless of the sector in which they tested. More women than men were repeatedly tested for HIV, regardless of sector. These sex differentials in the uptake and process of HIV testing are partially explained through differences in public and private sector testing practices. However, they also reflect women's lack of awareness and agency in HIV care seeking and differential treatment by providers. Examining gender dynamics that underpin sex differentials in HIV testing patterns and practices is essential for a realistic assessment of the challenges and implications of scaling-up HIV testing and mainstreaming gender in HIV/AIDS programmes.

  3. X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A.; Parihar, P.

    2014-12-01

    The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters (a o; c o) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite (a o 7.1301-7.1413 Å, c o 9.7643-9.7902Å and V 429.8940-432.3875 Å3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard (c o 7.1290 Å, c o 9.7744 Å and V 430.19 Å3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE)N / (HREE)N, (La/Lu)N, (La/Yb)N and (Ce/Yb)N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

  4. X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A. K.; Parihar, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters ( a o ; c o ) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite ( a o 7.1301-7.1413 Å, c o 9.7643-9.7902Å and V 429.8940-432.3875 Å3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard ( c o 7.1290 Å, c o 9.7744 Å and V 430.19 Å3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE) N / (HREE) N , (La/Lu) N , (La/Yb) N and (Ce/Yb) N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

  5. Out of Pocket Expenditure for Hospitalization among Below Poverty Line Households in District Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gupt, Anadi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kamraj, P.; Murthy, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health insurance schemes, like Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), should provide financial protection against catastrophic health costs by reducing out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) for hospitalizations. We estimated and compared the proportion and extent of OOPE among below poverty line (BPL) families beneficiaries and not beneficiaries by RSBY during hospitalizations in district Solan, H.P., India, 2013. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey among hospitalized BPL families in the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries groups. We compared proportion incurring OOPE and its extent during hospitalization, pre/post-hospitalization periods in different domains. Results Overall, proportion of non-beneficiaries who incurred OOPE was higher than the beneficiaries but it was not statistically significant (87.2% vs. 80.9%). The median overall OOPE was $39 (Rs 2567) in the non-beneficiaries group as compared to $ 11 (Rs 713) in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01). Median expenditure on in house and out house drugs and consumables was $ 23 (Rs 1500) in the non beneficiaries group as compared to nil in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01). Non-beneficiary status was significantly associated [OR: 2.4 (1.3–4.3)] with OOPE above median independently and also after adjusting for various covariates. Conclusion RSBY has decreased the extent of OOPE among the beneficiaries; however OOPE was incurred mainly due to purchase of drugs from outside the health facility. The treatment seeking behaviour in beneficiaries group has improved among comparatively older group with chronic conditions. RSBY has enabled beneficiaries to get more facilities such as drugs, consumables and diagnostics from the health facility. PMID:26895419

  6. Accessing groundwater quality in lower part of Nagapattinam district, Southern India: using hydrogeochemistry and GIS interpolation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Vasudevan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Bagyaraj, M.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate groundwater quality in the lower part of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. A detailed geochemical study of groundwater region is described, and the origin of the chemical composition of groundwater has been qualitatively evaluated, using observations over a period of two seasons premonsoon (June) and monsoon (November) in the year of 2010. To attempt this goal, samples were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3 - and SO4 2-. The abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is as Na > Ca > Mg > K, while that of anions is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. The Piper trilinear diagram indicates Ca-Cl2 facies, and according to USSL diagram, most of the sample exhibits high salinity hazard (C3S1) type in both seasons. It indicates that high salinity (C3) and low sodium (S1) are moderately suitable for irrigation purposes. Gibbs boomerang exhibits most of the samples mainly controlled by evaporation and weathering process sector in both seasons. Irrigation status of the groundwater samples indicates that it was moderately suitable for agricultural purpose. ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for the generation of various thematic maps and the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique inverse distance weighting was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map classified the ground quality in the study area. The results of this research show that the development of the management strategies for the aquifer system is vitally necessary.

  7. Identification and genetic characterization of chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India.

    PubMed

    Nyari, N; Maan, H S; Sharma, S; Pandey, S N; Dhole, T N

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling and preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified and tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; and 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) and 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains and reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future.

  8. School Based Multicomponent Intervention for Obese Children in Udupi District, South India – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Vinod H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Childhood obesity and overweight is a global epidemics and has been increasing in the developing countries. Childhood obesity is linked with increased mortality and morbidity independent of adult obesity. Declining physical activity, access to junk food and parenting style are the major determinants of overweight in children. Thus, there is a need for increasing the physical activity of children, educating the parents as well as the children on lifestyle modification. This can be achieved through implementation of multicomponent intervention. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent intervention on improving the lifestyle practices, reducing the body fat and improving the self esteem of obese children from selected schools of Udupi District, South India. Materials and Methods A sample of 120 obese children were enrolled for multicomponent intervention. The components of multicomponent intervention were: education provided to the obese children on lifestyle modification, education of the parents and increasing the physical education activity of these children in the form of aerobics under the supervision of physical education teacher. There was an attrition of 25% in the intervention group. Thus the final sample in the intervention group was 90. Total sample of 131 overweight/ obese children enrolled as controls. There was an attrition of 20.61% in the control group. Thus, the final sample in the control group was 104. Intervention group received the multicomponent intervention for six month. Results Mixed Method Repeated measures Ananlysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for analysis of data. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in reducing the Body Mass Index (BMI), triceps, biceps, subscapular skin fold thickness of obese children. The intervention was also effective in improving the lifestyle practices and self-esteem of obese children. Conclusion Overweight/obese children need to control diet and perform vigorous

  9. Hydrogeochemical characterization of fluoride rich groundwater of Wailpalli watershed, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A G S; Reddy, D V; Rao, P N; Prasad, K Maruthy

    2010-12-01

    The groundwater of Nalgonda district is well known for its very high fluoride content for the past five decades. Many researchers have contributed their scientific knowledge to unravel causes for fluoride enrichment of groundwater. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to relate the high fluoride content in the groundwater to hydrogeochemical characterization of the water in a fracture hard rock terrain--the Wailpally watershed. Groundwater samples collected from all the major geomorphic units in pre- and post-monsoon seasons were analyzed for its major ion constituents such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), CO3-, HCO3-, Cl(-), SO4(-2), NO3-, and F(-). The groundwaters in the watershed have the average fluoride content of 2.79 mg/l in pre-monsoon and 2.83 mg/l in post-monsoon. Fluoride concentration in groundwater does not show perceptible change neither with time nor in space. The ionic dominance pattern is in the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > K(-) among cations and HCO3- Cl(-) > SO4(-2) NO3- F(-) among anions in pre-monsoon. In post-monsoon, Mg replaces Ca(2+) and NO3- takes the place of SO4(-2). The Modified Piper diagram reflect that the water belong to Ca(+2)-Mg(+2)-HCO3- to Na(+)-HCO3- facies. Negative chloralkali indices in both the seasons prove that ion exchange between Na(+) and K(+) in aquatic solution took place with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) of host rock. The interpretation of plots for different major ions and molar ratios suggest that weathering of silicate rocks and water-rock interaction is responsible for major ion chemistry of groundwater in Wailpally watershed. Chemical characteristics and evolution of this fluoride-contaminated groundwater is akin to normal waters of other hard rock terrain; hence, it can be concluded that aquifer material play an important role in the contribution of fluoride in to the accompanying water. High fluoride content in groundwater can be attributed to the continuous water-rock interaction during the

  10. Tuberculosis knowledge and awareness in tribal-dominant districts of Jharkhand, India: implications for ACSM.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P; Kudale, A; Arasu, K; Lab, M; Darby, W; Rangan, S

    2014-09-21

    Contexte : Quarante villages difficiles d'accès de l'Est et de l'Ouest des districts de l'état de Singhbhum, Jharkhand, Inde.Objectifs : Documenter les niveaux de connaissances et de sensibilisation en matière de la tuberculose (TB) parmi les membres de la communauté, de comprendre les différences entre les sexes et de contribuer à l'élaboration d'activités d'intervention afin d'améliorer le programme de lutte contre la TB dans des zones à dominante tribale difficiles d'accès en Inde.Schéma : Une enquête transversale à base communautaire a été réalisée auprès de 825 répondants grâce à une méthode d'échantillonnage proportionnel de la population.Résultats : La majorité des répondants appartenait à la tranche d'âge 18–35 ans, à une minorité ethnique et étaient mariés ; 44% étaient illettrés. L'étude a montré une faible connaissance des symptômes, causes et modes de transmission de la TB et une connaissance modérée des services gouvernementaux de TB. Les connaissances relatives à la cause exacte de la TB était négligeables—la moitié des répondants a attribué la TB à la consommation d'alcool local ; 61% savaient que la TB était transmissible et un tiers affirmait que le partage de nourriture était une voie de transmission. La connaissance de la disponibilité de services gratuits de prise en charge dans des structures de santé étatiques était élevée, mais la stratégie DOTS était très mal connue. Des différences significatives entre les sexes ont été observées en matière de niveau de connaissance et de sensibilisation.Conclusion : Les résultats de l'étude soulignaient l'importance d'une intensification urgente des activités de plaidoyer, de communication et de mobilisation sociale culturellement adaptées et spécifiques au genre.

  11. Out-of-Pocket Spending on Out-Patient Care in India: Assessment and Options Based on Results from a District Level Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Indrani; Chowdhury, Samik; Prinja, Shankar; Trivedi, Mayur

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-pocket spending at out-patient departments (OPD) by households is relatively less analyzed compared to hospitalization expenses in India. This paper provides new evidence on the levels and drivers of expenditure on out-patient care, as well as choice of providers, using household survey data from 8 districts in 3 states of India. Results indicate that the economically vulnerable spend more on OPD as a proportion of per capita consumption expenditure, out-patient care remains overwhelmingly private and switches of providers—while not very prevalent—is mostly towards private providers. A key result is that choice of public providers tend to lower OPD spending significantly. It indicates that an improvement in the overall quality and accessibility of government facilities still remain an important tool that should be considered in the context of financial protection. PMID:27861559

  12. Identification of Suitable Water Harvesting Zones Based on Geomorphic Resources for Drought Areas: A Case Study of Una District, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakasam, D. C., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Water is one of the most vital natural resource and its availability and quality determine ecosystem productivity, both for agricultural and natural systems. Una district is one of the major potential agricultural districts in Himachal Pradesh, India. More than 70% of the population of this district is engaged in agriculture and allied sectors and major crops grown are maize, wheat, rice, sugarcane, pulses and vegetables. The region faces drought every year and about 90 per cent of the area is water stressed. This has resulted in crop loss and shortage of food and fodder. The sources of drinking water, small ponds and bowlies dry-up during summer season resulting in scarcity of drinking water. Una district receives rainfall during monsoons from June to September and also during non-monsoon period (winter). The annual average rainfall in the area is about 1040 mm with 55 average rainy days. But due to heavy surface run-off the farmers not able to cultivate the crops more than once in a year. Past research indicate that the geomorphology of the Una district might be responsible for such droughts as it controls the surface as well as ground water resources. The research proposes to develop a water stress model for Una district using the geomorphic parameters, water resource and land use land cover data of the study area. Using Survey of India topographical maps (1:50000), the geomorphic parameters are extracted. The spatial layers of these parameters i.e. drainage density, slope, relative relief, ruggedness index, surface water body's frequency are created in GIS. A time series of normalized remotely sensed data of the study area is used for land use land cover classification and analyses. Based on the results from the water stress model, the drought/water stress areas and water harvesting zones are identified and documented. The results of this research will help the general population in resolving the drinking water problem to a certain extent and also the

  13. Social capital and basic goods: the cautionary tale of drinking water in India.

    PubMed

    Motiram, Sripad; Osberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study uses micro-data from the 1998-99 Indian Time Use Survey (ITUS; covering 77,593 persons in 18,591 households in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Orissa, and Haryana) to argue that time use data provides a natural metric for measuring "social capital" building activities and for distinguishing between the relative importance of "bonding" into groups or "bridging" within communities. The study examines the correlation between inequality in landownership, caste status, measures of local social capital, and whether or not a household will have to collect water. In India, the probability that a rural household fetches water is 4.8% and 9.1% lower in communities in which the average time spent on social interaction and community-based activities at the district-level doubles, but it is 18.9% greater when the time in group-based activities doubles. Inequalities in landownership and home ownership are associated with considerably larger differences in local tap water availability.

  14. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C. G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-07-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Banerjee, Amrita; Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A K; Pattanayak, A; Harish, G D; Singh, S K; Ngachan, S V; Bansal, K C

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and

  16. The Mixed Nature of Incentives for Community Health Workers: Lessons from a Qualitative Study in Two Districts in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Enisha; Lunsford, Sarah Smith; Sooden, Ankur; Rai, Sanjay; Livesley, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Incentives play an important role in motivating community health workers (CHWs). In India, accredited social health activists (ASHAs) are female CHWs who provide a range of services, including those specific to reproductive, maternal, neonatal, child, and adolescent health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 49 ASHAs and one of their family members (husband, mother-in-law, sister-in-law, or son) from Gurdaspur and Mewat districts to explore the role of family, community, and health system in supporting ASHAs in their work. Thematic analysis revealed that incentives were both empowering and a source of distress for ASHAs and their families. Earning income and contributing to the household’s financial wellbeing inspired a sense of financial independence and self-confidence for ASHAs, especially with respect to relations with their husbands and parents-in-law. In spite of the empowering effects of the incentives, they were a cause of distress. Low incentive rates relative to the level of effort required to complete ASHA responsibilities, compounded by irregular and incomplete payment, put pressure on families. ASHAs dedicated much of their time and own resources to perform their duties, drawing them away from their household responsibilities. Communication around incentives from supervisors may have led ASHAs to prioritize and promote those services that yielded higher incentives, as opposed to focusing on the most appropriate services for the client. ASHAs and their families maintained hope that their positions would eventually bring in a regular salary, which contributed to retention of ASHAs. Incentives, therefore, are both motivating and inspiring as well as a cause dissatisfaction among ASHAs and their families. Recommendations include revising the incentive scheme to be responsive to the time and effort required to complete tasks and the out-of-pocket costs incurred while working as an ASHA; improve communication to ASHAs on incentives and

  17. Virulence for guinea pigs of tubercle bacilli isolated from the sputum of participants in the BCG trial, Chingleput District, South India.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, R; Venkataraman, P; Vallishayee, R S; Reeser, P; Musa, S; Hashim, R; Kim, Y; Dimmer, C; Wiegeshaus, E; Edwards, M L

    1987-03-01

    This study, conducted in Madras, India and in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, was concerned with the virulence of isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtained from the sputum of individuals living in the Chingleput district of south India. The following results were obtained. 1. The findings of Mitchison with respect to the predominance of low virulence for guinea pigs among isolates from persons living Madras, were confirmed on isolates from the sputum of residents of the Chingleput district. 2. A high correlation was found between the log10 number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the spleen of guinea pigs infected intramuscularly with 1.0 mg of tubercle bacilli and the root index of virulence. 3. A high correlation was found between the log10 number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the spleen of guinea pigs infected intramuscularly with 1.0 mg of tubercle bacilli and the number recovered from the spleen of guinea pigs infected by the respiratory route with 5-10 tubercle bacilli. 4. Relatively low correlations were found between RIV and the susceptibility of isolates to thiophene-2 carboxylic acid hydrazide or to hydrogen peroxide.

  18. Predictors of HIV prevalence among street-based female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh state of India: a district-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A decline in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) has been reported from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh between the two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys in 2005–06 and 2009, the first of these around the time of start of the Avahan HIV prevention intervention. In order to facilitate further planning of FSW interventions, we report the factors associated with HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs. Methods Behavioural data from the two rounds of IBBA surveys, district-level FSW HIV prevention program data, and urbanisation data from the Census of India were utilized. A multilevel logistic model was used to investigate factors associated with inter-district variations in HIV positivity among street-based FSWs in the districts by fitting a two-level model. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among street-based FSWs changed from 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.2 – 17.7%) to 12.9% (95% CI 11.5 – 14.2%) from 2005–06 to 2009. HIV positivity was significantly higher in districts with a high proportion of FSWs registered with targeted interventions (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.18-3.45), and in districts with medium (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.58-4.08) or high (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.05-2.29) proportion of urban population. Districts which had met the condom requirement targets for FSWs had significantly lower HIV positivity (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.26-0.97). In round 2 survey, the districts with medium level urbanisation had significantly higher proportion of FSWs registered with HIV intervention programmes and also reported higher consistent condom use with regular partner (p < 0.001). Conclusions Variations in HIV positivity among street-based FSWs were seen at the district level in relation to HIV intervention programs and the degree of urbanization. These findings could be used to enhance program planning to further reduce HIV transmission in this population. PMID:24885786

  19. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India’s extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step. PMID:27591204

  20. Severity of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Needs among 12- to 15-Year-Old School Children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumar, KM; Chandu, GN; Shafiulla, MD

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India. Talukas (administrative units in some states in India) were considered clusters. Schools were selected using simple random sampling procedures. The 300 study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling procedures. Data consisting of DAI components were recorded pro forma. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Chi-square test (χ2) was used to compare malocclusion severity. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the changes in DAI scores and the mean DAI scores between age groups. The Z test was used to compare mean DAI scores between the 2 sexes and between children residing in urban and rural areas. Results: Of the 1800 school children examined, 899 (49.9%) were boys and 901 (50.1%) were girls. Most of the children (79.9%) had DAI scores ≤ 25 with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.4% had DAI scores of 26–30 with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 4.2% had DAI scores of 31–35 with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment, and 0.5% had DAI scores ≥ 36 with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: The majority of the children in our study (79.9%) required no or little treatment; 20.1% had definite malocclusion requiring definite orthodontic treatment. PMID:20613919

  1. A spatial analysis to study access to emergency obstetric transport services under the public private “Janani Express Yojana” program in two districts of Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The government in Madhya Pradesh (MP), India in 2006, launched “Janani Express Yojana” (JE), a decentralized, 24X7, free emergency transport service for all pregnant women under a public-private partnership. JE supports India’s large conditional cash transfer program, the “Janani Suraksha Yojana” (JSY) in the province and transports on average 60,000 parturients to hospital every month. The model is a relatively low cost one that potentially could be adopted in other parts of India and South Asia. This paper describes the uptake, time taken and geographic equity in access to the service to transport women to a facility in two districts of MP. Methods This was a facility based cross sectional study. We interviewed parturients (n = 468) who delivered during a five day study period at facilities with >10 deliveries/month (n = 61) in two study districts. The women were asked details of transportation used to arrive at the facility, time taken and their residential addresses. These details were plotted onto a Geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate travelled distances and identify statistically significant clusters of mothers (hot spots) reporting delays >2 hours. Results JE vehicles were well dispersed across the districts and used by 236 (50.03%) mothers of which 111(47.03%) took >2 hours to reach a facility. Inability of JE vehicle to reach a mother in time was the main reason for delays. There was no correlation between the duration of delay and distance travelled. Maps of the travel paths and travel duration of the women are presented. The study identified hot spots of mothers with delays >2 hours and explored the possible reasons for longer delays. Conclusions The JE service was accessible in all parts of the districts. Relatively high utilization rates of JE indicate that it ably supported JSY program to draw more women for institutional deliveries. However, half of the JE users experienced long (>2 hour) delays. The delayed mothers

  2. Undernutrition among adult Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India: relationship with educational status and food habit.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran; Sadhukhan, Sanjay; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2009-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1203 adult (> 18 years of age) Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India, was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition and the relationship of educational level and food habit with undernutrition. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) computed following the standard equation. A BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was classified as undernutrition or chronic energy deficiency (CED) as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The public health problem of low BMI in this population was classified according to the WHO criteria. Educational status was coded as: no formal education, 1-8 years of schooling and > 8 years of schooling. Food habit was recorded as vegetarian or non-vegetarian. The mean ages of males and females were (39.6 +/- 15.0 years) and (39.6 +/- 15.0 years), respectively. There were significant (p < 0.001) sex differences in mean height and weight; both sexes had a similar BMI. The overall (sex combined) prevalence of undernutrition was 27.7%. The frequency of undernutrition was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among females (31.7%) compared to males (23.6%). According to the WHO classification of low BMI, the prevalence of CED was high (20-39%) indicating a serious situation. There existed a significant (p < 0.001) relationship between the level of formal education and nutritional status. Overall, the frequencies of CED (43.5%) were much higher than overweight (7.0%) among subjects with no formal education. The frequencies of CED and overweight among subjects with 1-8 years of formal education were 25.7% and 9.7%, respectively. Similarly, significantly (p < 0.001) higher rates of CED were found among subjects with no formal education in both sexes (males = 39.5%; females = 45.6%) compared to the presence of overweight (males = 1.8%; females = 9.8%). Sex-combined frequency of undernutrition was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among vegetarians (48.3%) compared with non

  3. Power imbalance and consumerism in the doctor-patient relationship: health care providers' experiences of patient encounters in a rural district in India.

    PubMed

    Fochsen, Grethe; Deshpande, Kirti; Thorson, Anna

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study is to explore health care providers' experiences and perceptions of their encounters with male and female patients in a rural district in India with special reference to tuberculosis (TB) care. The authors conducted semistructured interviews with 22 health care providers, 17 men and 5 women, from the public and private health care sectors. Findings reveal that doctors adopted an authoritarian as well as a consumerist approach in the medical encounter, indicating that power imbalances in the doctor-patient relationship are negotiable and subject to change. Gender was identified as an influencing factor of the doctor's dominance. A patient-centered approach, acknowledging patients' own experiences and shared decision making, is called for and should be included in TB control activities. This seems to be especially important for female patients, whose voices were not heard in the medical encounter.

  4. Survey and census of hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in the Inner-Line Reserve Forest and the adjoining areas of Cachar district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mofidul; Choudhury, Parthankar; Bhattacharjee, P C

    2013-01-01

    A detailed survey of Hoolock hoolock was carried out in the Inner-Line Reserve Forest and the adjoining areas of Cachar district of southern Assam, India, from July 2010 to December 2011. About 150 km2 of the area was covered. In direct sighting, groups and individuals were counted in 7 localities (39.7 km2). Only 3.96 km2 of the actual forest area were occupied by these gibbons. Nine family groups and a solitary subadult, 33 individuals in all, made up the total count. Of these, adult males and females comprised 54.5% of the population while the subadults, juveniles and infants comprised 27.3, 12.1 and 6.1%, respectively. Each family group's home range was 0.31-0.51 km2. Of the 7 localities, only 1 had more than 1 family group. Habitat destruction and diverse threats to the hoolock gibbon in this area are examined in this paper.

  5. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P.V.; Patel, S.V.; Bhalani, K.D.; Shah, D.; Shah, V.S.; Mehta, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. Results: The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. Interpretation & conclusions: The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings. PMID:22825606

  6. ASSESSMENT OF AGE-DEPENDENT RADIATION DOSE DUE TO INTAKE OF URANIUM AND THORIUM IN DRINKING WATER FROM SIKAR DISTRICT, RAJASTHAN, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Vikas; Rani, Asha; Balaram, V

    2016-10-01

    The concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th have been determined in drinking water samples collected from the Sikar district of Rajasthan State, India. The samples have been analysed by using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (238)U content in water samples ranged from 8.20 to 202.63 µg l(-1) and (232)Th content ranged from 0.57 to 1.46 µg l(-1) The measured (238)U content in 25 % of the analysed samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Environmental Protection Agency drinking water guidelines of 30 µg l(-1) and 12.5 % of the samples exceeded the 60 µg l(-1) Indian maximum acceptable concentration recommended by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India. The annual effective doses (µSv y(-1)) due to ingestion of (238)U and (232)Th for different age groups were also calculated. The results compared with the recommended value reported by the WHO.

  7. Examining Implementation of Tobacco Control Policy at the District Level: A Case Study Analysis from a High Burden State in India

    PubMed Central

    Persai, Divya; Panda, Rajmohan; Gupta, Adyya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. While extensive scientific evidence exists on the tobacco epidemic, a lack of understanding of both policies and their appropriate way of implementation continues to hinder effective tobacco control. This is especially so in the developing countries such as India. The present study aims to understand current implementation practices and the challenges faced in mainstreaming tobacco control policy and program. Methods. We chose a qualitative study design to conduct the case analysis. A total of 42 in-depth interviews were undertaken with seven district officials in six districts of Andhra Pradesh. A conceptual framework was developed by applying grounded theory for analysis. Analysis was undertaken using case analysis approach. Results and Discussion. Our study revealed that most program managers were unfamiliar with the comprehensive tobacco control policy. Respondents have an ambiguous opinion regarding integration of tobacco control program into existing health and development programs. Respondents perceive lack of resources, low prioritization of tobacco control, and lack of monitoring and evaluation of smoke-free laws as limiting factors affecting implementation of tobacco control policy. Conclusion. The findings of this study highlighted the need for a systematic, organized action plan for effective implementation of tobacco control policy and program. PMID:26933512

  8. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 μg/L with maximum observed level of 3200 μg/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 μg/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

  9. Utility of check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in ground water and the resultant analysis of blood serum and urine of villagers, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bhagavan, S V B K; Raghu, V

    2005-02-01

    High levels of fluoride (beyond 1.5 ppm) in ground water as source of drinking water are common in many parts of Andhra Pradesh, India, causing fluorosis. The study carried out in endemic Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, has indicated that the fluoride-rich ground water present in the wells located down stream and close to the surface water bodies is getting diluted by the low-fluoride surface water. Encouraged by this result, check dams were constructed upstream of the identified marginally high fluoride bearing ground water zones in Anantapur District to reduce fluoride levels as an alternate solution for safe drinking water. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the utility and effect of these check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in drinking water and its resultant impact on the health aspects of certain villagers of Anantapur District through the analysis of their blood serum and urine. Ground water samples from three fluoride-affected villages, blood and urine of males and females from the same villages were collected and analyzed for fluoride using ion selective electrode method. The results indicated that the fluoride levels in blood serum and urine of males in the age group of 5-11 years are found to be the highest. The concentration of fluoride in ground water is directly proportional to the concentration of fluoride in blood serum and urine. The concentration of fluoride in ground water with depth of the aquifer is a function of lithology, amount and duration of rainfall, rate of infiltration, level of ground water exploitation in the area etc. The construction of check dams upstream of the identified marginally high fluoride waters will not only cause additional recharge of ground water but also reduces the fluoride concentration eventually improving the health of the villagers.

  10. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  11. Spatial and temporal variation and hotspot detection of kala-azar disease in Vaishali district (Bihar), India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An improved understanding in transmission variation of kala-azar is fundamental to conduct surveillance and implementing disease prevention strategies. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns and hotspot detection for reporting kala-azar cases in Vaishali district based on spatial statistical analysis. Methods Epidemiological data from the study area during 2007–2011 was used to examine the dynamic space-time pattern of kala-azar outbreaks, and all cases were geocoded at a village level. Spatial smoothing was applied to reduce random noise in the data. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) is used to interpolate and predict the pattern of VL cases distribution across the district. Moran’s I Index (Moran’s I) statistics was used to evaluate autocorrelation in kala-azar spatial distribution and test how villages were clustered or dispersed in space. Getis-Ord Gi*(d) was used to identify the hotspot and cold spot areas within the study site. Results Mapping kala-azar cases or incidences reflects the spatial heterogeneity in the incidence rate of kala-azar affected villages in Vaishali district. Kala-azar incidence rate map showed most of the highest endemic villages were located in southern, eastern and northwestern part of the district; in the middle part of the district generally show the medium occurrence of VL. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of kala-azar incidences for five consecutive years, with Moran’s I statistic ranging from 0.04-0.17 (P <0.01). The results revealed spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of kala-azar diffusion (P < 0.01). Conclusions The results pointed to the usefulness of spatial statistical approach to improve our understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics and control of kala-azar. The study also showed the north-western and southern part of Vaishali district is most likely endemic cluster region. To employ exact and

  12. Functional nutraceutical profiling of wild edible and medicinal mushrooms consumed by ethnic tribes in India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible mushrooms occupy an important place in the traditional food habits of the ethnic tribes of India. Specimens collected from the forests and local markets of Meghalaya, India were affiliated to ten different species. The mushroom extracts were analyzed for nutrient and mineral compositions along with phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene. These extracts were also investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Fungal extracts were found to be rich in nutrients and minerals, and exhibited potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities under assay conditions. The nutrient profiles generated for each of these ten species revealed them to be rich sources of functional nutraceuticals.

  13. Impact assessment of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mustard (Brassica spp.) production and its adaptation strategies in different districts of Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, V.; Patel, H. R.; Yadav, S. B.; Patil, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gujarat is the western-most state of India with a long (1600 km) sea coast on the Arabian Sea. Average annual rainfall ranges from as high as 1900 mm in the sub-humid southeast to as low as 250 mm in the arid north. There are three distinct crop seasons- rainy (June to September), winter (Oct.-Nov. through Feb.-March) and summer (Feb-March through May-June). Wheat and mustard are grown during winter seasons. The past climatic records suggested increasing trends in rainfall( 2 to 5 mm per year), maximum (0.03 to 0.05 0C per year) and minimum temperatures (0.02 to 0.05 0C per year) at most of places in Gujarat. But the minimum temperature is fould to be increasing significantly at all the locations. This affects the winter season crops viz. wheat and mustard adversely. Simulation results with DSSAT CERES-wheat model revealed that with increase in temperature by 2 0C in different months (November to February) the decrease in wheat yield is observed between 7 to 29 per cent. The impact of increase in maximum temperature during early (November) and late (February) is less (<12.5 %) than that during active vegetative and reproductive period (December and January; >24.8 %). The climate change projections during 2071-2100 using PRECIS output suggested that there would be increase in maximum temperature by 3.2 to 5.2 0C in different districts of Gujarat over baseline period of 1961-1990 while minimum temperature is project to increase by 2.8 to 5.8 0C. Rainfall is also projected to increase by 28 to 70 per cent in different districts. The impact of climate change on wheat would be reduction in its duration by 14-20 days and the grain yield would be reduced by 20-55 per cent in different districts. In case of mustard crops the duration of crop would be reduced by 11 to 16 days and seed yield would be reduced by 32-50 per cent. In order to mitigate the ill effect of climate change, various adaptation strategies vis change in dates of sowing, change in variety, additional

  14. Nursing personnel planning for rural hospitals in Burdwan District, West Bengal, India, using workload indicators of staffing needs.

    PubMed

    Shivam, Swapnil; Roy, Rabindra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir; Das Bhattacharyya, Krishna; Misra, Raghu Nath; Roy, Sima; Indranil, Saha

    2014-12-01

    Lack of appropriate human resources planning is an important factor in the inefficient use of the public health facilities. Workforce projections can be improved by using objective methods of staffing needs based on the workload and actual work undertaken by workers, a guideline developed by Peter J. Shipp in collaboration with WHO-Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN). A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the nursing stuff requirement for the rural hospitals and provide a quantitative description of imbalances, if there is any, in the allocation at the district level during 2011. The average WISN turns out to be 0.35 for entire district, which means only 35% of the required nurses is available or 65% understaffed. So, there is an urgent need for more allocations and deployment of staff so that workload can be tackled and evenly distributed among all nursing personnel.

  15. A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2013-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India.

  16. Prospects for small and marginal farmers in Trichy district (Tamil Nadu, India) to use water pumping windmills for irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedhart, P.

    1984-05-01

    The economic, technical, and agricultural aspects of equiping poor farmers in India with windpowered pumps were analyzed. It is concluded that the prospects for a market for windmills among nontarget group farmers (especially big farmers with diesel pumps) are better than the prospects among the target group farmers. Continuation of the project might lead to an improvement of the situation for the richer farmers, which would in turn lead to a decline in the situation of the original target group of the project, the small and marginal farmers.

  17. Prevalence of malnutrition, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections among under-five children of Sugali tribe of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Venkatashiva B.; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Goswami, Anil Kumar; Krishnan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over a period, tribal population has migrated to cities in search of livelihood. Data on various health problems of the tribes are sparse. Sugalis constitute the third largest tribe in Andhra Pradesh and have settlements in urban areas. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of malnutrition, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections (ARI) among under-five children of Sugali tribe living in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state in South India. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four community blocks/mandals in 2012. A total of 500 Sugali households with under-five were identified. Demographic details, episodes of diarrhea, and ARI among under-five children and treatment/care seeking behavior were collected from mothers/care givers by interview. Nutritional status was assessed using new WHO standards. Results: Of the total 669 children in these 500 households, 343 (51.3%) were girls and 326 (48.7%) were boys. In the last 1 month, 21.4% (18.4-24.6) reported diarrhea and 51.6% (47.7-55.3) reported ARI. The prevalence of underweight, wasting, and stunting among under-five children was 32.7% (29.1-36.4), 18.3% (15.3-21.4), and 38.3% (34.2-41.9), respectively. Majority (70%) sought treatment for illness in modern system of medicine and only few continued with the practice of herbs and traditional medicine. Discussion: Despite living in urban area, the tribal children had high prevalence of malnutrition, diarrhea, and ARI, though lower compared to other tribes in India possibly due to improved access to health care services. Efforts need to be strengthened for social inclusion of tribes into mainstream. PMID:27433066

  18. Molecular evidence on the occurrence of co-infection with Pichia guilliermondii and Wuchereria bancrofti in two filarial endemic districts of India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a vector-borne parasitic disease, is endemic in several parts of India and mostly affects the poor or those with a low-income. The disease results in huge numbers of morbidities, disabilities, and deaths every year. Association of co-infection with other pathogens makes the condition more severe. Although co-infection is becoming a growing area of research, it is yet to emerge as a frontier research topic in filarial research specifically. This study reports the occurrence of a fungal infection in a large number of patients suffering from bancroftian filariasis in two districts of West Bengal, India. Methods Nocturnal blood samples from filarial patients containing parasites and fungus were initially co-cultured, and further the fungus was isolated and characterized. Molecular identification of the isolate was carried out by PCR-based selective amplification and sequencing of highly-conserved D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA, whereas pathogenicity was determined by amplification of the RPS0 gene. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the relationship between the isolate and common pathogenic yeasts. The isolate was studied for antibiotic sensitivity, whereas morphological characterization was performed by microscopic techniques. Results The isolate was identified as Pichia guilliermondii and this fungus was found to exist in co-infection with Wuchereria bancrofti in filarial patients. The fungus showed resistance to azole antifungals, griseofulvin, and, amphotericin B, whereas significant susceptibility was evident in cases of nystatin and cycloheximide. A total of 197 out of 222 patients showed this co-infection. Conclusion This study revealed, for the first time, that P. guilliermondii exists as a co-infection in microfilaraemic individuals living in a filarial endemic zone. The findings are important and have relevance to human health, especially for filarial patients. PMID:24708881

  19. Monitoring seasonal progress of rice stubble burning in major rice growing districts of Haryana, India, using multidate AWiFS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M.; Prawasi, R.; Jangra, S.; Rana, P.; Kumari, K.; Lal, S.; Jakhar, K.; Sharma, S.; Hooda, R. S.

    2014-11-01

    The present paper describes the methodology and results of assessment of seasonal progress of rice stubble burning for 10 major rice growing districts of Haryana state in India. These 10 districts contribute about 84 per cent of total rice area of the state. As the rice fields are immediately required to be vacated for the sowing of next crop the farmers opt for mechanized harvesting and easy way out of burning the stubbles in the field. Such burning result in release of polluting gases and aerosols. Besides, the heating of the soil kills the useful micro-flora of the soil causing soil degradation. Multi-date AWiFS data from Resourcesat 1 and 2 satellites acquired between October 16, 2013 to November 26, 2013 were used for estimating paddy stubble burning areas at different intervals for the year 2013 crop growing season. In season collected ground truth data using hand held GPS along with field photographs were used to identify paddy stubble burning areas and other land features. Complete enumeration approach and Iterative Self-organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA) unsupervised classifier was used for digital analysis. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of each date was also used with other spectral bands of temporal images. To improve the classification accuracy the non-agricultural areas were masked out. The area was estimated by computing pixels under the classified image mask. Progress of paddy stubble burning was estimated at different intervals for the year 2013 using available cloud free multi-date IRS-P6 AWiFS data to identify the crucial period when stubbles burning takes place in major area so that preventive measures can be taken to curb the menace.

  20. Dissociated reality vis-a-vis integrative planning of AYUSH in Maternal Health Program: A situational analysis in Jaleswar block of Balasore district of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions is one of the innovative components of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in the state of Odisha, India. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the potential of collocating AYUSH to improve maternal health services in tribal dominated Jaleswar block of the Balasore district. In addition, the study aimed at unearthing the underlying challenges and constraints in mainstreaming AYUSH and linking it with the Maternal Health Program. Review of the policy documents and guidelines, both central and state government, was made to assess the implementation of AYUSH in Odisha. Primary data were collected through interviews with AYUSH doctors, district and block level health administrators, and tribal women. The study revealed the inadequacy of basic amenities, infrastructure, drugs, and consumables in the health centers for integrating AYUSH in the delivery of maternal health services. Analysis of the job chart and work pattern of AYUSH doctors showed underutilization of their specialized knowledge to treat patients. Lack of continued medical education, standard operating procedures for treatment and spatial marginalization made suboptimal utilization of AYUSH services. This is unfortunate given the fact that such regions are economically underdeveloped and already have a distinct orientation toward indigenous health systems. AYUSH, on account of its holistic approach and proven cost-effectiveness, could be a viable option for improving maternal health in the region. The study concluded that although there is huge scope for integrating AYUSH in Maternal Health Program under the ongoing NRHM, the full potential is yet to be exploited.

  1. Recurrent floods and prevalence of diarrhea among under five children: observations from Bahraich district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Kaushal, Sonia; Aribam, Bijaya S.; Khattri, Prashant; D'Aoust, Olivia; Singh, Mongjam M.; Marx, Michael; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is an important problem among the under-five children in India. Objective The paper examines long-term impacts of recurrent floods on diarrhea among under-five children in Uttar Pradesh, India. Design A two stage stratified cluster survey was conducted in flood affected (exposed) and non-flood affected areas (unexposed). Results The long-term impact of the floods was not clearly marked in the overall prevalence of diarrhea with the exposed group having prevalence of 55.1% as against 56.2% in the unexposed group of children under five. Economic condition of the household is associated with the prevalence of diarrhea in both exposed and unexposed strata. Anemia was found to be a significant risk factor for diarrhea among children in both the flood exposed and non-flood exposed populations. The recurrent floods did not have any significant effect on the prevalence of diarrhea in relation to gender, religion, caste, and household size. Conclusions The study indicates that the long-term impacts of floods are very differently manifested than the immediate impacts. PMID:21695069

  2. Factors affecting treatment-seeking for febrile illness in a malaria endemic block in Boudh district, Orissa, India: policy implications for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Orissa state in eastern India accounts for the highest malaria burden to the nation. However, evidences are limited on its treatment-seeking behaviour in the state. We assessed the treatment-seeking behaviour towards febrile illness in a malaria endemic district in Orissa. Methods A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out during the high malaria transmission season of 2006 in Boudh district. Respondents (n = 300) who had fever with chills within two weeks prior to the day of data collection were selected through a multi-stage sampling and interviewed with a pre-tested and structured interview schedule. Malaria treatment providers (n = 23) were interviewed in the district to gather their insights on factors associated with prompt and effective treatment through a semi-structured and open-ended interview guideline. Results Majority of respondents (n = 281) sought some sort of treatment e.g. government health facility (35.7%), less qualified providers (31.3%), and community level health workers and volunteers (24.3%). The single most common reason (66.9%) for choosing a provider was proximity. Over a half (55.7%) sought treatment from appropriate providers within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Respondents under five years (OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.84-4.80, P = 0.012), belonging to scheduled tribe community (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.11-4.07, P = 0.022) and visiting a provider more than five kilometers (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.09-3.83, P = 0.026) were more likely to have delayed or inappropriate treatment. Interviews with the providers indicated that patients' lack of trust in community volunteers providing treatment led to inappropriate treatment-seeking from the less qualified providers. The reasons for the lack of trust included drug side effects, suspicions about drug quality, stock-outs of drugs and inappropriate attitude of the provider. Conclusion Large-scale involvement of less qualified providers is suggested in the malaria control programme as volunteers

  3. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Rakshit, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI) rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  4. Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Retreatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases among Tribal People of an Eastern India District: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The study was conducted to assess the treatment outcome of different category retreatment cases with the aim of finding out the important predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Methodology. This hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of west Midnapore (a district of Eastern India), covering mostly the tribal populated areas. Patients who were registered for Category II antituberculosis treatment between 1st quarter of 2013 (Jan to Mar) and 4th quarter of 2013 (Oct to Dec) were considered as our study cohort and they were followed up till December 2014. The study was started with 177 patients but ultimately ended with 165 patients. Results. Unfavorable outcome was observed among 24.8% patients. Among them mostly 51.2% were defaulter, 22% were failure case, and 26.8% died during treatment. Patients, who were minority by religion, were found 4 times more vulnerable for unfavorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was found 7 times more common among retreatment TB cases who remain sputum positive after completion of initiation phase of Category II treatment. Conclusion. Programmatic approach should be specified to address the minority by religion population and to reduce the load of sputum positive cases after completion of initiation phase treatment by tracking them. PMID:27656293

  5. Modeling groundwater quality in an arid agricultural environment in the face of an uncertain climate: the case of Mewat District, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. C.; Ward, A. S.; Muste, M.

    2014-12-01

    The salinization of groundwater resources is a widespread problem in arid agricultural environments. In Mewat District (Haryana, India), groundwater salinity has rendered much of the accessible supply unfit for human consumption or agriculture. Historically, this closed basin retained fresh pockets of water at the foothills of the Aravalli Hills, where monsoonal precipitation runoff from the mountains was recharged through infiltration or facilitated by man-made structures. To date, an increasing number of pumps supply the region with fresh water for consumption and agriculture leading to shrinking the freshwater zone at an accelerated pace. The potential for increased human consumption corroborated with the effects of climate change bring uncertainty about the future of water security for the Mewat communities, most of them critically bound to the existence of local water. This study addresses the sustainability of the freshwater supply under a range of land interventions and climate scenarios, using a 2-D groundwater flow and transport model. Our results quantify potential futures for this arid, groundwater-dependent location, using numerical groundwater modeling to quantify interactions between human water use, infrastructure, and climate. Outcomes of this modeling study will inform an NGO active in the area on sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Japanese encephalitis Disease and Detection of Disease Hotspots: a Case Study of Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; Gupta, R. D.

    2014-11-01

    In recent times, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has emerged as a serious public health problem. In India, JE outbreaks were recently reported in Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur. The present study presents an approach to use GIS for analyzing the reported cases of JE in the Gorakhpur district based on spatial analysis to bring out the spatial and temporal dynamics of the JE epidemic. The study investigates spatiotemporal pattern of the occurrence of disease and detection of the JE hotspot. Spatial patterns of the JE disease can provide an understanding of geographical changes. Geospatial distribution of the JE disease outbreak is being investigated since 2005 in this study. The JE incidence data for the years 2005 to 2010 is used. The data is then geo-coded at block level. Spatial analysis is used to evaluate autocorrelation in JE distribution and to test the cases that are clustered or dispersed in space. The Inverse Distance Weighting interpolation technique is used to predict the pattern of JE incidence distribution prevalent across the study area. Moran's I Index (Moran's I) statistics is used to evaluate autocorrelation in spatial distribution. The Getis-Ord Gi*(d) is used to identify the disease areas. The results represent spatial disease patterns from 2005 to 2010, depicting spatially clustered patterns with significant differences between the blocks. It is observed that the blocks on the built up areas reported higher incidences.

  7. Application of multivariate statistical analysis concepts for assessment of hydrogeochemistry of groundwater—a study in Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques, cluster and principal component analysis were applied to the data on groundwater quality of Suri I and II Blocks of Birbhum District, West Bengal, India, to extract principal factors corresponding to the different sources of variation in the hydrochemistry as well as the main controls on the hydrochemistry. For this, bore well water samples have been collected in two phases, during Post-monsoon (November 2012) and Pre-monsoon (April 2013) from 26 sampling locations spread homogeneously over the two blocks. Excess fluoride in groundwater has been reported at two locations both in post- and in pre-monsoon sessions, with a rise observed in pre-monsoon. Localized presence of excess iron has also been observed during both sessions. The water is found to be mildly alkaline in post-monsoon but slightly acidic at some locations during pre-monsoon. Correlation and cluster analysis studies demonstrate that fluoride shares a moderately positive correlation with pH in post-monsoon and a very strong one with carbonate in pre-monsoon indicating dominance of rock water interaction and ion exchange activity in the study area. Certain locations in the study area have been reported with less than 0.6 mg/l fluoride in groundwater, leading to possibility of occurrence of severe dental caries especially in children. Low values of sulfate and phosphate in water indicate a meager chance of contamination of groundwater due to anthropogenic factors.

  8. Monitoring land use with reference to aquaculture in Chinna Cherukuru village of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India - A Remote Sensing and GIS Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, M. R.; Ganguly, K.; Sunder, B. S.; Rani, G. P.; Rao, A.; Shankar, G. R.

    2014-11-01

    The present study focuses on the dynamics of conversion of agricultural land to aquaculture over a decade from 1995 to 2013 in Chinna Cherukuru Village (Thotapalligudur Mandal) in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh State, India. Multi temporal satellite data from 1995's medium resolution to high resolution IRS LISS IV & Cartosat of 2013 time frame was analysed and mapped using RS & GIS techniques to monitor the dynamics of land transformation from agriculture to aquaculture (1995's) and conversion back to agriculture in 2013. It was observed that, in 1995 aquaculture was practiced to an extent of 62.35 hectares which accounts to 9.48 % of the Total Geographic Area (TGA) of the village (658.01 hectares), whereas in 2001 there is a major conversion from agricultural land to aquaculture accounting to an extent of 237.01 hectares or 36.01 % of total village area . However, thereafter there was a significant conversion back to agriculture accounting to an extent of 27.23 hectares or 4.13 % of TGA in 2013. The study tries to understand the underlying reasons for conversion back to agriculture which were due to several factors that include outbreak of diseases in aquatic fauna, natural calamities, variation in production cost / selling cost and non-availability of infrastructure facilities like cold storages etc. The present village level study on LUCC database provides an answer key question about socio-economic issues, land use and cropping pattern which form important input for environmental management.

  9. A comprehensive screening program for β-thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India, dealing with 21 137 cases.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kallol Kumar; Chatterjee, Tridip; Mondal, Ujjalendu Bikash

    2017-03-03

    We here present a report of population screening programs (January 2012-December 2015) conducted by the Thalassemia Control Unit, Imambara Sadar Hospital, Chinsurah, Hooghly in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India for prevention of thalassemia. We screened β-thalassemia (β-thal) heterozygotes and homozygotes, and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A)-β-thal compound heterozygotes. Among 21 137 cases, we found 1968 heterozygotes and 192 homozygotes or compound heterozygotes. Results were evaluated with standard hematological analyses including red cell indices, hemoglobin (Hb) typing and quantification. The participants of the screening program were divided into six groups (children, pre-marriage cases, post-marital cases, family members of affected individuals, family members of carriers and pregnant women). While considering the average frequency of carriers, many reports recorded both related individuals (family members of trait and affected individuals) as well as unrelated individuals such as school children and pregnant women. These would have to be considered separately and only the unrelated individuals taken to estimate carrier frequencies in this article that would give more realistic data on carrier frequency of unrelated individuals.

  10. Petro-mineralogical Studies of the Paleoproterozoic Phosphorites in the Sonrai basin, Lalitpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, Shamim A. Khan, K. F.; Khan, Saif A.; Khan, Samsuddin; Masroor Alam, M.

    2015-09-15

    The Paleoproterozoic phosphorites constitute an economically significant component of the Sonrai basin of Lalitpur district. These are associated with ferruginous shale, ironstone, limestone and quartz breccia. Petro-mineralogical studies of samples of the phosphorites, using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, reveal that the collophane (carbonate-fluorapatite) is the dominant phosphate mineral. Calcite, dolomite, quartz, mica and haematite are the dominant gangue constituents. The phosphate minerals occur as oolites mutually replaced by carbonate and silica. The presence of iron oxides has been found in most of the thin sections. There is meagre evidence of organic matter in the form of filaments of microbial phosphate laminae in the samples of phosphorite. The mineral assemblages, their texture and various forms in these phosphorites may be due to some environmental vicissitudes followed by replacement processes and biogenic activities.

  11. STUDY ON RADON CONCENTRATION AT THE WORK PLACES OF MYSURU, BENGALURU AND KOLAR DISTRICTS OF KARNATAKA STATE, SOUTH INDIA.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, C; Hamsa, K S; Reddy, K Umesha; Niranjan, R S; Rangaswamy, D R; Sannappa, J

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of radon, thoron and their progeny inside the working place depend on the activity of radionuclides in the soil, building materials, atmospheric conditions, construction of the building, type of work and ventilation condition. Radon is a radioactive noble gas, and it is emanated from (226)Ra present in earth crest and building material. Based on the type of work, construction of the building and ventilation condition, concentrations of radon, thoron and their progeny have been measured in 60 workplaces at 10 locations of Mysuru, Bengaluru and Kolar districts of Karnataka state using Solid-State Nuclear Track Detector technique. From the study, variations of radon, thoron and their progeny have been observed with the nature of work.

  12. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  13. Drinking water quality in six small tea gardens of Sonitpur District of Assam, India, with special reference to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Joydev; Chetia, Mridul; Misra, A K

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of drinking water by arsenic and other heavy metals and their related toxicology is a serious concern now-a-days. Millions of individual world-wide are suffering from the arsenic and other heavy metal related diseases due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. 60 water samples from different sources of 6 small tea gardens of Sonitpur district were collected to study the potability of water for drinking purposes. The water samples collected from sources like tube wells, ring wells and ponds were analyzed for arsenic, heavy metals like iron, manganese and mercury with sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, pH, total hardness, chloride, fluoride and sulphate. Some drain water samples of the tea garden areas were also collected to analyze the above mentioned water parameters to see the contamination level. Experiments revealed that 78% samples of total collection had arsenic content above the permissible limit (0.01 ppm) of WHO guideline value for drinking water. The highest arsenic was observed 0.09 ppm at one sample of Gobindra Dahal tea garden of Gohpur sub division of Sonitpur district. 94% samples had contamination due to manganese 39% samples had iron and 44% samples had Hg. The water quality data was subjected to some statistical treatments like NDA, cluster analysis and pearson correlation to observe the distribution pattern of the different water quality parameters. A strong pearson correlation coefficient was observed between parameters-arsenic and manganese (0.865) and arsenic and mercury (0.837) at 0.01 level, indicated the same sources of drinking water contamination.

  14. First report of the Gondwana genus Beatogordius from India, with further records of two Chordodes species (Gordiida, Nematomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Arun K.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Limatemjen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Three horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) are recorded from Nagaland, India. The first species is Chordodes combiareolatus, which was recently described from Nagaland. The second is Chordodes cf. furnessi, earlier reported from Meghalaya, and some new observations are added. The third is a new species, described as Beatogordius nagalandis sp. n. This is the first report of the genus Beatogordius in India and this observation fits well into the Gondwana distribution of the genus. The species is quite similar to Beatogordius chinensis, reported from South China. PMID:28144175

  15. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Patti, Pooja; Agnihotry, Ajeet

    2013-05-15

    Traditional uses of floristic diversity are the most important component of indigenous knowledge system, which is widely prcatised by human populations all across the world. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been conducted during 2010-2012, to study the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi Disrtict in Himachal Pradesh, India. Total 384 species (71 trees, 97 shrubs, 209 herbs and 07 ferns) belonging to 106 families and 285 genera were recorded and used by the inhabitants of the area. Different parts of these species, such as whole plants, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, seeds, stems, barks, etc. were used by the inhabitants for curing various ailments. Various anthropogenic activities, over exploitation and habitat degradation have led rapid population depletion of these species. Therefore, study on habitat ecology, development of conventional and in-vitro propagation protocols, development of agro techniques/plantation techniques and introduction in the akin habitats, education and awareness programs for the inhabitants are suggested. So that adequate planning for the conservation of these species could be done.

  16. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

    2006-01-01

    The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

  17. Contamination of liquid milk and butter with pesticide residues in the Ludhiana district of Punjab state, India.

    PubMed

    Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder; Kang, B K

    2004-11-01

    An analysis of 92 samples of liquid milk from Ludhiana, India, during 1999-2001 revealed the presence of DDT in 6 (7.4%) samples and of these 2 samples were found to exceed the maximum residue limit (MRL) of DDT fixed at 0.05 mg kg(-1) (on a whole milk basis). HCH residues were detected in 49 (53.3%) samples and constituted only gamma-HCH (lindane). The MRL of lindane is fixed at 0.01 mg kg(-1) (whole milk basis), and all 49 liquid milk samples exceeded this value. These results are indicative of contamination of bovine milk with pesticide residues as a result of the ban on the use of DDT and HCH in agriculture and public health programs. Similarly, analysis of 40 samples of butter showed the presence of DDT and HCH in 28 and 8 samples, respectively. However, none of the samples exceeded the MRL value of either DDT or any isomer of HCH. DDT residues comprised mainly p,p-DDE and p,p-TDE, whereas HCH residues were present as lindane in 6 samples, and 2 samples revealed the presence of beta-HCH. The estimated daily intake of lindane through the consumption of contaminated liquid milk exceeded its acceptable daily intake value for children. Interestingly, none of the liquid milk or butter samples revealed the presence of any commonly used organophosphorus or synthetic pyrethroid insecticides at their detection limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1).

  18. Effect of a diabetes counseling programme on knowledge, attitude and practice among diabetic patients in Erode district of South India.

    PubMed

    Malathy, R; Narmadha, Mp; Ramesh, S; Alvin, Jose M; Dinesh, Babu N

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in India has grown over the past decade. Diabetic patients develop complications due to poor awareness regarding the disease and inadequate glycemic control. Patient education is the most effective way to lessen the complications of diabetes and its management. A total of 207 (85 males and 122 females) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were enrolled and randomized into test and control groups. Patients in the test group received counseling at each visit and information leaflets from the pharmacist; the control group patients received counseling and information leaflets only at the end of the study. A validated knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was administered to both test and control group patients at baseline and at final follow-up to assess awareness regarding disease management. Glucose and lipid levels were also evaluated at baseline and final follow-up in both the groups. At the end of the study, the KAP score of test group patients improved significantly (P<0.0001), whereas no significant changes were observed in control group patients. The postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) levels decreased significantly in the test group. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGL), and low density lipoprotein levels (LDL) also showed a decrease in the test group. Thus, our study reveals that pharmacist counseling might be an important element in diabetes management programs.

  19. Perceptions and Practices regarding Breastfeeding among Postnatal Women at a District Tertiary Referral Government Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Sowmini P.; Garg, Dikshy; Khan, Mohd. Khursheed; Baliga, B. Shantharam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Breastfeeding is the optimal method for achieving a normal growth and development of the baby. This study aimed to study mothers' perceptions and practices regarding breastfeeding in Mangalore, India. Methodology. A cross-sectional study of 188 mothers was conducted using a structured proforma. Results. Importance of breast feeding was known to most mothers. While initiation of breast feeding within one hour of birth was done by majority of mothers, few had discarded colostrum and adopted prelacteal feeding. Mothers opined that breast feeding is healthy for their babies (96.3%) and easier than infant feeding (79.8%), does not affect marital relationship (51%), and decreases family expenditure (61.1%). However, there were poor perceptions regarding the advantages of breast milk with respect to nutritive value, immune effect, and disease protection. Few respondents reported discontinuation of breastfeeding in previous child if the baby had fever/cold (6%) or diarrhea (18%) and vomiting (26%). There was a statistically significant association between mother's educational level and perceived importance of breastfeeding and also between the mode of delivery and initiation of breast feeding (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Importance of breast feeding was known to most mothers. Few perceptions related to breast milk and feeding along with myths and disbeliefs should be rectified by health education. PMID:27840770

  20. Assessment of physical disability using Barthel index among elderly of rural areas of district Jhansi (U.P), India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shubhanshu; Yadav, Rashmi; Malhotra, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The health of the elderly will be an important issue defining the health status of a population. With the rise in aged population, there is a greater need to look into their physical disability aspects, which is otherwise neglected. The rationale behind the study is to assess the physical disability of the elderly living in rural area of Jhansi. The aims of the study were to study the prevalence of physical disability among the elderly of rural area, and to find out the factors and association affecting the physical disability. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a Baragaon block of rural area of Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India, from July 2015 to October 2015. Multistage random sampling was performed. A total of 265 participants of age 60 years and above were selected. Physical disability was assessed using Barthel index. Appropriate data entry and statistical analysis were done in EpiInfo. Frequency tables were used to calculate the prevalence, and Chi-square test was used to find out the association. Results: The overall prevalence of physical disability was 23.4%. 70% belongs to the age group from 60 to 69 years. Physical disability was significantly higher among age group >80 years. Similarly, women were more affected with physical disability than men. Conclusions: High prevalence of physical disability is the major area of concern. More extensive postdischarge health facilities to be provided to elderly. PMID:28349004

  1. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River Basin, Cuddalore district, South India.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, M; Kannan, R; Srinivasalu, S; Rammohan, V

    2007-09-01

    The Lower Ponnaiyar River Basin forms an important groundwater province in South India constituted by Tertiary formations dominated by sandstones and overlain by alluvium. The region enjoyed artesian conditions 50 years back but at present frequent failure of monsoon and over exploitation is threatening the aquifer. Further, extensive agricultural and industrial activities and urbanization has resulted in the increase in demand and contamination of the aquifer. To identify the sources and quality of groundwater, water samples from 47 bore wells were collected in an area of 154 km2 and were analysed for major ions and trace metals. The results reveal that the groundwater in many places is contaminated by higher concentrations of NO3, Cl, PO4 and Fe. Four major hydrochemical facies Ca-Mg-Cl, Na-Cl, Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and sodium percentage indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from nitrate ions, which are associated with sewage and fertilizers application. The present state of the quality of the lower part of Ponnaiyar River Basin is of great concern and the higher concentration of toxic metals (Fe and Ni) may entail various health hazards.

  2. Costs and Consequences of a Cash Transfer for Hospital Births in a Rural District of Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The Janani Suraksha Yojana, India’s “safe motherhood program,” is a conditional cash transfer to encourage women to give birth in health facilities. Despite the program’s apparent success in increasing facility-based births, quantitative evaluations have not found corresponding improvements in health outcomes. This study analyses original qualitative data collected between January, 2012 and November, 2013 in a rural district in Uttar Pradesh to address the question of why the program has not improved health outcomes. It finds that health service providers are focused on capturing economic rents associated with the program, and provide an extremely poor quality care. Further, the program does not ultimately provide beneficiaries a large net monetary transfer at the time of birth. Based on a detailed accounting of the monetary costs of hospital and home deliveries, this study finds that the value of the transfer to beneficiaries is small due to costs associated with hospital births. Finally, this study also documents important emotional and psychological costs to women of delivering in the hospital. These findings suggest the need for a substantial rethinking of the program, paying careful attention to incentivizing health outcomes. PMID:24911512

  3. Hydrochemical appraisal of groundwater and its suitability in the intensive agricultural area of Muzaffarnagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, S. K.; Datta, P. S.; Pruthi, N. K.

    2009-01-01

    Muzaffarnagar is an economically rich district situated in the most fertile plains of two great rivers Ganga and Yamuna in the Indo-gangetic plains, with agricultural land irrigated by both surface water as well as groundwater. An investigation has been carried out to understand the hydrochemistry of the groundwater and its suitability for irrigation uses. Groundwater in the study area is neutral to moderately alkaline in nature. Chemistry of groundwater suggests that alkaline earths (Ca + Mg) significantly exceed the alkalis (Na + K) and weak acids exceed the strong acids (Cl + SO4), suggesting the dominance of carbonate weathering followed by silicate weathering. Majority of the groundwater samples (62%) posses Ca-Mg-HCO3 type of hydrochemical species, followed by Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3, Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Mg-Na-HCO3-Cl and Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4 types. A positive high correlation ( r 2 = 0.928) between Na and Cl suggests that the salinity of groundwater is due to intermixing of two or more groundwater bodies with different hydrochemical compositions. Barring a few locations, most of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation uses. Chemical fertilizers, sugar factories and anthropogenic activities are contributing to the sulphate and chloride concentrations in the groundwater of the study area. Overexploitation of aquifers induced multi componential mixing of groundwater with agricultural return flow waters is responsible for generating groundwater of various compositions in its lateral extent.

  4. Geospatial tool-based morphometric analysis using SRTM data in Sarabanga Watershed, Cauvery River, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.

    2017-02-01

    A morphometric analysis of Sarabanga watershed in Salem district has been chosen for the present study. Geospatial tools, such as remote sensing and GIS, are utilized for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM-30 m resolution) data have been used for morphometric analysis and evaluating various morphometric parameters. The morphometric parameters of Sarabanga watershed have been analyzed and evaluated by pioneer methods, such as Horton and Strahler. The dendritic type of drainage pattern is draining the Sarabanga watershed, which indicates that lithology and gentle slope category is controlling the study area. The Sarabanga watershed is covered an area of 1208 km2. The slope of the watershed is various from 10 to 40% and which is controlled by lithology of the watershed. The bifurcation ratio ranges from 3 to 4.66 indicating the influence of geological structure and suffered more structural disturbances. The form factor indicates elongated shape of the study area. The total stream length and area of watershed indicate that mean annual rainfall runoff is relatively moderate. The basin relief expressed that watershed has relatively high denudation rates. The drainage density of the watershed is low indicating that infiltration is more dominant. The ruggedness number shows the peak discharges that are likely to be relatively higher. The present study is very useful to plan the watershed management.

  5. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  6. Biogeochemical Processes leading to release of As and Mn in the groundwaters of Murshidabad District of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, K. H.; Datta, S.; Vega, M.; Berube, M.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of both manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) have been observed in the groundwaters of Murshidabad, in eastern India. Mn, a postulated neurotoxin is known to cause neuromuscular problems, inhibition of neurological development particularly in children. The health impacts from higher bioavailable proportions of As is well known in being a Class I carcinogen. The discovery of this additional contaminant in the already As afflicted regions of SE Asia poses serious implications for millions of inhabitants. The current study aims to address three objectives in understanding biogeochemical cycling of Mn and As in groundwaters: i) the occurrence and overall distribution (lateral and temporal) of groundwater Mn and As; ii) characterization of the dissolved organic matter and microbial content and the resultant effects that are imposed on dissolved As and Mn; and iii) the relationship between Mn, As, and various other inorganic constituents and their impact on the subsequent release of Mn, on top of As. A three year time series of chemical data for the dissolved constituents from six villages in Murshidabad will be presented. Hariharpara, Beldanga, Naoda villages contain reducing groundwaters (mean Mn: 0.93mg/L); Nabagram, Kandi, Khidirpore demonstrate oxidizing aquifers (Mn: 0.74mg/L). Eighty-three percent of the wells surveyed contain Mn levels that exceed the recommended WHO limit of 0.4 mg/L. Dissolved As within the same locations show a range from <10μg/L to ~4000 μg/L. DOC values demonstrate a positive correlation with Mn in reducing and a negative correlation in oxidizing environments. The reducing aquifers are also high in As and DOC, indicating that the microbially mediated reductive dissolution of As-sorbed onto Fe-Mn mineral phases is probable. Fluorescence analyses of dissolved OM, solidphase modeling of Mn speciation are being combined in this study for more insight into the mechanisms of Mn release and its relation if any to As release.

  7. Effectiveness of Onsite Nurse Mentoring in Improving Quality of Institutional Births in the Primary Health Centres of High Priority Districts of Karnataka, South India: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Janet; Mony, Prem; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Rao, Suman; Thomas, Annamma; S, Rajaram; Kar, Arin; N, Swaroop; B M, Ramesh; H L, Mohan; Fischer, Elizabeth; Crockett, Maryanne; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background In India, although the proportion of institutional births is increasing, there are concerns regarding quality of care. We assessed the effectiveness of a nurse-led onsite mentoring program in improving quality of care of institutional births in 24/7 primary health centres (PHCs that are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) of two high priority districts in Karnataka state, South India. Primary outcomes were improved facility readiness and provider preparedness in managing institutional births and associated complications during child birth. Methods All functional 24/7 PHCs in the two districts were included in the study. We used a parallel, cluster randomized trial design in which 54 of 108 facilities received six onsite mentoring visits, along with an initial training update and specially designed case sheets for providers; the control arm received just the initial training update and the case sheets. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered in April-2012 and August-2013 using facility audits, provider interviews and case sheet audits. The provider interviews were administered to all staff nurses available at the PHCs and audits were done of all the filled case sheets during the month prior to data collection. In addition, a cost analysis of the intervention was undertaken. Results Between the surveys, we achieved coverage of 100% of facilities and 91.2% of staff nurse interviews. Since the case sheets were newly designed, case-sheet audit data were available only from the end line survey for about 80.2% of all women in the intervention facilities and 57.3% in the control facilities. A higher number of facilities in the intervention arm had all appropriate drugs, equipment and supplies to deal with gestational hypertension (19 vs.3, OR (odds ratio) 9.2, 95% C.I 2.5 to33.6), postpartum haemorrhage (29 vs. 12, OR 3.7, 95% C.I 1.6 to8.3); and obstructed labour (25 vs.9, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to8.3). The providers in the intervention arm had better

  8. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  9. Relationship between water, urine and serum fluoride and fluorosis in school children of Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lata, Suman; Yadav, Jyoti; Yadav, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between fluoride in water, urine and serum and dental fluorosis. The fluoride level in water and urine were measured spectrophotometrically by using acid zirconyl and SPADNS reagents, while the fluoride level in serum was determined by ion selective electrode meter. Dental fluorosis survey was conducted with the help of Performa prescribed by Rajiv Gandhi Drinking Water Mission and the use of Tooth Surface Index for Fluorosis. Mean fluoride values in water samples of Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur villages of Jhajjar District were measured to be 2.17 (range from 1.92 to 2.60 mg/L), 2.81 (range from 2.53 to 3.14 mg/L) and 2.22 mg/L (range from 1.63 to 3.33 mg/L), respectively. The mean fluoride values in the urine samples of children were found to be 1.51 (range from 0.05 to 2.64 mg/L), 1.71 (range from 0.69 to 2.80 mg/L) and 1.45 mg/L (range from 0.31 to 2.50 mg/L) at Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur sites, respectively. Serum fluoride was detected in the blood samples of children, who have high urinary fluoride at these three sites. The mean serum fluoride level was reported to be 0.15, 0.34 and 0.17 mg/L, respectively. A total of 842 children were also analyzed for dental fluorosis. The mean values of fluorosis-affected children in Jhajjar, Dadanpur and Dariyapur were 51.90, 94.63 and 36.84 %, respectively. A significantly positive correlation between water, urine, serum fluoride concentration and fluorosis was seen.

  10. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20–30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Veena G.; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. Objective To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Design Community based cross sectional study Setting 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. Sample 1,152 young adults (age group: 20–30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India Method A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Main Outcome Measures Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Results The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4–48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25–30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99–6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08–4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64–6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22–4.95), using refined cooking oil

  11. Fluoride occurrence and assessment of exposure dose of fluoride in shallow aquifers of Makur, Unnao district Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2009-09-01

    The water samples from the shallow aquifers of Makur, Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, was analyzed for fluoride content (F( - )) and other water quality parameters such as pH, EC, CO(3) (2-), HCO(3) (-), Cl( - ), Na( + ), Ca(2 + ), Mg(2 + ) and RSC. It was found that the F( - ) concentration of water varied between 1.05 to 13.9 mgl( - 1) which exceeded the maximum desirable limits of 1.0 mgl( - 1) of F( - ) as laid down by BIS and 68% of water exceeded maximum permissible limits of 1.5 mgl( - 1) as prescribed by WHO. The correlation study of fluoride indicated that F( - ) has a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with pH (r = +0.59) and RSC (r = 0.54), while a significant negative correlation with Ca+Mg (r = -0.53) and Mg (r = -0.49). The exposure doses of fluoride in infants was found between 0.35 to 3.26 mg kg( - 1)day( - 1) (if dug well water was used) whereas 0.36 to 4.63 mg kg( - 1)day( - 1) (when shallow hand pumps) The exposure doses of water in case of children (20 kg body weight) varied between 0.157 to 1.47 mg kg( - 1)day( - 1) (for dugwell) and 0.162 to 2.08 mg kg( - 1)day( - 1) (for shallow hand pumps) whereas in case of adults (70 kg body weight), it varied between 0.09 to 0.839 mg kg( - 1)day( - 1) (for dugwell) and 0.092 to 1.19 mg kg( - 1)day( - 1) (shallow hand pumps) which is quite high against the standard value of 0.05 mg/kg/day which is the minimum risk level (MRL) calculated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The maximum exposure dose to fluoride for adults in the study area found to be 23.8 times higher than the ATSDR's MRL.

  12. Retention in pre-antiretroviral treatment care in a district of Karnataka, India: how well are we doing?

    PubMed

    Shankar, D; Kumar, A M V; Rewari, B; Kumar, S; Shastri, S; Satyanarayana, S; Ananthakrishnan, R; Nagaraja, S B; Devi, M; Bhargava, N; Das, M; Zachariah, R

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Centre de traitement antirétroviral (ART) du district de Tumkur dans l'état de Karnataka, Inde. Il n'y a pas de document publié sur les perdus de vue avant le traitement ART en Inde.Objectif : Evaluer la proportion de perdus de vue (définis comme l'absence de visite au centre d'ART dans l'année suivant l'enregistrement) et les variables sociodémographiques et immunologiques qui y sont associées.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte impliquant une revue des dossiers médicaux des patients adultes infectés par le VIH (âge ⩾15 ans) enregistrés en soins pré-ART entre janvier 2010 et juin 2012.Résultats : Sur 3238 patients enregistrés, 2519 (78%) étaient éligibles pour le traitement ART tandis que 719 (22%) ne l'étaient pas. Quatre de ces derniers ont été transférés. Parmi les 715 individus enrôlés en soin pré-ART, 290 (41%) ont été perdus de vue. Les facteurs associés avec le fait d'être perdus de vue en analyse multivariée incluaient la tranche d'âge ⩾45 ans, un niveau d'instruction faible, le célibat, le stade 3 ou 4 de l'OMS et la résidence en milieu rural.Conclusion : Près de quatre individus sur 10 en soins pre-ART ont été perdus de vue dans l'année suivant leur enregistrement. Ceci requiert une attention urgente. L'analyse de cohorte en routine du programme national devrait inclure les patients en soins pré-ART afin d'améliorer la revue des cas, leur suivi et leur supervision. Une recherche qualitative ultérieure afin de cerner les raisons des pertes de vue est nécessaire pour concevoir les interventions futures.

  13. A Study on Ground Water Resource Management in Gondwana Formations in Western Part of West Godavari District Andhra Pradesh India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singara, S.

    2006-05-01

    like maize, tobacco, palm oil, garden crops in minor extent and coconut was planted in large extents. Piezometric surface shows uniform gradient over the entire area indicating hydraulic continuity between different geological formations. The water budgeting was computed by using norms recommended by GEC (Ground Water Estimation Committee) of CGWB 1997, Govt. of India. For the present study, June 2000 to May 2001 period is taken as groundwater year. Groundwater recharge is calculated (formation wise) by rainfall infiltration and water table fluctuation methods, and recharge from other sources reservoirs, tanks, canals, irrigation water returns etc. the total recharge comes to be 626 MCM. Groundwater draft for irrigation and domestic purposes is found to be 994.96 MCM. Groundwater balance shows overdraft by 364.15 MCM. Well density is increased from <1/Sq. km in 60s to >30/Sq.km in 2000. Piezometric surface profiles in N-S direction also show a drop from 1960 to 2000 year by 44m. Taking into consideration, the mined water during 1990-2000, the overdraft comes to 704 MCM i.e. 70.4 MCM/year. Groundwater draft in the study area is found to be 2.85 times more than the actual requirement (342 MCM) of the crops in the area due to highly permeable sandy soils. In view of the alarming imbalance in the groundwater recharge and draft, some management practices are suggested to restore the original groundwater condition which includes proper well spacing, artificial recharge, change of cropping pattern and irrigation methods to suit to the local conditions. Quality of groundwater is suitable for drinking and agricultural purposes.

  14. Occurrence of a new species of Letana (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) in India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-11-19

    A new species of the Oriental genus Letana, Walker (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae), proposed as Letana dentata sp. nov., collected from the North-eastern province, Meghalaya, India (Ri bhoi 90°55'15 to 91°16' latitude and 25°40' to 25°21' longitude, 993 MSL), is described together with the morphological characterization of eight reported species. Of these, Letana rubescens (Stål, 1861) collected from Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India) is being reported for the first time from India. The other species of Letana include: L. atomifera, L. bulbosa, L. inflata, L. infurcata, L. pyrifera and L. rufonatata. Taxonomic and diagnostic characters with illustrations of the head, pronotum, ventral view of left tegmina to show stridulatory file teeth and the genitalia (supra-anal plate and subgenital plate) including the phallus sclerite has been given.

  15. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3-200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector's non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with private

  16. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data

    PubMed Central

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3–200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector’s non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with

  17. Urinary fluoride as a monitoring tool for assessing successful intervention in the provision of safe drinking water supply in five fluoride-affected villages in Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Gautam, Anil; Jaiswal, Suresh Chandra; Singh, Pavitra

    2013-03-01

    Endemic fluorosis was detected in 31 villages in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Out of the 109 drinking water sources that were analyzed, about 67 % were found to contain high concentration of fluoride above the permissible level of 1.0 mg/l. Dental fluorosis among the primary school children in the age between 8 and 15 served as primary indicator for fluoride intoxication among the children. Urinary fluoride levels among the adults were found to be correlated with drinking water fluoride in 10 villages affected by fluoride. Intervention in the form of alternate safe water supply in five villages showed significant reduction in the urinary fluoride concentration when compared to the control village. Urinary fluoride serves as an excellent marker for assessing the effectiveness of intervention program in the fluoride-affected villages.

  18. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Assessment of water contribution on total fluoride intake of various age groups of people in fluoride endemic and non-endemic areas of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  20. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

  1. Understanding the transportational and depositional setting of Panchet Formation, Purulia and Bankura districts of West Bengal, India — Evidence from grain size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Bapi; Ghosh, Dipsikha

    2011-06-01

    The rocks of Triassic Panchet Formation (TPF) of West Bengal, India, predominantly include sandstones of medium to fine grain-size, with subordinate shale and pebble horizons. Textural parameter like mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis are calculated using standard methods to understand the transportation and the depositional environment of the sediments in a part of Panchet Formation. Granulometric analyses indicate the presence of fluvial environment interrupted with aeolian, beach and tidal environments prevailed during the time of deposition of the sediments in this part of Gondwanaland during the Triassic time.

  2. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  3. Effect of Physical Violence on Sexually Transmitted Infections and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Female Sex Workers in Thane District, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Manthri, Suneedh; Tayyaba, Shaikh; Joy, Anna; Raj, Sunil Saksena; Singh, Devender; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs) who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services. Methods This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013–14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs) and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method. Results About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05) and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10) and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05). Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI

  4. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  5. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  6. PKDL--A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K; Kundu, Pratip K; Bera, Dilip K; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6-12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period.

  7. Strategies for coping with the costs of inpatient care: a mixed methods study of urban and rural poor in Vadodara District, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, Michael Kent; Jayaswal, Rupal; Mills, Anne J

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, coping mechanisms for inpatient care costs have been explored in rural areas, but seldom among urbanites. This study aims to explore and compare mechanisms employed by the urban and rural poor for coping with inpatient expenditures, in order to help identify formal mechanisms and policies to provide improved social protection for health care. Methods A three-step methodology was used: (1) six focus-group discussions; (2) 800 exit survey interviews with users of public and private facilities in both urban and rural areas; and (3) 18 in-depth interviews with poor (below 30th percentile of socio-economic status) hospital users, to explore coping mechanisms in greater depth. Results Users of public hospitals, in both urban and rural areas, were poor relative to users of private hospitals. Median expenditures per day were much higher at private than at public facilities. Most respondents using public facilities (in both urban and rural areas) were able to pay out of their savings or income; or by borrowing from friends, family or employer. Those using private facilities were more likely to report selling land or other assets as the primary source of coping (particularly in rural areas) and they were more likely to have to borrow money at interest (particularly in urban areas). Poor individuals who used private facilities cited as reasons their closer proximity and higher perceived quality of care. Conclusions In India, national and state governments should invest in improving the quality and access of public first-referral hospitals. This should be done selectively—with a focus, for example, on rural areas and urban slum areas—in order to promote a more equitable distribution of resources. Policy makers should continue to explore and support efforts to provide financial protection through insurance mechanisms. Past experience suggests that these efforts must be carefully monitored to ensure that the poorer among the insured are able to access

  8. Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and associated risk factors among children residing at high altitude in Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goswami, Ravinder; Sharma, Brij; Sharma, Neetu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Singh, Gajendra; Sareen, Neha; Sati, Hem Chandra; Gupta, Aakriti; Sofi, Nighat Yaseen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Vitamin D is important for bone development in children. A high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been documented from different parts of India. However, limited data are available on VDD among children residing at high altitude region of country. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of VDD and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 6–18 years in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2014–2015. A total of 626 children in the age group of 6–18 years were enrolled from 30 clusters which were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method. A minimum of 20 children in the age group of 6–18 years per cluster were selected using random number tables. The data on socioeconomic status, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and biochemical parameters of bone and mineral metabolism were assessed. Results: Ninety-three percent of school-age children were found Vitamin D deficient as per serum 25(OH) D levels of <20 ng/ml. The prevalence was significantly higher among females. Conclusion: A high prevalence of VDD was found in children residing in high altitude region. PMID:28217519

  9. Annual Effective Dose Due to Radon, Thoron and their Progeny in Dwellings of Aligarh City and around a Thermal Power Station in Aligarh District, U.P., India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Agrawal, Anshu; Kumar, Rajesh

    The present study was conducted to measure integrated radon and thoron concentration levels in dwellings of Aligarh city and around the thermal power station situated in Aligarh District. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (LR-115, TYPE-II) based twin cup dosimeters were used for this purpose. Radon and thoron progeny concentration levels in terms of Potential Alpha Energy Concentrations (PAECs) and annual effective dose received by the inhabitants in studied dwellings were estimated from observed values of radon and thoron gas concentrations. The evaluated mean values of radon and thoron gas concentration in Aligarh city were 30.3 Bqm-3 (SD =10.6) and 10.2 Bqm-3 (SD =6.1) respectively and around thermal power station 23.6Bqm-3(SD = 5.2) and 7.7 Bqm-3 (SD= 1.9) respectively. The evaluated mean value of radon and thoron progeny concentration were 3.3 mWL (SD=1.1) and 1.1 mWL (SD= 0.7) respectively, in Aligarh city and 2.6 mWL (SD=0.6) and 0.8 mWL (SD= 0.2) around thermal power station. The estimated average value of annual effective dose in studied dwellings was 0.9 mSv (SD= 0.3) in Aligarh city and 0.7 mSv (SD= 0.2) around thermal power station.

  10. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  11. HUMAN KIDNEY AND SKELETON URANIUM BURDEN, RADIATION DOSE AND HEALTH RISKS FROM HIGH URANIUM CONTENTS IN DRINKING WATER OF BATHINDA DISTRICT (MALWA REGION) OF PUNJAB STATE, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nisha; Singh, Jaspal

    2017-01-23

    Uranium concentration has been measured in drinking water samples from the Bathinda district. It ranges from 2.4 to 529 µg/l with a mean value of 120 µg/l. The mean uranium kidney burden for children and adults is 0.0838 and 0.059 µg U/g, respectively, which crosses the safe limit of 0.02 µg U/g. The mean values for skeleton burden are 1925.7 µg for children and 4108.2 µg for an adult. These values are 32 and 69 times higher than the skeleton burden of 59.4 µg for a normal adult. Radiological and chemical risk is also found to be higher than the recommended values. The mean effective ingestion dose for different age groups and genders is 188.2 µSv/y, while the safety limit is 100 µSv/y. The dose to the kidney, bone surface and bone marrow has also been evaluated. The observed values of the studied parameters show that people of this area may be at higher health risks corresponding to the intake of water; children may be the most affected.

  12. Lithological and hydrochemical controls on distribution and speciation of uranium in groundwaters of hard-rock granitic aquifers of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu (India).

    PubMed

    Thivya, C; Chidambaram, S; Keesari, Tirumalesh; Prasanna, M V; Thilagavathi, R; Adithya, V S; Singaraja, C

    2016-04-01

    Uranium is a radioactive element normally present in hexavalent form as U(VI) in solution and elevated levels in drinking water cause health hazards. Representative groundwater samples were collected from different litho-units in this region and were analyzed for total U and major and minor ions. Results indicate that the highest U concentration (113 µg l(-1)) was found in granitic terrains of this region and about 10 % of the samples exceed the permissible limit for drinking water. Among different species of U in aqueous media, carbonate complexes [UO2(CO3)(2)(2-)] are found to be dominant. Groundwater with higher U has higher pCO2 values, indicating weathering by bicarbonate ions resulting in preferential mobilization of U in groundwater. The major minerals uraninite and coffinite were found to be supersaturated and are likely to control the distribution of U in the study area. Nature of U in groundwater, the effects of lithology on hydrochemistry and factors controlling its distribution in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district are highlighted in this paper.

  13. Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, S K; Yadav, Rashmi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, R K; Sharma, V K; Minhas, P S

    2010-09-01

    Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 microg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11-0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.

  14. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil.

  15. A Study on Gender Preference and Awareness Regarding Prenatal Sex Determination among Antenatal Women in a Rural Area of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Archak

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sex ratio is one of the major indicators to find the gender preferences in the community. Change in sex ratio reflects underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to find out the knowledge of antenatal women regarding the prenatal sex determination and the Pre Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act in a rural area along with assessing the gender preference in family among the study population. Materials and Methods A community based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken in the villages of Matigara Block of Darjeeling district of West Bengal, which serves as a field practice area of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital for two months. A total of 116 pregnant women were included and a pre designed pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the socio demographic details. The data were analysed by SPSS 20.0 software for proportions with chi-square tests. Results Knowledge of sex determination and the PNDT Act were found to be 44.82% and 18.10% among antenatal women. Knowledge regarding assessment of gender preference showed 52.58% expect a boy in this pregnancy. It was found that the determinants for gender preference were caste, sex of the last pregnancy and current gender composition. It was found that the determinants for knowledge of sex determination are age of the mother and the gravida of the mother. It was also found that the factor for the knowledge regarding the PNDT Act is age of the mother. These associations are statistically significant. Conclusion This situation calls for a strategy which includes community based awareness campaigns, women employment, education, and empowerment and by ensuring effective implementation of PNDT Act by the government so that families find it difficult to undertake sex determination. PMID:28384893

  16. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rock terrain — A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Prasanna, M. V.; Vasanthavihar, M.; Peter, John; Anandhan, P.

    2008-02-01

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To identify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 groundwater samples for two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. The groundwater chemistry is dominated by silicate weathering and (Na + Mg) and (Cl + SO4) accounts of about 90% of cations and anions. The contribution of (Ca + Mg) and (Na + K) to total cations and HCO3 indicates the domination of silicate weathering as major sources for cations. The plot for Na to Cl indicates higher Cl in both seasons, derived from Anthropogenic (human) sources from fertilizer, road salt, human and animal waste, and industrial applications, minor representations of Na also indicates source from weathering of silicate-bearing minerals. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering process which is also supported by higher HCO3 values in both the seasons. Ion exchange process is also activated in the study area which is indicated by shifting to right in plot for Ca + Mg to SO4 + HCO3. The plot of Na-Cl to Ca + Mg-HCO3-SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chlorite minerals. Saturation index of silicate and carbonate minerals indicate oversaturation during pre-monsoon and undersaturation during post-monsoon, conforming dissolution and dilution process. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.

  17. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  18. The crysophere as a resource and hazard - Integrated framework for the assessment of future water resource vulnerability and glacial hazard risk assessment in the Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Simon; Awasthi, Kirtiman; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Kahn, Mustafa; Linsbauer, Andreas; Rohrer, Mario; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Schauwecker, Simone; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-05-01

    High mountain environments are particularly susceptible to changes in atmospheric temperature and precipitation patterns, owing to the sensitivity of cryospheric components to melting conditions, and the importance of rainfall and river runoff for sustaining crops and livelihoods. The Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (population ca. 6 mil.) is the initial focus of a joint program between the governments of India and Switzerland aiming to build scientific capacity to understand the threat, and plan for adaptation to climate change in the Himalaya. Here we focus on the cryosphere, and provide an overview of the integrated framework we will follow to assess future water resource vulnerability from changes in runoff, and assess future disaster risk from mass movement and flood hazards. At this early stage of our project, we aim to identify key methodological steps, data requirements, and related challenges. The initial implementation of our framework will be centered on the Kullu district. Core and integrative components of both the traditional climate vulnerability framework (eg., IPCC AR4), and the vulnerability and risk concepts of the disaster risk management community (eg., IPCC SREX 2012) include the assessment of sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. Sensitivity to water vulnerability in the Kullu district requires the quantification of current and future water resource usage at the block or community level, using metrics such as total irrigated land area, total electricity usage, population density and birth rates. Within the disaster risk framework, sensitivity to mass movement and flood hazards will be determined based on factors such as population density and demographics (notably age and gender), strength of building materials etc. Projected temperature and precipitation data from regional climate model output will be used to model changes in melt water runoff and streamflow, determining the exposure of communities and natural systems to future

  19. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms.

  20. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  1. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  2. Compatible poliomyelitis cases in India during 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Kathryn A.; Hlady, W. Gary; Banerjee, Kaushik; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Francis, Paul; Durrani, Sunita; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Sutter, Roland W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases and to assess the programmatic implications of clusters of such cases in India. METHODS: We described the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases, identified clusters of compatible cases (two or more in the same district or neighbouring districts within two months), and examined their relationship to wild poliovirus cases. FINDINGS: There were 362 compatible cases in 2000. The incidence of compatible cases was higher in districts with laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases than in districts without laboratory-confirmed cases. Of 580 districts, 96 reported one compatible case and 72 reported two or more compatible cases. Among these 168 districts with at least one compatible case, 123 had internal or cross- border clusters of compatible cases. In 27 districts with clusters of compatible cases, no wild poliovirus was isolated either in the same district or in neighbouring districts. Three of these 27 districts presented laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases during 2001. CONCLUSION: Most clusters of compatible cases occurred in districts identified as areas with continuing wild poliovirus transmission and where mopping-up vaccination campaigns were carried out. As certification nears, areas with compatible poliomyelitis cases should be investigated and deficiencies in surveillance should be corrected in order to ensure that certification is justified. PMID:12640469

  3. Additions to the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae (Chalcidoidea) of India with new distribution and host records for some species

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, A.; V, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India have not been surveyed in depth and hosts are not known for most of the species as the methods of collections used are passive and do not yield firsthand information on the hosts. Based on our ongoing surveys on the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India, we report here new distribution and host records for some species. New information Acmopolynema campylurum Xu and Lin, Litus cynipseus Haliday, Omyomymar glabrum Lin and Chiappini and Platystethynium Ogloblin (Mymaridae), and Rhytidothorax purpureiscutellum (Girault) (Encyrtidae) are reported for the first time from India. Anagyrus aquilonaris (Noyes and Hayat) is recorded as new to Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. Paraphaenodiscus indicus Singh and Agarwal and Paraphaenodiscus monawari Bhuiya are recorded from south India for the first time, the latter on a new host, Pulvinaria polygonata. Chorizococcus sorghi Williams (Pseudococcidae) is reported as a host for Cryptanusia ajmerensis (Fatma & Shafee), for which no hosts are hitherto known and the male of Cryptanusia is documented for the first time. Aclerda sp. is recorded as a new host for Neastymachus axillaris Singh, Agarwal and Basha. PMID:26069438

  4. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  5. Programme coverage, condom use and STI treatment among FSWs in a large-scale HIV prevention programme: results from cross-sectional surveys in 22 districts in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Abhishek; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Kallam, Srinivasan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar K; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Morineau, Guy; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper evaluates Avahan programme's coverage of female sex workers (FSWs), focus on high-risk FSWs and intermediate outcomes. Methods First round of cross-sectional survey data, Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessments (IBBA), conducted in 22 districts, were aggregated into district categories: Solo, where Avahan was the sole service provider covering all FSWs and Major or Minor where Avahan was not the sole provider, but intended coverage was >50% or ≤ 50% of FSWs respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to compare exposure by district categories, vulnerability factors and intermediate outcomes associated with exposure. Results Reported exposure, evaluated on basis of having received any of three core services, was higher in Solo (75%) compared with Minor (66%) districts. Logistic regression showed that FSWs in solo districts were more likely to be exposed (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.5; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.86) compared with FSWs in Minor districts. Multivariate analysis in Solo districts revealed that FSW with ≥15 clients in the past week had a higher chance of being exposed to core services (AOR=1.56; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.35). Exposure to the three services in Solo Avahan districts was significantly associated with correct knowledge on condom use (AOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.78), consistent condom use with occasional clients (AOR=3.17; 95% CI 2.17 to 4.63) and regular clients (AOR=2.47; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.28) and STI treatment-seeking behaviour (AOR=3.00; 95% CI 1.94 to 4.65). Conclusions Higher coverage of FSWs was achieved in districts where Avahan was the only intervention compared with districts having multiple and longstanding non-Avahan programmes. Exposure in Solo districts was associated with intermediate outcomes; this need to be further evaluated in comparison with non Avahan areas and substantiated through data from next IBBA. PMID:20167734

  6. India: Kachchh

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

  7. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  8. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image Scientists studying satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool ... of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther north. While high pollution levels were found over much ...

  9. Fission track studies on some minerals and water of the north-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Thoudam Nandababu

    The present work is aimed at the geochronological investigations of the minerals of some granitic rocks and estimation of uranium contents in minerals, rocks and water of some parts of the North-East India with the help of fission track (FT) technique. The study includes FT dating of minerals from granites of four different plutons and from pegmatites of two different regions of Meghalaya, annealing studies of the minerals including the correction of the observed mineral ages and calculation of the cooling and uplift rates of the rocks. Precision on the errors of the mineral ages has also been studied in detail in the present work. The experiment was carried out at the Research laboratories of the Physics and the Geology Departments, Gauhati University, Assam, India during 1981-1984. Experimental results show four different age groups of the minerals which would reflect meaningful geological events in the history of these rocks. Sphenes of the Nartiang and Dawki granites record the highest FT ages ~ 1120 m.y. which may be linked with a major plutonic event. Muscovites of the Nartiang and Jowai pegmatites measure ages ~ 690 m.y. which may correspond to the time of emplacements of these pegmatites. Apatites of the Nartiang granites show FT ages ~ 470 m.y. which falls within the period of Indian Ocean cycle event. But, apatites of the Jowai, Pynursla and Dawki granites record the youngest ages ~ 90 m.y. which lies within the period of extrusion of cretaceous lavas (Sylhet traps). Apatite age of the Nartiang granite and muscovite ages of the Nartiang and Jowai pegmatites were corrected to ~ 510 m.y., ~ 743 m.y. and ~ 741 m.y. respectively by applying the plateau method of age correction. However, insignificant corrections were found in the sphene ages of the Nartiang and Dawki granites and apatite ages of the Jowai and Dawki granites. An interesting finding of the present work is the wide discrepancy between the apatite ages ~ 90 m.y. (Cretaceous) of Jowai, Pynursla

  10. Predictive modelling of the spatial pattern of past and future forest cover changes in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Sonali; Dadhwal, V. K.; Jha, C. S.; Rao, N. Rama; Diwakar, P. G.

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to simulate the forest cover changes in India using Land Change Modeler. Classified multi-temporal long-term forest cover data was used to generate the forest covers of 1880 and 2025. The spatial data were overlaid with variables such as the proximity to roads, settlements, water bodies, elevation and slope to determine the relationship between forest cover change and explanatory variables. The predicted forest cover in 1880 indicates an area of 10,42,008 km2, which represents 31.7% of the geographical area of India. About 40% of the forest cover in India was lost during the time interval of 1880-2013. Ownership of majority of forest lands by non-governmental agencies and large scale shifting cultivation are responsible for higher deforestation rates in the Northeastern states. The six states of the Northeast (Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura) and one union territory (Andaman & Nicobar Islands) had shown an annual gross rate of deforestation of >0.3 from 2005 to 2013 and has been considered in the present study for the prediction of future forest cover in 2025. The modelling results predicted widespread deforestation in Northeast India and in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and hence is likely to affect the remaining forests significantly before 2025. The multi-layer perceptron neural network has predicted the forest cover for the period of 1880 and 2025 with a Kappa statistic of >0.70. The model predicted a further decrease of 2305 km2 of forest area in the Northeast and Andaman & Nicobar Islands by 2025. The majority of the protected areas are successful in the protection of the forest cover in the Northeast due to management practices, with the exception of Manas, Sonai-Rupai, Nameri and Marat Longri. The predicted forest cover scenario for the year 2025 would provide useful inputs for effective resource management and help in biodiversity conservation and for mitigating climate change.

  11. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  12. Cancer notification in India.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  13. Women's Political Empowerment and Investments in Primary Schooling in India.

    PubMed

    Halim, Nafisa; Yount, Kathryn M; Cunningham, Solveig A; Pande, Rohini P

    2016-02-01

    Using a national district-level dataset of India composed of information on investments in primary schooling (data from the District Information Survey for Education [DISE, 2007/8]) and information on demographic characteristics of elected officials (data from the Election Commission of India [ECI, 2000/04]), we examined the relationship between women's representation in State Legislative Assembly (SLA) seats and district-level investments in primary schooling. We used OLS regressions adjusting for confounders and spatial autocorrelation, and estimated separate models for North and South India. Women's representation in general SLA seats typically was negatively associated with investments in primary-school amenities and teachers; women's representation in SLA seats reserved for under-represented minorities, i.e., scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, typically was positively associated with investments in primary schooling, especially in areas addressing the basic needs of poor children. Women legislators' gender and caste identities may shape their decisions about redistributive educational policies.

  14. Entomobryoidea (Collembola) from Himachal Pradesh (India) in the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Enrique; Mandal, Gurupada; Jordana, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Collections made during March-April, 2010, October-November, 2010 and 2011 from different districts of Himachal Pradesh, India, by the Apterygota section of the Zoological Survey of India contained new species of Entomobryoidea. Localities sampled were Solan, Shimla, Kullu, Bilaspur, Kagra, Chamba and Sirmaur districts of Himachal Pradesh. Collections were mainly made using an aspirator from leaf litter, mosses, under stones, flowering garden plants and river embankments, wetlands and rotting logs. Sixteen species were found, belonging to genera: Entomobrya, Himalanura, Homidia, Sinella, Willowsia, Lepidocyrtus (Acrocyrtus), Lepidocyrtus (Cinctocyrtus), Seira, Drepanosira and Salina. Twelve of these have been described as new species.

  15. Disability Divides in India: Evidence from the 2011 Census

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Nandita; Bora, Jayanta Kumar; Jasilionis, Domantas; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the socioeconomic and regional divides in disability prevalence in India has considerable relevance for designing public health policies and programs. Objectives The aim of the present study is to quantify the prevalence of disability by gender, region (rural and urban; states and districts), and caste. We also examine the association between disability prevalence and the major socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the districts in India. Methods Age-standardized disability prevalence (ASDP) was calculated using 2011 census data and applying the WHO World Standard Population. A regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between disability prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics across districts of India. Results The study found that ASDP varies substantially across districts and is higher among women, rural dwellers, and members of scheduled tribes (STs) and scheduled castes (SCs). The regression model showed that the disability rate in districts rises with increasing proportions of the population who are urban dwellers, aged 65 or older, members of STs, and living in dilapidated housing; and that the disability prevalence decreases with increasing proportions of the female population who are literate, and of the general population who are working and have access to safe drinking water. Conclusion As the burden of disability falls disproportionately across geographic regions and socioeconomic groups, public health policies in India should take this variation into account. The definition of disability used in the census should be modified to generate internationally comparable estimates of disability prevalence. PMID:27490469

  16. First Report of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Infecting Gherkin (Cucumis anguira) in India.

    PubMed

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Vidya, T; Papaiah, S; Srinivasulu, M; Mandal, Bikash; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-09-01

    A field visit in September 2011 to the Cucumis anguira (Gherkin) growing regions of Kuppam, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India revealed occurrence of mosaic, blistering and fruit malformation leading to the crop losses. Analysis of field samples revealed association of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) with the disease. This is the first confirmed report of natural occurrence of ZYMV on Gherkin in India.

  17. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  18. Assessment of radiological protection systems among diagnostic radiology facilities in North East India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Thokchom Dewan; Jayaraman, T; Arunkumar Sharma, B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to assess the adequacy level of radiological protection systems available in the diagnostic radiology facilities located in three capital cities of North East (NE) India. It further attempts to understand, using a multi-disciplinary approach, how the safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology framed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve adequate radiological protection in facilities, have been perceived, conceptualized, and applied accordingly in these facilities. About 30 diagnostic radiology facilities were randomly selected from three capitals of states in NE India; namely Imphal (Manipur), Shillong (Meghalaya) and Guwahati (Assam). A semi-structured questionnaire developed based on a multi-disciplinary approach was used for this study. It was observed that radiological practices undertaken in these facilities were not exactly in line with safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology of the AERB and the IAEA. About 50% of the facilities had registered/licensed x-ray equipment with the AERB. More than 80% of the workers did not use radiation protective devices, although these devices were available in the facilities. About 85% of facilities had no institutional risk management system. About 70% of the facilities did not carry out periodic quality assurance testing of their x-ray equipment or surveys of radiation leakage around the x-ray room, and did not display radiation safety indicators in the x-ray rooms. Workers in these facilities exhibited low risk perception about the risks associated with these practices. The majority of diagnostic radiology facilities in NE India did not comply with the radiological safety codes/standards framed by the AERB and IAEA. The study found inadequate levels of radiological protection systems in the majority of facilities. This study suggests a need to establish firm measures that comply with the radiological safety codes/standards of the

  19. Intergenerational Beliefs of Mothers and Grandmothers regarding Early Childhood Stimulation in (Rural) Jammu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Neeru; Sapru, Ruchira; Mahajan, Ruchi

    2009-01-01

    The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational differences in parental beliefs of the Lobana community in the rural district of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The sample comprised 30 mothers and 30 grandmothers, selected from the R.S. Pura tehsil of the Jammu district. Data was collected using a modified parental…

  20. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  1. California's Districts of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a California state law established in 2010 that created "Districts of Choice." The District of Choice law was meant to encourage districts to compete for students by offering innovative programs and this-school-fits-my-child options that parents wanted. This designation meant that children from any…

  2. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  3. Distribution of the Grey Slender Loris (Loris lyddekerianus Cabrera, 1908) in Tamil Nadu, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Kumara, Honnavalli N; Sasi, R; Chandran, Subash; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    The grey slender loris Loris lydekkerianus, one of only two nocturnal primates of India, is found in the southern part of the country. Our understanding of its geographical distribution is largely based on historical records and short surveys, and little is known of its occurrence in southern India today. We sought to establish the relative abundance of this species in 26 districts in the state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Pondicherry in southern India. We sighted lorises in 19 districts, and their relative abundance ranged from 0.01 to 2.21/km. The south-central districts of Tamil Nadu showed the highest densities of lorises, while the western districts showed the lowest. Based on these results, we recommend increased protection measures for the forest patches of the Eastern Ghats mountains in order to ensure the long-term survival of the grey slender loris.

  4. Epidemiology of Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis and Common Mutations in rpoB Gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Retrospective Study from Six Districts of Punjab (India) Using Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Jindal, Neerja; Arora, Shilpa; Kataria, Shajla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xpert MTB/RIF assay has revolutionized the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by simultaneously detecting the bacteria and resistance to rifampicin (RIF), a surrogate marker for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in <2 h. The RIF resistance pattern in Malwa region of Punjab, India, is not documented. Here, we report the epidemiology of RIF-resistant TB and mutations in rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Materials and Methods: A total of 1612 specimens received between October 2013 and February 2015 were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF assay following manufacturer's instructions. The results thus obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) statistical software. Result: RIF resistance was statistically higher in previously treated patients in comparison to the new patients (P = 0.006) and in patients with acid fast-Bacilli (AFB) positive smears to AFB-negative smears (P = 0.048). RIF resistance mutations in 130 specimens revealed frequency of E 73/130 (56%), B 28/130 (21.5%), D 18/130 (13.8%), A 11/130 (8.4%), and C 1/130 (0.7%) while in one specimen, mutation combination, i.e., mutations associated with more than one probe (A and B both) was present. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a user-friendly screening tool for detection of MTB and RIF resistance from suspected TB/MDR cases in a shorter period of time. It could also serve as a useful technique to have simultaneous preliminary information regarding the mutation pattern of RIF resistance in MTB isolates. PMID:27365918

  5. Delhi: India's urban example.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1988-06-01

    Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels.

  6. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India.

    PubMed

    Das, Kousik; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2016-04-01

    There has been growing public concern about intellectual performance of children at high levels of fluoride exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Simlapal Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, to find out the relationship between fluoride (F) exposure as exposure dose (ED) with dental fluorosis (DF), urinary fluoride concentration (UF), intelligence quotient (IQ) and body mass index (BMI). Fifty groundwater samples were collected from the target area. One hundred forty-nine children belonging to age group 6 to 18 years were considered for this study. Experimental results reveal that mean F(-) concentration of that area is 2.11 mg/L (±SD 1.64). On the basis of F concentration in groundwater and water consumption pattern, ED was calculated to explore the impact of F(-) on DF, UF, IQ, and BMI. Paired t test results suggest that exposure rate of F does not show any significant differences (<0.05) among the children of 12 different places. As a result of F exposure, DF cases are mostly found in the order of moderate > severe > mild > very mild > questionable > normal conditions. The highest UF concentration was recorded as 17 mg/L, but the status of DF in the affected children was recorded as moderate. The results also reveal that ED has a positive correlation with DF (r = 0.299, P < 0.01) and UF (r = 0.513, P < 0.01) and a negative correlation with IQ (r = -0.343, P < 0.01) along with BMI (r = 0.083, non-significant). Therefore, from this study, it may be concluded that UF and DF concentration could act as a biomarker of fluoride toxicity.

  7. Deccan Volcanism, Climate Change and the KT Mass Extinction across India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, A.; Gerta, K.; Silvia, G.; Annachiara, B.; Brian, G.; Sunil, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of the Deccan Trap eruptions occurred over a relatively short time period coinciding with the KT mass extinction. Here we present results based multiproxies data from intertrappean sediments located at Anjar, Kutch, western India, Jhilmili, Madhya Pradesh, central India, and Rajahmundry, SE India. We compare these results with a KT sequence in Meghalya, NE India, about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province. Intertrappean sediments at Anjar consist mainly of lacustrine sediments and exhibit at least three PGE anomalies with high Pd contents but only one with a significant Ir enrichment. The presence of dinosaurs eggshells and bone fragments above the Ir anomaly implies an upper Maastrichtian age for these sediments. Thus, the PGE anomalies do not coincide with the KT boundary, nor are they of cosmic origin because normalized PGE values suggest a flood basalt origin. Clay minerals consist mainly of smectite and palygorskite and reflect semi-arid conditions, probably linked to higher surface temperatures on a young volcanic landscape subjected to effusive volcanic activity. In the Rajhamundry area, two Deccan basalt flows, known as the Rajahmundry traps, mark the most extensive lava flows extending 1000 km across the Indian continent. The sediments directly overlying the lower trap contain the earliest Danian planktic foraminifera of zones P0-P1a and mark the initial evolution in the aftermath of the KT mass extinction. The upper trap was deposited during zone P1b corresponding to the lower part of magnetic polarity C29n. Sedimentological, mineralogical data reveal that deposition occurred in a shallow estuarine to inner neritic environment with periods of subaerial deposition marked by paleosoils. Clay minerals consist exclusively of smectite, typical of vertisoil developed under semi-arid conditions. Outcrop correlation reveals an incised valley estuarine system. At Jhilmili, multidisciplinary analyses reveal the KT

  8. Three new species of horned frogs, Megophrys (Amphibia: Megophryidae), from northeast India, with a resolution to the identity of Megophrys boettgeri populations reported from the region.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Stephen; Teeling, Emma C; Biju, S D

    2013-01-01

    Northeast India is a well-established region of biological importance but remains poorly understood with regards to the species level identifications of many of its extant amphibians. In this study we examined small sized frogs from the genus Megophrys recently collected from remote and suburban forests in the northeast Indian states of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, from which we have identified three new species. Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov., Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. are compared with all known congeners from India and surrounding regions from which they differ based primarily on a combination of morphological characters. Megophrys boettgeri is removed, and Megophrys minor added to the Indian amphibian checklist, through critical review of all literature pertaining to the former species, and the discovery of an overlooked historical report of the latter species. Two of the new species, Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov. are known from low and mid elevations within two large protected forests in Arunachal Pradesh, both with poorly studied amphibian fauna. Contrastingly, Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. is currently known only from small forested areas on the upper reaches of the Shillong Plateau. The importance of the Shillong Plateau as an area of known high amphibian endemicity is highlighted in the light of the miniscule proportion of its land area afforded government protection, raising concerns about the future conservation of its still poorly known species.

  9. District cooling gets hot

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

  10. 50 years of neonatology in India, progress and future.

    PubMed

    Ramji, Siddarth; Modi, Manoj; Gupta, Neeraj

    2013-01-08

    India has made impressive gains in its child survival indices during the past half a century with infant mortality rates declining from 159.3 in 1960 to 44 in 2011 and neonatal mortality rate declining from 47 (1990) to 32 (2010). Neonatal health is now an integral part of the countrys flagship program; National Rural Health Mission. Facility based newborn care is not only available in large public and private sectors hospitals, but also in about 300 of Indias district hospitals. Complementing these efforts is home based newborn care being delivered by community health volunteers. The last two decades has also witnessed an increase in newborn research and its incorporation into medical and paramedical education as a major course component. Neonatology now is an independent super-specialty in India. The National Neonatology Forum has had a major role in spearheading reforms in neonatal care in India.

  11. Reductions in India's crop yield due to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghude, Sachin D.; Jena, Chinmay; Chate, D. M.; Beig, G.; Pfister, G. G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ramanathan, V.

    2014-08-01

    This bottom-up modeling study, supported by emission inventories and crop production, simulates ozone on local to regional scales. It quantifies, for the first time, potential impact of ozone on district-wise cotton, soybeans, rice, and wheat crops in India for the first decade of the 21st century. Wheat is the most impacted crop with losses of 3.5 ± 0.8 million tons (Mt), followed by rice at 2.1 ± 0.8 Mt, with the losses concentrated in central and north India. On the national scale, this loss is about 9.2% of the cereals required every year (61.2 Mt) under the provision of the recently implemented National Food Security Bill (in 2013) by the Government of India. The nationally aggregated yield loss is sufficient to feed about 94 million people living below poverty line in India.

  12. Regional and sectoral assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Bhattacharya, Sumana; Shukla, P. R.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    In this paper the authors have estimated for 1990 and 1995 the inventory of greenhouse gases CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O for India at a national and sub-regional district level. The district level estimates are important for improving the national inventories as well as for developing sound mitigation strategies at manageable smaller scales. Our estimates indicate that the total CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O emissions from India were 592.5, 17, 0.2 and 778, 18, 0.3 Tg in 1990 and 1995, respectively. The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of these gases over this period were 6.3, 1.2 and 3.3%, respectively. The districts have been ranked according to their order of emissions and the relatively large emitters are termed as hotspots. A direct correlation between coal consumption and districts with high CO 2 emission was observed. CO 2 emission from the largest 10% emitters increased by 8.1% in 1995 with respect to 1990 and emissions from rest of the districts decreased over the same period, thereby indicating a skewed primary energy consumption pattern for the country. Livestock followed by rice cultivation were the dominant CH 4 emitting sources. The waste sector though a large CH 4 emitter in the developed countries, only contributed about 10% the total CH 4 emission from all sources as most of the waste generated in India is allowed to decompose aerobically. N 2O emissions from the use of nitrogen fertilizer were maximum in both the years (more than 60% of the total N 2O). High emission intensities, in terms of CO 2 equivalent, are in districts of Gangetic plains, delta areas, and the southern part of the country. These overlap with districts with large coal mines, mega power plants, intensive paddy cultivation and high fertilizer use. The study indicates that the 25 highest emitting districts account for more than 37% of all India CO 2 equivalent GHG emissions. Electric power generation has emerged as the dominant source of GHG emissions, followed by emissions from steel and

  13. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  14. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  15. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  16. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  17. Structured Inequalities: Factors Associated with Spatial Disparities in Maternity Care in India

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Wu, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Research on India documents considerable heterogeneity in health and health care across states. However, while regional differences are well established, factors underlying these differences have received little attention. This paper seeks to explain disparities in delivery care across districts by focusing on three factors: (1) Marriage and kinship patterns; (2) District wealth; (3) Governance and quality of services. Using data from nationally representative India Human Development Survey 2005 (IHDS) it examines the probability that the 11,905 women who had a child between 2000 and 2005 delivered in a hospital or received care from a doctor or a nurse while delivering at home. The results suggest that 47% of the variation in delivery care in India is between districts while 53% is between women within district. Although compositional differences in education and household wealth explain some of the variation between districts, marriage and kinship patterns, district wealth and governance each has a significant impact on shaping between-district variation in maternity care. PMID:24761090

  18. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  19. Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India

    PubMed Central

    CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented.

  1. MEASUREMENT OF RADON CONCENTRATION IN DWELLINGS IN THE REGION OF HIGHEST LUNG CANCER INCIDENCE IN INDIA.

    PubMed

    Zoliana, B; Rohmingliana, P C; Sahoo, B K; Mishra, R; Mayya, Y S

    2016-10-01

    Indoor radon/thoron concentration has been measured in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India, which has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in India. Simultaneously, radon flux emanated from the surrounding soil of the dwellings was observed in selected places. The annual average value of concentration of radon(thoron) of Aizawl district is 48.8(22.65) Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 1.25(1.58). Measured radon flux from the soil has an average value of 22.6 mBq m(-2) s(-1) These results were found to be much below the harmful effect or action level as indicated by the World Health Organisation. On the other hand, food habit and high-level consumption of tobacco and its products in the district have been found to increase the risk of lung cancer incidence in the district.

  2. Upper Animas Mining District

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Web page provides narrative of What's New?, Site Description, Site Risk, Cleanup Progress, Community Involvement, Next Steps, Site Documents, FAQ, Contacts and LInks for the Upper Animas Mining District site in San Juan County, Colorado.

  3. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  4. Flood Hazard in Barpeta District, Assam: Environmental Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Naba Kumar

    The study deals with various aspects of flood hazard in Barpeta district of Assam, Northeast India. It is broadly confined to three basic themes - general perspectives, environmental perspectives and flood hazard mitigation. The first theme includes the study on flow characteristics of the major rivers of the district during rainy season and zoning of flood prone areas. The second theme deals with some environmental aspects of floods in the district, such as river water quality during floods, effects of floods on soil quality, human health and socioeconomic losses. Flood mitigation study includes discussion on measures adopted for flood mitigation in the district and suggested management strategies. The study covers a wide range of database generated from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data on relevant parameters of soil and water are generated by using proper sampling procedures and standard laboratory methods. Suitable graphical and statistical methods have been used to analyze and interpret different kinds of data. All the relevant data and surveyed information on the perspective of the flood plain dwellers of the district are integrated together in formulating flood management strategies. The Barpeta District of Assam covers an area of 3245 sq. km. comprising 4.2% of the total area of the state. The district has fascinating diversified landscape sloping from north to south which includes highlands covered by forests, plain fertile lands suitable for agricultural activities and low lying areas containing-water bodies and swamps. Flood is a perennial problem and all kinds of common flood damages prevail in the district. Floods cause large-scale damages to the socio-economic life of the people as well as to the ecology and environment of the district to a certain extent. The rivers Manas, Beki, Pahumara and Kaldia and their tributaries, which emerge from Eastern Himalaya, create flood havocs in the district. During monsoon period, these rivers are

  5. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola flukes from eastern India.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Singh, T Shantikumar; Shoriki, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Fasciola flukes from eastern India were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear ITS1. Both Fasciola gigantica and aspermic Fasciola flukes were detected in Imphal, Kohima, and Gantoku districts. The sequences of mitochondrial nad1 were analyzed to infer their phylogenetical relationship with neighboring countries. The haplotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes were identical or showed a single nucleotide substitution compared to those from populations in the neighboring countries, corroborating the previous reports that categorized them in the same lineage. However, the prevalence of aspermic Fasciola flukes in eastern India was lower than those in the neighboring countries, suggesting that they have not dispersed throughout eastern India. In contrast, F. gigantica was predominant and well diversified, and the species was thought to be distributed in the area for a longer time than the aspermic Fasciola flukes. Fasciola gigantica populations from eastern India were categorized into two distinct haplogroups A and B. The level of their genetic diversity suggests that populations belonging to haplogroup A have dispersed from the west side of the Indian subcontinent to eastern India with the artificial movement of domestic cattle, Bos indicus, whereas populations belonging to haplogroup B might have spread from Myanmar to eastern India with domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis.

  6. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  7. Photonics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Bishnu

    2011-08-01

    India has long been active in the field of photonics, dating back to famous scientists such as Raman and Bose. Today, India is home to numerous research groups and telecommunications companies that own a sizeable amount of the fibre-optic links installed around the globe.

  8. Regional development and seasonality of communicable diseases in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, S M; Rao, M N

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores the seasonality of morbidity due to communicable diseases in Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The district has been divided into development regions using cluster analysis. Seasonality of selected communicable diseases is then compared with the levels of development. It is shown that seasonality is most pronounced in the least developed region of the district. In the most developed region, seasonality of morbidity is low. The paper supports the general hypothesis that there is a decreased seasonality of illness as development takes place.

  9. Physicians of ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Anu

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Indian medical historiography will reveal no dearth of work on the systems of medicine and medical literature of ancient India. However, the people who were responsible for the healing have not received much attention. This article traces the evolution of the physician as a professional in ancient India. This article reviews the secondary literature on healing and medical practice in India, specifically pertaining to the individual medical practitioner, drawing from varied sources. The healers of ancient India hailed from different castes and classes. They were well-respected and enjoyed state patronage. They were held to the highest ethical standards of the day and were bound by a strict code of conduct. They underwent rigorous training in both medicine and surgery. Most physicians were multi-skilled generalists, and expected to be skilled in elocution and debate. They were reasonably well-off financially. The paper also briefly traces the evolution of medicinal ideas in ancient India. PMID:27843823

  10. Competency: District Views from Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyo, John

    1979-01-01

    Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

  11. Districts for 104th Congress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1990-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that reflected the reapportionment and delineation of congressional districts based on the 1990 census. The next (104th) Congress reflects redelineation of districts that occurred for six states: Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, South Carolina, and Virginia. Congressional Districts U.S. House of Representatives Census TIGER/Line Files

  12. Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

  13. Environmental justice implications of industrial hazardous waste generation in India: a national scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-12-01

    While rising air and water pollution have become issues of widespread public concern in India, the relationship between spatial distribution of environmental pollution and social disadvantage has received less attention. This lack of attention becomes particularly relevant in the context of industrial pollution, as India continues to pursue industrial development policies without sufficient regard to its adverse social impacts. This letter examines industrial pollution in India from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective by presenting a national scale study of social inequities in the distribution of industrial hazardous waste generation. Our analysis connects district-level data from the 2009 National Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Industries with variables representing urbanization, social disadvantage, and socioeconomic status from the 2011 Census of India. Our results indicate that more urbanized and densely populated districts with a higher proportion of socially and economically disadvantaged residents are significantly more likely to generate hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste generated is significantly higher in more urbanized but sparsely populated districts with a higher proportion of economically disadvantaged households, after accounting for other relevant explanatory factors such as literacy and social disadvantage. These findings underscore the growing need to incorporate EJ considerations in future industrial development and waste management in India.

  14. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  15. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy.

  16. Districts Weigh Obesity Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

  17. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  18. Districts Shun Stimulus Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

  19. The Importance of Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Heron, Tara; Jones, Paul; Albone, Stephen; Henderson, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Effectiveness studies have largely concentrated on the school as the unit of analysis, although an increasing number have directed their attention to the teacher as the main unit of interest. But policy is often directed through organisations at the district level or what is sometimes known as the Education Authority (EA). Few studies have…

  20. School District Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Joseph L.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the effective management of purchasing processes in a school district. These processes include obtaining materials, supplies, and equipment of maximum value for the least expense, and receiving, storing, and distributing the items obtained. The chapter opens with an overview of…

  1. Districts Delivering Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The idea is not new: Offer courses remotely, build in variety and the students will come. This article discusses how public schools are investing in offering online courses, catering to students' specific learning needs and to remote locations. Several surveys conducted in recent years show that school districts nationwide are embracing this…

  2. District-Level Downsizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make…

  3. FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

    CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

  4. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  5. A District's Journey to Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

  6. Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

    2014-10-01

    In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25 000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care.

  7. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  8. ETHNOMEDICINE OF BHIL TRIBE OF JHABUA DISTRICT, M. P.**

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, J. K.; Kalakoti, B. S.; Lal, Brij

    1986-01-01

    The Bhils are inhabitants of Dhar, Jhabua, Khargone and Ratlam distrcits of Madhya Pradesh. A large number of Bhils live in the neighbouring States of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. They constitute the third largest tribe of India; the first two being Gonds and Santhals. They utilize a large number of plant species occurring wild in the district as herbal remedies in various diseases and ailments. An ethno-medico-botanical survey was conducted in the tribal blocks. Viz. Kathiware, Alirajpur and Sodhwa blocks of Jhabua district, M. P. The authors have gathered first-hand information on seventy – five plant species and their mode of therapeutic uses from the tribal medicine men ‘Badwa’ and other experienced tribals. The present study has brought of light some interesting data on potential medicinal plants which will be screened for determining their therapeutic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:22557535

  9. Climatic Extremes and Food Grain Production in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to affect food and water security in India. India has witnessed tremendous growth in its food production after the green revolution. However, during the recent decades the food grain yields were significantly affected by the extreme climate and weather events. Air temperature and associated extreme events (number of hot days and hot nights, heat waves) increased significantly during the last 50 years in the majority of India. More remarkably, a substantial increase in mean and extreme temperatures was observed during the winter season in India. On the other hand, India witnessed extreme flood and drought events that have become frequent during the past few decades. Extreme rainfall during the non-monsoon season adversely affected the food grain yields and results in tremendous losses in several parts of the country. Here we evaluate the changes in hydroclimatic extremes and its linkage with the food grain production in India. We use observed food grain yield data for the period of 1980-2012 at district level. We understand the linkages between food grain yield and crop phenology obtained from the high resolution leaf area index and NDVI datasets from satellites. We used long-term observed data of daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures to evaluate changes in the extreme events. We use statistical models to develop relationships between crop yields, mean and extreme temperatures for various crops to understand the sensitivity of these crops towards changing climatic conditions. We find that some of the major crop types and predominant crop growing areas have shown a significant sensitivity towards changes in extreme climatic conditions in India.

  10. Cognitive psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

  11. Unleashing science in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  12. Farmers' Training and Functional Literacy. A Pilot Evaluation Study of Functional Literacy Project in Lucknow District. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

    The technical report of the Pilot Evaluation Study of Functional Literacy Project in Lucknow District, Uttar Pradesh, India presents the research procedures and statistical analysis for the previously published non-technical report of the study. The main study objectives were to obtain qualitative and quantitative measurements of attainment and…

  13. Lumping and splitting: the health policy agenda in India.

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Rao, K Sujatha; Fryatt, Robert

    2003-09-01

    India's health system was designed in a different era, when expectations of the public and private sectors were quite different. India's population is also undergoing transitions in the demographic, epidemiologic and social aspects of health. Disparities in life expectancy, disease, access to health care and protection from financial risks have increased. These factors are challenging the health system to respond in new ways. The old approach to national health policies and programmes is increasingly inappropriate. By analyzing inter- and intra-state differences in contexts and processes, we argue that the content of national health policy needs to be more diverse and accommodating to specific states and districts. More 'splitting' of India's health policy at the state level would better address their health problems, and would open the way to innovation and local accountability. States further along the health transition would be able to develop policies to deal with the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases and more appropriate health financing systems. States early in the transition would need to focus on improving the quality and access of essential public health services, and empowering communities to take more ownership. Better 'lumping' of policy issues at the central level is also needed, but not in ways that have been done in the past. The central government needs to focus on overcoming the large inequalities in health outcomes across India, tackle growing challenges to health such as the HIV epidemic, and provide the much needed leadership on systemic issues such as the development of systems for quality assurance and regulation of the private sector. It also needs to support and facilitate states and districts to develop critical capacities rather than directly manage programmes. As India develops a more diverse set of state health policies, there will be more opportunities to learn what works in different policy environments.

  14. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  15. Evaluation of GVI-based indices for drought early warning in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Kogan, Felix N.

    2006-12-01

    Drought is the major disaster, which occurs in some part of India every year due to monsoon variability. India has established satellite based National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS), at National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space since 1987. NADAMS provides near real time monitoring and early warning of drought conditions at National level using NOAA AVHRR and at regional level using IRS WiFS and AWiFS data. ISRO-NASA-NOAA science cooperation project has been initiated during 2005 for development of satellite based decision support drought monitor system in India. Initially, the evaluation of GVI based indices for drought early warning in India was taken up. The study was carried out over five small regions each covering part of a district and over five large regions each covering few districts in each state of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan states and the result of the study is presented in this paper. The weekly GVI based indices such as Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI) for the period from 1991-2004 over 5 small regions covering part of districts namely Banaskantha district of Gujarat state to represent Bajra crop, Surendra nagar district of Gujarat state to represent Cotton crop, Nasik district of Maharashtra to represent Bajra crop, Bhandara district to represent Rice crop and Akola district of Maharastra to represent Jowar crop was selected. The weekly GVI based indices over 5 large regions with larger database from 1981 to 2004 covering few districts of Rajasthan state to represent winter wheat and few districts of Maharashtra state to represent Jowar, Rice and Cotton crops were selected. The comparison of seasonal average VCI, TCI and VHI with the corresponding crops yield over 5 small regions indicate better regression coefficient for VHI than VCI or TCI. The comparison over 5 large regions covering larger data base from 1982-2004 indicate better

  16. 14C in a stalagmite from NE India: preliminary results of dating near the limit of radiocarbon time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, I.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Gierga, M.; Haug, G. H.; Adkins, J. F.; Biechele, C.; Bonani, G.; Maurer, M.; Wacker, L.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocarbon time scale covers the last 50,000 years and is being used in many applications. Old records close to the dating limit that can provide additional information about 14C variability are rare. Stalagmite MAW-3 has been collected in 2006 from Mawmluh Cave, Meghalaya, NE India and subsequently U-series dated at Caltech. Stable isotopes (delC13 and delO18) were measured at the Geological Institute of the ETH Zurich. MAW-3 grew through a large part of Marine Isotope Stage 3 and stable isotope results clearly show millennial scale climatic fluctuations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events. U-series dating shows that our sample which grew during the time interval corresponding to the geomagnetic low intensity interval, called Laschamp Event at ca. 40 ka BP. Therefore, we test its usefulness for studies of potential 14C variability at the time. Samples for 14C dating were taken following the method of Hoffman et al. (2010). After preparation of a slab from the centre of the stalagmite small sub-samples for 14C and U-series analysis were cut with a wire saw. Samples containing ca. 10 mg of carbonate were dissolved in concentrated (85%) phosphoric acid and graphitized prior to AMS analysis at the ETH AMS facility. Preliminary results indicate that despite of the very high correction for the dead carbon fraction DCF (ca. 6000 14C yrs) and close proximity to the limit of the 14C dating method, we are still able to measure reliable 14C ages of this portion of MAW-3. We argue that, based on available results, fluctuations of DCF could be reconstructed. DCF changes show a correlation with stable isotope changes (delO18), i.e. precipitation patterns in the region.

  17. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and…

  18. Active Fault Mapping of Naga-Disang Thrust (Belt of Schuppen) for Assessing Future Earthquake Hazards in NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.

    2014-12-01

    We observe the geodynamic appraisal of Naga-Disang Thrust North East India. The Disang thrust extends NE-SW over a length of 480 km and it defines the eastern margin of Neogene basin. It branches out from Haflong-Naga thrust and in the NE at Bulbulia in the right bank of Noa Dihing River, it is terminated by Mishmi thrust, which extends into Myanmar as 'Sagaing fault,which dip generally towards SE. It extends between Dauki fault in the SW and Mishmi thrust in the NE. When the SW end of 'Belt of Schuppen' moved upwards and towards east along the Dauki fault, the NE end moved downwards and towards west along the Mishmi thrust, causing its 'S' shaped bending. The SRTM generated DEM is used to map the topographic expression of the schuppen belt, where these thrusts are significantly marked by topographic break. Satellite imagery map also shows presence lineaments supporting the post tectonic activities along Naga-Disang Thrusts. The southern part of 'Belt of Schuppen' extends along the sheared western limb of southerly plunging Kohima synform, a part of Indo Burma Ranges (IBR) and it is seismically active.The crustal velocity at SE of Schuppen is 39.90 mm/yr with a azimuth of 70.780 at Lumami, 38.84 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Senapati and 36.85 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Imphal. The crustal velocity at NW of Schuppen belt is 52.67 mm/yr (Azimuth 57.66) near Dhauki Fault in Meghalaya. It becomes 43.60 mm/yr (Azimuth76.50) - 44.25 (Azimuth 73.27) at Tiding and Kamlang Nagar around Mishmi thrust. The presence of Schuppen is marked by a change in high crustal velocity from Indian plate to low crustal velocity in Mishmi Suture as well as Indo Burma Ranges. The difference in crustal velocities results in building up of strain along the Schuppen which may trigger a large earthquake in the NE India in future. The belt of schuppean seems to be seismically active, however, the enough number of large earthquakes are not recorded. These observations are significant on Naga

  19. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  20. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  1. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  2. Paragonimiasis in tuberculosis patients in Nagaland, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinalini; Doleckova, Katerina; Shenoy, Rahul; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar; Devi, K. Rekha; Konyak, Tongmeth; Mansoor, Homa; Isaakidis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the infections that mimic tuberculosis (TB) is paragonimiasis (PRG), a foodborne parasitic disease caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In the northeastern states of India, TB and PRG are endemic; however, PRG is rarely included in the differential diagnosis of TB. Objective To address limited evidence on the dual burden of TB and PRG in northeastern India, we aimed to document the prevalence of PRG among TB patients using sputum smear, stool examination for children <15 years and ELISA. Design A cross-sectional study of patients receiving TB treatment in the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported TB programme in Mon district, in collaboration with the Regional Medical Research Centre (RMRC), Dibrugarh, Assam, between November 2012 and December 2013. Results Of 96 patients screened between November 2012 and December 2013, three (3%) had pulmonary PRG and were successfully treated with praziquantel. Conclusions PRG should be considered in the TB diagnostic algorithms in PRG–TB dual burden areas. In case of TB–PRG co-infection, it is preferable to treat PRG first followed by anti-TB treatment a few days later. PMID:27667815

  3. PROPHYLACTIC USES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN BASTAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, D.C.; Chandra, Umesh

    1998-01-01

    The present ethnobotanical exploratory study embodies the folk medicinal uses of certain important medicinal plants by tribals of bastar district in Madhya Pradesh state of India. Twenty seven medicinal plants form diverse families have been covered being therapeutically used against different diseases such acidity, debility, diabetes, male and female weakness, fistula, migraine and skin diseases etc. How the tribal folks consider the mode of drug administration and application in different ailments has been ailments has been elaborately emphasized. PMID:22556857

  4. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  5. Woman's lot in India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K

    1980-01-26

    I read Dr. Rao's article on attitudes to women and nutrition programmes in India (Dec. 22/29, p. 1357) with considerable interest. In India parents have to save a lot of money to be able to give a dowry when a daughter marries. In addition they are expected to spend considerable sums when their daughters' children are born and when the grandchildren in turn marry. The task of looking after elderly parents--and of discharging their responsibilities if they themselves are unable to do so--falls upon the sons. In India daughters rarely help out their parents in this way, and the parents will not usually agree to accept help from daughters if they have a son who is prepared to discharge the sacred duty of helping parents in time of need. Once she marries, a daughter's obligations to her parents cease while their obligations to her extend even further to include her husband, children, and in-laws. No wonder the birth of a girl is rarely a cause of celebration in India. The main cause for the plight of women in India is poverty. In most Indian families, the woman of the house will consume less than anyone of nutritious items such as milk, cheese, meat, fish, and butter. Whenever the family's meagre resources are shared out, whether for food, for education, for medical care, it is the males who are given preference. This unequal distribution takes place with the full approval of the woman of the house. Food is normally allocated by the woman, and when food is scarce they tend to favour sons over daughters. Readers in the West may feel that women get the worst possible deal in India. However, although parents do not normally spend as much on the education of their daughters as they do on their sons, in the long run daughters very often get more than their fair share of the family's fortunes because of the dowry system and other social customs.

  6. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  7. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line R27E... Irrigation Districts which lies west of township line R28E. (c) District No. 3—The counties of...

  8. Bioethics activities in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nandini K

    2006-01-01

    The Indian Council of Medical Research formulates, coordinates and promotes biomedical research in India. In 1980, they formulated the first national ethical guidelines. They offer a number of different training programmes, from 1 day to 6 months. The council is developing a core curriculum for teaching bioethics, which would be applied uniformly in medical schools throughout the country. Drug development and ethics is also important in India, particularly now that the local pharmaceutical industry is expanding and so many drugs trials are outsourced to the country. The council is also very active in encouraging the development of ethics review committees.

  9. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  10. Role of Social Mobilization (Network) in Polio Eradication in India.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Anisur Rahman; Singh, Prem; Trivedi, Geetali

    2016-08-07

    In 2009, India contributed to over half the global cases of poliomyelitis. Many believed that India would be the last country to be polio free. India proved them wrong and was certified polio free in 2014. In January 2016, India celebrated 5 years of being polio free. One of the major reasons behind the interruption of polio transmission in the Polio endemic states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar was the deployment of Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). A three tiered structure, the 7300 strong SMNet is now the gold standard in public health communication. It mobilizes communities by spearheading civil society participation; and works at district, block and community levels. The SMNet's social mobilization has evolved into an accelerated approach for achieving results with principles of mobilization at its core. The SMNet targets resistance to polio immunization through a multipronged approach by using local religious leaders, community influencers, interpersonal communication, counseling, mothers meetings, announcements from religious institutions and rallies. The success of the SMNet has been its ability to identify and convert resistant families into advocates for polio immunization. Deeply respected in the community, the SMNet mobilizers (98 percent of whom are women) are themselves models for gender empowerment. The SMNet model shows how mobilization techniques can be harnessed for short term and long term goals and can be replicated in other health programs to achieve the same results as were achieved for Polio.

  11. Double trouble: tuberculosis and substance abuse in Nagaland, India.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, R; Das, M; Mansoor, H; Anicete, R; Wangshu, L; Meren, S; Ao, I; Saranchuk, P; Reid, A J; Isaakidis, P

    2015-09-21

    The diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in people who use and/or inject illicit drugs (PWUIDs) remains a barrier to achieving universal coverage for TB in India and globally. This report describes treatment outcomes in PWUIDs who received treatment for drug-susceptible TB at the Mon District Hospital in Nagaland, India, during 2012-2013. The median age of the patients was 39 years, and most (92%) were male. Two thirds (33/49) of the patients had a successful TB treatment outcome. A previous TB episode and residence in a semi-urban area were associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Separate diagnostic and treatment algorithms, including regular adherence counselling and opioid substitution therapies, should be considered for PWUIDs.

  12. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  13. Redesigning the District Operating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  14. A Tale of Two Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

  15. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  16. Congressional Districting: A Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Jan Witold; Cronic, Jason P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the controversies and consequences involved in drawing proper districts for federal and state representatives. Discusses the Supreme Court's role in deciding these questions. Provides definitions and related court cases concerning gerrymandering and malapportionment, the two most common abuses of the districting process. (MJP)

  17. Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make…

  18. Community-Based Adult Education for the Fisherwomen of Rajapalyam Fishing Village in Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    Rajapalyam village is located in the Tuticorin district along the biodiversity rich Gulf of Mannar coast in southeastern India. The people of this village are economically backward and most of the men are engaged in fishing. The fisherwomen of this village are less literate than the men, or illiterate. Adult education has been introduced to the…

  19. First record of the thread-legged assassin bug Myiophanes greeni Distant, 1903 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from India

    PubMed Central

    Ghate, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background While surveying bugs and spiders in the caves of Satara District, Maharashtra, one of us (SK) collected a thread-legged bug associated with a spider web. New information A Sri Lankan Emesinae bug, Myiophanes greeni Distant (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) is reported for the first time from India. The species is redescribed with several illustrations including male genitalia. PMID:27099559

  20. Family Engagement in Education in Uttar Pradesh, India: Factors Associated with the Involvement of Families in Their Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Amanda Joy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which families within the Shravasti district of Uttar Pradesh, India are engaged in their children's education, as well as to examine the child, family, school, and community factors that are potentially associated with families' involvement in their children's education. Additionally,…

  1. Impact of Grants-in-Aid on Collegiate Education: Evidence and Implications of a Regional Study in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayana, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Estimated the impact of grants-in-aid (GIA) and other variables on student performance (in terms of pass percentages) in aided private degree colleges in the Bangalore district in India from 1991-1992 to 1997-1998 using panel data from 31 colleges. Results show that the impact of GIA is positive and significant. (SLD)

  2. Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

  3. Potential for Hospital Based Corneal Retreival in Hassan District Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Melsakkare, Suresh Ramappa; Manipur, Sahana R.; Acharya, Pavana; Ramamurthy, Lakshmi Bomalapura

    2015-01-01

    Context In developing countries, corneal diseases are the second leading cause of blindness. This corneal blindness can be treated through corneal transplantation. Though the present infrastructure is strong enough to increase keratoplasty numbers at a required rate, India has largest corneal blind population in the world. So a constant supply of high quality donor corneal tissue is the key factor for reduction of prevalence of corneal blindness. Considering the magnitude of corneal blindness and shortage of donor cornea, there is a huge gap in the demand and supply. Aim To study the potential for hospital based retrieval of donor corneal tissue in Hassan district hospital after analysing the indicated and contraindicated causes of deaths, so that hospital corneal retrieval program in Hassan district hospital can be planned. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional, retrospective and record-based study included all hospital deaths with age group more than two years occurred during one year period (January 2014 to December 2014). Data regarding demographic profile, cause of death, treatment given and presence of any systemic diseases were collected. The causes of deaths which are contraindicated for the retrieval of corneas were analysed and noted. The contraindications were based on the NPCB guidelines for standard of eye banking in India 2009. Results Out of 855 deaths, number of deaths in males (565) was greater than females (290). Numbers of deaths were highest between 41-60 years age group (343). Deaths due to HIV, septicaemia, meningitis, encephalitis, disseminated malignancies were contraindicated for corneal retrieval. Corneas could be retrieved from 736 deaths out of 855. Potential for corneal retrieval in a period of one year in Hassan District hospital was 86%. Conclusion Hospital corneal retrieval program has got a great potential to bridge the gap between the need for the cornea and actually collected corneas which will contribute enormously in

  4. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... District. District means each of the geographical divisions of the production area established pursuant...

  5. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... District. District means each of the geographical divisions of the production area established pursuant...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Mumps Virus Isolated from Karnataka State, India

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Chowdhury, Deepika T.; Hamde, Venkat S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the first whole-genome sequence of mumps virus isolated from a two-year-old girl with bilateral parotitis from a Chikkahallivana village in the Davangere district of Karnataka State, India. The genome of the Davangere mumps isolate was 15,384 bp in length and identical to previously published mumps virus (MuV) genomes from India. BLAST results show 99.1% identity with previously sequenced genotype C viruses isolated from the states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh. PMID:28082488

  7. Bt cotton and farmer suicides in India: an evidence-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Gruère, Guillaume; Sengupta, Debdatta

    2011-01-01

    Bt cotton is accused of being responsible for an increase of farmer suicides in India. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of evidence on Bt cotton and farmer suicides. Available data show no evidence of a 'resurgence' of farmer suicides. Moreover, Bt cotton technology has been very effective overall in India. Nevertheless, in specific districts and years, Bt cotton may have indirectly contributed to farmer indebtedness, leading to suicides, but its failure was mainly the result of the context or environment in which it was planted.

  8. Screening Performance of Diabetes Risk Scores Among Asians and Whites in Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Srinivasan; Sarma, Sankara P.; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2013-01-01

    We compared the screening performance of risk scores for Asians and whites for diabetes, dysglycemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our subjects were 451 people aged 15 to 64 years who participated in a cohort study from May 2003 through September 2010 in a rural area of the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, India. All outcome measures showed overlap in the range of area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Asian and white diabetes risk scores (DRSs). Asian and white DRSs performed similarly in rural India. PMID:23517580

  9. Need for a realistic mental health programme in India.

    PubMed

    Barua, Ankur

    2009-01-01

    India, with a population of a billion, has very limited numbers of mental health facilities and professionals in providing mental health care to all the people. The disability associated with mental or brain disorders stops people from working and engaging in other creative activities. Gradual implementation of district mental health programme in a phased manner with support of adequate managerial and financial inputs is the need of the day. Trained mental health care personnel, treatment, care, and rehabilitation facilities should be made available and accessible to the masses. The voluntary organizations should be encouraged to participate in mental health care programme.

  10. Improving health services in India: a different perspective.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Two papers in this volume focus on public finance and decentralization as central to resolving India's systemic public health crisis. However, some states and districts have achieved success despite serious financial and administrative deficits; this suggests that factors such as political commitment, community participation, human resource management, women's empowerment, and governance may be as or more important. The success of the National Rural Health Mission will depend on state and local institutional capacity, including strong partnerships with civil society organizations and private-sector actors. Increased resources and decentralization will not be sufficient by themselves.

  11. Intensified tuberculosis case finding amongst vulnerable communities in southern India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K K; Ananthakrishnan, R; Jacob, A G; Das, M; Isaakidis, P; Kumar, A M V

    2015-12-21

    India mainly uses passive case finding to detect tuberculosis (TB) patients through the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP). An intensified case finding (ICF) intervention was conducted among vulnerable communities in two districts of Karnataka during July-December 2013; 658 sputum smear-positive TB cases were detected. The number of smear-positive cases detected increased by 8.8% relative to the pre-intervention period (July-December 2012) in intervention communities as compared to an 8.6% decrease in communities without the ICF intervention. ICF activities brought TB services closer to vulnerable communities, moderately increasing TB case detection rates.

  12. Acute malnutrition and under-5 mortality, northeastern part of India.

    PubMed

    Espié, Emmanuelle; Pujol, Carme Roure; Masferrer, Maria; Saint-Sauveur, Jean-François; Urrutia, Pedro Pablo Palma; Grais, Rebecca F

    2011-10-01

    We assessed the prevalence of childhood acute malnutrition and under-five mortality rate (U5MR) in Darbhanga district, India, using a two-stage 49-cluster household survey. A total of 1379 households comprising 8473 people were interviewed. During a 90-day recall period, U5MR was 0.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2-1.4] per 10,000 per day. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among 1405 children aged 6-59 months was 15.4% (NCHS) and 19.4% (2006 WHO references). This survey suggests that in Darbhanga district, the population is in a borderline food crisis with few food resources. Appropriate strategies should be developed to improve the overall nutritional and health status of children.

  13. The Impact of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  14. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  15. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  16. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading…

  17. "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," India.

    PubMed

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Mathai, Elizabeth; Lepidi, Hubert; Somashekar, Hosaagrahara R; Mathew, Leni G; Prakash, John A J; Raoult, Didier

    2006-03-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed human infection due to a new rickettsial genotype in India, "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," in a 1-year-old boy with fever and maculopapular rash. The diagnosis was made by serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction detection, and immunohistochemical testing of the organism from a skin biopsy specimen.

  18. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... tributaries, has created a variety of landforms within the viticultural area, including alluvial fans... precipitation of 11.5 inches; Winkler Region II climate. El Pomar District High terraces, alluvial fans, and... rainfall of 10.4 inches; transitional Winkler Region III to IV climate. San Miguel District Alluvial...

  19. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  20. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  1. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  2. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  3. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... feet west of the west line of Sea Breeze Walk. East Boundary: 80 feet east of the east line of East End... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The...

  4. Ecological context of infant mortality in high-focus states of India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This goal of this study was to shed light on the ecological context as a potential determinant of the infant mortality rate in nine high-focus states in India. METHODS: Data from the Annual Health Survey (2010-2011), the Census of India (2011), and the District Level Household and Facility Survey 3 (2007-08) were used in this study. In multiple regression analysis explanatory variable such as underdevelopment is measured by the non-working population, and income inequality, quantified as the proportion of households in the bottom wealth quintile. While, the trickle-down effect of education is measured by female literacy, and investment in health, as reflected by neonatal care facilities in primary health centres. RESULTS: A high spatial autocorrelation of district infant mortality rates was observed, and ecological factors were found to have a significant impact on district infant mortality rates. The result also revealed that non-working population and income inequality were found to have a negative effect on the district infant mortality rate. Additionally, female literacy and new-born care facilities were found to have an inverse association with the infant mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions at the community level can reduce district infant mortality rates. PMID:26971696

  5. District of Columbia District Attorney Establishment Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2009-11-03

    12/01/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, Post Office, and the District of Columbia. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Leadership Academies: A District Office Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates district-level administrators' perceptions regarding the value of the partnership academies. The article uses input from seven district administrators who provided feedback regarding the value of the district and university partnership, specific benefits to the district, the differences between participants who envision…

  7. Education and gender bias in the sex ratio at birth: evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Echávarri, Rebeca A; Ezcurra, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    This article investigates the possible existence of a nonlinear link between female disadvantage in natality and education. To this end, we devise a theoretical model based on the key role of social interaction in explaining people's acquisition of preferences, which justifies the existence of a nonmonotonic relationship between female disadvantage in natality and education. The empirical validity of the proposed model is examined for the case of India, using district-level data. In this context, our econometric analysis pays particular attention to the role of spatial dependence to avoid any potential problems of misspecification. The results confirm that the relationship between the sex ratio at birth and education in India follows an inverted U-shape. This finding is robust to the inclusion of additional explanatory variables in the analysis, and to the choice of the spatial weight matrix used to quantify the spatial interdependence between the sample districts.

  8. Epidemiology of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in India.

    PubMed

    Nair, Reena; Arora, Neeraj; Mallath, Mohandas K

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a common hematological malignancy. The age-adjusted incidence rates for NHL in men and women in India are 2.9/100,000 and 1.5/100,000, respectively. These are about one fourth of the incidence rates reported from Western Europe or North America. Within India, the incidence is several-fold higher in urban cancer registries compared to rural areas; the incidence being higher in metropolitan cities and Indian immigrants suggesting that urban lifestyles and economic progress may increase the cancer incidence. Compared to developed nations, the key differences in the presentation in India include: median age of 54 years (almost a decade less), higher male to female ratio, higher proportion of patients with B-symptoms (40-60 vs. 20-30%), poor ECOG performance status (≥2) at diagnosis (50 vs. 20-30%), higher frequency of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (60-70 vs. <40%), lower frequency of follicular NHL (<20 vs. 30-40%) and T-cell type in 10-20 vs. <10%. The estimated mortality rate due to NHL is higher in India than in North America and Western Europe. Diagnostic and treatment delays, incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate or suboptimal treatment may be possible reasons for the poor outcome. Any improvement in the outcomes for NHL in India will require a nationwide approach, e.g. creation of several regional and district-level centers with expertise in lymphoma management. Collection of data on patient- and disease-related characteristics, treatment outcome, development of infrastructure, centralized review of histopathology subtype, novel treatment protocols, rigorous follow-up, training of staff, and financial support towards treatment could be possible strategies to improve the outcome.

  9. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

  10. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Improving Security Ties with India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. India, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. India wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to India in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been

  12. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No... assessment (EA) involving Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management Districts (Districts). In this..., Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District final CCP'' in the subject...

  13. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  14. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  15. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  16. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  17. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section 1.01-50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant redelegates to the District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District, the authority in 46 U.S.C. 3302(i)(1) to issue permits to certain...

  18. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  19. Military psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, H. R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists. PMID:21836702

  20. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  1. Checklist of the earthworms (Oligochaeta) of Kerala, a constituent of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, S Prasanth; Sathrumithra, S; Christopher, G; Thomas, A P; Julka, J M

    2016-11-15

    A checklist of earthworm species hitherto known from Kerala, a constituent of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India, is presented. In total, 88 species and subspecies are recorded, of which 55 are Kerala endemics, 9 near endemics, 14 exotics and 10 native peregrines. These belong to 26 genera and 9 families. The checklist includes the literature citation to the original description, type locality, any significant subsequent generic placements, and the district distributional pattern for each species/ subspecies.

  2. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  3. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  4. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  5. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

  6. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  7. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  8. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  9. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  10. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  11. Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): an introduction of occupational health hazards.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R; Saikia, Binoy K; Waanders, Frans B; DaBoit, Kátia; Baruah, Bimala P; Silva, Luis F O

    2014-01-15

    Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles.

  12. Eradicating successfully yaws from India: The strategy & global lessons

    PubMed Central

    Narain, Jai P.; Jain, S.K.; Bora, D.; Venkatesh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, a non-venereal treponematosis, affecting primarily the tribal populations, has been considered historically as one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In 1996, India piloted an initiative to eradicate yaws based on a strategy consisting of active case finding through house-to-house search and treatment of cases and their contacts with long acting penicillin. Thereafter, the campaign implemented in all 51 endemic districts in 10 States of the country led to the achievement of a yaws-free status in 2004. In the post-elimination phase, surveillance activities accompanied by serological surveys were continued in the erstwhile endemic districts. These surveys carried out among children between the age of 1-5 yr, further confirmed the absence of community transmission in the country. The experience of India demonstrates that yaws can be eradicated in all endemic countries of Africa and Asia, provided that political commitment can be mobilized and community level activities sustained until the goal is achieved. PMID:26139778

  13. Skewed Sex Ratios and Criminal Victimization in India

    PubMed Central

    South, Scott J.; Trent, Katherine; Bose, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Although substantial research has explored the causes of India’s excessively masculine population sex ratio, few studies have examined the consequences of this surplus of males. We merge individual-level data from the 2004–2005 India Human Development Survey with data from the 2001 India population census to examine the association between the district-level male-to-female sex ratio at ages 15 to 39 and self-reports of victimization by theft, breaking and entering, and assault. Multilevel logistic regression analyses reveal positive and statistically significant albeit substantively modest effects of the district-level sex ratio on all three victimization risks. We also find that higher male-to-female sex ratios are associated with the perception that young unmarried women in the local community are frequently harassed. Household-level indicators of family structure, socioeconomic status, and caste, as well as areal indicators of women’s empowerment and collective efficacy, also emerge as significant predictors of self-reported criminal victimization and the perceived harassment of young women. The implications of these findings for India’s growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed. PMID:24682921

  14. Women’s Political Empowerment and Investments in Primary Schooling in India

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.; Pande, Rohini P.

    2015-01-01

    Using a national district-level dataset of India composed of information on investments in primary schooling (data from the District Information Survey for Education [DISE, 2007/8]) and information on demographic characteristics of elected officials (data from the Election Commission of India [ECI, 2000/04]), we examined the relationship between women’s representation in State Legislative Assembly (SLA) seats and district-level investments in primary schooling. We used OLS regressions adjusting for confounders and spatial autocorrelation, and estimated separate models for North and South India. Women’s representation in general SLA seats typically was negatively associated with investments in primary-school amenities and teachers; women’s representation in SLA seats reserved for under-represented minorities, i.e., scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, typically was positively associated with investments in primary schooling, especially in areas addressing the basic needs of poor children. Women legislators’ gender and caste identities may shape their decisions about redistributive educational policies. PMID:26924878

  15. India's Largest Hospital Insurance Program Faces Challenges In Using Claims Data To Measure Quality.

    PubMed

    Morton, Matthew; Nagpal, Somil; Sadanandan, Rajeev; Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    The routine data generated by India's universal coverage programs offer an important opportunity to evaluate and track the quality of health care systematically and on a large scale. We examined the potential and challenges of measuring the quality of hospital care through claims data from India's hospital insurance program for the poor, Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY). Using data from one district in India, we illustrate how these data already provide useful insights and show that simple efforts to enhance data quality and an effort to expand the data captured could facilitate RSBY's ability to track quality of care. The data collected by RSBY has significant potential to characterize and uncover the provision of low-quality care and help inform much-needed efforts to raise the quality of hospital care.

  16. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  17. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  18. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  19. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  20. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  1. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  2. Passages From India, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your…

  3. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  4. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  5. A review of national health surveys in India.

    PubMed

    Dandona, Rakhi; Pandey, Anamika; Dandona, Lalit

    2016-04-01

    Several rounds of national health surveys have generated a vast amount of data in India since 1992. We describe and compare the key health information gathered, assess the availability of health data in the public domain, and review publications resulting from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), the District Level Household Survey (DLHS) and the Annual Health Survey (AHS). We highlight issues that need attention to improve the usefulness of the surveys in monitoring changing trends in India's disease burden: (i) inadequate coverage of noncommunicable diseases, injuries and some major communicable diseases; (ii) modest comparability between surveys on the key themes of child and maternal mortality and immunization to understand trends over time; (iii) short time intervals between the most recent survey rounds; and (iv) delays in making individual-level data available for analysis in the public domain. We identified 337 publications using NFHS data, in contrast only 48 and three publications were using data from the DLHS and AHS respectively. As national surveys are resource-intensive, it would be prudent to maximize their benefits. We suggest that India plan for a single major national health survey at five-year intervals in consultation with key stakeholders. This could cover additional major causes of the disease burden and their risk factors, as well as causes of death and adult mortality rate estimation. If done in a standardized manner, such a survey would provide useable and timely data to inform health interventions and facilitate assessment of their impact on population health.

  6. Unit Cost of Medical Services at Different Hospitals in India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1 = INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates

  7. Statistical Physics Approach to Political Districting Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chung-I.; Li, Sai-Ping

    The Political Districting Problem is to partition a zone into several electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. This political problem is mapped to a q-state Potts model system, and the political constraints are written in the form of an energy function with the interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. We illustrate this problem by districting Taipei city and compare it to a computer-generated artificial system.

  8. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  9. School Choice for the Poor? The Limits of Marketisation of Primary Education in Rural India. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harma, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In recent years India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society. This marketisation of primary education is a reaction to the well-documented failings of the government system. This paper looks at LFP schooling in one rural district of Uttar Pradesh, and compares government to low cost private…

  10. Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that…

  11. Non-Formal Education--A Worthwhile Alternative to the Formal Education in India? Case Studies from Ganjam, Orissa. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 757.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Anna

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of non-formal education (NFE) compared to the formal school system in Ganjam, a rural district on the east coast of Orissa, India. The aim of the research was to investigate whether or not NFE, would be a worthy target of aid from the Swedish aid organization SIDA (Swedish International…

  12. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  13. State of the District [Los Angeles Community College District].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Leslie

    Accomplishments made by the Los Angeles Community College District during its fifth year of independent operation are noted, and 10 projects to receive attention during the coming year are listed. The accomplishments are: (1) increasing and diversifying enrollment, (2) stabilizing and improving the college environment, (3) developing fiscal…

  14. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  15. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Protein intakes in India.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-08-01

    Indian diets derive almost 60 % of their protein from cereals with relatively low digestibility and quality. There have been several surveys of diets and protein intakes in India by the National Nutrition Monitoring Board (NNMB) over the last 25 years, in urban and rural, as well as in slum dwellers and tribal populations. Data of disadvantaged populations from slums, tribals and sedentary rural Indian populations show that the protein intake (mainly from cereals) is about 1 gm/kg/day. However, the protein intake looks less promising in terms of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), using lysine as the first limiting amino acid, where all populations, particularly rural and tribal, appear to have an inadequate quality to their protein intake. The protein: energy (PE) ratio is a measure of dietary quality, and has been used in the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report to define reference requirement values with which the adequacy of diets can be evaluated in terms of a protein quality corrected PE ratio. It is likely that about one third of this sedentary rural population is at risk of not meeting their requirements. These levels of risk of deficiency are in a population with relatively low BMI populations, whose diets are also inadequate in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, while the burden of enhancing the quality of protein intake in rural India exists, the quality of the diet, in general, represents a challenge that must be met.

  17. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake District includes and consists of Lake County. (j) Mendocino... County, Fresno County, and Mono County. (o) Tulare District includes and consists of Tulare County...

  18. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake District includes and consists of Lake County. (j) Mendocino... County, Fresno County, and Mono County. (o) Tulare District includes and consists of Tulare County...

  19. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake District includes and consists of Lake County. (j) Mendocino... County, Fresno County, and Mono County. (o) Tulare District includes and consists of Tulare County...

  20. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake District includes and consists of Lake County. (j) Mendocino... County, Fresno County, and Mono County. (o) Tulare District includes and consists of Tulare County...

  1. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake District includes and consists of Lake County. (j) Mendocino... County, Fresno County, and Mono County. (o) Tulare District includes and consists of Tulare County...

  2. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and 2. (4) District 4 consists of...

  3. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and 2. (4) District 4 consists of...

  4. 7 CFR 983.11 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... where pistachios are produced that are not included in Districts 1 and 2. (4) District 4 consists of...

  5. Public Perception and School District Audits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkybile, Sharon; Goodman, Jon

    1999-01-01

    School districts are subject to many audits each year. Offers a guide to school district business officials on managing their various audits effectively to maximize the benefits of each audit and minimize public-image damage and disruption. (MLF)

  6. 7 CFR 947.18 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.18 District. District means each one of the geographical divisions of the production...

  7. 7 CFR 947.18 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.18 District. District means each one of the geographical divisions of the production...

  8. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  9. Research on antidepressants in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish

    2010-01-01

    Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in India has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in India have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in India on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment. PMID:21836704

  10. Evidence of independent evolution of genotype XIII Newcastle disease viruses in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Moushumee; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in India through the decades, there has been little genetic characterisation of the virulent strains circulating in Northeast India. In 2014, a poultry farm in the Kamrup district of Assam reported an ND outbreak. In this study, genetic analysis and clinicopathological tests showed the virulent nature of the isolate Kamrup. Based on prudent classification criteria, the virulent strain Kamrup was found to be most closely related to members of genotype XIII of class II NDV. A phylogenetic analysis of NDV strains suggested three sub-genotypes: XIIIa, XIIIb and XIIIc. NDV strain Kamrup belonged to sub-genotype XIIIc. Sub-genotype XIIIc isolates were similar to the 1982 isolate from cockatoo and appeared to have evolved parallel to the preceding genotype XIII viruses circulating in India. The high genetic diversity and frequency of mutations observed in the envelope glycoproteins of strain Kamrup demonstrate the evolution of the pandemic genotype XIII NDV in India, which further undermines and complicates of NDV management in India.

  11. Prospects for better nutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Rajan; van den Briel, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Being home to 31% of the world's children who are stunted and 42% of those who are underweight, and with many children and adults affected by micronutrient deficiencies, India is facing huge challenges in the field of nutrition. Even though the Indian Government is investing vast amounts of money into programs that aim to enhance food security, health and nutrition (the Integrated Child Development Services program alone costs 3 billion USD per year), overall impact has been rather disappointing. However, there are some bright spots on the horizon. The recent District Level Health Surveys (DLHS-4) do show significant progress, ie a reduction in stunting of around 15% over the past 6 years in a few states for which preliminary results are available. The reasons for this reduction are not unambiguous and appear to include state government commitment, focus on the 'window of opportunity', improved status and education of women, a lowered fertility rate, and combinations of nutrition- specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Apart from the government many other agencies play a role in driving improvements in nutrition. Since 2006 the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) has worked with a range of partners to improve access to nutritious foods for large parts of the population, through public and private delivery channels. This supplement presents a selection of these activities, ranging from a capacityassessment of frontline workers in the ICDS system, large scale staple food fortification, salt iodization, fortification of mid-day meals for school children and decentralized complementary food production.

  12. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  13. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  14. Spatial Planning of School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Donald W.

    1972-01-01

    The development of several plans based on linear programming and geographic methodology will permit school administrators to make better decisions concerning the planning of school districts: where to locate boundaries, how to eliminate overcrowding, where to locate new classrooms, and how to overcome de facto segregation. The primal and dual…

  15. Facilitating Inter-District Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gene L.

    After an introductory section which points out that the responsibility of small and rural schools is to provide all children with a quality education, and that Boards of Education must decide what is best for all children in the community, the paper briefly describes 16 exemplary programs involving cooperation between school districts. The…

  16. Nation, Districts Step up Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

  17. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  18. Districts Created to Steer "Turnarounds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    If the job of a traditional superintendent is hard, imagine the complexities involved in building a school system from scratch--especially one composed of schools with some of the most intractable educational challenges. That's the task facing education leaders in Michigan and Tennessee, which are building special districts to take over…

  19. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Districts. 946.31 Section 946.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... included in the South District. (e) District No. 5—All of the remaining counties in the State of...

  20. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not..., plus the area of Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation...