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Sample records for district meghalaya india

  1. Multivariate analysis of subsurface radiometric data in Rongsohkham area, East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India): implication on uranium exploration.

    PubMed

    Kukreti, B M; Pandey, Pradeep; Singh, R V

    2012-08-01

    Non-coring based exploratory drilling was under taken in the sedimentary environment of Rangsohkham block, East Khasi Hills district to examine the eastern extension of existing uranium resources located at Domiasiat and Wakhyn in the Mahadek basin of Meghalaya (India). Although radiometric survey and radiometric analysis of surface grab/channel samples in the block indicate high uranium content but the gamma ray logging results of exploratory boreholes in the block, did not obtain the expected results. To understand this abrupt discontinuity between the two sets of data (surface and subsurface) multivariate statistical analysis of primordial radioactive elements (K(40), U(238) and Th(232)) was performed using the concept of representative subsurface samples, drawn from the randomly selected 11 boreholes of this block. The study was performed to a high confidence level (99%), and results are discussed for assessing the U and Th behavior in the block. Results not only confirm the continuation of three distinct geological formations in the area but also the uranium bearing potential in the Mahadek sandstone of the eastern part of Mahadek Basin.

  2. Helminth parasite spectrum of fishes in Meghalaya, Northeast India: a checklist.

    PubMed

    Jyrwa, Donald B; Thapa, Sunila; Tandon, Veena

    2016-06-01

    Fish constitute a major component of diet for the people of Northeast India and they are extensively used as a protein-rich food for human consumption. The present studies incorporate the spectrum, composition and diversity of the parasitic species in freshwater fishes in Meghalaya, Northeast India, with a view to identifying the species recovered by morphological criteria based on light microscopy. The collection sites included sixteen foci from eleven districts of Meghalaya for parasites occurring in the common food fishes (Cypriniformes, Channiformes, Silurformes, Symbranchiformes and Anguilliformes). The helminth parasite spectrum recovered from the various piscine host species in the study area comprised of a total of 19 taxa: 2 monogenean, 8 trematode (4 adult and 4 metacercarial stages), 12 cestode (11 adult and a metacestode stage), 6 nematode (3 adult and 3 larval stages) and a single acanthocephalan species. A checklist of the parasite species with short remarks for each is provided herein. PMID:27413300

  3. Development of experimental approach to examine U occurrence continuity over the extended area reconnoitory boreholes: Lostoin Block, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, G K

    2015-10-01

    Exploratory drilling was undertaken in the Lostoin block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya based on the geological extension to the major uranium deposit in the basin. Gamma ray logging of drilled boreholes shows considerable subsurface mineralization in the block. However, environmental and exploration related challenges such as climatic, logistic, limited core drilling and poor core recovery etc. in the block severely restricted the study of uranium exploration related index parameters for the block with a high degree confidence. The present study examines these exploration related challenges and develops an integrated approach using representative sampling of reconnoitory boreholes in the block. Experimental findings validate a similar geochemically coherent nature of radio elements (K, Ra and Th) in the Lostoin block uranium hosting environment with respect to the known block of Mahadek basin and uranium enrichment is confirmed by the lower U to Th correlation index (0.268) of hosting environment. A mineralized zone investigation in the block shows parent (refers to the actual parent uranium concentration at a location and not a secondary concentration such as the daughter elements which produce the signal from a total gamma ray measurement) favoring uranium mineralization. The confidence parameters generated under the present study have implications for the assessment of the inferred category of uranium ore in the block and setting up a road map for the systematic exploration of large uranium potential occurring over extended areas in the basin amid prevailing environmental and exploratory impediments. PMID:26164149

  4. Description of a new species of the genus Hulecoeteomyia (Diptera: Culicidae) from Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, R; Rajavel, A R; Jambulingam, P

    2016-01-01

    Female and male adults, female and male genitalia, pupa and larva of Hulecoeteomyia cherrapunjiensis, a new mosquito species, are described from Meghalaya, India. Keys to separate larvae and adults are provided. PMID:27470727

  5. Sexuality and 'silence' among Khasi youth of Meghalaya, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    War, Ryntihlin Jennifer; Albert, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The importance of sex education has been well documented in the literature, but there exists a lack of research involving indigenous youth in India. This paper describes perceptions, knowledge and attitudes towards sex education, sexuality, pre-marital sex, rape and homosexuality among indigenous students from the matrilineal Khasi tribe attending a university in Meghalaya in northeast India. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected during and after reproductive health, sexuality and life skills courses. Despite the impression of sexual permissiveness of indigenous peoples that exists in India, students reported a societal silence on issues related to sexuality. Lack of appropriate words in the indigenous language potentially contributes to this silence. Although co-habitation is common and culturally acceptable, students disapproved of pre-marital sex. The influence of Christianisation was also perceived in the frequent reference to sin and guilt associated with masturbation, homosexuality, pre-marital sex and abortion. Students reported that the sex education received in school was 'childish' and inadequate for their adult needs. Many had unrealistic images of what constituted 'normal' sex and also blamed women for rape. The majority of indigenous students expressed the need for non-judgmental fora for discussions on sexual health and for sexuality education.

  6. Ethnomedicinal plants used for diarrhea by tribals of Meghalaya, Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Laloo, Damiki; Hemalatha, Siva

    2011-01-01

    Environmental status and diarrhea is regarded as a complex and multidimensional topic. Diarrhea is one of the main water-borne diseases considered to be endemic in many regions of the world and brings the major health threats to the world populations, both in tropical and subtropical poor countries. The state Meghalaya situated in the North-Eastern India is an upland landmass bound by seven districts surrounded within by different tribes. The population is predominantly rural, with 81.41% of the population belongs merely to the scheduled tribes. The state offers a wide range of disease environments, dominated by communicable diseases (35.68%), and diarrhea is one of the water-borne diseases that alter the society of the state. Various factors like poor environmental sanitation, unavailability of safe drinking water, seasonal rainfall, infected foods, infection through fomites, flies, cockroaches, etc. are the main culprit that led to the cause of diarrhea in the state. The local people are very much closely associated with nature, and with their ethnobiological knowledge about the plants available around them, they can easily avert and cure themselves from several disease complications. In this review, the information regarding the traditional method of utilization of 58 plant species that are used to treat and cure diarrhea and dysentery are enlisted briefly. PMID:22279372

  7. The K-T Transition in Meghalaya, NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Berner, Z.; Ateequzzaman, K.; Stueben, D.

    2008-12-01

    produced in the hypolimnion. Sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, biostratigraphic and paleoecological studies of the Um Sohryngkew Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, reveal biotic and environmental changes about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province (DVP). Upper Cretaceous sediments consist mainly of conglomerates, glauconitic sandstone, sandy shale, calcareous shale with a few shell beds and rare coal pockets, all of which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental terrains. High kaolinite and illite indicate high humidity and high runoff. The K-T transition is in calcareous silty shale and marked by a 1 cm thin "rust colored" layer with high anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). In the Danian, kaolinite remains the dominant clay mineral, suggesting humid climatic conditions. In contrast, semi-arid climate conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous Deccan Traps province, which appears to be linked to "mock aridity" (Harris and Van Couvering, 1995, Khadkikar et al., 1999). Microfossil assemblages define the K-T boundary. Nannofossils are common throughout the Upper Maastrichtian interval. Assemblages dominated by Micula decussata and Watzenueria barnesae along with common Ceratolithioides kampteneri and Lithraphidites quadratus are typical of the low latitude Tethys and Micula prinsii attests to the presence of the terminal Maastrichtian. Dinoflagellate cysts are common to abundant with increased frequencies of peridiniods, terrestrial organic matter and framboidal pyrite in the uppermost Maastrichtian. This suggests high nutrient loading possibly leading to stressful eutrophic conditions. Dinogymnium and Alisogymnium species have their last occurrences at the K-T boundary. The first appearence of Danian nannofossil species Neobiscutum romeinii and Biantholithus sparsus appear at 5 cm and 15 cm above the K-T boundary

  8. Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Theophilus, P. K.

    2009-05-01

    The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX showed interesting microfabric features showing strong resemblance with fossilised bacteria, calcified filaments, needle calcite and numerous nano scale calcite crystals, highly weathered and disintegrated crystals of calcite, that point towards a significant microbial influence in its genesis. Thin section petrography showed laminated stromatolitic features. The microorganisms identified by conventional isolation and further evaluation of isolates by molecular techniques include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, and Actinomycetes. Microscopic observations also showed unidentifiable cocci and four unidentifiable strains of CaSO4 (gypsum) precipitating bacteria. Experimental studies confirmed that these bacteria are able to precipitate calcium minerals (calcite, gypsum, minor amounts of dolomite) in the laboratory. These results allow us to postulate that species like these may contribute to active biogenic influence in the cave formations at Meghalaya.

  9. Daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Narzary, Pralip Kumar; Sharma, Shilpi Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Although son preference in patrilineal society is an established fact, daughter preference in matrilineal society is not thoroughly examined. Very few studies have been carried out on the issue. This paper attempts to explore the daughter preference and contraceptive-use in matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 1998-1999 have been used in this study because, among the large-scale surveys, only this dataset allows identification of matrilineal sample. Mean, percentage, and standard deviation are computed in the present study. Further, the data have been cross-tabulated, and logistic regression has been run through SPSS (version 15). Among the ever-married matrilineal women, 17% desired more sons than daughters but 18.2% desired more daughters than sons. About 11% of ever-married women could achieve their desired sex composition of children. However, a very striking finding suggests that, even after achieving desired sex composition of children, as high as 61.8% of women were still not using contraception mainly because of programme factors while one-fourth were still depending on temporary methods. The rest 13.2% adopted terminal method of contraception, which calls for immediate attention of planners. With the increase in the number of sons but without daughter, contraceptive-use drastically decreased. The most desired sex composition of children seems to be two daughters and a son. Absence of daughter with increase in the total number of sons increased the desire for additional children. Every woman with two or more sons but without daughter wanted the next child to be a daughter. Thus, there are ample evidences to draw the conclusion that there is, in fact, a daughter preference in the matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya, India. Policy-makers may, thus, target the women who have achieved fertility and should ensure that daughter preference does not lead to the negligence to sons.

  10. REE mineralization in the carbonatites of the sung valley ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite complex, Meghalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Mohd.; Ranjith, A.; Umrao, Ravi Kumar

    2014-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous Sung Valley Ultramafic-Alkaline-Carbonatite (SUAC) complex intruded the Proterozoic Shillong Group of rocks and located in the East Khasi Hills and West Jaintia Hills districts of Meghalaya. The SUAC complex is a bowl-shaped depression covering an area of about 26 km2 and is comprised serpentinised peridotite forming the core of the complex with pyroxenite rim. Alkaline rocks are dominantly ijolite and nepheline syenite, occur as ring-shaped bodies as well as dykes. Carbonatites are, the youngest intrusive phase in the complex, where they form oval-shaped bodies, small dykes and veins. During the course of large scale mapping in parts of the Sung Valley complex, eleven carbonatite bodies were delineated. These isolated carbonatite bodies have a general NW-SE and E-W trend and vary from 20-125 m long and 10-40 m wide. Calcite carbonatite is the dominant variety and comprises minor dolomite and apatite and accessory olivine, magnetite, pyrochlore and phlogopite. The REE-bearing minerals identified in the Sung Valley carbonatites are bastnäsite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), belovite-(Ce), britholite-(Ce) and pyrochlore that are associated with calcite and apatite. The presence of REE carbonates and phosphates associated with REE-Nb bearing pyrochlore enhances the economic potential of the Sung Valley carbonatites. Trace-element geochemistry also reveals an enrichment of LREEs in the carbonatites and average ΣREE value of 0.102% in 26 bed rock samples. Channel samples shows average ΣREE values of 0.103 wt%. Moreover, few samples from carbonatite bodies has indicated relatively higher values for Sn, Hf, Ta and U. Since the present study focuses surface evaluation of REE, therefore, detailed subsurface exploration will be of immense help to determine the REE and other associated mineralization of the Sung Valley carbonatite prospect.

  11. Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus and goatpox virus from an outbreak in goats with high mortality in Meghalaya state, India

    PubMed Central

    Karim, A.; Bhattacharjee, U.; Puro, K.; Shakuntala, I.; Sanjukta, R.; Das, S.; Ghatak, S.; Sen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We describe a laboratory investigation carried out to confirm the etiology of the heavy mortality (37 animals died out of total 44, i.e. 84%) in goats in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya, Northeast region of India in December 2015. The clinical signs observed were abortion, diarrhea, high fever (up to 104°F), pox lesion in the skin, and respiratory distress. Materials and Methods: The samples comprising whole blood, sera, and pox lesion were collected from the animals (n=7) from an outbreak for the screening of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and poxviruses. The whole blood and sera were used for screening of PPR virus (PPRV) by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and antibody by competitive ELISA as well as detection of PPRV partial N gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The skin lesions were used for the detection of poxvirus by PCR. Results: The results showed the presence of PPR antigens (58-80%) in the samples by sandwich ELISA and antibody in all the sera samples ranging from 9% to 41% positivity in competitive ELISA. Four samples were positive for PPRV partial N gene. The skin lesion screened for poxvirus was also found to be positive for I3L gene of goatpox virus. Conclusion: We confirm the outbreak of disease in goats with high mortality is a case of mixed infection of PPR and goatpox detected for the first time in Northeast India. PMID:27733807

  12. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic Mylliem granitoids, Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Jyotisankar; Saha, Abhishek; Ganguly, Sohini; Balaram, V.; Krishna, A. Keshav; Hazra, Sampa

    2011-06-01

    The Mylliem granitoids of the Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India, represent one of the disharmonic Neoproterozoic igneous plutons, which are intrusive into low-grade Shillong Group of metasediments. Field studies indicate that the Mylliem granitoids cover an area of about 40 km2 and is characterized by development of variable attitude of primary foliations mostly marked along the margin of the pluton. Xenoliths of both Shillong Group of metasediments and mafic rocks have been found to occur within Mylliem granitoids. Structural study of the primary foliation is suggestive of funnel-shaped intrusion of Mylliem granitoids with no appreciable evidence of shearing. Petrographically, Mylliem granitoids are characterized by pink to white phenocrysts of prismatic microcline/perthite and lath-shaped plagioclase (An20-An29). Groundmass material is characterized by quartz, microcline, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite. Sphene and apatite occur as accessory minerals. Petrographically Mylliem granitoids have been discriminated as granite and granodiorite according to IUGS system of classification. Critical evaluation of geochemical data and variation trends of major oxides/trace elements suggests a significant role of fractional crystallization in the evolution of Mylliem pluton. Th/U ratios (3.22-6.77) indicate a relatively higher abundance of Th over U. Chondrite-normalized REE diagram characteristically shows an enriched LREE pattern and prominent negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.16-0.42) indicating the significant role of plagioclase fractionation from the parent magma. An overall strong REE fractionation pattern has been envisaged for Mylliem granitoids. The strong REE fractionation of the Mylliem granitoids is depicted by (Ce/Yb) N values, which show a range of 1.39 to 1.65. The aluminium saturation index (ASI) (ranging from 1.0 to 1.3), A/CNK ratios (ranging from 1.4 to 2.11) and A/NK ratios (ranging from 1.75 to 2.43) provide evidences for the peraluminous, S

  13. Crustacean-borne infections with microphallid metacercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from focal areas in Meghalaya, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, L M; Prasad, P K; Biswal, D K; Chatterjee, A; Tandon, V

    2013-06-01

    During a survey of edible Crustacea for recovery of infective stages (metacercariae) of potential helminthozoonoses of trematode origin in north-east India, the crab species Barytelphusa lugubris mansoniana, collected from suspected foci of lungfluke infection in Meghalaya and Assam, was found to harbour metacercarial cysts that were different from the earlier reported infection, in which the lungfluke Paragonimus was confirmed to be implicated. Using morphological criteria, this metacercaria was identified as Microphallus indicus Mukherjee & Ghosh, 1967 of the trematode family Microphallidae. The present study extends the previous work by providing molecular characterization of this parasite using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and the partial large ribosomal subunit DNA, lsr. These target regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trematode universal primers and sequenced. In BLAST analysis the query sequences were found close to members of Microphallidae and closest to the genus Microphallus.

  14. From jhum to broom: Agricultural land-use change and food security implications on the Meghalaya Plateau, India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Rabi Narayan; Nayak, Debendra Kumar; Andersen, Peter; Måren, Inger Elisabeth

    2016-02-01

    Human population growth in the developing world drives land-use changes, impacting food security. In India, the dramatic change in demographic dynamics over the past century has reduced traditional agricultural land-use through increasing commercialization. Here, we analyze the magnitude and implications for the farming system by the introduction of cash-cropping, replacing the traditional slash and burn rotations (jhum), of the tribal people on the Meghalaya Plateau, northeast India, by means of agricultural census data and field surveys conducted in seven villages. Land-use change has brought major alterations in hill agricultural practices, enhanced cash-cropping, promoted mono-cropping, changed food consumption patterns, underpinned the emergence of a new food system, and exposed farmers and consumers to the precariousness of the market, all of which have both long- and short-term food security implications. We found dietary diversity to be higher under jhum compared to any of the cash-crop systems, and higher under traditional cash-cropping than under modern cash-cropping. PMID:26254789

  15. Zn(II) and Cu(II) removal by Nostoc muscorum: a cyanobacterium isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Smita; Diengdoh, Omega L; Syiem, Mayashree B; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kiran, Mothe Gopi

    2015-03-01

    Nostoc muscorum was isolated from a coal mining pit in Chiehruphi, Meghalaya, India, and its potential to remove Zn(II) and Cu(II) from media and the various biochemical alterations it undergoes during metal stress were studied. Metal uptake measured as a function of the ions removed by N. muscorum from media supplemented independently with 20 μmol/L ZnSO4 and CuSO4 established the ability of this cyanobacterium to remove 66% of Zn(2+) and 71% of Cu(2+) within 24 h of contact time. Metal binding on the cell surface was found to be the primary mode of uptake, followed by internalization. Within 7 days of contact, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) mediated dissimilar effects on the organism. For instance, although chlorophyll a synthesis was increased by 12% in Zn(2+)-treated cells, it was reduced by 26% in Cu(2+)-treated cells. Total protein content remained unaltered in Zn(2+)-supplemented medium; however, a 15% reduction was noticed upon Cu(2+) exposure. Copper enhanced both photosynthesis and respiration by 15% and 19%, respectively; in contrast, photosynthesis was unchanged and respiration dropped by 11% upon Zn(2+) treatment. Inoculum age also influenced metal removal ability. Experiments in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (a photosynthetic inhibitor), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (an uncoupler), and exogenous ATP established that metal uptake was energy dependent, and photosynthesis contributed significantly towards the energy pool required to mediate metal removals.

  16. Interpolation study on ambient gamma levels in parts of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya (India): Preliminary findings for U exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukreti, B. M.; Sharma, G. K.; Kumar, Pramod; Hamilton, Sandeep

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses an experimental approach to examine uranium exploration avenue over the geologically extended parts of Mahadek basin in Meghalaya, amid some of the environmental constraints. Study comprises periodic measurements of prevailing ambient gamma levels across 320 georeference points, in relation to the major litho units of Mahadek basin, covering 673 line km of Khasi Hills. Acquired sample data points were then analysed in geostatistical software (SurferTM) to develop analytical model of sample variogram having bearing on the uranium exploration in the area. Study findings have given encouraging surface indicators with mostly elevated gamma levels over the parts of West Khasi Hills. Delineated gamma anomalous zones are lithologically well correlated including to that of existing uranium occurrences in the basin. Identified anomalous zones over the parts of West Khasi Hills by this study work, are mainly associated with the Mahadek sandstone (Upper and Lower Mahadek) and Precambrian basement granites. Lower Mahadek sandstone is host rock for uranium mineralisation in the basin. Initial findings suggest with the closer spatial resolution (˜1 km) of sample data points, the approach adopted by the study work holds promising application in locating potential uranium exploration targets especially to the extended and inaccessible parts of the basin.

  17. 210-Polonium studies in some environmental and biological matrices of Domiasiat uranium deposit area, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Marbaniang, Deswyn G; Poddar, Raj K; Nongkynrih, Phlis; Khathing, Darlando T

    2010-03-01

    The study was performed using a silicon surface barrier alpha spectrometer at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Through the study, the observed (210)Po activity in water sample from different locations in the Domiasiat area ranges from 0.04 to 0.69 Bq/l. The daily and annual intake of (210)Po through water was also estimated and the mean value of 0.72 and 263.61 Bq, respectively, were observed. It is observed that the effective doses through water were higher than the World Health Organization recommended dose of 0.05 mSv/year. The total annual effective doses through terrestrial ingestion for all the locations was studied and the mean annual effective dose was observed to be 0.315 mSv, which, when compared to the worldwide and the Indian values, was observed to be slightly higher. The mean activity in soil is found to be 124.8 +/-5.7 Bq/kg and in meat the activity is 0.43 +/-0.05 Bq/kg. In fishes, an activity of 0.48 +/-0.07 Bq/kg in Garra lamta, 0.29 +/-0.02 Bq/kg in Neolissocheilus hexaganolepis, and 3.3 +/-0.1 Bq/kg in Macrobrachium sp. is observed. Activity concentration in plant samples was analyzed and the activity ranges from 0.020 +/-0.002 to 9.69 +/-0.35 Bq/kg. Committed effective dose by the adult population of the Domiasiat area through intake of (210)Po through these food items was also determined and compared with the Indian average value and the worldwide average value.

  18. Chikungunya outbreak in Garo Hills, Meghalaya: An epidemiological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Borah, Jani; Chowdhury, Purvita; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya infection was first reported from India in 1963 from Kolkata. We report the serological and molecular evidence of an outbreak of chikungunya in northeast India that occurred in Tura, a hilly and forested terrain in Garo Hills district of Meghalaya. Methods: Blood samples (3 ml) collected from hospitalized patients during the outbreak were tested for IgM antibodies against CHIKV and followed up four months later. A repeat survey was carried out in the same area after four months from where cases had been reported. Blood samples were also collected from people with history of fever and body ache in the last four months. Persons showing IgM positivity against CHIKV in the repeat survey were followed up one and a half years later. All samples were also processed by RT-PCR assay for CHIK Envelope (E) 1 gene. Immature mosquitoes were collected, link reared and identified with standard keys. Virus incrimination studies were done on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes collected during the survey. Results: Fever, headache and joint pain were the primary clinical presentations. Twenty three (35.93 %) of 64 samples reported during the outbreak were IgM positive for CHIK. Three samples showed PCR amplification. All these were IgM positive. The sequenced E1 gene revealed that the strains belonged to East Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Interpretation & conclusions: Field survey done after four months revealed that some individuals still had joint pain associated with episodes of headache and fever. It could be inferred that these persons might have contracted infection during the CHIK outbreak four months ago or during the intervening period which caused persistence of sequelae. ECSA genotype was found to be involved in the outbreak. Aedes albopictus was the predominant mosquito species collected during the outbreak. PMID:26139776

  19. Ethno – veterinary Plants of Nadurbar district of Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Ramalah, P.V.; Patil, M B

    2005-01-01

    A survey of medicinal plants of Nandurbar district of Maharashtra, India in regard to their veterinary uses, has been done. While collecting the data, special emphasis is given to the foot and Mouth disease, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, Maggotted Wounds, Retention of Placcenta, Timpany and Worms, which are the most common animal ailment in the district. After short listing, about 29 plant species are found to be in regular use by various tribal veterinary doctors in the district. PMID:22557165

  20. A new species of pterodectine feather mites (Acarina, Analgoidea, Proctophyllodidae) from the Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra (Passeriformes, Nectariniidae) in Meghalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Chişamera, Gabriel; Mukhim, D. Khlur B.; Adam, Costică

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The article describes a new species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae from the Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra Temminck, 1826 (Passeriformes, Nectariniidae) in India. Pedanodectes angustilobus sp. n. differs from all known Pedanodectes species by having opisthosomal lobes short, at base wider than long, roughly rounded apically in males, and strongly elongated and narrowed lobar region with wide terminal appendages in females. A key to species of the genus Pedanodectes is presented. PMID:25147445

  1. Iodine Deficiency in School Children in Aligarh District, India.

    PubMed

    Aslami, Ahmad Nadeem; Ansari, Mohammed A; Khalique, N; Kapil, Umesh

    2016-08-01

    We carried out this study to assess iodine deficiency disorders among school children of 6-12 years age group in Aligarh district of India. The prevalence of goiter was 5.2%. Median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 150 ug/L; 22.5% of students had biochemical iodine deficiency. 50.4% households were consuming adequately iodized salt. PMID:27567653

  2. Folk Medicine of Nasik District (Maharashtra), India

    PubMed Central

    Patil, M.V.; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The study concerns the first -hand information on 50 ethnomedicinal plants traditional used by aborigines and rural folks of Nasik district, Maharashtra, for the treatment of various human ailments and disorders. The paper gives botanical identity, local name, family and mode of administration. PMID:22557009

  3. Outbreak of chikungunya fever, Dakshina Kannada District, South India, 2008.

    PubMed

    Manimunda, Sathya P; Sugunan, Attayur P; Rai, Subhodh K; Vijayachari, Paluru; Shriram, Ananganallur N; Sharma, Sameer; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Chaitanya, Itta K; Guruprasad, Dev R; Sudeep, Anakkathil B

    2010-10-01

    The outbreak of chikungunya fever that surfaced in India during late 2005 has affected more than 1.56 million people, spread to more than 17 states/union territories, and is still ongoing. Many of these areas are dengue- and leptospirosis-endemic settings. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in one such chikungunya-affected location in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka State to estimate the magnitude of the epidemic and the proportion of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections that remained clinically inapparent. The seropositivity for CHIKV infection was 62.2%, and the attack rate of confirmed CHIK fever was 58.3%. The proportion of inapparent CHIKV infection was 6.3%. The increasing trend in the seropositivity and attack rate of CHIKV infection with age group was statistically significant. The present study is an indicator of the magnitude of the ongoing outbreak of CHIKV infection in India that started during 2005-2006.

  4. A Synoptic Account of Flora of Solapur District, Maharashtra (India)

    PubMed Central

    Garad, Krushnadeoray U.; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinum solapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district. PMID:25632259

  5. A synoptic account of flora of solapur district, maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Garad, Krushnadeoray U; Gore, Ramchandra D; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinumsolapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district. PMID:25632259

  6. A synoptic account of flora of solapur district, maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Garad, Krushnadeoray U; Gore, Ramchandra D; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinumsolapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district.

  7. Epidemiology of Malaria in Amritsar District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal; Mittal, Mridula; Sharma, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Objective Malaria is today one of the major causes of human suffering, both in terms of increasing morbidity/mortality and stunting intellectual/ economic growth. In a developing country like India, it has devastating socioeconomic consequences. The present study was therefore carried out to study the epidemiology of malaria in Amritsar district. Methods Diagnosed cases of Malaria reported from 1st January to 31st December 2009 in the erstwhile District of Amritsar were collected from the District Epidemiologist of Amritsar and Taran Taaran and studied. A total of 314 patients were studied. Data was assessed, systematically compiled and statistically analyzed. Results Most (84%) of the malaria patients in our study were less than 45 years of age. Male patients (57%) outnumbered females (43%). The majority of patients with malaria (98%) were from rural areas and 68.5% of the studied patients belonged to upper lower socioeconomical class according to Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale. The majority (83%) of patients took treatment from Registered Medical Practitioners/quacks. Out of the total patients, only 14% used mosquito nets, 13% used repellents, and 7% had wire gauze doors in their homes Conclusion The people living in rural areas were found to be more vulnerable to malaria. The disease was found to be more prevalent among the lower socio economic strata and young population leading to considerable adverse effect on health and economy. Our study aims to stress the estimation of the true burden of malaria. PMID:24715945

  8. Fertility transition and adverse child sex ratio in districts of India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Rajbhar, Mamta

    2014-11-01

    Demographic research in India over the last two decades has focused extensively on fertility change and gender bias at the micro-level, and less has been done at the district level. Using data from the Census of India 1991-2011 and other sources, this paper shows the broad pattern of fertility transition and trends in the child sex ratio in India, and examines the determinants of the child sex ratio at the district level. During 1991-2011, while the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) declined by 1.2 children per woman, the child sex ratio fell by 30 points in the districts of India. However, the reduction in fertility was slower in the high-fertility compared with the low-fertility districts. The gender differential in under-five mortality increased in many districts of India over the study period. The decline in the child sex ratio was higher in the transitional compared with the low-fertility districts. The transitional districts are at higher risk of a low child sex ratio due to an increased gender differential in mortality and increase in the practice of sex-selective abortions. The sex ratio at birth and gender differential in mortality explains one-third of the variation, while region alone explains a quarter of the variation in the child sex ratio in the districts of India.

  9. Avifaunal diversity of Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Bhat, P Ishwara; Cristopher, S S; Hosetti, B B

    2009-11-01

    The avifaunal diversity and density in Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India, was studied for a period of three years. Anekere pond inhabits several local and migratory bird species. Reduction in water retention in this pond in summer, weed infestation, variations in food availability in different seasons and threat of predation on the breeding activity of birds affected the avifauna diversity in the study area. This habitat attracted 44 bird species, which are local and migratory including aquatic birds, waders and others. Highest population of tree ducks (lesser whistling teal) was recorded in all the three years of study. Other prominent residents were Moorhens, Jacanas, Herons and Cormorants. The visitors include ringed plovers, wagtails and storks. It was evident that purple moorhen and tree ducks have developed high tolerance to this highly fluctuating habitat and human activity. PMID:20329405

  10. Statistical assessment of groundwater resources in Washim district (India).

    PubMed

    Rajankar, P N; Tambekar, D H; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality of Washim district of Maharashtra (India) was assessed using quality parameters and water quality index (WQI). In this study, the WQI was analyzed by using pH, turbidity, temperature, nitrates, total phosphates, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, respectively for residential and commercial uses. All the parameters were analyzed both in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to assess the groundwater quality and seasonal variations. The parameters like turbidity, solids and coliforms showed the seasonal variations. The WQI varied from 72 to 88 in pre-monsoon season and 64 to 88 in post-monsoon season. The results indicate that all groundwater samples in the study area have good water quality in pre-monsoon season but in post-monsoon season 9 percent samples indicated the change in water quality from good to medium, which reveals seasonal variation and groundwater quality deterioration.

  11. Avifaunal diversity of Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Bhat, P Ishwara; Cristopher, S S; Hosetti, B B

    2009-11-01

    The avifaunal diversity and density in Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India, was studied for a period of three years. Anekere pond inhabits several local and migratory bird species. Reduction in water retention in this pond in summer, weed infestation, variations in food availability in different seasons and threat of predation on the breeding activity of birds affected the avifauna diversity in the study area. This habitat attracted 44 bird species, which are local and migratory including aquatic birds, waders and others. Highest population of tree ducks (lesser whistling teal) was recorded in all the three years of study. Other prominent residents were Moorhens, Jacanas, Herons and Cormorants. The visitors include ringed plovers, wagtails and storks. It was evident that purple moorhen and tree ducks have developed high tolerance to this highly fluctuating habitat and human activity.

  12. Distribution of water quality parameters in Dhemaji district, Assam (India).

    PubMed

    Buragohain, Mridul; Bhuyan, Bhabajit; Sarma, H P

    2010-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to present a statistically significant water quality database of Dhemaji district, Assam (India) with special reference to pH, fluoride, nitrate, arsenic, iron, sodium and potassium. 25 water samples collected from different locations of five development blocks in Dhemaji district have been studied separately. The implications presented are based on statistical analyses of the raw data. Normal distribution statistics and reliability analysis (correlation and covariance matrix) have been employed to find out the distribution pattern, localisation of data, and other related information. Statistical observations show that all the parameters under investigation exhibit non uniform distribution with a long asymmetric tail either on the right or left side of the median. The width of the third quartile was consistently found to be more than the second quartile for each parameter. Differences among mean, mode and median, significant skewness and kurtosis value indicate that the distribution of various water quality parameters in the study area is widely off normal. Thus, the intrinsic water quality is not encouraging due to unsymmetrical distribution of various water quality parameters in the study area.

  13. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 μSv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure.

  14. Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

    2012-01-01

    Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels…

  15. Hydrogeochemical studies of groundwater in Salem District, Tamil Nadu (India).

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, G; Elangovan, K

    2010-01-01

    Salem is one of the industrial, agricultural and mineral deposit based district in Tamil Nadu. In this paper, an attempt is made to assess the quality of groundwater in this district, during the month of May 2007 (pre-monsoon). The government of Tamil Nadu has divided the district into twenty blocks. Sixty six samples were collected covering all the blocks of the district except Yercaud which is a structural hill. The collected samples were tested for the following parameters: electrical conductivity, turbidity, pH, total hardness, iron, chlorides, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite and total alkalinity. The test results were interpreted using IS 10500-1991, statistical methods, SAR, USSL classification and Piper's trilinear diagram. Based on the interpretation it is concluded that the study area is mostly influenced by the presence of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, chloride and total alkalinity whereas the other minerals and salts play a minor role.

  16. Hydrogeochemical studies of groundwater in Salem District, Tamil Nadu (India).

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, G; Elangovan, K

    2010-01-01

    Salem is one of the industrial, agricultural and mineral deposit based district in Tamil Nadu. In this paper, an attempt is made to assess the quality of groundwater in this district, during the month of May 2007 (pre-monsoon). The government of Tamil Nadu has divided the district into twenty blocks. Sixty six samples were collected covering all the blocks of the district except Yercaud which is a structural hill. The collected samples were tested for the following parameters: electrical conductivity, turbidity, pH, total hardness, iron, chlorides, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite and total alkalinity. The test results were interpreted using IS 10500-1991, statistical methods, SAR, USSL classification and Piper's trilinear diagram. Based on the interpretation it is concluded that the study area is mostly influenced by the presence of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, chloride and total alkalinity whereas the other minerals and salts play a minor role. PMID:21114107

  17. Under-Five Mortality in High Focus States in India: A District Level Geospatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper examines if, when controlling for biophysical and geographical variables (including rainfall, productivity of agricultural lands, topography/temperature, and market access through road networks), socioeconomic and health care indicators help to explain variations in the under-five mortality rate across districts from nine high focus states in India. The literature on this subject is inconclusive because the survey data, upon which most studies of child mortality rely, rarely include variables that measure these factors. This paper introduces these variables into an analysis of 284 districts from nine high focus states in India. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on the mortality indicator was accessed from the recently conducted Annual Health Survey of 2011 and other socioeconomic and geographic variables from Census 2011, District Level Household and Facility Survey (2007–08), Department of Economics and Statistics Divisions of the concerned states. Displaying high spatial dependence (spatial autocorrelation) in the mortality indicator (outcome variable) and its possible predictors used in the analysis, the paper uses the Spatial-Error Model in an effort to negate or reduce the spatial dependence in model parameters. The results evince that the coverage gap index (a mixed indicator of district wise coverage of reproductive and child health services), female literacy, urbanization, economic status, the number of newborn care provided in Primary Health Centers in the district transpired as significant correlates of under-five mortality in the nine high focus states in India. The study identifies three clusters with high under-five mortality rate including 30 districts, and advocates urgent attention. Conclusion Even after controlling the possible biophysical and geographical variables, the study reveals that the health program initiatives have a major role to play in reducing under-five mortality rate in the high focus states in India

  18. Assessment of soil and ground water quality in Rewa district of Vindhyan Plateau (India).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, A P; Tripathi, I P; Kumar, M Suresh

    2013-01-01

    A systematic seasonal study has been carried out to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of ground water and soils in Rewa district of India. The drinking water in the study area is supplied mainly through Public Health Engineering (PHE) department from river (Bichhia, Bihar) and ground water. Water and soil samples were collected from different locations in the Rewa district, i.e. 10 hand pumps and 10 bore wells around all over the district. Regular monitoring was carried out during summer, rainy and winter seasons, to study the seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters and metals concentration. The parameters like pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulphate, phosphate and heavy metals were estimated for water and soil samples collected from the Rewa district. The results obtained are discussed, correlated with probable sources of contamination and suggested the measures to minimize the pollution.

  19. Assessment of essential newborn care services in secondary-level facilities from two districts of India.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sumit; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S; Neogi, Sutapa B; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

    2014-03-01

    India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts-two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (> 75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (< 50%). The findings

  20. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future. PMID:24194364

  1. Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Roy Chowdhury, T; Chanda, C R; Chowdhury, P P; Basu, G K; Chakraborti, D

    1996-03-01

    Arsenic in groundwater above the WHO maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) has been found in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km(2) with a population of 30 million. At present, 37 administrative blocks by the side of the River Ganga and adjoining areas are affected. Areas affected by arsenic contamination in groundwater are all located in the upper delta plain, and are mostly in the abandoned meander belt. More than 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people show arsenical skin lesions. Thousands of tube-well water in these six districts have been analysed for arsenic species. Hair, nails, scales, urine, liver tissue analyses show elevated concentrations of arsenic in people drinking arsenic-contaminated water for a longer period. The source of the arsenic is geological. Bore-hole sediment analyses show high arsenic concentrations in only few soil layers which is found to be associated with iron-pyrites. Various social problems arise due to arsenical skin lesions in these districts. Malnutrition, poor socio-economic conditions, illiteracy, food habits and intake of arsenic-contaminated water for many years have aggravated the arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, major water demands are met from groundwater and the geochemical reaction, caused by high withdrawal of water may be the cause of arsenic leaching from the source. If alternative water resources are not utilised, a good percentage of the 30 million people of these six districts may suffer from arsenic toxicity in the near future.

  2. An epidemic of rotavirus diarrhoea in Jawhar Taluk, Thane district, Maharashtra, India, December 2000-January 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, S. D.; Ray, P. G.; Shinde, D. N.

    2004-01-01

    An epidemic of diarrhoea in Jawhar, a tribal area of Thane district, Maharashtra, India was investigated. Within a period of approximately 2 months 490 cases of acute diarrhoea were reported among children under 5 years of age, with a case fatality rate of 0.40%. Twenty-seven out of 39 (69.23%) rectal swabs/faecal specimens obtained from hospitalized paediatric patients up to 2 years of age from Jawhar were positive by ELISA for rotavirus. Of these, seven were in the age group of < or = 6 months. Seven ELISA-positive faecal specimens were positive for serotype G3 by RT PCR. Out of 15 serum samples collected from these patients, 12 showed the presence of rotavirus-specific IgM. Rotavirus appears to be the aetiological agent of this widespread outbreak in Jawhar, Thane district, Maharashtra state, India. PMID:15061509

  3. Selenium status in soils of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Han, Sang-Do

    2005-04-01

    The HG-AAS technique was used to estimate the soil selenium status of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India. The drier lands where lesser rains were received or where less irrigation water was available in Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana states had above normal soil selenium levels. These soils were also found to be alkaline. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their soils, except with slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. The results were also confirmed using the ICP-OES technique. PMID:15763155

  4. Selenium status in food grains of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Sharma, Anita; Singh, Devender

    2008-09-01

    The selenium status in the food grains of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India was estimated by using the HG-AAS technique. The areas where lesser rains were received or less irrigation water was available in northern Indian states viz. Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana had higher selenium levels in food grains. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their food grains, except for slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. PMID:17574725

  5. Selenium status in food grains of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Sharma, Anita; Singh, Devender

    2008-09-01

    The selenium status in the food grains of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India was estimated by using the HG-AAS technique. The areas where lesser rains were received or less irrigation water was available in northern Indian states viz. Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana had higher selenium levels in food grains. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their food grains, except for slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna.

  6. Selenium status in soils of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Han, Sang-Do

    2005-04-01

    The HG-AAS technique was used to estimate the soil selenium status of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India. The drier lands where lesser rains were received or where less irrigation water was available in Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana states had above normal soil selenium levels. These soils were also found to be alkaline. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their soils, except with slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. The results were also confirmed using the ICP-OES technique.

  7. Burden, pattern and outcomes of road traffic injuries in a rural district of India.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Uthkarsh, Pallavi Sarji; Rao, Girish N; Jayaram, Ashok N; Panduranganath, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading public health problem and the understanding of RTIs in rural India is limited. The present report documents the burden, pattern, characteristics and outcomes of RTIs in a rural district of India using combined data sources: police and hospital. RTIs contributed for 38% of fatal and 39% of non-fatal injuries with an annual mortality rate of 18.1/100,000 population/year. Young males were affected most and two-wheeler users and pedestrians were involved in 45% and 20% of fatal crashes, respectively. Nearly half (51%) of fatal RTIs occurred on national highways of the district; 46% died immediately at the site. Among those hospitalised, 20% were under the influence of alcohol while use of helmets and seat belts was <5%. Trauma care was deficient in the district leading to greater number of referrals. Road safety should be given high importance in rural India with a focus on safe roads, safe vehicles and safe people along with trauma care.

  8. Assessment of Essential Newborn Care Services in Secondary-level Facilities from Two Districts of India

    PubMed Central

    Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya L.; Sharma, Kavya; Raj, Sunil S.; Neogi, Sutapa B.; Pathak, Garima; Saraf, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    India faces a formidable burden of neonatal deaths, and quality newborn care is essential for reducing the high neonatal mortality rate. We examined newborn care services, with a focus on essential newborn care (ENC) in two districts, one each from two states in India. Nagaur district in Rajasthan and Chhatarpur district in Madhya Pradesh were included. Six secondary-level facilities from the districts─two district hospitals (DHs) and four community health centres (CHCs) were evaluated, where maximum institutional births within districts were taking place. The assessment included record review, facility observation, and competency assessment of service providers, using structured checklists and sets of questionnaire. The domains assessed for competency were: resuscitation, provision of warmth, breastfeeding, kangaroo mother care, and infection prevention. Our assessments showed that no inpatient care was being rendered at the CHCs while, at DHs, neonates with sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity/low birthweight were managed. Newborn care corners existed within or adjacent to the labour room in all the facilities and were largely unutilized spaces in most of the facilities. Resuscitation bags and masks were available in four out of six facilities, with a predominant lack of masks of both sizes. Two CHCs in Chhatarpur did not have suction device. The average knowledge score amongst service providers in resuscitation was 76% and, in the remaining ENC domains, was 78%. The corresponding average skill scores were 24% and 34%, highlighting a huge contrast in knowledge and skill scores. This disparity was observed for all levels of providers assessed. While knowledge domain scores were largely satisfactory (>75%) for the majority of providers in domains of kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding, the scores were only moderately satisfactory (50-75%) for all other knowledge domains. The skill scores for all domains were predominantly non-satisfactory (<50%). The findings

  9. Fluorine distribution in waters of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamohana Rao, N. V.; Rao, N.; Surya Prakash Rao, K.; Schuiling, R. D.

    1993-04-01

    Geochemical and hydrochemical studies were conducted in Nalgonda District (A.P.), to explore the causes of high fluorine in waters, causing a widespread incidence of fluorosis in the local population. Samples of granitic rocks, soils, stream sediments, and waters were analyzed for F and other salient chemical parameters. Samples from the area of Hyderabad city were analyzed for comparison. The F content of waters in areas with endemic fluorosis ranges from 0.4 to 20 mg/l. The low calcium content of rocks and soils, and the presence of high levels of sodium bicarbonate in soils and waters are important factors favoring high levels of F in waters.

  10. Groundwater arsenic and fluoride in Rajnandgaon District, Chhattisgarh, northeastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Khageshwar Singh; Sahu, Bharat Lal; Dahariya, Nohar Singh; Bhatia, Amarpreet; Patel, Raj Kishore; Matini, Laurent; Sracek, Ondra; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2015-12-01

    The groundwater of Ambagarh Chouki, Rajnandgaon, India, shows elevated levels of As and F-, frequently above the WHO guidelines. In this work, the concentrations of As, F-, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 -, Fe, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater of Ambagarh Chouki are described. The sources of dissolved components in the groundwater are investigated using the cluster and factor analysis. Five factors have been identified and linked to processes responsible for the formation of groundwater chemistry. High concentrations of dissolved As seems to be linked to high concentrations of DOC, suggesting reductive dissolution of ferric oxyhydroxides as arsenic mobilization process. Fluoride is found in shallow depth water, presumably as a consequence of evaporation of water and removal of Ca2+ by precipitation of carbonates.

  11. Perinatal mortality in a rural district of south India.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, S; Rao, R S; Chakladar, B K; Krishnan, L; Nair, N S

    1998-01-01

    Perinatal mortality is one of the most sensitive indices of maternal and child health. The perinatal mortality rate is an indicator of the extent of pregnancy wastage as well as of the quality and quantity of health care available to the mother and the newborn. A community based prospective study carried out on 13,214 births in South Kanara district between Oct. 1991-Sept. 1992 revealed a perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) of 44.65/1000 births. Among the various factors influencing perinatal mortality, breech deliveries and babies of multiple pregnancies had a very high perinatal mortality rate of 180.81/1000 births (adjusted odd's ratio: 4.90) and 128/1000 births (adjusted odd's ratio: 2.64). The previous bad obstetric history of the mother, parity and sex of the newborn were among the other important factors influencing the PNMR. PMID:10773926

  12. Recent Outbreaks of Diphtheria in Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Patgiri, Saurav Jyoti; Saikia, Lahari; Paul, Debosmita

    2016-01-01

    Diphtheria is still a significant child health problem in countries with low immunization coverage. Reports of diphtheria in adult population are also increasing. Here we describe three recent outbreaks of diphtheria in Dibrugarh district, Assam in two consecutive years. The study was undertaken in Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh after the diagnosis of two Diphtheria cases in the month of September and October 2015 and another in January 2016. Outbreak investigation was done after defining operational definition and throat swabs were collected from thirty three (33) individuals including three (3) index cases and thirty (30) close contacts. Diagnosis was done by clinical findings, direct microscopy, bacteriological culture and in-house designed multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the isolates for the expression of Corynebacterium diphtheriae specific rpoB gene and tox gene. Out of the 10 confirmed cases, 2 and 7 were in the first two outbreaks while only one in the third outbreak respectively. All the cases were of age > 10 years, unimmunized or partially immunized. The overall mortality was 20%. PCR results revealed all the culture positive isolates to be tox gene positive. Diphtheria is a resurgent problem in our region with a significant age shift towards adult. PMID:27630847

  13. Recent Outbreaks of Diphtheria in Dibrugarh District, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Patgiri, Saurav Jyoti; Saikia, Lahari; Paul, Debosmita

    2016-01-01

    Diphtheria is still a significant child health problem in countries with low immunization coverage. Reports of diphtheria in adult population are also increasing. Here we describe three recent outbreaks of diphtheria in Dibrugarh district, Assam in two consecutive years. The study was undertaken in Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh after the diagnosis of two Diphtheria cases in the month of September and October 2015 and another in January 2016. Outbreak investigation was done after defining operational definition and throat swabs were collected from thirty three (33) individuals including three (3) index cases and thirty (30) close contacts. Diagnosis was done by clinical findings, direct microscopy, bacteriological culture and in-house designed multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the isolates for the expression of Corynebacterium diphtheriae specific rpoB gene and tox gene. Out of the 10 confirmed cases, 2 and 7 were in the first two outbreaks while only one in the third outbreak respectively. All the cases were of age > 10 years, unimmunized or partially immunized. The overall mortality was 20%. PCR results revealed all the culture positive isolates to be tox gene positive. Diphtheria is a resurgent problem in our region with a significant age shift towards adult.

  14. Recent Outbreaks of Diphtheria in Dibrugarh District, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Partha Pratim; Patgiri, Saurav Jyoti; Saikia, Lahari; Paul, Debosmita

    2016-07-01

    Diphtheria is still a significant child health problem in countries with low immunization coverage. Reports of diphtheria in adult population are also increasing. Here we describe three recent outbreaks of diphtheria in Dibrugarh district, Assam in two consecutive years. The study was undertaken in Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh after the diagnosis of two Diphtheria cases in the month of September and October 2015 and another in January 2016. Outbreak investigation was done after defining operational definition and throat swabs were collected from thirty three (33) individuals including three (3) index cases and thirty (30) close contacts. Diagnosis was done by clinical findings, direct microscopy, bacteriological culture and in-house designed multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the isolates for the expression of Corynebacterium diphtheriae specific rpoB gene and tox gene. Out of the 10 confirmed cases, 2 and 7 were in the first two outbreaks while only one in the third outbreak respectively. All the cases were of age > 10 years, unimmunized or partially immunized. The overall mortality was 20%. PCR results revealed all the culture positive isolates to be tox gene positive. Diphtheria is a resurgent problem in our region with a significant age shift towards adult. PMID:27630847

  15. Status of iodine deficiency amongst school children in twenty four districts in southern India.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sada Nand

    2005-01-01

    The central legislation banning sale of non-iodized salt for edible purposes in the entire country was withdrawn by the Government in the year 2000. The present study was conducted in the year 2001 immediately after lifting the central ban to establish the baseline urinary iodine excretion levels in twenty four districts of Southern India. In each district all the senior secondary schools were enlisted and one school was selected by random sampling. About 120 children in the age group of 11 to 18 years were selected using the random number tables. The urinary iodine excretion levels were analysed using the wet digestion method. It was found that districts Rangareddy, Kolar, Yanam and Perambalour had median UIE levels less than 100 microg/l, indicating iodine deficiency. The findings of the present study highlights the success of Universal salt iodisation programme. The Government of India should reinitiate the process of central ban on sale of non iodised salt in the country to prevent the iodine deficiency disorders.

  16. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    PubMed

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  17. A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people. PMID:24093789

  18. Relationship between household literacy and educational engagement: Analysis of data from Rajkot district, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

    2012-02-01

    Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels and the household's engagement in the education of its child members. The findings on educational engagement were also compared across households with different wealth and income levels. Uniformly, indicators of household literacy levels were found to be more important in understanding a household's educational engagement than a household's wealth and income levels.

  19. Chronic kidney disease in two coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, India: role of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D V; Gunasekar, A

    2013-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported in a few coastal regions of Srikakulam district and Chimakurthy mandal (~30-40 km away from the coast) in the Prakasham district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Some medical experts and the local population have apprehensions that the drinking water is the sole reason for this disease in these areas. As the source of drinking water for these two regions is only groundwater, major ions and trace elements were measured on waters from different sources to identify the causative element(s), if any. Comparison of hydrochemical data of both the areas indicates that groundwater in Srikakulam coastal region is less mineralized than that of the Prakasham region, which may be due to geological, hydrological and climatic reasons. However, the concentrations of various inorganic chemicals are within the permissible limits of drinking water. Hence, for the inorganic chemicals to cause ill health, including CKD, is unlikely or is ruled out in the study areas.

  20. Effect of environmental exposure of arsenic on cattle and poultry in nadia district, west bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Datta, Bakul Kumar; Bhar, Moloy Kumar; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Majumdar, Debasish; Dey, Radha Raman; Sarkar, Samar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate an alternative source of arsenicosis in human food chain through livestock. Thirty milch cattle and 20 poultry birds along with their eggs were selected randomly from two endemic villages of Nadia district and one nonendemic villages of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India. Milk, feces, urine, and hair samples of cattle and feed materials, such as water and straw, were collected to analyze arsenic status. Arsenic concentration in egg yolk and albumen from poultry eggs and different poultry organs after culling was estimated. Distribution of arsenic in animal body indicates that major portion of arsenic was eliminated through feces, urine, and milk. Poultry egg yolk, albumen, and poultry products retain arsenic in all organs. Cows and poultry birds reared in endemic zone retain significantly higher concentration of arsenic. Consumption of egg, agricultural produces grown in contaminated soil, and milk might have produced arsenicosis and may be considered as alternative source of arsenic contamination.

  1. Seasonal variations of lead, arsenic, cadmium and aluminium contamination of groundwater in Dhemaji district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Buragohain, Mridul; Bhuyan, Bhabajit; Sarma, Hari Prasad

    2010-11-01

    Seasonal variations in the concentrations of groundwater with respect to arsenic, lead, cadmium and aluminium has been studied in Dhemaji district of Assam, India. The water samples were collected from 20 different sites in both dry and wet seasons. The metals were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 200 model. The concentrations of aluminium, lead and cadmium in groundwater were found to be significantly elevated. High concentrations of all the metals were recorded in the dry season than in the wet season. Univariate statistics along with skewness, kurtosis and confidence limit have been calculated for both the seasons to test the distribution normality for each metal. Statistical analyses of the data reveal non-uniform distribution of the metals in the area. The metal contamination of groundwater in the district follows the trend Al>Pb>Cd>As in both the seasons.

  2. Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India)

    PubMed Central

    Ignacimuthu, S; Ayyanar, M; Sivaraman K, Sankara

    2006-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants in Southern Western Ghats of India (Madurai district, Tamil Nadu). Information presented in this paper was gathered from the paliyar tribes using an integrated approach of botanical collections, group discussions and interviews with questionnaires in the years 1998 – 1999. The informants interviewed were 12 among whom 4 were tribal practitioners. Results A total of 60 ethnomedicinal plant species distributed in 32 families are documented in this study. The medicinal plants used by paliyars are listed with Latin name, family, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses. Generally, fresh part of the plant was used for the preparation of medicine. Conclusion We observed that the documented ethnomedicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. The results of this study showed that these tribal people still depend on medicinal plants in Madurai district forest areas. PMID:16689985

  3. Studies on dengue in rural areas of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, N; Murty, U Suryanarayana; Kabilan, Lalitha; Balasubramanian, A; Thenmozhi, V; Narahari, D; Ravi, Alaham; Satyanarayana, K

    2004-03-01

    A dengue case was reported for the 1st time in a rural area of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Entomological and serological investigations were carried out to determine the prevalence of dengue vectors and dengue virus. Aedes aegypti was recorded for the 1st time in rural areas of Andhra Pradesh. Breeding of Ae. aegypti was observed only in containers with nonpotable water. Cement cisterns and tanks, stone tubs, and clay pots were the major breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti. Larval indices for Ae. aegypti ranged as follows: house index 28-40%, container index 13-37%, and Breteau index 32-60. A serological survey indicated that humans in Kurnool District have been exposed to dengue virus infections. The potential threat of an outbreak of dengue fever in rural areas because of the prevalence of the vector (Ae. aegypti) and dengue virus is discussed.

  4. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Women’s Infertility and Treatment Seeking Behavior in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is an emergent issue in India. Until recently, very few studies have understood the patterns and consequences of infertility in India. Family planning programs in India also viewed exclusively the patterns and determinants of overfertility rather than infertility. Furthermore, there is the lack of information about treatment seeking behavior of infertile couples. Therefore, this paper aimed to examine the extent of infertility and treatment seeking behavior among infertile women in India. An attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic factors on treatment seeking behavior. Methods: The study used the data from the District Level Household and Facility Survey carried out in India during 2007–08. Several statistical techniques such as chi-square test, proportional hazard model and binary logistic regression model were used for the analysis. Results: Approximately, 8% of currently married women suffered from infertility in India and most of them were secondary infertile (5.8%). Within India, women’s infertility rate was the highest in west Bengal (13.9 percent) and the lowest in Meghalaya (2.5 percent). About 80% of infertile women sought treatment but a substantial proportion (33%) received non-allopathic and traditional treatment due to expensive modern treatment and lack of awareness. Conclusion: In the context of policy response, it can be said that there is a need to improve the existing services and quality of care for infertile women. Treatment for infertility should be integrated into the larger reproductive health packages. PMID:27141468

  5. Factors influencing the spatial distribution of Anopheles larvae in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Kumar, Shobana; Pari, Madhiyazhagan; Thiyagarajan, Nataraj; Vincent, C Thomas; Barnard, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Malaria causes extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and results in significant economic losses in India. The distribution of immature malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes was studied in 17 villages in Coimbatore District as a prelude to the development and implementation of vector control strategies that are intended to reduce the risk of human exposure to potentially infectious mosquitoes. Eight Anopheles species were recorded. The most numerous species were Anopheles vagus, Anopheles subpictus, and Anopheles hyrcanus. The location of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each village was evaluated for correlation with selected demographic, biologic, and land use parameters using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technology. We found the number of mosquito development sites in a village and the density of larvae in such sites to be positively correlated with human population density but not the surface area (km(2)) of the village. The number of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each site were not correlated. Data from this study are being used to construct a GIS-based mapping system that will enable the location of aquatic habitats with Anopheles larvae in the Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India as target sites for the application of vector control. PMID:26364718

  6. Factors influencing the spatial distribution of Anopheles larvae in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Kumar, Shobana; Pari, Madhiyazhagan; Thiyagarajan, Nataraj; Vincent, C Thomas; Barnard, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Malaria causes extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and results in significant economic losses in India. The distribution of immature malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes was studied in 17 villages in Coimbatore District as a prelude to the development and implementation of vector control strategies that are intended to reduce the risk of human exposure to potentially infectious mosquitoes. Eight Anopheles species were recorded. The most numerous species were Anopheles vagus, Anopheles subpictus, and Anopheles hyrcanus. The location of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each village was evaluated for correlation with selected demographic, biologic, and land use parameters using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technology. We found the number of mosquito development sites in a village and the density of larvae in such sites to be positively correlated with human population density but not the surface area (km(2)) of the village. The number of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each site were not correlated. Data from this study are being used to construct a GIS-based mapping system that will enable the location of aquatic habitats with Anopheles larvae in the Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India as target sites for the application of vector control.

  7. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes & assessment of vector control in two districts of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Shankar, Lokesh; Kesari, Shreekant; Bhunia, Gouri Shankar; Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Mandal, Rakesh; Das, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Kala-azar or visceral leishmanisis (VL) is known to be endemic in several States of India including West Bengal (WB). Only meager information is available on the vector dynamics of its vector species, Phlebotomus argentipes particularly in relation to control measure from this State. Hence, a pilot study was undertaken to assess the control strategy and its impact on vector in two endemic districts of WB, India. Methods: Two villages each from the two districts, Maldah and Burdwan, were selected for the study. Seasonal variation of sandflies was observed during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Susceptibility test of P. argentipes against DDT and bioassay on DDT sprayed wall and on long lasting insecticide nets (LN) Perma Net® 2.0 were conducted as per the WHO standard methods. Results: P. argentipes density was high during March to October. Susceptibility status of P. argentipes ranged from 40 to 61.54 per cent. Bioassay test showed 57.89 per cent mortality against LN PermaNet®-2.0. and 50 per cent against DDT on wall within 30 min of exposure. Interpretation & conclusions: Despite the integrated vector management approach, the sandfly population was high in the study area. The reason could be development of resistance in P. argentipes against DDT and low effectiveness of LN PermaNet®-2.0. The more pragmatic step will be to conduct large studies to monitor the susceptibility level in P. argentipes against DDT. PMID:26354219

  8. Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India

    PubMed Central

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons. PMID:24396770

  9. Abortion and sex determination: conflicting messages in information materials in a District of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Nidadavolu, Vijaya; Bracken, Hillary

    2006-05-01

    Public information campaigns are an integral component of reproductive health programmes, including on abortion. In India, where sex selective abortion is increasing, public information is being disseminated on the illegality of sex determination. This paper presents findings from a study undertaken in 2003 in one district in Rajasthan to analyse the content of information materials on abortion and sex determination and people's perceptions of them. Most of the informational material about abortion was produced by one abortion service provider, but none by the public or private sector. The public sector had produced materials on the illegality of sex determination, some of which failed to distinguish between sex selection and other reasons for abortion. In the absence of knowledge of the legal status of abortion, the negative messages and strong language of these materials may have contributed to the perception that abortion is illegal in India. Future materials should address abortion and sex determination, including the legal status of abortion, availability of providers and social norms that shape decision-making. Married and unmarried women should be addressed and the participation of family members acknowledged, while supporting independent decisions by women. Sex determination should also be addressed, and the conditions under which a woman can and cannot seek an abortion clarified, using media and materials accessible to low-literate audiences. Based on what we learned in this research, a pictorial booklet and educator's manual were produced, covering both abortion and sex determination, and are being distributed in India.

  10. Awareness regarding eye donation among stakeholders in Srikakulam district in South India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a huge need for the availability of transplantable donor corneas worldwide to reduce the burden of corneal blindness due to corneal opacity. Voluntary eye donation depends on the awareness levels of various stakeholders in the community. This study aimed to assess the awareness level regarding eye donation among various stakeholders in Srikakulam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods 355 subjects were selected from the district using multi stage random sampling. A pre tested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding each individual’s awareness, knowledge, and perception regarding eye donation. Each response was scored individually and a total score was calculated. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with willingness towards eye donation and increased awareness levels. Results Of the 355 subjects interviewed, 192 (54%) were male and 163 (46%) were female. The mean age of the stakeholders was 35.9 years (SD ±16.1) and all the study subjects were literate. Ninety-three percent of subjects were aware of the concept of eye donation. Knowledge levels were similar among the teaching community and persons engaged in social service, but lower among students (p < 0.05). Among the stakeholders, there was considerable ambiguity regarding whether persons currently wearing spectacles or suffering from a chronic illnesses could donate their eyes. Older age group (p < 0.001), female gender (p < 0.001) and education (p < 0.001) were associated with increased knowledge levels. 82% of the subjects were willing to donate their eyes and this was unaffected by gender or geographical location (rural vs urban). Conclusions Awareness levels and willingness to donate eyes are high among the stakeholders in Srikakulam district in India. The services of stakeholders could be utilized, in conjunction with other community based eye donation counselors

  11. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  12. Impact of the December 2004 tsunami on soil, groundwater and vegetation in the Nagapattinam District, India.

    PubMed

    Kume, Takashi; Umetsu, Chieko; Palanisami, K

    2009-07-01

    The tsunami of 26 December 2004 struck the Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu, India. Sea water inundation from the tsunami caused salinization problems for soil and groundwater in coastal areas of the district, and also induced salt injuries in crops. To document the recovery of the agricultural environment from the tsunami, we conducted observations of the soil, groundwater, and vegetation. Soil electrical conductivity increased sharply after the tsunami, but returned to pre-tsunami levels the following year. Groundwater salinity returned to pre-tsunami levels by 2006. These rapid rates of recovery were due to the monsoon rainfall leaching salt from the highly permeable soils in the area. MODIS NDVI values measured before and after the tsunami showed that vegetation damaged by the tsunami recovered to its pre-tsunami state by the next rice cropping season, called samba, which starts from August to February. From these results, we conclude that the agricultural environment of the district has now fully recovered from the tsunami. Based on the results, we have also identified important management implications for soil, groundwater, and vegetation as follows: 1) due to the heavy monsoon rainfall and the high permeability of soils in this region, anthropogenic inputs like fertilizers should be applied carefully to minimize pollution, and the use of green manure is recommended; 2) areas that were contaminated by sea water extended up to 1000 m from the sea shore and over pumping of groundwater should be carefully avoided to prevent inducing sea water intrusion; and 3) data from a moderate resolution sensor of 250 m, such as MODIS, can be applied to impact assessment in widespread paddy field areas like the Nagapattinam District.

  13. Public opinion about smoking and smoke free legislation in a district of North India.

    PubMed

    Goel, S; Singh, R J; D, Sharma; A, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke-free district". PMID:25494132

  14. Public opinion about smoking and smoke free legislation in a district of North India.

    PubMed

    Goel, S; Singh, R J; D, Sharma; A, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke-free district".

  15. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth: a multilevel study in three districts of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Mariano; Vora, Kranti; Costa, Ayesha De

    2016-01-01

    Background Bypassing available facilities for childbirth has important implications for maternal health service delivery and human resources within a health system. The results are the additional expenses imposed on the woman and her family, as well as the inefficient use of health system resources. Bypassing often indicates a lack of confidence in the care provided by the facility nearest to the mother, which implies a level of dysfunctionality that the health system needs to address. Over the past decade, India has experienced a steep rise in the proportion of facility births. The initiation of programs promoting facility births resulted in a rise from 39% in 2005 to 85% in 2014. There have been no reports on bypassing facilities for childbirth from India. In the context of steeply rising facility births, it is important to quantify the occurrence of and study the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and facility functionality to bypassing. Objectives 1) To determine the extent of bypassing health facilities for childbirth among rural mothers in three districts of Gujarat, India, 2) to identify associations between the functionality of an obstetric care (OC) facility and it being bypassed, and 3) to assess the relative contribution of maternal and facility characteristics to bypassing. Design A cross-sectional survey of 166 public and private OC facilities reporting ≥30 births in the 3 months before the survey was conducted in three purposively selected districts (Dahod, Sabarkantha, and Surendranagar) in the state of Gujarat, India. Besides information on each facility, data from 946 women giving birth at these facilities were also gathered. Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. Results Off all mothers, 37.7% bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth. After adjusting for maternal characteristics, for every one-unit increase in the facility's emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions, the odds

  16. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  17. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

    2013-05-01

    Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

  18. Cost Effectiveness of Implementing Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses Program in District Faridabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Mohan, Pavitra; Mazumder, Sarmila; Taneja, Sunita; Bhandari, Nita; van den Hombergh, Henri; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the evidence for preventing childhood morbidity and mortality, financial resources are cited as a constraint for Governments to scale up the key health interventions in some countries. We evaluate the cost effectiveness of implementing IMNCI program in India from a health system and societal perspective. Methods We parameterized a decision analytic model to assess incremental cost effectiveness of IMNCI program as against routine child health services for infant population at district level in India. Using a 15-years time horizon from 2007 to 2022, we populated the model using data on costs and effects as found from a cluster-randomized trial to assess effectiveness of IMNCI program in Haryana state. Effectiveness was estimated as reduction in infant illness episodes, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALY). Incremental cost per DALY averted was used to estimate cost effectiveness of IMNCI. Future costs and effects were discounted at a rate of 3%. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken to estimate the probability of IMNCI to be cost effective at varying willingness to pay thresholds. Results Implementation of IMNCI results in a cumulative reduction of 57384 illness episodes, 2369 deaths and 76158 DALYs among infants at district level from 2007 to 2022. Overall, from a health system perspective, IMNCI program incurs an incremental cost of USD 34.5 (INR 1554) per DALY averted, USD 34.5 (INR 1554) per life year gained, USD 1110 (INR 49963) per infant death averted. There is 90% probability for ICER to be cost effective at INR 2300 willingness to pay, which is 5.5% of India’s GDP per capita. From a societal perspective, IMNCI program incurs an additional cost of USD 24.1 (INR 1082) per DALY averted, USD 773 (INR 34799) per infant death averted and USD 26.3 (INR 1183) per illness averted in during infancy. Conclusion IMNCI program in Indian context is very cost effective and should be scaled-up as a major child survival

  19. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in

  20. Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep

    2014-09-01

    Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), from the Kani tribal settlements, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, southern India was described. These settlements were located in the Western Ghats, which is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Morphological characters of male and female specimens of Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola were described with illustrations and its taxonomic position is defined within the genus. The DNA barcode analysis showed that both male and female specimens of the species were belonging to a single taxonomic category. The genetic distance with the most similar taxonomic neighbour was 14.61%, which confirms its distinctness from its congeners. Voucher specimens of the new species were deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India, Zoological Survey of India, India and Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., USA.

  1. District-level variations in childhood immunizations in India: The role of socio-economic factors and health infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi

    2015-11-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against measles and DPT are part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) set up in 1974, with the aim of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, immunization rates are sub-optimal in developing countries such as India, with wide heterogeneity observed across districts and socio-economic characteristics. The aim of this paper is to examine district-level variations in the propensity to vaccinate a child in India for measles and DPT3, and analyse the extent to which these immunizations are given age-inappropriately, either prematurely or delayed. The present study uses data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3) collected in 2008, and the final sample contains detailed information on 42157 children aged between 12 and 60 months, across 549 Indian districts for whom we have complete information on immunization history. Our empirical study analyses: (i) the district-level average immunization rates for measles and DPT3, and (ii) the extent to which these immunizations have been given age-appropriately. A key contribution of this paper is that we link the household-level data at the district level to data on availability and proximity to health infrastructure and district-level socio-economic factors. Our results show that after controlling for an array of socio-economic characteristics, across all our models, the district's income per capita is a strong predictor of better immunization outcomes for children. Mother's education level at the district-level has a statistically significant and positive influence on immunization outcomes across all our models.

  2. District-level variations in childhood immunizations in India: The role of socio-economic factors and health infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi

    2015-11-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against measles and DPT are part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) set up in 1974, with the aim of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite this, immunization rates are sub-optimal in developing countries such as India, with wide heterogeneity observed across districts and socio-economic characteristics. The aim of this paper is to examine district-level variations in the propensity to vaccinate a child in India for measles and DPT3, and analyse the extent to which these immunizations are given age-inappropriately, either prematurely or delayed. The present study uses data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3) collected in 2008, and the final sample contains detailed information on 42157 children aged between 12 and 60 months, across 549 Indian districts for whom we have complete information on immunization history. Our empirical study analyses: (i) the district-level average immunization rates for measles and DPT3, and (ii) the extent to which these immunizations have been given age-appropriately. A key contribution of this paper is that we link the household-level data at the district level to data on availability and proximity to health infrastructure and district-level socio-economic factors. Our results show that after controlling for an array of socio-economic characteristics, across all our models, the district's income per capita is a strong predictor of better immunization outcomes for children. Mother's education level at the district-level has a statistically significant and positive influence on immunization outcomes across all our models. PMID:25958173

  3. Tuberculosis knowledge and awareness in tribal-dominant districts of Jharkhand, India: implications for ACSM

    PubMed Central

    Kudale, A.; Arasu, K.; Lab, M.; Darby, W.; Rangan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Forty hard-to-reach villages in the East and West Singhbhum Districts of Jharkhand State, India. Objectives: To document knowledge and awareness of tuberculosis (TB) among the general population, understand gender differences and inform intervention activities for the improvement of TB control programmes in tribal-dominant hard-to-reach areas in India. Design: A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out among 825 respondents using population proportionate sampling. Results: Most of the respondents were in the 18–35 years age group, tribal and married; 44% were illiterate. The study shows poor knowledge about TB symptoms, causes, modes of transmission and moderate awareness about government TB services. Correct knowledge about the cause of TB was negligible: half of the respondents reported local liquor as the cause, 61% considered TB as transmissible and one third considered sharing of food as the mode of transmission. Awareness about the availability of free treatment services at government health facilities was high, but awareness about DOTS was low. Significant gender differences were observed in knowledge and awareness levels. Conclusion: Study findings point to the importance of urgent intensification of culturally congruent and gender-sensitive advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities. PMID:26400809

  4. The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention.

    PubMed

    Buzdugan, Raluca; Halli, Shiva S; Hiremath, Jyoti M; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Raghavendra, T; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Scambler, Graham; Cowan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges, dhabas, and on highways describe factors that put them at high HIV risk. Of these, dhaba and highway-based sex workers are poorly covered by existing interventions. The paper examines the HIV-related vulnerability factors specific to each sex work setting. The modes of operation and HIV-vulnerabilities of sex work settings identified in this paper have important implications for the local programme.

  5. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of national program for control of blindness in Jorhat district, India

    PubMed Central

    Laskar, Nasrin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the cost of different components of the national program for control of blindness (NPCB) and assess the cost effectiveness of this program. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted in Jorhat District of Assam, India from July 2009 to June 2010 for assessing the cost effectiveness of the NPCB. Four broad categories of cost inputs, that is, capital costs, recurrent costs, prime/variable costs, and fixed costs were considered. The cost incurred by the provider was taken as the actual cost of delivery of different component of services to the patients, which was calculated from the costs of labor, material, and capital costs using the time utilization pattern recommended by WHO. Result: The District Blindness Control Society, Jorhat had spent 58.93% of total expense on fixed heads of which 65.86% had been spent for cataract surgery. The medical care cost was found to be Indian rupee (INR) 425 for intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE), INR 675 for extracapsular cataract extraction + intraocular lens (ECCE + IOL) and INR 225 for refractive error correction. The patient-wise provider cost was estimated to be INR 519 for ICCE, INR 769 for ECCE + IOL implantation and INR 319 for spectacle correction of refractive error. Conclusion: National program for control of blindness is a cost effective means of controlling and treating blindness. PMID:26283841

  6. Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Chikungunya in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, SK; Kadri, SM; Venkatesh, Srinivas; Lal, S; Katyal, RK

    2007-01-01

    After about three decades, Chikungunya infection has re-emerged in India and the first cases were reported in December, 2005. The outbreak has currently affected about 8 states in the country. Although known to be commonly non fatal, since the present outbreak involved a large population, it has been raised as an issue of public health concern and also attracted wide media attention. The clinico-epidemiological and entomological review of the Chikungunya outbreak situation in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, which started in December 2005, revealed that it is under control. However, preventive efforts need to continue and disease surveillance for early detection of potential outbreaks further strengthening. Given the significantly high House Index, all the three study areas remain at significant risk of outbreaks in the future if appropriate control measures are not put in place. Community support and participation is also crucial for the prevention of future outbreaks and improving the health and well being of population in the districts. PMID:21475442

  7. Radon levels in drinking water and soil samples of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sudhir; Rani, Asha; Mehra, Rohit

    2016-07-01

    Radon causes lung cancer when it is trapped inside the lungs. Therefore it is very important to analyze the radon concentration in water and soil samples. In the present investigation, water and soil samples collected from 20 different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India have been studied by using RAD7. The measured radon concentration in water samples varies from 0.5 to 15Bql(-1). The observed values lie within the safe limit as set by UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose due to radon in water corresponding to all studied locations has been found to be well within the safe limit of 0.1mSvy(-1) as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (EU, 1998). The measurements carried out on radon concentration in soil samples reveal a variation from 1750 to 9850Bqm(-3). These results explore that the water of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts is suitable for drinking purpose without posing any health hazard but soil hazards depend upon its permeability and radon concentration.

  8. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development. PMID:25183132

  9. Radon levels in drinking water and soil samples of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sudhir; Rani, Asha; Mehra, Rohit

    2016-07-01

    Radon causes lung cancer when it is trapped inside the lungs. Therefore it is very important to analyze the radon concentration in water and soil samples. In the present investigation, water and soil samples collected from 20 different locations of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts of Northern Rajasthan, India have been studied by using RAD7. The measured radon concentration in water samples varies from 0.5 to 15Bql(-1). The observed values lie within the safe limit as set by UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose due to radon in water corresponding to all studied locations has been found to be well within the safe limit of 0.1mSvy(-1) as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (EU, 1998). The measurements carried out on radon concentration in soil samples reveal a variation from 1750 to 9850Bqm(-3). These results explore that the water of Jodhpur and Nagaur districts is suitable for drinking purpose without posing any health hazard but soil hazards depend upon its permeability and radon concentration. PMID:27135605

  10. Spatiotemporal distribution of dengue vectors & identification of high risk zones in district Sonitpur, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Momi; Gopalakrishnan, Reji; Kumar, Dharmendra; Gayan, Jyotsna; Baruah, Indra; Veer, Vijay; Dutta, Prafulla

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dengue is an arboviral disease of public health importance in many parts of India and recently many cases have been reported from northeastern India. Aedes mosquitoes, which are the vectors of dengue, are widely prevalent in the region. A study was initiated in Sonitpur district of Assam to understand the spatiotemporal distribution and seasonal prevalence of dengue vectors and to identify the high risk zones. Methods: Ovitrap surveys were conducted in three randomly selected villages under each of the eight public health centres (PHC) in district Sonitpur of Assam, northeastern India during March 2011 - February 2012. Three risk zones (high, medium and low) were identified on the basis of per trap density of Aedes mosquitoes. Meteorological data were collected to study the temporal distribution of dengue vectors. Results: Aedes albopictus (99.3%) was the predominant dengue vector followed by Ae. aegypti (0.7%) recorded in the ovitraps. The highest vector density was observed during the post-monsoon (60.1 ± 18 per trap) while the lowest during the winter (7.6 ± 4.9 per trap) and the season-wise differences in the vector density were significant (P=0.005). Maximum temperature (correlation coefficient, r = 0.45) and minimum temperature (r = 0.408) showed the highest positive correlation with the vector density, whereas the number of rainy days showed high positive correlation (r = 0.185) than the total rainfall (r = 0.117). The high risk zone (Dekhiajuli, Behali, Bihaguri and Gohpur PHC) as indicated by the high larval densities of dengue vectors, 45.3 ± 18, 42.1 ± 22.3, 36.9 ± 29.1, 35.3 ± 22.6 per trap, respectively, was validated by dengue epidemiological data collected during 2012. Interpretation & conclusions: Yearlong monitoring of dengue vectors was done for the first time in this region. Monthly maximum temperature and the number of rainy days could be used for the prediction of larval density of Aedes mosquitoes. The

  11. Indigenous knowledge of zootherapeutic use among the Biate tribe of Dima Hasao District, Assam, Northeastern India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study addresses the use of zootherapy in the traditional healthcare system of the Biate tribe of Dima Hasao district, Assam, India. It sought to identify the different species used for zootherapeutic use with the detailed methods of usages to create awareness and contribute to the conservation and sustainable utilization of the resources. Method 15 Biate villages within the district of Dima Hasao were surveyed through semi-structured questionnaires and informal interviews. Detailed information on the uses of each animal was recorded. Species were identified using standard literature. Fidelity level (FL) was calculated to demonstrate the percentage of respondents claiming the use of a certain animal for the same major purposes. Result The study documents 34 species for the treatment of about 34 different ailments. The largest number of species reported was mammals with17 species. Maximum number of species has been reported for the treatment of diabetes and its high fidelity levels warrants in-depth studies to establish its pharmacological activity. The usages documented herein are unique to the Biate tribe. Very often, these animals are hunted and sold openly at the local markets in the lure of quick money. A 300 gm live Gekko gecko may fetch a sum of 2,50,000 Indian Rupees (INR), and smoked meat of Hoolock hoolock cost approximately 250–300 INR per kg. Animals are also hunted for its hide. The unrestricted hunting of species like Capricornis sumatraensis has almost wiped out the population within the district. Some species are also reared as pets while some are used for display as a sign of expertise in hunting. The present study has documented the usage of at least 15 animals listed in the IUCN Red List. Conclusion The study illustrates the in-depth knowledge of the Biate tribe on zootherapy. Systematic investigation to identify the active ingredient may lead to the development of new drugs, which would prompt protection of these valuable

  12. Integrated Approach for Keshampet Watershed Mahabubnagar District, Andhra Pradesh, India - Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, S.

    2001-12-01

    The present study area deals with the application of Remote Sensing ( RS ) and Geographical Information Systems ( GIS ) techniques of keshempet watershed for suggesting the two treatment plans namely engineering and gully control work and biotech treatment measures for water resource development and catchment area treatment with a view to control soil erosion from the watershed as well to increase the ground water recharge. The study area falls in the co-ordinates 780 8' 30" and 780 13' E longitudes and 160 20' and 160 24' N latitudes in part of Mahbubnagar district, Anhdra Pradesh, India. The present study area occupies an area of 2870 ha. The satellite data used is IRS 1C PAN and LISS IV merged data, dated March 1997 and April 1997. GIS software used are ARC / INFO and ARCView. Land Use / Land Cover map , Hydrogeomorphology map and soil maps are prepared by interpreting the imagery visually and through intensive ground truth. The other relevant maps namely slope, drainage maps are prepared with the help of 1:50000 scale, Survey of India toposheets. A critical examination of each one of the thematic maps is carried out to identify various land resources and their spatial distribution to assess the watershed for its sustainability. The information obtained from this study is then integrated to develop an action plan for land and water resources development. Based on this action plan check dams (14), mini percolation tanks ( 7 ), farm tanks ( 4 ), desiltation tanks ( 13 ) are proposed for the treatment plans. This action plan can be used for the upliftment of socio-economic condition of the study area. In this research paper, a number of thematic layers and relevant data are presented.

  13. An assessment of the radiological scenario around uranium mines in Singhbhum East district, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R M; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Patra, A C; Lenka, P; Dubey, J S; Jha, V N; Puranik, V D

    2012-07-01

    The present work deals with the prevalent radiological scenario around uranium-mining sites in the Singhbhum East district of Jharkhand state, India. The concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) was estimated from 27 soil samples collected around three regions in the study area, namely Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U in Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions were found to be 128.6, 95.7 and 49.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Similarly for (232)Th and (40)K the activity concentrations were found to be 57.3, 78.4, 68.9 and 530, 425 and 615 Bq kg(-1) in the Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions, respectively, which are comparable with other reported values worldwide, except for some high values. The calculated gamma dose rate, obtained from the concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the samples, was compared with the observed dose rate in air. A good correlation (0.96) was observed between the calculated and the observed gamma dose rate. The annual outdoor effective dose rate was estimated and the values falls between 0.04-0.3, 0.07-0.3 and 0.07-.14 mSv y(-1) with mean values of 0.14, 0.12 and 0.11 mSv y(-1) for the Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions, respectively. The terrestrial dose rates in all the three regions are comparable with other reported values worldwide, except for a few high values in Greece, Rio Grande Do Norte (Brazil) and Kalpakkam (India).

  14. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure. PMID:25475613

  15. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  16. Nitrate contamination of shallow aquifer groundwater in the central districts of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Garg, Sunil; Sondhi, S K; Taneja, D S

    2012-01-01

    The increasing trend in nitrogenous fertilizer use and extensive irrigation in the agricultural production system in Punjab, India are the reasons of contamination of groundwater, which is the main source of drinking water. A study was conducted to determine the extent of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) contamination of groundwater in the shallow aquifers of Ludhiana district. Pre and post-monsoon groundwater samples from hand pumps of 36 villages, located at or near the nodes of 6-12 km grid, were collected during the years 1998 and 1999 and were analyzed for NO3-N concentration. During the period of study, the NO3-N concentration in 34.7%, 37.5%, 15.3%, 11.1% and 1.4% of the groundwater samples was between 0-5 mg/L, 6-10 mg/L, 11-15 mg/L, 16-20 mg/L and 21-25 mg/L, respectively. Around 72% of the groundwater samples were safe and did not exceed the critical limit of NO3-N concentration (10 mg/L) prescribed for drinking water. Although, statistically no change in the mean NO3-N concentration level has been observed during the study period and is within the safe limit in most of the samples (72%), yet there is every possibility of further contamination of groundwater due to continuous high N-fertilizer use and over irrigation which necessitates judicious and efficient N-fertilizer and irrigation water use in Punjab (India).

  17. Assessment of Periodontal Status of Konda Reddy Tribe in Bhadrachalam, Khammam District, India

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Shaik Mohammed; Padma, Madhavi; Paul, Arpita

    2015-01-01

    Background Though great strides have been taken globally in the fight against oral diseases, problems persist especially among poor, disadvantaged and socially marginalised communities like tribes. Konda Reddies are one of the most primitive tribes of Bhadrachalam who because of their isolation, inaccessibility to dental resources and lack of dental knowledge follow traditional methods of oral hygiene practices, which are found to be inadequate to maintain oral health. Aim and Objectives To assess the periodontal status of Konda reddy tribes residing in Bhadrachalam of Khammam district, India. Materials and Methods Based on availability and accessibility the tribes were gathered using convenient sampling method. The total study population consisted of 500 subjects. Using a preformed Performa the oral hygiene practices and periodontal status was recorded using CPI index. Results The total study population was 500, comprising of 225 males and 275 females in the age group ranging from 20- >70 years. The mean number of sextants with healthy condition were 0.04±0.19; calculus 4.69±1.21; pockets 4-5 mm 0.91±0.91 and pockets >6mm 0.02±0.15. Conclusion Poor oral hygiene and periodontal status was seen among the tribes. Under these circumstances, the implementation of a basic oral health care programme for these tribes is a high priority. PMID:26266211

  18. Uranium series disequilibrium studies in Chenchu colony area, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, H B; Koteswara Rao, V; Singh, R V; Rahman, M; Rout, G B; Banerjee, Rahul; Pandey, B K; Verma, M B

    2015-11-01

    An attempt is made to understand uranium series disequilibrium in unconformity proximal related uranium mineralisation in Chenchu colony area, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The uranium mineralization in Chenchu colony is the western continuity of the Koppunuru uranium deposit and predominantly hosted by gritty quartzite/conglomerate, which occasionally transgresses to underlying basement granite/basic rock. Disequilibrium studies are based on borehole core samples (35 boreholes, No. of samples=634) broadly divided in two groups of cover rocks of Banganapalle formation (above unconformity) and basement granites (below unconformity). Linear regression coefficient between uranium and radium is 0.95, which reflects excellent correlation and significant enrichment of parent uranium. Disequilibrium studies have indicated predominant disequilibrium in favour of parent uranium (35%), which is probably due to the weathering process causing migration of some of the radionuclides while dissolution of minerals due to groundwater action might have also played a significant role. Further, escape of radon might have accentuated the disequilibrium factor resulting in an increase in the grade of the mineralization. This is well corroborated by the presence of fractures and faults in the study area providing channels for radon migration/escape. PMID:26313623

  19. Uranium series disequilibrium studies in Chenchu colony area, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, H B; Koteswara Rao, V; Singh, R V; Rahman, M; Rout, G B; Banerjee, Rahul; Pandey, B K; Verma, M B

    2015-11-01

    An attempt is made to understand uranium series disequilibrium in unconformity proximal related uranium mineralisation in Chenchu colony area, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The uranium mineralization in Chenchu colony is the western continuity of the Koppunuru uranium deposit and predominantly hosted by gritty quartzite/conglomerate, which occasionally transgresses to underlying basement granite/basic rock. Disequilibrium studies are based on borehole core samples (35 boreholes, No. of samples=634) broadly divided in two groups of cover rocks of Banganapalle formation (above unconformity) and basement granites (below unconformity). Linear regression coefficient between uranium and radium is 0.95, which reflects excellent correlation and significant enrichment of parent uranium. Disequilibrium studies have indicated predominant disequilibrium in favour of parent uranium (35%), which is probably due to the weathering process causing migration of some of the radionuclides while dissolution of minerals due to groundwater action might have also played a significant role. Further, escape of radon might have accentuated the disequilibrium factor resulting in an increase in the grade of the mineralization. This is well corroborated by the presence of fractures and faults in the study area providing channels for radon migration/escape.

  20. Fluoride in groundwater, Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba

    2009-05-01

    Excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis on human beings in many States of the country (India), including Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater quality in the Varaha River Basin located in the Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh has been studied, with reference to fluoride content, for its possible sources for implementing appropriate management measures, according to the controlling mechanism of fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The area occupied by the river basin is underlain by the Precambrian Eastern Ghats, over which the Recent sediments occur. Results of the chemical data of the groundwater suggest that the considerable number of groundwater samples show fluoride content greater than that of the safe limit prescribed for drinking purpose. Statistical analysis shows that the fluoride has a good positive relation, with pH and bicarbonate. This indicates an alkaline environment, as a dominant controlling mechanism for leaching of fluoride from the source material. Other supplementary factors responsible for the occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater are evapotranspiration, long contact time of water with the aquifer material, and agricultural fertilizers. A lack of correlation between fluoride and chloride, and a high positive correlation between fluoride and bicarbonate indicate recharge of the aquifer by the river water. However, the higher concentration of fluoride observed in the groundwater in some locations indicates insufficient dilution by the river water. That means the natural dilution did not perform more effectively. Hence, the study emphasizes the need for surface water management structures, with people's participation, for getting more effective results.

  1. Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

    2006-11-01

    Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes.

  2. Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Nagireddi Srinivasa

    2006-12-01

    The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara river basin, India was selected for studying the lateral and vertical distribution of nitrate in the groundwater and the association of nitrate with other chemical constituents. The nitrate concentrations in the groundwater are observed to vary between below detectable limit and 450 mg NO3/L. The sources for nitrate are mainly point sources (poultry farms, cattleshed and leakages from septic tanks) and non-point sources (nitrogenous fertilisers). The nitrate concentrations are increased after fertiliser applications. However, very high concentrations of nitrate are derived from animal wastes. Relatively better correlations between nitrate and potassium are observed ( R = 0.74 to 0.82). The better relationship between these two chemical constituents in the groundwater may be due to the release of potassium and nitrate from both point and non-point sources. The nitrate and potassium concentrations are high in the groundwater from clayey formations.

  3. Chemical analysis of groundwater of Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrita; Choudhary, Sunil K

    2011-10-01

    The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from hundred handpumps in five villages of the Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar, India indicates that the water samples in the area were slightly alkaline and the concentration of total hardness and heavy metal like arsenic were above the drinking water specifications as prescribed by World Health Organization (1999) and ISI (2003); whereas other chemical parameters were well within the permissible limit. The results of the present study suggest that the groundwater sources under investigation were suitable for domestic purposes including drinking except for arsenic. The concentration of arsenic in most of the handpumps analyzed was high, and that might be attributed to the excessive withdrawal of the groundwater and changes in the geo-chemical environment of the Ganga river. Moreover, the Ganga River System itself carries high sediment bed loads which contain several trace elements, including arsenic. Some effective measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge techniques are urgently required and suggested for water quality management in this region.

  4. Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

  5. Fluoride contamination in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Brindha, K; Rajesh, R; Murugan, R; Elango, L

    2011-01-01

    Serious problems are faced in several parts of the world due to the presence of high concentration of fluoride in drinking water which causes dental and skeletal fluorosis to humans. Nalgonda district in Andhra Pradesh, India is one such region where high concentration of fluoride is present in groundwater. Since there are no major studies in the recent past, the present study was carried out to understand the present status of groundwater quality in Nalgonda and also to assess the possible causes for high concentration of fluoride in groundwater. Samples from 45 wells were collected once every 2 months and analyzed for fluoride concentration using an ion chromatograph. The fluoride concentration in groundwater of this region ranged from 0.1 to 8.8 mg/l with a mean of 1.3 mg/l. About 52% of the samples collected were suitable for human consumption. However, 18% of the samples were having less than the required limit of 0.6 mg/l, and 30% of the samples possessed high concentration of fluoride, i.e., above 1.5 mg/l. Weathering of rocks and evaporation of groundwater are responsible for high fluoride concentration in groundwater of this area apart from anthropogenic activities including irrigation which accelerates weathering of rocks.

  6. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced.

  7. Geochemistry and mobilization of arsenic in Shuklaganj area of Kanpur-Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Yunus, M; Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini

    2012-08-01

    The level of arsenic (As) contamination and the geochemical composition of groundwater in Shuklaganj area located on the banks of the Ganges Delta of Kanpur-Unnao district were elucidated. Samples (n = 59) were collected from both India Mark II hand pumps (depth, 30-33 m) and domestic hand pump tube wells (10-12 m) located within 5 km from the banks of Ganges. Samples were analyzed for various parameters, including total inorganic As, sulfate, nitrate, alkalinity, ammonia, and iron. Hydrochemistry of the groundwater aquifer was studied through the trilinear plots between monovalent and divalent cations and anions. In Indian mark II hand pumps, arsenic concentration ranged from below detection limit to 448 μg/L. Most of the samples contained both As(III) and As(V). The pH of the samples ranged from 7.1 to 8.2. Except for a few, most of the samples were reducing in nature as evident by their negative oxidation reduction potentials. A positive correlation for arsenic with iron, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon shows the probability of biodegradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide processes to leach As in aquifers. For confirmation of the suggested arsenic mobilization mechanism, the presence and absence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-reducing bacteria were also tested.

  8. Heavy metal contamination of drinking water in Kamrup district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Sutapa; Sarma, Hari Prasad

    2011-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the heavy metal concentration of the drinking water with respect to zinc, copper, cadmium, manganese, lead and arsenic in Kamrup district of Assam, India. Ground water samples were collected from tube wells, deep tube wells and ring wells covering all the major hydrogeological environs. Heavy metals in groundwater are estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer Analyst 200. Data were assessed statistically to find the distribution pattern and other related information for each metal. The study revealed that a good number of the drinking water sources were contaminated with cadmium, manganese and lead. Arsenic concentrations although did not exceeded WHO limits but was found to be slightly elevated. Copper and zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. An attempt has also been made to ascertain the possible source of origin of the metals. Positive and significant correlation existing between manganese with zinc and copper indicates towards their similar source of origin and mobility. In view of the present study and the level of heavy metal contamination, it could be suggested to test the potability of the water sources before using it for drinking purpose.

  9. Arsenic accumulation in lichens of Mandav monuments, Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K

    2009-12-01

    Total arsenic in four different growth forms of lichens growing on old monuments in the city of Mandav, Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India was analyzed. Among the different growth forms, foliose lichens were found to accumulate higher amounts of arsenic followed by leprose form. The squamulose and crustose form accumulates the lower concentration of arsenic and ranged between 0.46 +/- 0.03 and 20.99 +/- 0.58 mircog g(-1) dry weight, while the foliose and leprose lichens have ranges from 10.98-51.95 and 28.63-51.20 mircog g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The substrate having high arsenic ranges also exhibit higher ranges of arsenic on lichens growing on them. The cyanolichens exhibit higher concentration of arsenic than the green photobiont-containing squamulose form. The higher concentration of arsenic was found at site having past mining activities. LSD (1%) shows significant difference for As concentration in lichens thallus between the selected sites and species both.

  10. Growth profile of Baiga children--a primitive tribe of District Dindori of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Qamra, Suneel; Shrivastava, Praval; Roy, Jyotirmoy

    2012-09-01

    The present study has been carried out on 795 Baiga children (453 males and 342 females) of Baiga-chak area of Dindori district in Madhya Pradesh (MP) varying between 1-18 years of age with an aim to understand their growth profile using cross sectional design. Fourteen body measurements (weight, height, sitting height, lengths, breadths, circumferences and skin folds) were studied. Four indices namely Sitting height/Leg length, Bicristal breadth/Biacro-mial breadth, Head circumference/Chest circumference & Cephalic index were computed to study the proportionate body changes. All body measurements except for skin folds increased progressively in each age group showing insignificant difference between boys and girls in most of age groups with no evident peak velocity during pubertal age in both sexes. However skin folds showed inconsistent pattern with each successive age. The present children were slightly heavier and taller than tribal children of other areas but lighter and shorter than Bharia children. However, these children were comparable with all India rural children but found below 10th percentile when compared with National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards. The absence of peak velocity and poor growth in studied children may be due to low intensity of growth rate. Proportionate changes observed in the present study were similar to Indian Punjabi girls.

  11. Nitrate pollution in groundwater in some rural areas of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Brindha, K; Rajesh, R; Murugan, R; Elango, L

    2012-01-01

    Intake of water with high concentration of nitrate is a major problem in many countries as it affects health of humans. The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the causes for higher nitrate concentration in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study area is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from 46 representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to January 2009. The nitrate concentration was analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration recorded during the sampling period was 879.65 mg/L and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. Taking into consideration 45 mg/L of nitrate as the maximum permissible limit for drinking water set by BIS, it was found that 13.78% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond the limit. Overall, wells present in agricultural fields had nitrate levels within permissible limits when compared to those groundwater samples from wells present in settlements which are used for domestic purpose. This indicates that the high nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area is due to poor sanitation facilities and leaching from indiscriminate dumping of animal waste.

  12. Drinking Water Quality Assessment Studies for an Urbanized Part of the Nagpur District, Central India.

    PubMed

    Varade, Abhay M; Yenkie, Rajshree; Shende, Rahul; Kodate, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    The water quality of Hingna area of Nagpur district, Central India was assessed for its suitability as drinking water. 22 water samples, representing both the surface and groundwater sources, were collected and analysed for different inorganic constituents by using the standard procedures. The result depicted abundance of major ions; Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ = HCO3- > Cl- > SO4(2-) > NO3-. The concentrations of different elements in water were compared with the drinking water standards defined by World Health Organization (WHO). The hydro-chemical results reveal that most of the samples were within the desirable limits of the drinking water quality. However, few samples of the area, showed higher values of total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), and magnesium (Mg) indicating their 'hard water type' nature and found to be unfit for the drinking purpose. Such poor water quality of these samples is found due to the combined effect of urbanization and industrial activities. The potential health risks associated with various water parameters have also been documented in this paper.

  13. Geochemical signatures of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur district, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, S.; Balasubramanian, N.; Gowtham, B.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-11-01

    An attempt has been made to identify the chemical processes that control the hydrochemistry of groundwater in the coastal aquifers of Thiruvallur coastal village of Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, south India. The parameters such as pH, EC, TDS and major ion concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and NO3 of the groundwater were analyzed. Abundances of these ions are in the following order Na > Ca > Mg > K and HCO3 > Cl > SO4 > NO3. The dominant water types are in the order of NaCl> mixed CaMgCl > CaHCO3 > CaNaHCO3. Water types (mixed CaHCO3, mixed CaMgCl and NaCl) suggest that the mixing of high salinity water caused from surface contamination sources such as irrigation return flow, domestic wastewater and septic tank effluents with existing water followed by ion exchange reaction processes, silicate weathering and evaporation are responsible for the groundwater chemistry of the study area. The above statement is further supported by Gibbs plot where most of the samples fall within the evaporation zone.

  14. Trend in decline in leprosy disabilities of a LEPRA project in Malkangiri district, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A A; Naidu, A A; Mahapatra, B R; Porichha, D

    2013-01-01

    This a retrospective analysis of the changes in 646 disabilities occurred amongst 3979 cases registered during 19 years from 1992 to 2010 in Malkangiri district. This amounted to 16.2% of cases with disability segregated to 310 (48%) Grade 1 and 336 (52%) Grade 2. In this project, managed by LEPRA India, POD care was in practice from the year 1992 and records were updated regularly. An analysis of the annual records showed that the next year-end balance increased up to the year 2001 followed by gradual decline. Within this period the total cases with disabilities declined by about 369 (57%) due to death by aging 204 (55%), migration from the area 77 (21%) and reversing to normal 88 (24%) in cases. Deletion due to recovery to normal especially with sensory impairment is fairly good with or without steroid. Disability percentage in new cases declined steadily especially Grade 2 from 30% to 1%, initial high rate attributed mostly to backlog cases. In later years the rate is erratic high amongst low number of new cases. Absolute number indicates the situation better. Such study helps to roughly extrapolate the existing disability load in a particular area and assists in planning for care and prevention. PMID:24724231

  15. The bacteriological quality of drinking water in Haldwani block of Nainital district, Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Vinita; Jha, Sanjay Kumar; Bag, Arundhati; Singhai, Monil; Rawat, Chandra Mohan Singh

    2012-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality of water in Haldwani block, Nainital District, India. Stratified random sampling was used to categorize water sources and consumer points. In total, 108 samples were collected: 15 from the Gola river, 51 from water taps, 24 from water treatment plants and 18 from tube wells. Samples were tested for coliforms by the most probable number technique. Identification of species was done by standard procedures. Of 108 water samples, 58.8% were found to be polluted. All samples of water (n = 15) from different sites of the Gola river were found to be highly contaminated. Out of 24 water treatment plant samples, four samples were found unsatisfactory, while more than half (51.6%) of its supplies to water taps were polluted. From tube wells and their water taps, 88.8 and 60% samples were found safe for drinking respectively. Bacterial contamination of water treatment plants and their supplies indicates significant disparities in the efficiency of water treatment processes. Contamination of water taps of tube wells suggests leakage of pipes. There is an urgent need to improve these services to ensure the supply of safe water for consumers.

  16. Fluoride in groundwater, Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba

    2009-05-01

    Excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis on human beings in many States of the country (India), including Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater quality in the Varaha River Basin located in the Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh has been studied, with reference to fluoride content, for its possible sources for implementing appropriate management measures, according to the controlling mechanism of fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The area occupied by the river basin is underlain by the Precambrian Eastern Ghats, over which the Recent sediments occur. Results of the chemical data of the groundwater suggest that the considerable number of groundwater samples show fluoride content greater than that of the safe limit prescribed for drinking purpose. Statistical analysis shows that the fluoride has a good positive relation, with pH and bicarbonate. This indicates an alkaline environment, as a dominant controlling mechanism for leaching of fluoride from the source material. Other supplementary factors responsible for the occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater are evapotranspiration, long contact time of water with the aquifer material, and agricultural fertilizers. A lack of correlation between fluoride and chloride, and a high positive correlation between fluoride and bicarbonate indicate recharge of the aquifer by the river water. However, the higher concentration of fluoride observed in the groundwater in some locations indicates insufficient dilution by the river water. That means the natural dilution did not perform more effectively. Hence, the study emphasizes the need for surface water management structures, with people's participation, for getting more effective results. PMID:18509735

  17. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2016-07-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  18. Outbreak of dengue fever in rural areas of Parbhani district of Maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Mehendale, S M; Risbud, A R; Rao, J A; Banerjee, K

    1991-01-01

    Outbreak of dengue fever in Chikalthana, Pimpalgaon and Waloor villages in Parbhani district of Maharashtra (India) were investigated. Clinically, the illness was typical of dengue fever except for the absence of maculopapular rash. A total of 42 acute, 14 late acute, 73 convalescent and 19 sera from contacts were collected. Of the 15 virus isolates, 12 were identified as dengue virus type 2 and 1 as dengue virus type 1. Serological tests confirmed the etiological role of dengue virus in the outbreak. House-to-house survey was carried out in Chikalthana and Pimpalgaon villages. Overall, 15.09 per cent of the surveyed population was affected during the outbreak and attack rate was higher at Pimpalgaon. A tendency of water storage was observed in the households and concomitant entomological studies proved Aedes aegypti breeding. Higher prevalence of dengue fever was noted among larger families and in families that had two or more patients, the commonest duration between the first and the last patient was often less than 5 days.

  19. Chemical analysis of groundwater of Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrita; Choudhary, Sunil K

    2011-10-01

    The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from hundred handpumps in five villages of the Nathnagar Block under Bhagalpur District, Bihar, India indicates that the water samples in the area were slightly alkaline and the concentration of total hardness and heavy metal like arsenic were above the drinking water specifications as prescribed by World Health Organization (1999) and ISI (2003); whereas other chemical parameters were well within the permissible limit. The results of the present study suggest that the groundwater sources under investigation were suitable for domestic purposes including drinking except for arsenic. The concentration of arsenic in most of the handpumps analyzed was high, and that might be attributed to the excessive withdrawal of the groundwater and changes in the geo-chemical environment of the Ganga river. Moreover, the Ganga River System itself carries high sediment bed loads which contain several trace elements, including arsenic. Some effective measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge techniques are urgently required and suggested for water quality management in this region. PMID:23505826

  20. Heavy metal contamination of drinking water in Kamrup district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Sutapa; Sarma, Hari Prasad

    2011-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the heavy metal concentration of the drinking water with respect to zinc, copper, cadmium, manganese, lead and arsenic in Kamrup district of Assam, India. Ground water samples were collected from tube wells, deep tube wells and ring wells covering all the major hydrogeological environs. Heavy metals in groundwater are estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer Analyst 200. Data were assessed statistically to find the distribution pattern and other related information for each metal. The study revealed that a good number of the drinking water sources were contaminated with cadmium, manganese and lead. Arsenic concentrations although did not exceeded WHO limits but was found to be slightly elevated. Copper and zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. An attempt has also been made to ascertain the possible source of origin of the metals. Positive and significant correlation existing between manganese with zinc and copper indicates towards their similar source of origin and mobility. In view of the present study and the level of heavy metal contamination, it could be suggested to test the potability of the water sources before using it for drinking purpose. PMID:20976545

  1. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced. PMID:22935861

  2. Variations of soil radon concentrations along Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Jaishi, Hari Jaishi; Tiwari, Raghavendra Prasad; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-11-01

    The present study concerns measurements of radon emissions from soil carried out during March to July 2013 at Chite fault in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India. In this study, continuous radon monitoring in soil was done by using LR-115 type II nuclear track detector (Kodak-Pathe, France make), and the exposed films were replaced weekly. A negative correlation coefficient (-0.47) between radon concentration and barometric pressure was found during the investigation period. The average radon concentration was observed to be 1785.71 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation of 633.07 Bq m(-3). The maximum and minimum values of radon concentration during this period were found to be 3693.88 and 904.76 Bq m(-3), respectively. An anomalous increase in radon concentration was observed on 112th day (i.e. on 14 June 2013) during the investigation period just 1 d prior to the event of M 3.5, which occurred within 120-km distance from the monitoring site. PMID:24996920

  3. Metal contamination in select species of birds in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, R; Muralidharan, S

    2011-08-01

    Variation in metal contamination in six species of birds, namely the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) in Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu, India. The accumulation of heavy metals differed among the species studied. On an average, Little Egret accumulated high concentrations of copper (53.31 ± 23.19 ppm) followed by Cattle Egret (16.27 ± 9.83 ppm) in liver. Of all the species, Jungle Babbler recorded the maximum concentrations (20.59 ± 9.07 ppm) in muscle. The Pond Heron recorded the maximum concentration (35.38 ± 11.14 ppm) in brain. On an average the maximum level was in the kidney of Common Myna (7.76 ± 1.80 ppm). PMID:21656294

  4. Geochemistry of groundwater and groundwater prospects evaluation, Anekal Taluk, Bangalore Urban District, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, P; Venkatesharaju, K; Prakash, K L; Somashekar, R K

    2011-08-01

    Anekal Taluk lies in the southern part of the of Bangalore urban district, known for Bannerghatta wildlife sanctuary, Jigani industrial estate, silk industry, and the electronics city, the pride of India and hub of Bangalore's information technology. In the present study, evaluation of geochemistry of 28 representative bore wells samples from Anekal Taluk was undertaken. It was found that most of the samples (92.9%) belong to Ca(2+ )-Mg(2+ )-Cl( - ) -SO²⁻₄water type with Ca-Mg-Cl and Ca-Cl hydrochemical facies. The groundwater sources were further categorized as normal chloride (32.14%) and normal sulfate (100%) water types based on Cl and SO(4) concentrations. Majority of the samples (64.3%) belong to C3-S1 water class, indicating water with high salinity and low sodium. Positive index of base exchange indicates the chloro-alkaline equilibrium in the study area. Groundwater potential zonation map for Anekal Taluk was generated using multiparametric and weighted overlay method using the spatial analyst tool in ArcGIS v9.2. Accordingly, five distinct classes corresponding to good(high), moderate (medium), moderate to poor (low), poor (very low), and poor to nil (very low) groundwater potential zones were identified in the region. Of this, 85.27% of the study area belongs to good/high to moderate/medium groundwater potential and only 14.73% belonging to moderate/poor to nil groundwater potential zones.

  5. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants in goats in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Das, Sutopa; Raju, D S N; Chakravarty, Indirani; Nagalingam, M; Hemadri, D; Govindaraj, G; Ibotombi Singh, N; Ltu, Keduzol; Devi, Maitryee; Sharma, K; Gajendragad, M R; Rahman, H

    2014-12-01

    The present study describes prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus infection in goats in various parts of North-East (NE) India by screening of suspected serum samples collected during outbreak investigation and random samples during 2013-2014 survey. A total of 391 serum samples (318 random and 73 outbreak/suspected) were collected from 28 districts in 7 states (Meghalaya, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Mizoram) of NE India. Serum samples were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal-antibody based competitive ELISA. Analysis of 391 serum samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 17.90 % [CI 95 % 14.40-22.00] in goats {45.2 % in suspected [CI 95 % 34.32-56.58] and 11.63 % in random [CI 95 % 8.56-15.63] samples} in NE India. As expected prevalence was high in outbreaks vis-à-vis random samples. The random survey results (11.63 %) has specific implication in epidemiological perspectives, since it highlights the exact PPR prevalence under natural situations, where the subclinical, in apparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in goats, as samples were collected from unvaccinated animals. It also warrants appropriate control measures against PPR in NE region to prevent spread of infection besides widespread presence of the disease in rest of India. PMID:25674627

  6. Association of child health and household amenities in high focus states in India: a district-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Jitendra; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Yadav, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess household amenities in districts of high focus states and their association with child health in India. Design The data for the study are extracted from Annual Health Survey (AHS) and Census 2011. Settings Districts in high focus states in India. Participants Information regarding children below 5 years of age and women aged 15–49 has been extracted from the AHS (2010–2011), and household amenities information has been obtained from the Census (2011). Measures Household amenities were assessed from the census at the district level in the high focus states. Child health indicators and wealth index were borrowed from AHS and used in this study to check their linkage with household amenities. Results Absence of drinking water from a treated source, improved sanitation, usage of clean cooking fuel and drainage facility in the household were adversely associated with the incidence of acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea, infant mortality rate (IMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR). The mean IMR declined from 64 to 54 for districts where a high proportion of household have improved sanitation. The result of ordinary least square regression shows that improved sanitation has a negative and statistically significant association (β=−0.0067, p<0.01) with U5MR. Conclusions Although child healthcare services are important in addressing child health issues, they barely touch on the root of the problem. Building toilets and providing safe drinking water, clean cooking fuel and drainage facilities at the household level, may prevent a number of adverse child health issues and may reduce the burden on the healthcare system in India. PMID:25968003

  7. Genetic diversity and relationships among the tribes of Meghalaya compared to other Indian and Continental populations.

    PubMed

    Langstieh, B T; Reddy, B Mohan; Thangaraj, K; Kumar, V; Singh, Lalji

    2004-08-01

    The autosomal AmpFLSTR markers validated and widely used for forensic applications are used in this study to examine the extent of diversity and genetic relationships among nine Meghalaya populations. Altogether, 932 chromosomes from 9 populations were analyzed using 9 tetrameric AmpFLSTR loci. The included populations were all seven subtribes of the Austro-Asiatic Mon-Khmer-speaking Khasi and the neighboring Tibeto-Burman Garo. The Lyngngam, which are linguistically closer to the Khasi but are culturally intermediate between the Khasi and the Garo, are also included in the study. Although most of the microsatellite loci are highly polymorphic in each of these populations, the allele distributions are fairly uniform across the Meghalaya populations, suggesting relative homogeneity among them. Concurrent with this, the coefficient of gene differentiation (G(ST)) is observed to be low (0.026+/-0.002). This is naturally reflected in the lack of clear differentiation and clustering pattern of the Meghalaya tribes based on either geographic proximity or the historical or current affiliations of these tribes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggests no significant population structure. The structure analysis further suggests that, barring War-Khasi and Pnar, no other population shows any semblance of genetic identity. Even the position of the linguistically distinct Garo is not portrayed as separate from the Khasi. However, when comparable data from other Indian, Southeast Asian, and other continental populations were analyzed, the Meghalaya populations formed a compact cluster clearly separated from other populations, suggesting genetic identity of the Meghalaya populations as a whole. These results are concurrent with the hypothesis of a common and recent origin of these Meghalaya populations, whose genetic differentiation is overwhelmed by the homogenizing effect of continuous gene flow.

  8. Contamination of nitrate and fluoride in ground water along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Sharma, Ajit Kumar; Iyengar, Leela

    2008-11-01

    Nitrate-N and Fluoride concentrations were analyzed in shallow and unconfined ground water aquifers of Kanpur district along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Northern India. Kanpur district was divided into three zones namely, Bithore, Kanpur City and Beyond Jajmau and sampling was carried out three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter). The data set consisted of the results of water samples from around 99 India Mark II hand Pumps, which were analyzed for summer monsoon and winter seasons. In Bithore zone, 19% of the samples exceeded the BIS (Bureau of India Standards) limit 10.2 mg/l as nitrate-N and as high as 166 mg/l as nitrate-N was observed. 10% and 7% samples in Kanpur city and beyond Jajmau zone respectively, exceeded the BIS limit. The Frequency distribution histogram of nitrate-N revealed a skewed (non-normal) distribution. Both point and non-point sources contribute to the ground water contamination. Especially in Bithore zone, the point sources could be attributed to the animal wastes derived from cows and buffaloes and non point sources could be due to the extensive agricultural activity prevalent in that area. Fluoride concentration in most samples was within the BIS maximum permissible level of 1.5 mg/l. No significant seasonal variation in water quality parameters was observed.

  9. Sources and controls of Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Rajnandgaon and Kanker District, Chattisgarh Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Dericks Praise; Dubey, C. S.; Singh, Ningthoujam P.; Tajbakhsh, M.; Chaudhry, M.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryA high concentration of Arsenic (As) contamination in ground water has been reported in the village of Kaudikasa in Rajnandgaon district, wherein around 10% of the population is suffering from As-borne diseases. The region does not share any demographic or geological similarity with the sedimentary aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain in Eastern India, but represents an igneous terrain with elevated As concentrations in groundwater. There is limited information about the source of As in groundwater and its mobility constraints. In this area, almost all the wells are located in the granitic terrain with pegmatitic intrusions. Most of these wells are characterized by As concentration above the World Health Organization ( WHO, 1999) and the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) standards, with the highest being found in a well with more than 250 μg/L of As. Here we report petrographic studies of the granitic host rock and X-ray diffraction results that indicate that altered realgar (α-As 4S 4), para realgar (AsS), and/or tennantite (Cu 12As 4S 13), are the main mineral that contain As. This element is leached during the weathering and water-rock interactions. Microprobe analysis of the altered realgar grains of in pegmatitic intrusions of the host granite indicate 23-27 wt.% As. Remote sensing is useful to delineate the source of this contaminant, which appears to lie at the intersection of a mineralized NW-SE and N-S lineaments associated with the Kotri rift zone. These lineaments are structurally controlled as rifting followed by thrusting and other types of faulting caused left-lateral displacement of N-S Kotri lineament along a NW-SE fault plane showing sinistral shearing. This process caused water drainage in the areas to flow along these highly mineralized weak zones. Thus, the water becomes highly contaminated due to leaching of minerals at the intersection of these lineaments, clearly visible at two areas of high contamination that lie very near to this

  10. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India. PMID:27293984

  11. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Acharya, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India.

  12. Potential yield of pulmonary tuberculosis cases by direct microscopy of sputum in a district of South India*

    PubMed Central

    Baily, G. V. J.; Savič, D.; Gothi, G. D.; Naidu, V. B.; Nair, S. S.

    1967-01-01

    In the District Tuberculosis Programme in India, which is part of a national programme, case-finding and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis are integrated into the general health services. With such an integration, it is desirable, in order to forecast possible achievements, to understand the additional work-load that the programme will impose upon the existing health institutions and to assess the potential of these institutions for case-finding and treatment. The operational study described in this paper was made under programme conditions in a district in South India and is an examination of the case-finding potential of rural health institutions, using direct microscopy of sputum for diagnosis, and of the additional work-load involved by such case-finding. Under the conditions found in the course of the study, it is clear that a substantial proportion (at least 65%) of pulmonary tuberculosis cases prevalent in the district can be detected by the existing staffs with an easily manageable work-load. PMID:5301646

  13. Quantifying the impact of rising food prices on child mortality in India: a cross-district statistical analysis of the District Level Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Khan, Zaky; Ebrahim, Shah; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of child malnutrition and mortality in India remain high. We tested the hypothesis that rising food prices are contributing to India’s slow progress in improving childhood survival. Methods: Using rounds 2 and 3 (2002—08) of the Indian District Level Household Survey, we calculated neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates in 364 districts, and merged these with district-level food price data from the National Sample Survey Office. Multivariate models were estimated, stratified into 27 less deprived states and territories and 8 deprived states (‘Empowered Action Groups’). Results: Between 2002 and 2008, the real price of food in India rose by 11.7%. A 1% increase in total food prices was associated with a 0.49% increase in neonatal (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13% to 0.85%), but not infant or under-five mortality rates. Disaggregating by type of food and level of deprivation, in the eight deprived states, we found an elevation in neonatal mortality rates of 0.33% for each 1% increase in the price of meat (95% CI: 0.06% to 0.60%) and 0.10% for a 1% increase in dairy (95% CI: 0.01% to 0.20%). We also detected an adverse association of the price of dairy with infant (b = 0.09%; 95% CI: 0.01% to 0.16%) and under-five mortality rates (b = 0.10%; 95% CI: 0.03% to 0.17%). These associations were not detected in less deprived states and territories. Conclusions: Rising food prices, particularly of high-protein meat and dairy products, were associated with worse child mortality outcomes. These adverse associations were concentrated in the most deprived states. PMID:27063607

  14. Community based maternal death review: lessons learned from ten districts in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Samiksha; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Thippaiah, Anitha; Upadhyaya, Sanjeev; Krishna, Murali; Shukla, Rajan; Srikrishna, S R

    2015-07-01

    Maternal death is as much a social phenomenon as a medical event. Maternal death review (MDR), a strategy for monitoring maternal deaths, provides information on medical, social and health system factors that should be addressed to redress gaps in service provision or utilisation. To strengthen MDR implementation in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The project involved development of state specific guidelines, technical assistance in operationalization and analysing processes and findings of MDR in ten districts. 284 deaths were recorded over 6 months (April-September 2012) of which 193 (75.4 %) could be reviewed. Post-partum haemorrhage (24 %) and hypertensive disorders (27.4 %) followed by puerperal sepsis in the post-partum period (16.8 %) were the leading causes of maternal deaths. 68.3 % deaths occurred at health facilities. 67 % of mothers dying during the natal or post-natal period, delivered at home, though the death occurred in a health facility. Type 1 delay (58.9 %) was the most common underlying cause of death, followed by type 3 delay (33.3 %). Under or nil reporting from the facilities was observed. Program staff could identify broad areas of intervention but lacked capacity to monitor, analyse, interpret and utilize the generated information to develop feasible actionable plans. Information gathered was incomplete and inaccurate in many cases. Challenges observed showed that it will require more time and continuous committed efforts of health staff for implementation of high quality MDR. Successful implementation will improve the response of the health system and contribute to improved maternal health. PMID:25636651

  15. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority

  16. Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhadra, A

    2010-07-01

    The ground water quality of District Nainital (Uttarakhand, India) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for drinking and irrigation applications. This is a two-part series paper and this paper examines the suitability of ground water including spring water for drinking purposes. Forty ground water samples (including 28 spring samples) were collected during pre- and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for various water quality constituents. The hydrochemical and bacteriological data was analyzed with reference to BIS and WHO standards and their hydrochemical facies were determined. The concentration of total dissolved solids exceeds the desirable limit of 500 mg/L in about 10% of the samples, alkalinity values exceed the desirable limit of 200 mg/L in about 30% of the samples, and total hardness values exceed the desirable limit of 300 mg/L in 15% of the samples. However, no sample crosses the maximum permissible limit for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride. The concentration of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride are well within the desirable limit at all the locations. The bacteriological analysis of the samples does not show any sign of bacterial contamination in hand pump and tube-well water samples. However, in the case of spring water samples, six samples exceed the permissible limit of ten coliforms per 100 ml of sample. It is recommended that water drawn from such sources should be properly disinfected before being used for drinking and other domestic applications. Among the metal ions, the concentration of iron and lead exceeds the permissible limit at one location whereas the concentration of nickel exceeds the permissible limit in 60 and 32.5% of the samples during pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The grouping of samples according to their hydrochemical facies indicates that majority of the samples fall in Ca-Mg-HCO(3) hydrochemical facies.

  17. The crater-facies kimberlite system of Tokapal, Bastar District, Chhattisgarh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainkar, Datta; Lehmann, Bernd; Haggerty, Stephen E.

    2004-09-01

    Discovery of diamondiferous kimberlites in the Mainpur Kimberlite Field, Raipur District, Chhattisgarh in central India, encouraged investigation of similar bodies in other parts of the Bastar craton. The earlier known Tokapal ultramafic intrusive body, located beyond the 19-km milestone in Tokapal village along the Jagdalpur-Geedam road, was reinterpreted as crater-facies kimberlite. Its stratigraphic position in the Meso-Neoproterozoic intracratonic sedimentary Indravati basin makes it one of the oldest preserved crater-facies kimberlite systems. Ground and limited subsurface data (dug-, tube-wells and exploratory boreholes) have outlined an extensive surface area (>550 ha) of the kimberlite. The morphological and surface color features of this body on enhanced satellite images suggest that there is a central feeder surrounded by a collar and wide pyroclastic apron. Exploration drilling indicates that the central zone probably corresponds to a vent overlain by resedimented volcaniclastic (epiclastic) rocks that are surrounded by a 2-km-wide spread of pyroclastic rocks (lapilli tuff, tuff/ash beds and volcaniclastic breccia). Drill-holes also reveal that kimberlitic lapilli tuffs and tuffs are sandwiched between the Kanger and Jagdalpur Formations and also form sills within the sedimentary sequence of the Indravati basin. The lapilli tuffs are commonly well stratified and display slumping. Base surges and lava flows occur in the southern part of the Tokapal system. The geochemistry and petrology of the rock correspond to average Group I kimberlite with a moderate degree of contamination. However, the exposed rock is intensely weathered and altered with strong leaching of mobile elements (Ba, Rb, Sr). Layers of vesicular fine-grained glassy material represent kimberlitic lava flows. Tuffs containing juvenile lapilli with pseudomorphed olivine macrocrysts are set in a talc-serpentine-carbonate matrix with locally abundant spinel and sphene. Garnet has not been

  18. Prospects of Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Coastal Districts of Eastern India: A Melissopalynological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K.; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010–2011 from two east-coastal districts (20020/ to 22011/ N, 82039/ to 87001/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  19. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region. PMID:24740144

  20. Spatial variability of groundwater quality of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district (Bihar, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, D. K.; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Shit, Pravat Kumar; Kumar, S.; Mandal, Jajati; Padbhushan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the quality of groundwater of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district of Bihar state, which lies on the southern region of Indo-Gangetic plains in India. Fifty-nine samples from different sources of water in the block have been collected to determine its suitability for drinking and irrigational purposes. From the samples electrical conductivity (EC), pH and concentrations of Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), carbonate ion (CO{3/2-}), Bicarbonate ion (HCO{3/-}), Chloride ion (Cl-), and Fluoride (F-) were determined. Surface maps of all the groundwater quality parameters have been prepared using radial basis function (RBF) method. RBF model was used to interpolate data points in a group of multi-dimensional space. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is employed to scrutinize the best fit of the model to compare the obtained value. The mean value of pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and F- are found to be 7.26, 0.69, 38.98, 34.20, 16.92, 1.19, 0.02, and 0.28, respectively. Distribution of calcium concentration is increasing to the eastern part and K+ concentrations raise to the downstream area in the southwestern part. Low pH concentrations (less than 6.71) occur in eastern part of the block. Spatial variations of hardness in Sabour block portraying maximum concentration in the western part and maximum SAR (more than 4.23) were recorded in the southern part. These results are not exceeding for drinking and irrigation uses recommended by World Health Organization. Therefore, the majority of groundwater samples are found to be safe for drinking and irrigation management practices.

  1. Taboos Related to Dog Bite in an Urban Area of Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Chinnaian, Sivagurunathan; Ramachandran, Umadevi; Ravi, Rama; Pandurangan, Mohan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background India is known for its diverse social and cultural backgrounds with wide range of myths and misconceptions related to diseases/illnesses. One such belief is certain food taboos and diet restrictions practiced following dog bite, which is widely prevalent. Materials and Methods This is a community based cross- sectional study conducted among adults population in Anakaputhur area of Kancheepuram district. The sample size was estimated to be 275 based on previous study data and simple random sampling method was used for data collection. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 16 and results described using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used for finding statistical association. Results About 84.4% of the study participants said that some kind of restrictions should be followed in case of dog bite, among them 68.7% said non vegetarian foods should be avoided. About 81 % of those bitten by dogs followed some form of food restrictions. Nearly 93.6% of those bitten did follow certain restrictions, based on advice of family members/relatives while about 6.4% of the study group followed restrictions based on advice by ‘medical personnel’. Illiterates and those educated up to high school; participants with no history of animal bite in their family, were more at risk of having misconceptions (p<0.05). Pet owners have more misconceptions compared to non pet owners. Conclusion This study reveals the existence of certain food taboos in case of dog bite among the study population. These practices and taboos are of no use and can be harmful at times. It is important to clear these misconceptions through appropriate health education measures for better health seeking behaviour and management. PMID:26393149

  2. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority

  3. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (<0.09) HDE/P for 98% of the samples and absence of toxic palynotaxa assure that these honeys are suitable for human consumption. Quite extended honey flow period with spring and summer as best forage seasons for the honeybees and occurrence of 82% of these honeys with APC Group II, III and IV justify the sustainability of the present study area for establishing moderate to large-scale apicultural entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region.

  4. Behavioral surveillance of premarital sex among never married young adults in a high HIV prevalence district in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, S G Prem; Dandona, Lalit

    2011-01-01

    In a population-based representative sample of 2,475 never married persons aged 15-24 years from Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh state in India, 21.7% (95% CI 18.7-24.7) males and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2-7.0) females reported having had sex. Only 22.3% males and 6.3% females reported consistent condom use for premarital sex in the last 6 months. The strongest associations with premarital sex for males were current use of alcohol and tobacco, and for females were not living with parents currently and being an income earner. These findings can inform HIV prevention efforts among young adults in India. PMID:20625924

  5. Prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness and severe visual impairment in a tribal district of Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Dhake, Praful V.; Dole, Kuldeep; Khandekar, Rajiv; Deshpande, Madan

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present the outcomes of a survey conducted in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. It was based on “Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness” methodology and conducted in 2009 in Nandurbar, a tribal district of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: We examined persons of 50 years and older ages. Ophthalmic assistants noted the distant vision [best corrected vision (BCV) and as presented]. Ophthalmologist examined eyes of persons with vision less than 6/18. The principal cause of impairment in each eye and the most “preventable” or “treatable” cause were assigned. We calculated the prevalence rates of bilateral blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), and moderate visual impairment (MVI). Result: We examined 2,005/2,300 persons (response rate 87.2%). The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the BCV was 1.63% (95% CI 1.11–2.15), 5.93% (95% CI 4.96–6.90), and 14.6% (95% CI 13.2–16.1), respectively. The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and MVI for the presented vision was 1.87% (1.32–2.42), 6.72% (95% CI 5.70–7.74), and 19% (95% CI 17.4–20.6), respectively. Unoperated cataract was responsible for 77% of different visual disabilities. The coverage of existing cataract surgery service was 9.4%. Lack of knowledge about cataract surgery was the main cause of unoperated cataract among 41% of interviewed participants with cataract and SVI. Conclusion: Unoperated cataract was the main curable cause of visual disabilities in tribal population of India. Increasing awareness and offering cataract surgeries at affordable cost in the district would reduce visual disabilities. PMID:22279401

  6. Association of Climatic Variability, Vector Population and Malarial Disease in District of Visakhapatnam, India: A Modeling and Prediction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Srimath-Tirumula-Peddinti, Ravi Chandra Pavan Kumar; Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Sidagam, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Malarial incidence, severity, dynamics and distribution of malaria are strongly determined by climatic factors, i.e., temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity. The objectives of the current study were to analyse and model the relationships among climate, vector and malaria disease in district of Visakhapatnam, India to understand malaria transmission mechanism (MTM). Methodology Epidemiological, vector and climate data were analysed for the years 2005 to 2011 in Visakhapatnam to understand the magnitude, trends and seasonal patterns of the malarial disease. Statistical software MINITAB ver. 14 was used for performing correlation, linear and multiple regression analysis. Results/Findings Perennial malaria disease incidence and mosquito population was observed in the district of Visakhapatnam with peaks in seasons. All the climatic variables have a significant influence on disease incidence as well as on mosquito populations. Correlation coefficient analysis, seasonal index and seasonal analysis demonstrated significant relationships among climatic factors, mosquito population and malaria disease incidence in the district of Visakhapatnam, India. Multiple regression and ARIMA (I) models are best suited models for modeling and prediction of disease incidences and mosquito population. Predicted values of average temperature, mosquito population and malarial cases increased along with the year. Developed MTM algorithm observed a major MTM cycle following the June to August rains and occurring between June to September and minor MTM cycles following March to April rains and occurring between March to April in the district of Visakhapatnam. Fluctuations in climatic factors favored an increase in mosquito populations and thereby increasing the number of malarial cases. Rainfall, temperatures (20°C to 33°C) and humidity (66% to 81%) maintained a warmer, wetter climate for mosquito growth, parasite development and malaria transmission. Conclusions

  7. Health System Competency for Maternal Health Services in Balasore District and Jaleswar Block, Balasore, Odisha, India: An Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A competent health system is of paramount importance in delivering the desired health services in a particular community. Aim The broad objective of this study was to assess the health system competency for the maternal health services in Balasore District and Jaleswar block of Balasore district, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods A mixed method approach was adopted in order to understand the health system competency for maternal health services in the study area. Results There was poor accessibility through road, poor electricity connection and piped water for the health care centers in the district. Even, existing Primary Health Centres (PHCs) lack ECG and X-Ray machines for proper diagnostic services which jeopardize the catering of health services. Community Health Centres (CHC) lack basic diagnostic and ambulance services making the tribal pockets inaccessible. The tribal dominated Jaleswar block shows poor performance in terms of total registered Antenatal Checkups (ANC) (only 77%). A gradual decrease in the rate of ANC, from first to fourthcheckup, was observed in the district. Conclusion Lack of public health infrastructure in general and non-compliance to Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) in particular, affect the health of tribal women resulting in lack of interest in availing the institutional delivery services and other pertinent maternal health services. PMID:27656464

  8. Local climate assessments in data scarce mountain areas; for example Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Salzmann, Nadine; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    High-mountain regions like the Himalayas and their adjacent downstream areas are often highly affected by climate change, climate variability and/or related extremes. As a result of cascading effects of rising air temperatures, melting glaciers, thawing permafrost - as well as anthropogenic water usage or changes in forest and agro-biodiversity - potential impacts on people's livelihood has broadened and increased. However, climate impacts assessments on physical and societal systems are often limited due to the scarcity of reliable long-term observations, particularly in remote high-mountain regions, which additionally also hampers robustness of future projections. Since livelihoods in remote high-mountain regions are particularly vulnerable to climate related impacts, and have typically only low adaptive capacities, studies assessing climate variability pattern of the past and for the future (climate baselines) are a fundamental requirement for sound impact assessments, and as such for preparing and planning adequate adaptation measures. Within the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation Programme (IHCAP) an integrated vulnerability and hazard and risk assessment is being conducted for the Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh, India, for the sake of supporting adaptation planning there. Related to these studies, the present work aims to provide an approach and according results for climatological baseline generation for regions without respective observations available or accessible. Here, we use observational gridded data sets (CRU, Delaware) and Reanalyses (ERA-20C, JRA-55, NCEP CFSR, ERA-i, NCEP/NCAR-R1) to provide spatially and temporally continuous data. For the grid boxes covering the area of interest, the time series for temperature are analysed and possible trends and variations are assessed for the time window 1981-2010, as well as the entire time line of the respective gridded dataset. The analyses reveal that the mean annual air temperatures over all levels

  9. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. Aim To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Results Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Conclusion Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis. PMID:26816986

  10. How Ernakulam Became the First Fully Literate District of India = Comment l'Ernakulam devint le premier District entierement alphabete de l'Inde. Notes, Comments...No. 195.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivadas, S.

    "Lead Kindly Light" was an extensive campaign for the total eradication of illiteracy within 1 year in the Ernakulam District of India. A major sponsor was Kerala Sastra Sahithya Parishad (KSSP), the Science and Education Center of Kerala; responsibility for the project was later handed over to the National Literacy Mission (NLM). The project had…

  11. Oral health status and treatment needs among 10126 school children in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Radhakrishna, A. Naga; Kambalimath, Halaswamy V.; Chandrasekhar, Shalini; Deepthi, B.; Ramakrishna, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Oral diseases are affecting a large percentage of children worldwide. This study with Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry collaboration was taken up with the aim to evaluate the oral health status and treatment needs in school-going children of the West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 10126 school children who were randomly selected from 32 schools in West Godavari district. To find the significance of the obtained number of cases for different age groups, Chi-square test of significance was used. Results: The prevalence of dental conditions are as follows: Dental caries 63.5%, periodontal diseases 13.6%, dental anomalies 3.6%, dental trauma 3.2%, and orthodontic treatment 25.1%. Among the different age groups, 11–14 years age group has the highest prevalence of oral health problems. Females were more affected with dental caries (P = 0.17), orthodontic treatment needs (P = 0.12), and dental anomalies (P = 0.86) compared to males which was statistically insignificant. The highest prevalence of dental conditions in the case of females was observed during the age of 11–14 years, and in males, the peak was seen in the 15–18 years age group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that school-going children in West Godavari district suffer from a high prevalence of dental conditions and have higher treatment needs. PMID:27382536

  12. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  13. Development Of Index To Assess Drought Conditions Using Geospatial Data A Case Study Of Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhajer, Vaidehi; Prabhakar, Sumati; Rama Chandra Prasad, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan province of India was known to suffer with frequent drought due to poor and delayed monsoon, abnormally high summer-temperature and insufficient water resources. However flood-like situation prevails in the drought prone Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan as torrential rains are seen to affect the region in the recent years. In the present study, detailed analysis of meteorological, hydrological and satellite data of the Jaisalmer district has been carried out for the years 2006-2008. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) and Effective Drought Index (EDI) have been used to quantify the precipitation deficit. Standardized Water-Level Index (SWI) has been developed to assess ground-water recharge-deficit. Vegetative drought indices like Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index 2 have been calculated. We also introduce two new indices Soil based Vegetation Condition Index (SVCI) and Composite Drought Index (CDI) specifically for regions like Jaisalmer where aridity in soil and affects vegetation and water-level.

  14. Assessment of potential hazards of fluoride contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati

    2009-05-01

    We assessed the potential of fluoride (F) contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in India as a function of its lithology and agricultural activities. Three hundred and eight groundwater samples were collected at different depths from various types of wells and analyzed for pH, EC, NO(3)-N load and F content. A typical litholog was constructed and database on fertilizer and pesticide uses were also recorded for the district. The water samples were almost neutral in reaction and non-saline in nature with low NO(3)-N content (0.02 to 4.56 microg mL(-1)). Fluoride content in water was also low (0.01 to 1.18 microg mL(-1)) with only 2.27% of them exceeding 1.0 microg mL(-1) posing a potential threat of fluorosis. On average, its content varied little spatially and along depth of sampling aquifers because of homogeneity in lithology of the district. The F content in these samples showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.12, P < or = 0.05) with the amount of phosphatic fertilizer (single super phosphate) used for agriculture but no such relation either with the anthropogenic activities of pesticide use or NO(3)-N content, pH and EC values of the samples was found. The results suggest that the use of phosphatic fertilizer may have some role to play in F enrichment of groundwater.

  15. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region. PMID:26108747

  16. Study on prevalence of ancylostomosis in dogs at Anand district, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Nilima N.; Patel, P. V.; Hasnani, Jigar J.; Pandya, Suchit S.; Joshi, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of ancylostomosis in dogs by a collection of fecal samples from Anand district. Materials and Methods: The fecal samples were collected from the dogs brought to the Hospital of Veterinary College (Teaching Veterinary Clinical Service Complex) and the surrounding areas of Anand district. On the day of collection, fecal samples were collected and brought to the Department of Veterinary Parasitology and processed for standard qualitative examination. The sedimentation technique was used to detect the presence of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in the samples. Result: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of May (36.66% fecal samples) and the lowest in the month of December (13.79% fecal samples) at Anand district. Conclusion: It can be concluded that heavy infection is present in Anand district especially in the season of summer followed by monsoon and the least in winter. PMID:27047052

  17. Determination of radon level and radon effective dose rate using SSNTD in dwellings in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R; Badhan, K

    2012-11-01

    The problem of indoor radon has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide as radon is the largest contributor to the total natural radiation dose. The dwellings belonging to the Bathinda district of Punjab, India, are investigated for the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average indoor radon values in the study area vary from 122.30 to 147.10 Bq m(-3), which is well within the recommended action level given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated lifetime fatality risk values vary from 1.61 to 1.94. The seasonal variations and the contribution of building materials and ventilation conditions to the indoor radon in dwellings are also discussed. PMID:22927649

  18. Chronic arsenicosis in cattle with special reference to its metabolism in arsenic endemic village of Nadia district West Bengal India.

    PubMed

    Datta, Bakul K; Mishra, Akhilesh; Singh, Aruna; Sar, Tapas K; Sarkar, Samar; Bhatacharya, Anjan; Chakraborty, Animesh K; Mandal, Tapan K

    2010-12-15

    Thirty Milch cattle were selected randomly from a village of Nadia district of West Bengal, India containing high arsenic in water and soil samples. Milk, feces and hair samples were collected to analyze arsenic status in animals. Water and straw samples were also estimated for arsenic. Milk products prepared from milk of cattle rearing in arsenic prone village were also collected to quantify total arsenic and speciation of arsenic in milk and feces samples were also carried out. It was observed that high amount of arsenic was present in milk, feces, hair of cattle and water and straw samples in arsenic prone village. Milk product also contained significant amount of arsenic than that of milk product of control village. Speciation study revealed arsenite fraction was mainly eliminated through milk, whereas organoarsenic species were mainly excreted through feces.

  19. Evaluating the Burden of Lymphedema Due to Lymphatic Filariasis in 2005 in Khurda District, Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Victoria; Little, Kristen; Wiegand, Ryan; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 1.1 billion people worldwide are at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF), and the global burden of LF-associated lymphedema is estimated at 16 million affected people, yet country-specific estimates are poor. Methodology/Principal Findings A house-to-house morbidity census was conducted to assess the burden and severity of lymphedema in a population of 1,298,576 persons living in the LF-endemic district of Khurda in Odisha State, India. The burden of lymphedema in Khurda is widespread geographically, and 1.3% (17,036) of the total population report lymphedema. 51.3% of the patients reporting lymphedema were female, mean age 49.4 years (1–99). Early lymphedema (Dreyer stages 1 & 2) was reported in two-thirds of the patients. Poisson regression analysis was conducted in order to determine risk factors for advanced lymphedema (Dreyer stages 4–7). Increasing age was significantly associated with advanced lymphedema, and persons 70 years and older had a prevalence three times greater than individuals ages 15–29 (aPR: 3.21, 95% CI 2.45, 4.21). The number of adenolymphangitis (ADL) episodes reported in the previous year was also significantly associated with advanced lymphedema (aPR 4.65, 95% CI 2.97–7.30). This analysis is one of the first to look at potential risk factors for advanced lymphedema using morbidity census data from an entire district in Odisha State, India. Significance These data highlight the magnitude of lymphedema in LF-endemic areas and emphasize the need to develop robust estimates of numbers of individuals with lymphedema in order to identify the extent of lymphedema management services needed in these regions. PMID:27548382

  20. First report of ivermectin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Punjab districts of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Prerna, Mranalini; Rath, Shitanshu S

    2015-11-30

    The larval immersion test (LIT) was used on the progenies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from four districts of the Punjab state, India to test the resistance to ivermectin. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larval ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of ivermectin were utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50%(LC50), 95%(LC95), resistance ratios (RR50, RR95) and the resistance levels (RL). Values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) for LIT ranged from 0.900 to 0.978, and the RR50 and RR95 values against ivermectin ranged from 2.97 to 8.85 and 2.42 to 8.47, respectively, indicating resistance status in all field isolates. On the basis of RR values, three field isolates (BAT, GUR, HOS) showed level II, whereas PTK isolate showed presence of level I resistance status against ivermectin. This appears to be the first report of ivermectin resistance in R. (B.) microplus from Punjab, India.

  1. Gaps in need, demand, and effective demand for dental care utilization among residents of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, Y.; Chakravarty, Kalyan K.; Simhadri, Kavya; Ghenam, Alexis; Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Vundavalli, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To identify the relation between need, demand, and effective demand for dental services in Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed among populations residing in the rural and urban areas of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were collected from 3102 individuals who were selected through multiphase random sampling. Data regarding self-perceived dental need, dental service utilization, and barriers for utilization were collected through s pretested questionnaire followed by type-III clinical examination to assess the normative need of the individuals. Chi-square test was used to compare independent and dependent variables, and further comparison was done with multivariate logistic regression analysis for significant variables. Results: Less than half (40%) of the participants perceived a need for dental care. Among the people who perceived need for care, only 21.4% utilized dental care and 78.6% of them had unmet dental needs. The two main reasons for not seeking dental care was lack of money, i.e., unaffordable dental treatment (48%) and having the perception that they do not have any dental problem (19.4%). Conclusions: There is an enormous difference between normative need, demand, and actual utilization rates in dental care, and hindrances for effective demand need to be addressed to improve dental care delivery system. PMID:27652242

  2. Gaps in need, demand, and effective demand for dental care utilization among residents of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, Y.; Chakravarty, Kalyan K.; Simhadri, Kavya; Ghenam, Alexis; Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Vundavalli, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To identify the relation between need, demand, and effective demand for dental services in Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed among populations residing in the rural and urban areas of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were collected from 3102 individuals who were selected through multiphase random sampling. Data regarding self-perceived dental need, dental service utilization, and barriers for utilization were collected through s pretested questionnaire followed by type-III clinical examination to assess the normative need of the individuals. Chi-square test was used to compare independent and dependent variables, and further comparison was done with multivariate logistic regression analysis for significant variables. Results: Less than half (40%) of the participants perceived a need for dental care. Among the people who perceived need for care, only 21.4% utilized dental care and 78.6% of them had unmet dental needs. The two main reasons for not seeking dental care was lack of money, i.e., unaffordable dental treatment (48%) and having the perception that they do not have any dental problem (19.4%). Conclusions: There is an enormous difference between normative need, demand, and actual utilization rates in dental care, and hindrances for effective demand need to be addressed to improve dental care delivery system.

  3. Spatial changes of estuary in Ernakulam district, Southern India for last seven decades, using multi-temporal satellite data.

    PubMed

    Dipson, P T; Chithra, S V; Amarnath, A; Smitha, S V; Harindranathan Nair, M V; Shahin, Adhem

    2015-01-15

    The study area, located in the western side of Kerala State, South India, is a part of Vembanad-Kol wetlands - the largest estuary in India's western coastal wetland system and one of the Ramsar Sites of Kerala. Major portion of this estuary comes under the Ernakulam district which includes the Cochin City - the business and Industrial hub of Kerala, which has seen fast urbanization since independence (1947). Recently, this region is subjected to a characteristic fast urban sprawl, whereas, the estuarine zone is subjected to tremendous land use/land cover changes (LULC). Periodic monitoring of the estuary is essential for the formulation of viable management options for the sustainable utilization of this vital environmental resource. Remote sensing coupled with GIS applications has proved to be a useful tool in monitoring wetland changes. In the present study, the changes this estuarine region have undergone from 1944 to 2009 have been monitored with the help of multi-temporal satellite data. Estuarine areas were mapped with the help of Landsat MSS (1973), Landsat ETM (1990) and IRS LISS-III (1998 and 2009) using visual interpretation and digitization techniques in ArcGIS 9.3 Environment. The study shows a progressive decrease in the estuarine area, the reasons of which are identified chronologically. PMID:24823281

  4. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  5. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  6. Iodine nutritional status among neonates in the Solan district, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Kabra, Madhulika; Prakash, Shyam; Sareen, Neha; Khenduja, Preetika

    2014-10-01

    Iodine nutrition status amongst neonates can be assessed by estimating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). According to WHO, if more than 3 % of the neonates have TSH levels of 5 mlU/l and more in a population, it indicates presence of iodine deficiency (ID). Iodine deficiency is an endemic health problem in Solan district, Himachal Pradesh (HP) state. ID leads to mental retardation, deaf mutism, squint, dwarfism, spastic diplegia, neurological defects and congenital anomalies. The aim is to determine iodine nutrition status of neonates of Solan district. In Solan district, six hospitals/community health centers providing obstetric services and conducting more than 100 deliveries per annum were identified and enlisted. Two hospitals were selected keeping in view of operational feasibility. A total of 683 umbilical cord blood samples of neonates were collected on filter paper and analyzed for TSH. It was found that 63.2 % of the neonates had TSH levels of more than 5 mlU/l indicating iodine deficiency in the Solan district. Iodine deficiency was a public health problem in Solan district, HP. PMID:24563104

  7. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and document the information regarding usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants utilized by rural farmers and traditional herbal healers for livestock healthcare in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhnad, Central India. Methods The remote villages of Tikamgarh district were regularly visited from July 2011 to June 2012. Following the methods of Jain and Goel (1995) information regarding the usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was collected. Results A total of 41 plant species in 39 genera and 25 families were used traditionally with various plant parts and their combinations for the treatment of more than 36 diseases in the studied area. Trees (17 species) were found to be the most used Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (6 species) and grasses (3) in descending order. The most common diseases cough, diarrhoea and fever were treated by 04 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species. Conclusions The present study recommended that the crop and medicinal plant genetic resources cannot be conserved and protected without conserving/managing of the agro-ecosystem or natural habitat of medicinal plants and the socio-cultural organization of the local people. The same may be applied to protect indigenous knowledge, related to the use of medicinal and other wild plants. Introduction of medicinal plants in degraded government and common lands could be another option for promoting the rural economy together with environmental conservation, but has not received attention in the land rehabilitation programs in this region. PMID:25183130

  8. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  9. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  10. Some Less Known Ethnomedicinal uses from Mysore and coorg districts, Karnataka, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, R. D.; Singh, N. P.

    2001-01-01

    Present communication deals with 51 less known uses belonging to 39 medicinal plants which are being used traditionally in Karnataka, and are not well known for its said efficacies for curing respective disorders. Each use has been given under correct botanical name, family, local name, locality in particular district and finally the collection number PMID:22557008

  11. Arsenic contamination in the Kanker district of central-east India: geology and health effects.

    PubMed

    Pandey, P K; Sharma, R; Roy, M; Roy, S; Pandey, M

    2006-10-01

    This paper identifies newer areas of arsenic contamination in the District Kanker, which adjoins the District Rajnandgaon where high contamination has been reported earlier. A correlation with the mobile phase episodes of arsenic contamination has been identified, which further hinges on the complex geology of the area. Arsenic concentrations in both surface and groundwater, aquatic organisms (snail and water weeds) soil and vegetation of Kanker district and its adjoining area have been reported here. The region has been found to contain an elevated level of arsenic. All segments of the ecoysystem are contaminated with arsenic at varying degrees. The levels of arsenic vary constantly depending on the season and location. An analysis of groundwater from 89 locations in the Kanker district has shown high values of arsenic, iron and manganese (mean: 144, 914 and 371 microg L(-1), respectively). The surface water of the region shows elevated levels of arsenic, which is influenced by the geological mineralised zonation. The most prevalent species in the groundwater is As(III), whereas the surface water of the rivers shows a significant contamination with the As(V) species. The analysis shows a bio-concentration of the toxic metals arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. Higher arsenic concentrations (groundwater concentrations greater than 50 microg L(-1)) are associated with sedimentary deposits derived from volcanic rocks, hence mineral leaching appears to be the source of arsenic contamination. Higher levels of arsenic and manganese in the Kanker district have been found to cause impacts on the flora and fauna. A case study of episodic arsenical diarrhoea is presented.

  12. Sub-region (district) and sector level SO 2 and NO x emissions for India: assessment of inventories and mitigation flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, A.; Shukla, P. R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    Sub-regional and sector level distribution of SO 2 and NO x emissions inventories for India have been estimated for all the 466 Indian districts using base data for years 1990 and 1995. Although, national level emissions provide general guidelines for assessing mitigation alternatives, but significant regional and sectoral variability exist in Indian emissions. Districts reasonably capture this variability to a fine grid as 80% of these districts are smaller than 1°×1° resolution with 60% being smaller than even 1/2°×1/2°. Moreover, districts in India have well-established administrative and institutional mechanisms that would be useful for implementing and monitoring measures. District level emission estimates thus offer a finer regional scale inventory covering the combined interests of the scientific community and policy makers. The inventory assessment methodology adopted is similar to that prescribed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The sectoral decomposition at district level includes emissions from fossil fuel combustion, non-energy emissions from industrial activities and agriculture. Total SO 2 and NO x emissions from India were 3542 and 2636 Gg, respectively (1990) and 4638 and 3462 Gg (1995) growing at annual rate of around 5.5%. The sectoral composition of SO 2 emissions indicates a predominance of electric power generation sector (46%). Power and transport sector emissions equally dominate NO x emissions contributing nearly 30% each. However, majority of power plants are situated in predominantly rural districts while the latter are concentrated in large urban centers. Mitigation efforts for transport sector NO x emissions would therefore be higher. The district level analysis indicates diverse spatial distribution with the top 5% emitting districts contributing 46.5 and 33.3% of total national SO 2 and NO x emissions, respectively. This skewed emission pattern, with a few districts

  13. Mapping of wasteland of india: A case study of Bangalore district of Karnataka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, G.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Nageswara Rao, P. P.; Gupta, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, J.; Ganesharaj, K.; Padmavathy, A. S.; Yogarajan, N.

    India is the second most populous country in the world. Its economy is agrarian in nature. Increasing demand for food, fodder, fuel and fibre has necessitated adoption of scientific measures for increase in land productivity and bringing more areas under cultivation/forests. However land degradation due to desertification, soil salinity, waterlogging, floods/drought, excessive soil erosion due to deforestation, unscientific agricultural practices etc. have resulted in the creation of vast stretches of wastelands and a decrease in per capita cultivable land besides ecological imbalance. Nearly 53 Mha are wasteland and 22 Mha of land have problems of either salinity, alkalinity, soil erosion, waterlogging, shifting cultivation or presently unused because of their undulating nature. Only 11% of India's geographic area is under effective tree cover. Forest degradation has increased by 14% over last 8-10 years. The land area prone to floods has doubled from 20 Mha to about 40 Mha in last 10 years. Awareness of this fact has resulted in the formation of the "National Wasteland Development Board" (NWDB) under the aegis of National Landuse and Wasteland Development Council (NLWC) with the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister of India.

  14. Assessment of large-scale deforestation of Nawarangpur district, Orissa, India: a remote sensing based study.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Reddy, C; Ram Mohan Rao, K; Pattanaik, Chiranjibi; Joshi, P K

    2009-07-01

    The Nawarangpur district, Orissa, a tropical region with Sal mixed moist deciduous and Sal mixed dry deciduous forests, has been affected by extensive deforestation. The district was surveyed using Landsat MSS (1973), Landsat TM (1990) and IRS P6 LISS III (2004) satellite imagery. From 1973 to 1990, more than 888.6 km(2) of dense forest (rate of deforestation = 3.62) and from 1990 to 2004, 429.7 km(2) (rate of deforestation = 3.97) were found to have been deforested. The analysis of results identified the reduction in area of dense forest and increase of agricultural land, degraded areas of abandoned agricultural land and unproductive scrub. There is an urgent need for rational management of the remaining forest for it to be able to survive beyond next decades. From this study it can be concluded that temporal changes and the factors affecting these changes should be determined for sustainable management of natural resources.

  15. Evidence of Self-correction of Child Sex Ratios in India: A District-Level Analysis of Child Sex Ratios From 1981 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Bishai, David

    2015-04-01

    Sex ratios in India have become increasingly imbalanced over the past decades. We hypothesize that when sex ratios become very uneven, the shortage of girls will increase girls' future value, leading sex ratios to self-correct. Using data on children under 5 from the last four Indian censuses, we examine the relationship between the sex ratio at one point in time and the change in sex ratio over the next 10 years by district. Fixed-effects models show that when accounting for unobserved district-level characteristics--including total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, percentage literate, percentage rural, percentage scheduled caste, percentage scheduled tribe, and a time trend variable--sex ratios are significantly negatively correlated with the change in sex ratio in the successive 10-year period. This suggests that self-corrective forces are at work on imbalanced sex ratios in India.

  16. HEPATOPROTECTIVE PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBALS OF WYNADU, MALAPPURAM AND PALGHAT DISTRICTS OF KERALA, INDIA.

    PubMed Central

    Asha, V.V; Pushpangadan, P.

    2002-01-01

    An intensive survey was carried out in Wynadu, Palghat and malappuram districts of Kerala to identify plants used by the tribals were identified in the survey. A brief account of 15 plant species used as single plant remedy for alleviating liver ailments by the tribals is given in this report. This ethnomedical information can lead the development of useful drugs against liver diseases. PMID:22557068

  17. Medicinal Plant-Lore of Sugali Tribe of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M. Hamambara; Reddy, K. Eshwara; Venkataraju, R.R

    2000-01-01

    The preliminary investigations of crude during resources of sugali tribes of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh with their recipes, preparation of drugs, administration, usage form several centuries. Fifty plant crude drugs (species) belong to twenty nine families were collected based on folk-lore knowledge. Botanical name, family name, part used, mode of preparation and administration and purpose, for which it as been used were enumerated. PMID:22556937

  18. Assessing spatial occurrence of ground level ozone around coal mining areas of Chandrapur District, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Salve, Pradeep R; Satapathy, Deepty Ranjan; Katpatal, Yashwant B; Wate, Satish R

    2007-10-01

    Stratospheric input and photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere are the two main sources determining the ozone levels in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Because of the importance of ozone in controlling the atmospheric chemistry and its decisive role in the heat balance of atmosphere, leading to climate change, the examination of its formation and destruction are of great interest. This study characterized the distribution of Ground level Ozone (GLO) in Chandrapur district is lying between 19 degrees 25'N to 20 degrees 45'N and 78 degrees 50'E to 80 degrees 10'E. Continuous ozone analyzer was used to quantify GLO at thirteen locations fixed by Global Positioning System (GPS) during the winter of 2005-2006. The daily GLO at all the locations ranged between 6.4 and 24.8 ppbv with an average and standard deviation of 14.9 +/- 6.5 ppbv. The maximum and minimum concentration occurs during 1300-1600 h and 0300-0500 h may be due to high solar radiation facilitating photochemical production of O(3) and downward mixing from the overlying air mass and in situ destruction of ozone by deposition and/or the reaction between O(3) and NO. GIS based spatial distribution of GLO in Chandrapur district is indicates that the central core of the district and southern sites experienced elevated levels of GLO relative to the northern and western areas. The sites near by Chandrapur city are particularly affected by elevated GLO. The average variation of GLO with temperature shows a significant correlation of r = 0.55 indicating a direct relationship between GLO and temperature. Similarly an attempt has been made to compare the GLO monitored data in Chandrapur district with the reported values for other locations in Indian cities. This generated database helps regulatory agencies to identify locations where the natural resources and human health could be at risk.

  19. Disparity in maternal, newborn and child health services in high focus states in India: a district-level cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Ashish; Pandey, C M; Chauhan, Rajesh K; Singh, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the level and trend in the coverage gap of a set of interventions of maternal and child health services using a summary index and to assess the disparity in usage of maternal and child health services in the districts of high focus states of India. Design Data for the present study are taken from the Annual Health Survey (AHS), 2010–2013 and Census of India, 2011. Settings This study used secondary data from states having higher mortality and fertility rates, termed as high focus states in India. Participants District-level information regarding children aged 12–23 months and ever married women aged 15–49 years has been extracted from the AHS (2010–2013), and household amenities, female literacy and main workforce information has been obtained from the Census of India 2011. Measures 2 summary indexes were calculated first for maternal and child health services and another for socioeconomic and development status, using data from AHS and Census. Cronbach's α was used to assess the internal consistency of the items used in the index. Results The result shows that the coverage gap is highest in Uttar Pradesh (37%) and lowest in Madhya Pradesh (21%). Converge gap and socioeconomic development are negatively correlated (r=−0.49, p=0.01). The average coverage gap was highest in the lowest quintile of socioeconomic development. There was an absolute change of 1.5% per year in coverage gap during 2009–2013. In regression analysis, the coefficient of determination was 0.24, β=−30.05, p=0.01 for a negative relationship between socioeconomic development and coverage gap. Conclusions There is a significant disparity in the usage of maternal and child healthcare services in the districts of India. Resource-rich people (urban residents and richest quintile) are way ahead of marginalised people (rural residents and poorest quintile) in the usage of healthcare services. PMID:27496225

  20. Ethno- medico - botanical studies of Badaga population In the Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2008-01-01

    The study grains to explore ethno-medicobotany of Badaga population in the Nilgiri hills of Tamilnadu, South India. Ethno botanical field survey and personal discussion methods have been adopted in the collection of data. A list of 71 flowering plants belonging to 42 families, 67 genera and 70 species are employed by the Badaga popu-lation in their native system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. In reviewing ethnomedical information, data on folk herbal remedies and their various methods of applications for treating a wide range of ailments have been furnished. A brief description of plants, their habitat, family and local Badaga names are outlined here. PMID:22557279

  1. Oral Health Status of Underground Coal Mine Workers of Ramakrishnapur, Adilabad District, Telangana, India - A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Irram; Mohammad, Shakeel Anjum; Peddireddy, Parthasarathi Reddy; Mocherla, Monica; Koppula, Yadav Rao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Standard of living and quality of life of people has been improved by the expanding industrial activity, but at the other end it has created many occupational hazards. Coal mining is one of the major age old industries throughout the world and in India. Till date very less literature is available worldwide and in India concerning the oral health status of laborers in this field. Aim To assess the oral health status of underground coal mine workers, oral hygiene practices, alcohol and tobacco habits. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the underground coal mine workers of a coal mine located in Adilabad district, Telangana, according to the criteria described in the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form (2013). Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics were done. Results A total of 356 workers participated in the study. Ninety percent of the subjects were with tobacco and/or alcohol habits. Dental caries was prevalent in more than half (55.6%) of the study subjects with a mean DMFT of 2.32±2.99. About 48.3% study subjects were with untreated dental caries and 20.3% subjects were with missing teeth. DMFT ≤=6 was seen in 45.5% of subjects and 10.1% have DMFT scores ≥=7. Periodontal disease was the most prevalent condition seen in the population with 94.4% subjects having unhealthy periodontium in terms of gingival bleeding and/or periodontal pockets. About 186 (52.25%) and 145 (40.73%) of subjects were with 0-3mm and 4-5mm loss of attachment respectively. Fourteen percent of population showed dental traumatic injuries. Conclusion The findings highlighted the high caries prevalence, higher periodontal disease, traumatic injuries which requires immediate intervention. PMID:26894171

  2. Remote Sening Applications For The Management Of Water And Land Resources Of Shivannguda Watershed, Warangal District Of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva Sankar, A.

    2002-05-01

    The increasing population growth has put extra pressure on land and water resources. Therefore there is an imperative need for the development and judiciary use of these resources. Accurate, timely and reliable assessment and monitoring of land and water resources and their systematic exploration and use for the sustainable development. The present study deals with the application of remote sensing of geographical information systems ( GIS ) techniques of Shivannaguda water shed for suggesting the gully control works and check dam construction with a view to control soil erosion from watershed as well as the increase the ground water recharge and identifying the ground water potential zones using remote sensing and GIS. The study area falls in the co-ordinates 160 50' 20" to 170 01' 40" latitude and 780 51' 48" to 780 57' 48" which is part of Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The satellite data used is IRS IC PAN and LISS III merged data. Thematic maps of Hydrogeomorphology, slope, drainage, transport network and village boundary are prepared with the help of 1:50000 scale, Survey of India Toposheets and satellite data. A critical examination of each one of the thematic maps is carried out to identify various land and water resources and their spatial distribution to asses the watershed for its sustainability. The information obtained from this study is then integrated to develop and action plan for land and water resources development. Based on this action plan check dams ( 3 ) and percolation tanks ( 1 ) are recommended for increase in the ground water potential. Based on the thematic maps some suitable crops are recommended for land resources purpose. Field bunds construction sites and afforestation sites are also recommended to control the soil erosion and to increase the ground water level's. This action plan can be used for the upliftment of socio-economic conditions of the study area.

  3. Ethnobotany, traditional knowledge and socioeconomic importance of native drink among the Oraon tribe of Malda district in India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Rai, Ritu; Kar, Pallab; Sen, Arnab; Sarker, Dilip De

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Preparation of daily traditional drink by the indigenous tribes is a common phenomenon in India. Oraon tribes in Malda district of West Bengal, India are very much practiced in making of their own native brew, known as Chullu. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the whole Chullu procedure technology of the region and its socioeconomic effect on Oraon. Ethnomedicinal investigation of local plants involved in Chullu preparation was another aspect of this study. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted from April 2012 to June 2013. Consecutive field surveys were performed to collect information from Chullu producers to focus the procedure technology of local brew by means of semi-structured individual interviews, informal interviews and group discussion. A semi-structured questionnaire process was also performed to obtain the information regarding the ethnic use of plant species involved in Chullu preparation. Results: The present study revealed that four medicinal plant species along with rice having strong local ethnomedicinal value were used to prepare this indigenous drink. Oraon prepare the brew using their unique home-made distillation process. Commercialization of this local brew represents an alternative income to develop their economic condition, especially for poor households. The index of importance value was considered to evaluate the importance, usage, and knowledge of the five studied species. Conclusion: It could be concluded that practices of Chullu preparation represent a bonding between ethnic knowledge and Oraon people of the province. Commercialization of Chullu may be considered as a source of alternative way of income for poor households in the region. PMID:26401382

  4. Public sector scale–up of zinc and ORS improves coverage in selected districts in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; Lamberti, Laura M.; Black, Robert E.; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bihar, India, a new initiative to enhance diarrhea treatment with zinc and ORS in the public sector was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation to measure changes in diarrhea careseeking and treatment in intervention districts. Methods We conducted baseline and endline household surveys among caregivers of children 2–59 months of age. We calculated summary statistics for household characteristics, knowledge, careseeking and treatments given to children with a diarrhea episode in the last 14 days and built logistic regression models to compare baseline and endline values. Results Caregivers named a public health center as an appropriate source of care for childhood diarrhea more often at endline (71.3%) compared to baseline (38.4%) but did not report increased careseeking to public sector providers for the current diarrhea episode. In logistic regression analyses, the odds of receiving zinc, with or without oral rehydration salts (ORS), increased at endline by more than 2.7 as compared to baseline. Children who were taken to the public sector for care were more likely to receive zinc (odds ratio, OR = 3.93) and zinc in addition to ORS (OR = 6.10) compared to children who were not taken to the public sector. Conclusion Coverage of zinc and ORS can improve with public sector programs targeted at training and increasing product availability, but demand creation may be needed to increase public sector careseeking in areas where the private sector has historically provided much of the care. PMID:26322230

  5. Morbidity profile of elderly outpatients attending selected sub-district Siddha health facilities in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Kalaiselvi; Srinivasan, Manikandan; Duraisamy, Venkatachalam; Ramaswamy, Gomathi; Venugopal, Vinayagamurthy; Chinnakali, Palanivel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, under National Health Mission alternate systems of Medicine are mainstreamed in public health care system. Effective action plan generation, logistic arrangement and roll out of these alternate systems of Medicine needs understanding on profile of morbidities among attendees who come to these facilities. Objectives: This study was planned to report profile of morbidities, age and sex differentials in specific morbidities among geriatric attendees in secondary level siddha health facilities. Materials and Methods: A facility based cross sectional study was conducted among elderly person (60 years and above) attending Siddha outpatient department (OPD) from two of the randomly selected sub district level siddha facilities in Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India. Information on socio-demographic variables like age, gender, education and clinical profile (diagnosis) were collected from records already maintained in the siddha OPD. Morbidities were summarized in terms of proportions based on age and gender. Age and sex specific differentials on specific morbidities were compared using ‘z’ test. Results: Of 2710 patients who visited these two siddha facilities during the reference period, 763 (28.1%) patients were elderly. Arthritis (45.2%), neuritis (8.8%), diabetes (6.6%), bronchial asthma (5.2%), hemiplegia (3.7%) were the top five morbidities diagnosed and treated among elderly attending the siddha OPD. There was a predilection towards elderly male for morbidities such as bronchial asthma and hemiplegia compared to elderly female. Similarly, higher proportions of lumbar spondylosis, hypertension and fungal skin diseases were reported among aged 80 years or more compared to elderly aged 60-79 years. Conclusion: Elderly constitute more than one fourth of outpatients load from siddha health facilities. Degenerative diseases like arthritis and non-communicable diseases were the common morbidities in this age group. Geriatric clinics and mobile

  6. Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: an assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India).

    PubMed

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H P

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contamination status of groundwater in Brahmaputra flood plain Barpeta District, Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River flows from the southern part of the district and its many tributaries flow from north to south. Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are estimated by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200. The quantity of heavy metals in drinking water should be checked time to time; as heavy metal accumulation will cause numerous problems to living being. Forty groundwater samples were collected mainly from tube wells from the flood plain area. As there is very little information available about the heavy metal contamination status in the heavily populated study area, the present work will help to be acquainted with the suitability of groundwater for drinking applications as well as it will enhance the database. The concentration of iron exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 0.3 mg/L in about 80% of the samples, manganese values exceed 0.4 mg/L in about 22.5% of the samples, and lead values also exceed limit in 22.5% of the samples. Cd is reported in only four sampling locations and three of them exceed the WHO permissible limit (0.003 mg/L). Zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. Therefore, pressing awareness is needed for the betterment of water quality; for the sake of safe drinking water. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  7. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Results: Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71. PMID:24453447

  8. Assessment and Availability of Trauma Care Services in a District Hospital of South India; A Field Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Uthkarsh, Pallavi Sarji; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Reddy, Sai Sabharish; Rajanna, Mandya Siddalingaiah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the availability of trauma care services in a district referral hospital of Southern India. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed during 2013 in a tertiary healthcare centre in Southern Indian. A detailed assessment of trauma care services was done in a 400 bed speciality hospital which is an apex referral hospital in the public health system using a check list based on WHO guidelines for evaluation of essential trauma care services, along with in-depth interviews of hospital stake holders and key informants. Results: The hospital had physical infrastructure in terms of emergency room, inpatient wards, operation theatres, intensive care unit and blood bank facilities. The recently constructed designated building for trauma care services was not operational and existing facilities were used beyond capacity. A designated trauma team was lacking and speciality services for managing polytrauma were deficient and thus, existing personnel were performing multiple tasks. Neurosurgeons and rehabilitative nursing staff were unavailable, and a radiographer was not available on a 24/7 basis. Existing nursing personnel had not received any formal training in trauma care and standard operating protocols were not available for trauma care. Resources for acute resuscitation were partially adequate. The hospital lacked adequate resources to manage head, abdomen, chest and spine injuries, and most of the polytrauma cases were referred to nearby city hospitals. Conclusion: District hospital, the only referral hospital in public health system for trauma victims of that region, had inadequate resources to manage trauma victims, which was probably responsible for delay in trauma care, improper referrals, high cost of care and poor outcomes. PMID:27331066

  9. Morbidity profile of elderly outpatients attending selected sub-district Siddha health facilities in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Kalaiselvi; Srinivasan, Manikandan; Duraisamy, Venkatachalam; Ramaswamy, Gomathi; Venugopal, Vinayagamurthy; Chinnakali, Palanivel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, under National Health Mission alternate systems of Medicine are mainstreamed in public health care system. Effective action plan generation, logistic arrangement and roll out of these alternate systems of Medicine needs understanding on profile of morbidities among attendees who come to these facilities. Objectives: This study was planned to report profile of morbidities, age and sex differentials in specific morbidities among geriatric attendees in secondary level siddha health facilities. Materials and Methods: A facility based cross sectional study was conducted among elderly person (60 years and above) attending Siddha outpatient department (OPD) from two of the randomly selected sub district level siddha facilities in Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India. Information on socio-demographic variables like age, gender, education and clinical profile (diagnosis) were collected from records already maintained in the siddha OPD. Morbidities were summarized in terms of proportions based on age and gender. Age and sex specific differentials on specific morbidities were compared using ‘z’ test. Results: Of 2710 patients who visited these two siddha facilities during the reference period, 763 (28.1%) patients were elderly. Arthritis (45.2%), neuritis (8.8%), diabetes (6.6%), bronchial asthma (5.2%), hemiplegia (3.7%) were the top five morbidities diagnosed and treated among elderly attending the siddha OPD. There was a predilection towards elderly male for morbidities such as bronchial asthma and hemiplegia compared to elderly female. Similarly, higher proportions of lumbar spondylosis, hypertension and fungal skin diseases were reported among aged 80 years or more compared to elderly aged 60-79 years. Conclusion: Elderly constitute more than one fourth of outpatients load from siddha health facilities. Degenerative diseases like arthritis and non-communicable diseases were the common morbidities in this age group. Geriatric clinics and mobile

  10. Pesticide residues in two frog species in a paddy agroecosystem in Palakkad district, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kittusamy, Ganesan; Kandaswamy, Chandrasekar; Kandan, Nambirajan; Subramanian, Muralidharan

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides residues were quantified in 109 frogs comprising two species (Fejervarya limnocharis and Hoplobatrachus crassus) from organic and conventional paddy farms in Kerala, India. Seven frogs from conventional but none from the organic farms revealed deformities. Levels of total Organochlorines (OCs) (33.22 ng/g) and Synthetic Pyrethroid, Fenvalerate-II (26.91/42.15 ng/g) in deformed F. limnocharis and H. crassus were significantly greater than in healthy frogs. Among OCs in healthy frogs, traces of γ (gamma)-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) (2.12 ng/g) were found only in F. limnocharis from organic farm. Among Organophosphates, Phorate (1.02 ng/g) and Quinalphos (2.62 ng/g) were present in traces in deformed F. limnocharis, while Parathion ethyl (1.02 ng/g) was detected in deformed H. crassus. The data indicate that the high level of pesticides may have contributed to the deformity of frogs. Therefore, an elaborative study will be essential to conserve amphibians in India.

  11. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of surface water quality of Pratapgarh district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    The hydrogeochemical study of surface water in Pratapgarh district has been carried out to assess the major ion chemistry and water quality for drinking and domestic purposes. For this purpose, twenty-five surface water samples were collected from river, ponds and canals and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, hardness, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), major anions (HCO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-) and dissolved silica concentration. The analytical results show mildly acidic to alkaline nature of surface water resources of Pratapgarh district. HCO3 - and Cl- are the dominant anions, while cation chemistry is dominated by Na+ and Ca2+. The statistical analysis and data plotted on the Piper diagram reveals that the surface water chemistry is mainly controlled by rock weathering with secondary contributions from agriculture and anthropogenic sources. Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 -, Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- and Na+-HCO3 --Cl- are the dominant hydrogeochemical facies in the surface water of the area. For quality assessment, values of analysed parameters were compared with Indian and WHO water quality standards, which shows that the concentrations of TDS, F-, NO3 -, Na+, Mg2+ and total hardness are exceeding the desirable limits in some water samples. Water Quality Index (WQI) is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of any water body. The computed WQI values of Pratapgarh district surface water range from 28 to 198 with an average value of 82, and more than half of the study area is under excellent to good category.

  12. Prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India.

    PubMed

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Renuka Prasad, C; Byregowda, S M

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to observe the prevalence of Culicoides a biting midge, important pest and prime vector for various viruses, protozoa and filarid worms. In the vicinity of 11 different farms of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Bangalore rural and urban districts the flies were collected by using UV traps (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. ARC. LNR) connected with suction fan for the period of 1 year (2012-2013). Around 83,629 Culicoides were collected of which 77,906 (93.16 %) were female and 5,723 (6.84 %) were males and 40,120 (47.97 %) of C. imicola, 39,366 (47.07 %) C. oxystoma, 2,504 (2.99 %) C. actoni, 1,145 (1.37 %) C. peregrinus, 145 (0.17 %) C. huffi, 120 (0.16 %) C. innoxius, 90 (0.11 %) C. palpifer, 67 (0.08 %) C. anopheles, 37 (0.04 %) C. circumscriptus and 25 (0.03 %) were C. arakawae. It was observed that C. imicola and C. oxystoma were the most predominant species prevalent in Bangalore rural and urban districts of Karnataka.

  13. Predictors of knowledge towards malaria of rural tribal communities in Dhalai District of Tripura, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Debbarma, A

    2013-10-01

    Reduction of malarial morbidity and mortality is one of the top public health priorities in Tripura and the Country. To achieve these targets it is imperative to have active community participation to control malaria. Community participation in turn depends on people's knowledge and attitude towards the disease. This study was conducted to examine the factors that predict the knowledge of rural tribal communities in Dhalai district of Tripura towards malaria. This community based epidemiological cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Dhalai district of Tripura. A pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting socio-demographic and malaria-related KAP information was administered to the 216 adult respondents from a representative sample of households. As a whole, there were 147(68.1%) illiterate respondents. Out of them, 89(41.2%) persons were male and 58(26.9%) were female. Correct knowledge about the cause of malaria was 2.77 times higher in males than females and 11.53 times higher in literate tribal people than in illiterate. Correct knowledge about the symptoms fever, chills, and rigors of malaria were also higher in male sex and in literate tribal people. Use of smoke as preventive measure was very high among the respondents. Common predictors of correct knowledge about etiology and clinical features of malaria were in male Tripuri and Reang community. Use of smoke for killing of adult mosquito was predicted by illiteracy. Promotion of literacy and participation in health education are vital component in terms of knowledge and practice.

  14. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips.The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases.This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

  15. Prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India.

    PubMed

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Renuka Prasad, C; Byregowda, S M

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to observe the prevalence of Culicoides a biting midge, important pest and prime vector for various viruses, protozoa and filarid worms. In the vicinity of 11 different farms of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Bangalore rural and urban districts the flies were collected by using UV traps (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. ARC. LNR) connected with suction fan for the period of 1 year (2012-2013). Around 83,629 Culicoides were collected of which 77,906 (93.16 %) were female and 5,723 (6.84 %) were males and 40,120 (47.97 %) of C. imicola, 39,366 (47.07 %) C. oxystoma, 2,504 (2.99 %) C. actoni, 1,145 (1.37 %) C. peregrinus, 145 (0.17 %) C. huffi, 120 (0.16 %) C. innoxius, 90 (0.11 %) C. palpifer, 67 (0.08 %) C. anopheles, 37 (0.04 %) C. circumscriptus and 25 (0.03 %) were C. arakawae. It was observed that C. imicola and C. oxystoma were the most predominant species prevalent in Bangalore rural and urban districts of Karnataka. PMID:27605753

  16. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

  17. DOTS-based tuberculosis treatment and control during civil conflict and an HIV epidemic, Churachandpur District, India.

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Alison J.; Toole, Mike; Lalnuntluangi, Baby; Muana, V.; Deutschmann, Peter

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To pilot the WHO guidelines on DOTS for tuberculosis (TB) among displaced people affected by conflict in Churachandpur District, Manipur State, north-east India, which has endured an HIV epidemic, injecting drug use, civil unrest, high levels of TB, and poor TB treatment and prevention services for many years. METHODS: Prerequisites for TB control programmes were established. WHO guidelines and protocols were adapted for local use. Outreach workers were appointed from each ethnic group involved in the conflict, and training was conducted. Quality control and evaluation processes were introduced. FINDINGS: TB was diagnosed in 178 people between June and December 1998. Of the 170 with pulmonary disease, 85 were smear-positive. Successful outcomes were recorded in 91% of all patients and in 86% of smear-positive cases of pulmonary TB. The default rate and the mortality rate were low at 3% each. HIV positive serostatus was the only factor associated with a poor treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: TB treatment and control were possible in a conflict setting and WHO targets for cure were attainable. The factors associated with the success of the programme were strong local community support, the selection of outreach workers from each ethnic group to allow access to all areas and patients, the use of directly observed therapy three times a week instead of daily in the interest of increased safety, and the limiting of distances travelled by both outreach workers and patients. PMID:12132001

  18. Primordial radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) measurements for soils of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Badhan, K; Mehra, R

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the activity concentration and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) for the soil of different villages of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India using a high-purity germanium detector based on high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil samples have been found to be 28.58, 50.95 and 569.59 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which gives the total gamma dose rate contribution of 68.50 nGy h(-1). To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the effective dose rate have been calculated. The calculated radium equivalent activity values are on the lower side of the recommended safe limit value of 370 Bq kg(-1) by Organization of Economic and Control Department. The calculated value of external health hazard index is lower than unity.

  19. Prevalence of Thinness among Rural Bengalee Pre-school Children in Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Bose, K; Bisai, S; Chakraborty, R

    2009-09-01

    This-cross sectional study investigated the age and sex variations in thinness among 2016 (930 boys and 1086 girls) 3-5 years old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity. The children were randomly recruited from 66 Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The area is remote and mostly inhabited by Bengalee Muslims. All preschool children (3-5 years old) living in Chapra Block are enrolled at these centres. Anthropometric measures taken included height and weight using standard techniques and then body mass index (BMI) was computed. Age and sex specific cut-off values of body mass index (BMI) were utilised to identify thinness. Overall prevalence of thinness was 49.68% and 51.57% among boys and girls, respectively. There were significant (p< 0.05) sex differences in height, weight and BMI. In general, the frequency of thinness increased with increasing age in both sexes. The rates of Grade-III and Grade-II thinness were higher among girls (Grade-III = 7.46%, Grade-II = 13.44%) compared with boys (Grade-III = 5.48%, Grade-II = 11.72%). In contrast, Grade-I thinness was higher among boys. The results from this study indicate that the nutritional status of rural Bengalee pre-school children is unsatisfactory. These children are experiencing marked nutritional stress. There is scope for much improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  20. Site specific toxicological risk from fluoride exposure through ingestion of vegetables and cereal crops in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2011-05-01

    A study was carried out to assess toxicological risk from the fluoride (F) exposure due to ingestion of vegetables and cereal crops such as rice and wheat grown in potentially fluoridated area (brick kiln and sodic areas), of different age groups in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Fluoride contents in vegetables and cereal were found to be in the order brick kiln sites>sodic sites>normal sites. Among vegetables maximum F concentration was found in spinach and mint, whereas in cereal crops, wheat accumulated more F than rice. The exposure dose of F was determined using estimated daily intake (EDI) and bio-concentration factor (BCF) of F. The children of age group 3-14 years in the potentially fluoridated area were found to be at the risk of fluorosis. The mean BCF value of F was the highest in mint (36.6 mg/kg(dwt) plant/mg/kg(dwt) soil), followed by spinach (33.99 mg/kg(dwt) plant.mg/kg(dwt) soil).

  1. Evaluation of the groundwater quality feasibility zones for irrigational purposes through GIS in Omalur Taluk, Salem District, South India.

    PubMed

    Karunanidhi, D; Vennila, G; Suresh, M; Subramanian, S K

    2013-10-01

    The present work is employed in Omalur Taluk (study area 538.10 km(2)), Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India. Eighty-nine groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon (May) 2011 and were analyzed for major cations and anions. The irrigational parameters like; EC, Kelley's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values, Mg(2+) hazards, HCO3 (-) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) have been worked out to know the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational purpose. Wilcox diagram indicates that out of 89 samples, 39 samples belong to good permissible category and Doneen diagram revealed that 98.88 % of the groundwater samples fall in Class I. The plotting of SAR values in USSL diagram indicates that all the samples have low SAR value. Out of 89 samples, 44 samples were in C3-S1 field. This implies that no alkali hazard is anticipated to the crops. In 44 locations (49.44 %), samples fall within C3-S1 category. This category is suitable for irrigation purpose. However, the concentration of bicarbonate was in significant amount showing 82 % of sites under "increasing problem" and the 4 % sites under "Severe Problem" zones. Finally, the above-said results are taken into a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. To understand the spatial distribution of unsuitable zones, ArcGIS was employed. The present work reveals that groundwater in the Omalur Taluk is of good quality and is suitable for all uses including interbrain water transfer in the region.

  2. Assessment of fluoride intake through food chain and mapping of endemic areas of Gaya district, Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sumeet; Yasmin, Shahla

    2015-02-01

    Accumulation of Fluoride (F) was found in the soil and vegetation of the F-endemic villages of Gaya district, Bihar, India. The mean F level in the groundwater of F non-endemic (control) area was 0.59 ± 0.03 (n = 11), while that of F-endemic area was 2.36 ± 0.23 (n = 27). Water soluble F (WSF) and total F (TF) in the soil of F-endemic villages were significantly higher as compared to the F non-endemic area. Similarly, WSF and TF in the vegetables and the grain crops (cereals, legumes and oilseeds) of the F-endemic area were significantly higher as compared that of the control area. Leafy vegetables showed higher accumulation of F with WSF and TF in spinach ranging from 3.62 to 4.82 and 9.88-12.88 mg/kg respectively. The WSF and TF in coriander ranged from 9.66 to 10.88 and 23.11-25.73 mg/kg respectively. PMID:25293392

  3. Assessment of nitrate contamination due to groundwater pollution in north eastern part of Anantapur District, A.P. India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A G S; Niranjan Kumar, K; Subba Rao, D; Sambashiva Rao, S

    2009-01-01

    The north eastern part of Anantapur district is in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, is significant as it is covered by varied geological formations and has different land use and irrigation practices. Though ground water is the major drinking water source, deterioration in its quality is going unchecked. In such agro-economy based rural areas, the nitrate contamination is rampant and much attention has not been drawn towards this anthropogenic pollution. In the study area ground water samples from different hydrogeological set-up have been collected during the pre and post monsoon seasons and analysed for the major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, CO(3), HCO(3), Cl, SO(4), NO(3) and F. The study revealed that 65% of the samples were found to be unsuitable for drinking purposes in the pre monsoon season and 45% in the post monsoon due to excess nitrate (>45 mg/l) content in the ground water. Among the different seasons and environs, nitrate was in highest concentration in the granitic terrain and canal command areas during pre monsoon season. The nitrate was found to decrease with depth in all the hydrogeological set-ups in both the seasons. Intense agriculture practices, improper sewerage and organic waste disposal methods were observed to contribute nitrate to the shallow and moderately deep aquifers.

  4. A case–control study of psychological distress in survivors of farmers' suicides in Wardha District in central India

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna

    2016-01-01

    Context: Lack of literature on psychological aspects of survivors of farmers' suicides is hurdle in devising effective helping strategies for rising number of survivors across the country. Aims and Objectives: To assess the psychological distress and its correlates in survivors of farmers' suicides. Settings and Design: Case–control study design was used in Wardha District of Vidarbha region in the central India. Materials and Methods: A predesigned and pretested semistructured questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic variables. Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 was used to evaluate psychological distress in 98 survivors of farmers' suicides and 98 age, sex, and occupation-matched controls. Statistical Analysis: Significance of differences between case and control groups were assessed using Chi-square test or Fisher's two-tailed exact test for class variables. For continuous variables, Student's t-test was used P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Significantly higher proportion of survivors had psychological distress than controls. Female survivors, spouse and parents of suicide victims had a high risk of distress. Psychological distress was commonly expressed by depressive and somatic symptoms. Conclusions: Survivors of farmers' suicides are suffering from significant psychological distress. PMID:27385846

  5. Site specific toxicological risk from fluoride exposure through ingestion of vegetables and cereal crops in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2011-05-01

    A study was carried out to assess toxicological risk from the fluoride (F) exposure due to ingestion of vegetables and cereal crops such as rice and wheat grown in potentially fluoridated area (brick kiln and sodic areas), of different age groups in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Fluoride contents in vegetables and cereal were found to be in the order brick kiln sites>sodic sites>normal sites. Among vegetables maximum F concentration was found in spinach and mint, whereas in cereal crops, wheat accumulated more F than rice. The exposure dose of F was determined using estimated daily intake (EDI) and bio-concentration factor (BCF) of F. The children of age group 3-14 years in the potentially fluoridated area were found to be at the risk of fluorosis. The mean BCF value of F was the highest in mint (36.6 mg/kg(dwt) plant/mg/kg(dwt) soil), followed by spinach (33.99 mg/kg(dwt) plant.mg/kg(dwt) soil). PMID:21329982

  6. Evaluation of the groundwater quality feasibility zones for irrigational purposes through GIS in Omalur Taluk, Salem District, South India.

    PubMed

    Karunanidhi, D; Vennila, G; Suresh, M; Subramanian, S K

    2013-10-01

    The present work is employed in Omalur Taluk (study area 538.10 km(2)), Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India. Eighty-nine groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon (May) 2011 and were analyzed for major cations and anions. The irrigational parameters like; EC, Kelley's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values, Mg(2+) hazards, HCO3 (-) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) have been worked out to know the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational purpose. Wilcox diagram indicates that out of 89 samples, 39 samples belong to good permissible category and Doneen diagram revealed that 98.88 % of the groundwater samples fall in Class I. The plotting of SAR values in USSL diagram indicates that all the samples have low SAR value. Out of 89 samples, 44 samples were in C3-S1 field. This implies that no alkali hazard is anticipated to the crops. In 44 locations (49.44 %), samples fall within C3-S1 category. This category is suitable for irrigation purpose. However, the concentration of bicarbonate was in significant amount showing 82 % of sites under "increasing problem" and the 4 % sites under "Severe Problem" zones. Finally, the above-said results are taken into a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. To understand the spatial distribution of unsuitable zones, ArcGIS was employed. The present work reveals that groundwater in the Omalur Taluk is of good quality and is suitable for all uses including interbrain water transfer in the region. PMID:23636597

  7. Costs and consequences of a cash transfer for hospital births in a rural district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-08-01

    The Janani Suraksha Yojana, India's "safe motherhood program," is a conditional cash transfer to encourage women to give birth in health facilities. Despite the program's apparent success in increasing facility-based births, quantitative evaluations have not found corresponding improvements in health outcomes. This study analyses original qualitative data collected between January, 2012 and November, 2013 in a rural district in Uttar Pradesh to address the question of why the program has not improved health outcomes. It finds that health service providers are focused on capturing economic rents associated with the program, and provide an extremely poor quality care. Further, the program does not ultimately provide beneficiaries a large net monetary transfer at the time of birth. Based on a detailed accounting of the monetary costs of hospital and home deliveries, this study finds that the value of the transfer to beneficiaries is small due to costs associated with hospital births. Finally, this study also documents important emotional and psychological costs to women of delivering in the hospital. These findings suggest the need for a substantial rethinking of the program, paying careful attention to incentivizing health outcomes. PMID:24911512

  8. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  9. Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in Erode District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kavidha, R; Elangovan, K

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the recurring environmental issues regarding hazardous waste, global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, groundwater contamination, disaster mitigation and removal of pollutant have become the focus of environmental attention. In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. In order to assess the quality and/or suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation in Erode District, 144 water samples each in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon during the year 2007 were collected and analyzed for various parameters. These parameters were compared with IS: 10500-1991 drinking water standards. Out of 144 samples, 29 samples exceeded the permissible limit for both the monsoons, 71 samples were within the permissible limit for both the monsoons and the remaining samples exceeded the permissible limit for any one of the monsoon. During both monsoons, except some samples, most of the samples were suitable for drinking and irrigation.

  10. Prediction of nutritional status from skinfold thickness in undernourished Santal children of Purulia district, India.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sutanu Dutta; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore whether the skinfold thickness can be used in assessing the nutritional status in 5-12 years aged Santal children of Purulia district of West Bengal and to determine the sensitivity of these parameters for measuring the nutritional status. Height, weight and skinfold thickness of triceps (TRSF), biceps, suprailiac, subscapula (SBSF) and calf of Santal children were measured. Growth curves of TRSF-forage and SBSF-for-age in Santal children are placed at lower level of reference values indicating prevailed undernutrition in surveyed children. The SBSF for boys and TRSF for girls are significantly associated with nutritional status. Present study suggests that SBSF for boys and TRSF for girls are more sensitive than other skinfold thickness for the assessment of nutritional status in Santal children. Relationship of growth pattern of skinfold thickness is different in undernourished Santal children compared to well-nourished Santal children.

  11. Heavy metal concentration in the coastal wetlands of Thiruvananthapuram district, southern India.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K S; Joseph, Sabu; Thomas, Jobin

    2010-04-01

    Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the surficial sediments of the four coastal wetlands, viz. Poovar, Poonthura, Akkulam-Veli and Kadinamkulam-Anjengo-Akathumuri of Thiruvananthapuram are presented in this study. Further the statistical tools like contamination factor (CF), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI) are used to assess the heavy metal pollution. Among the wetlands, Poonthura and Akkulam-Veli were polluted by the heavy metals, as very high values are observed for Pb and Cu indicating high build up of these metals in the sediments. The highest value of CF can be attributed to anthropogenic inputs mainly from urban domestic sewage and land run-off. Based on the value of CF, PLI and Igeo, the Poonthura and Akkulam-Veli wetlands are identified as potential 'hot spots' in the district.

  12. Potential relationship between dengue fever and neural tube defects in a northern district of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J B; Gulati, N

    1992-12-01

    A sudden increase in number of births of newborns with neural tube defects (NTD) was observed from June, 1989 to September, 1989 in Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak and various other government and private hospitals of the district of Rohtak. Out of a total 4785 deliveries whose records were collected, there were 87 newborns with NTD with an incidence of 18.18/1000 births which was three times higher than the previous incidence of 6.8/1000 births in the preceding 4 years. There was an epidemic of dengue fever in this area from September, 1988 to December, 1988 affecting almost one member from each family. This coincided with the period of their first trimester. Of these, 18 patients suffered clinically from dengue fever, 21 patients had positive dengue fever history in their family members, 21 patients had positive history in their neighbors. The cluster of NTD appears to be due to dengue virus infection.

  13. Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in Erode District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kavidha, R; Elangovan, K

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the recurring environmental issues regarding hazardous waste, global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, groundwater contamination, disaster mitigation and removal of pollutant have become the focus of environmental attention. In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. In order to assess the quality and/or suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation in Erode District, 144 water samples each in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon during the year 2007 were collected and analyzed for various parameters. These parameters were compared with IS: 10500-1991 drinking water standards. Out of 144 samples, 29 samples exceeded the permissible limit for both the monsoons, 71 samples were within the permissible limit for both the monsoons and the remaining samples exceeded the permissible limit for any one of the monsoon. During both monsoons, except some samples, most of the samples were suitable for drinking and irrigation. PMID:26563080

  14. Geospatial modelling for groundwater quality mapping: a case study of Rupnagar district, Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, S.; Kaur, A.; Litoria, P.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Over period of time, the water usage and management is under stress for various reasons including pollution in both surface and subsurface. The groundwater quality decreases due to the solid waste from urban and industrial nodes, rapid use of insecticides and pesticides in agricultural practices. In this study, ground water quality maps for Rupnagar district of Punjab has been prepared using geospatial interpolation technique through Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach. IDW technique has been used for major ground water quality parameters observed from the field samples like Arsenic, Hardness, pH, Iron, Fluoride, TDS, and Sulphate. To assess the ground water quality of the Rupnagar district, total 280 numbers of samples from various sources of tubewells for both pre and post monsoon have collected. Out of which, 80 to 113 samples found Iron with non potable limits ranging 0.3-1.1mg/l and 0.3-1.02mg/l according to BIS standard for both the seasons respectively. Chamkaur Sahib, Rupnagar, Morinda blocks have been found non potable limit of iron in both pre & post-monsoon. 11 to 52 samples in this region have sulphate with permissible limits in both the season ranging 200-400mg/l and 201-400mg/l. But arsenic had acceptable limit in both the season. Various parameters-wise ground water quality map is generated using the range values of drinking water quality to know the distribution of different parameters and diversification in the concentration of different elements. These maps are very much needful for human being to expand awareness among the people to maintain the Cleanness of water at their highest quality and purity levels to achieve a healthy life.

  15. Landscape Heterogeneity mapping for Access to Tribal health care in Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, B.; Prashanthi Devi, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Nilgiris district in Tamilnadu has a rich biodiversity in terms of flora, fauna and ethnic population. The district is basically a mountainous region, situated at an elevation of 2000 to 2,600 meters above MSL and constituting of several hill and Steep Mountain valleys. This region houses six tribes who are mainly forest dwellers and live in close settlements depending on the forest resources for their livelihood. The Tribes of Nilgiris have been diagnosed and monitored for Sickle cell Anemia which is a disease of major concern among these ethnic populations. This genetic disorder developed due to the sickling of Red Blood Cells has increased during the past few decades. The Tribes, as they live in close encounter with the forest regions and have strict social cultural barriers, face difficulty in availing treatment or counseling from the Sickle Cell Research Center (SCRC) and other NGOs like NAWA and AHWINI in the region. It was observed that many factors such as landscape terrain, climatic conditions and improper roads tend to hinder the access to appropriate health care. The SCRC in Gudalur region is a facility established to monitor the disease cases inspite of these influencing factors. On analyzing the year bound age wise classification among male and female patients, certain dropouts in cases were observed which may be due to inaccessible condition or migration of the patient. In our study, Landscape heterogeneity mapping for different climatic seasons was done in ArcGIS 10.1. For this, contour and terrain maps, road networks and villages were prepared and factors that determine Terrain Difficulty were assessed. Vegetation mapping using IRS satellite images for the study region was attempted and associated with the landscape map. A risk analysis was proposed based on terrain difficulty and access to the nearest Health care Center. Based on this, the above factors alternate routes were suggested to access the difficult areas.

  16. Geochemical evaluation of fluoride contamination of groundwater in the Thoothukudi District of Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singaraja, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Thivya, C.; Thilagavathi, R.; Sarathidasan, J.

    2014-09-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that has been shown to cause significant effects on human health through drinking water. Different forms of fluoride exposure are of importance and have shown to affect the body's fluoride content and thus increasing the risks of fluoride-prone diseases. Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth; however, low concentrations of fluoride intensify the risk of tooth decay. Fluoride can also be quite detrimental at higher concentrations at skeletal fluorosis. The Thoothukudi District is a hard rock and alluvial plain marked as one of the Fluoride-increase area in Tamilnadu due to occurrence of various rock types including fluoride-bearing minerals. The F- content of groundwater can thus originate from the dissolution of Fluoride-bearing minerals in the bed rock. Hundred representative groundwater samples from Thoothukudi District were collected during two different seasons. Samples were analysed for F-, other major cations and anions. The study area is chiefly composed of hornblende biotite gneiss, charnockite, alluvio marine, fluvial marine and granite with small patches of quartzite and sandstone. Higher concentration of fluoride is observed during pre-monsoon (3.3 mg l-1) compared to the post-monsoon (2.4 mg l-1) due to the dilution effect. Spatial distribution and factor score show that higher concentrations of F- are noted in the north and central part of the study area owing to lithology. Bicarbonate is well correlated with F- which explains that both ions were derived from the weathering. While F- has a very weak correlation with pH which may be due to the increase of alkalinity resulting from the increase of carbonate and bicarbonate ions.

  17. Evaluation of Capacity-Building Program of District Health Managers in India: A Contextualized Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Prashanth, N. S.; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many low- and middle-income countries, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the south Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organizations partnered with the state government to organize a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30 months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organizational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at individual, institutional, and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesized mechanisms of organizational change, such as staff’s perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organizations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context–mechanism–outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome. PMID:25121081

  18. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making.

  19. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  20. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  1. Assessment of Universal Healthcare Coverage in a District of North India: A Rapid Cross-Sectional Survey Using Tablet Computers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarundeep; Roy, Pritam; Jamir, Limalemla; Gupta, Saurav; Kaur, Navpreet; Jain, D. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective A rapid survey was carried out in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar District of Punjab state in India to ascertain health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket health expenditures. Methods Using multistage cluster sampling design, 1,008 households (28 clusters x 36 households in each cluster) were selected proportionately from urban and rural areas. Households were selected through a house-to-house survey during April and May 2014 whose members had (a) experienced illness in the past 30 days, (b) had illness lasting longer than 30 days, (c) were hospitalized in the past 365 days, or (d) had women who were currently pregnant or experienced childbirth in the past two years. In these selected households, trained investigators, using a tablet computer-based structured questionnaire, enquired about the socio-demographics, nature of illness, source of healthcare, and healthcare and household expenditure. The data was transmitted daily to a central server using wireless communication network. Mean healthcare expenditures were computed for various health conditions. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure was defined as more than 10% of the total annual household expenditure on healthcare. Chi square test for trend was used to compare catastrophic expenditures on hospitalization between households classified into expenditure quartiles. Results The mean monthly household expenditure was 15,029 Indian Rupees (USD 188.2). Nearly 14.2% of the household expenditure was on healthcare. Fever, respiratory tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases were the common acute illnesses, while heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases were the more common chronic diseases. Hospitalizations were mainly due to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal problems, and accidents. Only 17%, 18%, 20% and 31% of the healthcare for acute illnesses, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations and childbirth was sought in the government health facilities. Average expenditure in government health

  2. Indigenous knowledge of plants in local healthcare management practices by tribal people of Malda district, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manas Ranjan; Sarker, Dilip De; Kar, Pallab; Gupta, Piyali Sen; Sen, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed at exploring the indigenous knowledge of native tribes on the utilization of wild plant species for local healthcare management in Malda district of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Successive field surveys were carried out from July 2012 to August 2013 in search of traditional healers or practitioners who ceaselessly use their worthy knowledge to treat several ailments for human purposes. The information was collected by means of open-ended conversations, semi-structured questionnaire, group discussion, etc. Information obtained from the informants was also cross verified to check the authenticity. Results: The present study revealed that a total of 53 medicinal plants belonging to the 37 families are frequently used to treat 44 types of ailments with 88 herbal preparations. Of 53 plants, herbs possess the highest growth forms (32%) that were used in making traditional preparation, followed by shrubs (24%), trees (23%), climbers (17%), and parasites (4%). Roots comprised the major plant parts used (25%), followed by leaves (21%), seeds (17%), bark (13%), whole plant (8%) and fruits (6%) to prepare the medicinal formulations. The chief ailments treated in this province were azoospermia, diabetes, menstrual disorder, dysentery, rheumatism, etc. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the documentation of the ethnobotanical knowledge in management of local healthcare is the first step, which will open new door for the researchers in the field of modern drug development. PMID:26401370

  3. Heavy metals concentration in soils of southeastern part of Ranga Reddy district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Dantu, Sujatha

    2009-02-01

    There is a growing concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soils owing to rapid industrial and urban development and increasing reliance on agrochemicals in the last several decades. These metals can infiltrate through the soil thereby causing groundwater pollution. Surface soil samples (5 to 15 cm) collected from southeastern part of Ranga Reddy district were analyzed for 14 heavy metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Y, Zn and Zr) using Philips PW 2440 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results for heavy and trace elements are reported for the first time in soils for this region. The contamination of the soils was assessed on the basis of enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I (geo)), contamination factor and degree of contamination. The results reveal that variations in heavy element concentrations in the soil analyzed have both geogenic and anthropogenic contribution, due to the long period of constant human activities in the study area. The concentration of the metals Ba, Rb, Sr, V, Y and Zr were interpreted to be mainly inherited from parent materials (rocks) and the As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations show contribution from geogenic and anthropogenic sources. The major element variations in soils are determined by the composition of the parent material predominantly involving granites.

  4. Dipterous haematophagous insects occurring in Dehradun district and its adjoining areas in Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Pemola Devi, N; Jauhari, R K

    2013-12-01

    Haematophagous dipterans belonging to 10 genera - Aedes (12), Anopheles (14), Armigeres (01), Culex (09), Toxorhynchites (01), Uranotaenia (01), Sergentomyia (02), Phlebotomus (01), Atylotus (01) and Tabanus (03) were encountered from 12 localities under 6 blocks of Dehradun district (Uttarakhand) during January 2011 to December 2012. The Culicines (50.69%) were more dominant than the Anophelines (38.9%), Toxorhynchites (1.72%), horse flies (6.63%) and sandflies (2.01%). The following species viz., Toxorhynchites splendens and Phlebotomus argentipes have been recorded for the first time while Aedes pseudotaeniatus as reappeared species from the study area. Species diversity is represented through Species richness (S), Shannon index (H) and Shannon Eveness (E) among Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Sandfly and Horsefly. The species richness (S) and evenness (E) were found as 12, 0.65; 14, 0.84; 09, 0.74; 3, 0.61 and 4, 0.78 respectively by Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Sandfly and Horsefly. Highest Shannon index was shared by Anopheles (2.214) followed by Culex (1.639), Aedes (1.631), Horsefly (1.085) and Sandfly (0.672) in succeeding order.

  5. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions.

  6. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions. PMID:25522499

  7. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India's extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step. PMID:27591204

  8. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India's extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step.

  9. Fluoride distribution in groundwater and survey of dental fluorosis among school children in the villages of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J P; Lata, Suman; Kataria, Sudhir K; Kumar, Sunil

    2009-08-01

    Fluoride concentration of groundwater reserves occurs in many places in the world. A critical area for such contamination in India is alluvial soil of the plain region, consisting of five blocks (Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, Beri, Matanhail, and Sahalawas) of the Jhajjar District adjacent to the National Capital Territory of India, New Delhi. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between water fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India. The fluoride content in underground drinking water sources was found to vary in villages. Hence, the villages were categorized as high-fluoride villages (1.52-4.0 mg F/l) and low/normal-fluoride villages (0.30-1.0 mg F/l). The source of dental fluorosis data was school-going children (7-15 years) showing different stages and types of fluorosis who were permanent resident of these villages. The fraction of dental fluorosis-affected children varied from 30% to 94.85% in the high-fluoride villages and from 8.80% to 28.20% in the low/normal-fluoride villages. The results of the present study revealed that there existed a significant positive correlation between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental fluorosis in high-fluoride villages (r = 0.508; p < 0.001) and insignificant correlation in low-fluoride villages.

  10. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  11. Regional flood reconstruction in Kullu District (Himachal Pradesh, India): implication for Disaster Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Stoffel, Markus; Trappmann, Daniel; Shekhar, Mayank; Bhattacharyya, Amalava

    2016-04-01

    simultaneously in more than two catchments, and that in 15% of the cases more than four catchments were affected. By contrast, 44% of event years were related with one specific catchment, corroborating the assumption that large-scale atmospheric conditions and specific weather and/or geomorphic conditions may operate as triggers of floods in Kullu district. The inclusion of peak discharge data related with these ungauged extreme flood events into the regional flood frequency evidenced that flood hazard was systematically underestimated. Our results allowed to highlight the potential causes of three paradigmatic cases of flood disaster incidents at Kullus district, suggesting that the lack of knowledge on past flood disaster could play an important role in Disaster Risk managment (DRM) at three actors-levels i.e. civil engineering, local authorities and inhabitants. These observations show that reliable DRM implementation is conditioned by lack of data to characterize the flood process, and therefore put in value the palaeohydrological approach used in this study.

  12. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged. PMID:22527453

  13. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged.

  14. Study on radionuclides in granite quarries of Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, C; Sannappa, J; Karunakara, N

    2008-01-01

    Studies on natural radiation levels and radionuclides were carried out extensively in the environment of granite quarries of Kanakapura, Ramanagara Taluks and Bidadi Hobli in Bangalore rural District and Bangalore city. The indoor and outdoor gamma exposure rate in air was measured using an environmental dosemeter, and it is converted into absorbed dose using suitable conversion factor. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in rock samples and also in soil samples were measured using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The results reveal that the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in rocks are found to be vary from 32.2 to 163.6, 128.3 to 548.6 and 757.4 to 1418.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 93.2, 306.2 and 1074.4 Bq kg(-1). Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples were found to vary from 32.4 to 55.2, 39.9 to 214.3 and 485.4 to 1150.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 40.7, 93.1 and 750.4 Bq kg(-1). The average activity levels of all these radionuclides are above the global average. This is consistent with the geological and geo-chemical significance of the rocks of the area under investigation. The results of these systematic investigations are discussed in detail and compared with the literature values represented for other environments.

  15. Study on Patient Satisfaction in the Government Allopathic Health Facilities of Lucknow District, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Ranjeeta; Idris, MZ; Bhushan, Vidya; Khanna, Anish; Agarwal, Monika; Singh, SK

    2009-01-01

    Background: The outcome of any disease is influenced by the decisions to seek care, timely arrival at appropriate diagnostic and treatment services and the receipt of adequate care from service providers. Satisfaction in service provision is increasingly being used as a measure of health system performance. Satisfaction manifests itself in the distribution, access and utilization of health services. Objectives: To determine the areas and causes of low satisfaction among the patients and suggest methods for improvement. Materials and Methods: Multistage stratified random sampling was used to select the government allopathic health facilities of Lucknow district and systematic random sampling for the selection of the patients for the interview. Results: The accessibility was difficult in 42% patients and waiting time more than 30 min for 62.5% of those attending the tertiary level health facility. The satisfaction with the duration of the outpatient department (OPD) (64.6%) and the presence of signboards (46.6%) was also found to be low. The overall satisfaction regarding the doctor-patient communication was more than 60% at all the levels of health care facilities but that with the examination and consultation was less than 60% at the primary level as compared to more than 80% elsewhere. The most important motivating factor for the visit to the tertiary (48.2%) and secondary level (71.9%, 67.1%) of health facilities was the faith on doctors or health facility. Conclusions: The level of patient satisfaction is severely deficient in several areas and needs improvement for the achievement of optimal health of the people. PMID:19876453

  16. Accessing groundwater quality in lower part of Nagapattinam district, Southern India: using hydrogeochemistry and GIS interpolation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Vasudevan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Bagyaraj, M.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate groundwater quality in the lower part of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. A detailed geochemical study of groundwater region is described, and the origin of the chemical composition of groundwater has been qualitatively evaluated, using observations over a period of two seasons premonsoon (June) and monsoon (November) in the year of 2010. To attempt this goal, samples were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3 - and SO4 2-. The abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is as Na > Ca > Mg > K, while that of anions is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. The Piper trilinear diagram indicates Ca-Cl2 facies, and according to USSL diagram, most of the sample exhibits high salinity hazard (C3S1) type in both seasons. It indicates that high salinity (C3) and low sodium (S1) are moderately suitable for irrigation purposes. Gibbs boomerang exhibits most of the samples mainly controlled by evaporation and weathering process sector in both seasons. Irrigation status of the groundwater samples indicates that it was moderately suitable for agricultural purpose. ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for the generation of various thematic maps and the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique inverse distance weighting was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map classified the ground quality in the study area. The results of this research show that the development of the management strategies for the aquifer system is vitally necessary.

  17. Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

    2013-06-01

    The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio 'a', anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C' were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio 'a' were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C' were highly variable characters (CV > 12%). PMID:23833327

  18. Esterase mediated resistance against synthetic pyrethroids in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Punjab districts of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Rath, Shitanshu S

    2014-08-29

    Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SP), in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from thirteen districts of Punjab (India) was carried out using adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentrations of drugs were utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on variables (mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition) the resistance levels were categorized. Against cypermethrin RFs of 1.48-11.22 were recorded in 12 isolates whereas, one isolate was susceptible. Resistance factors against deltamethrin were 2.4-38.54 and all 13 isolates were found to be resistant. Quantitative analysis of general esterase activity (measured by the production of the metabolite naphthol) revealed a range of 3.34 ± 0.30-13.75 ± 1.33 and 1.31 ± 0.15-8.09 ± 0.68 μmol/min/mg protein for α and β-esterase activity, respectively in different field isolates. Further, multiple pairwise comparisons of the mean values with susceptible strain (Tukey, P = 0.05) revealed significant elevated levels of both α-esterase and β-esterase in nine tick isolates resistant to both deltamethrin and cypermethrin. The data generated on acaricide resistant status and esterase mediated mechanism in ticks will help in formulating tick control strategy for the region.

  19. Out of Pocket Expenditure for Hospitalization among Below Poverty Line Households in District Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gupt, Anadi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kamraj, P.; Murthy, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health insurance schemes, like Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), should provide financial protection against catastrophic health costs by reducing out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) for hospitalizations. We estimated and compared the proportion and extent of OOPE among below poverty line (BPL) families beneficiaries and not beneficiaries by RSBY during hospitalizations in district Solan, H.P., India, 2013. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey among hospitalized BPL families in the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries groups. We compared proportion incurring OOPE and its extent during hospitalization, pre/post-hospitalization periods in different domains. Results Overall, proportion of non-beneficiaries who incurred OOPE was higher than the beneficiaries but it was not statistically significant (87.2% vs. 80.9%). The median overall OOPE was $39 (Rs 2567) in the non-beneficiaries group as compared to $ 11 (Rs 713) in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01). Median expenditure on in house and out house drugs and consumables was $ 23 (Rs 1500) in the non beneficiaries group as compared to nil in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01). Non-beneficiary status was significantly associated [OR: 2.4 (1.3–4.3)] with OOPE above median independently and also after adjusting for various covariates. Conclusion RSBY has decreased the extent of OOPE among the beneficiaries; however OOPE was incurred mainly due to purchase of drugs from outside the health facility. The treatment seeking behaviour in beneficiaries group has improved among comparatively older group with chronic conditions. RSBY has enabled beneficiaries to get more facilities such as drugs, consumables and diagnostics from the health facility. PMID:26895419

  20. X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A.; Parihar, P.

    2014-12-01

    The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters (a o; c o) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite (a o 7.1301-7.1413 Å, c o 9.7643-9.7902Å and V 429.8940-432.3875 Å3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard (c o 7.1290 Å, c o 9.7744 Å and V 430.19 Å3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE)N / (HREE)N, (La/Lu)N, (La/Yb)N and (Ce/Yb)N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

  1. X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A. K.; Parihar, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters ( a o ; c o ) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite ( a o 7.1301-7.1413 Å, c o 9.7643-9.7902Å and V 429.8940-432.3875 Å3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard ( c o 7.1290 Å, c o 9.7744 Å and V 430.19 Å3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE) N / (HREE) N , (La/Lu) N , (La/Yb) N and (Ce/Yb) N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

  2. Space Based Information Support for Decentralised Planning (SIS-DP)-A case study in Balangir District,Odisha, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Dash, S. K.; Thakur, R. R.; Jonna, S.; Tripathi, S.

    2014-11-01

    The state government is now focusing on decentralized planning and created administrative infrastructure for Gram Panchayat (Village Community) level planning in participatory way. The people are now opening up and started taking part in planning process at grass root level. In order to involve the people and make planning exercise more effective, National Remote Sensing Centre(ISRO), Dept. of Space(DOS) have begun activities using GIS and Communication Technology(Geo-Ict). Considering the potential of Geo-Ict a project titled "Space Based Information Support for Decentralized Planning (SIS-DP)" was launched by NRSC/ISRO under PC-NNRMS, DOS, Govt. of India. Odisha Space Applications Centre as a partner institution, have ful-filled the commitment of generating thematic information on 1 : 10 K from High resolution satellite data (Ortho-Rectified Cartosat-1 & LISS-IV data) for the state of Odisha. Thematic information on Land use, Settlements, Infrastructure and drainage have been generated and started dissemination to the users. The attribute information available from line department have also been linked to spatial framework of the SIS-DP layers. In the present study Bolangir, a drought prone and backward district is taken up. Total 285 thematic maps have been prepared at Gram Panchayat level keeping a buffer of 1.5 km to locally adjust any discrepancies in the boundary. User workshop and awareness campaigns were conducted and feed backs have been collected on Land Utilization Types (LUT). It is felt that extension of these services to the entire State have a strong bearing on improved strategy and planning process by the State.

  3. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis Among Primary School Children in Rural Areas of Chidambaram Taluk, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, S; Kalyani, C; Vijayarani, MP; Jayakodi, P; Felix, AJW; Nagarajan, S; Arunmozhi, P; Krishnan, V

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean's fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997). Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls) were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI) score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ‘borderline’ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6). A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors associated with the

  4. Dem Assessment Derived from Close Range Photogrammetry: a Case Study from Kadavur Area, Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbarasan, S.; Sakthivel, R.

    2012-07-01

    Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accuracy; complete as-built information; reduced costs; reduced on-site time; and effective for small and large projects. The same basic principle of traditional Aerial Photogrammetry can be applied to stereoscopic pictures taken from lower altitudes or from the ground. Terrestrial, ground-based, and close-range are all descriptive terms that refer to photos taken with an object-to-camera distance less than 300m (1000 feet). (Matthews, N.A, 2008). Close range Photogrammetry is a technique for obtaining the geometric information (e.g. position, distance, size and shape) of any object in 3D space that was imaged on the two dimensional (2D) photos, (Wolf, P.R, et.al, 2000) DEM Generation requires many processing and computation, such as camera calibration, stereo matching, editing, and interpolation. All the mentioned steps contribute to the quality of DEM. Image on close range Photogrammetry can be captured using three kind of camera: metric camera, semi-metric camera, and non-metric camera (Hanke, K., et.al, 2002). In this paper DEM quality assessed at Kadavur area, Karur district, Tamil Naudu, India using Close Range Photogrammetry technique, Commercial Digital Camera and Leica Photogrammetry Suite.

  5. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its induced health effects in Shahpur block, Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India: risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ahamed, Sad; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shyamapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Shahpur block of Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India and its health effects such as dermal, neurological, obstetric effects, and cancer risk. The School of Environmental Studies (SOES) collected 4704 tube-well water samples from all 88 villages of Shahpur, which were analyzed for arsenic. We found 40.3 and 21.1 % of the tube-wells had arsenic above 10 and 50 μg/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1805 μg/l. The study shows that 75,000, 39,000, and 10,000 people could be exposed to arsenic-contaminated water greater than 10, 50, and 300 μg/l, respectively. Our medical team examined 1422 villagers from Shahpur and registered 161 (prevalence rate, 11.3 %) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical skin lesions were also observed in 29 children of 525 screened. We analyzed 579 biological samples (hair, nail, and urine) from Shahpur and found that 82, 89, and 91 % of hair, nail, and urine, respectively, had arsenic above the normal levels, indicating many people in the study area are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 48 % of 102 arsenicosis patients. The study also found that arsenic exposed women with severe skin lesions had adversely affected their pregnancies. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were also estimated based on the generated data. Safe drinking water supply is urgently required to combat arsenic situation in affected villages of Shahpur.

  6. Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in Patna district (capital of Bihar) in the middle Ganga plain, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ahamed, Sad; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shyamapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the extent and severity of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination in five blocks in Patna district, Bihar, India along with As in biological samples and its health effects such as dermatological, neurological and obstetric outcome in some villages. We collected 1365 hand tube-well water samples and analyzed for As by the flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 61% and 44% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1466 μg/l. Our medical team examined 712 villagers and registered 69 (9.7%) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical skin lesions were also observed in 9 children of 312 screened. We analyzed 176 biological samples (hair, nail and urine). Out of these, 69 people had arsenical skin lesions and rest without skin lesions. We found 100% of the biological samples had As above the normal levels (concentrations of As in hair, nail and urine of unexposed individuals usually ranges from 20 to 200 μg/kg, 20-500 μg/kg and <100 μg/l, respectively), indicating many people are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 40.5% of 37 arsenicosis patients with 73.3% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 26.7% for sensor-motor. Among patients, different clinical and electrophysiological neurological features and abnormal quantitative sensory perception thresholds were also noted. The study also found that As exposed women with severe skin lesions had adversely affected their pregnancies. People including children in the affected areas are in danger. To combat As situation in affected areas, villagers urgently need (a) provision of As-safe water for drinking and cooking, (b) awareness about the danger of As toxicity, and (c) nutritious food.

  7. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a Rural Sub-District of South India

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Prahlad; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Singh, Sanjay; Narasimhaiah, Somashekar; Joshi, Malathi V.; Gupta, Joydev; Lakshminarayana; Ramchandra, Jitendra; Velu, Magesh; Papkianathan, Suganthi; Babu, Suseendra; Krishna, Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Background We conducted a survey to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a rural area in South India, implementing TB program DOTS strategy since 2002. Methods Survey was conducted among persons ≥15 years of age in fifteen clusters selected by simple random sampling; each consisting of 5–12 villages. Persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB or history of anti-TB treatment (ATT) were eligible for sputum examination by smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; two sputum samples were collected from each eligible person. Persons with one or both sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were labeled suffering from PTB. Prevalence was estimated after imputing missing values to correct for bias introduced by incompleteness of data. In six clusters, registered persons were also screened by X-ray chest. Persons with any abnormal shadow on X-ray were eligible for sputum examination in addition to those with symptoms and ATT. Multiplication factor calculated as ratio of prevalence while using both screening tools to prevalence using symptoms screening alone was applied to entire study population to estimate prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray. Results Of 71,874 residents ≥15 years of age, 63,362 (88.2%) were screened for symptoms and ATT. Of them, 5120 (8.1%) - 4681 (7.4%) with symptoms and an additional 439 (0.7%) with ATT were eligible for sputum examination. Spot specimen were collected from 4850 (94.7%) and early morning sputum specimens from 4719 (92.2%). Using symptom screening alone, prevalence of smear, culture and bacteriologically positive PTB in persons ≥15 years of age was 83 (CI: 57–109), 152 (CI: 108–197) and 196 (CI :145–246) per 100,000 population respectively. Prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray was 108 (CI: 82–134), 198 (CI: 153–243) and 254 (CI: 204–301) respectively. Conclusion Observed prevalence suggests further

  8. Social capital and basic goods: the cautionary tale of drinking water in India.

    PubMed

    Motiram, Sripad; Osberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study uses micro-data from the 1998-99 Indian Time Use Survey (ITUS; covering 77,593 persons in 18,591 households in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Orissa, and Haryana) to argue that time use data provides a natural metric for measuring "social capital" building activities and for distinguishing between the relative importance of "bonding" into groups or "bridging" within communities. The study examines the correlation between inequality in landownership, caste status, measures of local social capital, and whether or not a household will have to collect water. In India, the probability that a rural household fetches water is 4.8% and 9.1% lower in communities in which the average time spent on social interaction and community-based activities at the district-level doubles, but it is 18.9% greater when the time in group-based activities doubles. Inequalities in landownership and home ownership are associated with considerably larger differences in local tap water availability.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Banerjee, Amrita; Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A K; Pattanayak, A; Harish, G D; Singh, S K; Ngachan, S V; Bansal, K C

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and

  10. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A. K.; Pattanayak, A.; Harish, G. D.; Singh, S. K.; Ngachan, S. V.; Bansal, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur; and P3, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and quality rice

  11. Tuberculosis knowledge and awareness in tribal-dominant districts of Jharkhand, India: implications for ACSM.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P; Kudale, A; Arasu, K; Lab, M; Darby, W; Rangan, S

    2014-09-21

    Contexte : Quarante villages difficiles d'accès de l'Est et de l'Ouest des districts de l'état de Singhbhum, Jharkhand, Inde.Objectifs : Documenter les niveaux de connaissances et de sensibilisation en matière de la tuberculose (TB) parmi les membres de la communauté, de comprendre les différences entre les sexes et de contribuer à l'élaboration d'activités d'intervention afin d'améliorer le programme de lutte contre la TB dans des zones à dominante tribale difficiles d'accès en Inde.Schéma : Une enquête transversale à base communautaire a été réalisée auprès de 825 répondants grâce à une méthode d'échantillonnage proportionnel de la population.Résultats : La majorité des répondants appartenait à la tranche d'âge 18–35 ans, à une minorité ethnique et étaient mariés ; 44% étaient illettrés. L'étude a montré une faible connaissance des symptômes, causes et modes de transmission de la TB et une connaissance modérée des services gouvernementaux de TB. Les connaissances relatives à la cause exacte de la TB était négligeables—la moitié des répondants a attribué la TB à la consommation d'alcool local ; 61% savaient que la TB était transmissible et un tiers affirmait que le partage de nourriture était une voie de transmission. La connaissance de la disponibilité de services gratuits de prise en charge dans des structures de santé étatiques était élevée, mais la stratégie DOTS était très mal connue. Des différences significatives entre les sexes ont été observées en matière de niveau de connaissance et de sensibilisation.Conclusion : Les résultats de l'étude soulignaient l'importance d'une intensification urgente des activités de plaidoyer, de communication et de mobilisation sociale culturellement adaptées et spécifiques au genre.

  12. Hydrogeochemical characterization of fluoride rich groundwater of Wailpalli watershed, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A G S; Reddy, D V; Rao, P N; Prasad, K Maruthy

    2010-12-01

    The groundwater of Nalgonda district is well known for its very high fluoride content for the past five decades. Many researchers have contributed their scientific knowledge to unravel causes for fluoride enrichment of groundwater. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to relate the high fluoride content in the groundwater to hydrogeochemical characterization of the water in a fracture hard rock terrain--the Wailpally watershed. Groundwater samples collected from all the major geomorphic units in pre- and post-monsoon seasons were analyzed for its major ion constituents such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), CO3-, HCO3-, Cl(-), SO4(-2), NO3-, and F(-). The groundwaters in the watershed have the average fluoride content of 2.79 mg/l in pre-monsoon and 2.83 mg/l in post-monsoon. Fluoride concentration in groundwater does not show perceptible change neither with time nor in space. The ionic dominance pattern is in the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > K(-) among cations and HCO3- Cl(-) > SO4(-2) NO3- F(-) among anions in pre-monsoon. In post-monsoon, Mg replaces Ca(2+) and NO3- takes the place of SO4(-2). The Modified Piper diagram reflect that the water belong to Ca(+2)-Mg(+2)-HCO3- to Na(+)-HCO3- facies. Negative chloralkali indices in both the seasons prove that ion exchange between Na(+) and K(+) in aquatic solution took place with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) of host rock. The interpretation of plots for different major ions and molar ratios suggest that weathering of silicate rocks and water-rock interaction is responsible for major ion chemistry of groundwater in Wailpally watershed. Chemical characteristics and evolution of this fluoride-contaminated groundwater is akin to normal waters of other hard rock terrain; hence, it can be concluded that aquifer material play an important role in the contribution of fluoride in to the accompanying water. High fluoride content in groundwater can be attributed to the continuous water-rock interaction during the

  13. Prevalence of undernutrition among pre-school children of Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India, measured by composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF).

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2009-09-01

    Since independence, one of the greatest problems facing India is malnutrition among under five year old children. However, there exists scanty information of the prevalence of undernutrition among preschool children in India and West Bengal. The present cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence of undernutrition among children 3.0-5.9 years old in a rural area of West Bengal covered by the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF). Randomly selected sixty six ICDS centres of the Chapra Block Nadia District, West Bengal, India, were chosen. A total of 2016 children, aged 3.0-5.9 years were studied. It was observed that boys were heavier and taller than girls at all ages. Significant age differences existed in mean height and weight in boys as well as in girls. Among the children, 48.20%, 10.60% and 48.30% were stunting, wasted and underweight, respectively. The CIAF showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition, with 60.40% of the studied children suffering from anthropometric failure, in comparison to the three other conventional indicators. We conclude that the nutritional status of the subjects is unsatisfactory. More studies dealing with CIAF should be undertaken among pre-school children from different parts of India. Such investigations will allow us not only to compare the rates of three conventional measures of undernutrition with CIAF, but also help to demonstrate the enhanced utility and effectiveness of the latter measure.

  14. Identification of Suitable Water Harvesting Zones Based on Geomorphic Resources for Drought Areas: A Case Study of Una District, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakasam, D. C., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Water is one of the most vital natural resource and its availability and quality determine ecosystem productivity, both for agricultural and natural systems. Una district is one of the major potential agricultural districts in Himachal Pradesh, India. More than 70% of the population of this district is engaged in agriculture and allied sectors and major crops grown are maize, wheat, rice, sugarcane, pulses and vegetables. The region faces drought every year and about 90 per cent of the area is water stressed. This has resulted in crop loss and shortage of food and fodder. The sources of drinking water, small ponds and bowlies dry-up during summer season resulting in scarcity of drinking water. Una district receives rainfall during monsoons from June to September and also during non-monsoon period (winter). The annual average rainfall in the area is about 1040 mm with 55 average rainy days. But due to heavy surface run-off the farmers not able to cultivate the crops more than once in a year. Past research indicate that the geomorphology of the Una district might be responsible for such droughts as it controls the surface as well as ground water resources. The research proposes to develop a water stress model for Una district using the geomorphic parameters, water resource and land use land cover data of the study area. Using Survey of India topographical maps (1:50000), the geomorphic parameters are extracted. The spatial layers of these parameters i.e. drainage density, slope, relative relief, ruggedness index, surface water body's frequency are created in GIS. A time series of normalized remotely sensed data of the study area is used for land use land cover classification and analyses. Based on the results from the water stress model, the drought/water stress areas and water harvesting zones are identified and documented. The results of this research will help the general population in resolving the drinking water problem to a certain extent and also the

  15. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C. G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-07-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv.

  16. The Mixed Nature of Incentives for Community Health Workers: Lessons from a Qualitative Study in Two Districts in India

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Enisha; Lunsford, Sarah Smith; Sooden, Ankur; Rai, Sanjay; Livesley, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Incentives play an important role in motivating community health workers (CHWs). In India, accredited social health activists (ASHAs) are female CHWs who provide a range of services, including those specific to reproductive, maternal, neonatal, child, and adolescent health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 49 ASHAs and one of their family members (husband, mother-in-law, sister-in-law, or son) from Gurdaspur and Mewat districts to explore the role of family, community, and health system in supporting ASHAs in their work. Thematic analysis revealed that incentives were both empowering and a source of distress for ASHAs and their families. Earning income and contributing to the household’s financial wellbeing inspired a sense of financial independence and self-confidence for ASHAs, especially with respect to relations with their husbands and parents-in-law. In spite of the empowering effects of the incentives, they were a cause of distress. Low incentive rates relative to the level of effort required to complete ASHA responsibilities, compounded by irregular and incomplete payment, put pressure on families. ASHAs dedicated much of their time and own resources to perform their duties, drawing them away from their household responsibilities. Communication around incentives from supervisors may have led ASHAs to prioritize and promote those services that yielded higher incentives, as opposed to focusing on the most appropriate services for the client. ASHAs and their families maintained hope that their positions would eventually bring in a regular salary, which contributed to retention of ASHAs. Incentives, therefore, are both motivating and inspiring as well as a cause dissatisfaction among ASHAs and their families. Recommendations include revising the incentive scheme to be responsive to the time and effort required to complete tasks and the out-of-pocket costs incurred while working as an ASHA; improve communication to ASHAs on incentives and

  17. The Mixed Nature of Incentives for Community Health Workers: Lessons from a Qualitative Study in Two Districts in India.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Enisha; Lunsford, Sarah Smith; Sooden, Ankur; Rai, Sanjay; Livesley, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Incentives play an important role in motivating community health workers (CHWs). In India, accredited social health activists (ASHAs) are female CHWs who provide a range of services, including those specific to reproductive, maternal, neonatal, child, and adolescent health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 49 ASHAs and one of their family members (husband, mother-in-law, sister-in-law, or son) from Gurdaspur and Mewat districts to explore the role of family, community, and health system in supporting ASHAs in their work. Thematic analysis revealed that incentives were both empowering and a source of distress for ASHAs and their families. Earning income and contributing to the household's financial wellbeing inspired a sense of financial independence and self-confidence for ASHAs, especially with respect to relations with their husbands and parents-in-law. In spite of the empowering effects of the incentives, they were a cause of distress. Low incentive rates relative to the level of effort required to complete ASHA responsibilities, compounded by irregular and incomplete payment, put pressure on families. ASHAs dedicated much of their time and own resources to perform their duties, drawing them away from their household responsibilities. Communication around incentives from supervisors may have led ASHAs to prioritize and promote those services that yielded higher incentives, as opposed to focusing on the most appropriate services for the client. ASHAs and their families maintained hope that their positions would eventually bring in a regular salary, which contributed to retention of ASHAs. Incentives, therefore, are both motivating and inspiring as well as a cause dissatisfaction among ASHAs and their families. Recommendations include revising the incentive scheme to be responsive to the time and effort required to complete tasks and the out-of-pocket costs incurred while working as an ASHA; improve communication to ASHAs on incentives and

  18. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a feasibility study of a data-informed platform for health in India, Nigeria and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Berhanu, Della; Umar, Nasir; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Low-resource settings often have limited use of local data for health system planning and decision-making. To promote local data use for decision-making and priority setting, we propose an adapted framework: a data-informed platform for health (DIPH) aimed at guiding coordination, bringing together key data from the public and private sectors on inputs and processes. In working to transform this framework from a concept to a health systems initiative, we undertook a series of implementation research activities including background assessment, testing and scaling up of the intervention. This first paper of four reports the feasibility of the approach in a district health systems context in five districts of India, Nigeria and Ethiopia. We selected five districts using predefined criteria and in collaboration with governments. After scoping visits, an in-depth field visit included interviews with key health stakeholders, focus group discussions with service-delivery staff and record review. For analysis, we used five dimensions of feasibility research based on the TELOS framework: technology and systems, economic, legal and political, operational and scheduling feasibility. We found no standardized process for data-based district level decision-making, and substantial obstacles in all three countries. Compared with study areas in Ethiopia and Nigeria, the health system in Uttar Pradesh is relatively amenable to the DIPH, having relative strengths in infrastructure, technological and technical expertise, and financial resources, as well as a district-level stakeholder forum. However, a key challenge is the absence of an effective legal framework for engagement with India’s extensive private health sector. While priority-setting may depend on factors beyond better use of local data, we conclude that a formative phase of intervention development and pilot-testing is warranted as a next step. PMID:27591204

  19. Undernutrition among adult Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India: relationship with educational status and food habit.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran; Sadhukhan, Sanjay; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2009-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1203 adult (> 18 years of age) Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India, was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition and the relationship of educational level and food habit with undernutrition. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) computed following the standard equation. A BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was classified as undernutrition or chronic energy deficiency (CED) as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The public health problem of low BMI in this population was classified according to the WHO criteria. Educational status was coded as: no formal education, 1-8 years of schooling and > 8 years of schooling. Food habit was recorded as vegetarian or non-vegetarian. The mean ages of males and females were (39.6 +/- 15.0 years) and (39.6 +/- 15.0 years), respectively. There were significant (p < 0.001) sex differences in mean height and weight; both sexes had a similar BMI. The overall (sex combined) prevalence of undernutrition was 27.7%. The frequency of undernutrition was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among females (31.7%) compared to males (23.6%). According to the WHO classification of low BMI, the prevalence of CED was high (20-39%) indicating a serious situation. There existed a significant (p < 0.001) relationship between the level of formal education and nutritional status. Overall, the frequencies of CED (43.5%) were much higher than overweight (7.0%) among subjects with no formal education. The frequencies of CED and overweight among subjects with 1-8 years of formal education were 25.7% and 9.7%, respectively. Similarly, significantly (p < 0.001) higher rates of CED were found among subjects with no formal education in both sexes (males = 39.5%; females = 45.6%) compared to the presence of overweight (males = 1.8%; females = 9.8%). Sex-combined frequency of undernutrition was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among vegetarians (48.3%) compared with non

  20. Geophysical approach to delineate arsenic hot spots in the alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district, Bihar (India) in the central Gangetic plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Chander Kumar; Tripathi, Parijat; Senthil Kumar, G.; Ramanathan, A. L.

    2014-06-01

    A combined study of the geophysical survey and hydro-geochemistry in the Quaternary alluvial aquifers of Bhagalpur district from Bihar state in central Gangetic plain of India was carried out with the objective of identifying the geochemical processes and their relation with lithological profile. Results of resistivity survey validated with borehole lithology gave us a clear picture of the geological signature of the aquifers, which support the reducing nature of the aquifer where concentration of arsenic was high. Reducing nature of the aquifer environment was shown by water samples having relatively negative Eh value. From XRD study of the soil samples, it was found that goethite, dolomite, calcite, quartz and feldspar are the major minerals for most of the samples. Output of this work concludes that resistivity survey is an economically feasible tool which can be successfully used to target arsenic-safe aquifers on wide scale.

  1. Prevalence of certain inorganic constituents in groundwater samples of Erode district, Tamilnadu, India, with special emphasis on fluoride, fluorosis and its remedial measures.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, K; Nanthakumar, K; Velmurugan, P; Tamilarasi, S; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2010-01-01

    A total of 60 drinking water samples collected from Erode district, Tamilnadu, India were analysed for fluoride contamination, besides water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, fluoride, bicarbonates, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, sodium and potassium. The results obtained were found to exceed the permissible limits. The concentration of fluoride in the water samples ranged between 0.5 and 8.2 mg/l and revealed that 80% of the water samples contain fluoride above the maximum permissible limit. Similarly, the concentrations of nitrate, hardness, calcium and magnesium in some samples were also more than the permissible level. Pearson's correlation coefficient among the parameters showed a positive correlation of fluoride with total hardness and calcium. It is inferred from the study that these water sources can be used for potable purpose only after prior treatment.

  2. Silent spread of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever to Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu, India, 1998: need for effective surveillance to monitor and control the disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Balakrishnan, N; Bhardwaj, M; Amuthadevi, P; George, E G; Subramani, K; Soundararajan, K; Appavoo, N C; Jain, D C; Ichhpujani, R L; Bhatia, R; Sokhey, J

    2000-08-01

    Dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) has not previously been reported in Coimbatore and Erode districts in Tamil Nadu in India. In 1998, 20 hospitalized cases of fever tested positive for dengue virus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. All of them had dengue-compatible illness, and at least four had DHF. Two of them died. Sixteen cases were below 10 years of age. The cases were scattered in 15 distantly located villages and 5 urban localities that had a high Aedes aegypti population. Although the incidence of dengue-like illness has not increased recently, almost 89% (95/107) of samples from healthy persons in the community tested positive for dengue IgG antibodies. The study showed that dengue has been endemic in the area, but was not suspected earlier. A strong laboratory-based surveillance system is essential to monitor and control DF/DHF.

  3. Survey and census of hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in the Inner-Line Reserve Forest and the adjoining areas of Cachar district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mofidul; Choudhury, Parthankar; Bhattacharjee, P C

    2013-01-01

    A detailed survey of Hoolock hoolock was carried out in the Inner-Line Reserve Forest and the adjoining areas of Cachar district of southern Assam, India, from July 2010 to December 2011. About 150 km2 of the area was covered. In direct sighting, groups and individuals were counted in 7 localities (39.7 km2). Only 3.96 km2 of the actual forest area were occupied by these gibbons. Nine family groups and a solitary subadult, 33 individuals in all, made up the total count. Of these, adult males and females comprised 54.5% of the population while the subadults, juveniles and infants comprised 27.3, 12.1 and 6.1%, respectively. Each family group's home range was 0.31-0.51 km2. Of the 7 localities, only 1 had more than 1 family group. Habitat destruction and diverse threats to the hoolock gibbon in this area are examined in this paper.

  4. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, P.V.; Patel, S.V.; Bhalani, K.D.; Shah, D.; Shah, V.S.; Mehta, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. Results: The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. Interpretation & conclusions: The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings. PMID:22825606

  5. Socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural features of prior and anticipated influenza vaccine uptake in urban and rural Pune district, India: a mixed-methods case study

    PubMed Central

    Kudale, Abhay; Purohit, Vidula Shridhar; Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ensuring production capacity of efficacious vaccines for pandemic preparedness alone may not be sufficient for effective influenza control. Community willingness to accept the vaccine is also critical. Population acceptance must therefore be recognised as a major determinant of vaccine effectiveness, and the social, cultural and economic determinants of population acceptance require study for effective policy and action. Pune is a focus of pandemic influenza in India. The experience of the 2009/2010 pandemic in Pune, capacity for vaccine production and experience with vaccine use provide a unique opportunity to address key questions about an effective vaccine intervention strategy for influenza control in India. This study will examine the socioeconomic, cultural and behavioural determinants of anticipated acceptance of influenza vaccines among the urban and rural populations of Pune district. Additionally, community ideas about seasonal influenza and its distinction from pandemic influenza will be investigated. Proposed research also considers the influence of health professionals, policy makers and media professionals on the awareness, preference and use of influenza vaccines. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study including urban and rural community surveys, in-depth interviews with health professionals, case studies at two hospitals where suspected influenza cases were referred during the pandemic and in-depth interviews with media professionals and public health policy makers. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the ethics review committees of the Maharashtra Association of Anthropological Sciences and the WHO, and by the Ethics Commission of Basel, Switzerland. The proposed research will provide a better understanding of communication and education needs for vaccine action for influenza control in India and other low-income and middle-income countries. The findings and the approach for health social science research

  6. Examining Implementation of Tobacco Control Policy at the District Level: A Case Study Analysis from a High Burden State in India

    PubMed Central

    Persai, Divya; Panda, Rajmohan; Gupta, Adyya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. While extensive scientific evidence exists on the tobacco epidemic, a lack of understanding of both policies and their appropriate way of implementation continues to hinder effective tobacco control. This is especially so in the developing countries such as India. The present study aims to understand current implementation practices and the challenges faced in mainstreaming tobacco control policy and program. Methods. We chose a qualitative study design to conduct the case analysis. A total of 42 in-depth interviews were undertaken with seven district officials in six districts of Andhra Pradesh. A conceptual framework was developed by applying grounded theory for analysis. Analysis was undertaken using case analysis approach. Results and Discussion. Our study revealed that most program managers were unfamiliar with the comprehensive tobacco control policy. Respondents have an ambiguous opinion regarding integration of tobacco control program into existing health and development programs. Respondents perceive lack of resources, low prioritization of tobacco control, and lack of monitoring and evaluation of smoke-free laws as limiting factors affecting implementation of tobacco control policy. Conclusion. The findings of this study highlighted the need for a systematic, organized action plan for effective implementation of tobacco control policy and program. PMID:26933512

  7. Assessment of the potential hazards of nitrate contamination in surface and groundwater in a heavily fertilized and intensively cultivated district of India.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2008-11-01

    We made an inventory of nitrate (NO3-N) enrichment in surface and groundwater systems in the Hooghly district of India owing to intensive farming with high fertilizer doses as a function of quantity of fertilizers use, soil characteristics, types of crop grown, depth of groundwater sampling and also N-load in soil profiles. Water samples were collected from different sources at 412 odd sites spread over in 17 blocks of the district along with representative soil profiles. On average, the study area had high clay and NO3-N in soil profiles with an increasing and decreasing trends along depth, respectively. The NO3-N content both in surface and groundwater varied from 0.01 microg mL(-1) to 4.56 microg mL(-1), being well below the threshold limit of 10 microg mL(-1) fixed by WHO for drinking purpose. The content decreased with increasing depth of wells (r = -0.39**) and clay content of soil profiles (r = -0.31**). It, however, increased with increasing rate of fertilizer application (r = 0.72**), NO3-N load in soil profiles (r = 0.85**) and was higher in areas where shallow--rather than deep-rooted crops are grown. Results indicated even under fairly high quantity of fertilizer use, groundwater of the study area is safe for drinking purpose.

  8. Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Status in Six-Twelve-Year-Old Rural Primary School Children of Bharuch District, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Haresh Rameshkumar; Shroff, Bhavesh Dahyabhai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops. Methods: This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits. Results: We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 – 17.4% and grade 2 – 5.8%). As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 μg/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level. Conclusion: The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels. PMID:22355478

  9. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 μg/L with maximum observed level of 3200 μg/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 μg/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

  10. Utility of check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in ground water and the resultant analysis of blood serum and urine of villagers, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bhagavan, S V B K; Raghu, V

    2005-02-01

    High levels of fluoride (beyond 1.5 ppm) in ground water as source of drinking water are common in many parts of Andhra Pradesh, India, causing fluorosis. The study carried out in endemic Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, has indicated that the fluoride-rich ground water present in the wells located down stream and close to the surface water bodies is getting diluted by the low-fluoride surface water. Encouraged by this result, check dams were constructed upstream of the identified marginally high fluoride bearing ground water zones in Anantapur District to reduce fluoride levels as an alternate solution for safe drinking water. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the utility and effect of these check dams in dilution of fluoride concentration in drinking water and its resultant impact on the health aspects of certain villagers of Anantapur District through the analysis of their blood serum and urine. Ground water samples from three fluoride-affected villages, blood and urine of males and females from the same villages were collected and analyzed for fluoride using ion selective electrode method. The results indicated that the fluoride levels in blood serum and urine of males in the age group of 5-11 years are found to be the highest. The concentration of fluoride in ground water is directly proportional to the concentration of fluoride in blood serum and urine. The concentration of fluoride in ground water with depth of the aquifer is a function of lithology, amount and duration of rainfall, rate of infiltration, level of ground water exploitation in the area etc. The construction of check dams upstream of the identified marginally high fluoride waters will not only cause additional recharge of ground water but also reduces the fluoride concentration eventually improving the health of the villagers.

  11. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  12. Functional nutraceutical profiling of wild edible and medicinal mushrooms consumed by ethnic tribes in India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible mushrooms occupy an important place in the traditional food habits of the ethnic tribes of India. Specimens collected from the forests and local markets of Meghalaya, India were affiliated to ten different species. The mushroom extracts were analyzed for nutrient and mineral compositions along with phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene. These extracts were also investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Fungal extracts were found to be rich in nutrients and minerals, and exhibited potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities under assay conditions. The nutrient profiles generated for each of these ten species revealed them to be rich sources of functional nutraceuticals.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation and hotspot detection of kala-azar disease in Vaishali district (Bihar), India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An improved understanding in transmission variation of kala-azar is fundamental to conduct surveillance and implementing disease prevention strategies. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns and hotspot detection for reporting kala-azar cases in Vaishali district based on spatial statistical analysis. Methods Epidemiological data from the study area during 2007–2011 was used to examine the dynamic space-time pattern of kala-azar outbreaks, and all cases were geocoded at a village level. Spatial smoothing was applied to reduce random noise in the data. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) is used to interpolate and predict the pattern of VL cases distribution across the district. Moran’s I Index (Moran’s I) statistics was used to evaluate autocorrelation in kala-azar spatial distribution and test how villages were clustered or dispersed in space. Getis-Ord Gi*(d) was used to identify the hotspot and cold spot areas within the study site. Results Mapping kala-azar cases or incidences reflects the spatial heterogeneity in the incidence rate of kala-azar affected villages in Vaishali district. Kala-azar incidence rate map showed most of the highest endemic villages were located in southern, eastern and northwestern part of the district; in the middle part of the district generally show the medium occurrence of VL. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of kala-azar incidences for five consecutive years, with Moran’s I statistic ranging from 0.04-0.17 (P <0.01). The results revealed spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of kala-azar diffusion (P < 0.01). Conclusions The results pointed to the usefulness of spatial statistical approach to improve our understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics and control of kala-azar. The study also showed the north-western and southern part of Vaishali district is most likely endemic cluster region. To employ exact and

  14. Emergency referral transport for maternal complication: lessons from the community based maternal death audits in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sunil Saksena; Manthri, Suneedh; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: An effective emergency referral transport system is the link between the home of the pregnant woman and a health facility providing basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care. This study attempts to explore the role of emergency transport associated with maternal deaths in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (UP). Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to assess the causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP, through community based Maternal Death Review (MDR) using verbal autopsy, in a sample of 57 maternal deaths conducted between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. A facility review was also conducted in 15 of the 16 block level and district health facilities to collect information on preparedness of the facilities for treating obstetric complications including referral transportation. A descriptive analysis was carried out using ratios and percentages to analyze the availability of basic facilities which may lead to maternal deaths. Results: It was found that there were only 10 ambulances available at 15 facilities against 19 required as per Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS). About 47% of the deaths took place in a facility, 30% enroute to a health facility and 23% at home. Twenty five percent of women were taken to one facility, 32% were taken to two facilities, and 25% were taken to three facilities while 19% were not taken to any facility before their death. Sixteen percent of the pregnant women could not arrange transportation to reach any facility. The mean time to make arrangements for travel from home to facility-1 and facility-2 to facility-3 was 3.1 hours; whereas from facility-1 to facility-2 was 9.9 hours. The mean travel time from home to facility-1 was 1 hour, from facility-1 to facility-2 was 1.4 hours and facility-2 to facility-3 was 1.6 hours. Conclusion: The public health facility review and MDR, clearly indicates that the inter-facility transfers appropriateness and timeliness of referral are major

  15. Impact assessment of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mustard (Brassica spp.) production and its adaptation strategies in different districts of Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, V.; Patel, H. R.; Yadav, S. B.; Patil, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gujarat is the western-most state of India with a long (1600 km) sea coast on the Arabian Sea. Average annual rainfall ranges from as high as 1900 mm in the sub-humid southeast to as low as 250 mm in the arid north. There are three distinct crop seasons- rainy (June to September), winter (Oct.-Nov. through Feb.-March) and summer (Feb-March through May-June). Wheat and mustard are grown during winter seasons. The past climatic records suggested increasing trends in rainfall( 2 to 5 mm per year), maximum (0.03 to 0.05 0C per year) and minimum temperatures (0.02 to 0.05 0C per year) at most of places in Gujarat. But the minimum temperature is fould to be increasing significantly at all the locations. This affects the winter season crops viz. wheat and mustard adversely. Simulation results with DSSAT CERES-wheat model revealed that with increase in temperature by 2 0C in different months (November to February) the decrease in wheat yield is observed between 7 to 29 per cent. The impact of increase in maximum temperature during early (November) and late (February) is less (<12.5 %) than that during active vegetative and reproductive period (December and January; >24.8 %). The climate change projections during 2071-2100 using PRECIS output suggested that there would be increase in maximum temperature by 3.2 to 5.2 0C in different districts of Gujarat over baseline period of 1961-1990 while minimum temperature is project to increase by 2.8 to 5.8 0C. Rainfall is also projected to increase by 28 to 70 per cent in different districts. The impact of climate change on wheat would be reduction in its duration by 14-20 days and the grain yield would be reduced by 20-55 per cent in different districts. In case of mustard crops the duration of crop would be reduced by 11 to 16 days and seed yield would be reduced by 32-50 per cent. In order to mitigate the ill effect of climate change, various adaptation strategies vis change in dates of sowing, change in variety, additional

  16. Nursing personnel planning for rural hospitals in Burdwan District, West Bengal, India, using workload indicators of staffing needs.

    PubMed

    Shivam, Swapnil; Roy, Rabindra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir; Das Bhattacharyya, Krishna; Misra, Raghu Nath; Roy, Sima; Indranil, Saha

    2014-12-01

    Lack of appropriate human resources planning is an important factor in the inefficient use of the public health facilities. Workforce projections can be improved by using objective methods of staffing needs based on the workload and actual work undertaken by workers, a guideline developed by Peter J. Shipp in collaboration with WHO-Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN). A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the nursing stuff requirement for the rural hospitals and provide a quantitative description of imbalances, if there is any, in the allocation at the district level during 2011. The average WISN turns out to be 0.35 for entire district, which means only 35% of the required nurses is available or 65% understaffed. So, there is an urgent need for more allocations and deployment of staff so that workload can be tackled and evenly distributed among all nursing personnel. PMID:25895199

  17. A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2013-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India.

  18. Prevalence of malnutrition, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections among under-five children of Sugali tribe of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Venkatashiva B.; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Goswami, Anil Kumar; Krishnan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over a period, tribal population has migrated to cities in search of livelihood. Data on various health problems of the tribes are sparse. Sugalis constitute the third largest tribe in Andhra Pradesh and have settlements in urban areas. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of malnutrition, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections (ARI) among under-five children of Sugali tribe living in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state in South India. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four community blocks/mandals in 2012. A total of 500 Sugali households with under-five were identified. Demographic details, episodes of diarrhea, and ARI among under-five children and treatment/care seeking behavior were collected from mothers/care givers by interview. Nutritional status was assessed using new WHO standards. Results: Of the total 669 children in these 500 households, 343 (51.3%) were girls and 326 (48.7%) were boys. In the last 1 month, 21.4% (18.4-24.6) reported diarrhea and 51.6% (47.7-55.3) reported ARI. The prevalence of underweight, wasting, and stunting among under-five children was 32.7% (29.1-36.4), 18.3% (15.3-21.4), and 38.3% (34.2-41.9), respectively. Majority (70%) sought treatment for illness in modern system of medicine and only few continued with the practice of herbs and traditional medicine. Discussion: Despite living in urban area, the tribal children had high prevalence of malnutrition, diarrhea, and ARI, though lower compared to other tribes in India possibly due to improved access to health care services. Efforts need to be strengthened for social inclusion of tribes into mainstream. PMID:27433066

  19. Monitoring seasonal progress of rice stubble burning in major rice growing districts of Haryana, India, using multidate AWiFS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M.; Prawasi, R.; Jangra, S.; Rana, P.; Kumari, K.; Lal, S.; Jakhar, K.; Sharma, S.; Hooda, R. S.

    2014-11-01

    The present paper describes the methodology and results of assessment of seasonal progress of rice stubble burning for 10 major rice growing districts of Haryana state in India. These 10 districts contribute about 84 per cent of total rice area of the state. As the rice fields are immediately required to be vacated for the sowing of next crop the farmers opt for mechanized harvesting and easy way out of burning the stubbles in the field. Such burning result in release of polluting gases and aerosols. Besides, the heating of the soil kills the useful micro-flora of the soil causing soil degradation. Multi-date AWiFS data from Resourcesat 1 and 2 satellites acquired between October 16, 2013 to November 26, 2013 were used for estimating paddy stubble burning areas at different intervals for the year 2013 crop growing season. In season collected ground truth data using hand held GPS along with field photographs were used to identify paddy stubble burning areas and other land features. Complete enumeration approach and Iterative Self-organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA) unsupervised classifier was used for digital analysis. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of each date was also used with other spectral bands of temporal images. To improve the classification accuracy the non-agricultural areas were masked out. The area was estimated by computing pixels under the classified image mask. Progress of paddy stubble burning was estimated at different intervals for the year 2013 using available cloud free multi-date IRS-P6 AWiFS data to identify the crucial period when stubbles burning takes place in major area so that preventive measures can be taken to curb the menace.

  20. Dissociated reality vis-a-vis integrative planning of AYUSH in Maternal Health Program: A situational analysis in Jaleswar block of Balasore district of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions is one of the innovative components of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in the state of Odisha, India. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the potential of collocating AYUSH to improve maternal health services in tribal dominated Jaleswar block of the Balasore district. In addition, the study aimed at unearthing the underlying challenges and constraints in mainstreaming AYUSH and linking it with the Maternal Health Program. Review of the policy documents and guidelines, both central and state government, was made to assess the implementation of AYUSH in Odisha. Primary data were collected through interviews with AYUSH doctors, district and block level health administrators, and tribal women. The study revealed the inadequacy of basic amenities, infrastructure, drugs, and consumables in the health centers for integrating AYUSH in the delivery of maternal health services. Analysis of the job chart and work pattern of AYUSH doctors showed underutilization of their specialized knowledge to treat patients. Lack of continued medical education, standard operating procedures for treatment and spatial marginalization made suboptimal utilization of AYUSH services. This is unfortunate given the fact that such regions are economically underdeveloped and already have a distinct orientation toward indigenous health systems. AYUSH, on account of its holistic approach and proven cost-effectiveness, could be a viable option for improving maternal health in the region. The study concluded that although there is huge scope for integrating AYUSH in Maternal Health Program under the ongoing NRHM, the full potential is yet to be exploited. PMID:27450758

  1. Dissociated reality vis-a-vis integrative planning of AYUSH in Maternal Health Program: A situational analysis in Jaleswar block of Balasore district of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions is one of the innovative components of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in the state of Odisha, India. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the potential of collocating AYUSH to improve maternal health services in tribal dominated Jaleswar block of the Balasore district. In addition, the study aimed at unearthing the underlying challenges and constraints in mainstreaming AYUSH and linking it with the Maternal Health Program. Review of the policy documents and guidelines, both central and state government, was made to assess the implementation of AYUSH in Odisha. Primary data were collected through interviews with AYUSH doctors, district and block level health administrators, and tribal women. The study revealed the inadequacy of basic amenities, infrastructure, drugs, and consumables in the health centers for integrating AYUSH in the delivery of maternal health services. Analysis of the job chart and work pattern of AYUSH doctors showed underutilization of their specialized knowledge to treat patients. Lack of continued medical education, standard operating procedures for treatment and spatial marginalization made suboptimal utilization of AYUSH services. This is unfortunate given the fact that such regions are economically underdeveloped and already have a distinct orientation toward indigenous health systems. AYUSH, on account of its holistic approach and proven cost-effectiveness, could be a viable option for improving maternal health in the region. The study concluded that although there is huge scope for integrating AYUSH in Maternal Health Program under the ongoing NRHM, the full potential is yet to be exploited.

  2. Are the adolescent behaviors too risky? A school-based study in a district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

    2012-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 2068 school-going adolescents of a subdistrict area of West Bengal, India for assessment of entire array of risk behaviors and their correlates. Aggressive, suicidal, substance use and sexual risk behaviors were measured using a self-administered, multi-item, validated questionnaire in the local vernacular. Prevalence of physical fights, weapon carrying in the last 30 days and gang fights in the last 12 months were 27.1%, 7.3% and 13.0%, respectively. Current users of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances were 7.1%, 3.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Suicidal ideation and attempts were reported by 11.7% and 3.5% of students. Almost one-tenth of respondents had premarital sexual intercourse. Male gender, low subjective economic status, exposure to electronic media and poor academic achievements were associated with most of the studied risk behaviors, except that females showed more propensities to suicidal behavior. The magnitude and pattern of adolescent risk behaviors, though less studied in India, warrants urgent, coordinated actions.

  3. Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Retreatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases among Tribal People of an Eastern India District: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The study was conducted to assess the treatment outcome of different category retreatment cases with the aim of finding out the important predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Methodology. This hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of west Midnapore (a district of Eastern India), covering mostly the tribal populated areas. Patients who were registered for Category II antituberculosis treatment between 1st quarter of 2013 (Jan to Mar) and 4th quarter of 2013 (Oct to Dec) were considered as our study cohort and they were followed up till December 2014. The study was started with 177 patients but ultimately ended with 165 patients. Results. Unfavorable outcome was observed among 24.8% patients. Among them mostly 51.2% were defaulter, 22% were failure case, and 26.8% died during treatment. Patients, who were minority by religion, were found 4 times more vulnerable for unfavorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was found 7 times more common among retreatment TB cases who remain sputum positive after completion of initiation phase of Category II treatment. Conclusion. Programmatic approach should be specified to address the minority by religion population and to reduce the load of sputum positive cases after completion of initiation phase treatment by tracking them. PMID:27656293

  4. Prevalence of α(+)-Thalassemia in the Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste Populations of Damoh District in Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mendi P S S; Gupta, Rasik B; Yadav, Rajiv; Sharma, Ravendra K; Shanmugam, Rajasubramaniam

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the allelic frequency of α(+)-thalassemia (α(+)-thal) in Scheduled caste and scheduled tribe populations of the Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Random blood samples of Scheduled tribe (267) and Scheduled caste (168), considering the family as a sampling unit, were analyzed for the presence of the -α(3.7) (rightward) (NG_000006.1: g.34164_37967del3804) and -α(4.2) (leftward) (AF221717) deletions. α(+)-Thal was significantly higher in the Scheduled tribals (77.9%) as compared to the scheduled caste population (9.0%). About 58.0% scheduled tribals carried at least one chromosome with the -α(3.7) deletion and 20.0% scheduled tribals carried the -α(4.2) deletion. Frequency for the -α(3.7) allele was 0.487 in the scheduled tribal populations in comparison to 0.021 in scheduled castes. Allelic frequency for -α(4.2) was 0.103 and 0.024, respectively, in the above communities. No Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for α-thal gene (p < 0.05) was detected in the tribal population, indicating the presence of selection pressures in favor of α-thal mutation and adaptation. PMID:27189862

  5. Monitoring land use with reference to aquaculture in Chinna Cherukuru village of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India - A Remote Sensing and GIS Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, M. R.; Ganguly, K.; Sunder, B. S.; Rani, G. P.; Rao, A.; Shankar, G. R.

    2014-11-01

    The present study focuses on the dynamics of conversion of agricultural land to aquaculture over a decade from 1995 to 2013 in Chinna Cherukuru Village (Thotapalligudur Mandal) in Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh State, India. Multi temporal satellite data from 1995's medium resolution to high resolution IRS LISS IV & Cartosat of 2013 time frame was analysed and mapped using RS & GIS techniques to monitor the dynamics of land transformation from agriculture to aquaculture (1995's) and conversion back to agriculture in 2013. It was observed that, in 1995 aquaculture was practiced to an extent of 62.35 hectares which accounts to 9.48 % of the Total Geographic Area (TGA) of the village (658.01 hectares), whereas in 2001 there is a major conversion from agricultural land to aquaculture accounting to an extent of 237.01 hectares or 36.01 % of total village area . However, thereafter there was a significant conversion back to agriculture accounting to an extent of 27.23 hectares or 4.13 % of TGA in 2013. The study tries to understand the underlying reasons for conversion back to agriculture which were due to several factors that include outbreak of diseases in aquatic fauna, natural calamities, variation in production cost / selling cost and non-availability of infrastructure facilities like cold storages etc. The present village level study on LUCC database provides an answer key question about socio-economic issues, land use and cropping pattern which form important input for environmental management.

  6. Application of multivariate statistical analysis concepts for assessment of hydrogeochemistry of groundwater—a study in Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques, cluster and principal component analysis were applied to the data on groundwater quality of Suri I and II Blocks of Birbhum District, West Bengal, India, to extract principal factors corresponding to the different sources of variation in the hydrochemistry as well as the main controls on the hydrochemistry. For this, bore well water samples have been collected in two phases, during Post-monsoon (November 2012) and Pre-monsoon (April 2013) from 26 sampling locations spread homogeneously over the two blocks. Excess fluoride in groundwater has been reported at two locations both in post- and in pre-monsoon sessions, with a rise observed in pre-monsoon. Localized presence of excess iron has also been observed during both sessions. The water is found to be mildly alkaline in post-monsoon but slightly acidic at some locations during pre-monsoon. Correlation and cluster analysis studies demonstrate that fluoride shares a moderately positive correlation with pH in post-monsoon and a very strong one with carbonate in pre-monsoon indicating dominance of rock water interaction and ion exchange activity in the study area. Certain locations in the study area have been reported with less than 0.6 mg/l fluoride in groundwater, leading to possibility of occurrence of severe dental caries especially in children. Low values of sulfate and phosphate in water indicate a meager chance of contamination of groundwater due to anthropogenic factors.

  7. Land use/land cover change and urban expansion during 1983-2008 in the coastal area of Dakshina Kannada district, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagyanagar, Rajagopal; Kawal, Babita M.; Dwarakish, Gowdagere S.; Surathkal, Shrihari

    2012-01-01

    Urban settlements in developing countries are, at present, growing five times as fast as those in developed countries. This paper presents the urban expansion and land use/land cover changes in the fast urbanizing coastal area of the Dakshina Kannada district in Karnataka state, South India, during the years 1983-2008 as a case study. Six Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite images were used in the present work. Supervised classification was carried out using maximum likelihood algorithm. The overall accuracy of the classification varied from 79% to 86.6%, and the kappa statistics varied from 0.761 to 0.850. The results indicate that the urban/built-up area in the study area has almost tripled during the study period. During the same time, the population has increased by 215%. The major driving forces for the urbanization were the enhanced economic activity due to the port and industrialization in the area. The urban/built-up area is projected to increase to 381 km2 and the population in the study area is expected to reach 2.68 million by the year 2028. Urban growth prediction helps urban planners and policymakers provide better infrastructure services to a huge number of new urban residents.

  8. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Tapas; Prasad, Rajesh; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance ( Cν) of fracture datasets of each domain. The Cν is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

  9. Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Retreatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases among Tribal People of an Eastern India District: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The study was conducted to assess the treatment outcome of different category retreatment cases with the aim of finding out the important predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Methodology. This hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of west Midnapore (a district of Eastern India), covering mostly the tribal populated areas. Patients who were registered for Category II antituberculosis treatment between 1st quarter of 2013 (Jan to Mar) and 4th quarter of 2013 (Oct to Dec) were considered as our study cohort and they were followed up till December 2014. The study was started with 177 patients but ultimately ended with 165 patients. Results. Unfavorable outcome was observed among 24.8% patients. Among them mostly 51.2% were defaulter, 22% were failure case, and 26.8% died during treatment. Patients, who were minority by religion, were found 4 times more vulnerable for unfavorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was found 7 times more common among retreatment TB cases who remain sputum positive after completion of initiation phase of Category II treatment. Conclusion. Programmatic approach should be specified to address the minority by religion population and to reduce the load of sputum positive cases after completion of initiation phase treatment by tracking them.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Japanese encephalitis Disease and Detection of Disease Hotspots: a Case Study of Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; Gupta, R. D.

    2014-11-01

    In recent times, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) has emerged as a serious public health problem. In India, JE outbreaks were recently reported in Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur. The present study presents an approach to use GIS for analyzing the reported cases of JE in the Gorakhpur district based on spatial analysis to bring out the spatial and temporal dynamics of the JE epidemic. The study investigates spatiotemporal pattern of the occurrence of disease and detection of the JE hotspot. Spatial patterns of the JE disease can provide an understanding of geographical changes. Geospatial distribution of the JE disease outbreak is being investigated since 2005 in this study. The JE incidence data for the years 2005 to 2010 is used. The data is then geo-coded at block level. Spatial analysis is used to evaluate autocorrelation in JE distribution and to test the cases that are clustered or dispersed in space. The Inverse Distance Weighting interpolation technique is used to predict the pattern of JE incidence distribution prevalent across the study area. Moran's I Index (Moran's I) statistics is used to evaluate autocorrelation in spatial distribution. The Getis-Ord Gi*(d) is used to identify the disease areas. The results represent spatial disease patterns from 2005 to 2010, depicting spatially clustered patterns with significant differences between the blocks. It is observed that the blocks on the built up areas reported higher incidences.

  11. Determinants of pregnancy and induced and spontaneous abortion in a jointly determined framework: evidence from a country-wide, district-level household survey in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salma; Ray, Ranjan

    2014-07-01

    This study provides evidence on the principal determinants of pregnancy and abortion in India using a large country-wide district-level data set (DLHS 2007). The paper provides an economic framework for the analysis of pregnancy and abortion. The study distinguishes between induced and spontaneous abortion and compares the effects of their determinants. The results show that there are wide differences between induced and spontaneous abortions in terms of the sign and magnitude of the estimated effects of several of their determinants, most notably wealth, the woman's age and her desire for children. The study makes a methodological contribution by proposing a trivariate probit estimation framework that recognizes the joint dependence of pregnancy and induced and spontaneous abortion, and provides evidence in support of this joint dependence. The study reports an inverted U-shaped effect of a woman's age on her pregnancy and both forms of abortion. The turning point in each case is quite robust to the estimation framework. A significant effect of contextual variables, at the village level, constructed from the individual responses, on a woman's pregnancy is found. The effects are weaker in the case of induced abortion, and insignificant in the case of spontaneous abortion. The results are shown to be fairly robust. This paper extends the literature on the relation between son preference and fertility by examining the link between mother's son preference and desire for more children with abortion rates.

  12. Modeling groundwater quality in an arid agricultural environment in the face of an uncertain climate: the case of Mewat District, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. C.; Ward, A. S.; Muste, M.

    2014-12-01

    The salinization of groundwater resources is a widespread problem in arid agricultural environments. In Mewat District (Haryana, India), groundwater salinity has rendered much of the accessible supply unfit for human consumption or agriculture. Historically, this closed basin retained fresh pockets of water at the foothills of the Aravalli Hills, where monsoonal precipitation runoff from the mountains was recharged through infiltration or facilitated by man-made structures. To date, an increasing number of pumps supply the region with fresh water for consumption and agriculture leading to shrinking the freshwater zone at an accelerated pace. The potential for increased human consumption corroborated with the effects of climate change bring uncertainty about the future of water security for the Mewat communities, most of them critically bound to the existence of local water. This study addresses the sustainability of the freshwater supply under a range of land interventions and climate scenarios, using a 2-D groundwater flow and transport model. Our results quantify potential futures for this arid, groundwater-dependent location, using numerical groundwater modeling to quantify interactions between human water use, infrastructure, and climate. Outcomes of this modeling study will inform an NGO active in the area on sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  13. Oral Health of Pre-School Aged Children in Dhanbad District, Jharkhand, India- A Peek into their Mother’s Attitude

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Singh, Dhirendra Kumar; Jalaluddin, Md.; Dileep, C.L.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Mothers are directly responsible for the dental health of their children and play a major role in shaping the dental health behaviors of their children. They also play an important role in preventing oral diseases in them. Objective: To assess the level of attitude of mothers in relation to their pre-school aged children, which in turn can influence the level of oral health. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 312 mothers, selected randomly from eight blocks of Dhanbad district, Jharkhand, India. They were administered with a structured questionnaire on attitude, by an interviewer. Results: The overall data indicated that the attitude of mothers about oral health in their pre-school children increased as their age increased which was not statistically significant (p>.066). Mothers who had less than higher secondary school education and belonged to socio-economically lower groups had poor knowledge of oral health which was statistically significant (p<.001). Conclusion: Mothers should be motivated so that their attitude about their child’s oral health is enhanced which in turn would improve their oral health related quality of life. PMID:24179943

  14. Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Retreatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases among Tribal People of an Eastern India District: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Saha, Rajib

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The study was conducted to assess the treatment outcome of different category retreatment cases with the aim of finding out the important predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Methodology. This hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of west Midnapore (a district of Eastern India), covering mostly the tribal populated areas. Patients who were registered for Category II antituberculosis treatment between 1st quarter of 2013 (Jan to Mar) and 4th quarter of 2013 (Oct to Dec) were considered as our study cohort and they were followed up till December 2014. The study was started with 177 patients but ultimately ended with 165 patients. Results. Unfavorable outcome was observed among 24.8% patients. Among them mostly 51.2% were defaulter, 22% were failure case, and 26.8% died during treatment. Patients, who were minority by religion, were found 4 times more vulnerable for unfavorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was found 7 times more common among retreatment TB cases who remain sputum positive after completion of initiation phase of Category II treatment. Conclusion. Programmatic approach should be specified to address the minority by religion population and to reduce the load of sputum positive cases after completion of initiation phase treatment by tracking them. PMID:27656293

  15. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Rakshit, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI) rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  16. Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of cuts and wounds by Kuruma tribes, Wayanadu districts of Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Binu; Arumugam, Rajendran; Veerasamy, Aravindhan; Ramamoorthy, Sivalingam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the ethnomedicinal uses by the Kuruma tribals for discovering new drugs to cure cuts and wounds so as to provid the data scientifically evaluated. Methods A survey was conducted during May 2008–September 2009 to collect information on medicinal plants used by the Kuruma tribes and queries were made on the various species of plants used regularly and occasionally to cure cuts and wounds. Results The present study includes information on 34 plant species belonging to 32 genera and 25 families used by Kuruma tribe of Wayanad district of Kerala for the treatment of cuts and wounds. Conclusions The present study of the knowledge on the folklore uses of the medicinal plants used by Kuruma tribes leads to effective utilization of herbal medicines in the future. PMID:25183135

  17. Petro-mineralogical Studies of the Paleoproterozoic Phosphorites in the Sonrai basin, Lalitpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, Shamim A. Khan, K. F.; Khan, Saif A.; Khan, Samsuddin; Masroor Alam, M.

    2015-09-15

    The Paleoproterozoic phosphorites constitute an economically significant component of the Sonrai basin of Lalitpur district. These are associated with ferruginous shale, ironstone, limestone and quartz breccia. Petro-mineralogical studies of samples of the phosphorites, using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, reveal that the collophane (carbonate-fluorapatite) is the dominant phosphate mineral. Calcite, dolomite, quartz, mica and haematite are the dominant gangue constituents. The phosphate minerals occur as oolites mutually replaced by carbonate and silica. The presence of iron oxides has been found in most of the thin sections. There is meagre evidence of organic matter in the form of filaments of microbial phosphate laminae in the samples of phosphorite. The mineral assemblages, their texture and various forms in these phosphorites may be due to some environmental vicissitudes followed by replacement processes and biogenic activities.

  18. Drinking water quality in six small tea gardens of Sonitpur District of Assam, India, with special reference to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Joydev; Chetia, Mridul; Misra, A K

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of drinking water by arsenic and other heavy metals and their related toxicology is a serious concern now-a-days. Millions of individual world-wide are suffering from the arsenic and other heavy metal related diseases due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. 60 water samples from different sources of 6 small tea gardens of Sonitpur district were collected to study the potability of water for drinking purposes. The water samples collected from sources like tube wells, ring wells and ponds were analyzed for arsenic, heavy metals like iron, manganese and mercury with sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, pH, total hardness, chloride, fluoride and sulphate. Some drain water samples of the tea garden areas were also collected to analyze the above mentioned water parameters to see the contamination level. Experiments revealed that 78% samples of total collection had arsenic content above the permissible limit (0.01 ppm) of WHO guideline value for drinking water. The highest arsenic was observed 0.09 ppm at one sample of Gobindra Dahal tea garden of Gohpur sub division of Sonitpur district. 94% samples had contamination due to manganese 39% samples had iron and 44% samples had Hg. The water quality data was subjected to some statistical treatments like NDA, cluster analysis and pearson correlation to observe the distribution pattern of the different water quality parameters. A strong pearson correlation coefficient was observed between parameters-arsenic and manganese (0.865) and arsenic and mercury (0.837) at 0.01 level, indicated the same sources of drinking water contamination.

  19. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  20. Seismotectonic domains of northeastern India and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D. R.; Dasgupta, Sujit

    Eastern Himalaya, Meghalaya plateau, upper Assam valley, northern part of the Indo-Burmese arc and the Mishmi block constitute major tectonostratigraphic domains in northeastern India. Many lineaments of faults, both parallel and oblique to the Himalayan trend, are already known. Interpretation of satellite images combined with surface geological studies suggest that many such oblique lineaments transgress the boundary of individual tectonic domains and some continue from the Tethyan Himalaya to the foredeep or cut across both Himalayan and Burmese arcs. The entire area is highly seismic; seismicity pattern, focal mechanism solutions, geological set up and fault/lineament fabric when studied together clearly defines several seismotectonic domains. In east Nepal-Sikkim, the northward push of India is accommodated through conjugate shear failure wherein seismic strike-slip movement occurs mostly along NE faults. Further east NW/WNW Kopili-Bomdila faults are associated with many large earthquakes and lateral motion along them allows a bulk southeastward movement of this segment of Himalaya towards the Burmese arc. The Mishmi block, structurally oblique to both the Himalayan and Burmese arcs, also indicates a net southeast tectonic transportation. The upper Assam valley is aseismic and arguably does not represent an area of seismic gap. Seismicity in both Meghalaya plateau and Sylhet plains is unrelated to movements along the Dauki fault.

  1. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River Basin, Cuddalore district, South India.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, M; Kannan, R; Srinivasalu, S; Rammohan, V

    2007-09-01

    The Lower Ponnaiyar River Basin forms an important groundwater province in South India constituted by Tertiary formations dominated by sandstones and overlain by alluvium. The region enjoyed artesian conditions 50 years back but at present frequent failure of monsoon and over exploitation is threatening the aquifer. Further, extensive agricultural and industrial activities and urbanization has resulted in the increase in demand and contamination of the aquifer. To identify the sources and quality of groundwater, water samples from 47 bore wells were collected in an area of 154 km2 and were analysed for major ions and trace metals. The results reveal that the groundwater in many places is contaminated by higher concentrations of NO3, Cl, PO4 and Fe. Four major hydrochemical facies Ca-Mg-Cl, Na-Cl, Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and sodium percentage indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from nitrate ions, which are associated with sewage and fertilizers application. The present state of the quality of the lower part of Ponnaiyar River Basin is of great concern and the higher concentration of toxic metals (Fe and Ni) may entail various health hazards.

  2. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

    2006-01-01

    The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

  3. Is Knowledge Regarding Tuberculosis Associated with Stigmatising and Discriminating Attitudes of General Population towards Tuberculosis Patients? Findings from a Community Based Survey in 30 Districts of India

    PubMed Central

    Sagili, Karuna D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Chadha, Sarabjit S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigmatising and discriminating attitudes may discourage tuberculosis (TB) patients from actively seeking medical care, hide their disease status, and discontinue treatment. It is expected that appropriate knowledge regarding TB should remove stigmatising and discriminating attitudes. In this study we assessed the prevalence of stigmatising and discriminating attitudes towards TB patients among general population and their association with knowledge regarding TB. Method A cross-sectional knowledge, attitude and practice survey was conducted in 30 districts of India in January-March 2011. A total of 4562 respondents from general population were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires which contained items to measure stigma, discrimination and knowledge on TB. Result Of the 4562 interviewed, 3823 were eligible for the current analysis. Of these, 73% (95% CI 71.4–74.2) had stigmatising and 98% (95% CI 97.4–98.3) had discriminating attitude towards TB patients. Only 17% (95% CI 15.6–18.0) of the respondents had appropriate knowledge regarding TB with even lower levels observed amongst females, rural areas and respondents from low income groups. Surprisingly stigmatising (adjusted OR 1.31 (0.78–2.18) and discriminating (adjusted OR 0.79 (0.43–1.44) attitudes were independent of knowledge regarding TB. Conclusion Stigmatising and discriminating attitudes towards TB patients remain high among the general population in India. Since these attitudes were independent of the knowledge regarding TB, it is possible that the current disseminated knowledge regarding TB which is mainly from a medical perspective may not be adequately addressing the factors that lead to stigma and discrimination towards TB patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to review the messages and strategies currently used for disseminating knowledge regarding TB among general population and revise them appropriately. The disseminated knowledge should include medical

  4. Syndepositional and postdepositional features of the manganese ore deposits of the Proterozoic Penganga group, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.

    1988-04-01

    The Proterozoic Penganga Group consisting of terrigenous and orthochemical sediments including a manganese orebody is well developed in the northwestern part of the Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh. The manganese orebody of unmetamorphosed and undeformed, interbanded manganese oxide ore, chert, and minor calcareous shale has retained excellent syndepositional and postdepositional features both on the macro-and microscales. The primary depositional features include meso- and microbands of manganese oxide and silica of different descriptions, scour-and-fill structures, and Mn oxide micronodules. Spherical siliceous μm-sized structures and other features of biogenic origin have been observed. Diagenetic features such as fabric changes, syneresis cracks, concretionary pods, and Mn oxide nodules have been recorded. They are accompanied by penecontemporaneous deformation structures such as pinch-and-swell structures, gravity-density features, brecciation, and folding and faulting of various kinds. All these features suggest that the manganese orebody was formed in a shallow-marine environment on a stable shelf possibly behind a barrier bar and subsequently underwent diagenetic reorganization and penecontemporaneous deformation when the sediments were still in a hydroplastic state.

  5. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity and Radiological Hazards in Brick Samples Used in Tiruvannamalali District, Tamilnadu, India, With a Statistical Approach.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Y; Ravisankar, R; Chandrasekaran, A; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2016-09-01

    The activity concentration of Ra, Th and K in brick samples used in Tiruvannamalai District of Tamilnadu has been determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration ranges from BDL to 16.02 Bq kg, 17.86 to 120.19 Bq kg, 240.09 to 481.35 Bq kg for Ra, Th, and K, respectively. The concentration of these radionuclides is compared with reported data from other countries. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose rate (DR), annual effective dose rate (HR), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), criteria formula (CF), representative level index (RLI), activity utilization index (AUI), gamma index (Iγ), alpha index (Iα), the external hazard (Hex), and internal hazard (Hin) indices are calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards due to the use of these materials in the construction of dwellings. Multivariate statistical techniques (Pearson correlation, principal component analysis and cluster analysis) are used to study the relation between radionuclides and radiation hazards. The treatment of 14 radioactive variables sampled at 32 bricks by the factor and cluster analyses provided a possible interpretation of the collective data. The spatial distribution pattern of radionuclides has been depicted through the Kriging method using MapInfo software. PMID:27472752

  6. Costs and Consequences of a Cash Transfer for Hospital Births in a Rural District of Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The Janani Suraksha Yojana, India’s “safe motherhood program,” is a conditional cash transfer to encourage women to give birth in health facilities. Despite the program’s apparent success in increasing facility-based births, quantitative evaluations have not found corresponding improvements in health outcomes. This study analyses original qualitative data collected between January, 2012 and November, 2013 in a rural district in Uttar Pradesh to address the question of why the program has not improved health outcomes. It finds that health service providers are focused on capturing economic rents associated with the program, and provide an extremely poor quality care. Further, the program does not ultimately provide beneficiaries a large net monetary transfer at the time of birth. Based on a detailed accounting of the monetary costs of hospital and home deliveries, this study finds that the value of the transfer to beneficiaries is small due to costs associated with hospital births. Finally, this study also documents important emotional and psychological costs to women of delivering in the hospital. These findings suggest the need for a substantial rethinking of the program, paying careful attention to incentivizing health outcomes. PMID:24911512

  7. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  8. Hydrochemical appraisal of groundwater and its suitability in the intensive agricultural area of Muzaffarnagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, S. K.; Datta, P. S.; Pruthi, N. K.

    2009-01-01

    Muzaffarnagar is an economically rich district situated in the most fertile plains of two great rivers Ganga and Yamuna in the Indo-gangetic plains, with agricultural land irrigated by both surface water as well as groundwater. An investigation has been carried out to understand the hydrochemistry of the groundwater and its suitability for irrigation uses. Groundwater in the study area is neutral to moderately alkaline in nature. Chemistry of groundwater suggests that alkaline earths (Ca + Mg) significantly exceed the alkalis (Na + K) and weak acids exceed the strong acids (Cl + SO4), suggesting the dominance of carbonate weathering followed by silicate weathering. Majority of the groundwater samples (62%) posses Ca-Mg-HCO3 type of hydrochemical species, followed by Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3, Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Mg-Na-HCO3-Cl and Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4 types. A positive high correlation ( r 2 = 0.928) between Na and Cl suggests that the salinity of groundwater is due to intermixing of two or more groundwater bodies with different hydrochemical compositions. Barring a few locations, most of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation uses. Chemical fertilizers, sugar factories and anthropogenic activities are contributing to the sulphate and chloride concentrations in the groundwater of the study area. Overexploitation of aquifers induced multi componential mixing of groundwater with agricultural return flow waters is responsible for generating groundwater of various compositions in its lateral extent.

  9. Biogeochemical Processes leading to release of As and Mn in the groundwaters of Murshidabad District of West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, K. H.; Datta, S.; Vega, M.; Berube, M.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of both manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) have been observed in the groundwaters of Murshidabad, in eastern India. Mn, a postulated neurotoxin is known to cause neuromuscular problems, inhibition of neurological development particularly in children. The health impacts from higher bioavailable proportions of As is well known in being a Class I carcinogen. The discovery of this additional contaminant in the already As afflicted regions of SE Asia poses serious implications for millions of inhabitants. The current study aims to address three objectives in understanding biogeochemical cycling of Mn and As in groundwaters: i) the occurrence and overall distribution (lateral and temporal) of groundwater Mn and As; ii) characterization of the dissolved organic matter and microbial content and the resultant effects that are imposed on dissolved As and Mn; and iii) the relationship between Mn, As, and various other inorganic constituents and their impact on the subsequent release of Mn, on top of As. A three year time series of chemical data for the dissolved constituents from six villages in Murshidabad will be presented. Hariharpara, Beldanga, Naoda villages contain reducing groundwaters (mean Mn: 0.93mg/L); Nabagram, Kandi, Khidirpore demonstrate oxidizing aquifers (Mn: 0.74mg/L). Eighty-three percent of the wells surveyed contain Mn levels that exceed the recommended WHO limit of 0.4 mg/L. Dissolved As within the same locations show a range from <10μg/L to ~4000 μg/L. DOC values demonstrate a positive correlation with Mn in reducing and a negative correlation in oxidizing environments. The reducing aquifers are also high in As and DOC, indicating that the microbially mediated reductive dissolution of As-sorbed onto Fe-Mn mineral phases is probable. Fluorescence analyses of dissolved OM, solidphase modeling of Mn speciation are being combined in this study for more insight into the mechanisms of Mn release and its relation if any to As release.

  10. Effectiveness of Onsite Nurse Mentoring in Improving Quality of Institutional Births in the Primary Health Centres of High Priority Districts of Karnataka, South India: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Janet; Mony, Prem; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Rao, Suman; Thomas, Annamma; S, Rajaram; Kar, Arin; N, Swaroop; B M, Ramesh; H L, Mohan; Fischer, Elizabeth; Crockett, Maryanne; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background In India, although the proportion of institutional births is increasing, there are concerns regarding quality of care. We assessed the effectiveness of a nurse-led onsite mentoring program in improving quality of care of institutional births in 24/7 primary health centres (PHCs that are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) of two high priority districts in Karnataka state, South India. Primary outcomes were improved facility readiness and provider preparedness in managing institutional births and associated complications during child birth. Methods All functional 24/7 PHCs in the two districts were included in the study. We used a parallel, cluster randomized trial design in which 54 of 108 facilities received six onsite mentoring visits, along with an initial training update and specially designed case sheets for providers; the control arm received just the initial training update and the case sheets. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered in April-2012 and August-2013 using facility audits, provider interviews and case sheet audits. The provider interviews were administered to all staff nurses available at the PHCs and audits were done of all the filled case sheets during the month prior to data collection. In addition, a cost analysis of the intervention was undertaken. Results Between the surveys, we achieved coverage of 100% of facilities and 91.2% of staff nurse interviews. Since the case sheets were newly designed, case-sheet audit data were available only from the end line survey for about 80.2% of all women in the intervention facilities and 57.3% in the control facilities. A higher number of facilities in the intervention arm had all appropriate drugs, equipment and supplies to deal with gestational hypertension (19 vs.3, OR (odds ratio) 9.2, 95% C.I 2.5 to33.6), postpartum haemorrhage (29 vs. 12, OR 3.7, 95% C.I 1.6 to8.3); and obstructed labour (25 vs.9, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to8.3). The providers in the intervention arm had better

  11. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  12. Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

  13. Injury epidemiology after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India: a retrospective analysis of injuries treated at a rural hospital in the Kutch district immediately after the disaster

    PubMed Central

    Phalkey, Revati; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Marx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of injured far exceeds those dead and the average injury to mortality ratio in earthquakes stands at 3:1. Immediate effective medical response significantly influences injury outcomes and thus the overall health impact of earthquakes. Inadequate or mismanagement of injuries may lead to disabilities. The lack of precise data from immediate aftermath is seen as a remarkable weak point in disaster epidemiology and warrants evidence generation. Objective To analyze the epidemiology of injuries and the treatment imparted at a secondary rural hospital in the Kutch district, Gujarat, India following the January 26, 2001 earthquake. Design/Methods Discharge reports of patients admitted to the hospital over 10 weeks were analyzed retrospectively for earthquake-related injuries. Results Orthopedic injuries, (particularly fractures of the lower limbs) were predominant and serious injuries like head, chest, abdominal, and crush syndrome were minimal. Wound infections were reported in almost 20% of the admitted cases. Surgical procedures were more common than conservative treatment. The most frequently performed surgical procedures were open reduction with internal fixation and cleaning and debridement of contaminated wounds. Four secondary deaths and 102 transfers to tertiary care due to complications were reported. Conclusion The injury epidemiology reported in this study is in general agreement with most other studies reporting injury epidemiology except higher incidence of distal orthopedic injuries particularly to the lower extremities. We also found that young males were more prone to sustaining injuries. These results warrant further research. Inconsistent data reporting procedures against the backdrop of inherent disaster data incompleteness calls for urgent standardization of reporting earthquake injuries for evidence-based response policy planning. PMID:21799668

  14. Stunting, underweight and wasting among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme children aged 3-5 years of Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bisai, Samiran; Ganguli, Sanjib; Khatun, Argina; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated age and sex variations in height and weight, levels of stunting, underweight and wasting among 533 (254 boys; 279 girls) 3- to 5-year-old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity at 11 Integrated Child Development Services centres of Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height < -2 z-scores were used to evaluate stunting, underweight and wasting, respectively, following the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Guidelines. Results revealed that boys were significantly heavier than girls at age 3 years. Significant age differences existed in mean height and weight in both sexes. Mean z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height were lower than those of NCHS for both sexes at all ages. The overall (age and sex combined) rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were 23.9%, 31.0% and 9.4%, respectively. The rate of underweight and wasting was higher among girls (underweight = 35.1%, wasting = 12.2%) compared with boys (underweight = 26.5%, wasting = 6.3%). In general, the frequency of stunting increased with increasing age in both sexes. Based on the World Health Organization classification of severity of malnutrition, the overall prevalence of underweight was very high (>or=30%). The prevalence rates of stunting (20-29%) and wasting (5-9%) were medium. In conclusion, the nutritional status of the subjects is unsatisfactory. There is scope for improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  15. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20–30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Veena G.; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. Objective To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Design Community based cross sectional study Setting 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. Sample 1,152 young adults (age group: 20–30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India Method A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Main Outcome Measures Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Results The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4–48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25–30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99–6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08–4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64–6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22–4.95), using refined cooking oil

  16. Retention in pre-antiretroviral treatment care in a district of Karnataka, India: how well are we doing?

    PubMed

    Shankar, D; Kumar, A M V; Rewari, B; Kumar, S; Shastri, S; Satyanarayana, S; Ananthakrishnan, R; Nagaraja, S B; Devi, M; Bhargava, N; Das, M; Zachariah, R

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Centre de traitement antirétroviral (ART) du district de Tumkur dans l'état de Karnataka, Inde. Il n'y a pas de document publié sur les perdus de vue avant le traitement ART en Inde.Objectif : Evaluer la proportion de perdus de vue (définis comme l'absence de visite au centre d'ART dans l'année suivant l'enregistrement) et les variables sociodémographiques et immunologiques qui y sont associées.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte impliquant une revue des dossiers médicaux des patients adultes infectés par le VIH (âge ⩾15 ans) enregistrés en soins pré-ART entre janvier 2010 et juin 2012.Résultats : Sur 3238 patients enregistrés, 2519 (78%) étaient éligibles pour le traitement ART tandis que 719 (22%) ne l'étaient pas. Quatre de ces derniers ont été transférés. Parmi les 715 individus enrôlés en soin pré-ART, 290 (41%) ont été perdus de vue. Les facteurs associés avec le fait d'être perdus de vue en analyse multivariée incluaient la tranche d'âge ⩾45 ans, un niveau d'instruction faible, le célibat, le stade 3 ou 4 de l'OMS et la résidence en milieu rural.Conclusion : Près de quatre individus sur 10 en soins pre-ART ont été perdus de vue dans l'année suivant leur enregistrement. Ceci requiert une attention urgente. L'analyse de cohorte en routine du programme national devrait inclure les patients en soins pré-ART afin d'améliorer la revue des cas, leur suivi et leur supervision. Une recherche qualitative ultérieure afin de cerner les raisons des pertes de vue est nécessaire pour concevoir les interventions futures.

  17. A Study on Ground Water Resource Management in Gondwana Formations in Western Part of West Godavari District Andhra Pradesh India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singara, S.

    2006-05-01

    like maize, tobacco, palm oil, garden crops in minor extent and coconut was planted in large extents. Piezometric surface shows uniform gradient over the entire area indicating hydraulic continuity between different geological formations. The water budgeting was computed by using norms recommended by GEC (Ground Water Estimation Committee) of CGWB 1997, Govt. of India. For the present study, June 2000 to May 2001 period is taken as groundwater year. Groundwater recharge is calculated (formation wise) by rainfall infiltration and water table fluctuation methods, and recharge from other sources reservoirs, tanks, canals, irrigation water returns etc. the total recharge comes to be 626 MCM. Groundwater draft for irrigation and domestic purposes is found to be 994.96 MCM. Groundwater balance shows overdraft by 364.15 MCM. Well density is increased from <1/Sq. km in 60s to >30/Sq.km in 2000. Piezometric surface profiles in N-S direction also show a drop from 1960 to 2000 year by 44m. Taking into consideration, the mined water during 1990-2000, the overdraft comes to 704 MCM i.e. 70.4 MCM/year. Groundwater draft in the study area is found to be 2.85 times more than the actual requirement (342 MCM) of the crops in the area due to highly permeable sandy soils. In view of the alarming imbalance in the groundwater recharge and draft, some management practices are suggested to restore the original groundwater condition which includes proper well spacing, artificial recharge, change of cropping pattern and irrigation methods to suit to the local conditions. Quality of groundwater is suitable for drinking and agricultural purposes.

  18. Changes in risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections following HIV preventive interventions among female sex workers in five districts in Karnataka state, south India

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Tara S H; Shajy, Isac; Washington, Reynold; Jagannathan, Latta; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage. Methods Baseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009. Results 4712 FSW participated in the study (baseline 2312; follow-up 2400), with follow-up surveys conducted 28–37 months after baseline. By follow-up, over 85% of FSW reported contact by a peer educator and having visited a project STI clinic. Compared with baseline, there were reductions in the prevalence of HIV (19.6% vs 16.4%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99, p=0.04); high-titre syphilis (5.9% vs 3.4%, AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.77, p=0.001); and chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea (8.9% vs 7.0%, AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94, p=0.02). Reported condom use at last sex increased significantly for repeat clients (66.1% vs 84.1%, AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.48, p<0.001) and marginally for occasional clients (82.9% vs 88.0%, AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.66, p=0.2), but remained stable for regular partners (32%). Compared with street and home-based FSW, brothel-based FSW were at highest risk of HIV and STI, despite high levels of reported condom use. Conclusions This large-scale HIV prevention programme for FSW achieved reductions in HIV and STI prevalence, high rates of condom use with clients and high rates of programme coverage. Improved strategies to increase condom use with regular partners and reduce the vulnerability of brothel-based FSW to HIV are required. PMID:20167725

  19. Fertility intentions, power relations and condom use within intimate and other non-paying partnerships of women in sex work in Bagalkot District, South India.

    PubMed

    Deering, Kathleen N; Shaw, Souradet Y; Thompson, Laura H; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Raghavendra, T; Doddamane, Mahesh; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen; Lorway, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to: (1) examine the relationship between interpersonal as well as social-demographic, cultural and structural factors, and condom non-use by sex workers' main intimate or other non-paying male sex partners (NPPs), as reported by a sample of sex workers (SWs); and (2) understand HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk (e.g., numbers of sexual partners; condom use with different partners) among couples comprised of a sub-set of SWs and their NPPs. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with condom non-use at last sex by the main NPP, as reported by SWs. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are reported (AOR[95%CIs]). Data were drawn from cross-sectional surveys in Bagalkot District, Karnataka State, South India. Responses by SWs whose main NPPs agreed to enrol in the study and the main NPP enroled were linked; these responses by couples (pairs of SWs and NPPs) were examined to assess sexual risk for HIV/STIs. Overall, this study included 257 SWs and 76 NPPs. The data from 67 couples (88.2%) could be linked. In over a quarter of partnerships, at least one (SW or NPP) partner reported having another type of partner besides each other (and clients of SWs). In multivariable analysis, significantly increased odds of condom non-use at last sex with the main NPP were found for the following key factors: planning to have a child with their main NPP (AOR = 3.71[1.44-9.58]); and having decisions about condom use made by their main NPP (AOR = 9.87[4.03-24.16]) or both equally (AOR = 3.18[1.39-7.80]) (versus by the SWs herself). Our study highlights the potential risk for HIV/STI acquisition and transmission between NPPs and SWs, and between NPPs and their non-SWs wives and other sex partners. Study results underscore the need for HIV/STI prevention approaches that incorporate informed decision-making about childbearing and parenting, and empowerment strategies for SWs in the

  20. Occurrence of a new species of Letana (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) in India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the Oriental genus Letana, Walker (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae), proposed as Letana dentata sp. nov., collected from the North-eastern province, Meghalaya, India (Ri bhoi 90°55'15 to 91°16' latitude and 25°40' to 25°21' longitude, 993 MSL), is described together with the morphological characterization of eight reported species. Of these, Letana rubescens (Stål, 1861) collected from Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India) is being reported for the first time from India. The other species of Letana include: L. atomifera, L. bulbosa, L. inflata, L. infurcata, L. pyrifera and L. rufonatata. Taxonomic and diagnostic characters with illustrations of the head, pronotum, ventral view of left tegmina to show stridulatory file teeth and the genitalia (supra-anal plate and subgenital plate) including the phallus sclerite has been given. PMID:26624719

  1. "Getting the water-carrier to light the lamps": Discrepant role perceptions of traditional, complementary, and alternative medical practitioners in government health facilities in India.

    PubMed

    Josyula, K Lakshmi; Sheikh, Kabir; Nambiar, Devaki; Narayan, Venkatesh V; Sathyanarayana, T N; Porter, John D H

    2016-10-01

    The government of India has, over the past decade, implemented the "integration" of traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) practitioners, specifically practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa, and Homoeopathy (collectively known by the acronym AYUSH), in government health services. A range of operational and ethical challenges has manifested during this process of large health system reform. We explored the practices and perceptions of health system actors, in relation to AYUSH providers' roles in government health services in three Indian states - Kerala, Meghalaya, and Delhi. Research methods included 196 in-depth interviews with a range of health policy and system actors and beneficiaries, between February and October 2012, and review of national, state, and district-level policy documents relating to AYUSH integration. The thematic 'framework' approach was applied to analyze data from the interviews, and systematic content analysis performed on policy documents. We found that the roles of AYUSH providers are frequently ambiguously stated and variably interpreted, in relation to various aspects of their practice, such as outpatient care, prescribing rights, emergency duties, obstetric services, night duties, and referrals across systems of medicine. Work sharing is variously interpreted by different health system actors as complementing allopathic practice with AYUSH practice, or allopathic practice, by AYUSH providers to supplement the work of allopathic practitioners. Interactions among AYUSH practitioners and their health system colleagues frequently take place in a context of partial information, preconceived notions, power imbalances, and mistrust. In some notable instances, collegial relationships and apt divisions of responsibilities are observed. Widespread normative ambivalence around the roles of AYUSH providers, complicated by the logistical constraints prevalent in poorly resourced systems, has the

  2. "Getting the water-carrier to light the lamps": Discrepant role perceptions of traditional, complementary, and alternative medical practitioners in government health facilities in India.

    PubMed

    Josyula, K Lakshmi; Sheikh, Kabir; Nambiar, Devaki; Narayan, Venkatesh V; Sathyanarayana, T N; Porter, John D H

    2016-10-01

    The government of India has, over the past decade, implemented the "integration" of traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) practitioners, specifically practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa-rigpa, and Homoeopathy (collectively known by the acronym AYUSH), in government health services. A range of operational and ethical challenges has manifested during this process of large health system reform. We explored the practices and perceptions of health system actors, in relation to AYUSH providers' roles in government health services in three Indian states - Kerala, Meghalaya, and Delhi. Research methods included 196 in-depth interviews with a range of health policy and system actors and beneficiaries, between February and October 2012, and review of national, state, and district-level policy documents relating to AYUSH integration. The thematic 'framework' approach was applied to analyze data from the interviews, and systematic content analysis performed on policy documents. We found that the roles of AYUSH providers are frequently ambiguously stated and variably interpreted, in relation to various aspects of their practice, such as outpatient care, prescribing rights, emergency duties, obstetric services, night duties, and referrals across systems of medicine. Work sharing is variously interpreted by different health system actors as complementing allopathic practice with AYUSH practice, or allopathic practice, by AYUSH providers to supplement the work of allopathic practitioners. Interactions among AYUSH practitioners and their health system colleagues frequently take place in a context of partial information, preconceived notions, power imbalances, and mistrust. In some notable instances, collegial relationships and apt divisions of responsibilities are observed. Widespread normative ambivalence around the roles of AYUSH providers, complicated by the logistical constraints prevalent in poorly resourced systems, has the

  3. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3-200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector's non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with private

  4. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data

    PubMed Central

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3–200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector’s non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with

  5. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3-200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector's non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with private

  6. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Urinary fluoride as a monitoring tool for assessing successful intervention in the provision of safe drinking water supply in five fluoride-affected villages in Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Gautam, Anil; Jaiswal, Suresh Chandra; Singh, Pavitra

    2013-03-01

    Endemic fluorosis was detected in 31 villages in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Out of the 109 drinking water sources that were analyzed, about 67 % were found to contain high concentration of fluoride above the permissible level of 1.0 mg/l. Dental fluorosis among the primary school children in the age between 8 and 15 served as primary indicator for fluoride intoxication among the children. Urinary fluoride levels among the adults were found to be correlated with drinking water fluoride in 10 villages affected by fluoride. Intervention in the form of alternate safe water supply in five villages showed significant reduction in the urinary fluoride concentration when compared to the control village. Urinary fluoride serves as an excellent marker for assessing the effectiveness of intervention program in the fluoride-affected villages.

  8. Effect of house spraying with lambdacyhalothrin 10 per cent capsule suspension (CS) formulation in comparison with 10 per cent wettable powder (WP) against malaria vector in Malkangiri district, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, K.; Sahu, S.S.; Vijayakumar, T.; Subramanian, S.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Selection of an insecticide and its appropriate formulation is a prerequisite of formulating any chemical control strategy against vectors. A hut scale field trial was carried out to study the effectiveness of house spraying with capsule suspension (CS) formulation of lambdacyhalothrin in comparison with its wettable powder (WP) formulation on mortality, density and behaviour of malaria vector in Malkangiri district, Odisha, India. Methods: The two formulations were tested at 20 and 30 mg (a.i.)/m2 for their effectiveness in terms of deterrence, excito-repellency, blood-feeding success, mortality and residual activity against Anopheles fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, in experimental huts in Malkangiri district, Odisha State, India. Results: Both CS and WP formulations prevented the entry of An. fluviatilis in to the sprayed huts by >90 per cent for >6 months, the entire peak malaria transmission season in the area. The exit rate increased (90-99%) with different treatments and the feeding rate was reduced (91-97%). There was no significant difference between WP 30, CS 20 and CS 30 mg/m2 in these respects. However, WP 20 mg/m2 caused a lesser effect than the other three groups. The formulations or the dosages differed only in causing vector mortalities. Overall, the total mortality rate of An. fluviatilis was higher in the huts sprayed with CS 30 (58%) than the huts sprayed with CS 20 (48%), WP 20 (37%) and WP 30 mg/m2 (47%). Interpretation & conclusions: Considering the duration of residual action and the effect on entry, exit, feeding and mortality of An. fluviatilis, the dosage 20 mg/m2 of CS formulation of lambdacyhalothrin could be considered for further use. PMID:25488449

  9. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

  10. Physicochemical methods for monitoring seasonal variations in Cl-, F-, and Fe++ in underground water in Unnao District in Uttar Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Mamta; Dhar, Durga Nath; Singh, S K

    2010-12-01

    The variations of Cl( - ), F( - ), and Fe( + + ) in the underground water during pre- and post-monsoon periods for 2003 have been examined, for two places in Unnao district, by argentrometric titration method (Sodic Land Reclamation Project Uttar Pradesh 1998) and atomic absorption spectrometry (Sodic Land Reclamation Project Uttar Pradesh 1998). The concentration of these ions falls outside the limits prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO 1984).

  11. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    PubMed

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  12. Effect of Physical Violence on Sexually Transmitted Infections and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Female Sex Workers in Thane District, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Manthri, Suneedh; Tayyaba, Shaikh; Joy, Anna; Raj, Sunil Saksena; Singh, Devender; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs) who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services. Methods This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013–14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs) and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method. Results About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05) and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10) and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05). Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI

  13. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  14. A Cross-sectional Study of Correlation of Body Image Anxiety with Social Phobia and Their Association with Depression in the Adolescents from a Rural Area of Sangli District in India

    PubMed Central

    Waghachavare, Vivek Baliram; Quraishi, Sanjay R.; Dhumale, Girish B.; Gore, Alka D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%), 193 (19.4%) and 326 (32.7%) participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004) and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001) were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents. PMID:25709801

  15. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  16. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in water using multivariate statistical techniques in an industrial area: a case study from Patancheru, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Aradhi K; Satyanarayanan, M; Govil, Pradip K

    2009-08-15

    Application of different multivariate statistical approaches for the interpretation of data obtained during a monitoring programme of surface and groundwater in Patancheru industrial town near Hyderabad (India) is presented in this study. A number of chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been established since past three decades. Effluents from these industries are reportedly being directly discharged onto surrounding land, irrigation fields and surface water bodies forming point and non-point sources of contamination for groundwater in the study area. Thirteen parameters including trace elements (B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Sr, Ba and Pb) have been monitored on 53 sampling points from a hydrogeochemical survey conducted in surface and groundwater. Data set thus obtained was treated using R-mode factor analysis (FA) and principal component analysis (PCA). FA identified four factors responsible for data structure explaining 75% of total variance in surface water and two factors in groundwater explaining 85%, and allowed to group selected parameters according to common features. Sr, Ba, Co, Ni and Cr were associated and controlled by mixed origin with similar contribution from anthropogenic and geogenic sources whereas Fe, Mn, As, Pb, Zn, B and Co were derived from anthropogenic activities. This study indicates the necessity and usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation and interpretation of the data with a view to get better information about the water quality and design some remedial techniques to prevent the pollution caused by hazardous toxic elements in future.

  17. Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Chowdhury, Tarit Roy; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Lodh, Dilip; Chanda, Chitta Ranjan; Basu, Gautam Kumar; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2003-01-01

    To understand the magnitude of the arsenic calamity in West Bengal, a detailed study spanning 7 years was made in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts. Area and population of North 24-Parganas district are 4093.82 sq. km and 7.3 million, respectively. Fourty eight thousand and thirty water samples were analyzed from hand tubewells of North 24-Parganas in use for drinking, cooking and 29.2% of the tubewells were found to have arsenic above 50 microg/L, the maximum permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO) and 52.8% have arsenic above 10 microg/L, WHO recommended value of arsenic in drinking water. Out of the 22 blocks of North 24-Parganas, in 20 blocks arsenic has been found above the maximum permissible limit and so far in 16 blocks people have been identified as suffering from arsenical skin lesions. From the generated data, it is estimated that about 2.0 million and 1.0 million people are drinking arsenic contaminated water above 10 microg/L and 50 microg/L level, respectively in North 24-Parganas alone. So far, in our preliminary study 33,000 people have been examined at random from arsenic affected villages in North 24-Parganas and 2274 people have been registered with arsenical skin lesions. Extrapolation of the available data indicates about 0.1 million people may be suffering from arsenical skin lesions from North 24-Parganas alone. A sum of 21,000 hair, nail, and urine samples analyses from arsenic affected villages show 56%, 80%, and 87% people have arsenic in biological specimen more than normal/toxic (hair) level, respectively. Thus, many may be subclinically affected. Due to use of arsenic contaminated groundwater for agricultural irrigation, rice and vegetable are getting arsenic contaminated. Hence there is an additional arsenic burden from food chain. People from arsenic affected villages are also suffering from arsenical neuropathy. A followup study indicates that many of the victims suffering from severe

  18. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness. PMID:26797948

  19. Hydro-chemical characterization and quality assessment of a Western Himalayan river, Munawar Tawi, flowing through Rajouri district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Mohd; Azeez, P A

    2016-09-01

    Studies on river water quality in the Indian Himalayas are limited to a few larger ones; the smaller ones, although vital for a large section of people, mostly remain untouched. Therefore, Munawar Tawi a tributary of Chenab flowing through Rajouri district of Jammu region, Western Himalayas was selected for the study. Fifty-four water samples from 27 sites from Rajouri town and its upstream and downstream locations were collected during January and June 2014. Fourteen water quality parameters that include major cations and anions were analyzed. Water quality indicators such as SAR, %Na, RSC, MAR, KI, and PI were also calculated to determine suitability of water for irrigation. Piper plots identified four water types, of which Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 was the dominant type in both the seasons. While in January, water samples varied across all the four types, in June only two types were seen (i.e. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Na(+)-HCO(-) 3). Ludwig-Langelier plot also showed Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 type as the dominant water type. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed most of the parameters, except TDS, significantly high in January than in June. Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant variation in concentration among most of the parameters from upstream to the town and towards downstream. The water, with respect to the set standards (WHO, ISI, UNESCO), in both January and June, is found suitable for drinking and irrigation.

  20. Distribution of trace elements in certain ecological components and animal products in a dairy farm at Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Raghu, V

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical characteristics of the cattle are dealt based on the observations made in Ayurveda in the light of modern scientific developments in applied environmental geochemistry. The biogeochemical characteristics of certain important ecological components and animal products of the stall-fed animals were studied. For this purpose, a dairy farm of Tirumala-Tirupati Devasthanams, a religious organization in Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh was selected. This study is intended to trace out the trace element interactions in the ecological components (soil, water, fodder, feed) of the stall-fed animals and their output components viz. dung, urine and milk. Physical, physico-chemical properties and certain trace elements were determined for composite samples of ecological components and dung, urine, and milk of stall-fed animals. The variations in the distribution of pH and EC of urine and milk reflect the variations in their physico-chemical or hydro-chemical properties. As mentioned in Ayurveda, not only the properties of milk but also the properties of dung and urine reflect their diet and conditions of their habitat. Even though the diet is the same, the cows of different breeds yield milk of variable physical, physico-chemical properties and trace element composition which can be attributed to their body colour, substantiating Ayurveda. PMID:23892716

  1. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  2. Hydro-chemical characterization and quality assessment of a Western Himalayan river, Munawar Tawi, flowing through Rajouri district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Mohd; Azeez, P A

    2016-09-01

    Studies on river water quality in the Indian Himalayas are limited to a few larger ones; the smaller ones, although vital for a large section of people, mostly remain untouched. Therefore, Munawar Tawi a tributary of Chenab flowing through Rajouri district of Jammu region, Western Himalayas was selected for the study. Fifty-four water samples from 27 sites from Rajouri town and its upstream and downstream locations were collected during January and June 2014. Fourteen water quality parameters that include major cations and anions were analyzed. Water quality indicators such as SAR, %Na, RSC, MAR, KI, and PI were also calculated to determine suitability of water for irrigation. Piper plots identified four water types, of which Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 was the dominant type in both the seasons. While in January, water samples varied across all the four types, in June only two types were seen (i.e. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Na(+)-HCO(-) 3). Ludwig-Langelier plot also showed Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 type as the dominant water type. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed most of the parameters, except TDS, significantly high in January than in June. Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant variation in concentration among most of the parameters from upstream to the town and towards downstream. The water, with respect to the set standards (WHO, ISI, UNESCO), in both January and June, is found suitable for drinking and irrigation. PMID:27526045

  3. Lithological and hydrochemical controls on distribution and speciation of uranium in groundwaters of hard-rock granitic aquifers of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu (India).

    PubMed

    Thivya, C; Chidambaram, S; Keesari, Tirumalesh; Prasanna, M V; Thilagavathi, R; Adithya, V S; Singaraja, C

    2016-04-01

    Uranium is a radioactive element normally present in hexavalent form as U(VI) in solution and elevated levels in drinking water cause health hazards. Representative groundwater samples were collected from different litho-units in this region and were analyzed for total U and major and minor ions. Results indicate that the highest U concentration (113 µg l(-1)) was found in granitic terrains of this region and about 10 % of the samples exceed the permissible limit for drinking water. Among different species of U in aqueous media, carbonate complexes [UO2(CO3)(2)(2-)] are found to be dominant. Groundwater with higher U has higher pCO2 values, indicating weathering by bicarbonate ions resulting in preferential mobilization of U in groundwater. The major minerals uraninite and coffinite were found to be supersaturated and are likely to control the distribution of U in the study area. Nature of U in groundwater, the effects of lithology on hydrochemistry and factors controlling its distribution in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district are highlighted in this paper.

  4. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. PMID:26805621

  5. Public–Private Partnership in Health Care: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of Perceived Quality of Care Among Parents of Children Admitted in Two Government District-hospitals, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, B. Shantaram; Rao, Suchetha S.; Coutinho, Anitha; Jain, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perceived better quality of care draws lower socio-economic classes of Indians to more expensive private setups, leading to poverty illness poverty cycle. Urgent measures need to be taken to improve perceived quality of public hospitals. The present study compares the difference in perceived quality of care among parents of children admitted at two government district hospitals. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional, comparative, questionnaire based study was conducted between February 2011 and February 2012 at Government medical college hospitals of two district headquarters in South-India: one with private-public-partnership (PPP-model); another directly operated by government - Public Hospital-model (PH-model). A total of 461 inpatients from the PH model hospital and 580 from the PPP model hospital were eligible. Patients who left against advice (LAMA) (n=44 in PH and 19 in PPP) and expired (n=25 in PH and 59 in PPP) were excluded. Fourteen incomplete forms from PH and 10 from PPP model hospital were also excluded. Responders rated perception on a 1-5 scale in each domain: accessibility of health-facility, time spent waiting, manner and quality of physician, manner and quality of nurse, manner and quality of supporting staff, perception of equipment, explanation of treatment details and general comfort. The responders also rated overall satisfaction on a 1-10 scale. In the 1-5 scale, rating≥4 in each domain was considered good. Rating≥8 in 1-10 scale was considered satisfaction. Results Responders from PPP-model hospital were significantly more satisfied than those from PH-model {n=529 (91.2%) vs. n=148 (32.1%) p<0.001}. This was true even when controlled for age-group, sex, maternal education, family-type, days of hospital-stay and socioeconomic class {O.R.(CI) =23.58 (16.13-34.48); p<0.001} by binary logistic regression model. In the PPP-model hospital the time spent waiting for treatment {4.28(2.07-8.82), p<.001} and manner of support staff

  6. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rock terrain — A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Prasanna, M. V.; Vasanthavihar, M.; Peter, John; Anandhan, P.

    2008-02-01

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To identify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 groundwater samples for two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. The groundwater chemistry is dominated by silicate weathering and (Na + Mg) and (Cl + SO4) accounts of about 90% of cations and anions. The contribution of (Ca + Mg) and (Na + K) to total cations and HCO3 indicates the domination of silicate weathering as major sources for cations. The plot for Na to Cl indicates higher Cl in both seasons, derived from Anthropogenic (human) sources from fertilizer, road salt, human and animal waste, and industrial applications, minor representations of Na also indicates source from weathering of silicate-bearing minerals. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering process which is also supported by higher HCO3 values in both the seasons. Ion exchange process is also activated in the study area which is indicated by shifting to right in plot for Ca + Mg to SO4 + HCO3. The plot of Na-Cl to Ca + Mg-HCO3-SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chlorite minerals. Saturation index of silicate and carbonate minerals indicate oversaturation during pre-monsoon and undersaturation during post-monsoon, conforming dissolution and dilution process. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.

  7. Epidemiological shift in leprosy in a rural district of central India following introduction of multi-drug therapy (April 1986 to March 1992 and April 1992 to March 2002).

    PubMed

    Pandey, A; Uddin, M Jamal; Patel, R

    2005-06-01

    This study compares the epidemiological pattern of leprosy in pre- (April 1986 to March 1992) and post- (April 1992 to March 2002) multi-drug therapy (MDT) periods by retrospective analysis of 3274 registered leprosy cases in the rural field area of Regional Leprosy Training & Research Institute (RLTRI), situated in Raipur district of Chattisgarh province of Central India. The area has high endemicity for leprosy. In the post-MDT period, prevalence rate (PR) came down to less than 1 in 10, while New Case Detection Rate (NCDR) remained almost static during the two periods. Of the total new registered cases, 30.1% were registered during the pre-MDT period and the remaining 69.9% during the post-MDT period. Comparison of key leprosy variables among new registered cases showed a 2-fold rise in the proportion of MB cases (14.8 versus 27.6%), 3.0% increase in proportion of child cases (15.3 versus 18.6%) and cases with deformity grade II (3.1 versus 5.9%) and 4.0% increase in female proportion (41.4 versus 45.7%) during the post-MDT period. A decline was noted in mean age of registration for both MB (6.4 years) and PB (5.7 years) groups in the post-MDT period. While comparing treatment and outcome related variables, a marked fall of 25.8 months was recorded in treatment duration in the post-MDT period. The defaulter rate came down by 45.0% and relapse rate by more than 12.0% during the same period. The study shows that MDT is effective operationally, but continued ongoing transmission of infection and delayed diagnosis needs corrective action.

  8. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms.

  9. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  10. The Calcutta metropolitan district.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    11 million residents in 1450 square kilometers make the Calcutta Metropolitan District the world's most densely packed metropolis and the world's 6th largest urban agglomeration. But even though Calcutta is India's largest city, it is growing at a much slower pace than other Indian cities. Its annual growth rate between 1971 and 1981 was 2.65%, well below the 3.8% growth rate for India's urban population as a whole. Even at this relatively slow growth rate, however, Calcutta's population will still grow to 11.7 million residents in 1990 and 15.9 million in 2000. Calcutta's failure to create urban jobs quickly enough to accommodate its vast population increase has led to widespread evidence of unemployment and extreme poverty. Many in Calcutta complain that the central goverment has thwarted development and international aid to Calcutta. Industrial stagnation has slowed the area's urbanization and rural-urban migration. As greater numbers of new job seekers enter the labor force and the dropout rate diminishes due to dramatic inprovement in health, relentless pressure is put on Calcutta's already strained economy. Calcutta's job seekers will be partly absorbed by the informal sector; one study estimates that 40-50% of Calcutta's labor force is employed in the informal sector. In 1971, 6% of Calcutta's work force was employed in agriculture, 40% in manufacturing, and 54% in services. 2/3 of the population make less than $35 a month, and about 10% are officially unemployed. Despite great improvements in public works, Calcutta's slums are still India's worst. Living standards have gone down compared to India as a whole. Most of the middle class has moved to the suburbs; what is left in the central core is the rich and the poor. However, despite widening income disparities, Calcutta is still a peaceful city--especially so at a time when India is marked with so much violence.

  11. The crysophere as a resource and hazard - Integrated framework for the assessment of future water resource vulnerability and glacial hazard risk assessment in the Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Simon; Awasthi, Kirtiman; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Kahn, Mustafa; Linsbauer, Andreas; Rohrer, Mario; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Schauwecker, Simone; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-05-01

    High mountain environments are particularly susceptible to changes in atmospheric temperature and precipitation patterns, owing to the sensitivity of cryospheric components to melting conditions, and the importance of rainfall and river runoff for sustaining crops and livelihoods. The Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (population ca. 6 mil.) is the initial focus of a joint program between the governments of India and Switzerland aiming to build scientific capacity to understand the threat, and plan for adaptation to climate change in the Himalaya. Here we focus on the cryosphere, and provide an overview of the integrated framework we will follow to assess future water resource vulnerability from changes in runoff, and assess future disaster risk from mass movement and flood hazards. At this early stage of our project, we aim to identify key methodological steps, data requirements, and related challenges. The initial implementation of our framework will be centered on the Kullu district. Core and integrative components of both the traditional climate vulnerability framework (eg., IPCC AR4), and the vulnerability and risk concepts of the disaster risk management community (eg., IPCC SREX 2012) include the assessment of sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. Sensitivity to water vulnerability in the Kullu district requires the quantification of current and future water resource usage at the block or community level, using metrics such as total irrigated land area, total electricity usage, population density and birth rates. Within the disaster risk framework, sensitivity to mass movement and flood hazards will be determined based on factors such as population density and demographics (notably age and gender), strength of building materials etc. Projected temperature and precipitation data from regional climate model output will be used to model changes in melt water runoff and streamflow, determining the exposure of communities and natural systems to future

  12. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  13. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  14. Compatible poliomyelitis cases in India during 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Kathryn A.; Hlady, W. Gary; Banerjee, Kaushik; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Francis, Paul; Durrani, Sunita; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Sutter, Roland W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases and to assess the programmatic implications of clusters of such cases in India. METHODS: We described the characteristics of compatible poliomyelitis cases, identified clusters of compatible cases (two or more in the same district or neighbouring districts within two months), and examined their relationship to wild poliovirus cases. FINDINGS: There were 362 compatible cases in 2000. The incidence of compatible cases was higher in districts with laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases than in districts without laboratory-confirmed cases. Of 580 districts, 96 reported one compatible case and 72 reported two or more compatible cases. Among these 168 districts with at least one compatible case, 123 had internal or cross- border clusters of compatible cases. In 27 districts with clusters of compatible cases, no wild poliovirus was isolated either in the same district or in neighbouring districts. Three of these 27 districts presented laboratory-confirmed poliomyelitis cases during 2001. CONCLUSION: Most clusters of compatible cases occurred in districts identified as areas with continuing wild poliovirus transmission and where mopping-up vaccination campaigns were carried out. As certification nears, areas with compatible poliomyelitis cases should be investigated and deficiencies in surveillance should be corrected in order to ensure that certification is justified. PMID:12640469

  15. Additions to the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae (Chalcidoidea) of India with new distribution and host records for some species

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, A.; V, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India have not been surveyed in depth and hosts are not known for most of the species as the methods of collections used are passive and do not yield firsthand information on the hosts. Based on our ongoing surveys on the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India, we report here new distribution and host records for some species. New information Acmopolynema campylurum Xu and Lin, Litus cynipseus Haliday, Omyomymar glabrum Lin and Chiappini and Platystethynium Ogloblin (Mymaridae), and Rhytidothorax purpureiscutellum (Girault) (Encyrtidae) are reported for the first time from India. Anagyrus aquilonaris (Noyes and Hayat) is recorded as new to Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. Paraphaenodiscus indicus Singh and Agarwal and Paraphaenodiscus monawari Bhuiya are recorded from south India for the first time, the latter on a new host, Pulvinaria polygonata. Chorizococcus sorghi Williams (Pseudococcidae) is reported as a host for Cryptanusia ajmerensis (Fatma & Shafee), for which no hosts are hitherto known and the male of Cryptanusia is documented for the first time. Aclerda sp. is recorded as a new host for Neastymachus axillaris Singh, Agarwal and Basha. PMID:26069438

  16. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  17. Geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

    1982-01-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  18. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  19. Essential oil composition of valeriana jatamansi jones from himalayan regions of India.

    PubMed

    Raina, Archana P; Negi, K S

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi Jones germplasm collected from sub-temperate Himalayan region of Uttarakhand and North-East state of Meghalaya, India was evaluated under identical conditions at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Bhowali, India, to study germplasm diversity based on essential oil composition. Twenty one compounds were identified in V. jatamansi root oil by GC and GC-MS. The major compounds identified were patchouli alcohol (0.4-63.7%), maaliol (2.9-53.8%), seychellene (4.1-27.4%), calarene/ß-gurjunene (3.0-20.8%), α-santalene (0.6-12.0%). Other compounds present were bornyl acetate (0.6-1.5%), α-guaiene (0.7-2.3%), α-bulnesene/δ-guaiene (0.7-6.3%), 7-epi-α-selinene (0.4-1.4%), kessane (2.1-3.3%), spathulenol (0.7-3.4%), viridiflorol (0.9-7.1%), α-patchoulene (0.8-6.6%), ß-patchoulene (0.4-0.8%). Two superior chemotypes identified in V. jatamansi oil from Uttarakhand were: patchouli alcohol rich (IC573221, 63.7%) and maaliol rich (IC573222, 53.8%; IC589096, 51.7%), while accession from north-east was patchouli alcohol rich chemotype (IC574522, 57.2%). These superior chemotypes with higher amounts of patchouli alcohol and maaliol could be used for promoting cultivation as well as for meeting need of pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26009656

  20. Serological evidences of bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in bovines of organized farms in India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, M; Yadav, V; Chander, V

    2011-04-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle causing a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, a highly infectious disease of cattle and buffaloes, occurs throughout the world including India. The present study based on micro-serum neutralization test reports the sero-epidemiology of BHV-1 infection in cattle and buffaloes from different parts of India. Serum samples from cattle, bulls, buffalo bulls and yaks were screened for BHV-1 antibodies. A total of 1115 serum samples were screened, and a total of 437 (39.2%) serum samples were found positive and 678 (60.8%) serum samples were found negative. Overall 168 (38.0%) cattle, 17 (85.0%) buffalo, 212 (38.6%) bulls, 8 (13.5%) buffalo bulls and 32 (71.1%) yaks were found positive for BHV-1 antibodies. State wise, Assam had highest seropositivity of 71.1% for yaks, Madhya Pradesh had 68.9% for cattle and Meghalaya was negative for the presence of antibodies to BHV-1 in cattle. PMID:21156033

  1. Essential Oil Composition of Valeriana Jatamansi Jones from Himalayan Regions of India

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Archana P.; Negi, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi Jones germplasm collected from sub-temperate Himalayan region of Uttarakhand and North-East state of Meghalaya, India was evaluated under identical conditions at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Bhowali, India, to study germplasm diversity based on essential oil composition. Twenty one compounds were identified in V. jatamansi root oil by GC and GC-MS. The major compounds identified were patchouli alcohol (0.4-63.7%), maaliol (2.9-53.8%), seychellene (4.1-27.4%), calarene/ß-gurjunene (3.0-20.8%), α-santalene (0.6-12.0%). Other compounds present were bornyl acetate (0.6-1.5%), α-guaiene (0.7-2.3%), α-bulnesene/δ-guaiene (0.7-6.3%), 7-epi-α-selinene (0.4-1.4%), kessane (2.1-3.3%), spathulenol (0.7-3.4%), viridiflorol (0.9-7.1%), α-patchoulene (0.8-6.6%), ß-patchoulene (0.4-0.8%). Two superior chemotypes identified in V. jatamansi oil from Uttarakhand were: patchouli alcohol rich (IC573221, 63.7%) and maaliol rich (IC573222, 53.8%; IC589096, 51.7%), while accession from north-east was patchouli alcohol rich chemotype (IC574522, 57.2%). These superior chemotypes with higher amounts of patchouli alcohol and maaliol could be used for promoting cultivation as well as for meeting need of pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26009656

  2. ETHNOBOTANY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Prakasa; Sreeramulu, S. Hara

    1985-01-01

    India has a rich heritage of herbal medicine of which the most important system namely Ayurveda needs even today a critical scientific scrutiny both in the correct identity of the proper drug plants and in the standard of the preparation of Ayurveda drugs. Authentic data on the medicinal plants growing in the Srikakulam district of Northern Andhra Pradesh is presented in the paper along with their etnobotainical data and their distribution in the district. PMID:22557487

  3. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  4. Current emerging situation of dengue in India.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Thiruppathi

    2013-07-01

    Outbreaks of dengue fever (DF) have been reported from various countries. Although DF has been endemic in India from the nineteenth century, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was first reported in 1987. The first major widespread epidemic of DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) was reported in 1996 with four serotypes reported to be in co-circulation. In 2012 an outbreak occurred in India during which a total of 47,029 DF cases and 242 deaths were reported - three times higher than the previous year. Twelve states reported a large number of cases, including Tamil Nadu which recorded 12,264 from various districts. We discuss methods of prevention and control.

  5. Maternal mortality in southern India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Amalraj, A

    1994-01-01

    In a 4 year prospective community survey of 20,000 women randomly selected in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State in South India, the maternal mortality rates per 1,000 liveborn were estimated to be 17.4 and 16.6 for rural and semi-urban areas, respectively. The rates based only on direct causes were 11.9 in rural and 14.4 in semi-urban areas. As expected, these figures are considerably higher than those based on official or hospital statistics. Factors associated with such high mortality and the implications for programme planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:7855917

  6. AIDS activists arrested in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-05-27

    Health activists in India are outraged over the arrests of 11 AIDS activists belonging to the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Sahyog. These AIDS activists were charged with obscenity and rioting. Rioting broke out when the local print media published details of a report entitled ¿AIDS and Us¿ that was produced by Sahyog in Hindi. The report tackled prevalent sexual practices, very low level of awareness, and other risk factors related to contracting HIV infection or developing AIDS in the rural areas of the Almora district. Critics charged the activists with destroying the image of the people of the region, portraying them as promiscuous and practicing high-risk sexual behavior. Consequently, Sahyog issued a statement of apology and promised to withdraw the report, but the district administration still banned their work in the area. Several NGOs also feel that the presentation of the report should have been more cautious.

  7. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  8. Challenges for Transformation: A Situational Analysis of Mental Health Care Services in Sehore District, Madhya Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Shidhaye, Rahul; Raja, Anusha; Shrivastava, Sanjay; Murhar, Vaibhav; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Patel, Vikram

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of individuals with mental disorders receiving evidence based treatments in India is very small. In order to address this huge treatment gap, programme for improving mental health care is being implemented in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The aim of this study was to complete the situational analysis consisting of two parts; document review of Sehore district mental health programme followed by a qualitative study. The findings suggest that there are major health system challenges in developing and implementing the mental health care plan to be delivered through primary health care system in Sehore district.

  9. Entomobryoidea (Collembola) from Himachal Pradesh (India) in the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Enrique; Mandal, Gurupada; Jordana, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Collections made during March-April, 2010, October-November, 2010 and 2011 from different districts of Himachal Pradesh, India, by the Apterygota section of the Zoological Survey of India contained new species of Entomobryoidea. Localities sampled were Solan, Shimla, Kullu, Bilaspur, Kagra, Chamba and Sirmaur districts of Himachal Pradesh. Collections were mainly made using an aspirator from leaf litter, mosses, under stones, flowering garden plants and river embankments, wetlands and rotting logs. Sixteen species were found, belonging to genera: Entomobrya, Himalanura, Homidia, Sinella, Willowsia, Lepidocyrtus (Acrocyrtus), Lepidocyrtus (Cinctocyrtus), Seira, Drepanosira and Salina. Twelve of these have been described as new species. PMID:26624165

  10. Disability Divides in India: Evidence from the 2011 Census

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Nandita; Bora, Jayanta Kumar; Jasilionis, Domantas; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the socioeconomic and regional divides in disability prevalence in India has considerable relevance for designing public health policies and programs. Objectives The aim of the present study is to quantify the prevalence of disability by gender, region (rural and urban; states and districts), and caste. We also examine the association between disability prevalence and the major socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the districts in India. Methods Age-standardized disability prevalence (ASDP) was calculated using 2011 census data and applying the WHO World Standard Population. A regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between disability prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics across districts of India. Results The study found that ASDP varies substantially across districts and is higher among women, rural dwellers, and members of scheduled tribes (STs) and scheduled castes (SCs). The regression model showed that the disability rate in districts rises with increasing proportions of the population who are urban dwellers, aged 65 or older, members of STs, and living in dilapidated housing; and that the disability prevalence decreases with increasing proportions of the female population who are literate, and of the general population who are working and have access to safe drinking water. Conclusion As the burden of disability falls disproportionately across geographic regions and socioeconomic groups, public health policies in India should take this variation into account. The definition of disability used in the census should be modified to generate internationally comparable estimates of disability prevalence. PMID:27490469

  11. First Report of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Infecting Gherkin (Cucumis anguira) in India.

    PubMed

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Vidya, T; Papaiah, S; Srinivasulu, M; Mandal, Bikash; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-09-01

    A field visit in September 2011 to the Cucumis anguira (Gherkin) growing regions of Kuppam, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India revealed occurrence of mosaic, blistering and fruit malformation leading to the crop losses. Analysis of field samples revealed association of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) with the disease. This is the first confirmed report of natural occurrence of ZYMV on Gherkin in India.

  12. Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part 2. Arsenic concentration in drinking water, hair, nails, urine, skin-scale and liver tissue (biopsy) of the affected people.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Chatterjee, A; Mandal, B K; Samanta, G; Chakraborti, D; Chanda, B

    1995-03-01

    In six districts of West Bengal arsenic has been found in ground water above the maximum permissible limit recommended by the WHO of 0.05 mg l-1. This water is used by the villagers for drinking, cooking and other household purposes. These six districts have an area of 34,000 km2 and hold a population of 30 million. Over the last five years we have surveyed only a few small areas of these six affected districts and our survey revealed that, at present, at least 800,000 people from 312 villages in 37 blocks are drinking contaminated water and more than 175,000 people are showing arsenical skin lesions that are the late stages of manifestation of arsenic toxicity. Most of the three stages of arsenic-related clinical manifestations are observed amongst the affected people. The common symptoms are conjunctivitis, melanosis, depigmentation, keratosis and hyperkeratosis; cases of gangrene and malignant neoplasms are also observed. The source of arsenic is geological. We have analysed thousands of arsenic contaminated water samples. Most of the water samples contain a mixture of arsenite and arsenate and in none of them could we detect methylarsonic or dimethylarsenic acid. We have also analysed a large number of urine, hair and nail samples, several skin-scales and some liver tissues (biopsy samples) of the people drinking the arsenic contaminated water and showing arsenical skin lesions. Flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HGAAS) was used for the analysis of hair, nails, urine and skin-scale after decomposition by various techniques. The liver tissues were analysed by Zeeman corrected-ETAAS using a few milligrams of the biopsy samples.

  13. The association of selected sociodemographic factors and differences in patterns of substance use: a pilot study in selected areas of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, H K; Phukan, R K; Mahanta, J

    2003-07-01

    Emergence of new addictive substances and progressive increase of 'drug abuse" has become a serious problem in many countries. Despite legal restriction and administrative control, the use of illicit drugs (like opium, heroin, proxyvan, etc.) has increased considerably in many parts of Northeast India. A sample of 1831 people (age 10 years and above) were interviewed during 1997-1998 about their drug use habits, if any, and types of substance used, in Meghalaya and upper Assam. Prevalence of substance use was 29.4% tobacco (20.5% chewers and 12.7% smokers), 12.5% alcohol, and 4.9% opium. In Meghalaya, prevalence of tobacco use was high (41.7%), which was mainly due to the large number of female chewers and male smokers. Opium and cannabis users were mainly confined in Assam close to the Arunachal Pradesh border, indicating a regional influence. Wide differences were observed in the prevalence pattern of tobacco and alcohol use across location, sex, age, education, and occupation. An association of sociodemographic factors with substance use was documented. Religion and ethnic group have significant association with tobacco use patterns but are insignificant with regard to alcohol use. Use of multiple substances and use of cannabis as a substitute for opium are the major problems indicating drug dependence. Mean ages for substance use initiation were: 18.5 years for tobacco, 21.8 years for alcohol, and 25.8 years for opium. Not with-standing the study's limitations, these findings are useful for planned prevention efforts and formulation of a specific program considering the importance of regional and sociodemographic factors. PMID:12908813

  14. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  15. Intergenerational Beliefs of Mothers and Grandmothers regarding Early Childhood Stimulation in (Rural) Jammu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Neeru; Sapru, Ruchira; Mahajan, Ruchi

    2009-01-01

    The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational differences in parental beliefs of the Lobana community in the rural district of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The sample comprised 30 mothers and 30 grandmothers, selected from the R.S. Pura tehsil of the Jammu district. Data was collected using a modified parental…

  16. On the transmission pattern of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) in India.

    PubMed

    Murhekar, Manoj V; Kasabi, Gudadappa S; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Tandale, Babasaheb V

    2015-01-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, is endemic in five districts of Karnataka state, India. Recent reports of the spread of disease to neighboring districts of the Western Ghats, namely Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu, Wayanad and Malappuram districts in Kerala, and Pali village in Goa are a cause for concern. Besides vaccination of the affected population, establishing an event-based surveillance system for monkey deaths in the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests of the Western Ghats would help detect the disease early and thereby help implement appropriate control measures.

  17. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference. PMID:25416966

  18. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  19. Data-Driven Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the…

  20. Epidemiology of Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis and Common Mutations in rpoB Gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Retrospective Study from Six Districts of Punjab (India) Using Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Jindal, Neerja; Arora, Shilpa; Kataria, Shajla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xpert MTB/RIF assay has revolutionized the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by simultaneously detecting the bacteria and resistance to rifampicin (RIF), a surrogate marker for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in <2 h. The RIF resistance pattern in Malwa region of Punjab, India, is not documented. Here, we report the epidemiology of RIF-resistant TB and mutations in rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Materials and Methods: A total of 1612 specimens received between October 2013 and February 2015 were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF assay following manufacturer's instructions. The results thus obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) statistical software. Result: RIF resistance was statistically higher in previously treated patients in comparison to the new patients (P = 0.006) and in patients with acid fast-Bacilli (AFB) positive smears to AFB-negative smears (P = 0.048). RIF resistance mutations in 130 specimens revealed frequency of E 73/130 (56%), B 28/130 (21.5%), D 18/130 (13.8%), A 11/130 (8.4%), and C 1/130 (0.7%) while in one specimen, mutation combination, i.e., mutations associated with more than one probe (A and B both) was present. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a user-friendly screening tool for detection of MTB and RIF resistance from suspected TB/MDR cases in a shorter period of time. It could also serve as a useful technique to have simultaneous preliminary information regarding the mutation pattern of RIF resistance in MTB isolates. PMID:27365918

  1. Comparative Efficacies of Artemisinin Combination Therapies in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Polymorphism of pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps Genes in Tea Gardens of Jalpaiguri District, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Pabitra; Guha, Subhasish K.; Das, Sonali; Mullick, Shrabanee; Ganguly, Swagata; Biswas, Asit; Bera, Dilip K.; Chattopadhyay, Gaurangadeb; Das, Madhusudan; Kundu, Pratip K.; Ray, Krishnangshu

    2012-01-01

    In India, chloroquine has been replaced by a combination of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other available combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LF) and artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ), not included in the national program, are widely used by private practitioners. Little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of these artemisinin combinations and the prevalence of molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. A total of 157 patients with P. falciparum monoinfection were recruited and randomized into three study groups (AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ). All patients were followed up for 42 days to study the clinical and parasitological responses according to the WHO protocol (2009). We assessed the polymorphism of the pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes by the DNA-sequencing method. The PCR-corrected therapeutic efficacies of AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ were 90.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.969), 95.9% (95% CI, 0.860 to 0.995), and 100% (95% CI, 0.927 to 1.00), respectively. No specific mutational pattern was observed in the pfATPase6 gene. All isolates had a K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene. In the pfdhfr-pfdhps genotype, quadruple mutation was frequent, and quintuple mutation was documented in 6.3% of P. falciparum isolates. The significant failure rate of AS-SP (9.5%), although within the limit (10%) for drug policy change, was due to SP failure because of prevailing mutations in pfdhfr, I51R59N108, with pfdhps, G437 and/or E540. The efficacy of this ACT needs periodic monitoring. Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine are effective alternatives to the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination. PMID:22314538

  2. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  3. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  4. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India.

    PubMed

    Das, Kousik; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2016-04-01

    There has been growing public concern about intellectual performance of children at high levels of fluoride exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Simlapal Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, to find out the relationship between fluoride (F) exposure as exposure dose (ED) with dental fluorosis (DF), urinary fluoride concentration (UF), intelligence quotient (IQ) and body mass index (BMI). Fifty groundwater samples were collected from the target area. One hundred forty-nine children belonging to age group 6 to 18 years were considered for this study. Experimental results reveal that mean F(-) concentration of that area is 2.11 mg/L (±SD 1.64). On the basis of F concentration in groundwater and water consumption pattern, ED was calculated to explore the impact of F(-) on DF, UF, IQ, and BMI. Paired t test results suggest that exposure rate of F does not show any significant differences (<0.05) among the children of 12 different places. As a result of F exposure, DF cases are mostly found in the order of moderate > severe > mild > very mild > questionable > normal conditions. The highest UF concentration was recorded as 17 mg/L, but the status of DF in the affected children was recorded as moderate. The results also reveal that ED has a positive correlation with DF (r = 0.299, P < 0.01) and UF (r = 0.513, P < 0.01) and a negative correlation with IQ (r = -0.343, P < 0.01) along with BMI (r = 0.083, non-significant). Therefore, from this study, it may be concluded that UF and DF concentration could act as a biomarker of fluoride toxicity.

  5. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India.

    PubMed

    Das, Kousik; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2016-04-01

    There has been growing public concern about intellectual performance of children at high levels of fluoride exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Simlapal Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, to find out the relationship between fluoride (F) exposure as exposure dose (ED) with dental fluorosis (DF), urinary fluoride concentration (UF), intelligence quotient (IQ) and body mass index (BMI). Fifty groundwater samples were collected from the target area. One hundred forty-nine children belonging to age group 6 to 18 years were considered for this study. Experimental results reveal that mean F(-) concentration of that area is 2.11 mg/L (±SD 1.64). On the basis of F concentration in groundwater and water consumption pattern, ED was calculated to explore the impact of F(-) on DF, UF, IQ, and BMI. Paired t test results suggest that exposure rate of F does not show any significant differences (<0.05) among the children of 12 different places. As a result of F exposure, DF cases are mostly found in the order of moderate > severe > mild > very mild > questionable > normal conditions. The highest UF concentration was recorded as 17 mg/L, but the status of DF in the affected children was recorded as moderate. The results also reveal that ED has a positive correlation with DF (r = 0.299, P < 0.01) and UF (r = 0.513, P < 0.01) and a negative correlation with IQ (r = -0.343, P < 0.01) along with BMI (r = 0.083, non-significant). Therefore, from this study, it may be concluded that UF and DF concentration could act as a biomarker of fluoride toxicity. PMID:26960765

  6. First report of Cobboldia elephantis (Cobbold, 1866) larvae in a free ranging wild elephant from Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Venu, R; Thoiba Singh, Th; Veeraharin, R; Rajesh, D; Srilatha, Ch

    2015-06-01

    Larvae of Cobboldia elephantis have been reported from the stomach of a free ranging wild elephant (Elephas maximus) while conducting post mortem examination at Palamner forest range, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. This is the first report of C. elephantis in free ranging wild elephant in Andhra Pradesh state, India. PMID:26063993

  7. Overview of the species of Aphelocheirus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aphelocheiridae) of India, with description of a new species from West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Basu, Srimoyee; Subramanian, K A; Saha, Goutam K

    2013-01-01

    An overview and a key to the species of Aphelocheirus of India are given. Aphelocheirus (Aphelocheirus) thirumalaii sp. nov. from Gorumara National Park of Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, is described. With this new species, eight other species of benthic water bugs (Aphelocheiridae) are reported from India. A distribution map of all known Indian species is also provided. PMID:26106729

  8. Three new species of horned frogs, Megophrys (Amphibia: Megophryidae), from northeast India, with a resolution to the identity of Megophrys boettgeri populations reported from the region.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Stephen; Teeling, Emma C; Biju, S D

    2013-01-01

    Northeast India is a well-established region of biological importance but remains poorly understood with regards to the species level identifications of many of its extant amphibians. In this study we examined small sized frogs from the genus Megophrys recently collected from remote and suburban forests in the northeast Indian states of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, from which we have identified three new species. Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov., Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. are compared with all known congeners from India and surrounding regions from which they differ based primarily on a combination of morphological characters. Megophrys boettgeri is removed, and Megophrys minor added to the Indian amphibian checklist, through critical review of all literature pertaining to the former species, and the discovery of an overlooked historical report of the latter species. Two of the new species, Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov. are known from low and mid elevations within two large protected forests in Arunachal Pradesh, both with poorly studied amphibian fauna. Contrastingly, Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. is currently known only from small forested areas on the upper reaches of the Shillong Plateau. The importance of the Shillong Plateau as an area of known high amphibian endemicity is highlighted in the light of the miniscule proportion of its land area afforded government protection, raising concerns about the future conservation of its still poorly known species.

  9. Reductions in India's crop yield due to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghude, Sachin D.; Jena, Chinmay; Chate, D. M.; Beig, G.; Pfister, G. G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ramanathan, V.

    2014-08-01

    This bottom-up modeling study, supported by emission inventories and crop production, simulates ozone on local to regional scales. It quantifies, for the first time, potential impact of ozone on district-wise cotton, soybeans, rice, and wheat crops in India for the first decade of the 21st century. Wheat is the most impacted crop with losses of 3.5 ± 0.8 million tons (Mt), followed by rice at 2.1 ± 0.8 Mt, with the losses concentrated in central and north India. On the national scale, this loss is about 9.2% of the cereals required every year (61.2 Mt) under the provision of the recently implemented National Food Security Bill (in 2013) by the Government of India. The nationally aggregated yield loss is sufficient to feed about 94 million people living below poverty line in India.

  10. HIV testing in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.

  11. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from south India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Chelmala, Srinivasulu; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Shah, Tariq Ahmed; Devender, Gundena; Srinivasulu, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this species in southern India, extending its distribution range by almost 1300 km. We also provide a detailed morphological description for this species. PMID:25535483

  12. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  13. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Debjani; Singh, Nivedita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  14. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  15. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Debjani; Singh, Nivedita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  16. Identification and characterization of a distinct banana bunchy top virus isolate of Pacific-Indian Oceans group from North-East India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Behere, Ganesh T; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Ngachan, S V

    2014-04-01

    Banana bunch top virus (BBTV) is considered to be a serious threat to banana production. A new isolate of the virus (BBTV-Umiam) was identified and characterized from local banana mats growing in mid-hills of Meghalaya in North-East India. The complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of six full-length ssDNA components (DNA R, DNA U3, DNA S, DNA M, DNA C and DNA N) sharing major common region (CR-M) and a stem-loop common region (CR-SL). BBTV-Umiam showed a unique deletion of 20 nucleotides in the intergenic region of DNA R, the absence of predicted open reading frame (ORF) in DNA U3 and probability for a small ORF in DNA U3 expecting functional evidence at transcriptional level. Phylogenetic analysis based on 88 complete nucleotide sequence of BBTV DNA R available in GenBank generated two broad clusters of Pacific-Indian Oceans (PIO) and South-East Asian (SEA) groups including BBTV-Umiam within PIO cluster. However, BBTV-Umiam was identified as the most distinct member of the PIO group with 100% bootstrap support. This was further supported by the phylogenetic grouping of each genomic component of BBTV-Umiam at the distant end of PIO group during clustering of 21 complete BBTV sequences. BBTV-Umiam shared relatively less nucleotide identity with PIO group for each genomic component (85.0-95.4%) and corresponding ORF (93.8-97.5%) than that of earlier PIO isolates (91.5-99.6% and 96.0-99.3%, respectively). Recombination analysis revealed two intra-component and five inter-component recombination events in BBTV-Umiam, but none of them was unique. Moreover, the isolate was identified as major parental sequence for intra-component recombination event spanning the replication-associated protein encoding region in Tongan BBTV DNA R. The current study indicated differential evolution of BBTV in North-East India (Meghalaya). The natural occurrence of hybrids of Musa balbisiana and M. acuminata in this geographically isolated region could be the

  17. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  18. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  19. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  20. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  1. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  2. Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India

    PubMed Central

    CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

  3. Structured Inequalities: Factors Associated with Spatial Disparities in Maternity Care in India

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Wu, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Research on India documents considerable heterogeneity in health and health care across states. However, while regional differences are well established, factors underlying these differences have received little attention. This paper seeks to explain disparities in delivery care across districts by focusing on three factors: (1) Marriage and kinship patterns; (2) District wealth; (3) Governance and quality of services. Using data from nationally representative India Human Development Survey 2005 (IHDS) it examines the probability that the 11,905 women who had a child between 2000 and 2005 delivered in a hospital or received care from a doctor or a nurse while delivering at home. The results suggest that 47% of the variation in delivery care in India is between districts while 53% is between women within district. Although compositional differences in education and household wealth explain some of the variation between districts, marriage and kinship patterns, district wealth and governance each has a significant impact on shaping between-district variation in maternity care. PMID:24761090

  4. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, U K; Biswas, B K; Chowdhury, T R; Samanta, G; Mandal, B K; Basu, G C; Chanda, C R; Lodh, D; Saha, K C; Mukherjee, S K; Roy, S; Kabir, S; Quamruzzaman, Q; Chakraborti, D

    2000-05-01

    Nine districts in West Bengal, India, and 42 districts in Bangladesh have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of the 42 districts in Bangladesh and the 9 districts in West Bengal are 92,106 km(2) and 79.9 million and 38,865 km(2) and 42.7 million, respectively. In our preliminary study, we have identified 985 arsenic-affected villages in 69 police stations/blocks of nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. In Bangladesh, we have identified 492 affected villages in 141 police stations/blocks of 42 affected districts. To date, we have collected 10,991 water samples from 42 arsenic-affected districts in Bangladesh for analysis, 58,166 water samples from nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. Of the water samples that we analyzed, 59 and 34%, respectively, contained arsenic levels above 50 microg/L. Thousands of hair, nail, and urine samples from people living in arsenic-affected villages have been analyzed to date; Bangladesh and West Bengal, 93 and 77% samples, on an average, contained arsenic above the normal/toxic level. We surveyed 27 of 42 districts in Bangladesh for arsenic patients; we identified patients with arsenical skin lesions in 25 districts. In West Bengal, we identified patients with lesions in seven of nine districts. We examined people from the affected villages at random for arsenical dermatologic features (11,180 and 29,035 from Bangladesh and West Bengal, respectively); 24.47 and 15.02% of those examined, respectively, had skin lesions. After 10 years of study in West Bengal and 5 in Bangladesh, we feel that we have seen only the tip of iceberg.

  5. District nursing in Dominica.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, P M; Luteijn, A J; Nasiiro, R S; Bruney, V; Smith, R J; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-10-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the use of a questionnaire. Check-ups for hypertension, diabetes, pregnancy and immunisations constituted 40% of all reasons for encounter. The district nurses dealt with 80% of all contacts; only 20% of all patients were referred to the district medical officer. There are several discouragements to the motivation of the nurses. In addition to being a nurse, all have their family and other obligations. Postgraduate training with diversified certification and upgrading of wages could contribute to a continued high motivation and increased job satisfaction.

  6. Light on maternal mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, J C

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the degree and causes of maternal mortality in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India, detailed enquiries were made at the grass roots and the records of health facilities were examined. The number of maternal deaths proved to be much higher than would have been revealed by a perusal of official data alone. Many women in a serious condition died on the way to hospital or soon after arrival because the means of transport were too slow or otherwise unsuitable. Maternal mortality rates varied substantially from place to place, reflecting differing levels of economic development and the presence or absence of primary health centres and subcentres. PMID:2271096

  7. Groundwater quality in Maharashtra, India: focus on nitrate pollution.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Rohra, Nanda; Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-10-01

    Groundwater Survey and Development Agency (GSDA), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) have been carrying out groundwater quality monitoring at about 1407 monitoring locations in various districts of Maharashtra state in India. The groundwater quality data for pH, TDS, total hardness, sulphate, flouride and nitrate were compared with BIS: 10500:2004-2005 standards for drinking purpose. The results show that nitrate pollution is becoming more prevalent in groundwater of Maharashtra. Water quality data during the period 2007-2009 show that 544 locations out of 1407 locations exceeded 45 mgl(-1), the allowable NO3 level for drinking water. About 227 locations exceeded nitrate level beyond 100 mgl(-1). At 87 talukas in 23 districts of Maharashtra the NO3 levels exceeded the standard in all samples monitored during 2007-2009. The Buldana district with highest locations (27) had nitrate above 100 mgl(-1) followed by Amravati (24) and Akola (20) districts. At 7 talukas in 4 districts, fluoride was found above permissible limit of 1.5 mgl(-1), 100% of the time. 2 talukas in 2 districts of Maharashtra showed 100% non compliance of pH as per BIS standard of 6.5-8.5 mgl(-1). The districts having good to excellent quality of groundwater were Bhandara, Gondia, Kolhapur, Mumbai city, Mumbai Suburban, Nandurbar, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane and Washim. Vaijapur taluka in Aurangabad, Sinnar in Nashik and Kalambh taluka in Osmanabad have very poor water quality. Paithan taluka in Aurangabad, Shegaon taluka at Buldhana district, Amolner taluka at Jalgaon district and Jafrabad in Jalna district have water unsuitable for drinking.

  8. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  9. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  10. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola flukes from eastern India.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Singh, T Shantikumar; Shoriki, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Fasciola flukes from eastern India were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear ITS1. Both Fasciola gigantica and aspermic Fasciola flukes were detected in Imphal, Kohima, and Gantoku districts. The sequences of mitochondrial nad1 were analyzed to infer their phylogenetical relationship with neighboring countries. The haplotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes were identical or showed a single nucleotide substitution compared to those from populations in the neighboring countries, corroborating the previous reports that categorized them in the same lineage. However, the prevalence of aspermic Fasciola flukes in eastern India was lower than those in the neighboring countries, suggesting that they have not dispersed throughout eastern India. In contrast, F. gigantica was predominant and well diversified, and the species was thought to be distributed in the area for a longer time than the aspermic Fasciola flukes. Fasciola gigantica populations from eastern India were categorized into two distinct haplogroups A and B. The level of their genetic diversity suggests that populations belonging to haplogroup A have dispersed from the west side of the Indian subcontinent to eastern India with the artificial movement of domestic cattle, Bos indicus, whereas populations belonging to haplogroup B might have spread from Myanmar to eastern India with domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis.

  11. Flood Hazard in Barpeta District, Assam: Environmental Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Naba Kumar

    The study deals with various aspects of flood hazard in Barpeta district of Assam, Northeast India. It is broadly confined to three basic themes - general perspectives, environmental perspectives and flood hazard mitigation. The first theme includes the study on flow characteristics of the major rivers of the district during rainy season and zoning of flood prone areas. The second theme deals with some environmental aspects of floods in the district, such as river water quality during floods, effects of floods on soil quality, human health and socioeconomic losses. Flood mitigation study includes discussion on measures adopted for flood mitigation in the district and suggested management strategies. The study covers a wide range of database generated from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data on relevant parameters of soil and water are generated by using proper sampling procedures and standard laboratory methods. Suitable graphical and statistical methods have been used to analyze and interpret different kinds of data. All the relevant data and surveyed information on the perspective of the flood plain dwellers of the district are integrated together in formulating flood management strategies. The Barpeta District of Assam covers an area of 3245 sq. km. comprising 4.2% of the total area of the state. The district has fascinating diversified landscape sloping from north to south which includes highlands covered by forests, plain fertile lands suitable for agricultural activities and low lying areas containing-water bodies and swamps. Flood is a perennial problem and all kinds of common flood damages prevail in the district. Floods cause large-scale damages to the socio-economic life of the people as well as to the ecology and environment of the district to a certain extent. The rivers Manas, Beki, Pahumara and Kaldia and their tributaries, which emerge from Eastern Himalaya, create flood havocs in the district. During monsoon period, these rivers are

  12. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in a district of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Rahman, H; Murugkar, H V; Kumar, A; Islam, M; Mukherjee, S

    2008-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the important zoonoses of man and has been known to cause serious problems particularly in females. A study on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was undertaken amongst the human population in Assam to determine the level of exposure of the population to the infection by using commercial ELISA kits. Of the 241 sera belonging to different age groups, sex and religion and having varying levels of exposure to the animals examined, 23 (9.54%) were positive for toxoplasmosis. No significant difference in the prevalence amongst males and females was observed. Some occupational groups like veterinarians, pet keepers and farmers were found to infect more frequently. Although the overall prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis was relatively low, higher prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis amongst the exposed groups warrants due care by these groups when they are handling the animals. PMID:18700724

  13. Suitable gamma energy for gamma-spectrometric determination of (238)U in surface soil samples of a high rainfall area in India.

    PubMed

    Lenka, P; Jha, S K; Gothankar, S; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2009-06-01

    The paper presents a systematic study on suitability of various gamma lines for monitoring of (238)U activity in soil samples around a uranium mineralized zone of Kylleng Pyndengsohiong Mawthabah (Domiasiat), Meghalaya in India. The area lies in a plateau region which recieves the highest average annual rainfall (12,000mm) in the world. The geochemical behaviour of the uranium and its daughter products at such wet climatic conditions imposes restrictions to assess (238)U through gamma lines of radon decay products. Soil samples were collected from nine locations around the uranium mineralization zone for analysis. The ratio of the concentration of uranium obtained from gamma energies of radium daughter products to the 63.29keV of (234)Th was found to vary from 1.01 to 2.07, which indicates a pronounced disequilibrium between uranium and radium daughters. The results obtained from various gamma energies were validated from the data generated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. The (238)U activities from the two analytical methods show a well fitted regression line with correlation coefficient 0.99 which validates the reliability of 63.29keV energy for estimation of uranium in such conditions. PMID:19375833

  14. India: Degree Verification Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Grady

    2004-01-01

    According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

  15. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  16. About "Save the Children Committee (India)".

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the activity among charitable committees to provide education and shelter to orphans and homeless children in India. "Save The Children Committee" of the All India Women's Conference began operations during the Bengal famine of 1943 by providing shelter to children who were homeless or did not know where their parents were. The Bengal Relief Committee also provided shelters, which later became Children's Homes, which were operated by the Save The Children Committee. Funding support for the homes came from individual donors and organizations. The Bengal government provided Rs.25/month/child for 450 children. Children's homes were set up in Phola, Mymensingh, and Brahmanberia, in the present day Bangladesh, and in Bankura. The Committee took over homes in Mahishadal, Khagda, and Belbeni. After 1948, the Children's Homes in East Pakistan were transferred to India. In 1952, several Children's Committees merged. Funds were supplied by international organizations. Government support levels varied over time. Schools for orphans changed from an emphasis on self-reliance and work to ordinary schooling. Brief descriptions are provided for homes at Pifa, Mangalgunge in Bongaon Subdivision, Thakurpukur in 24-Parganas, and Khagda in Midnapore district. For example, the home at Khagda was begun by the Bengal Relief Committee at the time of the famine of 1944. Save The Children Committee took over its operations in 1946. It is now a home for 21 boys. The boys have access to a good high school, have achieved academically, and received respect from the community.

  17. Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India.

  18. Power quality in India

    SciTech Connect

    Deodar, P.S.

    1995-12-01

    This article is a summary of a Faraday Memorial Lecture on the state of power quality and reliability and its impact on the pace of India`s industrial growth and development. Poor quality is hurting industrial competitiveness and therefore their efforts to become a global supplier of goods. In this information age, there is a fast growth of computer usage in industry, commerce, business, trade, finance, healthcare, etc. These sensitive electronic products need clean and consistent power from the utility, and India`s State Electricity Board and other utilities simply cannot deliver it. The users, however, are ultimately response for the health and the safe operation of their equipment. Bad power quality available in India and the clean power requirement of the Informatic infrastructure are the two unfortunate realities of today`s electronic age.

  19. Knowledge for Teacher Development in India: The Importance of "Local Knowledge" for In-Service Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Caroline; Choksi, Archana; Awasty, Vinita; Iyer, Uma; Moyade, Renu; Nigam, Neerja; Purohit, Neetu; Shah, Swati; Sheth, Swati

    2004-01-01

    The need to enhance the relevance and quality of pre- and in-service teacher education in India has long been recognised in official commentaries. Despite the structural innovation of District Institutes of Education and Training to enhance systemic responsiveness to local contexts, training messages mediated through DIETs are largely not having…

  20. Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

  1. Competency: District Views from Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyo, John

    1979-01-01

    Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

  2. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region.

  3. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region. PMID:26255278

  4. Districts for 104th Congress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1990-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that reflected the reapportionment and delineation of congressional districts based on the 1990 census. The next (104th) Congress reflects redelineation of districts that occurred for six states: Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, South Carolina, and Virginia. Congressional Districts U.S. House of Representatives Census TIGER/Line Files

  5. Clinical trials in India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  6. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  7. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  8. How High Poverty Districts Improve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togneri, Wendy; Anderson, Stephen E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes results of study of five high-poverty districts' successful efforts to improve academic achievement: Adline Independent School District (Texas), Chula Vista Elementary School District (California), Kent County Public Schools (Maryland), Minneapolis Public Schools (Minnesota), and Providence Public Schools (Rhode Island). Focuses on…

  9. FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

    CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

  10. Pribram uranium district

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    Pribram is one of the largest and richest vein uranium districts in the world. The Pribram district has accounted for about 60 percent of Czechoslovakia`s total uranium production. The Pribram uranium district is located about 60 kilometers southwest of Prague, in Cezechslovakia`s central Bohemia region. This district contains perigranitic, monometallic, vein-type uranium deposits. The deposits are within a northeast-southwest elongated area, about 20 kilometers long and 1-2 kilometers wide, located between Oboriste in the northeast and Tresko in the southwest. Several thousand veins have been discovered; about 1,600 have been mined. Most of the veins are grouped in clusters, which are intense accumulations of veins paralleling or intersecting each other within a narrow segment. Until this year, all uranium production was exported to the USSR, with only the amount required for Czechoslovakia`s nuclear power stations being returned (as fabricated fuel). Most of Czechoslovakia`s present and future uranium production will come from sandstone deposits in the North Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, such as Hamr and Straz.

  11. District Leadership Conference Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual provides usable guidelines and planning forms and materials for planning district leadership conferences, which were designed and initiated in Washington State to meet the problems in student enrollment and, consequently, Distributive Education Clubs of America membership. The conferences have become a useful means to increase…

  12. School District Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Joseph L.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the effective management of purchasing processes in a school district. These processes include obtaining materials, supplies, and equipment of maximum value for the least expense, and receiving, storing, and distributing the items obtained. The chapter opens with an overview of…

  13. District-Level Downsizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

  14. Districts Delivering Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The idea is not new: Offer courses remotely, build in variety and the students will come. This article discusses how public schools are investing in offering online courses, catering to students' specific learning needs and to remote locations. Several surveys conducted in recent years show that school districts nationwide are embracing this…

  15. School District Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.

    This book is devoted exclusively to the budgeting process in school districts, unlike the more common generic budgeting texts. As such, it allows an in-depth treatment of both conceptual and practical aspects of budgeting in a single volume. By default, school business officials have had to rely on the state education accounting manual as their…

  16. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  17. Districts Shun Stimulus Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    In the final sprint to polish Race to the Top applications, hundreds of school districts shunned a shot at a share of $4 billion in grants by refusing to sign on to their states' plans for the federal competition. California officials had secured the signatures of 790 local education agencies (leas) late last week, including most of the state's…

  18. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

  19. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  20. Districts Weigh Obesity Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

  1. School District Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    Minnesota spends more for education than most states and has increased its financial commitment steadily over the past 15 years. Because of the state's dominant role in education funding, legislators have enacted measures requiring all local school districts to follow uniform financial accounting and reporting standards (UFARS). Since 1980, the…

  2. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  3. A case for internal migration policy in India.

    PubMed

    Ram, S

    1993-01-01

    Migration helps to minimize regional, socioeconomic, and cultural disparities, and is considered to be an integral component of the development process. Migration helps to diffuse development, technology, and innovations from more developed areas or cities to rural or less developed areas. Little attention, however, has been paid to migration policy in India. Most studies on migration in India either describe the patterns of migration or analyze reasons for the moves. This paper discusses why migration takes place, what are the consequences of migration, whether India has a migration policy, whether India needs a migration policy, and what type of policy is required. The development and entrenchment of urban slums in India is related to the country's lack of migration policy. A two-pronged policy on migration is thus proposed which would ensure employment opportunities and an improved standard of living in rural areas, while taking into account the planning of cities and city surroundings. Rural areas and small towns need to be provided with more employment opportunities, financial and technological support to process raw materials, infrastructure for agricultural service centers, better education and other facilities to improve local living standards, and the diffusion of industries from big cities to district headquarters and medium-size towns. Commensurate efforts should be made in urban centers to prevent the future development of slums.

  4. Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

    2014-10-01

    In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25 000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care.

  5. Climatic Extremes and Food Grain Production in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to affect food and water security in India. India has witnessed tremendous growth in its food production after the green revolution. However, during the recent decades the food grain yields were significantly affected by the extreme climate and weather events. Air temperature and associated extreme events (number of hot days and hot nights, heat waves) increased significantly during the last 50 years in the majority of India. More remarkably, a substantial increase in mean and extreme temperatures was observed during the winter season in India. On the other hand, India witnessed extreme flood and drought events that have become frequent during the past few decades. Extreme rainfall during the non-monsoon season adversely affected the food grain yields and results in tremendous losses in several parts of the country. Here we evaluate the changes in hydroclimatic extremes and its linkage with the food grain production in India. We use observed food grain yield data for the period of 1980-2012 at district level. We understand the linkages between food grain yield and crop phenology obtained from the high resolution leaf area index and NDVI datasets from satellites. We used long-term observed data of daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures to evaluate changes in the extreme events. We use statistical models to develop relationships between crop yields, mean and extreme temperatures for various crops to understand the sensitivity of these crops towards changing climatic conditions. We find that some of the major crop types and predominant crop growing areas have shown a significant sensitivity towards changes in extreme climatic conditions in India.

  6. ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF NILGIRIS DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU

    PubMed Central

    Baburaj, D. Suresh; Nain, S. S.; Rajan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu is one of the most botanised areas of southern India. In spite of it a number of wild plants had been missed by previous collectors. In addition a number of exotics and ornamentals having importance in alternative systems of medicine like Homoeopathy and Unani have not been collected and preserved as herbarium records. The present paper lists 36 species of wild plants and 69 species of exotics. Their areas of occurrence, phonological data, accession numbers, and names of collectors have been given. PMID:22556568

  7. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING...

  8. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING...

  9. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING...

  10. ETHNOMEDICINE OF BHIL TRIBE OF JHABUA DISTRICT, M. P.**

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, J. K.; Kalakoti, B. S.; Lal, Brij

    1986-01-01

    The Bhils are inhabitants of Dhar, Jhabua, Khargone and Ratlam distrcits of Madhya Pradesh. A large number of Bhils live in the neighbouring States of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. They constitute the third largest tribe of India; the first two being Gonds and Santhals. They utilize a large number of plant species occurring wild in the district as herbal remedies in various diseases and ailments. An ethno-medico-botanical survey was conducted in the tribal blocks. Viz. Kathiware, Alirajpur and Sodhwa blocks of Jhabua district, M. P. The authors have gathered first-hand information on seventy – five plant species and their mode of therapeutic uses from the tribal medicine men ‘Badwa’ and other experienced tribals. The present study has brought of light some interesting data on potential medicinal plants which will be screened for determining their therapeutic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:22557535

  11. Kala-azar in Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Rao, J S; Rahman, S J; Singh, J; Singh, S K

    1992-06-01

    Door to door search during 1991 in 85 villages in Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh revealed 29 sporadic cases of Kala-azar in four villages. Epidemiological investigations indicated indigenous transmission in Phulwaria village (PHC: Dubhar) with 25 cases while the remaining three villages showed four imported cases from the endemic states. No kala-azar cases had been reported in Ballia between 1947 and the present investigation. Phlebotomus arqentipes, the known vector of kala-azar in India, was encountered in 10 PHCs including the four villages having kala-azar cases. Regular vigilance in Ballia and the neighbouring districts in Uttar Pradesh bordering Bihar is suggested in view of indigenous transmission detected in one village with multiple infection in families. The presence of high vector density, ambient environmental factors and absence of regular residual insecticidal spray warrant constant surveillance in Kala-Azar prone areas in Uttar Pradesh. PMID:1344169

  12. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  13. Gender, Education, and Women's Power: Indian State and Civil Society Intersections in DPEP (District Primary Education Programme) and Mahila Samakhya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Dutt, Shushmita

    2001-01-01

    Examines different understandings of gender equity and women's empowerment in the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) and Mahila Samakhya (Women's Empowerment). Highlights achievements of the two organizations. Concludes that social justice and educational transformation cannot proceed in India without the powerful interconnections of the…

  14. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  15. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  16. VENEREOLOGY IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy

    2011-01-01

    Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

  17. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  18. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  19. Genetic counselling in tribals in India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

    2011-01-01

    Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

  20. Critical care in India.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  1. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  2. Biosimilars in India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-09-01

    Biosimilars have been defined as biotech drugs that have been shown to have comparable quality, safety and efficacy to the original product. The past decade has seen a significant increase in interest in these products from the biotech industry. Major developments have occurred with respect to establishing a regulatory path for approval of these products as well as in our understanding of how the different quality attributes of a biosimilar impact its safety and efficacy. India is globally regarded to have great potential to become a significant player in development and commercialization of biosimilars. This short communication aims to provide a brief discussion on where India is with respect to development and commercialization of biosimilars, major challenges it faces, and finally the significant role that proteomics can play in establishing analytical comparability of biosimilars.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  3. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  4. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  5. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  6. Methane emissions in India: Sub-regional and sectoral trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Kankal, Bhushan; Shukla, P. R.

    2011-09-01

    This paper uses the 2006 IPCC Guidelines and latest country specific emission factors to estimate Indian methane emissions at sectoral and district level for the years 1990, 1995, 2005 and 2008. The estimates show that while methane emissions have increased steadily over past two decades, their share in India's aggregate GHG emissions has declined from 31% in 1985 to 27% in 2008 mainly due to relatively higher growth CO 2 emissions from the fossil fuels. The estimates for the year 2008 show that: i) agriculture sector, which employed two-thirds of India's population and contributed 17% of GDP, accounted for 23% of India's GHG emissions ii) 83% of country's methane emissions are contributed by enteric fermentation, manure use and rice production, and iii) methane emissions from urban solid waste are steadily rising over the past two decades; their share in aggregate methane emissions has reached 8%. Resting on the disaggregated emissions estimates, the paper argues for using geographical and sectoral flexibilities to develop a roadmap for mitigation of methane emissions for India.

  7. Double trouble: tuberculosis and substance abuse in Nagaland, India.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, R; Das, M; Mansoor, H; Anicete, R; Wangshu, L; Meren, S; Ao, I; Saranchuk, P; Reid, A J; Isaakidis, P

    2015-09-21

    The diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in people who use and/or inject illicit drugs (PWUIDs) remains a barrier to achieving universal coverage for TB in India and globally. This report describes treatment outcomes in PWUIDs who received treatment for drug-susceptible TB at the Mon District Hospital in Nagaland, India, during 2012-2013. The median age of the patients was 39 years, and most (92%) were male. Two thirds (33/49) of the patients had a successful TB treatment outcome. A previous TB episode and residence in a semi-urban area were associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Separate diagnostic and treatment algorithms, including regular adherence counselling and opioid substitution therapies, should be considered for PWUIDs.

  8. Addressing the sluggish progress in reducing maternal mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Tulchinsky, Theodore Herzl

    2015-03-01

    Although some progress has been made in India, achievement of the Fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG5; ie, 75% reduction in maternal mortality ratio [MMR] from 1990 by 2015) target seems to be unattainable by 2015. Failure of the National Population Policy, 2000, and the National Health Policy, 2002, to reduce the MMR demanded a new direction, leading to the establishment of a National Rural Health Mission in 2005. This commentary addresses both the real achievements and the hurdles faced in India's stagnating progress in maternal health. Promotion of maternal nutrition and health education, with greater attention to emergency obstetrical care at the district subcenter and primary health care center levels, must be prioritized. These changes of focus are vital to make prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care safer with increased resources allotted to adolescents, the poor, and women living in rural areas in order to enhance maternal health and achieve the MDG target.

  9. Comprehensive Black Carbon Emission Inventory of India: Uncertainty Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, J. F.; Paliwal, U.; Sharma, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new GIS based comprehensive high resolution grid wise emission inventory of Black carbon from India in the year 2011. The emissions have been determined at district level and were spatially distributed into grids at a resolution of 40x40 km2. The uncertainty in emissions has been estimated using Monte Carlo simulation by considering the variability in activity data and emission factors. Monthly variation of BC emissions has also been determined. The total BC annual emission for India in 2011 is determined to be 892.12 ± 151.53 Gg/yr. Domestic fuels contributed maximum (48%) followed by Industry (22%), Transport (17%), open burning (12%) and others (1%).

  10. Double trouble: tuberculosis and substance abuse in Nagaland, India.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, R; Das, M; Mansoor, H; Anicete, R; Wangshu, L; Meren, S; Ao, I; Saranchuk, P; Reid, A J; Isaakidis, P

    2015-09-21

    The diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in people who use and/or inject illicit drugs (PWUIDs) remains a barrier to achieving universal coverage for TB in India and globally. This report describes treatment outcomes in PWUIDs who received treatment for drug-susceptible TB at the Mon District Hospital in Nagaland, India, during 2012-2013. The median age of the patients was 39 years, and most (92%) were male. Two thirds (33/49) of the patients had a successful TB treatment outcome. A previous TB episode and residence in a semi-urban area were associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Separate diagnostic and treatment algorithms, including regular adherence counselling and opioid substitution therapies, should be considered for PWUIDs. PMID:26399288

  11. Community-Based Adult Education for the Fisherwomen of Rajapalyam Fishing Village in Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    Rajapalyam village is located in the Tuticorin district along the biodiversity rich Gulf of Mannar coast in southeastern India. The people of this village are economically backward and most of the men are engaged in fishing. The fisherwomen of this village are less literate than the men, or illiterate. Adult education has been introduced to the…

  12. First record of the thread-legged assassin bug Myiophanes greeni Distant, 1903 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from India

    PubMed Central

    Ghate, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background While surveying bugs and spiders in the caves of Satara District, Maharashtra, one of us (SK) collected a thread-legged bug associated with a spider web. New information A Sri Lankan Emesinae bug, Myiophanes greeni Distant (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) is reported for the first time from India. The species is redescribed with several illustrations including male genitalia. PMID:27099559

  13. Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

  14. Family Engagement in Education in Uttar Pradesh, India: Factors Associated with the Involvement of Families in Their Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Amanda Joy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which families within the Shravasti district of Uttar Pradesh, India are engaged in their children's education, as well as to examine the child, family, school, and community factors that are potentially associated with families' involvement in their children's education. Additionally,…

  15. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line R27E... Irrigation Districts which lies west of township line R28E. (c) District No. 3—The counties of...

  16. [New data on maternal mortality in India].

    PubMed

    Bhatia, J C

    1990-01-01

    A survey was carried out in urban and rural areas of the district of Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh state, India, between July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985 by a team of 6 interviewers and 1 supervisor to identify investigate, and study the causative factors/characteristics of the causes of maternal deaths. They visited each of the 15 hospitals in the district collecting information about maternal deaths that occurred in the reproductive age range of 15-49 years. 22 health centers and 50% of subcenters were also visited, registers were examined, and staff and families were also interviewed. The hospitals and centers served 569,500 people. During the 1st phase in the rural area all main village centers, 181 village subcenters, and 1192 other villages in the district with a total population of 1,090,640 were covered. During the 2nd phase all towns in the urban zones, 10 primary centers, 65 subcenters, and 135 others were visited. The maternal mortality rate was 7.9/1000 live births, well above the national average. 36% of female mortality occurred in women in reproductive age, but fewer than 1/2 of these deaths were registered and only 1/3 figured in center and subcenter records. In rural areas maternal mortality was 8.3/1000, ahead of the urban rate of 5.4/1000. 63% of 284 deaths detailed were related to live births, 14% to stillbirths, 10% to abortions, and 13% to obstructed labor. 19% of total maternal deaths occurred before birth, 12% during labor, and 69% after delivery. Among clinical causes of death sepsis accounted for 36%, hemorrhage for 12%, eclampsia for 9%, retention of placenta for 7%, and infectious hepatitis for 10%. 80% of these deaths could have been avoided by timely antenatal care, treatment of previous complaints, and medical attention and hospitalization at the right time. PMID:12179349

  17. Keratinophilic fungi on feathers of pigeon in Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, S K

    2004-06-01

    Results of a preliminary survey of keratinophilic fungi associated with feathers of pigeon on high rise buildings in Thane district of Maharashtra (India) are reported. A total of 100 samples were examined, of which 67 samples were positive for keratinophilic fungi. Altogether 67 fungal strains belonging to 10 species of seven genera were isolated viz. Chrysosporium indicum (24%), Chrysosporium sp. (2%), Chr. tropicum (8%), Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum (3%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (15%), Malbranchea pulchella (3%), Malbranchea sp. (1%), Microsporum gypseum (5%), Myriodontium keratinophilum (2%) and Trichophyton terrestre (4%). PMID:15189186

  18. Intensified tuberculosis case finding amongst vulnerable communities in southern India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K K; Ananthakrishnan, R; Jacob, A G; Das, M; Isaakidis, P; Kumar, A M V

    2015-12-21

    India mainly uses passive case finding to detect tuberculosis (TB) patients through the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP). An intensified case finding (ICF) intervention was conducted among vulnerable communities in two districts of Karnataka during July-December 2013; 658 sputum smear-positive TB cases were detected. The number of smear-positive cases detected increased by 8.8% relative to the pre-intervention period (July-December 2012) in intervention communities as compared to an 8.6% decrease in communities without the ICF intervention. ICF activities brought TB services closer to vulnerable communities, moderately increasing TB case detection rates.

  19. Male-female literacy differential in India--1981.

    PubMed

    Sagar, P

    1989-01-01

    The author examines inequalities in the literacy rates between males and females in India. Regional variations in literacy are examined by district using maps. "The male-female literacy differential is low in coastal, peripheral and metropolitan areas and is high in inland and mountainous areas. These regional disparities are the product of differences in length of educational background, age at marriage, level of urbanisation, standard of living and proportion of socially conservative and backward sections of society.... The study in spatial dimension provides a strong base for the removal of sex biased discrimination in society."

  20. Effects of inbreeding on marriage payment in north India.

    PubMed

    Badaruddoza; Afzal, M

    1995-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between consanguineous marriages and marriage payment, using data from two Muslim qaums living in urban and rural areas in Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh, North India. Qaum and locality were found to have no significant association with the dowry system. Marriage payment is less common in consanguineous than in non-consanguineous marriages. However, the association between marriage payment and the type of marriage is significant at p < 0.001. The dowry system is more prevalent among the higher socioeconomic groups, while the bride-wealth system is more common among the lower socioeconomic groups.

  1. The School District Organization Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook describes procedures for school-district reorganization in California. Following the introductory chapter, chapter 2 offers a historical overview of school-district reorganization in California. Chapters 3 and 4 outline the organization and responsibilities of the county committee and the role and responsibilities of the State Board…

  2. Redesigning the District Operating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  3. The Recentralization of School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of five decentralized school districts reveals many reasons why recentralization could occur, including lack of accountability provisions, lack of effectiveness, retrenchment, central office reluctance to share power, and union hostility. Unless districts approach decentralization thoughtfully and with commitment, they may abandon the…

  4. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  5. Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

  6. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  7. Climate drivers on malaria transmission in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Chenna, Sumana; Parasaram, Vaideesh; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted during the years 2006 to 2012 and provides information on prevalence of malaria and its regulation with effect to various climatic factors in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T² statistics models are adopted to understand the effect of weather variables on malaria transmission. The epidemiological study shows that the prevalence of malaria is mostly caused by the parasite Plasmodium vivax followed by Plasmodium falciparum. It is noted that, the intensity of malaria cases declined gradually from the year 2006 to 2012. The transmission of malaria observed was more during the rainy season, as compared to summer and winter seasons. Further, the data analysis study with Principal Component Analysis and Hotelling's T² statistic has revealed that the climatic variables such as temperature and rainfall are the most influencing factors for the high rate of malaria transmission in East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh.

  8. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  9. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  10. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  11. Women's Work in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  12. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  13. Medical biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj B

    2003-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology has just began to emerge in the 20th century. After the full knowledge of human genomes is available, biotechnology is going to play a major role in shaping the concept of future drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostic methodology, clinical trials, and to a great extent the major lifestyle of the human society. This article is a comprehensive review of the major impact of biotechnology in diagnostics, antibiotics, r-proteins, vaccines, and antibodies production. It also highlights the future aspects of gene therapy in the management of healthcare. A comprehensive list of biotech products in healthcare management has been given. Also, the growth of biotechnology throughout the world at large and in the Indian industries in particular has been highlighted. Constraints, concerns and difficulties in biotechnology in India have been addressed mainly related to human resources, training institutions in India, funding in biotechnology, patent-related issues and regulatory hurdles. Like in information technology, India has great potential in bioinformatics as well. Some of the recent information on bioinformatics centers in India has been summarized. Indian biotechnology industries have the potential to use the modern discoveries in life sciences to reach an enviable position in the world of biotechnology.

  14. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  15. Ecological context of infant mortality in high-focus states of India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This goal of this study was to shed light on the ecological context as a potential determinant of the infant mortality rate in nine high-focus states in India. METHODS: Data from the Annual Health Survey (2010-2011), the Census of India (2011), and the District Level Household and Facility Survey 3 (2007-08) were used in this study. In multiple regression analysis explanatory variable such as underdevelopment is measured by the non-working population, and income inequality, quantified as the proportion of households in the bottom wealth quintile. While, the trickle-down effect of education is measured by female literacy, and investment in health, as reflected by neonatal care facilities in primary health centres. RESULTS: A high spatial autocorrelation of district infant mortality rates was observed, and ecological factors were found to have a significant impact on district infant mortality rates. The result also revealed that non-working population and income inequality were found to have a negative effect on the district infant mortality rate. Additionally, female literacy and new-born care facilities were found to have an inverse association with the infant mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions at the community level can reduce district infant mortality rates. PMID:26971696

  16. Malaria situation in India with special reference to tribal areas

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ravendra K.; Thakor, H.G.; Saha, K.B.; Sonal, G.S.; Dhariwal, A.C.; Singh, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: In India, malaria is a major public health problem in States having predominantly tribal population. The objective of this analysis was to find out the incidence of malaria in various States/districts having varied proportions of tribal population using National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) data. Methods: States and districts were classified into three categories based on proportions of Scheduled Tribes (ST) population as <10, 10-29.9 and 30 per cent + ST population. Five year average (2008-2012) of all important malaria indicators collected by NVBDCP was taken to normalize the effect of annual fluctuations in malaria incidence. Results: State level analysis revealed that ten States/UTs with 30 per cent or more tribal population comprising only three per cent of total population, contributed 14 per cent of total malaria, 21 per cent Plasmodium falciparum and 29 per cent of deaths due to malaria. Similarly, district level analysis showed that districts with 30 per cent or more tribal population comprising about eight per cent country's population contributed to 46 per cent of total malaria cases, 70 per cent P. falciparum and 47 per cent malarial deaths in the country. Interpretation & conclusions: Our analysis showed that the neglect of the ethnic communities in tribal areas would be detrimental to the overall reduction of morbidity and mortality due to malaria. The fight against the increasing burden of malaria in tribal belt requires adoption of multiple approaches and socio-economic development of the tribal communities. PMID:26139770

  17. Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings.

  18. Education And Gender Bias in the Sex Ratio At Birth: Evidence From India

    PubMed Central

    ECHÁVARRI, REBECA A.; EZCURRA, ROBERTO

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the possible existence of a nonlinear link between female disadvantage in natality and education. To this end, we devise a theoretical model based on the key role of social interaction in explaining people’s acquisition of preferences, which justifies the existence of a nonmonotonic relationship between female disadvantage in natality and education. The empirical validity of the proposed model is examined for the case of India, using district-level data. In this context, our econometric analysis pays particular attention to the role of spatial dependence to avoid any potential problems of misspecification. The results confirm that the relationship between the sex ratio at birth and education in India follows an inverted U-shape. This finding is robust to the inclusion of additional explanatory variables in the analysis, and to the choice of the spatial weight matrix used to quantify the spatial interdependence between the sample districts. PMID:20355693

  19. Education and gender bias in the sex ratio at birth: evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Echávarri, Rebeca A; Ezcurra, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    This article investigates the possible existence of a nonlinear link between female disadvantage in natality and education. To this end, we devise a theoretical model based on the key role of social interaction in explaining people's acquisition of preferences, which justifies the existence of a nonmonotonic relationship between female disadvantage in natality and education. The empirical validity of the proposed model is examined for the case of India, using district-level data. In this context, our econometric analysis pays particular attention to the role of spatial dependence to avoid any potential problems of misspecification. The results confirm that the relationship between the sex ratio at birth and education in India follows an inverted U-shape. This finding is robust to the inclusion of additional explanatory variables in the analysis, and to the choice of the spatial weight matrix used to quantify the spatial interdependence between the sample districts.

  20. Epidemiology of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in India.

    PubMed

    Nair, Reena; Arora, Neeraj; Mallath, Mohandas K

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a common hematological malignancy. The age-adjusted incidence rates for NHL in men and women in India are 2.9/100,000 and 1.5/100,000, respectively. These are about one fourth of the incidence rates reported from Western Europe or North America. Within India, the incidence is several-fold higher in urban cancer registries compared to rural areas; the incidence being higher in metropolitan cities and Indian immigrants suggesting that urban lifestyles and economic progress may increase the cancer incidence. Compared to developed nations, the key differences in the presentation in India include: median age of 54 years (almost a decade less), higher male to female ratio, higher proportion of patients with B-symptoms (40-60 vs. 20-30%), poor ECOG performance status (≥2) at diagnosis (50 vs. 20-30%), higher frequency of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (60-70 vs. <40%), lower frequency of follicular NHL (<20 vs. 30-40%) and T-cell type in 10-20 vs. <10%. The estimated mortality rate due to NHL is higher in India than in North America and Western Europe. Diagnostic and treatment delays, incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate or suboptimal treatment may be possible reasons for the poor outcome. Any improvement in the outcomes for NHL in India will require a nationwide approach, e.g. creation of several regional and district-level centers with expertise in lymphoma management. Collection of data on patient- and disease-related characteristics, treatment outcome, development of infrastructure, centralized review of histopathology subtype, novel treatment protocols, rigorous follow-up, training of staff, and financial support towards treatment could be possible strategies to improve the outcome. PMID:27462703