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Sample records for district western nepal

  1. PREVALENCE OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS, MALARIA AND SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN A COMMUNITY OF BARDIYA DISTRICT, WESTERN NEPAL.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Alifrangis, Michael; Adhikari, Madhav; Olsen, Annette; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2014-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) cause major health problems in Nepal, but in spite of this very few stud- ies have been carried out on these parasitic infections in Nepal. A cross sectional survey of all three categories of parasitic infections was carried out in Deuda- kala Village of Bardiya District, western Nepal. A total of 510 individuals aged 5 years and above were examined from finger prick blood for circulating filarial antigen (CFA), malaria antigen using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and malaria DNA using a PCR-based assay. In addition, 317 individuals were examined for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of LF, malaria (antigen) and STH infection was 25.1%, 0.6% and 18.3%, respectively. PCR analysis did not detect any additional malaria cases. The prevalence of LF and STH infections differ significantly among different age groups and ethnic communities. The high prevalence of LF in the community studied indicates an immediate need for implementing a mass drug administration program for its control in this particular geographical area of Nepal.

  2. Knowledge and Practice on Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Kaski District, Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kc, Vikash Kumar; Jha, Nisha; Sharma, Damodar

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe injection practice can transmit various blood borne infections. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of injection safety among injection providers, to obtain information about disposal of injectable devices, and to compare the knowledge and practices of urban and rural injection providers. Methods The study was conducted with injection providers working at primary health care facilities within Kaski district, Nepal. Ninety-six health care workers from 69 primary health care facilities were studied and 132 injection events observed. A semi-structured checklist was used for observing injection practice and a questionnaire for the survey. Respondents were interviewed to complete the questionnaire and obtain possible explanations for certain observed behaviors. Results All injection providers knew of at least one pathogen transmitted through use/re-use of unsterile syringes. Proportion of injection providers naming hepatitis/jaundice as one of the diseases transmitted by unsafe injection practice was significantly higher in urban (75.6%) than in rural (39.2%) area. However, compared to urban respondents (13.3%), a significantly higher proportion of rural respondents (37.3%) named Hepatitis B specifically as one of the diseases transmitted. Median (inter-quartile range) number of therapeutic injection and injectable vaccine administered per day by the injection providers were 2 (1) and 1 (1), respectively. Two handed recapping by injection providers was significantly higher in urban area (33.3%) than in rural areas (21.6%). Most providers were not aware of the post exposure prophylaxis guideline. Conclusion The knowledge of the injection providers about safe injection practice was acceptable. The use of safe injection practice by providers in urban and rural health care facilities was almost similar. The deficiencies noted in the practice must be addressed. PMID:27540325

  3. Variable Wood Formation and Adaptation to the Alpine Environment of Ephedra pachyclada (Gnetales: Ephedraceae) in the Mustang District, Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Motomura, Hiroyuki; Noshiro, Shuichi; Mikage, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants of Ephedra normally have vessels, but are known to become nearly vessel-less in some alpine localities. Previous studies implied that wood formation in Ephedra differs fundamentally from that in dicotyledons in which vessel-bearing and vessel-less taxa are systematically distinct. Using E. pachyclada in the Mustang district of Nepal, growing in an altitudinal range of over 2000 m, variation in wood formation and adaptation to alpine environment was studied in this normally vessel-bearing species. Methods Variation in wood anatomy and wood formation was observed with conventional optical microscopy. The lengths of three kinds of tracheary elements were measured and statistically analysed against habitat altitude and plant size of the individuals studied. Key Results In E. pachyclada three kinds of tracheary elements, vessel elements, tracheids and fibre-tracheids, were nearly equal in length within individuals showing no elongation after differentiation from cambial initials. Tracheary element lengths among individuals had a negative correlation with altitude and a positive correlation with plant size. Multivariate analyses showed that altitude has a stronger correlation with tracheary element lengths than plant height or stem diameter. Moreover, several individuals from high elevations completely lacked vessels, and vessel formation fluctuated even in individuals from lower elevations. Conclusions Wood anatomical trends in E. pachyclada are considered as an adaptation to extremely dry conditions in high mountains. Fluctuation in vessel formation in individuals from low elevations indicated that vessels differentiate only when their lateral expansion is allowed. These results showed that E. pachyclada has a different system of wood formation from dicotyledons and supported the opinion that the wood structure of Gnetales is fundamentally different from that of angiosperms. PMID:17576659

  4. An Assessment of Monsoon Triggered Landslides in Western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu

    2010-05-01

    Due to heavy monsoon rain, rugged topography and very young mountains, frequent slope failures and soil erosion are very common in Nepal but in most of cases the natural slopes are disturbed by men to construct a road through it and the situation further aggravated by the Monsoon rain. Summer usually tests the disaster response capacity of Nepal, when the monsoons trigger water induced disasters. This year Nepal's Western regions were most severely affected by floods and landslides. Every year, sadly, it is the same story of mostly poor people living in remote villages succumbing to landslides and flooding and those who survive facing hardships brought on by the disaster. The tail end of the monsoon in October has triggered flood and landslides in Nepal which affected a total of 14 districts in the mid and far-west regions, of which Kailali, Bardiya, Banke, Dadeldhura, Accham and Kanchapur district are most affected. The affected areas are geographically scattered and remote, and are therefore difficult to access. In this year (2009), flood and landslides have claimed 62 lives, affecting more than 152,000 individuals from 27,000 families. More than 4,000 families are displaced and are taking shelter in schools, open space and forest areas with no protection from the external elements. In the above context the prevention and mitigation measures for landslides is a great challenge for Nepal. Nepal has been investing its huge amount of resources to stabilize landslides and roadside slope failures, still then it has become unmanageable during Monsoon time. Considering the above facts, an assessment of landslides which were occurred during the Monsoon (July-October 2009), along Khodpe - Jhota - Chainpur road in far western region of Nepal has been carried out based on the field observation of various landslides. The paper presents the causes and mechanisms of failures of different landslides which are mostly triggered by Monsoon rain. It also suggests some low cost

  5. Rural Education: A Case Study of Two Districts in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Madhav P.

    In 1952 Nepal launched a rural development program to improve economic, social, and educational conditions in rural villages, which comprise 91% of the nation's population. This paper examines school characteristics and educational participation in two districts and discusses a national evaluation of the rural education program. Lungruppa village…

  6. Lake sediment records of late Holocene monsoon variability in western Nepal (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazoui, Zakaria; Bertrand, Sebastien; Sachse, Dirk; Nomade, Jerome; Prasad Gajurel, Ananta; van der Beek, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In Nepal, high altitude paleoclimatological and limnological studies face many logistical challenges due to remoteness, accessibility, and altitude of potential lake sampling sites. Therefore, paleolimnological investigations in the Nepalese Himalaya remain scarce, and most of our understanding of past Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) variability relies on a low-density network of speleothems and ice cores. Here we report preliminary new data from three high-altitude lakes in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to improve our understanding of climate variability in western Nepal during the late Holocene three lakes were investigated and sampled in autumn 2014: Rara Lake, Mugu District; Phoksundo Lake, Dolpa District; Dhumba Lake, Mustang District. The sediment cores are being studied using a multi-proxy approach combining radiocarbon, 210Pb and 137Cs chronologies, physical properties (Geotek multi-sensor core logger), grain size (Malvern Mastersizer 3000) inorganic geochemistry (major and selected trace elements by ICP-AES and ITRAX XRF core scanning), bulk organic geochemistry (C, N concentrations and stable isotopes) and hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf wax long-chain n-alkanes (δDwax). These sediment records will provide important new insights into the late-Holocene variability of the Indian Summer Monsoon in Nepal, including the recent latitudinal shift of the rainbelt due to climate change in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  7. Control of Trachoma from Achham District, Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Nepal National Trachoma Program

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Bidya Prasad; Bhatta, Ramesh C.; Chaudhary, J. S. P.; Awasthi, Suresh; Mishra, Sailesh; Sharma, Shekhar; Cuddapah, Puja A.; Gwyn, Sarah E.; Stoller, Nicole E.; Martin, Diana L.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Gaynor, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The WHO seeks to control trachoma as a public health problem in endemic areas. Achham District in western Nepal was found to have TF (trachoma follicular) above 20% in a 2006 government survey, triggering 3 annual mass drug administrations finishing in 2010. Here we assess the level of control that has been achieved using surveillance for clinical disease, ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection, and serology for antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigens. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of children aged 1–9 years in communities in Achham District in early 2014 including clinical examination validated with photographs, conjunctival samples for Chlamydia trachomatis (Amplicor PCR), and serological testing for antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigens pgp3 and CT694 using the Luminex platform. Findings In 24 randomly selected communities, the prevalence of trachoma (TF and/or TI) in 1–9 year olds was 3/1124 (0.3%, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8%), and the prevalence of ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection was 0/1124 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 0.3%). In 18 communities selected because they had the highest prevalence of trachoma in a previous survey, the prevalence of TF and/or TI was 7/716 (1.0%, 95% CI 0.4 to 2.0%) and the prevalence of ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection was 0/716 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 0.5%). In 3 communities selected for serological testing, the prevalence of trachoma was 0/68 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 5.3%), the prevalence of ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection was 0/68 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 0.5%), the prevalence of antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigen pgp3 was 1/68 (1.5%, 95% CI 0.04% to 7.9%), and the prevalence of antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigen CT694 was 0/68 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 5.3%). Conclusion/Significance This previously highly endemic district in Nepal has little evidence of recent clinical disease, chlamydia trachomatis infection, or serological evidence of trachoma

  8. Economic uses of forest plant resources in western Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, Dharma R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses economic uses of forest plant resources documented from 117 forest plots and neighboring areas of western Chitwan, Nepal. The paper lists information on the plant species (1) that provide valuable food, vegetable and medicinal products that maintain human health and general well-being of the households; (2) that are economically valuable to farmers such as high-grade fodder, useful plants for crop management (e.g., pesticide, compost, green manure); (3) that are used as piscicide (harvest fish from rivers and streams), (4) that provide materials for use in household construction (e.g. building materials, thatch) and tool making; and (5) that have aesthetic value. The access to forest resources is important for many households, especially those living in remote and poor agricultural areas such as Western Chitwan. This paper also highlights the availability of the species wherever possible based upon the field data. PMID:23066332

  9. Voices from the inside: managing district health services in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Aitken, J M

    1994-01-01

    Apparent inconsistencies and irrational decisions can be found in all organizations and they often point to underlying attitudes and assumptions among staff, about the organization and the way it works. Concepts such as 'negotiated order' and 'values in use' have been suggested in recent literature on organization theory to describe the important role of individual, and social, needs and expectations upon the functioning of organizations. This article presents the apparently common assumptions made about government service, as encountered during research into the management of district public health services in Nepal. It argues that, when taken together, these form a wide and coherent system of 'values in use', or an 'implicit theory' which appears to guide many of the bureaucracy's actions. The way in which staff are selected and promoted, common attitudes towards work, the shortcomings of the reporting systems, all appear to be part of an 'implicit' theory which is based on the fundamental belief that it is the main purpose of the district public health service to provide incomes for its staff. Thus, most posts do not have job descriptions and staff are recruited to them on the basis of factors other than the skills or knowledge required. Training and supervision are seen commonly as means of earning extra allowances, and service quality is not seen as a priority. This contrasts with the 'official' theory which is that the organization exists to provide health services to the community and that it is the purpose of the staff to provide those services. Such an implicit 'theory', recognized and accepted by staff but never acknowledged, and based on very different values and expectations to those assumed in a 'rational', task-oriented bureaucracy, obviously has implications for the success of development programmes. It explains why training so rarely results in improved performance and why the bureaucracy is so resistant to change which does not satisfy the implicit

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma in Sarlahi district, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J; West, K P; Khatry, S K; LeClerq, S C; Pradhan, E K; Thapa, M D; Ram Shrestha, S; Taylor, H R

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of trachoma in preschool children in Sarlahi district, Nepal, and to identify risk factors for the disease. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 40 wards was selected for participation in a trachoma survey. Within each ward, a systematic 20% sample of children 24-76 months of age was chosen to determine the presence and severity of trachoma using the World Health Organisation grading system. RESULTS: A total of 891 children were selected and 836 (93.8%) were examined for trachoma from December 1990 to March 1991. The prevalence of active trachoma was 23.6% (21.9% follicular and 1.7% intense inflammatory). Cicatricial trachoma was not seen in this age group. The prevalence of trachoma ranged from 0 to 50% across wards with certain communities at much higher risk for trachoma than others. Three year old children had the highest prevalence of follicular (25.5%) and intense inflammatory trachoma (4.3%). Males and females had similar prevalence rates. Wards without any tube wells were at higher risk than those with one or more tube wells. Lower rates of trachoma were seen in families who lived in cement houses, had fewer people per room, more servants, more household goods, animals, and land. Hence, less access to water, crowding and lower socioeconomic status were risk factors for trachoma. CONCLUSIONS: Although follicular trachoma is prevalent, intense inflammatory trachoma is relatively rare and scarring was not observed in this preschool population. Hence, this population may not be at high risk for repeat infections leading to blindness in adulthood. PMID:9059265

  11. HIV epidemic in Far-Western Nepal: effect of seasonal labor migration to India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Because of limited work opportunities in Nepal and the open-border provision between Nepal and India, a seasonal labor migration of males from Far-Western Nepal to India is common. Unsafe sexual activities of these migrants in India, such as frequent visits to brothels, lead to a high HIV prevalence among them and to a potential transmission upon their return home to Nepal. The present study aims to evaluate the role of such seasonal labor-migration to India on HIV transmission in Far-Western Nepal and to assess prevention programs. Methods An HIV epidemic model was developed for a population in Far-Western Nepal. The model was fitted to the data to estimate the back and forth mobility rates of labor-migrants to India, the HIV prevalence among migrants and the HIV transmission rate in Far-Western Nepal. HIV prevalence, new infections, disease deaths and HIV infections recruited from India were calculated. Prevention programs targeting the general population and the migrants were evaluated. Results Without any intervention programs, Far-Western Nepal will have about 7,000 HIV infected individuals returning from India by 2015, and 12,000 labor-migrants living with HIV in India. An increase of condom use among the general population from 39% to 80% will reduce new HIV infections due to sexual activity in Far-Western Nepal from 239 to 77. However, such a program loses its effectiveness due to the recruitment of HIV infections via returning migrants from India. The reduction of prevalence among migrants from 2.2% to 1.1% can bring general prevalence down to 0.4% with only 3,500 recruitments of HIV infections from India. Conclusion Recruitment of HIV infections from India via seasonal labor-migrants is the key factor contributing to the HIV epidemic in Far-Western Nepal. Prevention programs focused on the general population are ineffective. Our finding highlights the urgency of developing prevention programs which reduce the prevalence of HIV among migrants

  12. Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accident Cases from Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Badrinarayan; Sinha (Mishra), Nidhi D; Sukhla, SK; Sinha, AK

    2010-01-01

    Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries.(1) Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83%) were young (15 to 30 years); from low i.e. 114 (31.66%) and mid i.e. 198 (55%) income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50%) and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%). Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P<0.01, χ2 - 8.03), recent or on-day conflicts (P<0.001, χ2 - 18.88) and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P<0.001, χ2 - 30.25). Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55%) and end i.e. 69 (19.16%) of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72%) and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%). Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 (65.85%) were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%). Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 %) cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16%) after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h) in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion: Most

  13. Late Cenozoic Strain Partitioning in Southwest Tibet and Western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. A.; Yin, A.; Copeland, P.

    2001-12-01

    Southwest Tibet and western Nepal exhibits a complex deformation pattern characterized by interacting strike-slip, extensional faults, and thrust faults. We have used geologic mapping and analysis of Landsat and Corona images to characterize the geometry and kinematics of structures that occupy this region. From northwest to southeast, the structures analyzed include the Karakoram fault system, the Zada basin, the Gurla Mandhata detachment system, and a system of right-slip faults and normal faults in west Nepal. The southwest reach of the Karakoram fault is comprised of a system of NW-striking right-slip faults, N-striking normal faults, and minor NE-striking left-slip faults that accommodate dominantly right-lateral shear. Southwards along the Karakoram fault system the trend of the mean slip direction rotates to a more easterly direction (135\\deg~ in the north to 285\\deg~ in the south). The Zada basin lies due south of the Karakoram fault system and is represented by a >1km-thick sequence of relatively undeformed Pliocene through Pleistocene sandstones, siltstones, and conglomerates. Recent faulting is characterized by NNE-striking normal faults and NW-striking faults displaying right-lateral separations. However, no basin bounding faults have been recognized. In the Mt. Kailas area, structural data collected from the Gurla Mandhata detachment system indicates that the orientation of the mean slip direction is ~103\\deg . Detachment faults associated with the fault system are corrugated with axes oriented parallel to the slip direction. Deformation in the footwall is bulk-constrictional, as indicated by linear feldspar fabric within augen gneisses and tight to isoclinal, lineation parallel folds within layered gneisses. Landsat 7 color composite images and Corona photography were used to document recent faulting east of the Gurla Mandhata detachment system in western Nepal. Two sets of faults were recognized, WNW-striking faults and N-striking faults. WNW

  14. Factors associated with Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; Scott, Jane A; Lee, Andy H; Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W

    2015-08-01

    The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth has numerous nutritional and immunological benefits and has been found to reduce neonatal mortality. This community-based prospective cohort study aimed to report the rate of, and factors associated with, early initiation of breastfeeding in Western Nepal. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was reported, and associations between early initiation and independent variables were tested by Chi-square test, followed by multiple logistic regression. Of the 735 mother-infant pairs, a total of 310 (42.2%) reported early initiation. Mothers who were assisted by traditional attendants during childbirth, delivered by caesarean section, from ethnically disadvantaged families and had delivered low birth weight infants, were less likely to initiate breastfeeding early whereas the mothers who were from the poorest families and did not introduce prelacteal feeds to their infants were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour. Skills-training to support breastfeeding as part of the training of skilled birth attendants and other health workers is likely to promote recommended infant feeding practices. PMID:26287223

  15. Nepal.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nepal is on the following: geography; the people; history; the government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Nepal and the US. In 1986 the population was estimated to be 17 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The Nepalese are descendants of 3 major migrations from India, Tibet, and Central Asia. About 1/3 of the population lives in the Terai -- about 20% of the land area -- while 2/3 live in the central or hilly region. Officially, Nepal is a Hindu kingdom, but Hinduism has been influenced by and has had an influence on a large Buddhist minority. The result is a synthesis of the 2 religions. Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the 18th century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states. Efforts were made throughout the 1950s to frame a constitution for Nepal which would establish a representative form of government, patterned on a modified British model. Such a constitution was issued by King Mahendra in early 1959, and the 1st democratic elections were held for a national assembly shortly thereafter. According to the constitution, the king (chief of state) is the sole source of authority for all government institutions, exercising broad powers over the country's partyless "panchayat" (councils) system of government. In April 1986, Prime Minister Chand and his cabinet resigned in order to contest the elections for the second 5-year term of the directly elected National Panchayat, and an interim cabinet was appointed to oversee the Mah elections. The election brought the defeat of a majority of the incumbents seeking relations. Despite the 1980 referendum confirming the partyless panchayat system, the role of the banned parties continues to be an important political issue. Nepal, which ranks among the world's poorest countries, has a per capita income of about $160. Due to

  16. Nepal.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nepal is on the following: geography; the people; history; the government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Nepal and the US. In 1986 the population was estimated to be 17 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The Nepalese are descendants of 3 major migrations from India, Tibet, and Central Asia. About 1/3 of the population lives in the Terai -- about 20% of the land area -- while 2/3 live in the central or hilly region. Officially, Nepal is a Hindu kingdom, but Hinduism has been influenced by and has had an influence on a large Buddhist minority. The result is a synthesis of the 2 religions. Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the 18th century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states. Efforts were made throughout the 1950s to frame a constitution for Nepal which would establish a representative form of government, patterned on a modified British model. Such a constitution was issued by King Mahendra in early 1959, and the 1st democratic elections were held for a national assembly shortly thereafter. According to the constitution, the king (chief of state) is the sole source of authority for all government institutions, exercising broad powers over the country's partyless "panchayat" (councils) system of government. In April 1986, Prime Minister Chand and his cabinet resigned in order to contest the elections for the second 5-year term of the directly elected National Panchayat, and an interim cabinet was appointed to oversee the Mah elections. The election brought the defeat of a majority of the incumbents seeking relations. Despite the 1980 referendum confirming the partyless panchayat system, the role of the banned parties continues to be an important political issue. Nepal, which ranks among the world's poorest countries, has a per capita income of about $160. Due to

  17. Developing an Index to Measure Health System Performance: Measurement for Districts of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kandel, N; Fric, A; Lamichhane, J

    2014-01-01

    Various frameworks for measuring health system performance have been proposed and discussed. The scope of using performance indicators are broad, ranging from examining national health system to individual patients at various levels of health system. Development of innovative and easy index is essential to measure multidimensionality of health systems. We used indicators, which also serve as proxy to the set of activities, whose primary goal is to maintain and improve health. We used eleven indicators of MDGs, which represent all dimensions of health to develop index. These indicators are computed with similar methodology that of human development index. We used published data of Nepal for computation of the index for districts of Nepal as an illustration. To validate our finding, we compared the indices of these districts with other development indices of Nepal. An index for each district has been computed from eleven indicators. Then indices are compared with that of human development index, socio-economic and infrastructure development indices and findings has shown the similarity on distribution of districts. Categories of low and high performing districts on health system performance are also having low and high human development, socio-economic, and infrastructure indices respectively. This methodology of computing index from various indicators could assist policy makers and program managers to prioritize activities based on their performance. Validation of the findings with that of other development indicators show that this can be one of the tools, which can assist on assessing health system performance for policy makers, program managers and others.

  18. The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of

  19. What Caused the Winter Drought in Western Nepal during Recent Years?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S-Y; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Gillies, R.; Cho, Changrae

    2013-11-01

    Western Nepal has experienced consecutive and worsened winter drought conditions since 2000 culminating in a severe drought episode during 2008-2009. In this study, the meteorological conditons and a historical pespective of the winter droughts in western Nepal were analyzed using respectively instumental records and a paleoclimatic drought index. Althought decadal-scale drought conditions were found to be recurrent in the paleoclimate record, the severity of the recent decadal drought (since 2000) clearly stands out in the 700 years of record and, this is suggestive of potential anthropogenic influences in the recent decades. Meteorological diagnosis using atmospheric reanalysis in the recent decades revealed that (1) winter drought in western Nepal is linked to the Arctic Oscillation and its decadal variability, which initiates a tropospheric short-wave train across the Europe, Eurasia and South Asia, and that (2) the persistent warming of the Indian Ocean likely contributes to the suppression of rainfall through enhanced local Hadley circultion. It is therefore conceivable that the recent spells of decadal drought in Nepal drought are symptomatic of both natural variability and anthropogenic influences.

  20. Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Pradhan, Elizabeth Kimbrough; Shrestha, Sharada Ram

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Early infant mortality has not declined as rapidly as child mortality in many countries. Identification of risk factors for early infant mortality may help inform the design of intervention strategies. METHODS: Over the period 1994-97, 15,469 live-born, singleton infants in rural Nepal were followed to 24 weeks of age to identify risk factors for mortality within 0-7 days, 8-28 days, and 4-24 weeks after the birth. FINDINGS: In multivariate models, maternal and paternal education reduced mortality between 4 and 24 weeks only: odds ratios (OR) 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.66) and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88), respectively. Miscarriage in the previous pregnancy predicted mortality in the first week of life (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.37-2.87), whereas prior child deaths increased the risk of post-neonatal death (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75). A larger maternal mid-upper arm circumference reduced the risk of infant death during the first week of life (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Infants of women who did not receive any tetanus vaccinations during pregnancy or who had severe illness during the third trimester were more likely to die in the neonatal period. Maternal mortality was strongly associated with infant mortality (OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 2.35-17.56 at 0-7 days; OR = 11.73, 95% CI = 3.82-36.00 at 8-28 days; and OR = 51.68, 95% CI = 20.26-131.80 at 4-24 weeks). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for early infant mortality varied with the age of the infant. Factors amenable to intervention included efforts aimed at maternal morbidity and mortality and increased arm circumference during pregnancy. PMID:14758431

  1. Community perceptions of unintentional child injuries in Makwanpur district of Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Nepal, childhood unintentional injury is an emerging public health problem but it has not been prioritised on national health agenda. There is lack of literature on community perceptions about child injuries. This study has explored community perceptions about child injuries and how injuries can be prevented. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with mothers, school students and community health volunteers from urban and rural parts of Makwanpur district in Nepal. FGDs were conducted in Nepali languages. These were recorded, transcribed and translated into English. A theoretical framework was identified and thematic analysis conducted. Results Three focus group discussions, with a total of 27 participants, took place. Participants were able to identify examples of child injuries which took place in their community but these generally related to fatal and severe injuries. Participants identified risk factors such as the child’s age, gender, behaviours and whether they had been supervised. Consequences of injuries such as physical and psychological effects, impact on household budgets and disturbance in household plans were identified. Suggestions were made about culturally appropriate prevention measures, and included; suitable supervision arrangements, separation of hazards and teaching about safety to the parents and children. Conclusion Community members in Nepal can provide useful information about childhood injuries and their prevention but this knowledge is not transferred into action. Understanding community perceptions about injuries and their prevention can contribute to the development of preventive interventions in low income settings. PMID:24886124

  2. The incidence of color blindness among some school children of Pokhara, Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Niroula, D R; Saha, C G

    2010-03-01

    The incidence of color blindness varies from race to race and different in different geographical area. Since, there is no such report about the prevalence of color blindness in the western part of Nepal, the present study had been conducted to find out the incidence of color blindness among school children of Pokhara city, western Nepal. Participant's (n=964, 474 boys, 490 girls, age group 10 to 19 years) color vision was tested by using Ishihara chart (38 plates). Among 474 boys, 18 boys were color blind with the prevalence of 3.8%. None of girls were found to be color blind. Out of 18 color blind boys, nine, six and three boys were the victims of deuteranopia, deuteranomaly and protanomaly respectively. The incidence of color blindness were more amongst the Darji (14.3%) and Newar (9.1%) ethnic groups.

  3. Climate change and adverse health events: community perceptions from the Tanahu district of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mani Bhandari, Parash; Issa, Rita; Neupane, Dinesh; Gurung, Swadesh; Khanal, Vishnu

    2015-03-01

    Nepal is a country economically dependent on climate-sensitive industries. It is highly vulnerable to the environmental, social, economic and health impacts of climate change. The objective of this study is to explore community perceptions of climate variability and human health risks. In this letter, we present a cross sectional study conducted between August 2013 and July 2014 in the Tanahu district of Nepal. Our analysis is based on 258 face-to-face interviews with household heads utilizing structured questionnaires. Over half of the respondents (54.7%) had perceived a change in climate, 53.9% had perceived an increase in temperature in the summer and 49.2% had perceived an increase in rainfall during the rainy season. Half of the respondents perceived an increase in the number of diseases during the summer, 46.5% perceived an increase during the rainy season and 48.8% during winter. Only 8.9% of the respondents felt that the government was doing enough to prevent climate change and its impact on their community. Belonging to the Janajati (indigenous) ethnic group, living in a pakki, super-pakki house and belonging to poor or mid-level income were related to higher odds of perceiving climate variability. Illiterates were less likely to perceive climate variability. Respondents living in a pakki house, super-pakki, or those who were poor were more likely to perceive health risks. Illiterates were less likely to perceive health risks.

  4. Equity improvements in maternal and newborn care indicators: results from the Bardiya district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nonyane, Bareng A S; K C, Ashish; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Guenther, Tanya; Sitrin, Debora; Syed, Uzma; Pradhan, Yasho V; Khadka, Neena; Shah, Rashed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-05-01

    Community-based maternal and newborn care interventions have been shown to improve neonatal survival and other key health indicators. It is important to evaluate whether the improvement in health indicators is accompanied by a parallel increase in the equitable distribution of the intervention activities, and the uptake of healthy newborn care practices. We present an analysis of equity improvements after the implementation of a Community Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) in the Bardiya district of Nepal. The package was implemented alongside other programs that were already in place within the district. We present changes in concentration indices (CIndices) as measures of changes in equity, as well as percentage changes in coverage, between baseline and endline. The CIndices were derived from wealth scores that were based on household assets, and they were compared usingt-tests. We observed statistically significant improvements in equity for facility delivery [CIndex: -0.15 (-0.24, -0.06)], knowledge of at least three newborn danger signs [-0.026(-0.06, -0.003)], breastfeeding within 1 h [-0.05(-0.11, -0.0001)], at least one antenatal visit with a skilled provider [-0.25(-0.04, -0.01)], at least four antenatal visits from any provider [-0.15(-0.19, -0.10)] and birth preparedness [-0.09(-0.12, -0.06)]. The largest increases in practices were observed for facility delivery (50%), immediate drying (34%) and delayed bathing (29%). These results and those of similar studies are evidence that community-based interventions delivered by female community health volunteers can be instrumental in improving equity in levels of facility delivery and other newborn care behaviours. We recommend that equity be evaluated in other similar settings within Nepal in order to determine if similar results are observed. PMID:26303057

  5. Gender-based Violence Among Pregnant Women of Syangja District, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Samjhana; Acharya, Jeevan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to determine prevalence of gender-based violence among pregnant women attending an antenatal care (ANC) clinic. Methods Between September 2014 and December 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 pregnant women attending the antenatal ward of the Primary Healthcare Centre (PHC) of Syangja district, Nepal. The data were collected using semistructure questionnaires with face-to-face interviews. SPSS software (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for analysis the data. Results The prevalence rate of gender-based violence was found to be 91.1% (184). Most of the respondents (87%) faced economic violence followed by psychological (53.8%), sexual (41.8%), and physical (4.3%) violence. Women experienced: (1) psychological violence with most complaining of angry looks followed by jealousy or anger while talking with other men, insults using abusive language and neglect; (2) economic violence with most complaining of financial hardship, denial of basic needs and an insistence on knowing where respondents were and restricting them to parents' home or friends/relatives' houses (jealousy); (3) physical violence by slapping, pushing, shaking, or throwing something at her, twisting arm or pulling hair, and punching and kicking; and (4) sexual violence by physically forcing her to have sexual intercourse without consent, and hurting or causing injury to private parts. Most (100%) of the perpetrators were found to be husbands and mothers-in-law (10.7%) who violated them rarely. Conclusion The prevalence of gender-based violence (GBV) among pregnant women attending the ANC clinic was greater in the Syangja district of Nepal. Women's empowerment, economic autonomy, sensitization, informal or formal training regarding GBV for men and women, and the need for large-scale population-based surveys are the major recommendations of this study. PMID:27169008

  6. Equity improvements in maternal and newborn care indicators: results from the Bardiya district of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nonyane, Bareng AS; KC, Ashish; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A.; Guenther, Tanya; Sitrin, Debora; Syed, Uzma; Pradhan, Yasho V; Khadka, Neena; Shah, Rashed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-01-01

    Community-based maternal and newborn care interventions have been shown to improve neonatal survival and other key health indicators. It is important to evaluate whether the improvement in health indicators is accompanied by a parallel increase in the equitable distribution of the intervention activities, and the uptake of healthy newborn care practices. We present an analysis of equity improvements after the implementation of a Community Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) in the Bardiya district of Nepal. The package was implemented alongside other programs that were already in place within the district. We present changes in concentration indices (CIndices) as measures of changes in equity, as well as percentage changes in coverage, between baseline and endline. The CIndices were derived from wealth scores that were based on household assets, and they were compared using t-tests. We observed statistically significant improvements in equity for facility delivery [CIndex: −0.15 (−0.24, −0.06)], knowledge of at least three newborn danger signs [−0.026(−0.06, −0.003)], breastfeeding within 1 h [−0.05(−0.11, −0.0001)], at least one antenatal visit with a skilled provider [−0.25(−0.04, −0.01)], at least four antenatal visits from any provider [−0.15(−0.19, −0.10)] and birth preparedness [−0.09(−0.12, −0.06)]. The largest increases in practices were observed for facility delivery (50%), immediate drying (34%) and delayed bathing (29%). These results and those of similar studies are evidence that community-based interventions delivered by female community health volunteers can be instrumental in improving equity in levels of facility delivery and other newborn care behaviours. We recommend that equity be evaluated in other similar settings within Nepal in order to determine if similar results are observed. PMID:26303057

  7. Neotectonics of the Western Nepal Fault System: Implications for Himalayan strain partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Calvin R. P.; Murphy, Michael A.; Taylor, Michael H.; Gosse, John; Baltz, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Oblique convergence at the Himalayan margin is hypothesized to be partitioned by orogen-normal thrusting and orogen-parallel strike-slip faulting. We conducted field mapping and remote sensing in the Dhaulagiri Range of Nepal, and the results reveal an active regional fault system termed the Western Nepal Fault System (WNFS). Right and normally offset Quaternary deposits and brittly deformed bedrock demarcate dextral slip along two strike-slip faults striking N40-50°W linked via an extensional right step over striking N10-20°E. The strike-slip attitudes subparallel bedrock foliation, while the step over cuts at a high angle (~70°). Fault slip data along the strike-slip segments trend N70°W with minor dip component, top to north. Fault slip data and observed kinematics along the WNFS support our interpretation that the WNFS formed via arc-parallel stress. On the basis of geometry, kinematics, and structural position we correlate the WNFS to active faults between the Karakoram and Bari Gad faults. This suggests an ~350 km long dextral fault system extending obliquely across the Western Nepal Himalaya which appears to intersect the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) near 83°30'E, coinciding with a large gradient in the arc-parallel component of GPS velocities. We interpret the WNFS to represent a class of orogen-parallel strike-slip faults working with subduction to accommodate obliquely convergent plate motion. Our observations support the hypothesis that the region lying between the MFT and the WNFS is a continental version of a fore-arc sliver bounded at its base by the Main Himalayan Thrust.

  8. Pattern and trend of deliberate self-harm in western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Subba, Sonu H; Binu, Valsalakumari S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kanchan, Tanuj; Arun, Mohanram; Patil, Rajkumar; Pant, Sadip; Saha, Archana; De, Asis; Rana, Manu S

    2009-05-01

    Acts of deliberate self-harm (DSH) not only affect the people directly involved, but also have grave psychological and social impact on the family and community. In the present study, a cohort of 173 cases of DSH reported from April 2002 to March 2005 was retrospectively analyzed, by perusing the medicolegal register maintained by the Emergency Department at the Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara in the Western Development Region of Nepal. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 10.1. More than two-thirds of total cases were females. About 60% of cases were observed in the age group of 15-24 years. Poisoning (89.6%) was the most preferred method of deliberate self-harm. Organophosphate pesticides were consumed in nearly two-thirds of the poisoning cases. The majority of cases were reported during the months of May to July and had occurred during the last quarter of the day. More than a twofold increase was observed in the frequency of cases during the 3-year study period. The said observations were compared and contrasted with the available literature across the globe. The presentation is concluded by highlighting the limitations encountered in Nepal and the scope to overcome the same.

  9. Monitoring of a recurring glacial lake outburst flood in north-western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Niklas; Kropacek, Jan; Schröter, Benjamin; Tyrna, Bernd; Buchroithner, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Since 2004 an almost annual recurring glacial lake outburst flood threatens Halji Village, located in Limi valley in one of the most remote regions of north-western Nepal. So far a considerable extent of rare fields and several houses have been destroyed. A cultural heritage site, the Halji Monastery which is the oldest Buddhist monastery in western Nepal is located only 30 m from the flood path. A supra-glacial lake at an altitude of 5300 m a.s.l. located approximately 6 km away from the village was identified as the source of the flood from recent satellite imagery. In November/December 2013 we carried out a field survey in this region in order to understand the drainage paths of the lake, to measure the volume of the glacial lake and to set up an Automatic Weather Station (AWS). To assess both the filling and draining of the glacial lake a terrestrial time-lapse camera was installed taking six photographs every day. These show the glacial lake and parts of the feeding water channels. The images combined with the AWS data will help us to understand the dependency of magnitude and timing of the outburst event to the temperature, snow conditions and glacier movements. The collected data will also help us to learn more about the flooding event and serve as the input for a two dimensional hydrodynamic model which simulates the flood extent under different flooding scenarios.

  10. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that

  11. The Byanshi: an ethnographic note on a trading group in far western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, A E; Dahal, D R; Rai, N K

    1976-09-01

    The Byanshi who live in the district of Darchula are among the lesser known trading groups of Nepal. The Byanshi, close to the borders of Nepal, India, and Tibet, make their living trading wool, yak tails, salt, grain, and other commodities across the Himalayas and over the border into Pithoragarh district and even down into the Terai. The Byanshi live their lives in 2 separate areas. In the summer they live in their traditional homeland in Byana panchayat in the northern section of Darchula, close to Nepal's border with China. The major settlements in the area are Tinkar and Chhangru. The entire panchayat has a population of about 2000. In the winter, when snow makes life difficult in the high mountains, the Byanshi migrate down to Khalanga panchayat. Of greater importance than agriculture is animal husbandry, which is the backbone of trade in the Himalayas. Most important is that husbandry supports trade. The Byanshi social organization is somewhat confusing. An attempt is made to explain the clan structure as simply as possible. Upon the birth of a child the women from the village bring local beer, meat, and other food to the mother. Up to the 11th day after childbirth, the new mother and child are considered to be polluted. On the 8th day after delivery a ceremony known as "malengkho kormo" is performed, where the mother and child are ritually bathed. From this point, both the mother and child may enter the hearth area of their house, but the house itself is considered polluted. On the 11th day, all villagers are invited to attend the ceremony known as "chhyosimo" which purifies the house and the people. The Byanshi practice 3 forms of marriage: marriage by capture; love marriage, a form of elopmement; and the arranged marriage. The latter is becoming most common. Death rituals have always been the most exaggerated and costly ceremonies for the Bayanshi. The religion of the Byanshi combines features of Tibetan Buddhism, hill animism, and Hinduism in a very

  12. Pattern of Pediatric Dermatoses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ranjit, Annu; Pathak, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric dermatoses are one of the most common presentations in a dermatology clinic and reflect the health and hygiene status of children. The incidence and severity of these skin lesions are influenced by geographical area, seasonal and cultural factors, and socioeconomic status. This study was done to show the prevalence of different pediatric dermatoses in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal. Chart reviews of children aged one day to 17 years, presenting to Universal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Nepal, from 1 September 2014 to 30 august 2015, were done. Descriptive analysis and two-sided chi-square test were done. Among 23992 patients visiting the dermatology outpatient department (OPD), 5398 (22.5%) were of pediatric age groups (male/female: 1.2/1); most of them belonged to young teens and teenagers (n = 3308; 61.3%). Three most common dermatoses were fungal infections (18.5%), eczema (14.4%), and acne (10.1%). Fungal infections (n = 653; 65.4%) and acne (n = 284; 51.9%) were common in males, whereas eczema (n = 402; 51.7%) was more common in females. Fungal infection (P < 0.001), eczema (P < 0.001), pigmentation disorders (P < 0.001), and acne (P < 0.01) were significantly more during summer, while scabies was more in winter (P < 0.001). Dermatophytosis, pyoderma, and warts comprised frequently occurring fungal, bacterial, and viral infections, respectively. PMID:27247564

  13. Spectral Color Indices Based Geospatial Modeling of Soil Organic Matter in Chitwan District, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Umesh K.

    2016-06-01

    Space Technology provides a resourceful-cost effective means to assess soil nutrients essential for soil management plan. Soil organic matter (SOM) is one of valuable controlling productivity of crops by providing nutrient in farming systems. Geospatial modeling of soil organic matter is essential if there is unavailability of soil test laboratories and its strong spatial correlation. In the present analysis, soil organic matter is modeled from satellite image derived spectral color indices. Brightness Index (BI), Coloration Index (CI), Hue Index (HI), Redness Index (RI) and Saturation Index (SI) were calculated by converting DN value to radiance and radiance to reflectance from Thematic Mapper image. Geospatial model was developed by regressing SOM with color indices and producing multiple regression model using stepwise regression technique. The multiple regression equation between SOM and spectral indices was significant with R = 0. 56 at 95% confidence level. The resulting MLR equation was then used for the spatial prediction for the entire study area. Redness Index was found higher significance in estimating the SOM. It was used to predict SOM as auxiliary variables using cokringing spatial interpolation technique. It was tested in seven VDCs of Chitwan district of Nepal using Thematic Mapper remotely sensed data. SOM was found to be measured ranging from 0.15% to 4.75 %, with a mean of 2.24 %. Remotely sensed data derived spectral color indices have the potential as useful auxiliary variables for estimating SOM content to generate soil fertility management plans.

  14. Serological and Entomological Study of Dengue in Dang and Chitwan Districts of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rojina; Pant, Narayan Dutt; GC, Ganga; Thapa, Srinivas; Neupane, Biswas; Shah, Yogendra; Gautam, Ishan; Pandey, Basu Dev

    2016-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 264 suspected dengue patients in two districts (Dang and Chitwan) of Nepal from June 2013 to November 2013. The anti-dengue IgM positivity was found to be (51/264)19.31% by capture ELISA, of which 21 (41.2%) were male and 30 (58.8%) were female. Symptoms of seropositive cases were fever, anorexia, nausea, headache, retro-orbital pain, skin rashes, and myalgia. Hematological features like thrombocytopenia and leucopenia were found to be significantly associated with the dengue fever (DF). Discarded tires were found as the commonest breeding habitats for the dengue vectors. Higher sero-positivity was recorded from the area having higher Breteau index (BI). The pH, chloride ion concentration and the salinity of the water from breeding habitats were found to be ranging from 6.9±0.82 to 8, 103.33±17.52 mg/L to 140.65 mg/L, and 0.19±0.032 ppt to 0.25 ppt respectively. This study may be helpful for the health authorities and public health workers for early diagnosis of DF and for the improved preventive measures to be adopted in the epidemic and possible epidemic areas. PMID:26828951

  15. Medicinal plants used by the Tamang community in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We can conserve cultural heritage and gain extensive knowledge of plant species with pharmacological potential to cure simple to life-threatening diseases by studying the use of plants in indigenous communities. Therefore, it is important to conduct ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities and to validate the reported uses of plants by comparing ethnobotanical studies with phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Materials and methods This study was conducted in a Tamang community dwelling in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal. We used semi-structured and structured questionnaires during interviews to collect information. We compared use reports with available phytochemical and pharmacological studies for validation. Results A total of 161 plant species belonging to 86 families and 144 genera to cure 89 human ailments were documented. Although 68 plant species were cited as medicinal in previous studies, 55 different uses described by the Tamang people were not found in any of the compared studies. Traditional uses for 60 plant species were consistent with pharmacological and phytochemical studies. Conclusions The Tamang people in Makawanpur are rich in ethnopharmacological understanding. The present study highlights important medicinal plant species by validating their traditional uses. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management and development of modern techniques to maximize their use. PMID:24410808

  16. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Pilkington, Paul; Mytton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000) that for girls (16.8/1000). The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1–4 years and 5–9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes. PMID:26633439

  17. Serological and Entomological Study of Dengue in Dang and Chitwan Districts of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Rojina; Pant, Narayan Dutt; Gc, Ganga; Thapa, Srinivas; Neupane, Biswas; Shah, Yogendra; Gautam, Ishan; Pandey, Basu Dev

    2016-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 264 suspected dengue patients in two districts (Dang and Chitwan) of Nepal from June 2013 to November 2013. The anti-dengue IgM positivity was found to be (51/264)19.31% by capture ELISA, of which 21 (41.2%) were male and 30 (58.8%) were female. Symptoms of seropositive cases were fever, anorexia, nausea, headache, retro-orbital pain, skin rashes, and myalgia. Hematological features like thrombocytopenia and leucopenia were found to be significantly associated with the dengue fever (DF). Discarded tires were found as the commonest breeding habitats for the dengue vectors. Higher sero-positivity was recorded from the area having higher Breteau index (BI). The pH, chloride ion concentration and the salinity of the water from breeding habitats were found to be ranging from 6.9±0.82 to 8, 103.33±17.52 mg/L to 140.65 mg/L, and 0.19±0.032 ppt to 0.25 ppt respectively. This study may be helpful for the health authorities and public health workers for early diagnosis of DF and for the improved preventive measures to be adopted in the epidemic and possible epidemic areas.

  18. Karnali and Jajarkot Klippen in Western Nepal Himalaya Inconsistent with Tectonic Wedging Model Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy La Roche, R.; Godin, L.; Cottle, J. M.; Kellett, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayan metamorphic core, exposed between two opposite sense shear zones, is locally preserved in a series of foreland klippen. The upper shear zone, the South Tibetan Detachment (STD), is a key element in many competing tectonic models. One of these models, tectonic wedging, requires that the STD merges with the reverse-sense basal shear zone towards the foreland. We tested this hypothesis in two foreland klippen in western Nepal. The Karnali klippe is a doubly-plunging synform underlain by a folded reverse-sense shear zone. It comprises amphibolite metamorphic facies rocks overlain by greenschist to subgreenschist facies sedimentary rocks. The contact is marked by a folded ca. 1 km thick normal-sense shear zone, which we correlate with the STD. Quartz and calcite recrystallization textures and quartz crystallographic preferred orientations suggest an abrupt decrease in temperature of deformation from ~750 °C in the footwall to 580 and 475 °C at the base and top of the shear zone, respectively, and to 150-200 °C in the hanging wall. In-situ monazite petrochronology indicates prograde metamorphism between 36 and 30 Ma in the immediate footwall of the STD, followed by tectonic exhumation from 28 to <24 Ma, possibly starting as early as 30 Ma. Preliminary muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages suggest that deformation along the STD ceased by ca. 18 Ma. Field data from the adjacent Jajarkot klippe indicate a similar first order structural architecture, although protoliths, metamorphic grade and deformation temperature differ significantly. Transport-parallel exposure of the STD in this area implies a minimum slip of 165 km. The presence of the STD on both flanks of the Karnali and the Jajarkot klippen is inconsistent with predictions that the STD merges at depth with the basal shear zone in the Karnali klippe and north of the Jajarkot klippe. Our observations are consequently not compatible with the tectonic wedging model proposed for western Nepal.

  19. TRADITIONAL USES OF PLANTS OF COMMONLAND HABITATS IN WESTERN CHITWAN, NEPAL

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on the flora data gathered from 138 common land plots as part of a multi-method longitudinal study of the reciprocal relations between population and environment in western Chitwan, Nepal. The paper also describes the uses and availability of different species drawing upon both field data and knowledge of indigenous and local residents in the study area. Land use in western Chitwan is changing rapidly and common land areas have been under much stress due to population increase, whereas the common land areas are valuable to local residents. Both indigenous and new migrant residents in this area use the available plant resources for different purposes which bring economic benefit to the households. Plant species provide valuable food, vegetable and medicinal products that maintain human health and general wellbeing of the household. These plants are also economically valuable to farmers with high quality forage value as well as useful for crop management (e.g., pesticide, compost, green manure). Moreover, some plant species are used as fish poison to harvest fish from rivers and streams. Likewise, the common land areas provide materials for use in house construction (e.g., thatch) and making tools with the potential and viable sites as communal grazing land. It is evident that access and utilization of common land resources are important for many households, especially those in remote and poor agricultural areas such as western Chitwan. PMID:22945971

  20. Strengthening district health care system through partnership with academic institutions: the social accountability of medical colleges in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Magar, A; Subba, K

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 25-30% of the Nepalese population live below poverty line. Majority of them reside in a geographically inaccessible place while most of the health centers are focused in the urbanized cities of Nepal. Hence, they are deprived of quality health care at that level and need urgent attention by the concerned authorities. The government has not increased its human resource for health in the last two decades, while population has doubled up but the number of doctors serving in public sectors has remained the same as it was in 1990s. We have got 19 medical colleges at the moment. If one district is allocated to each medical colleges, it could help improve district health system at local level in Nepal. This can be accomplished by posting postgraduate resiendts in the peripheral district hospital as a part of their training and later encouraging them to serve for certain years. This could be a perfect example of government envisioned public private partnership in the country. This is a concept that has already been started in many parts of the world that can be moulded further to improve health service at peripheral part of the country. It is also the social accountability of the medical colleges for the development of the nation.

  1. Transmission of Leishmania donovani in the Hills of Eastern Nepal, an Outbreak Investigation in Okhaldhunga and Bhojpur Districts

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Das, Murari L.; Rai, Keshav; Tersago, Katrien; Pokhrel, Yubraj; Durnez, Lies; Marasini, Baburam; Van der Auwera, Gert; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Coosemans, Marc; Argaw, Daniel; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Background In the Indian subcontinent, Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in a geographical area coinciding with the Lower Gangetic Plain, at low altitude. VL occurring in residents of hill districts is therefore often considered the result of Leishmania donovani infection during travel. Early 2014 we conducted an outbreak investigation in Okhaldhunga and Bhojpur districts in the Nepal hills where increasing number of VL cases have been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings A house-to-house survey in six villages documented retrospectively 35 cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Anti-Leishmania antibodies were found in 22/23 past-VL cases, in 40/416 (9.6%) persons without VL and in 12/155 (7.7%) domestic animals. An age- and sex- matched case-control study showed that exposure to known VL-endemic regions was no risk factor for VL, but having a VL case in the neighbourhood was. SSU-rDNA PCR for Leishmania sp. was positive in 24 (5%) of the human, in 18 (12%) of the animal samples and in 16 (14%) bloodfed female Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. L. donovani was confirmed in two asymptomatic individuals and in one sand fly through hsp70-based sequencing. Conclusions/Significance This is epidemiological and entomological evidence for ongoing local transmission of L. donovani in villages at an altitude above 600 meters in Nepal, in districts considered hitherto non-endemic for VL. The VL Elimination Initiative in Nepal should therefore consider extending its surveillance and control activities in order to assure VL elimination, and the risk map for VL should be redesigned. PMID:26252494

  2. Are Birth-preparedness Programmes Effective? Results From a Field Trial in Siraha District, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Robert A.; Moore, Judith M.; Sharma, Meena

    2006-01-01

    The birth-preparedness package (BPP) promotes active preparation and decision-making for births, including pregnancy/postpartum periods, by pregnant women and their families. This paper describes a district-wide field trial of the BPP implemented through the government health system in Siraha, Nepal, during 2003–2004. The aim of the field trial was to determine the effectiveness of the BPP to positively influence planning for births, household-level behaviours that affect the health of pregnant and postpartum women and their newborns, and their use of selected health services for maternal and newborn care. Community health workers promoted desired behaviours through inter-personal counselling with individuals and groups. Content of messages included maternal and newborn-danger signs and encouraged the use of healthcare services and preparation for emergencies. Thirty-cluster baseline and endline household surveys of mothers of infants aged less than one year were used for estimating the change in key outcome indicators. Fifty-four percent of respondents (n=162) were directly exposed to BPP materials while pregnant. A composite index of seven indicators that measure knowledge of respondents, use of health services, and preparation for emergencies increased from 33% at baseline to 54% at endline (p=0.001). Five key newborn practices increased by 19 to 29 percentage points from baseline to endline (p values ranged from 0.000 to 0.06). Certain key maternal health indicators, such as skilled birth attendance and use of emergency obstetric care, did not change. The BPP can positively influence knowledge and intermediate health outcomes, such as household practices and use of some health services. The BPP can be implemented by government health services with minimal outside assistance but should be comprehensively integrated into the safe motherhood programme rather than implemented as a separate intervention. PMID:17591345

  3. Knowledge of Maternal and Newborn Care Among Primary Level Health Workers in Kapilvastu District of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, D; Paudel, R; Gautam, K; Gautam, S; Upadhyaya, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher maternal and neonatal deaths are common in low- and middle-income countries; due to less access to skilled help. Adequate knowledge and skills on maternal and newborn care (MNC) of community health workers can improve maternal and newborn health. Aims: To identify the knowledge of primary level health workers on some components of MNC. Subjects and Methods: Respondents were selected using simple random sampling method. For collecting the data, enumerators visited health institutions for 2 months from 1st October to 31st November 2012, and structured interview schedule was used to gather the information. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of one hundred and thirty-seven primary level health workers in Kapilvastu district, Nepal. The Chi-square test was employed to examine the association between the knowledge of health workers on MNC and designation and work experience. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: In a total of 137 primary level health workers, more than half 53.2% (73/137) were senior auxiliary health workers/health assistant. Health workers having correct knowledge on contents of MNC were-registration 32.1% (44/137), major components of antenatal care 57.7% (79/137), danger signs of pregnancy 39.4% (54/137), five cleans 59.1% (81/137), postnatal health problems 54.0% (74/137), majority to health action to newborn care, newborn bath and meaning of exclusive breastfeeding. There was a statistical association between designation of health workers and above-mentioned components of MNC (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The differentials in the knowledge of MNC among primary level health suggest improving knowledge of the grass root level health workers with appropriate training and development programs. PMID:27144073

  4. Animal production systems of small farms in the Kaski district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Redding, Laurel; Chetri, Dipesh Kumar; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Chay, Yoon; Aldinger, Lauren; Ferguson, James

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe animal production on small farms in the Kaski district of Nepal, with the goal of identifying areas where animal health and productivity could be improved. Eighty-five randomly selected farms from four different Village Development Committees were visited. Farmers were interviewed and premises and animals visually inspected on all farms. Feed samples were collected from a subset of farms. The most commonly kept species were water buffalo (used for milk and meat), cattle (used for milk and labor), and goats (used for meat). Average milk production levels were 4.7 kg/day for water buffalo and 1.9 kg/day for cattle. All animals were milked manually, no calves were weaned, and only one farm practiced artificial insemination. A majority of cattle and goats had access to pasture, and a majority of farms fed their working or producing animals concentrates; however, nutritional input was insufficient in terms of energy, protein, and micronutrient content to increase levels of production. Goat-raising was the most profitable endeavor, followed by water buffalo and cattle. We conclude that animals have the potential to contribute significantly to improved livelihoods of farmers in terms of both income generation and non-tangible benefits. However, we found that significant constraints on animal production exist, including insufficient nutritional levels and a lack of preventative care resulting in animal disease. Furthermore, cultural considerations reflecting attitudes toward cattle shape farming in ways that may limit production. Nevertheless, targeted interventions that improve animal health and productivity are possible without being cost prohibitive.

  5. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Manang district, central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Shandesh; Chaudhary, Ram P; Taylor, Robin SL

    2006-01-01

    Background The district of Manang (2000 – 6000 m) is located in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. The majority of local inhabitants of the area are Gurungs, of Tibetan origin. The remoteness of the region has resulted in continued use of plants as medicine in an area where the ethnobotany has sparsely been documented. Methods Interviews were conducted with amchi (Tibetan medicinal practitioners), local healers (including priests locally known as 'lamas'), plant traders, and knowledgeable villagers (including herders) regarding local plant names and their medicinal uses during several field visits (2002–2005). When convenient to the locals, a jungle or forest walk was done with the healers, allowing for both plant collection and detailed information gathering. Results This present research documented 91 ethnomedicinal plant species, belonging to 40 families under 73 genera, and 45 new ethnomedicinal plant species are added. These 91 locally used medicinal plants are found to treat 93 ailments. This study provides information on 45 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in Manang. The indication for use, mode of preparation, dose and administration of medicine are described in detail for each species. Conclusion This wealth of ethnobotanical knowledge persists, and is being transferred to the next generation in some areas in upper Manang, in a country where this is often not the case. The senior amchi of the area (Karma Sonam Lama), who has been practicing Tibetan medicine for three generations, feels that it is of utmost importance to conserve the traditional healing system and to pass his knowledge on to the local community about the importance of medicinal plants. He hopes that this will lead to the conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants in the villages. Over the duration of this research, the prices of several rare medicinal plants of Manang increased dramatically, highlighting both the scarcity and the quick disappearance

  6. Women's Autonomy and Its Correlates in Western Nepal: A Demographic Study.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Tulsi Ram; Kutty, V Raman; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2016-01-01

    Despite various efforts for enhancing women's autonomy in developing countries, many women are deprived of their capacity in decision-making on their household affairs as well as social issues. This paper aimed to examine women's autonomy and its associated factors in the Kapilvastu district of Nepal. We measured women's autonomy using a recently developed women's autonomy measurement scale from June to October 2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic multivariate modeling technique were applied for assessing the association of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women and their autonomy. Mean score for women's autonomy was 23.34 ± 8.06 out of the possible maximum 48. It was found to be positively associated with higher age difference at marriage, advantaged caste/ethnicity, better employment for the husband, couple's education more than 10 years schooling, and higher economic status of the household. We found strong direct effect of women's education (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57), husband's education (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.69-4.10) and economic status of household (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.01-2.03) on women's autonomy. When we adjusted women's education for husband's education, the odds ratio decreased by around 22% {from (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57) to (OR = 6.32, CI = 2.77-14.46)} and was a mediator effect. The economic status of household also had mediator effect on women's autonomy through their education. Education status of women is a key predictor of women's autonomy in Kapilvastu district. Husband's education and economic status of the household are other important predictors of women's autonomy which have a mediator effect on women's autonomy. Improving educational status and economic conditions of both women and their husbands may be the best solution to promote women's autonomy. PMID:26799217

  7. Women's Autonomy and Its Correlates in Western Nepal: A Demographic Study.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Tulsi Ram; Kutty, V Raman; Ravindran, T K Sundari

    2016-01-01

    Despite various efforts for enhancing women's autonomy in developing countries, many women are deprived of their capacity in decision-making on their household affairs as well as social issues. This paper aimed to examine women's autonomy and its associated factors in the Kapilvastu district of Nepal. We measured women's autonomy using a recently developed women's autonomy measurement scale from June to October 2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic multivariate modeling technique were applied for assessing the association of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women and their autonomy. Mean score for women's autonomy was 23.34 ± 8.06 out of the possible maximum 48. It was found to be positively associated with higher age difference at marriage, advantaged caste/ethnicity, better employment for the husband, couple's education more than 10 years schooling, and higher economic status of the household. We found strong direct effect of women's education (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57), husband's education (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.69-4.10) and economic status of household (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.01-2.03) on women's autonomy. When we adjusted women's education for husband's education, the odds ratio decreased by around 22% {from (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57) to (OR = 6.32, CI = 2.77-14.46)} and was a mediator effect. The economic status of household also had mediator effect on women's autonomy through their education. Education status of women is a key predictor of women's autonomy in Kapilvastu district. Husband's education and economic status of the household are other important predictors of women's autonomy which have a mediator effect on women's autonomy. Improving educational status and economic conditions of both women and their husbands may be the best solution to promote women's autonomy.

  8. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. PMID:27391250

  9. Cholera outbreaks (2012) in three districts of Nepal reveal clonal transmission of multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although endemic cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality each year in Nepal, lack of information about the causal bacterium often hinders cholera intervention and prevention. In 2012, diarrheal outbreaks affected three districts of Nepal with confirmed cases of mortality. This study was designed to understand the drug response patterns, source, and transmission of Vibrio cholerae associated with 2012 cholera outbreaks in Nepal. Methods V. cholerae (n = 28) isolated from 2012 diarrhea outbreaks {n = 22; Kathmandu (n = 12), Doti (n = 9), Bajhang (n = 1)}, and surface water (n = 6; Kathmandu) were tested for antimicrobial response. Virulence properties and DNA fingerprinting of the strains were determined by multi-locus genetic screening employing polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results All V. cholerae strains isolated from patients and surface water were confirmed to be toxigenic, belonging to serogroup O1, Ogawa serotype, biotype El Tor, and possessed classical biotype cholera toxin (CTX). Double-mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR revealed the V. cholerae strains to possess the B-7 allele of ctx subunit B. DNA sequencing of tcpA revealed a point mutation at amino acid position 64 (N → S) while the ctxAB promoter revealed four copies of the tandem heptamer repeat sequence 5'-TTTTGAT-3'. V. cholerae possessed all the ORFs of the Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-I but lacked the ORFs 498–511 of VSP-II. All strains were multidrug resistant with resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), nalidixic acid (NA), and streptomycin (S); all carried the SXT genetic element. DNA sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence of gyrA and parC of the NAR strains (n = 4) revealed point mutations at amino acid positions 83 (S → I), and 85 (S → L), respectively. Similar PFGE (NotI) pattern revealed the Nepalese V. cholerae to be clonal

  10. Active Deformation in the Greater Himalayan Zone in Western Nepal from Inversion of New (U-Th)/He Cooling Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. E.; Burbank, D.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the central Himalaya features an abrupt rise in mean elevation from ~1.5 km in the Lesser Himalaya to ~4-5 km Greater Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau. This physiographic transition is known as PT2, and is often interpreted as the surface expression of transport over a ramp in the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). In western Nepal, however, the same rise in elevation occurs over two distinct topographic steps (PT2-N and PT2-S). In previous work, Harvey et al. (2015) argue that this anomalous topography is the result of recent southward-migration of mid-crustal deformation along the MHT. Due to the seismogenic potential of the MHT it is important to constrain its geometry in the western Nepal seismic gap, which has not had a large earthquake in over 600 years. To test the above hypothesis, we perform [U-Th]/He dating on 39 apatite and 47 zircon samples collected along seven relief transects throughout western Nepal. We constrain exhumation histories by inverting these new cooling ages with the 3-D thermo-kinematic model Pecube. Five transects collected from the Greater Himalaya north of PT2-N are best fit by relatively rapid exhumation rates (~1-2 km/Myr) since ~4 Ma. The other two, collected from farther south near PT2-S, require rapid (~1-2 km/Myr) exhumation until around 8-11 Ma, followed by much slower (~0.1-0.2 km/Myr) exhumation until at least the late Pliocene. Assuming that exhumation rates reflect uplift rates, the rapid Plio-Pleistocene exhumation in the Greater Himalaya north of PT2-N suggest that this physiographic transition is similar to that at the foot of the Greater Himalaya in central Nepal. It follows that active deformation is occurring along a NW-trend as much as 100 km farther north than would be expected if simply projecting PT2 across western Nepal. This finding is consistent with transport over a more northerly MHT ramp or perhaps oblique slip along the recently identified, surface-breaking WNFZ. Although the geomorphology and microseismicity

  11. Isolation and characterization of aerobic culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria from surfacewater and groundwater of Rautahat District, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shakya, S; Pradhan, B; Smith, L; Shrestha, J; Tuladhar, S

    2012-03-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a serious Environmental Health Management issue of drinking water sources especially in Terai region of Nepal. Many studies have reported that due to natural abundance of arsenic in the environment, various bacteria have developed different resistance mechanisms for arsenic compound. In this study, the culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria indigenous to surfacewater as well as groundwater from Rautahat District of Nepal were randomly isolated by standard plate count method on the basis of viable growth on plate count agar amended with arsenate ranging from 0, 0.5, 10, 40, 80 to 160 milligram per liter (mg/l). With respect to the morphological and biochemical tests, nine morphologically distinct potent arsenate tolerant bacteria showed relatedness with Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas sp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus smithii 1 and Bacillus smithii 2. The isolates were capable of tolerating more than 1000 mg/l of arsenate and 749 mg/l of arsenite. Likewise, bioaccumulation capability was highest with M. roseus (85.61%) and the least with B. smithii (47.88%) indicating the potential of the organisms in arsenic resistance and most probably in bioremediation.

  12. Isolation and characterization of aerobic culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria from surfacewater and groundwater of Rautahat District, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shakya, S; Pradhan, B; Smith, L; Shrestha, J; Tuladhar, S

    2012-03-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a serious Environmental Health Management issue of drinking water sources especially in Terai region of Nepal. Many studies have reported that due to natural abundance of arsenic in the environment, various bacteria have developed different resistance mechanisms for arsenic compound. In this study, the culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria indigenous to surfacewater as well as groundwater from Rautahat District of Nepal were randomly isolated by standard plate count method on the basis of viable growth on plate count agar amended with arsenate ranging from 0, 0.5, 10, 40, 80 to 160 milligram per liter (mg/l). With respect to the morphological and biochemical tests, nine morphologically distinct potent arsenate tolerant bacteria showed relatedness with Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas sp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus smithii 1 and Bacillus smithii 2. The isolates were capable of tolerating more than 1000 mg/l of arsenate and 749 mg/l of arsenite. Likewise, bioaccumulation capability was highest with M. roseus (85.61%) and the least with B. smithii (47.88%) indicating the potential of the organisms in arsenic resistance and most probably in bioremediation. PMID:21868146

  13. Measuring impacts of community forestry program through repeat photography and satellite remote sensing in the Dolakha district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Niraula, Rabin Raj; Gilani, Hammad; Pokharel, Bharat Kumar; Qamer, Faisal Mueen

    2013-09-15

    During the 1990's community-based forest management gained momentum in Nepal. This study systematically evaluates the impacts that this had on land cover change and other associated aspects during the period 1990-2010 using repeat photography and satellite imagery in combination with interviews with community members. The results of the study clearly reflect the success of community-based forest management in the Dolakha district of the mid-hills of Nepal: during the study period, the rate of conversion of sparse forest into dense forest under community-based management was found to be between 1.13% and 3.39% per year. Similarly, the rate of conversion of non-forest area into forest was found to be between 1.11% and 1.96% per year. Community-based forest management has resulted in more efficient use of forest resources, contributed to a decline in the use of slash-and-burn agricultural practices, reduced the incidence of forest fires, spurred tree plantation, and encouraged the conservation and protection of trees on both public and private land. The resulting reclamation of forest in landside areas and river banks and the overall improvement in forest cover in the area has reduced flash floods and associated landslides.

  14. Repeated glacial lake outburst flood threatening the oldest Buddhist monastery in north-western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropáček, J.; Neckel, N.; Tyrna, B.; Holzer, N.; Hovden, A.; Gourmelen, N.; Schneider, C.; Buchroithner, M.; Hochschild, V.

    2015-10-01

    Since 2004, Halji village, home of the oldest Buddhist Monastery in north-western Nepal, has suffered from recurrent glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). A sudden englacial drainage of a supraglacial lake, located at a distance of 6.5 km from the village, was identified as the source of the flood. The topography of the lake basin was mapped by combining differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) measurements with a structure-from-motion (SFM) approach using terrestrial photographs. From this model the maximum filling capacity of the lake has been estimated as 1.06 ×106 m3 with a maximum discharge of 77.8 m3 s-1, calculated using the empiric Clague-Mathews formula. A simulation of the flooded area employing a raster-based hydraulic model considering six scenarios of discharge volume and surface roughness did not result in a flooding of the village. However, both the village and the monastery are threatened by undercutting of the river bank formed by unconsolidated sediments, as it already happened in 2011. Further, the comparison of the GLOF occurrences with temperature and precipitation from the High Asia Reanalysis (HAR) data set for the period 2001-2011 suggests that the GLOF is climate-driven rather than generated by an extreme precipitation event. The calculation of geodetic mass balance and the analysis of satellite images showed a rapid thinning and retreat of Halji Glacier which will eventually lead to a decline of the lake basin. As the basin will persist for at least several years, effective mitigation measures should be considered. A further reinforcement of the gabion walls was suggested as an artificial lake drainage is not feasible given the difficult accessibility of the glacier.

  15. Suicidal ideation among students of a medical college in Western Nepal: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Subba, S H; Sathian, Brijesh; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Pant, Sadip; Arun, M; Kundapur, Rashmi; Jain, Animesh; Lobo, Stany Wilfred; Ravi Shankar, P

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the developed countries to know the magnitude and factors influencing suicidal ideation among medical students, but such data are sparse in developing countries. This cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to find out the prevalence of suicidal ideation and factors influencing such ideation among students of a medical college in Western Nepal. A total of 206 students were selected using random sampling and questioned about their socio-demographic factors, other risk factors and suicidal ideation using a preformed validated questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows Version 16.0 and the EPI Info 3.5.1 Windows Version. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis were applied for the statistical methodology. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to examine the association between different variables. Suicidal ideation in the last one year was present in nearly one tenth of the study population and in almost one fifth of them life-time suicidal ideation was present. Factors that were associated with suicidal ideation were primarily dissatisfaction with academic performance, being in the clinical semesters, having history of drug abuse and feeling neglected by parents. Most common reason reported for suicidal ideation was family related followed by self-related. Recognition of suicidal ideation among students and their associated factors can help in detecting it on time, making the right interventions and controlling the problem. Understanding the magnitude of the problem and their epidemiology via scientific study like this would be the first step in this process. PMID:22522041

  16. Hidden Costs of Hospital Based Delivery from Two Tertiary Hospitals in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Jeevan; Kaehler, Nils; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Subedi, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hospital based delivery has been an expensive experience for poor households because of hidden costs which are usually unaccounted in hospital costs. The main aim of this study was to estimate the hidden costs of hospital based delivery and determine the factors associated with the hidden costs. Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 post-partum mothers with their husbands/house heads during the discharge time in Manipal Teaching Hospital and Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. A face to face interview with each respondent was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Hidden costs were calculated based on the price rate of the market during the time of the study. Results The total hidden costs for normal delivery and C-section delivery were 243.4 USD (US Dollar) and 321.6 USD respectively. Of the total maternity care expenditures; higher mean expenditures were found for food & drinking (53.07%), clothes (9.8%) and transport (7.3%). For postpartum women with their husband or house head, the total mean opportunity cost of “days of work loss” were 84.1 USD and 81.9 USD for normal delivery and C-section respectively. Factors such as literate mother (p = 0.007), employed house head (p = 0.011), monthly family income more than 25,000 NRs (Nepalese Rupees) (p = 0.014), private hospital as a place of delivery (p = 0.0001), C-section as a mode of delivery (p = 0.0001), longer duration (>5days) of stay in hospital (p = 0.0001), longer distance (>15km) from house to hospital (p = 0.0001) and longer travel time (>240 minutes) from house to hospital (p = 0.007) showed a significant association with the higher hidden costs (>25000 NRs). Conclusion Experiences of hidden costs on hospital based delivery and opportunity costs of days of work loss were found high. Several socio-demographic factors, delivery related factors (place and mode of delivery, length of stay, distance from hospital and travel time) were associated

  17. Stratigraphy and structure of the western Kentucky fluorspar district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trace, R.D.; Amos, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The western Kentucky fluorspar district is part of the larger Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district, the largest producer of fluorspar in the United States. This report is based largely on data gathered from 1960 to 1974 during the U.S. Geological Survey-Kentucky Geological Survey cooperative geologic mapping program of Kentucky. It deals chiefly with the stratigraphy and structure of the district and, to a lesser extent, with the fluorspar-zinc-lead-barite deposits. Sedimentary rocks exposed in the district range in age from Early Mississippian (Osagean) to Quaternary. Most rocks exposed at the surface are Mississippian in age; two-thirds are marine fossiliferous limestones, and the remainder are shales, siltstones, and sandstones. Osagean deep-water marine silty limestone and chert are present at the surface in the southwestern corner of the district. Meramecian marine limestone is exposed at the surface in about half the area. Chesterian marine and fluvial to fluviodeltaic clastic sedimentary rocks and marine limestone underlie about one-third of the area. The total sequence of Mississippian rocks is about 3,000 ft thick. Pennsylvanian rocks are dominantly fluvial clastic sedimentary rocks that change upward into younger fluviodeltaic strata. Pennsylvanian strata of Morrowan and Atokan age are locally thicker than 600 ft along the eastern and southeastern margin and in the major grabens of the district where they have been preserved from erosion. Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Mississippi embayment truncate Paleozoic formations in and near the southwestern corner of the district and are preserved mostly as erosional outliers. The deposits are Gulfian nonmarine gravels, sands, and clays as much as 170 ft thick and upper Pliocene fluvial continental deposits as thick as 45 ft. Pleistocene loess deposits mantle the upland surface of the district, and Quaternary fluvial and fluviolacustrine deposits are common and widespread along the Ohio and Cumberland

  18. The components of self-perceived health in the Kailali district of Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Freidoony, Leila; Chhabi, Ranabhat; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chun-Bae

    2015-03-01

    Self-perceived health is a health measure with well-established links with mortality, healthcare services utilization, and future health. Various components of self-perceived health have been identified in different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of self-perceived health in a Nepali population. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Kailali district of Nepal in 2014. The sample was initially consisted of 309 households, representative of the population of one municipality and one village; however, 304 participants were included in the analyses. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, health condition, satisfaction with healthcare services, psychological factors, and health behaviors was extracted. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify putative components of self-perceived health. Among the 304 respondents, 244 (80.3%) and 60 (19.7%) perceived their health as good and poor, respectively. Middle age and lower satisfaction with healthcare services were associated with worse self-perceived health, accounting for 10.3% of variance. No regular exercise, drinking, smoking, and being unhappy were also related with worse self-perceived health, after adjustment for age and satisfaction level. In the final model, however, drinking status did not significantly contribute. Our findings support previous findings that individuals with positive health behaviors and psychological wellbeing are more likely to perceive their health better. This study may direct public health policies toward more targeted interventions. PMID:25789457

  19. Assessment of Critical Knowledge on Maternal and Newborn care Services among Primary Level Nurse Mid-wives in Kapilvastu District of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Acharya, D; Paudel, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite greater emphasis on maternal and neonatal health through policy and programming in Nepal, maternal and neonatal health is still not impressive. Health care providers' knowledge assessment on maternal and neonatal care has been well documented elsewhere, but it is very little understood in Nepal. Objective The primary objective of this study was to assess the critical knowledge of primary level nurse- midwives on maternal and newborn care in Kapilvastu District of Nepal. Method This was an Institution based cross-sectional study, conducted in Kapilvastu district, Nepal among sixty eight nurse-midwives. The participants were selected using simple random sampling technique. For collecting the data, health institutions were visited by enumerators for a month from 1st October to 1st November 2012. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Result More than 3/4th of the nurse-midwives had 10-20 years of experience. Majority of them (89.7%) had poor knowledge in taking action to prevent mother to child transmission for HIV positive women. More than half of them (54.4%) had some knowledge in performing the active management of third stage of labor whereas almost half (51.5%) had poor knowledge to actions needed on post-partum haemorrhage (PPH). Similarly, more than two third (69.1%) had poor knowledge in newborn care. Conclusion Majority of the nurse-midwives were found to have either poor or some level of knowledge in most of the components of maternal and newborn care services. So, greater emphasis should be given to upgrade the knowledge of nurse mid-wives. PMID:27423287

  20. Pharmacovigilance Knowledge among Patients at a Teaching Hospital in Lalitpur District, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Nisha; Rathore, Devendra S; Shankar, P Ravi; Gyawali, Sudesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Consumer’s knowledge and perception towards adverse drug reactions (ADR) can play an important role in ensuring a healthy lifestyle and proper use of medicines. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perception towards pharma covigilance in general and consumer pharmacovigilance in particular among out patients in a teaching hospital of Nepal. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study using qualitative and quantitative methods was carried out from 1st May to 3 June 2013. Methods: Every fifth patient visiting the outpatient pharmacy was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Gender, age, educational qualification, profession and ethnicity were noted. Twenty-three patients were interviewed. Results: There were 10 males and 13 females. The age of the respondents ranged from 11 to 50 years with a mean age of 27.8 (SD = 5.61) years. Seven (30.43%) respondents were students studying in different levels. Thirteen (56.52%) participants were from the Newar community. Majority of the patients (86.95%) knew ADRs may be caused by the medicines they consume and 18 (78.26%) were of the opinion that ADRs should be reported to doctors and other health care professionals including pharmacists. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception were low in certain areas. There is a need for educational interventions for improving the awareness of patients and general public for ensuring medicine safety and promoting rational use of medicines. PMID:24783073

  1. Exploring the first delay: a qualitative study of home deliveries in Makwanpur district Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many low-income countries women tend to deliver at home, and delays in receiving appropriate maternal care can be fatal. A contextual understanding of these delays is important if countries are to meet development targets for maternal health. We present qualitative research with women who delivered at home in rural Nepal, to gain a contemporary understanding of the context where we are testing the effectiveness of an intervention to increase institutional deliveries. Methods We purposively sampled women who had recently delivered at home and interviewed them to explore their reasons for home delivery. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic content analysis. We used the ‘delays’ model discussed in the literature to frame our analysis. Results Usually a combination of factors prevented women from delivering in health institutions. Many women were aware of the benefits of institutional delivery yet their status in the home restricted their access to health facilities. Often they did not wish to bring shame on their family by going against their wishes, or through showing their body in a health institution. They often felt unable to demand the organisation of transportation because this may cause financial problems for their family. Some felt that government incentives were insufficient. Often, a lack of family support at the time of delivery meant that women delivered at home. Past bad experience, and poor quality health services, also prevented women from having an institutional delivery. Conclusions Formative research is important to develop an understanding of local context. Sociocultural issues, perceived accessibility of health services, and perceived quality of care were all important barriers preventing institutional delivery. Targeting one factor alone may not be effective in increasing institutional deliveries. Our intervention encourages communities to develop local responses to address the factors preventing

  2. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Flora in Forest, Grassland and Common Land Ecosystems of Western Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    DANGOL, Dharma Raj; MAHARJAN, Keshav Lall

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes changes of species composition and population of flora in space and time in western Chitwan, Nepal. This paper also discusses on the changes in flora due to flood and human activities. To illustrate these changes, we used survey data collected from January to April of 1996, 2000, and 2007 from the Barandabhar forest, National Park forest and the forests along the Narayani River banks, grasslands of National Park and common lands of western Chitwan as a part of longitudinal study on “reciprocal relation of population and the environment”. From these data, density values were calculated to analyze spatial and temporal changes in flora species composition and population. We also noted the changes of top species in time and space in due course of time. If the species and its rank not changed, their densities (population) values of flora species changed. We found that changes in species composition, population, appearance or disappearance of flora from a particular space (research plot) were noted as a result of natural forces or human activities. PMID:25061414

  3. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Flora in Forest, Grassland and Common Land Ecosystems of Western Chitwan, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dangol, Dharma Raj; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2012-06-30

    This paper describes changes of species composition and population of flora in space and time in western Chitwan, Nepal. This paper also discusses on the changes in flora due to flood and human activities. To illustrate these changes, we used survey data collected from January to April of 1996, 2000, and 2007 from the Barandabhar forest, National Park forest and the forests along the Narayani River banks, grasslands of National Park and common lands of western Chitwan as a part of longitudinal study on "reciprocal relation of population and the environment". From these data, density values were calculated to analyze spatial and temporal changes in flora species composition and population. We also noted the changes of top species in time and space in due course of time. If the species and its rank not changed, their densities (population) values of flora species changed. We found that changes in species composition, population, appearance or disappearance of flora from a particular space (research plot) were noted as a result of natural forces or human activities.

  4. Unplanned roads impacts assessment in Phewa Lake watershed, Western region, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibundgut, Geoffroy; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Penna, Ivanna; Adhikari, Anu; Khanal, Rajendra

    2015-04-01

    This work describes current research being conducted in the Phewa Lake watershed, near Pokhara in Nepal's Siwaliks/Middle hills, a moist sub-tropical zone with the highest amount of annual rainfall in Nepal (4,500 - 5,000 mm). The watershed lithology is mainly siltstone, sandstones and intensively weathered rocks, highly prone to erosion and shallow landslides (Agrawala et al., 2003). The main purpose of this study is to focus on the impact of unplanned earthen road construction in the Phewa Lake watershed as part of land use changes over 30 years in one of Nepal's most touristic regions. Over the past three decades, the road network has expanded exponentially and a majority of rural earthen roads are often funded by communities themselves, with some government subsidies. They are usually constructed using a local bulldozer contractor with no technical or geological expertise increasing erosion processes, slope instabilities risk and impacts to settlements, forests, water sources, agriculture lands, and infrastructure. Moreover, these human-induced phenomena are being compounded by increasingly intense monsoon rains, likely due to climate change (Petley, 2010). Research methods were interdisciplinary and based on a combination of remote sensing, field observations and discussions with community members. The study compared 30 year-old aerial photos with current high resolution satellite images to correlate changes in land use with erosion and slope instabilities. Secondly, most of the watershed's roads were surveyed in order to inventory and quantify slope instabilities and soil loss events. Using a failure-characteristics grid, their main features were measured (location, size, type and extension of damage areas, etc.) and a GIS data base was created. We then estimated economic impacts of these events in terms of agriculture lands losses and road maintenance, based on field observations and discussions with affected people. Field work investigations have shown that

  5. Structure of the Red Dog District, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; McClay, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog district of the western Brooks Range of northern Alaska, which includes the sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag ± Ba deposits at Red Dog, Su-Lik, and Anarraaq, contains one of the world's largest reserves of zinc. This paper presents a new model for the structural development of the area and shows that understanding the structure is crucial for future exploration efforts and new mineral discoveries in the district. In the Red Dog district, a telescoped Late Devonian through Jurassic continental passive margin is exposed in a series of subhorizontally stacked, internally imbricated, and regionally folded thrust sheets. These sheets were emplaced during the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Brookian orogeny and subsequently were uplifted by late tectonic activity in the Tertiary. The thrust sheet stack comprises seven tectonostratigraphically distinct allochthonous sheets, three of which have been subject to regional and detailed structural analysis. The lowermost of these is the Endicott Mountains allochthon, which is overlain by the structurally higher Picnic Creek and Kelly River allochthons. Each individual allochthon is itself internally imbricated into a series of tectonostratigraphically coherent and distinct thrust plates and subplates. This structural style gives rise to duplex development and imbrication at a range of scales, from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The variable mechanical properties of the lithologic units of the ancient passive margin resulted in changes in structural styles and scales of structures across allochthon boundaries. Structural mapping and analysis of the district indicate a dominant northwest to west-northwest direction of regional tectonic transport. Local north to north-northeast transport of thrust sheets is interpreted to reflect the influence of underlying lateral and/or oblique ramps, which may have been controlled by inherited basin margin structures. Some thrust-sheet stacking patterns suggest out

  6. Surface ruptures of large Himalayan earthquakes in Western Nepal: Evidence along a reactivated strand of the Main Boundary Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossler, T.; Bollinger, L.; Sapkota, S. N.; Lavé, J.; Gupta, R. M.; Kandel, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    The chronology of the seismic ruptures along the active faults of Western Nepal remains almost unconstrained despite their high seismogenic potential. We present here a slip history of one of these structures, a 120 km-long reactivated segment of the Main Boundary Thrust named the Surkhet-Gorahi fault. This slip history is based on geomorphologic and neotectonic mapping of active faults deduced from the analysis of a high resolution total station digital elevation model and 15 detrital charcoals radiocarbon ages constraining the age of deposition or abandonment of 4 alluvial terraces of the Bheri river in Botechaur. Our results show that the last two earthquakes occurred on this fault after 1860 and 640 BP, respectively, and accommodated slip greater than 8 m each, a value corresponding to the incremental vertical offset of the terraces. Such events released a significant part of the slip deficit accumulated on the Main Himalayan thrust fault. However, given the geometry of this fault system as well as the date of occurrence of the last events, the ruptures could be associated with major earthquakes also rupturing the Main Frontal Thrust, such as the great 1505 earthquake.

  7. LCT pegmatites from the Wodgina pegmatite district, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Lisa; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone and Mt. Cassiterite open pits are located within the Wodgina pegmatite district, about 130 km south of Port Hedland, Western Australia. The albite-spodumene and albite-type pegmatites of the Wodgina pegmatite district are currently mined for tin, tantalum and niobium. The pegmatites are hosted within the Archean East-Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrane linked to the fertile Numbana monzogranite that forms part of the Yule Granitoid Complex. Granitic melt intruded into metasedimentary rocks (~2.8 Ga) and formed a series of pegmatite sheets, dikes and irregular structures. These pegmatites are characterized by a high melt fractionation that led to the formation of pegmatitic minerals, containing high concentrations of rare elements, such as Ta, Nb, Li, Rb and Cs. The pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone sheet open pit, which were investigated within this study, comprises four internal zones consisting of six mineral assemblages, dominated by quartz, albite and white mica, with K-feldspar and spodumene as major or minor constituents. Distribution patterns of cassiterite and Ta-Nb-Sn-oxide minerals (ixiolite/wodginite, tantalite/columbite and microlite) can be observed within the four different pegmatite zones. The contact zones are enriched in cassiterite, ixiolite and microlite; border zones reveal high concentrations of cassiterite, ixiolite and tantalite; the intermediate units are characterized by a moderate enrichment of the ore minerals; whereby core zones host almost no significant contents of the minerals mentioned above. Distribution of Ta-Nb-Sn-oxides within the zones and Mn/(Mn+Fe) and Ta/(Ta+Nb) ratios are indicators for melt fractionation, and change from the core zones to the outermost contact zones, as well as from north to south. Electron microprobe analyses on white mica show the existence of fractionation trends from more primitive white mica of the core zones (zinnwaldite) to higher

  8. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The ‘Current Index of Medical Specialties’ was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range

  9. Integrating IWB Use in Western Pennsylvania K-12 Schools Districts: The Professional Development Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Yehuda; Medvin, Mandy; Domanski, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This research examines teacher attitudes and anxieties about interactive whiteboard (IWB) use as related to perceived classroom implementation to enhance student engagement and achievement. The research took place in four western Pennsylvania, U.S.A. school districts. Data suggest that the districts in this study have invested in IWB technology…

  10. Genetically Diverse Group A Streptococci from Children in Far-Western Nepal Share High Genetic Relatedness with Isolates from Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sakota, Varja; Fry, Alicia M.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Facklam, Richard R.; Li, Zhongya; Beall, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    The genetic diversity of group A streptococci (GAS) throughout much of the world has not been adequately explored. To assess genetic variation among GAS in western Nepal, 120 noninvasive GAS, collected from eight different villages, were genetically characterized using emm typing, sof sequencing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high level of genetic diversity was observed among these isolates, with 51 genotypes based upon 51 multilocus sequence types (STs), 45 emm sequence types, and 28 sof sequence types. On the basis of shared ST-emm and sof-emm associations, 40 of the 51 genotypes were identical or highly related to genotypes characterized from locations outside of Nepal, even though most of the emm sequence and clonal types are rare among GAS within the United States. When analyzing all known STs highly related to Nepal STs, only one example of similar STs shared between a sof PCR-positive strain and a sof PCR-negative strain was observed. Since previous data indicate free exchange of MLST loci between sof-positive and sof-negative strains, there is possibly selection against the expansion of subclones resulting from horizontal transfers of sof or emm genes between sof-positive and sof-negative strains. All 45 emm types encountered in Nepal have also been documented from other countries. These data, together with data encompassing the past decade of emm type surveillance, support the possibility that most existing GAS emm types have been discovered. Similarly, since most (40/51) strain types were highly related to strains found elsewhere, it is likely that a major fraction of the existing GAS clonal complexes have been discovered. PMID:16757615

  11. Conflict induced internal displacement in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sonal; Sharma, Sharan Prakash; Mills, Edward; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2007-01-01

    Nepal has witnessed a humanitarian crisis since the Maoist conflict began ten years ago. The plight of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nepal has received little international attention despite being rated one of the worst displacement scenarios in the world. An estimated 200,000 people have been displaced as a result of the conflict, with the far-western districts of Nepal being the worst affected. Internal displacement has stretched the carrying capacity of several cities with adverse physical and mental health consequences for the displaced. Vulnerable women and children have been the worst affected. The government has adopted a discriminatory approach and failed to fulfil its obligations towards IDPs. Non-governmental organisations and international agencies have provided inadequate services to IDPs in their programmes. Tackling the issues of IDPs requires co-operation between government and development agencies: acknowledging the burden of the problem of IDPs, adequate registration and needs assessment, along with health and nutritional surveys, and development of short-term emergency relief packages and long-term programmes for their assistance. PMID:17542185

  12. Reactions of Nepali Adults to Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: A Survey with Employee and Medical Students of a Tertiary Care Medical College of Western Region of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Badri; Paudel, Klara; Timilsina, Deepa

    2013-01-01

    Background: For the past 30 years, there have been no changes in the text-only cigarette warning labels in Nepal. During this same time period, other countries placed large graphic warning labels on cigarette packages. The purpose of the current study was primarily to compare the differences in reactions to different types of warning labels on cigarette packages, with a specific focus on whether the new warning label adopted by WHO FCTC was better than the text only label used by Nepal. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Gandaki Medical College Teaching Hospital (GMCTH) in 2012, in a tertiary care hospital located in the western region of Nepal. Eligible study participants included in this survey were those aged 18 years and over and those who are studying MBBS/Nursing or who were employees of GMCTH. 500 participants finished the survey. Participants were shown nine types of warning labels found on cigarette packages.They comprised one text only warning label used within Nepalese market and eight foreign brand labels. Participants were asked about the impact of the warning labels on: their knowledge of harm from smoking, giving cigarettes as a gift, and quitting smoking. Results: On comparing the Nepalese warning label with other foreign labels with regards to providing knowledge of harm warning, impact of quitting smoking and giving cigarettes as a gift, the overseas labels were found to be more effective. Both smokers and non–smokers thought that warning labels with text plus graphics were substantially more of a deterrent than text-only labels. Conclusion: The findings from this study support previous research that has found that text-plus graphic warning labels were more salient and potentially more effective than text-only labels.Warning labels are one of the component of comprehensive tobacco control and smoking cessation efforts. Stronger warnings on cigarette packages need to be part of a larger Nepalese public health educational efforts

  13. Geomorphic impacts, age and significance of two giant landslide dams in the Nepal Himalayas: Ringmo-Phoksundo (Dolpo District) and Dhampu-Chhoya (Mustang District).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Monique; Braucher, Regis; Bourlès, Didier; Guillou, Valery; Nath Rimal, Lila; Gribenski, Natacha; Cossart, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    Large catastrophic slope failures have recently retained much attention in the northern dry Himalayas (1). They play a prominent role in the denudation history of active orogens at a wide range of spatial and time scales (2), and they impact durably landforms and process evolution in upstream catchments. Their occurrence mostly results from three different potential triggers: earthquakes, post-glacial debuttressing, and permafrost melting. We focus on two examples of giant rock slope failures that occurred across and north of the Higher Himalaya of Nepal and assess their respective influence on the regional, geomorphic evolution. The Ringmo rockslide (4.5 km3) results from the collapse of a mountain wall (5148 m) cut into palaeozoic dolomites of the Tethysian Himalayas. It caused the damming of the Suli Gad River at the origin of the Phoksumdo Lake (3600 m asl). The presence of glacial till at the very base of the sequence suggests the rockslide event is post-glacial, a field assumption confirmed by cosmogenic dating. Two consistent 36Cl ages of 20,885 ±1675 argue for a single, massive event of paraglacial origin that fits well with the last chronologies available on the Last Glacial Maximum in the Nepal Himalaya. The persistence of the Phoksumdo Lake is due to its dam stability (i.e. high lime content of landslide components) and to low sediment flux from the arid, upper Suli Gad catchment. The Dhampu-Chhoya rock avalanche (about 1 km3, area extent 10 km2) was derived from the northward failure of the Kaiku ridge, uphold by north-dipping, upper crystallines of the Higher Himalaya. It dammed the Kali Gandaki River, with complex interactions with the Late Pleistocene ice tongues derived from the Dhaulagiri (8167 m) and Nilgiris (7061 m) peaks. Both the rock avalanche and glaciers controlled the existence and level of the "Marpha Lake" (lacustrine deposits up to Kagbeni). Again, consistent 10Be ages of 29,680 ± 1015 ka obtained from two large blocks (>1000 m3

  14. Survival on antiretroviral treatment among adult HIV-infected patients in Nepal: a retrospective cohort study in far-western Region, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though financial and policy level efforts are made to expand antiretroviral treatment (ART) service free of cost, survival outcome of ART program has not been systematically evaluated in Nepal. This study assesses the mortality rates and determinants among adult HIV-infected patients on ART in Far-western region of Nepal. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 1024 (51.2% men) HIV-infected patients aged ≥15 years, who started ART between May 15th 2006 and May 15th 2011 in five ART sites in the Far-western region, Nepal. Follow-up time was calculated from the date of ART initiation to date of death or censoring (loss to follow-up, transferred out, or 15 November 2011). Mortality rates (per 100 person-years) were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore determinants of mortality. Results The median follow-up time was 19.1 months. The crude mortality rate was 6.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-7.6) but more than three-times higher in first 3 months after ART initiation (21.9 (95% CI 16.6- 28.8)). About 12% (83% men) of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. The independent determinants of mortality were male sex (hazard ratio (HR) 4.55, 95% CI 2.43-8.51), poor baseline performance scale (bedridden <50% of the day during the past month, HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.19-3.52; bedridden >50% of the day during the past month, HR 3.41, 95% CI 1.67-6.98 compared to normal activity), one standard deviation decrease in baseline bodyweight (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), and poor WHO clinical stage (stage III, HR 2.96, 95% CI 1.31-6.69; stage IV, HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.30-8.29 compared to WHO clinical stage I or II). Conclusions High mortality was observed within the first 3 months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had higher mortality, especially men. Earlier initiation of ART through expanded testing and counselling should be encouraged in HIV-infected patients. PMID

  15. The 2014 Karnali River Floods in Western Nepal: Making Community Based Early Warning Systems Work When Data Is Lacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, S.; MacClune, K.; Venkateswaran, K.; Yadav, S.; Szoenyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Implementing Community Based Flood Early Warning System (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal is challenging. Complex topography and geology combined with a sparse network of river and rainfall gauges and little predictive meteorological capacity both nationally and regionally dramatically constrain EWS options. This paper provides a synopsis of the hydrological and meteorological conditions that led to flooding in the Karnali River, West Nepal during mid-August 2014, and analyses the effectiveness of flood EWS in the region. On August 14-15, 2014, a large, slow moving weather system deposited record breaking rainfall in the foothills of the Karnali River catchment. Precipitation depths of 200 to 500 mm were recorded over a 24-hour period, which led to rapid rise of river heights. At the Chisapani river gauge station used for the existing EWS, where the Karnali River exits the Himalaya onto the Indo-Gangetic Plain, water levels rapidly exceeded the 11 meter danger level. Between 3 to 6 am, water levels rose from 11 to 16. 1 meters, well beyond the design height of 15 meters. Analysis suggests that 2014 floods may have been a one-in-1000 year event. Starting with the onset of intense rainfall, the Chisapani gauge reader was in regular communication with downstream stakeholders and communities providing them with timely information regarding rising water level. This provided people just enough time to move to safe places with their livestock and key assets. Though households still lost substantial assets, without the EWS, floodwaters would have caught communities completely unaware and damage would almost certainly have been much worse. In particular, despite the complications associated with access to the Chisapani gauge and failure of critical communication nodes during the floods, EWS was instrumental in saving lives. This study explores both the details of the flood event and performance of the early warning system, and identifies lessons learned to help

  16. Urban Profiles in Prevention: A Descriptive Summary of Prevention Programs in Urban School Districts in the Western Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    This document describes 18 drug use prevention progams in metropolitan urban school districts in the following seven western states: (1) California; (2) Hawaii; (3) Idaho; (4) Montana; (5) Nevada; (6) Oregon; and (7) Washington. Each description outlines the level of commitment of each urban district, abilities within each program to collaborate…

  17. SPECIES COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION, LIFE FORMS AND FOLK NOMENCLATURE OF FOREST AND COMMON LAND PLANTS OF WESTERN CHITWAN, NEPAL

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper enumerates 349 plant species belonging to 77 families of vascular plants collected in the winter seasons of 1996 and 2000 by the flora teams of the Population and Ecology Research Laboratory, Nepal. Of the total species, 249 species belong to dicotyledons, 87 species to monocotyledons and 13 species to pteridophytes. Among the families, dicotyledons contributed the highest number of families (55 in number) followed by monocotyledons and pteridophytes. In the study areas, species composition varies with the type of habitats in the study plots. Some species are unique in distribution. The highest unique species are contributed by common lands (87 spp.), followed by the Chitwan National Park forest (36 spp.) and Tikauli forest (32 spp.). Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., Rungia parviflora (Retz.) Nees, Saccharum spontaneum L. and Thelypteris auriculata (J. Sm.) K. Iwats are the most common species across all the research blocks. Of the listed plants, many plants have local names either in Nepalese or other tribal languages. Plants are named in different ways on the basis of habit, habitat, smell, taste, and morphological characters of the plants, which are also the basis of nomenclature in plant taxonomy. PMID:22962539

  18. Reduction in total under-five mortality in western Nepal through community-based antimicrobial treatment of pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Pandey, M R; Daulaire, N M; Starbuck, E S; Houston, R M; McPherson, K

    1991-10-19

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children world wide but those at highest risk in developing countries have limited access to clinical services; effective and low-cost alternatives are a global public health priority. We have done a controlled intervention trial among 13,404 children under five in Jumla, Nepal, which relied exclusively on indigenous community health workers to detect and treat pneumonia according to the World Health Organisation decision strategy, with a five-day home-treatment course of oral co-trimoxazole. No other health services were provided, and referral of children to hospital was not practicable. During the three-year study, 2101 deaths were recorded. The programme led to a 28% reduction in the risk of death from all causes by the third year of services (relative risk 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.82), with a significant trend (p less than 0.02) of lower mortality with greater duration of the programme. The greatest benefit was among infants. In addition to reduction in deaths due to pneumonia, there was a significant reduction in deaths due to diarrhoea and measles, indicating that reduction in pneumonia morbidity had considerable carry-over effect. Our findings show that indigenous community workers can effectively detect and treat pneumonia, and reduce overall child mortality, even without other primary care activities. PMID:1681351

  19. No time to worship the serpent deities: women, economic change, and religion in north-western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Saul, R

    1999-03-01

    This paper explores the changing relationships between lay women, and the spiritual realm, in two ethnic Tibetan communities, Kag and Dzong, in northwestern Nepal. The study tackles how economic and social change has affected women's spiritual roles within the household and the community, and how these roles, in turn, have influenced the course of such change. In Kag, the introduction of tourism changed women's way of life. They became income-generating members of the community as lodge-owners. With new responsibilities to manage, Kag women eventually neglected their traditional social and spiritual obligations, much to the dismay of the older generation. On the other hand, women in Dzong still consider full social and physical participation in village life important despite the added obligations. They maintain spiritual harmony within the village. Dzongba women do not seem to feel the same conflicts as Kagpa women. The negative impact of Kag women's neglect of traditional social and spiritual responsibilities should be weighed against the possible benefits to women, household, and economy.

  20. Subsurface geology of Tertiary rocks of northeastern district of Western Desert, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Elzarka, M.H.; Radwan, I.A.

    1983-03-01

    The lithofacies analysis of the Tertiary rocks reveals two ancient subbasins at the north and southeast of the northeastern district, Western Desert. The lithofacies of the Paleocene and early and middle Eocene sections are mainly calcareous. Shale predominates in the late Eocene rocks. The Paleocene rocks seem to have accumulated in a lagoonal environment of epineritic depths. The Paleocene rocks of the northern subbasin indicate accumulation on an unstable shelf. The Paleocene environmental conditions seem to have prevailed during the early and middle Eocene. During the late Eocene, rocks of shallow-water and current-agitated environments accumulated. The lower clastic layers of the Oligocene, having a sand/shale ratio less than one, indicate a clastic shoreline environment-lagoonal subenvironment. The Oligocene clastics are overlain by a basaltic sheet at the eastern part of the district. The middle Miocene lithofacies indicate rock accumulation in a contemporaneously subsiding basin under lagoonal or delta-front conditions at the southern part of the district. Marine stagnant-bottom-water conditions prevailed during the accumulation of the middle Miocene rocks at the norther parts. The Pliocene rocks seem to have accumulated in lagoons, where the inflow exceeded evaporation and alternating periods of exposure and flooding by either fresh or saline water of poor circulation prevailed. The tectonic instability of the district was initiated by volcancity during the late Oligocene.

  1. Women’s experiences and health care-seeking practices in relation to uterine prolapse in a hill district of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although uterine prolapse (UP) occurs commonly in Nepal, little is known about the physical health and care-seeking practices of women with UP. This study aimed to explore women’s experiences of UP and its effect on daily life, its perceived causes, and health care-seeking practices. Methods Using a convenience sampling method, we conducted 115 semi-structured and 16 in-depth interviews with UP-affected women during September–December 2012. All interviews occurred in outreach clinics in villages of the Dhading district. Results Study participants were 23–82 years of age. Twenty-four percent were literate, 47.2% had experienced a teenage pregnancy, and 29% had autonomy to make healthcare decisions. Most participants (>85%) described the major physical discomforts of UP as difficulty with walking, standing, working, sitting, and lifting. They also reported urinary incontinence (68%) bowel symptoms (42%), and difficulty with sexual activity (73.9%). Due to inability to perform household chores or fulfill their husband’s sexual desires, participants endured humiliation, harassment, and torture by their husbands and other family members, causing severe emotional stress. Following disclosure of UP, 24% of spouses remarried and 6% separated from the marital relationship. Women perceived the causes of UP as unsafe childbirth, heavy work during the postpartum period, and gender discrimination. Prior to visiting these camps some women (42%) hid UP for more than 10 years. Almost half (48%) of participants sought no health care; 42% ingested a herb and ate nutritious food. Perceived barriers to accessing health care included shame (48%) and feeling that care was unnecessary (12.5%). Multiple responses (29%) included shame, inability to share, male service provider, fear of stigma and discrimination, and perceiving UP as normal for childbearing women. Conclusions UP adversely affects women’s daily life and negatively influences their physical, mental, and

  2. Human Cystic Echinococcosis in the Nalut District of Western Libya: A Clinico-epidemiological Study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Rabie M; Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Belal, Usama S; Norose, Kazumi; Aosai, Fumie

    2014-12-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area that has not yet been fully documented in western Libya. The present study describes the clinico-epidemiologic profile of CE in western Libya's Nalut district. From April 2008 to July 2011, 36 cases of CE were confirmed following surgical removal of cysts. The cysts were most frequently found in the liver (61.1%), followed by the lungs (19.4%), kidneys (11.1%), peritoneal cavity (11.1%), and spleen (5.6%). Among the 36 patients, 6 possessed plural cysts and 3 had cysts in 2 organs. Blood samples from this group were examined for the presence of serum anti-hydatid IgG antibodies, which revealed positivity in 25 patients (69.4%). An additional 300 blood samples were collected randomly from the inpatient and outpatient clinics at Nalut Hospital. Twenty-seven samples (9%) were found to be positive for the anti-hydatid IgG antibody among which the prevalence of infection tended to be higher in men (12%) than in women (6%). This study demonstrates that CE is a major parasitic infectious disease of public health significance in Libya, notably in the western part of the country, and that disease awareness needs to be raised nationwide.

  3. [Hygienic appraisal on apartment houses in the western district of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Shi, J; Wang, Q; Shao, Q

    1999-11-01

    A survey on the essential factors of building hygiene of 12 apartment houses in the Western District of Beijing was presented. The site environment layout of rooms, illumination, ventilation, microclimate, indoor air quality, floor area per person, necessary equipped facilities etc, in the apartment, and its hygienic appraisal were assessed. The results and appraisal of the study showed that almost all the essential factors of building hygiene complied with the requirements of the national hygienic standards for air pollutants in indoors and in hotels. On the other hand, there existed some shortcomings, such as the gas appliance for heating water produced large amount of pollutants in the kitchen it there was no proper ventilation for it. Suggestions for their improvements were put forward. The appraisal is useful for improving the living conditions in apartment houses and also useful for the design and construction.

  4. Analysis of Provenance of Siwalik Group in Western Nepal Himalaya Using Petrography and U-Pb Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, U.; Lin, D.; Chamlagain, D.

    2014-12-01

    The east-west trending southernmost litho-tectonic unit, Siwalik, is about 5 Km thick fluvial coarsening upward sequence, which was deposited during middle Miocene to early Pleistocene. This fluvial sediment is excellent archives of the Himalayan exhumation, tectonic events and mountain building processes. This paper deals with the possible provenance of the middle Miocene to early Pleistocene fluvial sediments along the Karnali River section as well as added some knowledge of the Himalayan orogeny by the means of petrography and detrital zircon U-Pb dating under LA-ICP-MS. The petrographic studies shows the detritus grain of sandstones from the Karnali River section falls on 'recycled orogeny' field on QFL plots. The detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological study shows that the sediments were mostly derived from entire three litho units ;Tethys, Higher, and Lesser Himalaya during the time of deposition of Siwalik whereas the erosion process of Lesser Himalayan sediment increased after ~10 Ma. Overall, the combined studies show the mixed type of provenance as seen in the western Himalaya of India. Key words: U-Pb geochronology, Provenance, Siwalik Group

  5. Changing Lives: An Interim Review in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasi, Shree Bhakta; Kehrberg, Norma

    1998-01-01

    Describes a functional literacy program successfully carried out in a very remote district in the mountains of Nepal. Describes the program's successes in increasing literacy, self-confidence, community awareness, and social awareness among Nepali women. Discusses keys to this success. (SR)

  6. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. Methods We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5%) of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0%) parishes and 32/212 (15.1%) villages (clusters), were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Results Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization) while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies) included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54) and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14). Conclusions Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community sensitization by empowered

  7. Dengue: an emerging disease in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pun, S B

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is an acute infectious disease caused by dengue viruses and transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquito. The rapid global spread of the dengue virus into new areas has begun to attract more research attention. A series of dengue fever outbreaks in several districts of Nepal has been recently observed. The evidence of all four serotypes (DEN - 1 - 4) could be a consequence of a sudden resurgence of a more severe dengue disease in Nepal. Health care providers need to become familiar with the disease to prevent or control the possibility of future outbreaks. The clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, epidemiological patterns and challenges of dengue virus infection in Nepal will be discussed here.

  8. High Schistosoma mansoni Disease Burden in a Rural District of Western Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mutengo, Mable M.; Mwansa, James C. L.; Mduluza, Takafira; Sianongo, Sandie; Chipeta, James

    2014-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni disease is endemic in most parts of rural Zambia, and associated complications are common. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 754 people in rural communities of Kaoma District, western Zambia to determine the burden of S. mansoni infection and associated morbidity. Parasitology and ultrasonography assessments were conducted on consenting participants. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 42.4% (304) and 86.6 eggs per gram (95% confidence interval = 75.6–99.6), respectively. Prevalence was highest in the age group of 15–19 years old (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.70, P = 0.017). S. mansoni-related portal fibrosis was detected in 26% of the participants screened. Participants above 39 years old were 2.93 times more likely to have fibrosis than the 7–9 years old age group (P = 0.004). The study highlights the high burden of S. mansoni disease in this area and calls for immediate interventions to avert complications associated with the disease. PMID:25246696

  9. Bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in two districts of Bench Maji zone, South Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Abebayehu; Tsegaye, Biniam

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2008 to February 2009 in Guraferda and Sheko districts of Bench Maji Zone, South Western Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and the density of its vectors. An overall prevalence of trypanosome infection in the study area was 4.4%. Trypanosoma congolense (36.36%) was the dominant trypanosome species followed by Trypanosoma vivax (18.18%) and Trypanosoma brucei (9.09%). Mean packed cell volume value of parasitemic animals (21.8%) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of aparasitemic animals (27.7%). Biconical and NGU traps were deployed for 72 h, and the result indicated Glossina pallidipes followed by Glossina fuscipes as the only tsetse fly species caught in the study area along with other biting flies like Stomoxys and Tabanus. The apparent density of tsetse flies was 2.83 flies trap(-1) day(-1). NGU trap caught more of G. pallidipes while biconical trap caught more G. fuscipes, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Although the current study indicated low prevalence of trypanosomosis in the study area, the impacts of trypanosomosis on cattle production and productivity should not be neglected. Therefore, attention should be given to control the disease and also the vector.

  10. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions.

  11. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions. PMID:25522499

  12. Dryland Salinity in the North Stirling Land Conservation District, Western Australia: Simulation and Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomboso, J.; Ghassemi, F.; Appleyard, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    The North Stirling Land Conservation District consists of approximately 100,000 hectares north of the Stirling Range National Park, Western Australia. Clearing of land for agriculture occurred in the 1960's and early 1970's. The groundwater is highly saline, and, since clearing, the water table has risen by as much as 12 m; it is now generally less than 3 m below ground level throughout the area. The rise in groundwater levels following clearing and the use of crops and pastures requiring low water use have caused dramatic secondary salinisation over a short period of time. Groundwater flow was simulated with models of steady-state and transient groundwater flow. By incorporating economic simulations with the calibrated transient hydrogeological model, estimates of the expected gross margin losses were made. Three salinity-management strategies were simulated. Results indicate that 1) under the `do-nothing' strategy, future gross margins are expected to decline; 2) under the agronomic strategy, the rate of water-table rise would be reduced and foregone agricultural production losses would be less than the `do-nothing' strategy; and 3) under the agroforestry strategy, the water table is expected to decline in the long term, which would increase future agricultural production levels and, hence, profitability.

  13. Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2008-01-01

    Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 studies focusing on ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants, carried out between 1979 and 2006 were consulted for the present analysis. In order to cross check and verify the data, seven districts of west Nepal were visited in four field campaigns. Results In contrast to an average of 21–28% ethnobotanically/ethnomedicinally important plants reported for Nepal, the present study found that up to about 55% of the flora of the study region had medicinal value. This indicates a vast amount of undocumented knowledge about important plant species that needs to be explored and documented. The richness of medicinal plants decreased with increasing altitude but the percentage of plants used as medicine steadily increased with increasing altitude. This was due to preferences given to herbal remedies in high altitude areas and a combination of having no alternative choices, poverty and trust in the effectiveness of folklore herbal remedies. Conclusion Indigenous knowledge systems are culturally valued and scientifically important. Strengthening the wise use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful plants may benefit and improve the living standard of poor people. PMID:19055723

  14. Structural control on the shape of intrusions in the Koktokay ore district, Chinese Altai, north western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Qin, Ke Zhang; Zhou, Qi Feng; Paterson, Greig

    2016-02-01

    The Koktokay pegmatite-type rare-metal-bearing ore district in the Altai orogen is famous for both its large scale and its diversity of rare metals. However, the emplacement mechanisms of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions in the Koktokay ore district are still unclear. Based on field observations, the emplacement of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions falls into two types. The first type is typical of the formation of dykes and sills, whereby they intruded into fan shaped, moderate dipping, joints within plutonic rocks. The second type involves the formation of a punched laccolith that was fed by a pegmatite sill. Magmatic stoping is the main mechanism of the laccolith emplacement. The peripheral faults played an important role in helping the emplacement of the laccolith. The trend of dykes and sills indicate two potential prospecting areas, which are located in the western and northern regions of the Koktokay ore district.

  15. Hydrogeochemical Investigations of Historic Mining Districts, Central Western Slope of Colorado, Including Influence on Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This report describes reconnaissance hydrogeochemical investigations of 22 mining districts on the Western Slope of Colorado in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests and adjacent public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Sources and fates of contaminants from historic mines, mine waste, and mill tailings are interpreted from chemical analyses for 190 samples of surface waters; 185 samples of mined rocks, mill tailings, and altered rocks; and passive leach analyses of 116 samples of those mineralized materials. Short reaches of several headwater streams show relatively low level effects of historic mining; the headwaters of the Uncompahgre River are highly contaminated by mines and unmined altered rocks in the Red Mountain district. There is encouraging evidence that natural processes attenuate mine-related contamination in most districts.

  16. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mbalibulha, Yona; Muwanguzi, Enoch; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Natukunda, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen) blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%); A: 190 (26.%); B: 152 (21%); and AB: 28 (4%). A total of 28 (3.86%) pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1%) of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8%) were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of anti-D alloantibody formation among RhD-positive women, we recommend additional research studies on the role of autoimmunity among antigen-positive women, as well as the occurrence of RhD variants plus their implications on hemolytic disease of the fetus and

  17. Parent Decision-Making When Selecting Schools: The Case of Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Priyadarshani

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the parent decision-making processes underlying school selection in Nepal. The analysis is based on primary survey and focus group data collected from parent meetings in diverse local education markets in two districts of Nepal in 2011. It highlights three main arguments that are less frequently discussed in the context of…

  18. The Role of Obstetric Knowledge in Utilization of Delivery Service in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkee, Rajendra; Baral, Om Bahadur; Khanal, Vishnu; Lee, Andy H.

    2014-01-01

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BP/CR) program has been promoted in Nepal to equip pregnant women with obstetric knowledge so as to motivate them to seek professional care. Using a prospective design of 701 pregnant women of more than 5 months gestation in a central hills district of Nepal, we evaluated if having obstetric knowledge…

  19. Sexual Behavior and Condom Use among Seasonal Dalit Migrant Laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bam, Kiran; Thapa, Rajshree; Newman, Marielle Sophia; Bhatt, Lokesh Prasad; Bhatta, Shree Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West), Nepal. The study’s objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. Methods The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs) from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. Results Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs). The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. Conclusions Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread. PMID:24040359

  20. Strengthening Free Healthcare in Rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Basnet, B; Gauchan, B; Shrestha, R; Baruwal, A; Karcles, G; Silver, Z

    2014-01-01

    Nepal, a mountainous country in South East Asia, still lags in increasing access to healthcare and reducing health inequity. Possible Non Government Organization based in Achham, Nepal, which is a sister organization of Possible International Non Government Organization based in New York, USA recognized the increasing health needs in the far western rural hilly parts of Nepal, where extreme poverty and illiteracy was creating a vulnerable picture especially in Achham. Possible (previously named Nyaya Health) started to operate Bayalpata Hospital in 2009 after completing more than one year of free health services in Sanfe-Bagar, Achham, in partnership with the Nepalese Ministry of Health and Population. It supports the idea that free health service has its own challenges but a public-private partnership can thrive while promote equity in health services. PMID:26905718

  1. Average daily gain of local pigs on rural and peri-urban smallholder farms in two districts of Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie; Dewey, Catherine; Mutua, Florence; de Lange, Cornelis; Grace, Delia

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs on rural and peri-urban smallholder farms in two districts of Western Kenya, in order to establish a baseline to measure the impact of future management interventions. Average daily gain (kilograms per day) for 664 pigs weighed one, two or three times and the proportion of local and crossbreed pigs was determined. Assuming a uniform birth weight of 1 kg, ADG did not differ between pigs weighed once or twice. Overall, ADG was higher in peri-urban pigs (0.15 ± 0.058 kg/day) than rural pigs (0.11 ± 0.047 kg/day). Pigs at 1 to 2 months had a higher ADG than those at 3 months or 10 to 12 months and ADG was higher in crossbreed than local pigs. Over the two districts, the ADG was low (0.13 ± 0.002 kg/day). Most (87.2 %) pigs were of local breed. Low ADG may be due to malnourishment, high maintenance energy expenditure, high parasite prevalence, disease, and/or low genetic potential. This low ADG of pigs raised on smallholder farms in Western Kenya indicates a high potential for improvement. The growth rate of pigs in Western Kenya must be improved using locally available feedstuffs to make efficient use of resources, promote sustainable smallholder pig production, and improve the livelihood of smallholder farmers.

  2. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13 keynote…

  3. Mobile Learning Practice in Higher Education in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parajuli, Krishna Prasad

    2016-01-01

    During the 15 years of this current century, mobile technology has become a leading technology in the support of educational outcomes. This study investigated the mobile learning practices among undergraduates in higher education in the semi-urban and rural areas of the Gorkha district of Nepal. The objectives were to explore the availability of…

  4. 3D modelling of the Leonora district, Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia) Implication for the tectonostratigraphic evolution and Au - mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebaud, Nicolas; Miller, John; McCuaig, Campbell; Mudrovska, Inna; Love, Bob; McArthur, Adrian; Gallardo, Luis

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of a recent investigation of the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Leonora gold district in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Our approach relies on a combination of field based structural investigation, the compilation of existing and recently acquired U-Pb SHRIMP data and digital 3D modelling. Our research strategy rigorously tests the geological model(s) generated through the field based study and lithostratigraphic correlation by using 3DGeoModeller geological modelling software. 3DGeoModeller implicitly models the geometry of rock units in 3D constrain by the geological and potential field (gravity and magnetic) data. The results of our research indicate a structural evolution for the Leonora district that can be divided in 3 principal stages. The first stage is associated with the deposition of mafic/ultramafic sequence prior to ca. ca. 2751Ma. Lateral thickness variation of the lithostratigraphic units bounded by cross-structure delineated on potential field images are interpreted as remains of an early basin architecture active prior to or during the time of the greenstone deposition. This early architecture was then affected by at least two major penetrative ductile deformations. D1 is associated with a phase of regional granitic doming dated at ca. 2751 Ma generated through a combination of gravitational tectonic and far-field extension. During this deformation stage the early basin architecture defined during the deposition of the supracrustal cover may have controlled the dome geometry and early fault may have been reactivated to accommodate the deformation. Followed by the deposition of felsic volcanics and metasediments in the greenstone belts, D1 structures are overprinted by a second ductile deformation event D2. D2 is characterized by steep NW-SE- to N-S trending foliations and upright folds. D2 strain is strongly partitioned over the area with granitoid plutons emplaced during D1 acting as rigid block and

  5. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob; Naledi, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS) of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method. Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, non-communicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers. Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes. Evaluation de l'impact des médecins de famille dans le système de santé du district du Western Cape, en Afrique du Sud. Contexte: En 2007, l'Afrique du Sud a institué une nouvelle spécialité, la médecine de famille. Les médecins de famille qui se sont sp

  6. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob; Naledi, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS) of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method. Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, non-communicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers. Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes. Evaluation de l'impact des médecins de famille dans le système de santé du district du Western Cape, en Afrique du Sud. Contexte: En 2007, l'Afrique du Sud a institué une nouvelle spécialité, la médecine de famille. Les médecins de famille qui se sont sp

  7. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  8. Impacts of climate change on shallow landslide and sediment runoff in Kyushu district, western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, T.; Hasnawir, H.

    2009-04-01

    1. Objective In mountainous forest areas, roads or railroads and local inhabitants often suffer from shallow landslides and debris flows along torrents, while rainfall in the area obviously increase supposedly due to climate change. On this point of view, we are intrigued to elucidate the response of landslide and sediment runoff to climate change. Therefore, time series analysis of shallow landslide distribution in a sample area, monitoring of the sediment runoff including debris flow from shallow landslides, analysis of its response to rain, and long term rainfall fluctuation analysis were conducted, in order to evaluate the impact of rain increment induced by climate change on shallow landslides and sediment discharge. 2. Method and target areas Rain observation by pluviometer for 30 years and sediment discharge (periodical observation) monitoring over 3 years with sediment trap facilities were conducted in Fukuoka (Northern Kyushu). On the other hand, shallow landslide analysis using aerial photographs for typical 3 years, rain and sediment discharge monitoring were conducted in Miyazaki (Southern Kyushu) for 30 years at hydroelectric power dams. Both of these areas are located in Kyushu district, western Japan where they often have severe landslide disasters. The geology in research areas consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks (mainly schist, Phyllite, sand stone) and the vegetation consists of mainly Japanese cypress and cedar. Theoretical analysis with physical equation and statistic analysis with Kendall's rank correlation are conducted with the data obtained in these areas. 3. Result and consideration 1) Increase of heavy rainfalls and their frequency observed They are obviously increasing in every point for 30 years. In particular, extremes of daily and hourly rain often have clear tendency confirmed by Kendall's rank correlation analysis with statistic test. Their increasing rate is almost up to 20mm/hr or 40mm/day in 30 years, and frequency of extreme

  9. Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep

    2014-09-01

    Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), from the Kani tribal settlements, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, southern India was described. These settlements were located in the Western Ghats, which is one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Morphological characters of male and female specimens of Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) monticola were described with illustrations and its taxonomic position is defined within the genus. The DNA barcode analysis showed that both male and female specimens of the species were belonging to a single taxonomic category. The genetic distance with the most similar taxonomic neighbour was 14.61%, which confirms its distinctness from its congeners. Voucher specimens of the new species were deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India, Zoological Survey of India, India and Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Washington, D.C., USA.

  10. Platinum potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs in the western part of the Dambuka ore district (Upper Amur Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    New data on the Pt potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs of the Khani-Maya, Uldegit, and Dzhalta complexes in the western part of the Dambuka ore district are discussed. The Khani-Maya Complex is represented by metamorphosed gabbro, gabbronorites, gabbro anorthosites, subordinate pyroxenites, hornblendites, and peridotites. The Uldegit Complex is composed of pyroxenites, hornblendites, gabbro, gabbronorites, norites, troctolites, peridotites, dunites, actinolite-tremolites, serpentinites, anthophyllites, and tremolite-plagioclase rocks. The Dzhalta Complex is formed of peridotites, gabbro, eclogitized gabbro, hornblendites, cortlandites, and pyroxenites. All these complexes differ from each other by the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Co, Au, and platinoids depending on the composition of the constituting rocks and the presence of sulfide minerals.

  11. Determinants of choice of market-oriented indigenous Horo cattle production in Dano district of western Showa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Befikadu; Bogale, Ayalneh; Wollny, Clemens; Tesfahun, Girma

    2010-12-01

    Based on a survey data collected from 150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources. PMID:20574818

  12. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms <10 cfu/100 mL, temperature, and free chlorine levels were associated with TTC contamination of household drinking water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination.

  13. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms <10 cfu/100 mL, temperature, and free chlorine levels were associated with TTC contamination of household drinking water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination. PMID:27441861

  14. A Study on Factors Affecting Low Back Pain and Safety and Efficacy of NSAIDs in Acute Low Back Pain in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Srijana; Chhetri, Himal Paudel; Alam, Kadir; Thapa, Pabin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Low back pain is characterized by a range of symptoms which include pain, muscle tension or stiffness, and is localized between the shoulder blades and the folds of the buttocks, with or without spreading to the legs. Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs of choice which provide an analgesic effect for acute low back pain. Aim: To study the factors affecting low back pain, efficacy and safety of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aceclofenac, diclofenac, naproxen and nimesulide) in low back pain. Methodology: Data collection form and numeric pain rating scale were used as study tools for studying patients’ demographies and severities of pain respectively. Patients prescribed with aceclofenac 100 mg , diclofenac 100 mg, naproxen 500 mg and nimesulide 100 mg for acute low back pain at Orthopaedics Outpatients Department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Nepal, were enrolled in this study. The decrease in pain scores was recorded on 5th and 10th days of follow-up and pain scores were calculated. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis non parametric test were used for analysis. Results: Among 150 patients, 67.3% were females (n=101). Low back pain was more prevalent (24.7%) in age-group of 59-68 years and a positive correlation was seen. Similarly, low back pain was found to be high among people involved in agriculture, heavy weight lifters and non smokers. The decrease in average pain scores was more in the patients treated with aceclofenac (4.83 ± 0.537), followed by that in those who were treated with naproxen (4.13 ± 0.067) and diclofenac (3.84 ± 0.086). The decrease in pain scores was found to be lowest among patients who were treated with nimesulide (2.11 ± 0.148). Nimesulide presented more number of side-effects than the comparative drugs. Conclusion: Different factors affect low back pain, such as age, gender, personal habit, posture, occupation, weight lifting. Aceclofenac showed greater decrease in pain

  15. Peculiarities of strength and deformability properties of clay soils in districts of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimenko, Sergey; Efimenko, Vladimir; Sukhorukov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The article demonstrates the methodology of the substantiation of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils for the design of pavements by strength conditions in II, III, and IV road-climatic zones in West Siberia. The main purpose of the work is to ensure the quality of the design of roads in newly developed regions of Russia. To achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the dislocation of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been specified, zoning of the investigated territory for the design of roads has been detailed; regularities of changes in strength and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils of their moisture have been established; the territorial normalization of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability of clay subgrade soils in relation to the allocated road districts has been carried out. Specification of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been implemented on the basis of the taxonomic system "zone-subzone-road district". The calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay soils, established and differentiated according to road-climatic zones, will ensure the required level of the reliability of transport infrastructure facilities during the life cycle of roads.

  16. Reliability of clinical diagnosis in identifying infectious trachoma in a low-prevalence area of Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Baral, K.; Osaki, S.; Shreshta, B.; Panta, C. R.; Boulter, A.; Pang, F.; Cevallos, V.; Schachter, J.; Lietman, T.

    1999-01-01

    The WHO Alliance for Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020 has increased the need to identify ocular chlamydial infections by clinical examination in areas of both high and low prevalence. The relationship between clinically active trachoma (as defined by clinical examination) and chlamydial infection is known for areas with hyperendemic trachoma, but not for areas with a low prevalence of the clinical disease. In the present study, we examined, photographed, and DNA tested the conjunctivae of children in the Surkhet district of mid-western Nepal, an area known to have a low prevalence of clinically active trachoma. Although 6% of the children aged 10 years and under were found to have clinically active trachoma, none were found to have chlamydia infection by the most sensitive DNA amplification tests available. A very low prevalence of clinically active trachoma is not necessarily evidence of the presence of chlamydial infection. Therefore, the WHO policy of not recommending an intensive trachoma control effort when the prevalence of clinically active trachoma is less than 10% in children is appropriate for this area of Nepal. PMID:10427930

  17. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  18. Base of principal aquifer for parts of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Sibray, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Water resources in the North and South Platte River valleys of Nebraska, including the valley of Lodgepole Creek, are critical to the social and economic health of the area, and for the recovery of threatened and endangered species in the Platte River Basin. Groundwater and surface water are heavily used resources, and uses are regulated in the study area. Irrigation is the dominant water use and, in most instances, is supplied by both groundwater and surface-water sources. The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys including the valley of Lodgepole Creek in western Nebraska. The objective of the surveys was to map the aquifers and underlying bedrock topography of selected areas to help improve the understanding of groundwater–surface-water relations to guide water-management decisions. This project was a cooperative study involving the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, the Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust. This report presents the interpreted base-of-aquifer surface for part of the area consisting of the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District. The interpretations presented herein build on work done by previous researchers from 2008 to 2009 by incorporating additional airborne electromagnetic survey data collected in 2010 and additional test holes from separate, related studies. To make the airborne electromagnetic data useful, numerical inversion was used to convert the measured data into a depth-dependent subsurface resistivity model. An interpretation of the elevation and configuration of the base of aquifer was completed in a geographic information system that provided x, y, and z

  19. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

  20. Bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of Hawa-Gelan district, western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lelisa, Kumela; Shimeles, Shihun; Bekele, Jemere; Sheferaw, Desie

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from October 2009 to May 2010 in selected settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district in the western Wollega zone of Ethiopia. Standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. Three species of the genus Glossina (Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina fuscipes) and two genera of biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus) were caught and identified. The overall apparent density of Glossina species caught was 10.5 flies per trap per day, with a higher proportion of female flies (57.2%). Out of a total 389 cattle examined, 42 (10.8%; 95% CI: 7.89% - 14.3%) were found infected with trypanosomes. Three trypanosome species were detected in the study area, namely Trypanosoma congolense (54.8%), Trypanosoma brucei (23.8%) and Trypanosoma vivax (21.4%). The prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) higher in cattle with poor body condition. There was an association between mean packed cell volume (PCV) and the occurrence of parasitaemia (χ2 = 49.5, p < 0.05). About 95.2% of cattle that were positive for trypanosomes had a PCV less than the lower limit for cattle. Considering the current result, bovine trypanosomosis seems to be a serious constraint for agricultural activities in the settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district and seems to be associated with the presence of Glossina species. Therefore, application of control methods through community involvement to reduce the Glossina species infestation level is likely to increase animal productivity.

  1. Mineralogy and sedimentology of the Miocene Göcenoluk borate deposit, Kırka district, western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Veigas, Javier; Helvacı, Cahit

    2013-05-01

    The Miocene boratiferous district of Kırka, in western Anatolia (Turkey), is the most important Na-borate (borax) resource in the world. Two separate deposits in the Kırka district are located near the villages of Sarıkaya and Göcenoluk (Eskişehir Province). Borax is intensively exploited in open-pit mines in the Sarıkaya deposit while only small quarries of colemanite are known in the Göcenoluk deposit. Recent exploratory drilling in the Göcenoluk area intersected a thick succession of dolostones, tuffs and three borate-bearing units (Lower, Intermediate and Upper Borate Units). In them, the most abundant borate mineral is ulexite (Ca-Na-borate) passing at depth to probertite. Borax (Na-borate) is only present in the Intermediate Borate Unit. Minor amounts of colemanite (Ca-borate) and hydroboracite (Ca-Mg-borate) occur at the base, and/or top, of each mineralized unit. Pyroclastic layers within the borate units show intense alteration by alkaline, boron-bearing waters and formation of diagenetic clay minerals (smectites), zeolites (analcime) and borosilicates (searlesite). The Göcenoluk succession is interpreted as a shallow, ephemeral, alkaline lake deposit in which carbonates formed as stromatolites and travertines. Borate precipitation in the Göcenoluk area took place interstitially within muddy and carbonate sediments in a lateral progression from marginal Ca-borates towards Na-Ca-borates and rarely to Na-borates in the center of the lake. Authigenic silicate mineral distribution shows parallel changes toward the center of the lake that reflect increasing pH gradient.

  2. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Kimaro, Didas; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986–2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission, but they successfully anticipate most known foci in the region, making possible the development of a risk map of plague. PMID:20207880

  3. Innovation in Primary School Construction: Community Participation in Seti Zone, Nepal. Educational Building Report 20. A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamang, H. D.; Dharam, K. C.

    Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world. In 1981 the Education for Rural Development in Seti Zone Project--more commonly known as the "Seti Project"--was part of the Nepalese government's effort to develop a system of basic education in that far western region of Nepal. The early success of the project provided the impetus for the…

  4. Country Profiles, Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Daniel; Thapa, Rita

    A profile of Nepal is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age/sex structure, geographical distribution, topographical obstacles, ethnic and religious…

  5. Processes of Internal and International Migration from Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bohra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine which factors predict internal and international migration from Chitwan, a flat valley located in the South-Central region of Nepal, seeking to measure the effect of theoretically specified variables such as human capital, social capital, physical capital, and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions while controlling for demographic variables. We use data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) to estimate a series of discrete time event history models of first and repeat migration to three competing destinations: other locations within Chitwan, other districts within Nepal, and places outside of Nepal. Results support hypotheses derived from neoclassical economics, the theory of new economics of migration, social capital theory, and cumulative causation theory. Our results underscore the need for a synthetic theoretical model that incorporates factors operating at the individual, household, and community levels. The use of multiple explanatory models yields a clearer picture of the forces driving internal and international migration from rural districts in developing nations such as Nepal. PMID:21423821

  6. Evidence for structural stacking and repetition in the greenstones of the Kalgoorlie district, western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martyn, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Most previous stratigraphic interpretations of the southern part of the Norseman-Wiluna Greenstone Belt have proposed polycyclic sequences. These invoked two and sometimes three successive suites of mafic and/or ultimafic volcanics and intrusives separated by felsic volcanics and immature clastic sediments, however no distinctive lithological differences were reported between successive mafic-ultramaic sequences. When interpretations of the area further to the north are integrated, a total of four separate major mafic-ultramafic uites emerges for a large part of the Norseman-Wiluna Belt. Although the author does not intent to imply that all polycyclic stratigraphies are wrong in principle such a situation seems suspiciously over-complex and stimulates the need to look critically at the individual areas where the stratigraphies have seen erected. For the Kalgoorlie area in the south, some of the schemes have already provoked scepticism and a simpler model consisting of one cycle subject to structural repetition has been evolved by workers in the Geological Survey of Western Australia for part of this area. The latter drew attention to the carbon copy similarity between the elements of some polycyclic stratigraphies. Much more regionally extensive integrated structural and stratigraphic data is still required to evaluate the relationship between structure and stratigraphy more fully, an objective substantially limited by poor outcrop and deep weathering, but with due effort, far from unattainable.

  7. Guineaworm infection in the Wa district of north-western Ghana.

    PubMed

    Lyons, G R

    1972-01-01

    The Ghana-5 schistosomiasis project is situated in an exclusively rural area of north-western Ghana. Since the inhabitants rely for the most part on natural sources of drinking water the transmission of both urinary schistosomiasis and guineaworm infection must often occur at the same sites, and the epidemiology and the problems of control of these diseases might be expected to have features in common. An epidemiological survey of 8 300 people in 1967-68 showed that guineaworm had a scattered distribution, 35 of 43 villages having an annual incidence of less than 10%. Intensive study of 5 of the most seriously affected villages over a period of 3 years has shown that there is a delicate balance between the parasite and its human host in this area, largely as a result of the impermanent nature of the principal transmission sites, i.e., ponds and the smaller riverine pools. The timing, duration, and intensity of transmission have been shown to vary widely from one locality to another, as well as from year to year. These characteristics are determined by the type and extent of the local source of drinking water, the availability of alternative sources, and the monthly pattern of rainfall. PMID:4267016

  8. Reconnaissance of surface-water quality in the North Platte Natural Resources District, western Nebraska, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a 3-year study to determine the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The objectives of the study were to determine the geohydrologic properties of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer, to establish a well network for long- term monitoring of concentrations of agricultural chemicals including nitrate and herbicides, and to establish baseline concentrations of major ions in the ground water. To meet these objectives, monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrologic properties of the aquifer were estimated from water-level measurements at selected irrigation wells located in the study area and short- term constant-discharge aquifer tests at two monitor wells. Water samples were collected bimonthly and analyzed for specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients including dissolved nitrate. Samples were collected semiannually for analysis of major ions, and annually for triazine and acetamide herbicides. Evaluation of the aquifer-test data indicates the hydraulic conductivities of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer range between 169 and 184 feet per day and transmissivities ranged from 12,700 to 26,700 feet-squared per day. The average specific yield for the alluvial aquifer, based on the two aquifer tests, was 0.2. Additional hydrologic data for the alluvial aquifer include a horizontal gradient of about 0.002 foot per foot and estimated ground- water flow velocities of about 0.1 to 1.8 feet per day. Evaluation of the water-quality data indicates that nitrate concentrations exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Maximum Contamination Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water in areas to the east and west of Oshkosh. In these areas, nitrate concentrations generally are continuing to rise. West of Oshkosh the highest

  9. Reproductive status of western mosquitofish inhabiting selenium- contaminated waters in the Grassland Water District, Merced County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.; May, T.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study was implemented to determine if western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in the Grassland Water District suffer from impaired reproduction because of seleniferous inflows of agricultural drainwater from the Grassland Bypass Project. During June to July 2001, laboratory trials with pregnant female fish collected from two seleniferous treatment sites exposed to selenium-laden drainwater and two nonseleniferous reference sites yielded fry that averaged >96% survival at birth. In addition, none of the newborn fry exhibited evidence of teratogenesis, a typical consequence of selenium toxicity. Chemical analysis of postpartum female fish and their newborn fry indicated that mosquitofish from seleniferous sites accumulated relatively high body burdens of selenium (3.96 to 17.5 ??g selenium/g in postpartum female fish and 5.35 to 29.2 ??g selenium/g in their fry), whereas those from nonseleniferous sites contained lower body burdens (0.40 to 2.72 ??g selenium/g in postpartum female fish and 0.61 to 4.68 ??g selenium/g in their fry). Collectively, these results strongly suggest that mosquitofish inhabiting selenium- contaminated waters are not experiencing adverse reproductive effects at current levels of selenium exposure.

  10. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M.; Travis, Dominic A.; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R.; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. Methodology and Principal Findings 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2–40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9–24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4–108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2–3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. Conclusions/Significance The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and “smear-negative malaria” in rural East Africa. PMID:27487398

  11. USAID in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Weiss, D

    1987-09-01

    The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.

  12. Nepal moves mountains with literacy.

    PubMed

    Hanford, H

    1992-01-01

    Women's literacy in Nepal is 13% compared with 38% for men. 70% of children, primarily girls, enrolled in school drop out. Many girls are never enrolled. Nepal is a country with rapid population growth, poverty, and an eroding resource base. A description is given of the effective Chili Beti, a women's literacy program operated by the Nepalese government and UNICEF. The target is girl's not enrolled in the formal school system. Classes are conveniently arranged so as not to interfere with household life in a traditional, rural society. Classes begin in November and last for 6 months at a time of day agreeable to students and parents; this avoids a conflict with field work and household chores. The program began in 1983 in a few remote areas and has expanded to include 75 districts. 5000 girls have completed the course. Attendance rates are 86%, and 25% graduate into the primary school system. The goal is to reach 1.7 million out-of-school children by the year 2000, and to expand the program to include boys as well. Success is attributed to course material which is made relevant to girls' daily lives and builds simultaneously practical knowledge and self-confidence, i.e., building latrines or halting rat infestation. Songs and group activities (planting gardens) are used to reinforce classroom presentations. A unique feature of the program is the use of the cartoon character, Kamali, who is a young village girl engaging students while gradually acquiring skills and becoming a Chili Beti teacher herself. Kamali also mobilizes her community to fight soil erosion. After a year of lessons, a secret is revealed: that Kamali is a member of the lower caste; this instills hope that changes is possible. Teachers are also role models and are selected from the local area. There is a month long teacher training program involving recruitment of girls for the program and teaching in and out of a classroom setting. The program challenges attitudes about the appropriateness of

  13. Prevalence of arsenicosis in terai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Makhan; Shrestha, Roshan R; Ahmad, S Akhtar; Watanabe, Chiho; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2006-06-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of surveys on arsenicosis cases conducted during 2001-2004 in terai, Nepal, by governmental and non-governmental organizations in their respective project areas and by some national and international institutes. Studies were conducted in six arsenic-contaminated districts of terai, namely Nawalparasi, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, Rupandehi, and Kapilvastu. In these districts, arsenic contamination in tubewells varied from 2.1% to 25.7%. The prevalence of arsenicosis was, on average, 2.2% and varied from 0.7% in Kapilavastu district to 3.6% in Nawalparasi district. In the community-based study, the highest prevalence (18.6%) of arsenicosis was found in Patkhouli village of Nawalparasi, where 95.8% of tubewells were contaminated with arsenic. The prevalence of arsenicosis was higher in older age-groups (>50 years) of both the sexes. Males suffered more from arsenicosis than females (odds ratio: 2.50, 95% confidence interval 1.80-3.47). Skin manifestations, such as melanosis and keratosis, were the common symptoms of arsenicosis. Most patients were identified in the early or mild stage of the disease. They are expected to recover if further exposure to arsenic could be avoided by providing arsenic-safe drinking-water through intervention measures. PMID:17195566

  14. Prevalence of arsenicosis in terai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Makhan; Shrestha, Roshan R; Ahmad, S Akhtar; Watanabe, Chiho; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2006-06-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of surveys on arsenicosis cases conducted during 2001-2004 in terai, Nepal, by governmental and non-governmental organizations in their respective project areas and by some national and international institutes. Studies were conducted in six arsenic-contaminated districts of terai, namely Nawalparasi, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, Rupandehi, and Kapilvastu. In these districts, arsenic contamination in tubewells varied from 2.1% to 25.7%. The prevalence of arsenicosis was, on average, 2.2% and varied from 0.7% in Kapilavastu district to 3.6% in Nawalparasi district. In the community-based study, the highest prevalence (18.6%) of arsenicosis was found in Patkhouli village of Nawalparasi, where 95.8% of tubewells were contaminated with arsenic. The prevalence of arsenicosis was higher in older age-groups (>50 years) of both the sexes. Males suffered more from arsenicosis than females (odds ratio: 2.50, 95% confidence interval 1.80-3.47). Skin manifestations, such as melanosis and keratosis, were the common symptoms of arsenicosis. Most patients were identified in the early or mild stage of the disease. They are expected to recover if further exposure to arsenic could be avoided by providing arsenic-safe drinking-water through intervention measures.

  15. The Giant Pill-Millipedes of Nepal (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Zephroniidae).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The type of the only species of the order Sphaerotheriida with a record in Nepal, Kophosphaera excavata (Butler, 1874), originally described from Sikkim, is redescribed. The subspecies K. excavata mammifera Attems, 1936 from Sureil, Darjeeling, India, is elevated to species rank, K. mammifera stat. nov.. A species of unclear country of origin ('Himalaya'), Sphaeropoeus montanus Karsch, 1881, is briefly redescribed and transferred to the genus Zephronia, Z. montana (Karsch, 1881) n. comb.. Z. tumida Butler, 1882, an apparently widespread north Indian Zephronia species, is redescribed. Sphaerotheriida specimens collected during several expeditions to Nepal undertaken by Prof. J. Martens in the 1970s and 1980s were examined. The material contained 10 specimens (7 males, 3 females) from seven localities, including three undescribed species, Zephronia nepalensis n. sp., Kophosphaera shivapuri n. sp., and Kophosphaera martensi n. sp., as well as a specimen of Kophosphaera politissima Attems, 1935, type species of the genus and described previously from India. A key to all (now seven) species of Kophosphaera is presented. A brief diagnosis of the Kophosphaera excavata group is provided. While Zephronia seems to be restricted to the eastern part of Nepal, two endemic and two more widespread Kophosphaera species occur also in its central and mid-western part, representing the western-most records of the family Zephroniidae in Asia. The current distribution of the family in Nepal clearly indicates the Zephroniidae as a family adapted to tropical environments.

  16. Teachers interact with radio in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, P A

    1987-01-01

    The Nepal Radio Education Teacher Training Project (RETT) is an interactive program for upgrading underqualified primary school teachers, 27% of whom lack the 10th grade school leaving certificate. Nepal is so mountainous that reaching rural areas is too expensive to train teachers effectively. This program uses curriculum principles such as systematic planning, distributed learning, cyclical instruction, and radio techniques such as intensive broadcasting, interactive learning, immediate reinforcement and an engaging instructional pace for this adult audience. With the help of USAID, Radio Nepal operates a 100,000 watt shortwave transmitter from a studio in suburban Kathmandu. As of August 1980, 5593 teachers from 72 of 75 districts have enrolled, and 2944 have been certified. The 1st phase of the program taught Nepali, mathematics, social studies, health, physical education and art. The 2nd phase emphasizes the content taught in years 7-10, added English, mathematics, science and Nepali. There are major differences in this interactive program compared to those instituted in Kenya, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic and Thailand, with young audiences. These adults are teachers, unmonitored, individual listeners, in a home setting, usually studying in the evenings in competition with other radio programming, and learning secondary school subject matter. In contrast, prior programs elsewhere have had captive children in primary school monitored by teachers. Incentives are being provided to keep teachers in the courses, such as discounted radios, job security, pay increments and certification. The use of repetition and rapid feedback inherent in interactive radio programming helps to meet the challenges in voluntary participation. PMID:12315027

  17. Spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater of southern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Surendra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Mohan, Devendra; Pahari, Madhav; Tater, Pratap Singh; Shakya, Birendra Man

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is an important source of both drinking water and of irrigation in the Terai region of Nepal. Although thousands of tubewells have been drilled in this region, the distribution of those that have been sampled and analyzed for As contamination is not consistent across the region. Based on a recent blanket tubewell testing program conducted in Nepal in 2007, preliminary data are available that allows us to provide a perspective on the As-contamination situation in drinking water of the six southern the Terai districts of Nepal. Arsenic concentrations detected in drinking water of tubewells and dug wells in these districts ranged from 0 to 770 jg L-'. It was found that the majority of the tested wells contained water that had As level below 10 jg L-', which is the WHO guideline value for exposure to As. The mean As levels detected varied from 2 jtg L-' in the Sunsari, Dhanusha, and Rupandehi districts, to 6.27 pg L-' in the Kailali district. The distribution of As levels detected, based on the NIS guideline, and expressed as a percentage thereof, was highest in the tubewells of the Bara district (3.8%), followed by the Kailali district (3.4%). Wells that were between 0- and 20-m deep contained water that had the highest percentage of As residues that exceeded both the WHO and NIS guideline values. In shallow tubewells of all six tested districts, the highest As contamination levels were found at depths of <50-m. The proportion of the population that was most often exposed to As levels >50 jig L-' occurred in the Kailali district (4%), followed by the Bara district (3.6%). Using a system developed to classify the relative vulnerability of inhabitants to As through drinking water only the Kailali and Bara districts were classified as "highly vulnerable" to As exposure. The Kota Tulsipur VDC of the Kailali district was found to be the most prominent As hotspot, wherein the majority of tubewells contained more than 50 jtg L-1 of As.

  18. Is there new public health management (NPM) in Nepal? Arguments for and against NPM in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a reflection about whether new public management (NPM) styles of reforms seen in other developing countries are also seen in Nepal, and to substantiate these facts with the available evidence and findings. The author saw the emergence of NPM ideas in Western industrialized countries like the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Now it exists in several developing countries of Africa and Asia; but it is very hard to generalize the degree and scope of NPM elements' existence. In Southeast Asia, there is still a mix of the old bureaucratic system with new NPM-oriented reform initiatives. Series of administrative reforms, donor conditionality, and the reestablishment of democracy in the country after 1991 have influenced an orientation toward an efficient, people-oriented, mixed-economy model with increasing partnership of private agencies and nongovernmental organizations in Nepal. The political movement of the last 15 years in the country has strongly called for a new, efficient, and performance-oriented administration and management culture in the country. There are several initiatives already introduced (public-private partnership, decentralization, good governance, accountability/public auditing, performance-based outcome/results-oriented financing and reporting systems). However, to take this momentum up, it still requires strong willingness of political leaders and senior administrators. At the moment, peace and stability of turmoil, political stability, state-of-the-art management skills, and supportive organizational culture are the fundamental requirements for increasing the realization of, and sustaining the NPM-oriented reforms in Nepal.

  19. Is there new public health management (NPM) in Nepal? Arguments for and against NPM in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a reflection about whether new public management (NPM) styles of reforms seen in other developing countries are also seen in Nepal, and to substantiate these facts with the available evidence and findings. The author saw the emergence of NPM ideas in Western industrialized countries like the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Now it exists in several developing countries of Africa and Asia; but it is very hard to generalize the degree and scope of NPM elements' existence. In Southeast Asia, there is still a mix of the old bureaucratic system with new NPM-oriented reform initiatives. Series of administrative reforms, donor conditionality, and the reestablishment of democracy in the country after 1991 have influenced an orientation toward an efficient, people-oriented, mixed-economy model with increasing partnership of private agencies and nongovernmental organizations in Nepal. The political movement of the last 15 years in the country has strongly called for a new, efficient, and performance-oriented administration and management culture in the country. There are several initiatives already introduced (public-private partnership, decentralization, good governance, accountability/public auditing, performance-based outcome/results-oriented financing and reporting systems). However, to take this momentum up, it still requires strong willingness of political leaders and senior administrators. At the moment, peace and stability of turmoil, political stability, state-of-the-art management skills, and supportive organizational culture are the fundamental requirements for increasing the realization of, and sustaining the NPM-oriented reforms in Nepal. PMID:24074134

  20. Tuberculosis case-finding in Eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Cassels, A; Heineman, E; LeClerq, S; Gurung, P K; Rahut, C B

    1982-09-01

    Two methods of case-finding used in Eastern Nepal have been compared. The differences in terms of outcome and patient compliance in one district have been examined in detail and compared with results in 4 other neighbouring districts. The 2 methods compared were active case-finding (ACF) carried out by mobile teams and self referral (SR) of patients to the existing services. The results can be summarised thus: 1 In a district with established tuberculosis services an active case-finding campaign revealed patients that had not presented for treatment of their own accord. 2 These patients tended to be older than self-referred patients and there was a higher proportion of women. 3 ACF patients defaulted from treatment more than SR patients and older women were more likely to default than older men. 4 Proximity to a health facility or treatment at a health post (HP) did not decrease the proportion defaulting in the ACF group but both these factors positively influenced the default rate in SR patients. 5 Over 90% of ACF patients had their first period of default within 6 months of starting treatment and if they returned they were more likely than SR patients to default again. 6 The number of ACF patients completing 1 year's treatment with sputum conversion was significantly lower than SR patients in this and 3 other districts. 7 In a district where no separate tuberculosis services existed the cure rate among ACF patients was significantly lower than in 4 districts where separate services had been established.

  1. Balancing food and population in Nepal in the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Chitrakar, P L

    1997-07-01

    This article discusses the future need to balance population growth with the food supply in Nepal. Current efforts to meet food needs are hampered by steadily deteriorating environmental conditions. Nepal is both an agricultural country and a food exporting country. The recent declines in food production make it a low-income, food deficit country. In 1994-95, there were 16 districts in the mountains, 33 districts in the hills, and 6 districts in the terai that had food deficits. 73.3% of the 75 districts had food deficits in 1994-95. Deficits are caused by low production and high growth of population in food growing districts. Population may reach 23.3 million persons by the year 2000. As population pressure increases, all potentially cultivable land may be brought under cultivation, including forested areas. Soil degradation and other environmental deficits in the natural resource base will be further exacerbated. In addition to stress on the natural resource base and population growth, an additional problem is malnutrition caused by insufficient food consumption. The most vulnerable groups affected by malnutrition and undernourishment are preschool children and pregnant or lactating women. The challenge is to increase food production without diminishing the available resources. By 2011, Nepal will need 5.6 tons of food, or an increase of 66% in food production. 3.3 million tons were produced in 1994-95. The old development strategies have not worked. New ones are needed that include multilevel planning. Integrated regional planning is included in the new 9th 5-Year Plan to increase food production and reduce population growth. PMID:12293768

  2. Women physicists in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Nilam; Shrestha, Sanju

    2015-12-01

    Nepal is one of the least developed countries in the world, and education has been a major focus of the government. Half of the population is female, and providing education to women has been one of the biggest challenges to the government. Encouraging science education for girls, with a focus on physics, is even more of a Herculean task. Enrollment of girls in higher education is just over 25%. Data from 2002 to mid-2014 shows that the number of women in physics is increasing gradually, although their numbers are still very low.

  3. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku

  4. Linking microstructures, petrology and in situ U-(Th)-Pb geochronology to constrain P-T-t-D evolution of the Greather Himalyan Sequences in Western Nepal (Central Himalaya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Langone, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Last advances in forward modelling of metamorphic rocks and into the understanding of accessories minerals behaviour, suitable for geochronology (e.g. zircon and monazite), during metamorphism, bring new insights for understanding the evolution of metamorphic tectonites during orogenic cycles (Williams and Jercinovic, 2012 and reference therein). One of the best exposure of high- to medium grade- metamorphic rocks, is represented by the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Himalayan Belt, one of the most classic example of collisional orogen. Recent field work in Mugu Karnali valley, Western Nepal (Central Himalaya), identified a compressional top to the South ductile shear zone within the core of the GHS, named Magri Shear Zone (MSZ), developed in a high temperature regime as testified by quartz microstructures and syn-kinematic growth of sillimanite. In order to infer the tectono-metamorphic meaning of MSZ, a microstructural study coupled with pseudosection modelling and in situ U-(Th)-Pb monazite geochronology was performed on selected samples from different structural positions. Footwall sample constituted by (Grt + St ± Ky) micaschist shows a prograde garnet growth (cores to inner rims zoning), from ~500°C, ~0.60GPa (close to garnet-in curve) to ~580°C, ~1.2 GPa temporal constrained between 21-18 Ma, by medium Y cores to very low Y mantles monazite micro-chemical/ages domain . In this sample garnet was still growing during decompression and heating at ~640°C, ~0.75 GPa (rims), and later starts to be consumed, in conjunction with staurolite growth at 15-13 Ma, as revealed by high Y rims monazite micro-chemical/ages domain. Hanging-wall mylonitic samples have a porphyroclastic texture, with garnet preserve little memory of prograde path. Garnet near rim isoplets and matrix minerals intersect at ~700°C and ~0.70 GPa. A previous higher P stage, at ~1.10 GPa ~600°C, is testified by cores of larger white mica porhyroclasts. Prograde zoned allanite (Janots

  5. Challenges to improving maternal health in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S

    1996-05-01

    In the remote village of Martadi, in Bajura district of western Nepal, the total fertility rate is 7. 20% of newborns die before they reach age 1. Temporary migration, mainly to India, is common due to the inability of the rugged and rocky terrain to supply enough food. The existence of temporary migration and a high frequency of remarriage suggest a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases. The relatively new hospital is very much under used (e.g., only 35 patients in 1995). The office in Kolti that supplies vaccines to Martadi has gone at least six months without receiving any new child immunization drugs, despite the presence of an air service. During and after delivery, no one, not even family members or traditional birth attendants, can touch a woman, who is confined to a cow-shed to deliver and care for her child and herself alone. Yet sick animals receive care. A new mother also is required to bathe herself, often requiring a walk of many hours. Women often identify access to water as their top priority. Pregnant or postpartum women are forbidden from eating green vegetables because of the belief that they cause diarrhea. Sanitation is better now in Martadi than in the past. Diarrhea and vomiting were once very prevalent. The international organization, CARE, along with the Ministry of Local Development operate the Remote Area Basic Needs Project, which revolves around community organization, agroforestry, rural infrastructure, and primary health care. The project has helped villagers construct low-cost toilets. It provides training in basic hygiene. Households have kitchen-gardens. Many families are now eating green vegetables regularly. Fruit trees are being introduced. Villagers recognize the value of child immunization. Some small-scale drinking water systems are operating. Villagers are trained in repair and management of these systems. About 33% of women aged 15-49 want no more children. A first-ever outreach program for female sterilization services

  6. Listening to Local Voices? International Targets and Decentralised Education Planning in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caddell, M.

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of district educational planning in Nepal to explore how education for all priorities and targets impact on educational practice at the sub-national level. It raises questions about the extent of local ownership of education and development targets and highlights the micro-politics of data collection exercises.…

  7. The "Iron Gate": High-Stakes Assessment at Age 16 in Nepal and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In Nepal, the School Leaving Certificate (SLC) assessment taken by 16-year-olds at the end of Grade 10 of formal schooling performs a similar function to the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination in England in that it summarises individual, school, district and national achievement and acts as a filtering mechanism to the…

  8. Chhaupadi Culture and Reproductive Health of Women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Choi, Eun Hee; Aryal, Anu; Park, Myung Bae; Doh, Young Ah

    2015-10-01

    Different sociocultural barriers concerning women's health are still prevalent. Chhaupadi culture in Nepal is that threat wherein menstruating women have to live outside of the home in a shed-like dwelling. Our study aims to determine the factors of reproductive health problems related to Chhaupadi. A cross-sectional study was performed with women of menstrual age (N = 672) in Kailali and Bardiya districts of Nepal. Data were collected with stratified sampling and analyzed using SPSS. Reproductive health problems were observed according to the World Health Organization reproductive health protocol. Regression analysis was performed to show the association between relevant variables. Results reveal that one fifth (21%) of households used Chhaupadi. Condition of livelihood, water facility, and access during menstruation and precisely the Chhaupadi stay was associated (P < .001) with the reproductive health problems of women. The study concludes that Chhaupadi is a major threat for women's health. Further research on appropriate strategies against Chhaupadi and menstrual hygiene should be undertaken.

  9. New climatic classification of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Ramchandra; Talchabhadel, Rocky; Aalto, Juha; Baidya, Saraju Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Although it is evident that Nepal has an extremely wide range of climates within a short latitudinal distance, there is a lack of comprehensive research in this field. The climatic zoning in a topographically complex country like Nepal has important implications for the selection of scientific station network design and climate model verification, as well as for studies examining the effects of climate change in terms of shifting climatic boundaries and vegetation in highly sensitive environments. This study presents a new high-resolution climate map of Nepal on the basis of long-term (1981-2010) monthly precipitation data for 240 stations and mean air temperature data for 74 stations, using original and modified Köppen-Geiger climate classification systems. Climatic variables used in Köppen-Geiger system were calculated (i) at each station and (ii) interpolated to 1-km spatial resolution using kriging which accounted for latitude, longitude, and elevation. The original Köppen-Geiger scheme could not identify all five types of climate (including tropical) observed in Nepal. Hence, the original scheme was slightly modified by changing the boundary of coldest month mean air temperature value from 18 °C to 14.5 °C in order to delineate the realistic climatic condition of Nepal. With this modification, all five types of climate (including tropical) were identified. The most common dominant type of climate for Nepal is temperate with dry winter and hot summer (Cwa).

  10. Revisiting global body politics in Nepal: A reflexive analysis.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Using the example of a human rights training in Nepal, the author looks at global body politics in a reflexive piece on her engagement in development practices that translate western feminist ideas on gender inequality and empowerment via UN human rights policies into non-western contexts. It firsts look at postcolonial and critical literature on feminist engagement in gender and development processes including a discussion on the concept of global body politics before examining briefly the framing of gender-based violence in Nepal. The core of the paper is a reflexive analysis and interrogation of the training in Nepal in order to bring out the tensions and contradictions around western developmental, feminist and human rights discourses. The discussion looks at how difficult it is for feminist, human rights and developmental discourses and practices to unmoor themselves from the notion of the 'expert' and those who do the rights/work/righting rights training and those who are perennially seen as requiring training. The conclusion reflects on possibilities of other epistemic practices found in intercultural dialogues. PMID:26268778

  11. Revisiting global body politics in Nepal: A reflexive analysis.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Using the example of a human rights training in Nepal, the author looks at global body politics in a reflexive piece on her engagement in development practices that translate western feminist ideas on gender inequality and empowerment via UN human rights policies into non-western contexts. It firsts look at postcolonial and critical literature on feminist engagement in gender and development processes including a discussion on the concept of global body politics before examining briefly the framing of gender-based violence in Nepal. The core of the paper is a reflexive analysis and interrogation of the training in Nepal in order to bring out the tensions and contradictions around western developmental, feminist and human rights discourses. The discussion looks at how difficult it is for feminist, human rights and developmental discourses and practices to unmoor themselves from the notion of the 'expert' and those who do the rights/work/righting rights training and those who are perennially seen as requiring training. The conclusion reflects on possibilities of other epistemic practices found in intercultural dialogues.

  12. Medical adventure in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Boon, D A

    1980-12-01

    In 1977 a request for teaching of otologic surgery from a Nepalese doctor to a Canadian colleague resulted in Doctor David Boon and his wife, Joan, travelling to Nepal in February, 1979, as volunteers. They participated in the "Lions Club of Kathmandu First Free Ear Camp" sponsored jointly by the International Sound Foundation Society and the Lions Club of Kathmandu. Fifteen hundred patients were seen and otosclerosis was one of the commonest ear diseases encountered. Adhesive otitis media with attic cholesteatoma was prevalent and a few cases of childhood serous otitis media were diagnosed. Severe sensorineural hearing loss was also prevalent and related to heredity, post febrile illness, and ototoxic drugs. Seventy surgical procedures were performed consisting of mastoidectomy, stapes reconstruction, tympanoplasty and myringotomy.

  13. Women physicists in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Nilam; Shrestha, Sanju

    2013-03-01

    Women constitute more than half of the total population of Nepal but are far behind men in all aspects of life. There is a wide gender gap socially, economically, and politically. Data for 1960 through 2001 show that the proportion of female students varied at the postgraduate level and there was no woman with a PhD degree. From 2002 through mid-2010 the number of female students increased gradually at both the MSc and in PhD levels, due to study opportunities abroad. We expect that this trend will continue, with significant improvement in furthering the education of women as a whole, and will lead to an increase in women physicists in the country.

  14. New zircon data supporting models of short-lived igneous activity at 1.89 Ga in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyttä, P.; Hermansson, T.; Andersson, J.; Weihed, P.

    2011-04-01

    New U-Th-Pb zircon data (SIMS) from three intrusive phases of the Palaeoproterozoic Viterliden intrusion in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield, dates igneous emplacement in a narrow time interval at about 1.89 Ga. A locally occurring quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite, here dated at 1889 ± 3 Ma, is, based on the new age data and field evidence, considered the youngest of the intrusive units. This supports an existing interpretation of its fault-controlled emplacement after intrusion of the dominating hornblende-tonalite units, in this study dated at 1892 ± 3 Ma. The Viterliden magmatism was synchronous with the oldest units of the Jörn type early-orogenic intrusions in the eastern part of the district (1.89-1.88 Ga; cf. Gonzàles Roldán, 2010). A U-Pb zircon age for a felsic metavolcanic rock from the hanging-wall to the Kristineberg VMS deposit, immediately south of the Viterliden intrusion, is in this study constrained in the 1.89-1.88 Ga time interval. It provides a minimum age for the Kristineberg ore deposit and suggests contemporaneous igneous/volcanic activity throughout the Skellefte District. Furthermore, it supports the view that the Skellefte Group defines a laterally continuous belt throughout this "ore district". Tentative correlation of the 1889 ± 3 Ma quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite with the Kristineberg "mine porphyry", which cuts the altered ore-hosting metavolcanic rocks, further constrain the minimum age for ore deposition at 1889 ± 3 Ma. Based on the new age determinations, the Viterliden intrusion may equally well have intruded into, or locally acted as a basement for the ore-hosting Skellefte Group volcanic rocks.

  15. New zircon data supporting models of short-lived igneous activity at 1.89 Ga in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyttä, P.; Hermansson, T.; Andersson, J.; Whitehouse, M.; Weihed, P.

    2011-10-01

    New U-Th-Pb zircon data (SIMS) from three intrusive phases of the Palaeoproterozoic Viterliden intrusion in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield, dates igneous emplacement in a narrow time interval at about 1.89 Ga. A locally occurring quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite, here dated at 1889 ± 3 Ma, is considered the youngest of the intrusive units, based on the new age data and field evidence. This supports an existing interpretation of its fault-controlled emplacement after intrusion of the dominating hornblende-tonalite units, in this study dated at 1892 ± 3 Ma. The Viterliden magmatism was synchronous with the oldest units of the Jörn type early-orogenic intrusions in the eastern part of the district (1.89-1.88 Ga; cf. Gonzàles Roldán, 2010). A U-Pb zircon age for a felsic metavolcanic rock from the hanging-wall to the Kristineberg VMS deposit, immediately south of the Viterliden intrusion, is constrained at 1883 ± 6 Ma in this study. It provides a minimum age for the Kristineberg ore deposit and suggests contemporaneous igneous/volcanic activity throughout the Skellefte District. Furthermore, it supports the view that the Skellefte Group defines a laterally continuous belt throughout this "ore district". Tentative correlation of the 1889 ± 3 Ma quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite with the Kristineberg "mine porphyry" suggests that these units are coeval at about 1.89 Ga. Based on the new age determinations, the Viterliden intrusion may equally well have intruded into or locally acted as a basement for the ore-hosting Skellefte Group volcanic rocks.

  16. False Teeth Still a Public Health Problem among Children in Kanungu District--South Western Uganda 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Sebudde

    2006-01-01

    False teeth among children are a Public Health problem which has not received adequate attention in Uganda. This study was therefore developed as a community-based descriptive cross-sectional carried out in Kanungu District using qualitative methods of data collection among caregivers of children, Community Owned Resource Persons and Service…

  17. Towards midwifery education and regulation in Nepal.

    PubMed

    John, Asha

    2015-09-01

    This is a short reflection of four wonderful weeks spent in Nepal supporting, advocating and strengthening the existing work of the Midwifery Society of Nepal and the Global midwifery twinning project (GMTP) with the Royal College of Midwives. Although Nepal is on target to achieve reduction in its maternal mortality rate for millennium goal 5 there is still no registered protected title of 'midwife' In order to establish a strong midwifery workforce in Nepal, the three pillars that need to be highlighted are: midwifery education, midwifery regulation and professional midwifery association. The four-week programme led by GMTP volunteers helped towards building capacity in leadership, advocacy and campaigning skills in Nepal.

  18. Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time. The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District. Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future. PMID:25081275

  19. Checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean, with 820 new records.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Ronald; Allen, Gerald R; Andréfouët, Serge; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hamel, Mélanie A; Laboute, Pierre; Mana, Ralph; Hui, Tan Heok; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the marine and estuarine fishes of Madang District is presented, combining both previous and new records. After the recent PAPUA NIUGINI 2012 expedition, a total of 1337 species in 129 families have been recorded from the region. One species and one family is not native (Cichlidae: Oreochromis mossambicus), but has been introduced. The native fish fauna of Madang therefore consists of 1336 species in 128 families. The largest families are the Gobiidae, Labridae, Pomacentridae, Apogonidae, Serranidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Syngnathidae and Muraenidae, Scorpaenidae and Lutjanidae, Myctophidae, Acanthuridae, Scaridae, Holocentridae, Carangidae, Pomacanthidae and Tetraodontidae, and Caesionidae. A total of 820 fish species (61.4 % of the total marine and estuarine fish fauna) are recorded from Madang for the first time. The fish fauna of Madang includes a total of 187 species of transitional waters and 1326 species in marine habitats. A total of 156 species of the marine or estuarine species also occurs in freshwater. Zoogeographically, 1271 species have a wide distribution range, most frequently a broad Indo-West Pacific distribution. Among the remaining species, only 8 are endemic to Madang District. Anthropogenic threats to the fish fauna and habitats of Madang District include extensive fishing in Madang Lagoon, sometimes with destructive fishing practices; the discharge of untreated sewage of human settlements, mining and industrial developments into the lagoon and nearby oceanic habitats; and destruction of mangrove habitats by extensive construction work on the shores. These anthropogenic threats may call for conservation and monitoring measures in the near future.

  20. Age at first marriage in Nepal: differentials and determinants.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Tika Ram

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the differentials and determinants of female age at first marriage in rural Nepal. The life table technique was employed to calculate median age at marriage. The proportional hazard model was used to study the effect of various socioeconomic variables, and to identify the magnitude and significance of their effects on the timing of first marriage. The data were taken from a sample survey of Palpa and Rupandehi districts in rural Nepal. Both married and unmarried females of marriageable age were included in the survey. Median age at marriage was about 17 years for data from only married females, whereas it was about 18 years for data from married as well as unmarried females of marriageable age. Median age at marriage was about 16 years for uneducated females and 19 years for females educated up to intermediate or higher level. The analysis underestimates the median age at marriage for married females, probably due to right censoring. The risk of getting married early decreased gradually with increasing year-of-birth cohort. The risk of early marriage was higher among females of high socioeconomic status compared with those of low socioeconomic status. Females engaged in service married earlier than those engaged in household work. High socioeconomic status families are motivated, for religious and prestige reasons, to get their daughters married at an early age, preferably before menarche. Thus, education, occupation and age at menarche are the most powerful factors in deciding the timing of first marriage in Nepal.

  1. Nepal. Teacher educators trained.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    As part of its teacher training program series on population education, the Population Education Unit of the Tribhuvan University organized a one-week training course on population education from 5-11 July 1994. Attended by 20 teacher educators who are involved in teaching population education in their respective campuses, the training provided opportunities for upgrading the participants' knowledge, and changing their attitudes and behavior with regard to population concepts. It also developed their skills in more effective methodologies for teaching population education in their campuses. The Faculty of Education, through its Population Education Unit, has been introducing population education in its teacher training program under the UNFPA-funded country program. This is done through incorporating population education contents into different subject areas such as health education, geography and economics in the curriculum of Proficiency Certificate Level, Bachelor Level and Master Degree. In addition, it has been offering population education as major subject at the Proficiency Certificate Level in Mahendra Ratna Campus. Thirteen resource persons from Tribhuvan University, Curriculum Development Center of the University and UNFPA Field Office and Country Support Team, Kathmandu, provided lectures on the following topics: population education in Asia and the Pacific, population situation in Nepal, demography and population dynamics, population theories, curriculum development in population education, teaching methods, human sexuality, STDs and AIDS, population education program, research, and population policy.

  2. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district and vicinity, western Brooks Range, Alaska: provenance, deposition, and metallogenic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schmidt, J.M.; Young, L.E.; Rombach, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    The distribution and composition of Paleozoic strata in the western Brooks Range may have played a fundamental role in Zn-Pb mineralization of the Red Dog district. In our model, deposition and early lithification of biogenic chert and bedded siliceous rocks in the upper part of the Kuna Formation served as a regional hydrologic seal, acting as a cap rock to heat and hydrothermal fluids during Late Mississippian base-metal mineralization. Equally important was the iron-poor composition of black shales of the Kuna Formation (i.e., low Fe/Ti ratios), which limited synsedimentary pyrite formation in precursor sediments, resulting in significant H2S production in pore waters through the interaction of aqueous sulfate with abundant organic matter. This H2S may have been critical to the subsurface deposition of the huge quantities of Zn and Pb in the district. On the basis of this model, we propose that low Fe/Ti and S/C ratios in black shale sequences are potential basin-scale exploration guides for giant sediment-hosted, stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag deposits.

  3. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  4. Using Inexpensive Technology and Multimedia to Improve Science Education in Rural Communities of Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neupane, Sujaya

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an ongoing project that promotes science education in rural communities of western Nepal by using affordable technology. With the advent of inexpensive technology and multimedia resources, teaching materials for science education can be accessed with a much smaller budget than was previously possible. A preliminary survey…

  5. Taking Specialist Surgical Services to the Rural District Hospitals at One Forth Cost: A Sustainable 'Return on Investment' Public Health Initiative of Patan Hospital, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shah, J N

    2015-01-01

    The inequitable distribution and centralization of resources and services in urban area persists around the world, more so in developing countries. The challenge to meet the health needs of rural population requires health policy makers, government and concerned organization to put extra efforts. Such efforts require innovative, feasible and sustainable strategies to address the social justice of people living in districts away from capital and urban cities. At Patan Academy of Health Sciences, the medial school curriculum is designed to address these issues. Together with health professionals from Patan Hospital, the main teaching hospital on which the academy evolved, have initiated strategies to bring specialist services, starting with surgical services to remote district hospitals to serve the need of rural population. This initiative is 'desirable, doable and feasible'. Further more, this can be modified for replication and promotion by other academic institutions, central hospitals and government health system.

  6. Nepal Vocational Agriculture Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Harvey S.; Stitt, Thomas R.

    This two-part handbook reviews present teaching materials used by vocational agriculture teachers of Nepal, discusses opportunities for improvement of curriculum materials and teaching methods, and provides additional materials for the improvement of academic, vocational, and professional competencies for all vocational agriculture teachers of…

  7. Asthma and indoor environment in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, T; Brinch, L; Hessen, J; Schei, M; Kolstrup, N; Jacobsen, B; Svanes, C; Pandey, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of asthma seems to be influenced by the adoption of a Western lifestyle. A study was undertaken to assess the importance of indoor environmental factors in Nepal where the lifestyle and home environment differ from that in the West.
METHODS—The home environment of 121 schoolchildren with asthma and 126 controls aged 11-17 years was studied. The homes of all participants were investigated and the children and their mothers were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. Cases and controls were identified from an ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) based population study of 2330 schoolchildren in Kathmandu, Nepal.
RESULTS—Keeping cattle inside the house during the night was related to a lower risk for having asthma (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.2(95% CI 0.1 to 0.5)) while there was no association between asthma and cattle kept outside. Asthma was associated with cigarette smoking by two or more family members (OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.9)) and with the domestic use of smoky fuels (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.5)). In analyses stratified by sex, passive smoking and the use of smoky fuels were significantly associated with asthma only in boys.
CONCLUSIONS—The risk of asthma in Nepalese children was lower in subjects exposed to cattle kept inside the house and higher in subjects exposed to passive smoking and indoor use of smoky fuels. Childhood exposure to microorganisms or allergens from cattle may protect against the development of atopic disease.

 PMID:11359965

  8. Seismic slip deficit along Nepal Himalayas: implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, Laurent; Tapponnier, Paul; Nath Sapkota, Soma; Klinger, Yann

    2016-04-01

    In 1255, 1344 and 1408 AD, then again in 1833, 1934 and 2015, large earthquakes, devastated Kathmandu. The 1255 and 1934 surface ruptures have been identified east of the city, along comparable segments of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Whether the other two pairs of events were similar, is unclear. Taking into account charcoal's "Inbuilt-ages", we revisit the timing of terrace offsets at key sites, to compare them with the seismic record since 1200 AD. The location, extent, and seismic moment of the 1833 and 2015 events imply that they released only a small part of the regional slip deficit, on a deep thrust segment that stopped north of the Siwaliks. By contrast, the 1344 or 1408 AD earthquake may have ruptured the MFT up to the surface in central Nepal between Kathmandu and Pokhara, East of the surface trace of the great 1505 AD earthquake which affected Western Nepal. If so, the whole megathrust system in Nepal ruptured during a sequence of earthquakes that lasted less than three centuries and propagated the rupture up to the surface from East to West. Today's situation in the himalayan seismic sequence might be close to that of the 14th century.

  9. NGOs, Foreign Aid, and Development in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude

    2016-01-01

    The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Nepal has grown significantly since the 1990s due to a range of factors. A total of 39,759 NGOs and 189 international non-governmental organizations were registered in Nepal between 1977 and 2014 in various sectors, including health, agriculture, poverty alleviation, and good governance. Despite thousands of NGOs and significant amounts of foreign aid, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in South Asia. The case of Nepal indicates that aid and donor support alone are insufficient for sustained development. PMID:27606310

  10. NGOs, Foreign Aid, and Development in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude

    2016-01-01

    The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Nepal has grown significantly since the 1990s due to a range of factors. A total of 39,759 NGOs and 189 international non-governmental organizations were registered in Nepal between 1977 and 2014 in various sectors, including health, agriculture, poverty alleviation, and good governance. Despite thousands of NGOs and significant amounts of foreign aid, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in South Asia. The case of Nepal indicates that aid and donor support alone are insufficient for sustained development. PMID:27606310

  11. NGOs, Foreign Aid, and Development in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude

    2016-01-01

    The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Nepal has grown significantly since the 1990s due to a range of factors. A total of 39,759 NGOs and 189 international non-governmental organizations were registered in Nepal between 1977 and 2014 in various sectors, including health, agriculture, poverty alleviation, and good governance. Despite thousands of NGOs and significant amounts of foreign aid, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in South Asia. The case of Nepal indicates that aid and donor support alone are insufficient for sustained development.

  12. The Nepal experience.

    PubMed

    Kaikobad, N F

    1977-01-01

    Nepal's panchayat system of partyless democracy with 5 class organizations of peasants, youth, women, labor, and ex-servicemen, is an effort in community development. Panchayat training centers train panchayat secretaries and women workers. The government tried out the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) methodology to train panchayat training center instructors in 1974-75 when 5 courses were given for 76 participants. The MTS methodology included several new assumptions: the necessity of knowing the field situation, a realistic problem solving orientation, learning by actual field experience, and interdependence rather than teacher dependence. The multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was studied and clarified. Role performance led to the development of a realistic job description from which a task-focused curriculum could be developed. Field work tools included maintaining a daily diary, collecting information and developing a present and past project history, and compiling a village profile. The trainees played the roles of front line workers in the field when they returned from the villages played the roles of supervisors and trainers. The key concept in the multipurpose role of the panchayat secretary was collaboration. The panchayat secretary-trainee had to understand the social roles in the community, and work within the social context to get cooperation from other agencies, village and informal organizations, in order to fulfill their role. Tutorial and team teaching methods were used to provide partnership in learning; the old roles of lecturer and lectured were seen as ineffective when actual field experience was the criteria. The role performing and role analysis group analyzed the front line workers' roles and evolved job descriptions which led to course outlines. The teaching methods and materials group produced indigenous teaching materials for classroom use based on problems faced in the field. The action research and technical collaboration groups

  13. Nepal: a cultural prostitution.

    PubMed

    Reinfeld, M R

    1993-01-01

    200,000 Nepali women are believed to have been sold into prostitution in India, some at the age of 11, by their families. Since Nepali women are considered more beautiful and very young ones are considered virginal and free of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the girls command a higher price. However, 1 survey in Bombay indicated that 50% of female prostitutes were infected with HIV. Caste prostitution also exists; among the Bhadi, the women are traditionally sex workers whose earnings support the whole community. The girls (usually the daughters of clients, raised by their single mothers), after being trained by their mothers, begin work at menarche with great ceremony, suffer no social isolation, and retire back into the community. Few marry because men outside the caste do not marry former sex workers and men inside the caste only marry girls from families with at least 3 daughters in order to protect the income to the community. 70% of these Bhadi workers are infected with STDs, but HIV has not made significant inroads. The Nepali prostitutes returning from Indian brothels and the seasonal migrant workers who use their services introduce HIV to a broader range of communities in Nepal. Conventional prevention programs that focus on teaching prostitutes to tell clients to use condoms and how to negotiate this, will fail; the children are in no position to do so. They are considered free of disease by clients who see no need to use condoms and command too high a price as "virgins" for brothel owners to disturb the situation by requiring condom use. Control efforts to stop trafficking have not been successful and do not have priority among the country's many survival needs. A comprehensive, culturally specific approach to HIV prevention is needed that includes education of clients and brothel owners about condom use, and community-based residential facilities for daughters of caste workers so that they may attend

  14. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Stapp, Jared R; Lilieholm, Robert J; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities-one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain-compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy. PMID:26920157

  15. Population mobility and spread of HIV across the Indo-Nepal border.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Binod

    2007-09-01

    The article reviews information on the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and behavioural networking to examine the role of population mobility in spreading HIV across the Indo-Nepal border. Documents were collected through a systematic search of electronic databases and web-based information resources, and the review focuses on studies about types of the virus, prevalence of HIV, and sexual and injecting networking. HIV-1 (subtype C) and HIV-2 were identified in Nepal. The prevalence of HIV was higher among male labour migrants and female sex workers (FSWs) who returned from India, especially from Mumbai, than in similar non-migrant groups. In the early 2000s, about 6-10% of Mumbai returnee men, compared to up to 4% of India returnee men and up to 3% of non-migrant men in the far-west Nepal, were identified with HIV. Likewise, when the prevalence of HIV among sex workers in Kathmandu was found to be 17% in 1999-2000, up to 44% of India returnee and 73% of Mumbai returnee FSWs were identified with the virus. These data are, however, based on small samples with questionable representativeness of the target populations and need to be interpreted cautiously. They also generate a biased impression that HIV was coming into Nepal from India. Recently, the possibility of a two-way flow of HIV across the Indo-Nepal border through injecting and sexual networking have been indicated by serological and behavioural data from a south-eastern cluster of Nepal and a north-eastern district of India. Although similar behavioural networks exist along other segments of the border, serological data are unavailable to assess whether and how extensively this phenomenon has caused the spread of HIV. Collaborative research and interventions covering both sides of the border are desirable to fully understand and address the prospect of HIV epidemics associated with cross-border population mixing. PMID:18330059

  16. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Jared R.; Lilieholm, Robert J.; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities—one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain—compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy.

  17. Risk Factors and Spatial Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni Infection among Primary School Children in Mbita District, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, Sachiyo; Chadeka, Evans A.; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Mutungi, Faith; Justin, Yombo K. Dan; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ichinose, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Njenga, Sammy M.; Hashizume, Masahiro; Shimada, Masaaki; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing risk of Schistosoma mansoni infection has been observed around Lake Victoria, western Kenya since the 1970s. Understanding local transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis is crucial in curtailing increased risk of infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross sectional study on a population of 310 children from eight primary schools. Overall, a total of 238 (76.8%) children were infected with S. mansoni, while seven (2.3%) had S. haematobium. The prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 6.1%, 5.2% and 2.3%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite detected (12.0%). High local population density within a 1 km radius around houses was identified as a major independent risk factor of S. mansoni infection. A spatial cluster of high infection risk was detected around the Mbita causeway following adjustment for population density and other potential risk factors. Conclusions/Significance Population density was shown to be a major factor fuelling schistosome infection while individual socio-economic factors appeared not to affect the infection risk. The high-risk cluster around the Mbita causeway may be explained by the construction of an artificial pathway that may cause increased numbers of S. mansoni host snails through obstruction of the waterway. This construction may have, therefore, a significant negative impact on the health of the local population, especially school-aged children who frequently come in contact with lake water. PMID:25058653

  18. Running into problems in Nepal.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Incidence of maternal death is high in Nepal where 1 woman dies every 2 hours. The Nepal Family Health Survey reported that, between January 1997 and January 1998, 132 out of the 640 deaths of all women of reproductive age were due to complications during pregnancy, childbirth or the postpartum period. Maternal deaths accounted for 20.6% of all deaths investigated and were the leading cause of female mortality. 9 out of 10 maternal deaths happened in rural areas and 6 out of 10 happened after delivery. Less than one-third of the women had received antenatal care and only 8% of them had a trained health worker present as they gave birth. To address this problem, an in-service training for midwives was conducted in 1988. The training focused on improving communication and clinical skills, teaching life-saving skills, and finding ways to promote safe motherhood in the community. The training curriculum of this project will be implemented into a national program for upgrading the skills of maternal health workers in Nepal.

  19. Hydro-chemical characterization and quality assessment of a Western Himalayan river, Munawar Tawi, flowing through Rajouri district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Mohd; Azeez, P A

    2016-09-01

    Studies on river water quality in the Indian Himalayas are limited to a few larger ones; the smaller ones, although vital for a large section of people, mostly remain untouched. Therefore, Munawar Tawi a tributary of Chenab flowing through Rajouri district of Jammu region, Western Himalayas was selected for the study. Fifty-four water samples from 27 sites from Rajouri town and its upstream and downstream locations were collected during January and June 2014. Fourteen water quality parameters that include major cations and anions were analyzed. Water quality indicators such as SAR, %Na, RSC, MAR, KI, and PI were also calculated to determine suitability of water for irrigation. Piper plots identified four water types, of which Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 was the dominant type in both the seasons. While in January, water samples varied across all the four types, in June only two types were seen (i.e. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Na(+)-HCO(-) 3). Ludwig-Langelier plot also showed Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 type as the dominant water type. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed most of the parameters, except TDS, significantly high in January than in June. Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant variation in concentration among most of the parameters from upstream to the town and towards downstream. The water, with respect to the set standards (WHO, ISI, UNESCO), in both January and June, is found suitable for drinking and irrigation.

  20. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P < 0.05) improved the farmers cash income than non-tree based garden. With insignificant garden size; homegarden agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden.

  1. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  2. Hydro-chemical characterization and quality assessment of a Western Himalayan river, Munawar Tawi, flowing through Rajouri district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Mohd; Azeez, P A

    2016-09-01

    Studies on river water quality in the Indian Himalayas are limited to a few larger ones; the smaller ones, although vital for a large section of people, mostly remain untouched. Therefore, Munawar Tawi a tributary of Chenab flowing through Rajouri district of Jammu region, Western Himalayas was selected for the study. Fifty-four water samples from 27 sites from Rajouri town and its upstream and downstream locations were collected during January and June 2014. Fourteen water quality parameters that include major cations and anions were analyzed. Water quality indicators such as SAR, %Na, RSC, MAR, KI, and PI were also calculated to determine suitability of water for irrigation. Piper plots identified four water types, of which Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 was the dominant type in both the seasons. While in January, water samples varied across all the four types, in June only two types were seen (i.e. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Na(+)-HCO(-) 3). Ludwig-Langelier plot also showed Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 type as the dominant water type. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed most of the parameters, except TDS, significantly high in January than in June. Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant variation in concentration among most of the parameters from upstream to the town and towards downstream. The water, with respect to the set standards (WHO, ISI, UNESCO), in both January and June, is found suitable for drinking and irrigation. PMID:27526045

  3. Rights of the Child in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonveld, Ben

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the country of Nepal. The report's introductory summary asserts that although the Nepal government's passage of the Act to…

  4. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks in the western half of the Hailey 1 ?? 2 ? quadrangle of south-central Idaho include various units of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (biotite granodiorite to two-mica granite) of Cretaceous age and plutons and dikes of Tertiary (Eocene to Miocene) age that intrude the batholith. Eocene plutonic rocks consist of a bimodal suite of anorogenic granite and tonalite-granodiorite and hypabyssal rhyolite and rhyodacite dikes. Rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanics are scarce in the map area but are widespread to the east. Rhyolite ash flows of the Miocene Idavada Volcanics and basalt of the Snake River Plain crop out in the southern part of the area. Lacustrine rocks of probable Eocene to Holocene age are present in the vicinity of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Quaternary basalts and gravels are widespread on the South Fork of the Boise River, and alluvial deposits are common along active drainages. Metasedimentary rocks of unknown age crop out on House Mountain, Chimney Peak, and on the ridges east of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Older structures in the Idaho batholith include a major fault beneath House Mountain that may be a decollement for one of the large thrust sheets in eastern Idaho or part of an extensional core complex. The southern part of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith is cut by northeast-striking faults (parallel with the Trans-Challis fault system) that are related to Eocene extension and by northwest-oriented faults that formed during basin and range extension in the Miocene. The basin and range faults have prominent scarps typical of basin and range topography. The combination of northeast and northwest faults has broken the batholith into a series of rhomboid blocks. Some of these northeast and northwest faults are older structures that were reactivated in the Eocene or Miocene, as indicated by Ar 40 /Ar 39 dates on mineralized rock contained in some of the structures. The Idaho batholith and associated rocks in the map area host several

  5. Increasing Science Literacy in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, Jeevan

    2016-07-01

    Nepal, a small landlocked and one of the least developed countries in south Asia is curious with its neighbor's giant space missions. As for now, space mission is not imminent to Nepal at least for decade. Due to lack of proper education and the resources; space education is also not very effective. In the curriculum of Nepal, basic astronomy is included in the science book of middle school which consist only 5% of the total course and 10% in high school. However the total course has been mostly theoretical which has made this subject uninteresting and difficult among the students. The examinations in all education levels are practiced on the rote memorization of contents. Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) introduced new techniques in teaching with more practical approach. We helped students to construct bamboo telescopes and observe the night sky which brought tremendous interest in studying astronomy in middle school. Similarly in high schools we organized different kinds of webinar with renowned scientist from different parts of the world. We screened documentaries of space activities; we helped them to use online robotic telescopes by using internet. This eventually is creating more interest in students to study science and particularly astronomy in their higher studies. The use of mobile Apps and different satellite tracking website helped students determine the location of space objects and created more interest for detail study of them. We are now reaching thousands of students with different proceedings to popularize astronomy and generating interest to pursue higher education in this subject. As well as creating the scientific awareness and understanding among others who are not choosing science in their higher studies. This paper highlights the comparative study of advanced and practical approach of teaching over traditional approach. The results of survey suggest most students are interested in choosing science in their higher studies where practical

  6. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Nepal, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Sudhir; Sedai, Tika Ram; Choudary, Ganga Ram; Giri, Jagat Narain; Bohara, Rajendra; Pant, Rajendra; Gautam, Mukunda; Sharapov, Umid M; Goodson, James L; Alexander, James; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Perry, Robert T; Bah, Sunil; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Thapa, Arun

    2016-03-01

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) established a goal to eliminate measles and to control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in SEAR by 2020. Current recommended measles elimination strategies in the region include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets minimum recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. In 2013, Nepal, one of the 11 SEAR member states, adopted a goal for national measles elimination by 2019. This report updates a previous report and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in Nepal during 2007-2014. During 2007-2014, estimated coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 81% to 88%. Approximately 3.9 and 9.7 million children were vaccinated in SIAs conducted in 2008 and 2014, respectively. Reported suspected measles incidence declined by 13% during 2007-2014, from 54 to 47 cases per 1 million population. However, in 2014, 81% of districts did not meet the measles case-based surveillance performance indicator target of ≥2 discarded non-measles cases per 100,000 population per year. To achieve and maintain measles elimination, additional measures are needed to strengthen routine immunization services to increase coverage with MCV1 and a recently introduced second dose of MCV (MCV2) to ≥95% in all districts, and to enhance sensitivity of measles case-based surveillance by adopting a more sensitive case definition, expanding case-based surveillance sites nationwide, and ensuring timely transport of

  7. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Nepal, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Sudhir; Sedai, Tika Ram; Choudary, Ganga Ram; Giri, Jagat Narain; Bohara, Rajendra; Pant, Rajendra; Gautam, Mukunda; Sharapov, Umid M; Goodson, James L; Alexander, James; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Perry, Robert T; Bah, Sunil; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Thapa, Arun

    2016-03-01

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) established a goal to eliminate measles and to control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in SEAR by 2020. Current recommended measles elimination strategies in the region include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets minimum recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. In 2013, Nepal, one of the 11 SEAR member states, adopted a goal for national measles elimination by 2019. This report updates a previous report and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in Nepal during 2007-2014. During 2007-2014, estimated coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 81% to 88%. Approximately 3.9 and 9.7 million children were vaccinated in SIAs conducted in 2008 and 2014, respectively. Reported suspected measles incidence declined by 13% during 2007-2014, from 54 to 47 cases per 1 million population. However, in 2014, 81% of districts did not meet the measles case-based surveillance performance indicator target of ≥2 discarded non-measles cases per 100,000 population per year. To achieve and maintain measles elimination, additional measures are needed to strengthen routine immunization services to increase coverage with MCV1 and a recently introduced second dose of MCV (MCV2) to ≥95% in all districts, and to enhance sensitivity of measles case-based surveillance by adopting a more sensitive case definition, expanding case-based surveillance sites nationwide, and ensuring timely transport of

  8. Promoting small towns for rural development: a view from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, B N

    1995-06-01

    Two small villages in Nepal are the subjects of case studies that illustrate the role of small towns in provision of services, employment, and market operations. Some general findings are that small towns act as service centers for distribution of basic essential goods such as food grains, salt, kerosene, and fabric for hill and mountain areas. The role of small towns as market centers and in the provision of employment is limited. In resource-poor areas small towns are less diversified. Towns with agricultural surpluses are more developed. Small hill towns satisfy consumption rather than production needs. The growth of rural areas and towns in rural areas in Nepal is dependent on arable land and levels of production in hill areas. Limited land and low levels of production have an adverse impact. Movement of people, goods, and services is limited by difficult terrain and lack of access to good roads. Variability in access to off-farm jobs and services available in small towns varies with ethnicity and place of residence. The best development strategy for small towns in Nepal is market-oriented territorial development, which retains surpluses in the local area and integrates markets in the larger economy. The strategy would decentralize planning into small territorial units that include both small towns and groups of villages, provide institutional support for the rural poor, expand off-farm employment, and include investment in region-serving functions. Subsistence agriculture needs to include diversification of high value cash crops based on local comparative advantage suitable for hill climate and terrain. Small farmers must produce both cash and subsistence crops. Government should provide market space and paved areas, weighing facilities, and overnight storage facilities. Products would be processed at the village level. Subdistricts must be established according to spatial and social linkages between villages and the service center and coordinated at the

  9. Malaria control in Nepal 1963–2012: challenges on the path towards elimination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is still a priority public health problem of Nepal where about 84% of the population are at risk. The aim of this paper is to highlight the past and present malaria situation in this country and its challenges for long-term malaria elimination strategies. Methods Malariometric indicator data of Nepal recorded through routine surveillance of health facilities for the years between 1963 and 2012 were compiled. Trends and differences in malaria indicator data were analysed. Results The trend of confirmed malaria cases in Nepal between 1963 and 2012 shows fluctuation, with a peak in 1985 when the number exceeded 42,321, representing the highest malaria case-load ever recorded in Nepal. This was followed by a steep declining trend of malaria with some major outbreaks. Nepal has made significant progress in controlling malaria transmission over the past decade: total confirmed malaria cases declined by 84% (12,750 in 2002 vs 2,092 in 2012), and there was only one reported death in 2012. Based on the evaluation of the National Malaria Control Programme in 2010, Nepal recently adopted a long-term malaria elimination strategy for the years 2011–2026 with the ambitious vision of a malaria-free Nepal by 2026. However, there has been an increasing trend of Plasmodium falciparum and imported malaria proportions in the last decade. Furthermore, the analysis of malariometric indicators of 31 malaria-risk districts between 2004 and 2012 shows a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of confirmed malaria and of Plasmodium vivax, but not in the incidence of P. falciparum and clinically suspected malaria. Conclusions Based on the achievements the country has made over the last decade, Nepal is preparing to move towards malaria elimination by 2026. However, considerable challenges lie ahead. These include especially, the need to improve access to diagnostic facilities to confirm clinically suspected cases and their treatment, the development of

  10. Groundwater arsenic contamination, its health impact and mitigation program in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Roshan R; Shrestha, Mathura P; Upadhyay, Narayan P; Pradhan, Riddhi; Khadka, Rosha; Maskey, Arinita; Maharjan, Makhan; Tuladhar, Sabita; Dahal, Binod M; Shrestha, Kabita

    2003-01-01

    About 47% of Nepal's total population is living in Terai region and 90% of them are relying on groundwater as their major source of drinking water. About 200,000 shallow tubewells have been installed by different agencies in 20 Terai districts, serving 11 million people. Recently, arsenic contamination of groundwater has been recognized as a public health problem in Nepal. This has sensitized government, national and international nongovernment organizations working on water quality sector to carry out water quality assessment for arsenic in the affected communities. So far, 15,000 tubewells has been tested where 23% samples exceeded World Health Organization guideline value of 10 microg/L and 5% exceeded "Nepal Interim Arsenic Guideline" of 50 microg/L. It is estimated that around 0.5 million people in Terai are living at risk of arsenic poisoning (>50 microg/L). Some recent studies have reported the prevalence of dermatosis related to arsenicosis from 1.3 to 5.1% and the accumulation of arsenic in biological samples like hair and nail much higher than the acceptable level. Though some steps are being taken by government and private organizations to combat the problem, it has not been able to cover all the affected communities. Nepal still needs more research work on arsenic occurrence and effects and mitigation programs simultaneously.

  11. First isolation of dengue virus from the 2010 epidemic in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Basu D; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Pandey, Kishor; Rajendra, Saroj P; Shah, Yogendra; Adhikari, Bal R; Gupta, Govinda; Gautam, Ishan; Tun, Mya M N; Uchida, Reo; Shrestha, Mahendra; Kurane, Ichiro; Morita, Kouichi

    2013-09-01

    Dengue is an emerging disease in Nepal and was first observed as an outbreak in nine lowland districts in 2006. In 2010, however, a large epidemic of dengue occurred with 4,529 suspected and 917 serologically-confirmed cases and five deaths reported in government hospitals in Nepal. The collection of demographic information was performed along with an entomological survey and clinical evaluation of the patients. A total of 280 serum samples were collected from suspected dengue patients. These samples were subjected to routine laboratory investigations and IgM-capture ELISA for dengue serological identification, and 160 acute serum samples were used for virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that affected patients were predominately adults, and that 10% of the cases were classified as dengue haemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome. The genetic characterization of dengue viruses isolated from patients in four major outbreak areas of Nepal suggests that the DENV-1 strain was responsible for the 2010 epidemic. Entomological studies identified Aedes aegypti in all epidemic areas. All viruses belonged to a monophyletic single clade which is phylogenetically close to Indian viruses. The dengue epidemic started in the lowlands and expanded to the highland areas. To our knowledge, this is the first dengue isolation and genetic characterization reported from Nepal.

  12. Chhaupadi Culture and Reproductive Health of Women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Choi, Eun Hee; Aryal, Anu; Park, Myung Bae; Doh, Young Ah

    2015-10-01

    Different sociocultural barriers concerning women's health are still prevalent. Chhaupadi culture in Nepal is that threat wherein menstruating women have to live outside of the home in a shed-like dwelling. Our study aims to determine the factors of reproductive health problems related to Chhaupadi. A cross-sectional study was performed with women of menstrual age (N = 672) in Kailali and Bardiya districts of Nepal. Data were collected with stratified sampling and analyzed using SPSS. Reproductive health problems were observed according to the World Health Organization reproductive health protocol. Regression analysis was performed to show the association between relevant variables. Results reveal that one fifth (21%) of households used Chhaupadi. Condition of livelihood, water facility, and access during menstruation and precisely the Chhaupadi stay was associated (P < .001) with the reproductive health problems of women. The study concludes that Chhaupadi is a major threat for women's health. Further research on appropriate strategies against Chhaupadi and menstrual hygiene should be undertaken. PMID:26316503

  13. Nepal project moves ahead as grass-roots force.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    A JOICFP mission to Nepal (April 2-14, 1995) performed several tasks, including the following: 1) collection of materials from nongovernmental organizations, the government, and international agencies in preparation for a National IEC Workshop (November 14-16, 1995) and a National Workshop (November 19-21, 1995) on family planning promotions; 2) arrangements for an external evaluation of the Community-based Sustainable Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA); 3) discussions regarding the production of the Nepali version of the videotape, "Rakhee and Mousse," and plans for utilization of US$11,122 of the JOICFP Voluntary Fund (JVF); 4) observation of refresher training for 135 women volunteers from 15 villages in Panchkhal, Kavre District, that was conducted by Sabatri Basnet; and 5) a meeting with the village health committee and women volunteers of the community-based, primary health care unit of Anaikiot. Coordination with the other activities of the Family Planning Association of Nepal and women volunteers to diffuse FP/MCH services and project activities has been a positive development in the project. The mission decided, based on its visits, to formulate technical support in the form of training, provision of quality service, and a referral institute for patients for the project areas of Panchkhal and Sunsari.

  14. Efficacy of arsenic filtration by Kanchan arsenic filter in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Shrestha, Shreekrishna; Maden, Narendra

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has caused a significant public health burden in lowland regions of Nepal. For arsenic mitigation purposes, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) was developed and validated for use in 2003 after pilot studies showed its effectiveness in removing arsenic. However, its efficacy in field conditions operating for a long period has been scarcely observed. In this study, we observe the efficacy of KAFs running over 6 months in highly arsenic-affected households in Nawalparasi district. We assessed pair-wise arsenic concentrations of 62 randomly selected household tubewells before filtration and after filtration via KAFs. Of 62 tubewells, 41 had influent arsenic concentration exceeding the Nepal drinking water quality standard value (50 μg/L). Of the 41 tubewells having unsafe arsenic levels, KAFs reduced arsenic concentration to the safe level for only 22 tubewells, an efficacy of 54%. In conclusion, we did not find significantly high efficacy of KAFs in reducing unsafe influent arsenic level to the safe level under the in situ field conditions.

  15. Efficacy of arsenic filtration by Kanchan arsenic filter in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Shrestha, Shreekrishna; Maden, Narendra

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has caused a significant public health burden in lowland regions of Nepal. For arsenic mitigation purposes, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) was developed and validated for use in 2003 after pilot studies showed its effectiveness in removing arsenic. However, its efficacy in field conditions operating for a long period has been scarcely observed. In this study, we observe the efficacy of KAFs running over 6 months in highly arsenic-affected households in Nawalparasi district. We assessed pair-wise arsenic concentrations of 62 randomly selected household tubewells before filtration and after filtration via KAFs. Of 62 tubewells, 41 had influent arsenic concentration exceeding the Nepal drinking water quality standard value (50 μg/L). Of the 41 tubewells having unsafe arsenic levels, KAFs reduced arsenic concentration to the safe level for only 22 tubewells, an efficacy of 54%. In conclusion, we did not find significantly high efficacy of KAFs in reducing unsafe influent arsenic level to the safe level under the in situ field conditions. PMID:25252363

  16. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management.

  17. A study on usefulness of a set of known risk factors in predicting maternal syphilis infections in three districts of Western Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sakala, Jacob; Chizuni, Nellisiwe; Nzala, Selestine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite roll-out of cost-effective point-of-care tests, less than half antenatal attendees in rural western Zambia are screened for syphilis. This study formulated a clinical, risk-based assessment criteria and evaluated its usefulness as a non-biomedical alternative for identifying high-risk prenatal cases. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of antenatal clinic attendees in Kaoma, Luampa and Nkeyema districts to collect data on exposure to nine pre-selected syphilis risk factors. These factors were classified into major and minor factors based on their observed pre-study association strengths to maternal syphilis. Clinical disease was defined as exposure to either two major factors, one major with two minor factors or three minor factors. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the clinical protocol were then calculated in comparison to rapid plasmin reagin results. Results The observed syphilis prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI: 7.4 - 11.6%) and the overall sensitivity of the study criteria was 62.3% with positive predictive value of 72.9%. Sensitivities of individual case-defining categories were even lower; from 17.4% to 33.3%. Results confirmed that abortion history, still birth, multiple sexual partners, previous maternal syphilis infection, partner history of sexually transmitted infection and maternal co-morbid conditions of HIV and genital ulcer disease were significantly associated to maternal syphilis in study population as well. Conclusion The criteria was not as effective as biomedical tests in identifying maternal syphilis. However, it could be a useful adjunct/alternative in antenatal clinics when biomedical tests are either inadequate or unavailable.

  18. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  19. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, portions of the North Platte and South Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska, May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Ball, L.B.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey that was conducted during June 2009 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Flight lines for the survey totaled 937 line kilometers (582 line miles). The objective of the contracted survey, conducted by Fugro Airborne, Ltd., is to improve the understanding of the relation between surface-water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. A unique aspect of the survey is the flight line layout. One set of flight lines was flown in a zig-zag pattern extending along the length of the previously collected airborne data. The success of this survey design depended on a well-understood regional hydrogeologic framework and model developed by the Cooperative Hydrologic Study of the Platte River Basin and the airborne geophysical data collected in 2008. Resistivity variations along lines could be related to this framework. In addition to these lines, more traditional surveys consisting of parallel flight lines, separated by about 400 meters were carried out for three blocks in the North Platte NRD, the South Platte NRD and in the area of Crescent Lakes. These surveys helped to establish the spatial variations of the resistivity of hydrostratigraphic units. An additional survey was flown over the Crescent Lake area. The objective of this survey, funded by the USGS Office of Groundwater, was to map shallow hydrogeologic features of the southwestern part of the Sand Hills that contain a mix of fresh to saline lakes.

  20. Knowledge, perception, and management skills of mothers with under-five children about diarrhoeal disease in indigenous and resettlement communities in Assosa District, Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Merga, Nigatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2015-03-01

    As primary caregiver to under-five children in Ethiopia, mothers' knowledge, perception, and management skills are important to minimize the effects of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Abramo and Megele 37 kebeles (the last administration division) in Assosa district of western Ethiopia in July 2010. Quantitative data were obtained by a structured questionnaire from 232 randomly-selected mothers having children aged less than five years regarding their knowledge, perception, and management. Qualitative data were also collected by arranging four focus group discussions involving mothers from the two communities. The prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five children was 33.2%, and the knowledge of mothers about the causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoea in the study area was 37.5%. The prevalence of diarrhoeal disease was higher in the settlement area whereas mothers' knowledge was better in the indigenous community; 62.9% of mothers were categorized as having good attitude on causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoeal disease. Community water source, water storage container, and knowledge of mothers remained a strong predictor of diarrhoeal morbidity after conducting logistic regression analysis (OR=8.4, CI 3.59-31.85; OR=2.2, CI 1.02-4.89; and OR=3.62, CI 1.23-4.71 respectively). Diarrhoeal morbidity was high in the study areas. On the contrary, knowledge and attitude of mothers, recognizing the danger sign of dehydration due to diarrhoea, and the prevention and management of childhood diarrhoeal diseases were not adequate. Information, education and communication strategy may help increase the knowledge and create positive attitude among mothers regarding the cause, prevention, and management of diarrhoea.

  1. Typhoid vaccine introduction: An evidence-based pilot implementation project in Nepal and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Imran; Pach, Alfred; Khan, Ghulam Mustafa; Bajracharya, Deepak; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Bhutta, Waqaas; Tahir, Rehman; Soofi, Sajid; Thapa, Chandra B; Joshi, Nilesh; Puri, Mahesh K; Shrestha, Parisha; Upreti, Shyam Raj; Clemens, John D; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-06-19

    The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008 recommended the use of currently licensed typhoid vaccines using a high risk or targeted approach. The epidemiology of disease and the vaccine characteristics make school-based vaccination most feasible in reducing typhoid disease burden in many settings. To assess feasibility of school-based typhoid vaccination, two districts in Kathmandu, Nepal and two towns in Karachi, Pakistan were selected for pilot program. Vaccination campaigns were conducted through the departments of health and in partnerships with not-for-profit organizations. In total 257,015 doses of Vi polysaccharide vaccine were given to students in grades 1-10 of participating schools. The vaccination coverage ranged from 39 percent (38,389/99,503) in Gulshan town in Karachi, to 81 percent (62,615/77,341) in Bhaktapur in Kathmandu valley. No serious adverse event was reported post vaccination. The coverage increased for vaccination of the second district in Pakistan as well as in Nepal. There was an initial concern of vaccine safety. However, as the campaign progressed, parents were more comfortable with vaccinating their children in schools. Supported and conducted by departments of health in Pakistan and Nepal, a school-based typhoid vaccination was found to be safe and feasible.

  2. Implementing a systems-oriented morbidity and mortality conference in remote rural Nepal for quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Dan; Schwarz, Ryan; Gauchan, Bikash; Andrews, Jason; Sharma, Ranju; Karelas, Gregory; Rajbhandari, Ruma; Acharya, Bibhav; Mate, Kedar; Bista, Amir; Bista, Megha Giri; Sox, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Problem In hospitals in rural, resource-limited settings, there is an acute need for simple, practical strategies to improve healthcare quality. Setting A district hospital in remote western Nepal. Key measures for improvement To provide a mechanism for systems-level reflection so that staff can identify targets for quality improvement in healthcare delivery. Strategies for change To develop a morbidity and mortality conference (M&M) quality improvement initiative that aims to facilitate structured analysis of patient care and identify barriers to providing quality care, which can subsequently be improved. Design The authors designed an M&M involving clinical and non-clinical staff in conducting root-cause analyses of healthcare delivery at their hospital. Weekly conferences focus on seven domains of causal analysis: operations, supply chain, equipment, personnel, outreach, societal, and structural. Each conference focuses on assessing the care provided, and identifying ways in which services can be improved in the future. Effects of change Staff reception of the M&Ms was positive. In these M&Ms, staff identified problem areas in healthcare delivery and steps for improvement. Subsequently, changes were made in hospital workflow, supply procurement, and on-site training. Lessons learnt While widely practiced throughout the world, M&Ms typically do not involve both clinical and non-clinical staff members and do not take a systems-level approach. The authors' experience suggests that the adapted M&M conference is a simple, feasible tool for quality improvement in resource-limited settings. Senior managerial commitment is crucial to ensure successful implementation of M&Ms, given the challenging logistics of implementing these programmes in resource-limited health facilities. PMID:21949441

  3. Evaluation of a monitoring program for assessing the effects of management practices on the quantity and quality of drainwater from the Panoche Water District, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Fio, John L.

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation was made of an existing monitoring program in the Panoche Water District for 1986-93. The Panoche Water District is an agricultural area located in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. Because irrigation drainage from this area has high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium, management strategies have been developed to improve the quality of drainwater discharge. The purpose of the Panoche Water District's monitoring program is to assess the effects of water- and land-use practices on local ground water and drain flow from the district. Drainflow from the district consists of the discharge from 50 separate on-farm underground tile-drainage systems. The Panoche Water District maintains information on water deliveries, planned and actual crop types, and planned and actual acreages planted each year. In addition, the water district monitors ground-water and drainage-system discharges using a variety of data-collection methods. A total of 62 observation well sites are used to monitor ground-water level and quality. A total of 42 sites were monitored for drainflow quantity, and drain flow quality samples were collected from the outlets of each of the 50 drainage systems. However, these data were collected inconsistently and (or) intermittently during the period studied. All data obtained from the water district were compiled and stored in a geographic information system database. Water delivered for irrigation by the Panoche Water District is a mix of imported water and local ground water pumped directly into delivery canals. Although delivered water is a mix, information on the proportion of water from the two sources is not reported. Also, individual growers pump directly to their crops unknown quantities of ground water, the total of which could be greater than 60 percent of total applications during years when water district deliveries are greatly reduced (for example, the years during and following a drought). To evaluate the

  4. Impact and Implications of Litigation on Small Rural School Districts: A Study of Selected Western Pennsylvania Public School Superintendents' Perception and Knowledge of School Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinopoli, Henry D.

    2010-01-01

    The need for superintendents to respond correctly to the myriad of legally charged situations is vital to the success of a school district. In small rural school districts, without the benefit of extensive financial resources or large administrative bureaucracies, many of the day-to-day legal challenges are handled solely by the superintendent of…

  5. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha

    2013-06-01

    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study investigates the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition-specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand for farm labor is the primary driver of high fertility. If this argument holds true, the use of modern farm technologies that are designed to carry out labor-intensive farm activities ought to substitute for farm labor and discourage births in farm families. However, little empirical evidence is available on the potential influence of the use of modern farm technologies on the fertility transition. To fill this gap, the panel data examined in this study provides an unusual opportunity to test this long standing, but unexplored, argument. The results demonstrate that the use of modern farm technologies, particularly the use of a tractor and other modern farm implements, reduce subsequent births in farm households. This offers important insight for understanding the fertility transition in Nepal, a setting that is experiencing high population growth and rapidly changing farming practices. PMID:23729867

  6. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  7. Elevation Map of Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Shuttle Radar Topgraphy Mission (SRTM) images show the basin of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal: On the left a detail (27 km x 20.5 km) of the X-SAR digital elevation model (shown below), on the right the corresponding radar amplitude image. The amplitude is a measure of the backscattering of the transmitted microwaves. In the amplitude image the 'Bagmati-River' is visible south of the city center and the international Airport in the eastern part. The runway appears as a dark stripe. The airport is infamous for its difficult landing/takeoff conditions due to the close vicinity of the surrounding high mountains. For more information and a image of the region around Kathmandu, visit the German Remote Sensing Data Center SRTM Treasure Vault. Image courtesy German Remote Sensing Data Center

  8. Projected integrated farm in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Dhital, K.

    1980-01-01

    A proposed integrated crop-livestock agro-processing complex to be based at Janakpur, Nepal is described. This project was proposed by the Agricultural Development Bank and is a small effort towards creating a self-sufficient rural community similar to one reported in China. The plan of the farm aims to achieve the integration of several agricultural, aquacultural, solar energy and biogas energy components with complete recycling of waste. These include biogas plants with associated slurry and storage tanks for operating a 3-kW generator, a 3.7-kW pump, providing domestic cooking, as well as energy to operate a fruit-processing plant. Energy for water heating, crop drying and refrigeration will be supplied by solar energy. Fish, livestock, fruits and vegetables will be produced by the farm.

  9. Application of geologic-mathematical 3D modeling for complex structure deposits by the example of Lower- Cretaceous period depositions in Western Ust - Balykh oil field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevertailo, T.; Nedolivko, N.; Prisyazhnyuk, O.; Dolgaya, T.

    2015-11-01

    The complex structure of the Lower-Cretaceous formation by the example of the reservoir BC101 in Western Ust - Balykh Oil Field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District) has been studied. Reservoir range relationships have been identified. 3D geologic- mathematical modeling technique considering the heterogeneity and variability of a natural reservoir structure has been suggested. To improve the deposit geological structure integrity methods of mathematical statistics were applied, which, in its turn, made it possible to obtain equal probability models with similar input data and to consider the formation conditions of reservoir rocks and cap rocks.

  10. Navigating Diagnoses: Understanding Mind–Body Relations, Mental Health, and Stigma in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Anthropologists and psychiatrists traditionally have used the salience of a mind–body dichotomy to distinguish Western from non-Western ethnopsychologies. However, despite claims of mind–body holism in non-Western cultures, mind–body divisions are prominent in non-Western groups. In this article, we discuss three issues: the ethnopsychology of mind–body dichotomies in Nepal, the relationship between mind–body dichotomies and the hierarchy of resort in a medical pluralistic context, and, lastly, the role of mind–body dichotomies in public health interventions (biomedical and psychosocial) aimed toward decreasing the stigmatization of mental illness. We assert that, by understanding mind–body relations in non-Western settings, their implications, and ways in which to reconstitute these relations in a less stigmatizing manner, medical anthropologists and mental health workers can contribute to the reduction of stigma in global mental healthcare. PMID:18784989

  11. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The Verbano Cusio Ossola province (VCO, Piedmont, north-western Italy) is one of the most important Italian quarrying districts, due to the peculiarity and variety of its exploited rock types, mainly orthogneisses such as Serizzo and Beola, and subordinately granites, marbles and other rocks. The most important and extensively exploited ornamental stone from the VCO province is surely the Serizzo, commercialized in four main varieties, and representing about 70% of all the stone production from the VCO area. The protholith of the Serizzo is a Permian granite - granodiorite metamorphosed during the alpine events, and the rock-forming minerals are mainly quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase (andesine), biotite, with variable amounts of muscovite and epidote (allanite). The other important ornamental stone of the VCO province is the Beola, a series of heterogeneous materials (mainly orthogneisses) with marked (mylonitic) foliation and strong mineralogical lineation, occurring in the median Ossola Valley; its production (15% of the whole stones of the VCO) is subordinated with respect to that of Serizzo. The mineralogical composition of the Beola varieties is similar to Serizzo, consisting of quite homogeneous quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline), plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. The main differences relate to the grain size, the rock fabric (generally mylonitic) and to the presence of accessory/secondary minerals. Recent regulatory developments and the growing environmental awareness, require an increasing reuse of wastes deriving from the extraction and processing of dimension stones (up to 50 % of the extracted gross volume). Granite wastes from the VCO (Baveno pink granite and Montorfano white granite), after specific industrial treatments (crushing, sieving, drying, magnetic separation of biotite and hornblende), are used successfully as quartz-feldspars mix in the ceramic industry, with very low FeOtot content. On the other hand, other quartzose

  12. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, Tika B; Sah, Shrawan K; Thapa, Resam B; McDonald, Andrew J; Davis, Adam S

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  13. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Tika B.; Sah, Shrawan K.; Thapa, Resam B.; McDonald, Andrew J.; Davis, Adam S.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  14. Arsenicosis in two villages in Terai, lowland Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sk Akhtar; Maharjan, Makhan; Watanabe, Chiho; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    Although arsenic contamination of groundwater has been detected recently in the Terai region of Nepal, scarce data have been available regarding the possible health effects of the contamination. A study was carried out in two rural villages of Nawalparasi district, where the existence of arsenic contamination has been reported. Almost all tubewells in one of the two villages (Goini, G) exceeded (ranging from 0.104 mg/L to 1.702 mg/L) the maximum permissible limit for arsenic in drinking water in Nepal (0.05 mg/L), and only a few tubewells (19.5%) in the other village (Kunuwar Big, KB) were below this level (0.004 mg/L to 0.972 mg/L). Prevalence rates of arsenicosis diagnosed on the basis of the presence of dermatological manifestations were 11.3% (56 out of 495 examined) and 6.5% (34/525) in G and KB, respectively, with an overall prevalence rate of 8.9%. In terms of gender, the prevalence rate was higher in males (11.5%; 61/531) than in females (5.9%; 29/489), supporting previous observations including our own. Most (71.1%) of the identified patients were 20-49 years old, and the prevalence rate appeared to be higher among those in their 30s or 40s in the both sexes. The youngest patient was 10 years of age. All the patients were either in the mild or moderate stage of the disease and most (78.9%) were in the mild stage. Melanosis with some other manifestations was observed in 95.6% of the patients, while keratosis was found in 57.8%. Leucomelanosis without any other manifestations, which has not been reported either in Bangladesh or India, was observed in 3.3% of the identified patients. Only one patient had Bowen's disease. To our knowledge, the current study provides for the first time quantitative information regarding the arsenicosis patients in Nepal.

  15. Rebuilding Earthquake Struck Nepal through Community Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Bipin; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Raut, Shristi

    2016-01-01

    Nepal underwent two major earthquakes during 2015 which claimed 9,000 deaths, left more than 23,000 injured, displaced about 2 million people and destroyed about 1,000 health facilities. Emerging health issues and disease outbreaks soon after the earthquakes were major priorities. However, preventive measures such as health education, health promotion and trainings embedded in community engagement remained largely unimplemented. Establishing community preparedness by delivering knowledge about the disasters, preparing contingency plans and conducting disaster drills can be promising in Nepal where geographical inaccessibility invariably impedes the on time management during disasters. The steps that could be taken in Nepal without additional resources include identifying community leaders and volunteers who could participate in health promotion initiatives, training of thus identified community volunteers, formation of community task force, devolvement of responsibilities with continual support (trainings and resources) and supervision of the community task force. PMID:27379225

  16. Rebuilding Earthquake Struck Nepal through Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bipin; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Raut, Shristi

    2016-01-01

    Nepal underwent two major earthquakes during 2015 which claimed 9,000 deaths, left more than 23,000 injured, displaced about 2 million people and destroyed about 1,000 health facilities. Emerging health issues and disease outbreaks soon after the earthquakes were major priorities. However, preventive measures such as health education, health promotion and trainings embedded in community engagement remained largely unimplemented. Establishing community preparedness by delivering knowledge about the disasters, preparing contingency plans and conducting disaster drills can be promising in Nepal where geographical inaccessibility invariably impedes the on time management during disasters. The steps that could be taken in Nepal without additional resources include identifying community leaders and volunteers who could participate in health promotion initiatives, training of thus identified community volunteers, formation of community task force, devolvement of responsibilities with continual support (trainings and resources) and supervision of the community task force. PMID:27379225

  17. Factors associated with arsenicosis and arsenic exposure status in Nepal: implications from community based study.

    PubMed

    Maden, Narendra; Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Maharjan, Makhan; Shrestha, Shreekrishna

    2011-02-01

    A significant public health problem due to exposure to arsenic via groundwater in communities of lowland Terai region of Nepal has issued forth need to assess the exposure status and factors associated with arsenicosis. We observed arsenical dermal manifestations and collected and assessed total arsenic content in tubewell water, urine, and hair samples of study subjects at arsenic affected communities in Nawalparasi district of Nepal. The explanatory variables associated with arsenicosis were elevated arsenic in tubewell, male gender and increased age (P < 0.05). 67% (73/109) and 66% (77/117) of subjects exceeded the normal urinary and hair arsenic levels respectively. Among them 52% (57/109) and 47% (55/117) exceeded normal urinary and hair arsenic levels having no arsenical dermal manifestations. Males and symptomatic cases had significantly higher hair arsenic levels (P < 0.05). We also observed significant positive correlation of both urine and hair arsenic levels to tubewell arsenic levels (r = 0.27, 0.37, P < 0.01) and negative correlation of urine arsenic levels with the age of the subjects (r = -0.18, P = 0.06). We conclude that elucidating factors associated with arsenicosis could be of prime importance in intervention and preventive measures. In arsenic affected communities of Nepal exposure to arsenic is still a major problem despite mitigation efforts and the potential for sub-clinical effects in exposed population is high.

  18. 25 years after Vi typhoid vaccine efficacy study, typhoid affects significant number of population in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, Deepak; Khan, M Imran; Pach, Alfred; Shrestha, Parisha; Joshi, Nilesh; Upreti, Shyam R; Wierzba, Thomas; Puri, Mahesh; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi, first isolated in 1884, results in infection of the intestines and can end in death and disability. Due to serious adverse events post vaccination, whole cell killed vaccines have been replaced with new generation vaccines. The efficacy of Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) vaccine, a new generation, single-dose intramuscular typhoid vaccine was assessed in Nepal in 1987. However, despite the availability of ViPS vaccine for more than 25 years, Nepal has one of the highest incidence of typhoid fever. Therefore we collected information from hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley from over the past five years. There were 9901 enteric fever cases between January 2008 and July 2012. 1,881 of these were confirmed typhoid cases from five hospitals in the Kathmandu district. Approximately 70% of the cases involved children under 15 years old. 1281 cases were confirmed as S. Paratyphi. Vaccines should be prioritized for control of typhoid in conjunction with improved water and sanitation conditions in Nepal and in endemic countries of Asia and Africa.

  19. Operationalizing crop monitoring system for informed decision making related to food security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamer, F. M.; Shah, S. N. Pd.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Baidar, T.; Dhonju, K.; Hari, B. G.

    2014-11-01

    In Nepal, two thirds of the total population depend on agriculture for their livelihoods and more than one third of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) comes from the agriculture sector. However, effective agriculture production across the country remains a serious challenge due to various factors, such as a high degree of spatial and temporal climate variability, irrigated and rain-fed agriculture systems, farmers' fragile social and economic fabric, and unique mountain practices. ICIMOD through SERVIR-Himalaya initiative with collaboration of Ministry of Agricultural Development (MoAD) is working on developing a comprehensive crop monitoring system which aims to provide timely information on crop growth and drought development conditions. This system analyzes historical climate and crop conditions patterns and compares this data with the current growing season to provide timely assessment of crop growth. Using remote sensing data for vegetation indices, temperature and rainfall, the system generated anomaly maps are inferred to predict the increase or shortfall in production. Comparisons can be made both spatially and in graphs and figures at district and Village Developmental Committee (VDC) levels. Timely information on possible anomaly in crop production is later used by the institutions like Ministry of Agricultural Development, Nepal and World Food Programme, Nepal to trigger appropriate management response. Future potential includes integrating data on agricultural inputs, socioeconomics, demographics, and transportation to holistically assess food security in the region served by SERVIR-Himalaya.

  20. An exemplary developing astronomy movement in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Sudeep

    2015-03-01

    Astronomy and space science education had been given least importance by Nepalese government in the past. The modern astronomy movement is believed to have started when an official observation programme of Haley's comet was organized by Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST) in 1986. Following the huge pressure from the scientific community, the Nepal government (Kingdom of Nepal at that time) established B.P. Koirala Memorial Planetarium, Observatory and Science Museum Development Board in 1992. Initiatives of the project started with observatory set up and the development of astrophysics syllabus for university students. Astrophysics is included as an elective paper in the Physics masters course. The lead astrophysicist of Nepal Dr. Binil Aryal is running a research group in Tribhuvan University since 2005 which has a significant number of international publications. The developing government initiatives and achievements will be discussed. In 2007, a group of astronomy enthusiastic students along with amateurs working independently in past established Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO), which surprisingly increased the amateur activities and inspired other amateur groups to revive. During IYA 2009, more than 80 outreach and observation events were organized solely by NASO. NASO was able to collaborate with many international programmes and projects like GHOU/GTTP, EurAstro, AWB, UNAWE, SGAC, Star Peace, TWAN etc during and beyond IYA2009. Currently Nepal is recognized as the most eventful country of outreach and astronomy education among the amateur community. The success story of the astronomy movement and the local difficulties while organizing the events will be explained.

  1. Literacy and motivation for the prevention and control of hypertension among female community health volunteers: a qualitative study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Dinesh; Mclachlan, Craig S.; Gautam, Rupesh; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Thorlund, Michael; Schlütter, Mette; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in Nepal. Thus, there is a need for a programme to improve primary healthcare. One possibility is to assign prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension to female community health volunteers (FCHVs). Objective To assess literacy and motivation to be involved in a hypertension prevention and control programme in Nepal among FCHVs. Design Five focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with a total of 69 FCHVs in Lekhnath municipality, Kaski district, Nepal. Seven themes were developed on the basis of data collection: 1) knowledge about hypertension; 2) risk factors of hypertension; 3) prevention and control of hypertension; 4) access to treatment for hypertension in the community; 5) learning about blood pressure measurement; 6) ability to raise blood pressure awareness in the community; 7) possible challenges for their future involvement. Data were analysed using the thematic analysis approach. Results FCHVs have some knowledge about diagnosis, risk factors, and complications of hypertension. General unanimity was observed in the understanding that hypertension and risk factors needed to be addressed. The willingness of FCHVs to contribute to prevention, control, and management was strong, and they were confident that with some basic training they could obtain skills in hypertension management. Conclusions Despite limited knowledge about hypertension, FCHVs expressed willingness and readiness to be trained in hypertension management. This study supports the possibility of involving FCHVs in prevention and control of hypertension in Nepal. PMID:26679406

  2. NASA Response to Nepal Quake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, E.; Webb, F.; Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Kirschbaum, D.; Goodman, H. M.; Molthan, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the hours following the magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake on April 25, 2015, NASA and its partners began the process of assessing their ability to provide actionable data from a variety of space resources and scientific capabiltiies in order to provide responders with actionable information to assist in the relief and humanitarian operations. Working with the USGS, NGA, ASI, and JAXA, in the hours and days following the event, the team generated a number of scientific data products that were distributed to organizations responding to the event. Data included, ground based geodetic observations, optical and radar data from international and domestic partners, to compile a variety of products, including "vulnerability maps," used to determine risks that may be present, and "damage proxy maps," used to determine the type and extent of existing damage. This talk will focus on the response process, highlighting some of the products generated and distributed and lessons learned that would be useful for responding to future events that would improve the effectiveness of such a broad, agency wide response.

  3. Biogas in Nepal--Retrospects and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, D.K.

    1983-12-01

    The tremendous need and potential of biogas in Nepal, supported by a very large cattle population, seems to be primarily limited by manpower and budgetary constraints and poor planning and implementation. Besides cooking and lighting, considerable potential, particularly at the rural level exists for biogas powered agro-processing applications such as rice hulling, oil expelling and flour grinding. Experience has shown that such applications, for which equipment is easily available, can be better served by community Biogas plants. The government of Nepal, with assistance from international organizations such as the Asian Development Bank, is strengthening the Biogas Company and taking other appropriate measures to disseminate and establish biogas on a firm footing.

  4. Communicating Astronomy With Public in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper highlights the mode of communications that Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) implemented during 2007-2014 for promoting science and technology in Nepal with astronomy as a key tool.Camparatve study between the role of old media and new media for astronomy communication will be discussed. The role of new media and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to foster astronomy communication with the public with some case studies will be discussed in detail. Proposed model of integrating both old and old media with smooth transition between these communication channels will be presented and discuss in brief.

  5. How does the spread of primary and secondary schooling influence the fertility transition? Evidence from rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simone; Hotchkiss, David R

    2014-01-01

    From 1996 to 2006, Nepal experienced a substantial fertility decline, with the total fertility rate dropping from 4.6 to 3.1 births per woman. This study examines the associations between progress towards universal primary and secondary schooling and fertility decline in rural Nepal. Several hypotheses regarding mechanisms through which education affects current fertility behaviour are tested, including: the school environment during women's childhood; current availability of schools; knowledge of educational costs; and women's own educational attainment. Data for the analysis come from the 2003-04 Nepal Living Standards Survey, a nationally representative random sample of households, which includes detailed data on fertility, household expenditure, educational attainment, demographic characteristics and the use of social services. Census and administrative data are also used to construct district-level gross enrolment ratios for primary and secondary schools during the women's childhood. Discrete dependent variable modelling techniques are used to estimate the effects of the following variables on the probability of women giving birth in a given year: district-level gross enrolment ratios for primary and secondary schools during women's childhood; having had a child previously in school; women's own educational level; current school availability; and other covariates. Separate models are estimated for the overall sample of rural women of reproductive age, and for parity-specific sub-samples. The results suggest that district-level gross enrolment ratios for secondary schools and, in some instances, having had a previous child enrolled in school are significant determinants of fertility in rural areas. These results are highly independent of women's own educational levels. Overall, the results suggest that, in the rural Nepal context, mass schooling influences the fertility transition through both community- and household-level pathways.

  6. Regional Variation in Pig Farmer Awareness and Actions Regarding Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal: Implications for Public Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Santosh; Joshi, Durga Datt; Ale, Anita; Sharma, Minu; Dahal, Meena; Shah, Yogendra; Pant, Dhan Kumar; Stephen, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people’s personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs. PMID:24416402

  7. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. PMID:23557321

  8. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy.

  9. Demand and access to mental health services: a qualitative formative study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal is experiencing a significant ‘treatment gap’ in mental health care. People with mental disorders do not always receive appropriate treatment due to a range of structural and individual issues, including stigma and poverty. The PRIME (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care) programme has developed a mental health care plan to address this issue in Nepal and four other low and middle income countries. This study aims to inform the development of this comprehensive care plan by investigating the perceptions of stakeholders at different levels of the care system in the district of Chitwan in southern Nepal: health professionals, lay workers and community members. It focuses specifically on issues of demand and access to care, and aims to identify barriers and potential solutions for reaching people with priority mental disorders. Methods This qualitative study consisted of key informant interviews (33) and focus group discussions (83 participants in 9 groups) at community and health facility levels. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Results As well as pragmatic barriers at the health facility level, mental health stigma and certain cultural norms were found to reduce access and demand for services. Respondents perceived the lack of awareness about mental health problems to be a major problem underlying this, even among those with high levels of education or status. They proposed strategies to improve awareness, such as channelling education through trusted and respected community figures, and responding to the need for openness or privacy in educational programmes, depending on the issue at hand. Adapting to local perceptions of stigmatised treatments emerged as another key strategy to improve demand. Conclusions This study identifies barriers to accessing care in Nepal that reach beyond the health facility and into the social fabric of the community. Stakeholders in PRIME’s integrated care plan advocate strategic

  10. Institutional development for sustainable rangeland resource and ecosystem management in mountainous areas of northern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shikui; Lassoie, James; Shrestha, K K; Yan, Zhaoli; Sharma, Ekalabya; Pariya, D

    2009-02-01

    Rangelands represent one of the most important natural resources in mountainous regions of northern Nepal. However, a poor understanding of the social dimensions of rangeland use has limited their proper management and sustainable development, which represent major challenges for Nepal's resource managers. Institutional development is thought to be a viable solution to this problem and may ultimately lead to improved rangeland management in Nepal. Based on this hypothesis, a study was conduced in the Rasuwa district of northern Nepal to examine the effectiveness of institutional development at the local and national levels in mitigating the problems facing sustainable rangeland management by using an institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework. The information and data were mainly collected from different stakeholders, farmers, professionals and practitioners using a toolkit of participatory rural appraisal (PRA), workshops and literature review. It can be concluded from this case study that a number of institutional development efforts are needed to promote sustainable rangeland management in this region. First, local herders represent a repository of rich indigenous knowledge essential to sustaining sound rangeland management practices; hence, indigenous practices need to be integrated into modern technologies. Second, public services and technical support are currently unavailable or inaccessible to local herders; hence, research, development and extension interventions need to be initiated for marginalized pastoral communities. Third, rangeland institutions are incomplete and ill-organized, so institutional development of various organizations is necessary for promoting sustainable rangeland management. Fourth, the policies and governance necessary for promoting rangeland management are not well-designed; hence, governance reform and policy development need to be formulated through internal and external agencies and organizations. PMID:18433982

  11. Genetic diversity of Leishmania tropica strains isolated from clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural districts of Herat province, Western Afghanistan, based on ITS1-rDNA.

    PubMed

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Pazoki Ghohe, Hossein; Rasooli, Sayed Abobakar; Karamian, Mehdi; Mohib, Abdul Satar; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan, there is a little information concerning epidemiological status of the disease and phylogenetic relationship and population structure of causative agents. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of CL cases and investigate the Leishmania tropica population structure in rural districts of Heart province in the West of Afghanistan in comparison to neighboring foci. Overall, 4189 clinically suspected CL cases from 177 villages (including 12 districts) in Herat province were enrolled in the referral laboratory of WHO sub-office in Herat city from January 2012 to December 2013. 3861 cases were confirmed as CL by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slides. ITS1 PCR-RFLP analysis showed dominance of L. tropica (more than 98%) among 127 randomly chosen samples. Analysis of the ITS1 sequences revealed 4 sequence types among the 21 L. tropica isolates. Comparison of sequence types from Herat rural districts with the representatives of L. tropica from Iran, India, and Herat city showed two main population groups (cluster A and B). All isolates from Herat province, India and Southeast, East, and Central Iran were found exclusively in cluster A. The close proximity of West Afghanistan focus and Birjand county as the capital of Southern Khorasan province in East Iran can explain relatively equal to the genetic composition of L. tropica in these two neighboring regions. In addition, two populations were found among L. tropica isolates from Herat rural districts. Main population showed more similarity to some isolates from Birjand county in East Iran while minor population probably originated from the Southeast and East Iranian L. tropica. Recent study provided valuable information concerning the population structure of L. tropica and epidemiology of ACL in the West of Afghanistan, which could be the basis for molecular epidemiology studies in other regions of Afghanistan.

  12. Girls Trafficked from Nepal into Indian Brothels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Arati

    1996-01-01

    Account of the underground culture of sexual slavery of young girls. Children from Nepal are being lured in large numbers into the sex industry in Bombay, India. Describes the process by which children are seduced and coerced into this bondage with active support from political and law enforcement leaders. (LSR)

  13. Soil Bioengineering Application and Practices in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  14. Soil bioengineering application and practices in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  15. Nepal: Vocational Educator's Role in Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.

    1974-01-01

    The innovative vocational education program of the elementary grades in the developing country of Nepal focuses on "self-help" within the "practical arts" (agriculture, trade and industrial, and home science fields) and emphasizes application of subject matter to students' daily lives, integration of skills into the curriculum, and occupational…

  16. Soil bioengineering application and practices in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential. PMID:23263565

  17. Comparative Education and Development: Reflections from Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parajuli, Mahesh Nath; Wagley, Mana Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Relation between education and development has been recognized in Nepal since the beginning of planned development efforts and the modern schooling at mass level. Both were initiated during 1950s. Beginning of Development Studies in MPhil and PhD in Education in School of Education, Kathmandu University focused exploring such relationships in a…

  18. Nepal: "a problem of governance".

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, B

    1993-01-01

    Nepal faces the choice between sustainable development in a fragile mountain environment in balance with a growing population or the continuation of stagnation and inertia. The political change of April 1990 created new optimism for the country's 18.5 million people, 70% of who live in abject poverty despite international aid making up 60% of the development budget. The maternal mortality rate stands at an exorbitant 850 deaths/100,000. The life expectancy of women is lower than that of men, and there is only 1 doctor for every 30,000 people, while 90% of births are not attended by a trained practitioner. The annual population growth rate amounts to 2.1%, which could double population in 30 years. This rate had outstripped crop production on a limited supply of land, resulting in the addition of another 250,000 poor people every year to the total. Government policies are skewed; a major hydroelectric project is planned to be constructed in 1994 despite talk about poverty alleviation. The National Conservation Plan of 1988 is in its 3rd phase of implementation, with plans in forestry, irrigation, livestock, and horticulture also being implemented at the request of the World Bank. Family planning lapsed as the vertical delivery system was replaced by a horizontal one encouraging villages to build sub-health posts providing family planning and primary health care. 700 such village health posts exist among 4000 villages, and another 600 are scheduled to open in 1994. Positive signs of meaningful development efforts include the budgetary shift to education, health care, and clean drinking water provision. Decentralization laws passed in 1992 and subsequent local elections aimed at handing over to local people the responsibility for their development assisted by government funds and technical support. The poor and often illiterate people have the manpower to dig irrigation canals and stabilize hillside terraces; therefore, the ruling party's central policy is to mobilize

  19. Major Delays in the Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis Patients in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mahato, Roshan Kumar; Vaeteewootacharn, Kriangsak; Koju, Rajendra; Bhattarai, Ratna

    2015-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis is a determining factor for spread of tuberculosis. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis geometrically increases spread and infectivity of the disease and is associated with higher risk of mortality. Aim The present study aimed to investigate the length of delays in diagnosis and treatment among new pulmonary tuberculosis patients in central development region of Nepal. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted by administration of structured questionnaire interview and reviewing the medical records of the new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases during January–May 2015. Simple random sampling was applied to select samples from 5 districts of 19 districts comprising at least one each from 3 ecological regions of Nepal. Results A total of 374 new sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases were included in the study. The median patient delay, health system delay, and total delay were 32 days, 3 days and 39.5 days respectively. The unacceptable patients delay was 53.21% (95% CI: 48.12-58.29) of all new patients, whereas it was 26.74% (95% CI: 22.23-31.24) for the unacceptable health system delay and the unacceptable total delay was 62.83% (95% CI: 57.91-67.75). Conclusion TB diagnosis and treatment is still a significant problem of Nepal. Majority of unacceptable delays were from patients. Identifying factors influencing delays and developing evidence-based approaches to address those delays will help in advancing tuberculosis prevention and management in low-income settings. PMID:26557545

  20. Mesozoic magmatism and timing of epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska: Zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and Pb isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinkoff, J.N.; Day, W.C.; Mortensen, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag ± Cu prospects in the western Fortymile district are spatially associated with splays of the northeast-trending Kechumstuk sinistral-normal fault zone and with ca. 68-66 Ma felsic intrusions and dikes. The similarity between Pb isotope compositions of feldspars from the Late Cretaceous igneous bodies and sulfides from the epithermal prospects suggests a Late Cretaceous age for most of the mineralization. Fluid flow along the faults undoubtedly played a major role in mineralization. We interpret displacement on the northeast-trending faults to be a far-field effect of dextral translation along Late Cretaceous plate-scale boundaries and faults that were roughly parallel to the subsequently developed Denali and Tintina fault systems, which currently bound the region.

  1. Population genetics of Vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: evidence on the origin of the Haitian outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Price, Lance B; Schupp, James M; Gillece, John D; Kaas, Rolf S; Engelthaler, David M; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pearson, Talima; Waters, Andrew E; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Adhikari, Shailaja; Shakya, Geeta; Keim, Paul S; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Cholera continues to be an important cause of human infections, and outbreaks are often observed after natural disasters, such as the one following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Once the cholera outbreak was confirmed, rumors spread that the disease was brought to Haiti by a battalion of Nepalese soldiers serving as United Nations peacekeepers. This possible connection has never been confirmed. We used whole-genome sequence typing (WGST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to characterize 24 recent Vibrio cholerae isolates from Nepal and evaluate the suggested epidemiological link with the Haitian outbreak. The isolates were obtained from 30 July to 1 November 2010 from five different districts in Nepal. We compared the 24 genomes to 10 previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates, including 3 from the Haitian outbreak (began July 2010). Antimicrobial susceptibility and PFGE patterns were consistent with an epidemiological link between the isolates from Nepal and Haiti. WGST showed that all 24 V. cholerae isolates from Nepal belonged to a single monophyletic group that also contained isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti. The Nepalese isolates were divided into four closely related clusters. One cluster contained three Nepalese isolates and three Haitian isolates that were almost identical, with only 1- or 2-bp differences. Results in this study are consistent with Nepal as the origin of the Haitian outbreak. This highlights how rapidly infectious diseases might be transmitted globally through international travel and how public health officials need advanced molecular tools along with standard epidemiological analyses to quickly determine the sources of outbreaks.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Dengue Fever among the Healthy Population of Highland and Lowland Communities in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Gautam, Ishan; Singh, Shanker Pratap; Bhusal, Chop Lal; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever (DF) is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV) has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey in five districts of central Nepal between September 2011 and February 2012. We collected information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding DF using a structured questionnaire. We then statistically compared highland and lowland communities to identify possible causes of observed differences. Principal Findings Out of 589 individuals interviewed, 77% had heard of DF. Only 12% of the sample had good knowledge of DF. Those living in the lowlands were five times more likely to possess good knowledge than highlanders (P<0.001). Despite low knowledge levels, 83% of the people had good attitude and 37% reported good practice. We found a significantly positive correlation among knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.001). Among the socio-demographic variables, the education level of the participants was an independent predictor of practice level (P<0.05), and education level and interaction between the sex and age group of the participants were independent predictors of attitude level (P<0.05). Conclusion Despite the rapid expansion of DENV in Nepal, the knowledge of people about DF was very low. Therefore, massive awareness programmes are urgently required to protect the health of people from DF and to limit its further spread in this country. PMID:25007284

  3. Population Genetics of Vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: Evidence on the Origin of the Haitian Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Price, Lance B.; Schupp, James M.; Gillece, John D.; Kaas, Rolf S.; Engelthaler, David M.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pearson, Talima; Waters, Andrew E.; Prasad Upadhyay, Bishnu; Devi Shrestha, Sirjana; Adhikari, Shailaja; Shakya, Geeta; Keim, Paul S.; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cholera continues to be an important cause of human infections, and outbreaks are often observed after natural disasters, such as the one following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Once the cholera outbreak was confirmed, rumors spread that the disease was brought to Haiti by a battalion of Nepalese soldiers serving as United Nations peacekeepers. This possible connection has never been confirmed. We used whole-genome sequence typing (WGST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to characterize 24 recent Vibrio cholerae isolates from Nepal and evaluate the suggested epidemiological link with the Haitian outbreak. The isolates were obtained from 30 July to 1 November 2010 from five different districts in Nepal. We compared the 24 genomes to 10 previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates, including 3 from the Haitian outbreak (began July 2010). Antimicrobial susceptibility and PFGE patterns were consistent with an epidemiological link between the isolates from Nepal and Haiti. WGST showed that all 24 V. cholerae isolates from Nepal belonged to a single monophyletic group that also contained isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti. The Nepalese isolates were divided into four closely related clusters. One cluster contained three Nepalese isolates and three Haitian isolates that were almost identical, with only 1- or 2-bp differences. Results in this study are consistent with Nepal as the origin of the Haitian outbreak. This highlights how rapidly infectious diseases might be transmitted globally through international travel and how public health officials need advanced molecular tools along with standard epidemiological analyses to quickly determine the sources of outbreaks. PMID:21862630

  4. Analysis of livelihood security: a case study in the Kali-Khola watershed of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, B S; Grant, M

    2007-10-01

    This paper examines household livelihoods in highland and lowland communities of the Kali-Khola agricultural watershed in western Nepal on the basis of economic, ecological and social security indicators. Significant differences were found in soil fertility status, pests and diseases management, risk and uncertainties, use of agrochemicals and access to social services. No remarkable variations were found in crop diversification, annual agricultural income and food sufficiency. However, uncertainty and risk in agricultural production is relatively low in highland communities. The findings reveal that agriculture production alone is not a viable livelihood option for agricultural watershed communities in Nepal. The households growing crops with hired labour have relatively sustainable livelihoods in Nepal's agricultural watersheds. Insufficient agricultural land, insufficient working manpower within a family, and lack of access to ecological agricultural services are prime factors in being livelihood insecure in agricultural watershed communities. Therefore, long-term policies and plans need to be developed for the empowerment of local farmers and to support rural livelihoods with adaptable and flexible income-generating strategies, resilient resource management institutions and enhancement of knowledge, skills and social capital.

  5. Determinants of farmers' choice for veterinary service providers in Nepal Mountains.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Shrestha, Sabina

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed to analyze factors that affect farmers' choice for major actors of veterinary service providers in village areas of Kaski district of Nepal, with the objective of identifying choice-specific attributes which could be addressed for improving the penetration of professional veterinary services in village areas. The information was obtained from 125 farmers using a structured questionnaire. A proportional hazard model was used for data analysis because of its ability to accommodate the attributes of both the chooser and the choice simultaneously. The results showed that village animal health workers (VAHWs) were the most preferred service providers followed by veterinarians and mid-level technicians. The farmers' age and education level had a significant but inverse relationship with the probability of choosing any of the three service providers. From our study, we found that the main choice-specific attributes with a significant impact on the choice probability was the distance to the preferred service provider. Since there was a high preference for VAHW, this suggests the possibility of poorly trained service providers dominating veterinary service market in village areas of Kaski district. Hence, the efforts put forward in the legalization of VAHW system in Nepal should first address the constraints that obstruct the accessibility of professional veterinary service providers in village areas.

  6. Who is to blame? Perspectives of caregivers on barriers to accessing healthcare for the under-fives in Butere District, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival. Methods Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs). Results Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers. Conclusion Caregivers' actions were thought to influence children's progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality. PMID:21539746

  7. Establishing a Computerized Substance Abuse Surveillance System for District Social Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Methods, Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan; Parry, Charles; Carelse, Jermaine

    2011-01-01

    The provision of accurate, in-depth data on substance abuse trends and service needs has become increasingly important in light of the growing wave of substance abuse in South Africa and particularly in the Western Cape Province. This article describes the design and implementation of an electronic substance abuse surveillance system (SASS)…

  8. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy.

  9. Geogenic arsenic in groundwaters from Terai Alluvial Plain of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Tandukar, N.; Nekul, A.; Valero, A. A.; Mukherjee, A. B.; Jacks, G.

    2003-05-01

    The origin and mobility of arsenic (As) in the groundwater environment has received serious attention in recent years. Recent studies have reported naturally occurring As in groundwaters of the Terai Alluvial Plains (TAP) in southern Nepal, where groundwater exploitation has increased since the 1960s. The source of As in TAP is geogenic and leached primarily due to weathering of As bearing rocks and sediments in the Himalayas. In our present study, we have investigated the groundwater chemistry in the central part of the TAP in Nawalparasi district. TAP groundwaters are near-neutral to alkaline, with predominantly reducing character and high HCO3^- low SO^{2-}_4 and NO3^- concentrations. Elevated HCO3 levels possibly result due to the oxidation of organic matter, low SO4^{2-} levels reflect sulfate reduction. Elevated NH4^+ concentrations in these groundwaters suggest dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the aquifers. Total arsenic (Astot) levels in groundwater varied from 1.7 μg/L to as high as 404 μg/L with dominance of As (III) species and elevated levels of dissolved Fe and Mn. Arsenic is mobilized in groundwaters as a result of desorption of As-oxyanions adsorbed onto Fe-and Mnoxides as well as reductive dissolution of these surface reactive phases from the sediments along with release ouf as in anoxie groundwaters.

  10. Ground water quality in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pant, Bhoj Raj

    2011-07-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the quality of groundwaters in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The groundwater samples were randomly collected from shallow well, tube well, and deep-tube wells located at different places of Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur districts in the Kathmandu valley. Physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of the samples were evaluated to estimate the groundwater quality for drinking water. It was found that the groundwater in the valley is vulnerable to drink due to presence of iron and coliform bacteria. Iron was estimated to be much higher then the acceptable limit of World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water quality guidelines (1.9 mg/L). Total coliform bacteria enumerated in groundwaters significantly exceeded the drinking-water quality standard and observed maximum coliform (267 CFU/100 mL) in shallow wells. The electrical conductivity and turbidity were found to be 875 μS/cm and 55 NTU, respectively, which are above the WHO recommendations for drinking water guidelines. However, pH value was measured within the acceptable limit. Arsenic, chloride, fluoride, and hardness concentrations were found to be in agreement with the recommendations of WHO drinking-water quality guidelines.

  11. Developing community-based intervention strategies and package to save newborns in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kc, A; Thapa, K; Pradhan, Y V; Kc, N P; Upreti, S R; Adhikari, R K; Khadka, N; Acharya, B; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Starbuck, E; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Devkota, M D

    2011-10-01

    Safe Motherhood and Child survival programs that are currently operating at scale. Under Ministry of health and Population leadership, a network of academia, professional bodies and partners developed a common vision for improving newborn health and survival, and launched district-level pilot programs to demonstrate and learn how newborn health interventions could be effectively and efficiently delivered and scaled up in Nepal. PMID:22929839

  12. Barriers to effective family planning in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Schuler, S R; McIntosh, E N; Goldstein, M C; Pande, B R

    1985-01-01

    To investigate why family planning (FP) services in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal are underused, a study was initiated under the auspices of the Nepal Family Planning/Maternal--Child Health Project. The study was intended to provide a user perspective, by examining interactions between FP clinic staff and their clientele. "Simulated" clients were sent to 16 FP clinics in Kathmandu to request information and advice. The study revealed that in the impersonal setting of a family planning clinic, clients and staff fall into traditional, hierarchical modes of interaction. In the process, the client's "modern" goal of limiting her family size is subverted by the service system that was created to support this goal. Particularly when status differences are greatest, that is, with lower-class and low caste clients, transmission of information is inhibited.

  13. Factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women in Mecha district, Western Amhara: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Taye, Bekele; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonen, Alemetsehaye

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron and folate supplementation can effectively control and prevent anaemia in pregnancy. In Ethiopia, all pregnant women are prescribed iron folate during their ANC visit. However, limited adherence is thought to be a major reason for the low effectiveness of iron supplementation programs. Therefore this study was done to investigate factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women who gave birth in the last 12 months before the survey in Mecha district. Methods Community based cross sectional study design was employed in Mecha district from June 25 - July 15/2013. A sample of 634 women who gave birth 12 months before the survey was included in the study. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique after allocating the total sample to each kebele proportionally. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured Amharic questionnaire. Collected data were edited, coded and entered to Epi info version 3.1 and exported to‘ SPSS version 16. Bivariate and multivariable analysis was computed. Results A total of 628 women who gave birth twelve months before the survey were enrolled. In this study only 20.4% of participants were compliant with iron foliate supplementation. In multivariable analysis, age of the mother, educational status of the mother, knowledge of anaemia and iron folate tablets, and history of anaemia during pregnancy were significantly associated with compliance to iron folate supplementation (P < .05). Belief that too many tablets would harm the baby and fear of side effects were the major reasons given for noncompliance. Conclusion Compliance to iron folate supplementation is very low in the study area. Increasing female education and increasing knowledge of women about anaemia and iron folate tablets are recommended to increase compliance to iron folate supplementation. PMID:26090001

  14. Impact of livestock hygiene education programs on mastitis in smallholder water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I P; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadka, Rupak

    2010-09-01

    A project implemented from 2003 to 2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p=0.08, 95% CI 0.17-1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15-7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos' teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd (p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08-0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested

  15. Impact of livestock hygiene education programs on mastitis in smallholder water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I P; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadka, Rupak

    2010-09-01

    A project implemented from 2003 to 2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p=0.08, 95% CI 0.17-1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15-7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos' teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd (p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08-0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested

  16. Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to

  17. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2nd major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented.

  18. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2nd major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented. PMID:27683676

  19. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sutterlin, Chester E

    2015-12-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2(nd) major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented.

  20. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sutterlin, Chester E

    2015-12-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2(nd) major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented. PMID:27683676

  1. Livelihood Vulnerability Approach to Assess Climate Change Impacts to Mixed Agro-Livestock Smallholders Around the Gandaki River Basin of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, J., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change vulnerability depends upon various factors and differs between places, sectors and communities. People in developing countries whose subsistence livelihood depends upon agriculture and livestock are identified as particularly vulnerable. Nepal, where the majority of people are in a mixed agro-livestock system, is identified as the world's fourth most vulnerable country to climate change. However, there are few studies on how vulnerable mixed agro-livestock smallholders are and how their vulnerability differs across different ecological regions. This study aims to test two vulnerability assessment indices, livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) and IPCC vulnerability index (VI-IPCC), around the Gandaki river basin of Nepal. A total of 543 households practicing mixed agro-livestock were surveyed from three districts (Dhading, Syangja and Kapilvastu) representing the mountain, mid-hill and lowland altitudinal belts respectively. Data on socio-demographics, livelihoods, social networks, health, food and water security, natural disasters and climate variability were collected. Both indices differed across the three districts, with mixed agro-livestock smallholders of Dhading district found to be the most vulnerable and that of Syangja least vulnerable. This vulnerability index approach may be used to monitor rural vulnerability and/or evaluate potential program/policy effectiveness in poor countries like Nepal. The present findings are intended to help in designing intervention strategies to reduce vulnerability of mixed agro-livestock smallholders and other rural people in developing countries to climate change.

  2. Promoting Lifelong Learning in Multilingual Context: A Case from Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Nepal is a multilingual country with low adult literacy rate (about 57% in 2008). Through different policy documents and motivation from some of the transnational organizations such as UNESCO, Nepal is on the process of adopting lifelong learning perspective as a major educational policy. In this context the article raises two issues: how to…

  3. Dating and Sex among Emerging Adults in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Pramod R.; van Teijlingen, Edwin R.; Simkhada, Padam; Acharya, Dev R.

    2011-01-01

    Social and cultural changes in Nepal, including better communication facilities and transport, more urbanization and a rising age at which people marry, have created more opportunities for young people for "dating." Our qualitative study explores whether the existence of dating cultures influences young people's sexual behavior in Nepal. Focus…

  4. Annotated Checklist of the Terrestrial Gastropods of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This is the very first checklist of the terrestrial gastropods of Nepal. It includes 138 species and six subspecies, of which 22 species are endemic and four are introduced. It highlights 34 species recorded for the first time in Nepal and provides new distribution records for another 30 species. PMID:25878541

  5. Education and Conflict in Nepal: Possibilities for Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pherali, Tejendra J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the nexus of the "People's War" and education in Nepal and argues that education was one of the main causes of the violent conflict. Despite "modernisation" efforts and increased participation, schools in Nepal continued to embody socially and culturally prejudiced values and institutionally legitimised the inequitable…

  6. Universal Primary Education in Nepal: Fulfilling the Right to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohani, Shiva; Singh, Ram Balak; Lohani, Jeevan

    2010-01-01

    With the net enrollment ratio in primary education in Nepal at 94%, most children are in the school system, but the system fails to ensure that all enrolled children will continue in school cycle and complete primary education of acceptable quality. Given the system's poor internal efficiency, Nepal is not likely to achieve the MDG and EFA goals…

  7. Malaria and Helminth Co-Infections in School and Preschool Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Magu District, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Kishamawe, Coleman; Vennervald, Birgitte J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. Methodology School and pre-school children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Stool samples were examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH infections using Kato Katz technique. Urine samples were examined for Schistosoma haematobium using the urine filtration method. Blood samples were examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin concentrations using the Giemsa stain and Haemoque methods, respectively. Principal Findings Out of 1,546 children examined, 1,079 (69.8%) were infected with one or more parasites. Malaria-helminth co-infections were observed in 276 children (60% of all children with P. falciparum infection). Malaria parasites were significantly more prevalent in hookworm infected children than in hookworm free children (p = 0.046). However, this association was non-significant on multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 1.320, p = 0.064). Malaria parasite density decreased with increasing infection intensity of S. mansoni and with increasing number of co-infecting helminth species. Anaemia prevalence was 34.4% and was significantly associated with malaria infection, S. haematobium infection and with multiple parasite infections. Whereas S. mansoni infection was a significant predictor of malaria parasite density, P. falciparum and S. haematobium infections were significant predictors of anaemia. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that multiple parasite infections are common in school and pre-school children in Magu district. Concurrent

  8. Demographic situation and development in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhanang, A L

    1983-01-01

    In Nepal economic development has not kept pace with population growth. The government must develop a vigorous dual program to promote economic development and to reduce population growth. Previous efforts to promote economic development, using a macrolevel approach, failed to improve the economic conditions for the majority of Nepal's citizens. The macrolevel approach required large capital outlays and resulted in an influx of foreign investors and the importation of inappropriate technologies from the developed countries. As a result, urbanization and pollution increased, and both the proportion and the absolute number of poor persons increased. A microlevel approach is now being instituted by the government, and an emphasis is being placed on meeting the basic needs of the poor and on promoting economic self-sufficiency. The country has extensive water resources which can be tapped for irrigation purposes. Nepal also has rich mineral deposits which should be exploited in such a way as to ensure that the profits accrue to the Nepalese. The country has an abundance of manpower resources, but there is a dearth of skilled workers. Unemployment, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem, and efforts should be made to either develop the agricultural sector or create new jobs in other sectors. Nepal's demographic problems include rapid population growth, the influx of a large number of migrants from India, and a high rural to urban migration rate. In 1981, the population size was 15 million, the annual growth rate was 2.6%, the crude birth rate was 38.5, the crude death rate was 18.4, and life expectancy was 47.5 years. The government is currently developing plans 1) to promote the development of core sectors of the economy, 2) to provide family planning services for the poor, 3) to meet the basic needs of rural residents in order to stem the flow of migration to urban areas, 4) to mobilize women to play an active role in the country's development and population

  9. Iodine status after iodized salt supplementation in schoolchildren of eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Khatiwada, Saroj; Shakya, Prem Raj; Gelal, Basanta; Lamsal, Madhab; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the urinary iodine concentrations of schoolchildren at baseline and after iodized salt supplementation in eastern region of Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2009 to July 2011 among schoolchildren of three eastern districts of Nepal: Sunsari, Dhankuta, and Tehrathum. A sample of 828 school age children from the three districts was chosen for the study after obtaining written consent from their guardians. The schoolchildren treatment group (n=300) was provided with a supplement of iodized salt for six months. Urinary iodine concentration was estimated by ammonium persulfate digestion microplate method at baseline and after supplementation. Urinary iodine controls L1, L2 (Seronorm, Norway) were analyzed to obtain intra-assay CVs (L1 = 7.4%, L2 = 3.3%) and inter assay CVs (L1=23.5%, L2=11.26%). Median interquartile range urinary iodine concentration in the three districts: Sunsari, Dhankuta and Tehrathum at baseline versus intervention were 272.0 (131.5-473.0) microg/l versus 294.0 (265.0-304.0) microg/l (p=0.379), 247.0 (144.5-332.32) versus 361.0 (225.66-456.52) microg/l (p<0.001), and 349.5 (203.75-458.09) microg/l versus 268.76 (165.30-331.67) microg/l (p<0.001), respectively. This study indicated improved iodine status and increased median urinary iodine concentration after iodized salt supplementation. Regular monitoring of population urinary iodine concentration at national and regional levels should be performed to ensure that all individuals have optimal delivery of iodine nutrition. PMID:24450245

  10. Fitting Community Based Newborn Care Package into the health systems of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, S R; Kc, N P; Thapa, K; Shrestha, P R; Shedain, P R; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Paudel, D C; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Bhandari, A; Kc, A

    2011-10-01

    Community-based strategies for delivering effective newborn interventions are an essential step to avert newborn death, in settings where the health facilities are unable to effectively deliver the interventions and reach their population. Effective implementation of community-based interventions as a large scale program and within the existing health system depends on the appropriate design and planning, monitoring and support systems. This article provides an overview of implementation design of Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) program, its setup within the health system, and early results of the implementation from one of the pilot districts. The evaluation of CB-NCP in one of the pilot districts shows significant improvement in antenatal, intrapartum and post natal care. The implementation design of the CB-NCP has six different health system management functions: i) district planning and orientation, ii) training/human resource development, iii) monitoring and evaluation, iv) logistics and supply chain management, v) communication strategy, and vi) pay for performance. The CB-NCP program embraced the existing system of monitoring with some additional components for the pilot phase to test implementation feasibility, and aligns with existing safe motherhood and child health programs. Though CB-NCP interventions are proven independently in different local and global contexts, they are piloted in 10 districts as a "package" within the national health system settings of Nepal. PMID:22929840

  11. Epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Nepal, 2001–2013: systematic review and secondary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiology of road traffic injury (RTI) in Nepal for the period 2001–2013. Methods 2 approaches, secondary data analysis and systematic literature review, were adopted. RTI data were retrieved from traffic police records and analysed for the incidence of RTI. Electronic databases were searched for published articles that described the epidemiology of RTI in Nepal. Results A total of 95 902 crashes, 100 499 injuries and 14 512 deaths were recorded by the traffic police over the 12-year period, 2001–2013. The mortality rate increased from 4/100 000 population in 2001–2002 to 7/100 000 population in 2011–2012. There were relatively more reported crashes yet fewer deaths in Kathmandu valley than the rest of the country. Of the 20 articles related to RTI, only 11 articles met the eligibility criteria, but these were mainly descriptive case series or cross-sectional hospital-based studies. The majority of RTI were reported to occur among motorcyclists and pedestrians, in males, and in the age group 20–40 years. The common sites of injury were lower and upper extremities. Only 3 articles mentioned possible causes of accidents that include pedestrian road behaviour, alcohol consumption and improper bus driving. Conclusions Nepal suffers a heavy burden of RTI, with higher fatalities on highways out of Kathmandu valley caused by bus crashes in hilly districts. The majority of published studies on RTI are descriptive and hospital based, indicating the need for more thorough investigation of causes of RTI and systematic recording of crashes for the development of effective interventions. PMID:27084283

  12. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Achyut Raj; Devkota, Surya

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of hypertension in newly declared municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal. Design, Settings, and Participants. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in the municipalities of Kathmandu District, Nepal, between January and July 2015. Study participants were aged 18 to 70 years, residing permanently in the study sites. Municipalities, Wards, households, and respondents were selected randomly. Results. Of the 587 participants, 58.8% were females, mean (SD) age was 42.3 (13.5) years, 29.3% had no formal education, 35.1% were Brahmins, and 41.2% were homemakers. Prevalence of hypertension was 32.5% (95% CI: 28.7–36.3). Age, gender, education, ethnicity, occupation, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diabetes, menopausal history, and family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension were significantly associated with hypertension. In multivariable analysis, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, and diabetes were identified as significant explanatory variables for hypertension. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the people living in newly established municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal, have a high burden of hypertension as well as its associated factors. Therefore, community-based preventive approaches like lifestyle modification and early detection and treatment of hypertension might bring a substantial change in tackling the burden effectively. PMID:27293880

  13. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention promoting multiple maternal and neonatal care practices in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The challenge of delivering multiple, complex messages to promote maternal and newborn health in the terai region of Nepal was addressed through training Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) to counsel pregnant women and their families using a flipchart and a pictorial booklet that was distributed to clients. The booklet consists of illustrated messages presented on postcard-sized laminated cards that are joined by a ring. Pregnant women were encouraged to discuss booklet content with their families. Methods We examined use of the booklet and factors affecting adoption of practices through semi-structured interviews with district and community-level government health personnel, staff from the Nepal Family Health Program, FCHVs, recently delivered women and their husbands and mothers-in-law. Results The booklet is shared among household members, promotes discussion, and is referred to when questions arise or during emergencies. Booklet cards on danger signs and nutritious foods are particularly well-received. Cards on family planning and certain aspects of birth preparedness generate less interest. Husbands and mothers-in-law control decision-making for maternal and newborn care-seeking and related household-level behaviors. Conclusions Interpersonal peer communication through trusted community-level volunteers is an acceptable primary strategy in Nepal for promotion of household-level behaviors. The content and number of messages should be simplified or streamlined before being scaled-up to minimize intervention complexity and redundant communication. PMID:20529251

  14. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  15. Student perception about working in rural Nepal after graduation: a study among first- and second-year medical students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a developing country in South Asia with a population of 29.8 million. In September 2011, there were 18 medical schools with 14 being in the private sector. KIST Medical College is a private school in Lalitpur district. The present study was conducted to obtain information on student perceptions about working in rural Nepal after graduation. Methods The study was conducted among first- and second-year undergraduate medical students using a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the authors using inputs from the literature and their experiences of teaching medical students. Year of study, gender, method of financing of medical education, place of family residence and occupation of parents were noted. Participant responses were analysed, grouped together and the number of respondents stating a particular response was noted. Results Of the 200 students, 185 (92.5%) participated with 95 being from the first year and 90 from the second. Most students were self-financing and from urban areas. Regarding the question of working in rural Nepal after graduation, 134 (72.4%) said they will work after their undergraduate course. Students preferred to work in the government or nongovernmental sector. Student felt doctors are reluctant to serve in rural Nepal due to inadequate facilities, low salary, less security, problems with their professional development, less equipment in health centres, decreased contact with family and difficulties in communicating with an illiterate, rural population. About 43% of respondents felt medical education does not adequately prepare them for rural service. Repeated rural exposure, postings in rural hospitals and health centres, and training students to diagnose and treat illness with less technology were suggested. The median monthly salary expected was 60 000 Nepalese rupees (US$ 820) and was significantly higher among first-year students. Conclusions The majority of respondents were

  16. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. PMID:25305301

  17. Locking degree and slip rate deficit distribution on MHT fault before 2015 Nepal Mw 7.9 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanchuan; Song, Xiaogang; Shan, Xinjian; Qu, Chunyan; Wang, Zhenjie

    2016-04-01

    The spatial pattern and rate of strain accumulation on a fault during the pre- and inter-seismic phases are very important for interpreting the mechanism of earthquakes and evaluating seismic potentials. Here we use global positioning system (GPS) data and the block-dislocation model to invert for the locking degree and slip rate deficit of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) fault in the southern margin of Tibet before the 2015 Mw 7.9 Nepal earthquake. Results show that the locking depth and slip rate deficit increase from the west to the east. Along the western segment of the MHT fault (80°E-84°E), the locking depth is estimated to be 12-17 km with a slip rate deficit of 0-5 mm/a; along the central Nepal segment (84°E-87°E), the locking depth is 16-21 km with a slip rate deficit of 6-10 mm/a, whilst along the eastern segment (87°E-90°E), the locking depth increases to 23-26 km with a slip rate deficit of 8-13 mm/a. The 2015 Nepal earthquake initiated at the boundary between the western and central segments, an area with as where the slip rate deficit varies dramatically from 0 to 9 mm/a within 50 km resulting in high energy gradients. High strain concentration along the central and eastern segments leads to unilateral propagation of the rupture to the east. Given the paucity of large seismic events over the previous decades and the current high slip rate deficit, seismic hazard on the eastern Nepal segment remains high.

  18. Student feedback on the use of paintings in Sparshanam, the Medical Humanities module at KIST Medical College, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paintings have been used in Medical Humanities modules in Nepal at Manipal College of Medical Sciences and KIST Medical College. Detailed participant feedback about the paintings used, the activities carried out, problems with using paintings and the role of paintings in future modules has not been previously done. Hence the present study was carried out. Methods The present module for first year medical students was conducted from February to August 2010 at KIST Medical College, Nepal. Paintings used were by Western artists and obtained from the Literature, Arts and Medicine database. The activities undertaken by the students include answering the questions 'What do you see' and 'What do you feel' about the painting, creating a story of 100 words about the scene depicted, and interpreting the painting using role plays and poems/songs. Feedback was not obtained about the last two activities. In August 2010 we obtained detailed feedback about the paintings used. Results Seventy-eight of the 100 students (78%) participated. Thirty-four students (43.6%) were male. The most common overall comments about the use of paintings were "they helped me feel what I saw" (12 respondents), "enjoyed the sessions" (12 respondents), "some paintings were hard to interpret" (10 respondents) and "were in tune with module objectives" (10 respondents). Forty-eight (61.5%) felt the use of western paintings was appropriate. Suggestions to make annotations about paintings more useful were to make them shorter and more precise, simplify the language and properly introduce the artist. Forty-one students (52.6%) had difficulty with the exercise 'what do you feel'. Seventy-four students (94.9%) wanted paintings from Nepal to be included. Conclusions Participant response was positive and they were satisfied with use of paintings in the module. Use of more paintings from Nepal and South Asia can be considered. Further studies may be required to understand whether use of paintings

  19. Ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics and knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about HIV among Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong, Lahu and Northern Thai in a north-western Thailand border district

    PubMed Central

    Kunstadter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Data from ethnically diverse north-western Thailand with recent migrants from Myanmar (Burma) and China allow testing of hypotheses concerning between- and within-community differences in predominantly Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong and Lahu ethnic minority villages versus ethnic majority Thai villages. Topics include knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people infected with HIV and constraints to use of health services. Respondents include women with one or more children under age five and their husbands/partners. Ethnicity is consistently associated with socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, and constraints to use of services. Chinese community residents had the lowest levels of knowledge of HIV, especially with regard to mother-to-child transmission, the most intent to avoid contact with people living with HIV and AIDS, and the highest levels of constraints to using services, including ineligibility for government healthcare and limited Thai language ability. Associations of counselling with Thai language ability, and more knowledge and less avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, suggest that language-appropriate health education may help overcome disparities. PMID:23930982

  20. Public Health Responses to a Dengue Outbreak in a Fragile State: A Case Study of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Karolina; Banjara, Megha Raj; O'Dempsey, T.; Munslow, B.; Kroeger, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The number of countries reporting dengue cases is increasing worldwide. Nepal saw its first dengue outbreak in 2010, with 96% of cases reported in three districts. There are numerous policy challenges to providing an effective public health response system in a fragile state. This paper evaluates the dengue case notification, surveillance, laboratory facilities, intersectoral collaboration, and how government and community services responded to the outbreak. Methods. Qualitative data were collected through 20 in-depth interviews, with key stakeholders, and two focus-group discussions, with seven participants. Results. Limitations of case recognition included weak diagnostic facilities and private hospitals not incorporated into the case reporting system. Research on vectors was weak, with no virological surveillance. Limitations of outbreak response included poor coordination and an inadequate budget. There was good community mobilization and emergency response but no routine vector control. Conclusions. A weak state has limited response capabilities. Disease surveillance and response plans need to be country-specific and consider state response capacity and the level of endemicity. Two feasible solutions for Nepal are (1) go upwards to regional collaboration for disease and vector surveillance, laboratory assistance, and staff training; (2) go downwards to expand upon community mobilisation, ensuring that vector control is anticipatory to outbreaks. PMID:23690789

  1. Seasonal Dietary Intakes and Socioeconomic Status among Women in the Terai of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Rebecca K.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Wu, Lee S.F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite widespread nutritional deficiencies, investigations of usual diet in rural South Asia remain sparse. The present study characterizes year-round and seasonal dietary patterns of women in the Terai of Nepal by sociodemographic status, using a novel, weekly single-visit and usual food frequency questionnaire that links recall to the agricultural season. The study was conducted across seasons in 2006-2008 among 15,899 women of reproductive age in Sarlahi district. Intakes were tabulated for all foods, overall and by socioeconomic status (SES), and in and out of season, as appropriate. Foods consumed regularly [median (interquartile range) weekly frequency] were rice [13 (7-13)], potatoes [10 (5-13)], legumes [6 (2-9)], and vegetable oil [13 (13-13)]. Animal products were infrequently consumed [1 (0-2) time per week] as were fruits and vegetables, most with a median weekly intake frequency of 0. Higher SES was associated with more frequent consumption of most food-groups, including in-season fruits and vegetables. Diets of women in the Terai of Nepal lack diversity and, likely, nutrient adequacy, which may pose health risks. PMID:25076658

  2. Women's Satisfaction of Maternity Care in Nepal and Its Correlation with Intended Future Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Deepak; Dariang, Maureen; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Poudel, Pradeep; King, Stuart; Barnett, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The impact of rapid increase in institutional birth rate in Nepal on women's satisfaction and planned future utilization of services is less well known. This study aimed to measure women's satisfaction with maternity care and its correlation with intended future utilisation. Data came from a nationally representative facility-based survey conducted across 13 districts in Nepal and included client exit interviews with 447 women who had either recently delivered or had experienced complications. An eight-item quality of care instrument was used to measure client satisfaction. Multivariate probit model was used to assess the attribution of different elements of client satisfaction with intended future utilization of services. Respondents were most likely to suggest maintaining clean/hygienic health facilities (42%), increased bed provision (26%), free services (24%), more helpful behaviour by health workers (18%), and better privacy (9%). Satisfaction with the information received showed a strong correlation with the politeness of staff, involvement in decision making, and overall satisfaction with the care received. Satisfaction with waiting time (p = 0.035), information received (p = 0.02), and overall care in the maternity care (<0.001) showed strong associations with willingness to return to facility. The findings suggest improving physical environment and interpersonal communication skills of service providers and reducing waiting time for improving client satisfaction and intention to return to the health facility. PMID:26640814

  3. Indirect exposure to a family planning mass media campaign in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Marc; Storey, J Douglas; Sood, Suruchi

    2002-01-01

    It is often noted that some individuals become aware of a mass media program's messages through discussions with other individuals. However, the extent to which indirect exposure occurs, and its influence on behavior, are somewhat unclear. This study examines the role of indirect exposure in extending the reach of a family planning mass media campaign in Nepal. Sociometric data, gathered from nearly all women between the ages of 15 and 49 years living in six villages in Dang District, Nepal (N = 667), assessed indirect exposure to the radio program. Indirect exposure was extensive; half of all respondents were indirectly exposed to the program's messages and the overall reach of the program increased from 50% to 75% when indirect exposure was considered. Members of community groups had higher levels of direct exposure to the radio program and more extensive and diverse social networks, allowing them to serve as a conduit for these messages into the wider community. While direct exposure to the radio program appeared to influence family planning knowledge, indirect exposure was more strongly associated with contraceptive use. These findings suggest that program evaluations that ignore indirect exposure underestimate the impact of a mass media program on behavior. PMID:12455760

  4. Women's Satisfaction of Maternity Care in Nepal and Its Correlation with Intended Future Utilization.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Deepak; Dariang, Maureen; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Poudel, Pradeep; King, Stuart; Barnett, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The impact of rapid increase in institutional birth rate in Nepal on women's satisfaction and planned future utilization of services is less well known. This study aimed to measure women's satisfaction with maternity care and its correlation with intended future utilisation. Data came from a nationally representative facility-based survey conducted across 13 districts in Nepal and included client exit interviews with 447 women who had either recently delivered or had experienced complications. An eight-item quality of care instrument was used to measure client satisfaction. Multivariate probit model was used to assess the attribution of different elements of client satisfaction with intended future utilization of services. Respondents were most likely to suggest maintaining clean/hygienic health facilities (42%), increased bed provision (26%), free services (24%), more helpful behaviour by health workers (18%), and better privacy (9%). Satisfaction with the information received showed a strong correlation with the politeness of staff, involvement in decision making, and overall satisfaction with the care received. Satisfaction with waiting time (p = 0.035), information received (p = 0.02), and overall care in the maternity care (<0.001) showed strong associations with willingness to return to facility. The findings suggest improving physical environment and interpersonal communication skills of service providers and reducing waiting time for improving client satisfaction and intention to return to the health facility. PMID:26640814

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional study design, using a structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with 96 poultry workers age 15 and above from the Rupandehi district in Nepal. Results The majority of respondents were male (80%), mean age was 35 (SD = 11.6). Nearly everybody was aware that AI cases had been detected in Nepal and that poultry workers were at risk for infection. The major sources of AI information were radio, TV and newspapers. Knowledge about preventive measures was high with regard to some behaviours (hand washing), but medium to low with regard to others (using cleaning and disinfecting procedures or protective clothing). Poultry workers who got their information from TV and newspapers and those who were more afraid of contracting AI had higher knowledge than those who did not. Being employed as compared to being an owner of a poultry farm as well as having a high level of knowledge was associated with practising more preventive behaviours. While on one hand many specific government control measures found a high degree of acceptance, a majority of study participants also thought that government control and compensation measures as a whole were insufficient. Conclusions The study provides information about knowledge and practices regarding avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. It highlights the importance of targeting lack of knowledge as well as structural-material barriers to successfully build preparedness for a major outbreak situation. PMID:22458535

  6. Vulnerable populations in Nepal face hostile environment.

    PubMed

    Pant, Sunil

    2006-12-01

    Members of sexual and gender minorities in Nepal frequently have been denied their rights, have been excluded from services and have been the victims of violence. In this article, adapted from a presentation at a concurrent session at the conference , Sunil Pant provides examples of these problems and describes how the Blue Diamond Society (BDS), an organization which promotes human rights and which fights against HIV/AIDS for lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, transgendered persons and men who have sex with men, has responded.

  7. Nepal Earthquake: Exploring some of the Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Pranab; Sundar De, Syam; Paul, Suman; Ghosh, Abhijit; Guha, Gautam

    2016-07-01

    The characteristic variations of different meteorological parameters during the period of Nepal earthquakes having M=7.8 occurred on April 25, 2015 and M=7.3 on May 12, 2015 are presented. The results are interpreted in terms of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling processes occurred due to thermal anomalies in the event of major earthquakes. These are reported in terms of thermodynamic properties within the lower ionosphere. The differences in the results are explained through the emission of α-particle from Rn ^{222}.

  8. The Impact of Hotspot-Targeted Interventions on Malaria Transmission in Rachuonyo South District in the Western Kenyan Highlands: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, John; Knight, Philip; Stone, William; Osoti, Victor; Makori, Euniah; Owaga, Chrispin; Odongo, Wycliffe; China, Pauline; Shagari, Shehu; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Kariuki, Simon; Drakeley, Chris; Stevenson, Jennifer; Cox, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both inside hotspots and in surrounding communities. Methods and Findings Twenty-seven serologically defined malaria hotspots were detected in a survey conducted from 24 June to 31 July 2011 that included 17,503 individuals from 3,213 compounds in a 100-km2 area in Rachuonyo South District, Kenya. In a cluster-randomized trial from 22 March to 15 April 2012, we randomly allocated five clusters to hotspot-targeted interventions with larviciding, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, and focal mass drug administration (2,082 individuals in 432 compounds); five control clusters received malaria control following Kenyan national policy (2,468 individuals in 512 compounds). Our primary outcome measure was parasite prevalence in evaluation zones up to 500 m outside hotspots, determined by nested PCR (nPCR) at baseline and 8 wk (16 June–6 July 2012) and 16 wk (21 August–10 September 2012) post-intervention by technicians blinded to the intervention arm. Secondary outcome measures were parasite prevalence inside hotpots, parasite prevalence in the evaluation zone as a function of distance from the hotspot boundary, Anopheles mosquito density, mosquito breeding site productivity, malaria incidence by passive case detection, and the safety and acceptability of the interventions. Intervention coverage exceeded 87% for all interventions. Hotspot-targeted interventions did not result in a change in nPCR parasite prevalence outside hotspot boundaries (p ≥ 0.187). We observed an average reduction in nPCR parasite prevalence of 10.2% (95% CI −1.3 to 21.7%) inside hotspots 8 wk post

  9. Promoting Landspace Astrophotography for Dark Sky Preservation in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwa, Manisha; Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper will present astrophotography and dark sky preservation initiatives and its impact in Nepal. It will highlight the astrophotography and the dark skies Initiatives of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since 2007. Some case studies from the landspace astrophotography by TWAN, EurAstro Mission and others promoted by NASO will be discussed in details. It will also present our collaborative approach with the media to take the idea of dark sky peservation to Nepalese Community in the country and abroad. Some success stories linked with UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Nepal will be discussed in brief. Our appreach of introducing such photography as a tool for astronomy communication will be discussed.

  10. Communicating Climate Change - Weather Forecast Need Assessment and Information Dissemination Mechanism to Farmers in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, J., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Climate Change is becoming one of the major threats to the fragile Himalayan ecosystem. It is affecting all sectors mainly fresh water, agriculture, forest, biodiversity and species. The subsistence agriculture system of Nepal is mainly rain-fed; therefore, climate change and climate extremes do have direct impacts on it. Weather extremes like droughts, floods and landslides long-lasting fog, hot and cold waves are affecting the agriculture sectors of Nepal. As human-induced climate change has already showing its impacts and it is going to be there for a long time to come, it is paramount importance to move towards the adaptation. Early warning system is an effective way for reducing the impacts of disasters. Forecasting of weather parameters (temperature, precipitation, and wind) helps farmers for their preparedness activities. With consultation with farmers and other relevant institutions, a research project was carried out, for the first time in Nepal, to identify the forecast information need to farmers and their dissemination mechanism. Community consultation workshops, key informant survey, and field observations were the techniques used for this research. Two ecological locations: Bageshwori VDC in Banke (plain) and Dhaibung VDC in Rasuwa (mountain) were taken as the pilot sites for this assessment. People in both the districts are dependent highly on agriculture and the weather extremes like hailstone, untimely rainfall; droughts are affecting their agriculture practices. They do not have confidence in the weather forecast information disseminated by the government of Nepal currently being done because it is a general forecast not done for a smaller domain and the forecast is valid only for 24 hours. The weather forecast need to the farmers in both the sites are: rainfall (intensity, duration and time), drought, and hailstone but in Banke, people wished to have the information of heat and cold waves too as they are affecting their wheat and tomato crops

  11. Spectrum of surgical trauma and associated head injuries at a university hospital in eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bajracharya, A; Agrawal, A; Yam, BR; Agrawal, CS; Lewis, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trauma is one of the common surgical emergencies presenting at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Nepal, a tertiary referral center catering to the needs of the population of Eastern Nepal and nearby districts of India. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the magnitude, epidemiological, clinical profile and outcome of trauma at B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Materials and Methods: This descriptive case series study includes all patients with history of trauma coming to BPKIHS emergency and referred to the surgery department. We noted the detailed clinical history and examination, demographics, mechanism of injury, nature of injury, time of reporting in emergency, treatment offered (operative or non operative management) and analyzed details of operative procedure (i.e. laparotomy, thoracotomy, craniotomy etc.), average length of hospital stay, morbidity and outcome (according to Glasgow outcome scale). Collected data were analyzed using EpiInfo 2000 statistical software. Results: There were 1848 patients eligible to be included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 28.9 ± 19.3 years. Majority of the patients (38%) belonged to the age group of 21 - 40 years and the male to female ratio was 2.7:1. Most of the trauma victims were students (30%) followed by laborers (27%) and farmers (22%) respectively. The commonest causes of injury were fall from height (39%), road traffic accident (38%) and physical assault (18%); 78% of the patients were managed conservatively and 22% underwent operative management. Postoperative complications were seen in 18%. Wound infection 7.5%, neurological deficit including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otrorrhea was seen in 2.2% patients. Good recovery was seen in 84%, moderate disability in 5.2% patients and severe disability in 1.4% patients. The mortally was 6.3% and most of the deaths were related to traumatic brain injuries. Conclusions: In Nepal, trauma-related injury

  12. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  13. Primary Care in a Rural Set Up in Nepal: Perspectives of a Generalist

    PubMed Central

    Basnyat, Amogh

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the author's personal perspectives while having to serve as a generalist in a rural hospital in one of the most underdeveloped and far away regions of Nepal. Having been deputed in Kalikot District Hospital (KDH) through Nick Simons Institute's (NSI) Rural Staff Support Program (RSSP), the author mentions the technical hardships and resource constraints of the government hospital. Highlighting the improvement in the hospital profile after the arrival of the RSSP, the article cursorily mentions the modalities of primary care spanning the common clinical presentations. Particularly, the difficulties related to the provision of Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEOC) services are highlighted. Also, a brief introduction as to the NSI, Kathmandu is provided. PMID:24479086

  14. Nepal's rapid population growth still a concern.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    The Nepal representative of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) noted at the 194 ESCAP Commission meeting in Beijing that rapid population growth was still a problem: 2.1% per year. The annual average income growth rate was only 3.5% and poverty was widespread. The combination of poverty and rapid population growth were contributing to environmental damage. Sustainable solutions were needed for dealing with all three aforementioned issues. A high priority was already attached to population control programs, because population growth was linked to raising the standard of living and solving environmental problems. Women need to be placed in prominent positions in development efforts and given equality with men. Nepal representatives did attend the preparatory meeting on April 22, 1994, to the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to be held in Cairo in September. The Preparatory Committee will be developing a report for the Conference. Solutions to population issues were seen as instrumental to achieving poverty alleviation and high economic growth.

  15. Overview of Nepal's energy sources and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, C. K.

    In the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal faces environmental problems of most industrialized countries whereas it has problems similar to the least developed countries, in the hills. Types and quantity of energy use have a close link with the environmental degradation in Nepal Himalaya. Over dependence on the forest to meet the energy demand in the hills has aggravated the environmental problems. Lack of forest cover on the hills, the intense monsoon rain, the fragile geology and steep terrain are contributing to the acceleration of landslides, soil erosion and temperature rise. The rise of average minimum temperature is causing glaciers to retreat and thereby the development of large bodies of glacial lake. Glacial lake outbursts of 1981 in Kodari and of 1985 in Namche bazar area caused extensive damage on infrastructures down stream. Heavy use of commercial fuel (hydrocarbons) in the bowl shaped Kathmandu valley is causing air and water pollution and an increase in the average minimum temperature. Extensive development of hydropower, biogas plants and massive reforestation on naked hills and efficient use of imported hydrocarbons are the solution to existing energy and environmental problems.

  16. Environmental variability and child growth in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shively, Gerald; Sununtnasuk, Celeste; Brown, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic Health Survey are combined with satellite remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to evaluate whether interannual variability in weather is associated with child health. For stunting, we focus on children older than 24 months of age. NDVI anomaly averages during cropping months are evaluated during the year before birth, the year of birth, and the second year after birth. For wasting, we assess children under 59 months of age and relate growth to NDVI averages for the current and most recent growing periods. Correlations between short-run indicators of child growth and intensity of green vegetation are generally positive. Regressions that control for a range of child-, mother- and household-specific characteristics produce mixed evidence regarding the role of NDVI anomalies during critical periods in a child's early life and the subsequent probability of stunting and wasting. Overall findings suggest that the relationship between environmental conditions and child growth are heterogeneous across the landscape in Nepal and, in many cases, highly non-linear and sensitive to departures from normality.

  17. Early marriage and early motherhood in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Choe, Minja Kim; Thapa, Shyam; Mishra, Vinod

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines age patterns of first marriage and motherhood and covariates of early marriage, delayed consummation of marriage and early motherhood in Nepal using data from the 2000 Nepal Adolescent and Young Adult Survey (NAYA). Both unmarried and married male and female youths (age 14-22) were included in the survey. The analysis is based on 2800 urban youths and 5075 rural youths with complete information on the variables examined. Proportional hazard models are used to estimate covariates of early marriage and early motherhood, and logistic regression models are used to estimate covariates of delayed consummation of marriage. The results show that early marriage and early motherhood are quite common among Nepalese women, especially in rural areas. Early marriage is much less common among men. Delayed consummation of marriage is common among very young brides, especially in rural areas. The main covariates associated with early marriage and early motherhood are respondent's education, region of residence and ethnicity. The main covariates of delayed consummation of marriage are age at first marriage, region of residence and ethnicity. The study highlights the need to focus on less educated female youths in the Terai region in order to reduce the reproductive and child health risks associated with early marriage and early childbearing.

  18. Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport in Extreme Precipitation Events in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, K.; Endreny, T. A.; Ferguson, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    In the future, IPCC global climate models project increased frequency of atmospheric rivers (ARs), which are concentrated bands of high moisture known to cause extreme precipitation and flooding events. While ARs have been studied in the United States (US) and Europe using reanalyses and satellite remote sensing, few if any studies have applied an AR analysis framework to regions in South Asia. In this research, we develop and test AR detection algorithms for Nepal by modifying a proven algorithm used in the western US and Europe. Nepal faces challenges in forecasting extreme precipitation events due to the region's complex topography and lack of forecasting infrastructure. Accordingly, any tools that can lead to enhanced lead time of extreme weather forecasts, or help guide water management decisions, will have a substantial positive impact on the region's coping ability. Our AR algorithm uses ERA-Interim reanalysis data to compute integrated water vapor transport (kg m-1s-1) and determine the latitude specific threshold values, for four seasons. After detecting AR events, we test if those events correlate with observed extreme daily precipitation events. Extreme precipitation is determined annually and for non-monsoon months. Our initial results indicate that ARs coincide with extreme precipitation mostly in the cold season. We are extending our analyses to better understand how ARs relate to extreme precipitation events in all seasons. New methods to monitor the role of ARs in precipitation events will help manage water resources, which is critical given the melting of Himalayan glaciers that feed major watersheds of Nepal. In addition to understanding extreme events, our study will also aid in a better understanding of seasonal climate anomalies and the global water cycle.

  19. Convergence rate across the Nepal Himalaya and interseismic coupling on the Main Himalayan Thrust: Implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ader, Thomas; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Lyon-Caen, HéLèNe; Bollinger, Laurent; Galetzka, John; Genrich, Jeff; Thomas, Marion; Chanard, Kristel; Sapkota, Soma Nath; Rajaure, Sudhir; Shrestha, Prithvi; Ding, Lin; Flouzat, Mireille

    2012-04-01

    We document geodetic strain across the Nepal Himalaya using GPS times series from 30 stations in Nepal and southern Tibet, in addition to previously published campaign GPS points and leveling data and determine the pattern of interseismic coupling on the Main Himalayan Thrust fault (MHT). The noise on the daily GPS positions is modeled as a combination of white and colored noise, in order to infer secular velocities at the stations with consistent uncertainties. We then locate the pole of rotation of the Indian plate in the ITRF 2005 reference frame at longitude = - 1.34° ± 3.31°, latitude = 51.4° ± 0.3° with an angular velocity of Ω = 0.5029 ± 0.0072°/Myr. The pattern of coupling on the MHT is computed on a fault dipping 10° to the north and whose strike roughly follows the arcuate shape of the Himalaya. The model indicates that the MHT is locked from the surface to a distance of approximately 100 km down dip, corresponding to a depth of 15 to 20 km. In map view, the transition zone between the locked portion of the MHT and the portion which is creeping at the long term slip rate seems to be at the most a few tens of kilometers wide and coincides with the belt of midcrustal microseismicity underneath the Himalaya. According to a previous study based on thermokinematic modeling of thermochronological and thermobarometric data, this transition seems to happen in a zone where the temperature reaches 350°C. The convergence between India and South Tibet proceeds at a rate of 17.8 ± 0.5 mm/yr in central and eastern Nepal and 20.5 ± 1 mm/yr in western Nepal. The moment deficit due to locking of the MHT in the interseismic period accrues at a rate of 6.6 ± 0.4 × 1019 Nm/yr on the MHT underneath Nepal. For comparison, the moment released by the seismicity over the past 500 years, including 14 MW ≥ 7 earthquakes with moment magnitudes up to 8.5, amounts to only 0.9 × 1019 Nm/yr, indicating a large deficit of seismic slip over that period or very infrequent

  20. Childhood Immunization and Access to Health Care: Evidence From Nepal.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the effect of access to health care center, in terms of travel time, on childhood immunization in Nepal using the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Nepal Living Standards Measurement Surveys. We employ probit and instrumental variable probit estimation methods to estimate the causal effect of travel time on the probability of immunization. Results indicate that travel time to the nearest health center displays a significant negative association with the probability of immunization (coefficient = -0.015,P< .05). Furthermore, the effect of travel time tends to be stronger in rural and distant areas of Nepal's mountain and hill regions. The results suggest that policy interventions should increase the number of mobile clinics in rural villages and provide conditional cash transfer to incentivize immunization coverage at the household level. In addition, household income, parental education, ethnicity, and household location emerge as important determinants of immunization in Nepal. PMID:26809971

  1. Zika Virus: Yet Another Emerging Threat to Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B

    2015-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

  2. Childhood Immunization and Access to Health Care: Evidence From Nepal.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the effect of access to health care center, in terms of travel time, on childhood immunization in Nepal using the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Nepal Living Standards Measurement Surveys. We employ probit and instrumental variable probit estimation methods to estimate the causal effect of travel time on the probability of immunization. Results indicate that travel time to the nearest health center displays a significant negative association with the probability of immunization (coefficient = -0.015,P< .05). Furthermore, the effect of travel time tends to be stronger in rural and distant areas of Nepal's mountain and hill regions. The results suggest that policy interventions should increase the number of mobile clinics in rural villages and provide conditional cash transfer to incentivize immunization coverage at the household level. In addition, household income, parental education, ethnicity, and household location emerge as important determinants of immunization in Nepal.

  3. The World Health Organization Recommendations for Trachoma Surveillance, Experience in Nepal and Added Benefit of Testing for Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 Protein: NESTS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Andrea I.; Sharma, Shekhar; Crowley, Kathryn; Dize, Laura; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Mishra, Sailesh K.; Rotondo, Lisa A.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; West, Sheila K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) now requires a second surveillance survey for trachoma after an impact assessment has found follicular trachoma (TF) <5% to determine if re-emergence has occurred. Using new WHO guidelines, we undertook surveillance surveys, and determined the prevalence of infection and antibody positivity, in two districts in Nepal. Methods 20 clusters were randomly selected within each district, 15 were randomly selected for antibody testing. In each cluster, we randomly selected 50 children ages 1–9 years and 100 adults ≥15 years. TF and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) were evaluated. Conjunctival swabs to test for chlamydial infection using GenXpert platform were obtained, and dried blood spots were collected to test for antibodies to Chlamydia Trachomatis pgp3 using the Luminex platform. Findings 3 cases of TF were found in the two districts, and one case of infection. Pgp3 antibody positivity was 2·4% (95% confidence interval: 1·4%, 3·7%), and did not increase with age (P = 0.24). No clustering of antibody positivity within communities was found. TT prevalence was <1/1,000 population. Interpretation The surveillance surveys, as proposed by WHO, showed no evidence for re-emergence of trachoma in two districts of Nepal. The low level and no significant increase by age in seroprevalence of antibodies to C trachomatis pgp3 antigen deserve further investigation as a marker of interruption of transmission. PMID:27654497

  4. Health status of married women residing five communities in Nepal: unexpectedly high prevalence of anemia in a well-off community of Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Konishi, S; Parajuli, R P; Takane, E; Maharjan, M; Sharma, S; Tachibana, K; Jiang, H; Pahari, K; Pandey, B D; Watanabe, C

    2011-03-01

    The high prevalence of anemia and underweight among reproductive age women is a serious health concern in Nepal. The objective of the present study was to describe anemia prevalence and nutritional status of married women in Nepal. Total of 278 women were included in the present analysis. The five communities included an urban commercial area (W) in Kathmandu, an agricultural village (K) in Lalitpur District, an agricultural village in Chitwan District (C) and one in Ilam District (I) with intensive cash cropping, and another rural village in Kaski District (P) with high number of international out-migration of males. The study procedure included anthropometric measurements, blood collection for hemoglobin measurement, and stool collection for examination of hookworm infection, and a structured interview on their reproductive history including contraceptive use. The altitude adjusted prevalence of anemia was 65%, 23%, 16%, 49% and 58% in communities C, I, K, P and W respectively. The hookworm prevalence of each community was not associated with the anemia prevalence. In the urban well-off community W, although 38% of the women had BMI > or = 25 and only 2% of women had BMI<18.5, 58% of the women were anemic. A logistic regression analysis on the anemia risk at the individual level showed no effect of helminth infection, but a significant negative effect of Depo-Provera (depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate) use. Causes of high anemia prevalence among the women resided in the urban well-off area should be investigated in future studies.

  5. Communicating awareness of light pollution with the schools in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Jayanta

    2015-08-01

    Nepal is also highly polluted by the lights and other dusts partials, but lacks the formal education of light pollutions and effect of light for astronomy observations. When we get Sky Quality Meter (SQM) last year (2014) we have installed it in Kathmandu.This paper will highlight about installation SQM in Nepal, measurement of brightness of the night sky in magnitudes per square arc second. Research work of light pollution of Kathmandu will be more in focus. Highlight of the Astronomy programs by different Schools in Nepal along with the background of coverage of Astronomy education in the syllables of different education level. The various procedure , technique and idea used in providing the space education through different activities and program to school studentsThe paper will also deal with the Importance of light and use of artificial light. Beside it will also highlight the possibility of development of various observatories in Nepal because of its tremendous topography increasing the Astro tourism in Nepal.Hence the paper would focus on the light pollution of the city like Kathmandu and light system in Nepal and Astronomy education to its implementation along with its outreach to Nepalese society.

  6. Convergence rate across the Nepal Himalaya and interseismic coupling on the Main Himalayan Thrust, implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ader, T. J.; Avouac, J.; Bollinger, L.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Chanard, K. D.; Galetzka, J. E.; Genrich, J. F.; Sapkota, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    We use 24 continuous GPS stations installed by Caltech throughout Nepal, in addition to previously published campaign GPS points and leveling data collected along the road Birganj-Katmandu-Kodari to propose a detailed pattern of coupling on the MHT. The continuous GPS time series are processed modeling the noise on the daily positions by a combination of white and flicker noise, in order to infer secular velocities at the stations with consistent error bars. We then locate the pole of rotation of the Indian plate in the ITRF 2005 reference frame at longitude = 3.6o ± 2.6o, latitude = 51.52o ± 0.26o with an angular velocity of Ω = 0.518 ± 0.008o/Myr. The pattern of coupling on the MHT is computed with a backslip model on a fault dipping 10o to the North and whose strike roughly follows the foothills of the Himalayan chain. The model indicates that the MHT is locked from the surface to a distance of approximately 100 km along dip, corresponding to a depth of 15 to 20 km where the temperature reaches 350oC. In map view, the transition locked/creeping seems to be at the most a few tens of kilometers wide and overlaps with the belt of midcrustal microseismicity underneath the Himalayas. The convergence of the Indian plate underneath the Tibetan plateau proceeds at a rate of 18.1 ± 0.5~mm/yr in central and eastern Nepal and 19.9 ± 0.7~mm/yr in western Nepal. The moment deficit accrues at a rate of 6.7 ± 1019 Nm/yr on the MHT. This rate exceeds by far the moment released by the seismicity in the past 500 years, indicating that the risk for a large M > 8 earthquake to happen in Nepal is real.

  7. Injection practices in Nepal: health policymakers’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than

  8. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a material as well as spiritual

  9. P-wave residuals at stations in Nepal - Evidence for a high velocity region beneath the Karakorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, M. R.; Roecker, Steven W.; Molnar, Peter

    1991-01-01

    P-wave residuals recorded at stations in Nepal from events to the northwest and closer than about 20 deg are consistently earlier than those from other directions by about 2.5 sec. These early arrivals are associated with paths confined to the upper 300 km of the earth and suggest that cold material occupies the uppermost mantle beneath the Karakorum, northwest Himalaya, and western Kunlun. Thus, these data suggest that convective downwelling occurs more vigorously in this region than beneath the rest of the Himalaya, Tibet, and their surroundings.

  10. Teaching English as a Foreign/Second Language in Nepal: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews the history of English language teaching English as a second or foreign language in schools and colleges in Nepal. Teaching English language and literature in Nepal is of about a half a decade, starting from the mid of twentieth century. English learners in Nepal do not have enough exposure to various techniques…

  11. The trajectory of methadone maintenance treatment in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ambekar, Atul; Rao, Ravindra; Pun, Anan; Kumar, Suresh; Kishore, Kunal

    2013-11-01

    There are about 28,500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Nepal and HIV prevalence among this group is high. Nepal introduced harm reduction services for PWID much earlier than other countries in South Asia. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Nepal in 1994. This initial small scale MMT programme was closed in 2002 but reopened in 2007 as an emergency HIV prevention response. It has since been scaled up to include three MMT clinics and continuation of MMT is supported by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA; the nodal ministry for drug supply reduction activities) and has been endorsed in the recent National Narcotics policy. Pressure from drug user groups has also helped its reintroduction. Interestingly, these developments have taken place during a period of political instability in Nepal, with the help of strong advocacy from multiple stakeholders. The MMT programme has also had to face resistance from those who were running drug treatment centres. Despite overcoming such troubles, the MMT programme faces a number of challenges. Coverage of MMT is low and high-risk injecting and sexual behaviour among PWID continues. The finance for MMT is largely from external donors and these donations have become scarce with the current global economic problems. With a multitude of developmental challenges for Nepal, the position of MMT in the national priority list is uncertain. Ownership of the programme by government, a cost-effective national MMT scale up plan and rigorous monitoring of its implementation is needed.

  12. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  13. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  14. Geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

    1982-01-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  15. Assessment of physical premises of selected pharmacies of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Bhupendra Kumar; Ishii, Itsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: This work attempts to investigate the standards of physical premises of pharmacies in terms of cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities of two selected districts of Nepal: Kathmandu and Kaski. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study of 100 randomly selected retail and wholesale pharmacies (55 from Kathmandu and 45 from Kaski) was conducted for their compliance to provisions of physical premises: cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities. Preliminarily, scoring was done by converting 5-point Likert scale to a 100-point scale as follows: 1 = 0–20, 2 = 21–40, 3 = 41–60, 4 = 61–80 and 5 = 81–100. These scores were then reported as poor (score ⩽ 40), below average (score of 41–49), average (score of 50), above average (score of 51–60) and good (score ⩾ 61). Cronbach’s alpha for retails and wholesales obtained was .720 and .757, respectively. Results: In wholesales, protection from physical environment was least scored among other components, with the mean score 34.7 ± 8.3 for Kathmandu and 37.3 ± 13.3 for Kaski. Ventilation was scored 35.3 ± 6.3 for Kathmandu and 39.3 ± 11.6 for Kaski. All other components were obtained below average. However, in retails, the storage facilities were rated ‘poor’ with mean score 36.3 ± 13.9 for Kathmandu and 36.0 ± 11.9 for Kaski. Most other components were scored above average except for ventilation which was scored ‘good’. It was found that there was no significant difference between physical premises of the pharmacies of Kathmandu and Kaski in terms of all the indicators. The findings suggest that physical premise of many pharmacies was not found appropriate as provisioned in the good pharmacy practice requirements of Codes on Sales and Distribution of Drugs. Conclusion: Most pharmacies were found non-compliant to

  16. Assessment of physical premises of selected pharmacies of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Bhupendra Kumar; Ishii, Itsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: This work attempts to investigate the standards of physical premises of pharmacies in terms of cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities of two selected districts of Nepal: Kathmandu and Kaski. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study of 100 randomly selected retail and wholesale pharmacies (55 from Kathmandu and 45 from Kaski) was conducted for their compliance to provisions of physical premises: cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities. Preliminarily, scoring was done by converting 5-point Likert scale to a 100-point scale as follows: 1 = 0–20, 2 = 21–40, 3 = 41–60, 4 = 61–80 and 5 = 81–100. These scores were then reported as poor (score ⩽ 40), below average (score of 41–49), average (score of 50), above average (score of 51–60) and good (score ⩾ 61). Cronbach’s alpha for retails and wholesales obtained was .720 and .757, respectively. Results: In wholesales, protection from physical environment was least scored among other components, with the mean score 34.7 ± 8.3 for Kathmandu and 37.3 ± 13.3 for Kaski. Ventilation was scored 35.3 ± 6.3 for Kathmandu and 39.3 ± 11.6 for Kaski. All other components were obtained below average. However, in retails, the storage facilities were rated ‘poor’ with mean score 36.3 ± 13.9 for Kathmandu and 36.0 ± 11.9 for Kaski. Most other components were scored above average except for ventilation which was scored ‘good’. It was found that there was no significant difference between physical premises of the pharmacies of Kathmandu and Kaski in terms of all the indicators. The findings suggest that physical premise of many pharmacies was not found appropriate as provisioned in the good pharmacy practice requirements of Codes on Sales and Distribution of Drugs. Conclusion: Most pharmacies were found non-compliant to

  17. A distinct genetic population of Gongylonema pulchrum from water buffaloes in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Makouloutou, Patrice; Rana, Hari Bahadur; Adhikari, Bishunu; Devkota, Bhuminand; Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Whole-length esophagi of 111 Murrah cross water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in the Kathmandu and Chitwan districts of Nepal from December 2009 to February 2010. Gullet worms showing a typical epithelium-dwelling character were detected in 13 of 53 (24.5%) buffaloes in Kathmandu and in 5 of 58 (8.6%) buffaloes in Chitwan. The worms' morphology and measurements were identical to those of Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, except for the length of the left spicules relative to the body length. Scanning electron microscopy did not detect any further morphological differences regarding the collected specimen from Nepal compared with G. pulchrum . The ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), including internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2, and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA of the worms were characterized and compared with those of G. pulchrum collected from cattle, deer, wild boars, and monkeys in Japan and from cattle in Iran. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences of the buffalo-collected worms had 99.8% (1,779/1,782), 100% (158/158), and 98.3-98.8% (3,494-3,507/3,551) identities, respectively, with those of G. pulchrum from the other host mammals. The ITS regions exhibited higher variations between the buffalo-collected worms and G. pulchrum from the other host mammals (85-88% identity for ITS1 and 56-80% identity for ITS2). The COI also showed lower identities (89.2-90.2%), although only a single amino acid substitution was noted compared with the majority of G. pulchrum samples collected in Japan. Based on these molecular genetic characters in the rDNA and COI mitochondrial DNA, together with a shorter left spicule length relative to body length, the gullet worms isolated from buffaloes in Nepal might belong to a distinct local or buffalo-preferring population of G. pulchrum, although its geographical distribution on the continent and host specificity remain to be clarified.

  18. Hearing Loss is Associated with Decreased Nonverbal Intelligence in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Susan D.; Schmitz, Jane; Pillion, Joseph; Wu, Lee; Khatry, Subarna K.; Karna, Sureshwar L.; LeClerq, Steven C.; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the association between adolescent and young adult hearing loss and nonverbal intelligence in rural Nepal Study Design Cross-sectional assessment of hearing loss among a population cohort of adolescents and young adults Setting Sarlahi District, southern Nepal Patients 764 individuals aged 14–23 years Intervention Evaluation of hearing loss, defined by WHO criteria of pure-tone average (PTA) >25 decibels (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), unilaterally and bilaterally Main Outcome Measure Nonverbal intelligence, measured by the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edition (TONI-3) standardized score (mean 100; standard deviation (SD) 15) Results Nonverbal intelligence scores differed between participants with normal hearing and those with bilateral (p =0.04) but not unilateral (p =0.74) hearing loss. Demographic and socioeconomic factors including male sex, higher caste, literacy, education level, occupation reported as student, and ownership of a bicycle, watch, and latrine were strongly associated with higher nonverbal intelligence scores (all p <0.001). Subjects with bilateral hearing loss scored an average of 3.16 points lower (95% CI: −5.56, −0.75; p =0.01) than subjects with normal hearing after controlling for socioeconomic factors. There was no difference in nonverbal intelligence score based on unilateral hearing loss (0.97; 95% CI: −1.67, 3.61; p =0.47). Conclusions Nonverbal intelligence is adversely affected by bilateral hearing loss, even at mild hearing loss levels. Social and economic well being appear compromised in individuals with lower nonverbal intelligence test scores. PMID:25299832

  19. Understanding socio economic contexts of female sex workers in eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sagtani, R A; Bhattarai, S; Adhikari, B R; Baral, D D; Yadav, D K; Pokharel, P K

    2014-12-01

    The present focus is mostly laid on high risk behavior of commercial sex workers without any consideration of their location, educational status and other socio-cultural norms. Thus, we designed a study to understand socio demographic characteristics, lifestyle of female sex workers and search for driving factors for prostitution in eastern Nepal. A descriptive study was conducted in three districts of Eastern Nepal in 2012 over the period of six months. The data regarding their socio demographic characteristics, income, reason for joining sex trade and future choice regarding the profession were recorded from 210 female sex workers through face-to-face interviews. Majority (53.3%) of respondents belonged to the productive age group of 20-29 years, more than one thirds (43.3%) had not received any form of formal education and were unmarried. More than half (53.80%) were presently living alone and about one thirds of the women (31.90%) were minors when they joined this profession. Major portion of the sample (94.80%) worked more than three days a week with median income of 15 thousand per month and 41 percent had sex with more than or equal to ten clients per week. Poor economic condition was the most frequent (47.6%) factor leading to joining of sex trade however, more than two thirds, (72.80%) wanted to quit the profession. Given low level of education, relatively low income, and young age among this population, empowerment and alternative employment/education opportunities should be created to develop this part of Nepalese society.

  20. Public health impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, H D; Dhimal, B; Dhimal, M; Bhusal, C L

    2011-04-01

    Climate change is a global issue in this century which has challenged the survival of living creatures affecting the life supporting systems of the earth: atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Scientists have reached in a consensus that climate change is happening. The anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming and therefore climate change. Climate change may directly or indirectly affect human health through a range of pathways related to temperature and precipitation. The aim of this article is to share knowledge on how climate change can affect public health in Nepal based on scientific evidence from global studies and experience gained locally. In this review attempt has been made to critically analyze the scientific studies as well as policy documents of Nepalese Government and shed light on public health impact of climate change in the context of Nepal. Detailed scientific study is recommended to discern impact of climate change on public health problems in Nepal.

  1. Astronomy Olympiad: An Initiative To Promote Astronomy Education In Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents National Astronomy Olympiad Program as a new initiative towards the development of astronomy education in Nepal by Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO).Innovoative components of the olympiad programs designed by NASO to engage both scince and non-science backgound people will be discussed in detail. It will discuss the first National Astronomy Olympiad 2014 and Second National Astronomy Olympiad 2015 in details. It will also present crowd funding, its effectiveness to outreach as well as collecting funds from around the world will be presented in brief. Proposed module of astronomy olympiad to promote astronnomy in the countries without formal astronomy education in high school like Nepal,will be presented in dedail. Possible strategry to strengthen such programs in developing nations and role of IAU to promote such educational program will be explored in detail.

  2. Municipal solid waste management in Nepal: practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D.; Viraraghavan, T. . E-mail: t.viraraghavan@uregina.ca

    2005-07-01

    Solid waste management in Kathmandu valley of Nepal, especially concerning the siting of landfills, has been a challenge for over a decade. The current practice of the illegal dumping of solid waste on the river banks has created a serious environmental and public health problem. The focus of this study was to carry out an evaluation of solid waste management in Nepal based on published information. The data showed that 70% of the solid wastes generated in Nepal are of organic origin. As such, composting of the solid waste and using it on the land is the best way of solid waste disposal. This will reduce the waste volume transported to the landfill and will increase its life.

  3. Blue sheep in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal: habitat use, population biomass and their contribution to the carrying capacity of snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Achyut; Brunton, Dianne; Ji, Weihong; Raubenheimer, David

    2014-01-01

    The Himalaya region of Nepal provides a habitat for the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and its principal prey species, the blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur). The aim of this study was to describe the habitat, the distribution and the population structure of blue sheep, and to estimate their contribution to the carrying capacity of snow leopard in the upper Mustang region of Nepal. Blue sheep were recorded at altitudes from 3209-5498 m on slopes with gradients of 16-60° and aspects of 40°NE to 140°SE. A total of 939 blue sheep were counted in the upper Mustang region, and 98 were counted in the Yak Kharka region of Manang district; however, upper Mustang had the lowest population density of blue sheep recorded within their distribution range in Nepal (0.86 blue sheep/km(2)). The results of the study show that a higher density of blue sheep is associated with greater plant species diversity. The most important species present in the blue sheep habitat were Kobresia pygmaea, Artemesia spp., Lonicera spp., Lancea tibetica, Poa spp., Astragalus spp. and Ephedra gerardiana. It is estimated that the existing blue sheep population biomass of approximately 38 925 kg in the upper Mustang region could support approximately 19 snow leopards (1.6 snow leopards/100 km(2)).

  4. Blue sheep in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal: habitat use, population biomass and their contribution to the carrying capacity of snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Achyut; Brunton, Dianne; Ji, Weihong; Raubenheimer, David

    2014-01-01

    The Himalaya region of Nepal provides a habitat for the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and its principal prey species, the blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur). The aim of this study was to describe the habitat, the distribution and the population structure of blue sheep, and to estimate their contribution to the carrying capacity of snow leopard in the upper Mustang region of Nepal. Blue sheep were recorded at altitudes from 3209-5498 m on slopes with gradients of 16-60° and aspects of 40°NE to 140°SE. A total of 939 blue sheep were counted in the upper Mustang region, and 98 were counted in the Yak Kharka region of Manang district; however, upper Mustang had the lowest population density of blue sheep recorded within their distribution range in Nepal (0.86 blue sheep/km(2)). The results of the study show that a higher density of blue sheep is associated with greater plant species diversity. The most important species present in the blue sheep habitat were Kobresia pygmaea, Artemesia spp., Lonicera spp., Lancea tibetica, Poa spp., Astragalus spp. and Ephedra gerardiana. It is estimated that the existing blue sheep population biomass of approximately 38 925 kg in the upper Mustang region could support approximately 19 snow leopards (1.6 snow leopards/100 km(2)). PMID:24447660

  5. Population growth and land use in Nepal: "the great turnabout".

    PubMed

    Hrabovszky, J P; Miyan, K

    1987-08-01

    Historically, Nepal has demonstrated a "great turnabout" trend, in which initial immigration from the lowland areas to the mountains has been replaced by accelerating migration from the hills to the plains. The reason for this reversal has been a rapid growth in population within the confines of limited availability of potentially cultivable land. Given Nepal's slow economic development, the overwhelming majority of increases in population have to be accommodated within the agricultural sector, on which 83% of Nepal's households are dependent. Fundamental land use issues in Nepal include rapid achievement of the final limit of land suitability for cultivation and the speed at which land can be brought into cultivation. The Government of Nepal has developed the objectives of increased food production to provide a satisfactory diet for the population, increased per capita income, improved regional balance in income and development, conservation of natural resources such as land and forests, and overall development of the economy through income generation, export earnings, and release of agricultural labor to other sectors. 3 perspective studies have identified a number of policies and programs that could bring Nepal closer to these goals. These studies analyzed potential land use development, agricultural production, and food availability by the year 2005. Most essential is the need to intensify land use not only in crop agriculture, but also grasslands and forest use. Land must be allocated to uses that represent the most productive use of that land without being degrading. Technologies are available for land use in each of the main types of uses--crop agriculture, livestock, and forests--that can provide protection against land degradation. Finally, irrigation is a key element in raising agricultural output. Close cooperation between the government and the people is crucial for the success of the task of finding a balance between population growth and its demand

  6. Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal.

    PubMed

    van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra

    2004-04-01

    Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology.

  7. Detection of Chikungunya Virus in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Basu Dev; Neupane, Biswas; Pandey, Kishor; Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-10-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging alphaviral disease and a public health problem in South Asia including Nepal in recent years. In this study, sera were collected from patients presenting with fever, headache, muscular pain, fatigue, and joint pain of both upper and lower extremities. A total of 169 serum samples were tested for CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) by using Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method during August to November 2013. Results showed that 3.6% and 27.8% samples were positive for CHIKV and DENV IgM positive, respectively. Similarly, results of IgG showed 3.0% samples were positive for CHIKV IgG and 29.0% were for DENV IgG positive. Further, a 50% focal reduction neutralization test (FRNT50) was performed to confirm the presence of CHIKV, which demonstrated that 8.9% of CHIKV IgM and/or IgG ELISA positive possessed neutralizing anti-CHIK antibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which the presence of CHIKV is confirmed in Nepalese patients by FRNT50. Basic scientists and clinicians need to consider CHIKV as a differential diagnosis in febrile Nepalese patients, and policy makers should consider appropriate surveillance and actions for control strategies.

  8. Constructed wetland technology transfer to Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, R R; Haberl, R; Laber, J

    2001-01-01

    Constructed Wetland (CW) technology is still not wide spread in developing countries despite having great potential. This paper describes an approach carried out in Nepal to transfer CW technology for wastewater treatment. Three CWs (hospital wastewater treatment--20 m3/d, greywater treatment of a single household, septage treatment--40 m3/d) were built and two have been investigated so far. All systems are subsurface flow systems with at least one vertical flow stage. Their treatment efficiency turned out to be very high. Median load elimination rates of the hospital wastewater and greywater treatment plants were for TSS: 97 to 99%; BOD5: 97 to 99%; COD: 94 to 97%; NH4-N 80 to 99%; PO4-P: 5 to 69%; Total Coliforms: 99.87 to 99.999% (3-5 log steps). Beside the treatment task the plants play an important role as demonstration sites to make common people and especially decision makers aware of the existing environmental problems and one possible solution. Several recommendations are pointed out to promote the technology in developing countries.

  9. Internal migration of people in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, M N

    1979-07-01

    The Kingdom of Nepal is divided geographically into 3 distinct regions: the Mountain, the Hill, and the Plain. The average rate of population growth from 1961 to 1971 was 2.1%, but recent data suggest that it has now increased to 2.5%. 94% of the labor force is employed in agriculture. With the present rate of internal migration the Plain Region will be supporting approximately 35% of the total population (excluding the population immigrating from other countries) in 1981, and 39% in 1991. If the same migration pattern continues, the population distribution among the geographic regions will stabilize around 95% in the Plain, 4% in the Hill, and 1% in the Mountain. Such an unequal distribution of population will inevitably produce a tremendous stress on the physical environment as well as on the political, social, and economic system of the country. Soil erosion, landslides, floods, and a lowering of the water table in the Hill have resulted; the fertility of the soil has been depleted, if not exhausted. In view of these facts, the author recommends large-scale concurrent programs: 1) to introduce afforestation and horticulture in the Hill; 2) to improve agriculture; 3) to establish small-scale rural industries in order to release people from the agricultural sector; 4) to restrict migration and the family size through proper corrective feedbacks; and 5) to raise the people's awareness and participation in environmental conservation. PMID:12336155

  10. Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Terai region of Nepal: an overview of health concerns and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, D; Bhandari, B S; Viraraghavan, T

    2009-01-01

    A review of published information on the arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Terai regions of Nepal showed that the source was mainly geogenic due to the dissolution of the arsenic-bearing minerals. Clinical observations of patients in the arsenic affected districts revealed chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water. Half a million people inhabiting the region are believed to have been exposed to arsenic levels greater than 50 microg/L in their drinking water. Thirty-one percent of the population (3.5 million) in the region are estimated to have been exposed to arsenic levels between 10 and 50 microg/L. Iron assisted biosand filters currently distributed and in operation are a suitable alternative to mitigate the interim arsenic standard of 50 microg/L, as set by the Nepal Government. Arsenic biosand filters were also effective in removing bacteria and viruses from drinking water in laboratory and field tests. However, groundwater treatment targeting cluster communities in the Terai region is the sustainable way of mitigating the arsenic problem.

  11. Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Ram Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Ranabhat, Kamal; Pokharel, Amrit; Devkota, Pramila; Mishra, Durga; Ghimire, Yadu Chandra; Gelal, Khageshwor; Paudel, Rajan; Wagle, Rajendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. PMID:25694785

  12. Expansion of Safe Abortion Services in Nepal Through Auxiliary Nurse‐Midwife Provision of Medical Abortion, 2011‐2013

    PubMed Central

    Basnett, Indira; Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Shrestha, Meena Kumari; Shah, Mukta; Aryal, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The termination of unwanted pregnancies up to 12 weeks’ gestation became legal in Nepal in 2002. Many interventions have taken place to expand access to comprehensive abortion care services. However, comprehensive abortion care services remain out of reach for women in rural and remote areas. This article describes a training and support strategy to train auxiliary nurse‐midwives (ANMs), already certified as skilled birth attendants, as medical abortion providers and expand geographic access to safe abortion care to the community level in Nepal. Methods This was a descriptive program evaluation. Sites and trainees were selected using standardized assessment tools to determine minimum facility requirements and willingness to provide medical abortion after training. Training was evaluated via posttests and observational checklists. Service statistics were collected through the government's facility logbook for safe abortion services (HMIS‐11). Results By the end of June 2014, medical abortion service had been expanded to 25 districts through 463 listed ANMs at 290 listed primary‐level facilities and served 25,187 women. Providers report a high level of confidence in their medical abortion skills and considerable clinical knowledge and capacity in medical abortion. Discussion The Nepali experience demonstrates that safe induced abortion care can be provided by ANMs, even in remote primary‐level health facilities. Post‐training support for providers is critical in helping ANMs handle potential barriers to medical abortion service provision and build lasting capacity in medical abortion. PMID:26860072

  13. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. Conclusion: The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways. PMID:25785259

  14. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief mission by a tripartite medical team led by the Singapore Armed Forces after the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming Li Leonard; Lim, Jonathan Zhao Min; Tan, Mark Zhong Wei; Kok, Wai Leong; Zhang, Jun Ren; Tan, Mian Yi; Tan, Adrian Chong Beng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to report the injury or disease patterns, challenges, key observations, and recommendations by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) team that embarked on an Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) mission in the aftermath of the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. METHODS The SAF medical team that provided HADR assistance to Nepal consisted of personnel from the SAF, Singapore¢s Ministry of Health and the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. Upon arrival in Kathmandu, Nepal, the SAF medical team was assigned to the Gokarna district by the local health authorities. In addition to providing primary healthcare, the medical facility was equipped to perform resuscitation and minor procedures. We also assembled mobile medical teams (MMTs) that travelled to various remote areas of the country to deliver medical aid. RESULTS A total of 3,014 patients were managed by the SAF medical team. Of these patients, 1,286 (42.7%) were men. 574 (19.0%) patients sustained earthquake-related injuries or illnesses, while 2,440 (81.0%) sustained non-earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. The team treated a total of 447 (77.9%) adults and 127 (22.1%) paediatric patients with earthquake-related injuries or illnesses. A significant number of patients developed exacerbations of underlying medical conditions. 2,161 (71.7%) patients were treated in our main facility in Gokarna, while 853 patients (28.3%) were treated by our MMTs. CONCLUSION The ability to transport healthcare personnel and essential medical equipment within a short time allowed the SAF medical team to provide crucial medical care in the aftermath of the 2015 Nepal earthquake. PMID:27549187

  15. Estimating the prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: methodology of a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major disorders of the brain (MDBs), in terms of their prevalence and the burdens of ill health, disability and financial cost that they impose on individuals and society, are headache, depression and anxiety. No population-based studies have been conducted in Nepal. Aim Our purpose was to assess the prevalence and burden attributable to MDBs in Nepal in order to inform health policy. Here we report the methodology. Methods The unusual sociocultural diversity and extreme geographical variation of the country required adaptation of standard methodology. We ran pre-pilot and pilot studies before embarking on the main study. The study design was cross-sectional. The population of interest were adults aged 18–65 years who were Nepali speaking and living in Nepal. We selected, employed and trained groups of interviewers to visit randomly selected households by cold-calling. Households were selected from 15 representative districts out of 75 in the country through multistage cluster sampling. One participant was selected randomly from each household. We used structured questionnaires (the HARDSHIP questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Neuroticism), culturally adapted and translated into Nepali. We recorded blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference, and altitude of each household. We implemented various quality-assurances measures. Results We completed the survey in one month, prior to onset of the monsoon. Among 2,210 selected households, all were contacted, 2,109 were eligible for the study and, from these, 2,100 adults participated. The participation rate was 99.6%. Conclusion Standard methodology was successfully applied in Nepal, with some adaptations. The sociocultural and extraordinary geographic diversity were challenging, but did not require us to compromise the scientific quality of the study. PMID:25146939

  16. Protracted fluvial recovery from medieval earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Andermann, Christoff; Schönfeldt, Elisabeth; Seidemann, Jan; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology of earthquake-induced valley fills in the Pokhara region of western-central Nepal, and demonstrate that rivers continue to adjust to several large medieval earthquakes to the present day, thus challenging the notion of transient fluvial response to seismic disturbance. The Pokhara valley features one of the largest and most extensively dated sedimentary records of earthquake-triggered sedimentation in the Himalayas, and independently augments paleo-seismological archives obtained mainly from fault trenches and historic documents. New radiocarbon dates from the catastrophically deposited Pokhara Formation document multiple phases of extremely high geomorphic activity between ˜700 and ˜1700 AD, preserved in thick sequences of alternating fluvial conglomerates, massive mud and silt beds, and cohesive debris-flow deposits. These dated fan-marginal slackwater sediments indicate pronounced sediment pulses in the wake of at least three large medieval earthquakes in ˜1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. We combine these dates with digital elevation models, geological maps, differential GPS data, and sediment logs to estimate the extent of these three pulses that are characterized by sedimentation rates of ˜200 mm yr-1 and peak rates as high as 1,000 mm yr-1. Some 5.5 to 9 km3 of material infilled the pre-existing topography, and is now prone to ongoing fluvial dissection along major canyons. Contemporary river incision into the Pokhara Formation is rapid (120-170 mm yr-1), triggering widespread bank erosion, channel changes, and very high sediment yields of the order of 103 to 105 t km-2 yr-1, that by far outweigh bedrock denudation rates

  17. Protracted fluvial recovery from medieval earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Andermann, Christoff; Schönfeldt, Elisabeth; Seidemann, Jan; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology of earthquake-induced valley fills in the Pokhara region of western-central Nepal, and demonstrate that rivers continue to adjust to several large medieval earthquakes to the present day, thus challenging the notion of transient fluvial response to seismic disturbance. The Pokhara valley features one of the largest and most extensively dated sedimentary records of earthquake-triggered sedimentation in the Himalayas, and independently augments paleo-seismological archives obtained mainly from fault trenches and historic documents. New radiocarbon dates from the catastrophically deposited Pokhara Formation document multiple phases of extremely high geomorphic activity between ˜700 and ˜1700 AD, preserved in thick sequences of alternating fluvial conglomerates, massive mud and silt beds, and cohesive debris-flow deposits. These dated fan-marginal slackwater sediments indicate pronounced sediment pulses in the wake of at least three large medieval earthquakes in ˜1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. We combine these dates with digital elevation models, geological maps, differential GPS data, and sediment logs to estimate the extent of these three pulses that are characterized by sedimentation rates of ˜200 mm yr‑1 and peak rates as high as 1,000 mm yr‑1. Some 5.5 to 9 km3 of material infilled the pre-existing topography, and is now prone to ongoing fluvial dissection along major canyons. Contemporary river incision into the Pokhara Formation is rapid (120-170 mm yr‑1), triggering widespread bank erosion, channel changes, and very high sediment yields of the order of 103 to 105 t km‑2 yr‑1, that by far outweigh bedrock

  18. Sustainable urban housing in Kathmandu, Nepal: Proposals and evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Vikas

    Kathmandu Valley represents one of the oldest cultural hubs in the Himalayas. The historic towns in the valley consist of densely built traditional Chowk and Bahal houses with enclosed courtyards. With exposure to the outside world since 1951, the western style single-family detached house has become an image of the modern home and a status symbol. In the context of the exploding population, the prevailing trend of these free standing houses have exacerbated urban sprawl and led to inefficient use of the limited agricultural land in the valley. Devoid of shared open spaces, the new settlements lack play areas for children, places for social gathering and a sense of community. Building materials that are not manufactured locally must be trucked from India over the mountains. So is coal for the production of brick and cement, and diesel for transportation. Minimizing the amount of imported materials and energy used by these modern houses will reduce the environmental impact and also benefit the national economy. Kathmandu enjoys clear sky conditions during winter that makes passive solar design a potential strategy to achieve thermal comfort and eliminate kerosene heaters with their harmful effects. The abundance of rainfall during monsoon season makes rainwater collection a viable supplement to the unreliable municipal water supply. This dissertation creates three new housing prototypes that address all these issues. These prototypes are modern interpretations of the vernacular Chowk and Bahal, which create communal open space by grouping rowhouses around a common courtyard. Combining vernacular wisdom with the principles of sustainable design, these prototypes reduce land consumption; reduce resource consumption; create community open space; minimize imported materials; increase energy efficiency and thermal comfort; make homes and neighborhoods self sustainable for water supply and wastewater treatment; and altogether improve the quality of life. This dissertation

  19. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between August–September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51–4.55), parents’ occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58–9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99–9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55–0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49–4.80) were significantly associated with

  20. The Himalayas of Nepal, a natural laboratory for the search and measurement of CO2 discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Koirala, Bharat P.; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Rajaure, Sudhir; Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frédéric

    2010-05-01

    : the presence of a hot spring with high δ13C, of H2S smell, of hot spots in thermal images, of a geological contact, of self-potential anomalies (Byrdina et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2009) or of large radon-222 flux. Preliminary results about the failures or successes of the various methods will be given in the Trisuli and Langtang valleys (Central Nepal), in the Kali Gandaki valley (Western Nepal) and in the Thuli Bheri valley (Lower Dolpo, Far Western Nepal). These various sites also offer an opportunity to test the optimal estimation of total CO2 flux, using the least amount of experimental measurements. Preliminary results complemented by simulations will also be given on the total CO2 flux. In parallel, monitoring methods are being studied in the Syabru-Bensi pilot site. First, CO2 flux has been studied as a function of time using repeated measurements. Furthermore, the high radon content of the geological CO2 allows cost-effective monitoring using BARASOL probes. More than two years of data are already available and give hints on the use of radon to follow CO2 discharge as a function of time. These first results show how experimental studies carried out in natural discharge zones provide a rich laboratory to test the methodological approaches useful for CO2 leakage and monitoring.

  1. Corporal Punishment in Private Schools: The Case of Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanal, Jeevan; Park, Sae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate the situation of corporal punishment which is being practiced in Nepalese schools going against new policies that promote the non-violence teaching. It was based on original qualitative study of one private school of Kathmandu (the capital city of Nepal) having more than 2000 students and 100 teachers.…

  2. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  3. Women's Participation in Higher Education: China, Nepal, and the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    These studies of the involvement of women in higher education in China, Nepal, and the Philippines provide a common framework for analysis. Each study is organized around five broad areas: socio-cultural factors, politico-economic factors, ideological factors, legal factors, and infrastructural factors. An analysis of the progress of women's…

  4. Menstruation and Education in Nepal. NBER Working Paper No. 14853

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster, Emily; Thornton, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a randomized evaluation that distributed menstrual cups (menstrual sanitary products) to adolescent girls in rural Nepal. Girls in the study were randomly allocated a menstrual cup for use during their monthly period and were followed for fifteen months to measure the effects of having modern sanitary products…

  5. Nepal health sector decentralization in limbo: what are the bottlenecks?

    PubMed

    Gurung, G

    2011-06-01

    Nepal's efforts to decentralize its governance date back to over half a century. These efforts remained incomplete due to different reasons including administrative responses and political development affecting its implementation. The Local Self Governance Act (LSGA), 1999 envisaged, for the first time, to decentralize governance in the health sector through devolution of responsibilities, authority and resources to the local bodies. However, the pace of health sector decentralization in Nepal even after the LSGA was enacted has not progressed satisfactorily due to different reasons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss why health sector decentralization in Nepal has not advanced as expected. This paper identifies many issues--policy related, political, functional, and institutional--as stumbling blocks for health sector decentralization of Nepal. More specifically, the major bottlenecks for progress are lack of a clear cut policy, poor coordination among different sectors, improper handover process, lack of elected bodies, poor selection process of management committees, lack of coherence in the capacity building process of local bodies, ongoing debate about state restructuring including federalism and different political ideologies on decentralization. PMID:22364101

  6. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  7. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crishna, Brinda; Prajapati, Surya Bhakta

    2008-01-01

    In Nepal, the estimates of the prevalence of disabilities vary, and there is sparse information specifically about people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Existing data suggest higher rates of prevalence of ID in the more remote northern area due to use of non-iodized salt, lack of health facilities, and extreme poverty. Superstitious beliefs…

  8. Literacy, Power, and Agency: Love Letters and Development in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Laura M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a case study of women's incipient literacy in Junigau, Nepal, I argue that literacy can be both a catalyst for social change and a result of numerous other types of social transformation. The increase in female literacy rates in Junigau in the 1990s made possible the emergence of new courtship practices involving love letters and…

  9. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    PubMed

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims.

  10. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Nepal: Specific Ancestor Root

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Sharma, Rabi Prakash; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Suzuki, Rumiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nepal, a low-risk country for gastric cancer, is debatable. To our knowledge, no studies have examined H. pylori virulence factors in Nepal. We determined the prevalence of H. pylori infection by using three different tests, and the genotypes of virulence factors were determined by PCR followed by sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing was used to analyze the population structure of the Nepalese strains. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients was 38.4% (56/146), and was significantly related with source of drinking water. In total, 51 strains were isolated and all were cagA-positive. Western-type-cagA (94.1%), cagA pre-EPIYA type with no deletion (92.2%), vacA s1a (74.5%), and m1c (54.9%) were the predominant genotypes. Antral mucosal atrophy levels were significantly higher in patients infected with vacA s1 than in those infected with s2 genotypes (P = 0.03). Several Nepalese strains were H. pylori recombinants with genetic features of South Asian and East Asian genotypes. These included all East-Asian-type-cagA strains, with significantly lesser activity and inflammation in the corpus than the strains of the specific South Asian genotype (P = 0.03 and P = 0.005, respectively). Although the population structure confirmed that most Nepalese strains belonged to the hpAsia2 population, some strains shared hpEurope- and Nepalese-specific components. Nepalese patients infected with strains belonging to hpEurope showed higher inflammation in the antrum than strains from the Nepalese specific population (P = 0.05). These results support that ancestor roots of Kathmandu`s people not only connected with India alone. PMID:26226153

  12. Dengue Virus and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Epidemiological Shifts in Nepal: A Case of Opposing Trends

    PubMed Central

    Dumre, Shyam P.; Shakya, Geeta; Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Rudi Grams, Hans; Upreti, Senendra R.; Ghimire, Prakash; KC, Khagendra; Nisalak, Ananda; Gibbons, Robert V.; Fernandez, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We report on the changing epidemiology of two important flaviviruses in Nepal: Japanese encephalitis (JE) and dengue viruses. Morbidity and mortality in Nepal is in the thousands since JE was introduced in 1978. Nepal launched an extensive laboratory-based JE surveillance in 2004. Nepal experienced a remarkable reduction in disease burden after mass immunizations from 2005 to 2010, when 2,040 JE infections and 205 JE-related deaths were confirmed. With its emergence in 2006, dengue has become a significant challenge in the country, highlighted by a sudden outbreak in 2010 that resulted in 359 confirmed dengue infections. Currently, both viruses cocirculate in Nepal. Here, we document the remarkable expansion of dengue in Nepal, which urgently requires national surveillance to refine the burden and make recommendations regarding control and prevention programs. We believe that the use of existing JE surveillance network for integrated dengue surveillance may represent the most appropriate alternative. PMID:23419366

  13. Dental hygienists on top of the world: supporting oral health education in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Knevel, R J M

    2005-11-01

    This article describes the oral health situation in Nepal. Based on research and strategic planning reports from the WHO and the Ministry of Health in Nepal the value of Oral Health Promotion in Nepal is being promoted. The implications of possible dental treatment and/or oral health promotions are being discussed. A plan for support of improvement of the oral health in Nepal is presented. The main focus is the support of the development of the dental hygiene education and profession in Nepal. Another focus of attention is the ability of dental hygienists in Nepal to develop them individually and to create independent professionalization. This article forms the basis for developing a 5-year collaborative programme with Kantipur School of Dentistry and the Dental Hygiene Education, Amsterdam. It can be a means to inspire dental hygienists around the world to put efforts into improving oral health in developing countries.

  14. Modifying and Validating the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for Use in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Chardoul, Stephanie; Kessler, Ronald C.; Axinn, William G.; Adhikari, Bishnu P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Efforts to develop and validate fully-structured diagnostic interviews of mental disorders in non-Western countries have been largely unsuccessful. However, the principled methods of translation, harmonization, and calibration that have been developed by cross-national survey methodologists have never before been used to guide such development efforts. The current report presents the results of a rigorous program of research using these methods designed to modify and validate the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for an epidemiological survey in Nepal. Methods A five-step process of translation, harmonization, and calibration was used to modify the instrument. A blinded clinical reappraisal design was used to validate the instrument. Results Preliminary interviews with local mental health expert led to a focus on major depressive episode, mania/hypomania, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and intermittent explosive disorder. After an iterative process of multiple translations-revisions guided by the principles developed by cross-national survey methodologists, lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses based on the final Nepali CIDI had excellent concordance with diagnoses based on blinded SCID clinical reappraisal interviews. Conclusions Valid assessment of mental disorders can be achieved with fully-structured diagnostic interviews even in low-income non-Western settings with rigorous implementation of replicable developmental strategies. PMID:23494758

  15. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  16. Buddha's birthplace (Lumbini, Nepal) is polluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Praveen Puppala, Siva; Kang, Shichang; Naja, Manish; Panday, Arnico; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Mahata, Khadak; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of the Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. Measurements of the ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (BC, PM, CO, O3) were conducted in Lumbini, first of its kind in Lumbini, during an intensive measurement period of three months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). Hourly average concentrations were: BC: 4.9±3.8 (0.3-29.9) μg/m3; CO: 344.1±160.3 (124.9-1429.7) ppbv; O3: 46.6±20.3 (0.85-118.1) ppbv; PM10: 128.8±91.9 (10.5-603.9) μg/m3; and PM2.5: 53.1±35.1 (6.1-272.2) μg/m3. These levels are comparable to heavily polluted sites in the region. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations frequently (94% and 85%, respectively, of the sampled period) exceeded the WHO guideline, which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. Clear diurnal cycles were observed for the pollutants. Occurrences of peak concentrations during the study period were due to regional forest fires and meteorological conditions conducive of transport to Lumbini. The WRF-STEM model was used to simulate the meteorology and the pollution concentration, and showed the model concentration to be lower by a factor of ~1.4-5, even though the model was able to capture the observed variability. Regionally tagged CO tracers and the chemical composition of fine mode PM2.5 was obtained from the model. The aerosol spectral light absorption coefficients obtained from Lumbini indicated presence of BC from both biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, with more than half of the ambient BC attributable to fossil fuel

  17. Private Firms Run Two Mich. Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Educators and policy observers are keeping a close eye on two controversial experiments in private management of public schools now unfolding in the western Michigan city of Muskegon Heights and in the Detroit-area community of Highland Park. Citing chronic budget woes in the communities' low-performing school districts, Gov. Rick Snyder of…

  18. Physical and chemical climate in the Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Arun Bhakta

    1998-10-01

    The physical climate of the Himalaya is governed by monsoon circulation, a primary source of moisture to the region. To date, little research has focused on the physical and chemical climate in the Himalaya, while not much is known about the chemical climate there. This dissertation is a first attempt to investigate both the physical and chemical aspects of climate in the Nepal Himalaya with the objective of documenting current conditions and past trends as well as laying the foundation for investigations of their inter-relationship in the future. Temperature and precipitation records from a network of meteorological station in Nepal were analyzed over the period 1971-1994. Temperature records show significant warming trends after the mid-1970's. The temperature trend in Nepal is in broad agreement with global temperature trends, while it differs from temperature trends in the neighboring Indian plains. Within Nepal, the warming trend is greater in the high elevation regions, suggesting that the mountains are more sensitive to climate change. Precipitation records from Nepal show significant variability at annual and decadal time scales, whereas long-term trends are lacking. The precipitation record from Nepal shows significant correlation with several large scale climatological parameters such as Southern Oscillation Index, sunspot numbers, temperature over Tibetan Plateau, and temperature over the Indian Ocean and southern India, while it differs considerably from the all-India precipitation record. Among others factors, El Niño events have a dominant influence on the precipitation variations in the Himalaya. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry of the eastern Himalaya are characterized by marked seasonal fluctuations. The concentrations of water soluble major ions are low and comparable to remote tropospheric concentrations during late monsoon and post-monsoon, while concentrations during pre-monsoon and early monsoon are considerably higher, comparable to

  19. Consequence of indoor air pollution in rural area of Nepal: a simplified measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Jha, Nilambar; Deepak, K C; Connel, Fredric A

    2015-01-01

    People of developing countries especially from rural area are commonly exposed to high levels of household pollution for 3-7 h daily using biomass in their kitchen. Such biomass produces harmful smoke and makes indoor air pollution (IAP). Community-based cross-sectional study was performed to identify effects of IAP by simplified measurement approach in Sunsari District of Nepal. Representative samples of 157 housewives from household, involving more than 5 years in kitchen were included by cluster sampling. Data were analyzed by SPSS and logistic regression was applied for the statistical test. Most (87.3%) housewives used biomass as a cooking fuel. Tearing of eyes, difficulty in breathing, and productive cough were the main reported health problems and traditional mud stoves and use of unrefined biomass were statistically significant (p < 0.05) and more risk (AOR > 2) with health problems related to IAP. The treatment cost and episodes of acute respiratory infection was >2 folders higher in severe IAP than mild IAP. Simplified measurement approach could be helpful to measure IAP in rural area. Some effective intervention is suggested to reduce the severe level of IAP considering women and children. PMID:25674557

  20. Country focus -- Nepal. A race for survival: community-based transport for safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    In Nepal, a community came up with a unique way to transport a woman facing labor complications to the nearest district hospital (25 km away) that saved the woman's life. The 17-year-old woman lived in a mountain village with only steep and narrow paths leading up to and away from the village. She had been burned as a child, and the scar tissue at her perineum could not expand enough to deliver the baby. At 3:00 am, she asked to be taken to the hospital. The husband asked his neighbors to help him transport her to the hospital, but they suggested that they wait until the morning. At 8:00 am, 12 men took turns transporting her on doli, a reclining seat fixed to a pole and used to carry a bride to her wedding and to her husband's home. Two men at a time carried her while running. Via uneven mountain paths, they arrived at the hospital four hours after departing the village. A chest specialist with one year's experience in a maternity hospital performed an episiotomy allowing the woman to deliver vaginally. The physician had to repair her damaged genital tract. She delivered a stillborn. She was discharged a week later and walked back to her village. The physician recommended she go to the hospital before delivery for her next pregnancy. Lessons learned include: people will go to a hospital if they believe they can be helped, they will use any way possible to transport persons in need to the hospital, delay increases the probability of a poor outcome, access to prenatal care may have prevented this tragedy, and there is a need for obstetricians at district hospitals.

  1. 77 FR 54944 - Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist; In the Matter of the Designation of The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Also Known as United Revolutionary People... hereby revoke the designation of the entity known as the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), also known...

  2. Symptom recognition to diagnosis of autism in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Merina; Shrestha, Rena

    2014-06-01

    Awareness and knowledge about autism is almost non-existent in Nepal. Children who eventually get the diagnosis often miss their opportunity for early intervention. The current study shows that medical help was seeked at mean age of 27.9 + 14.5 months and most of them were for delayed language and the first preference for parents were pediatricians. The mean age of diagnosis of autism was 55.6 months. The time length between help seeking to diagnosis was 29.4 months with longest time lag of 13 years. Delay in recognition of symptoms, delay in health seeking and lack of awareness even in treating physicians might be the reason for advanced age at diagnosis of autism in Nepal.

  3. Women and citizenship post‐trafficking: the case of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Diane; Laurie, Nina; Poudel, Meena; Townsend, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having – or not having – citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the ‘new’ Nepal ‘post‐conflict’. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post‐trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly.

  4. Women and citizenship post‐trafficking: the case of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Diane; Laurie, Nina; Poudel, Meena; Townsend, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having – or not having – citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the ‘new’ Nepal ‘post‐conflict’. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post‐trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly. PMID:27642193

  5. Ethnic differentials in early childhood mortality in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Choe, M K; Retherford, R D; Gubhaju, B B; Thapa, S

    1989-04-01

    This paper investigates the association of early childhood mortality (between birth and second birthday) with ethnicity in Nepal, based on data from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey, which was part of the World Fertility Survey. The approach is through a series of hazard models, which incorporate ethnicity, year of birth, mother's illiteracy, father's illiteracy, rural-urban residence, region, sex, maternal age, survival of previous birth, previous birth interval, and breast-feeding as covariates. Ethnic differentials in early childhood mortality are not explained by the other socioeconomic and demographic covariates, except for a modest effect of illiteracy, but the remaining covariates explain a great deal of variability in early childhood mortality itself. Analysis using an improved specification of breast-feeding as an age-varying covariate indicates, on average, that breast-feeding, relative to not breast-feeding, reduces age-specific mortality risks during the first 2 years of life by 76%, a very large effect. PMID:2722918

  6. Conflict resilience among community forestry user groups: experiences in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Andrea; Sharma, Jeevan Raj

    2014-07-01

    This paper explores the impact of violent conflict in Nepal on the functioning of community forestry user groups (CFUGs), particularly those supported by the Livelihoods and Forestry Programme, funded by the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID). The key questions are: (i) what explains the resilience of CFUGs operating at the time of conflict?; (ii) what institutional arrangements and strategies allowed them to continue working under conflict conditions?; and (iii) what lessons can be drawn for donor-supported development around the world? The study contributes to other research on the everyday experiences of residents of Nepal living in a period of conflict. It suggests that CFUG resilience was the result of the institutional set up of community forestry and the employment of various tactics by the CFUGs. While the institutional design of community forestry (structure) was very important for resilience, it was the ability of the CFUGs to support and use it effectively that was the determining factor in this regard.

  7. Symptom Recognition to Diagnosis of Autism in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrestha, Merina; Shrestha, Rena

    2014-01-01

    Awareness and knowledge about autism is almost non-existent in Nepal. Children who eventually get the diagnosis often miss their opportunity for early intervention. The current study shows that medical help was seeked at mean age of 27.9 + 14.5 months and most of them were for delayed language and the first preference for parents were…

  8. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Pratik; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Kallestrup, Per; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9%) and rural (59%) discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015), the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS) after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal. PMID:26300556

  9. Landslide distribution resulting from the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Jibson, R.

    2015-12-01

    Thousands of landslides (predominantly rock slides and rock falls) were triggered as a result of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence. Given the steep, high relief of the epicentral zones and the widely distributed population of Nepal in these regions, hundreds of fatalities occurred as a direct result of landsliding. Further, roads, hydroelectric plants, and other critical infrastructure were subjected to considerable secondary hazards including highly weakened slopes and inundation from lake impoundments that formed upslope of valley-blocking landslide dams. As part of a humanitarian and scientific mission to Nepal supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, we conducted landslide assessments throughout earthquake-affected areas (report available at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151142) and, in the process, developed a sense for the overall landslide distribution resulting from the earthquakes. Whereas landslides were abundant near the major earthquake epicenters, few landslides were observed in many steep areas of the country where effects would normally have been expected. For example, although avalanches and ice and rock falls occurred near Mt. Everest, located approximately 220 km from the April 25 epicenter, we noted few landslides in a similar area of steep terrain located 40 km closer to the epicenter. Similarly, although we noted entire mountainsides covered by landslides within 20 km of the mainshock epicenter, we observed many other mountainsides within this same region lacking any indication of ground disturbance. Observations of shattered ridgetops with ridge parallel fractures at several locations indicate that topographically-amplified ground shaking occurred in some areas. This, along with the complex geology and the asymmetric directionality of rupture, could help explain the landslide distribution and thus where hazards are most likely from similar future earthquakes in central Nepal.

  10. Impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gaire, Surya; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Pandey, Srijana; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting is a major public health problem that results from inadequate nutritional intake over a long period of time. Disasters have major implications in poor and vulnerable children. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal. Method A sample consisting of 2,111 children aged 6–59 months was obtained from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine moderate and severe stunting against disaster, controlling for all possible confounders. Result Out of the total study sample, 43% were stunted (17.1% severely and 25.9% moderately). The final model, after adjusting for confounders, showed that epidemics have no impact on child stunting (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.97 and adjusted OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.65 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). Floods have impact on child stunting (adjusted OR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.96 and adjusted OR =0.66, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). However, children aged 6–11 months, nonvaccinated children, children of working women, children who live in mountainous areas, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be moderately stunted. Similarly, children aged 36–47 months, Dalit and other ethnic groups, children from rural settings, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be severely stunted. Conclusion This article illustrates the need to rethink about child stunting in Nepal. This study suggests need for further research, integration of disaster data in the Nepal Demography Health Survey, educational interventions, public awareness, promotion of vaccination, and equity in health service delivery. PMID:27354834

  11. Collection and trade of wild-harvested orchids in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild orchids are illegally harvested and traded in Nepal for use in local traditional medicine, horticulture, and international trade. This study aims to: 1) identify the diversity of species of wild orchids in trade in Nepal; 2) study the chain of commercialization from collector to client and/or export; 3) map traditional knowledge and medicinal use of orchids; and 4) integrate the collected data to propose a more sustainable approach to orchid conservation in Nepal. Methods Trade, species diversity, and traditional use of wild-harvested orchids were documented during field surveys of markets and through interviews. Trade volumes and approximate income were estimated based on surveys and current market prices. Orchid material samples were identified to species level using a combination of morphology and DNA barcoding. Results Orchid trade is a long tradition, and illegal export to China, India and Hong Kong is rife. Estimates show that 9.4 tons of wild orchids were illegally traded from the study sites during 2008/2009. A total of 60 species of wild orchids were reported to be used in traditional medicinal practices to cure at least 38 different ailments, including energizers, aphrodisiacs and treatments of burnt skin, fractured or dislocated bones, headaches, fever and wounds. DNA barcoding successfully identified orchid material to species level that remained sterile after culturing. Conclusions Collection of wild orchids was found to be widespread in Nepal, but illegal trade is threatening many species in the wild. Establishment of small-scale sustainable orchid breeding enterprises could be a valuable alternative for the production of medicinal orchids for local communities. Critically endangered species should be placed on CITES Appendix I to provide extra protection to those species. DNA barcoding is an effective method for species identification and monitoring of illegal cross-border trade. PMID:24004516

  12. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Pratik; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Kallestrup, Per; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9%) and rural (59%) discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015), the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS) after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  13. HIV-AIDS in Nepal: the coming crisis.

    PubMed

    Seddon, D

    1998-01-01

    The number of officially reported cases of HIV infection and of AIDS in Nepal remains low in comparison with numbers in many other Asian countries. But Nepal's open border with India (where HIV infection rates are rapidly rising) and the high level of physical mobility within Nepal and abroad, associated with widespread labor migration and encouraged by the recent development of road transport, means that there is a real danger of a rapid spread of HIV within Nepal. The major means of infection is through heterosexual encounters involving male clients and female sex workers, but other sections of the population are also at risk from infection. Media attention has focused on female sex workers, particularly those who have worked in India, but the issue is far broader than this. Social and economic factors forcing or encouraging young men and women to seek employment away from home underlie the widespread growth of ¿the sex industry¿ and the ¿trafficking¿ of girls and young women. The state's capacity to respond effectively is limited, in part through lack of resources; international agencies are supporting local nongovernmental organizations in a variety of activities designed to ¿educate¿ and to ¿support¿ those at risk; but in the last analysis, it is the local communities from which young men and women migrate and to which they return that are obliged to find ways of coping. Sometimes these communities are supportive of the victims, sometimes not. The spread of HIV-AIDS is not just a ¿health¿ issue, but an issue of economic and social development, of gender relations and of human rights.

  14. A hospital-based study of abortion in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, P J; Thapa, S; Shrestha, N

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the major findings of a study of induced abortion in Nepal, based on 165 cases out of the 1,576 female patients identified as having abortion-related complications who were admitted to five major hospitals in urban Nepal during a one-year study period. Traditional birth attendants had been the service providers for two-fifths of the women. A longer delay in hospital referrals and lengthier hospital stays occurred for cases of induced abortion than for those of spontaneous abortion. Twelve of the 165 women in the study died in the hospital, most of them from tetanus. Deaths resulting from abortion-related complications represented more than half of all maternity-related deaths in the hospitals studied. The authors suggest that health risks could be reduced considerably by strengthening the hospital-referral system and by taking some preventive steps, such as educating the traditional birth attendants and other paramedical providers about the consequences of unsafe abortion practices; increasing the availability of contraceptive methods; and promoting the use of menstrual regulation, which has recently become available in Nepal on a limited scale, mostly in private clinics.

  15. Stigma and HIV risk among Metis in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin; Pant, Sunil Babu; Comfort, Megan; Ekstrand, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Similar to other parts of Asia, the HIV epidemic in Nepal is concentrated among a small number of groups, including transgender people, or Metis. This study was conducted to explore the social context of stigma among Metis in Nepal to better understand their risk for HIV. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Metis in Kathmandu, Nepal. We found that stigma from families leading to rural-urban migration exposed Metis to discrimination from law enforcement, employers and sexual partners, which influenced their risk for HIV. Specific HIV-related risks identified were rape by law enforcement officers, inconsistent condom use and high reported numbers of sexual partners. These data point to an immediate need to work with law enforcement to reduce violence targeting Metis. HIV prevention, housing and employment outreach to Metis in rural areas and those who migrate to urban areas is also needed. Finally, there is a need for more research to determine the prevalence of HIV among Metis, to explore risk within sexual networks and to better understand of the relationship between Metis and their families in order to develop future programmes and interventions.

  16. Distribution probability of large-scale landslides in central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Manita; Bhandary, Netra P.; Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale landslides in the Himalaya are defined as huge, deep-seated landslide masses that occurred in the geological past. They are widely distributed in the Nepal Himalaya. The steep topography and high local relief provide high potential for such failures, whereas the dynamic geology and adverse climatic conditions play a key role in the occurrence and reactivation of such landslides. The major geoscientific problems related with such large-scale landslides are 1) difficulties in their identification and delineation, 2) sources of small-scale failures, and 3) reactivation. Only a few scientific publications have been published concerning large-scale landslides in Nepal. In this context, the identification and quantification of large-scale landslides and their potential distribution are crucial. Therefore, this study explores the distribution of large-scale landslides in the Lesser Himalaya. It provides simple guidelines to identify large-scale landslides based on their typical characteristics and using a 3D schematic diagram. Based on the spatial distribution of landslides, geomorphological/geological parameters and logistic regression, an equation of large-scale landslide distribution is also derived. The equation is validated by applying it to another area. For the new area, the area under the receiver operating curve of the landslide distribution probability in the new area is 0.699, and a distribution probability value could explain > 65% of existing landslides. Therefore, the regression equation can be applied to areas of the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal with similar geological and geomorphological conditions.

  17. Physiology and applied sciences in Nepal: 1st annual conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of medical schools in Nepal, there is an expected increase in the number of Nepalese physiologists. The first medical school was established in the 1970s. We report here about the first annual conference of Nepalese physiologists on 27-28 September 2013 organized by the Department of Clinical Physiology of the Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences (NAIHS) and Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences (KUMS). Nepalese physiologists are trying to form their own physiological society. In this regard, NAIHS and KUMS have played an important role to bring physiologists from different parts of Nepal involved in teaching, learning, and research activities in medical schools. There were a number of foreign invitees (India, Israel, Italy, Japan, and Sweden). There were plenary presentations on the topics that are relevant in Nepal, e.g., high-altitude physiology and wilderness medicine. The final session of the conference was an open session meeting of Nepalese physiologists. There was an open interaction about establishing Nepalese Physiological Society. After much deliberation, there was an agreement to register the society in Kathmandu with the current ad hoc committee which will elect the first executive body of the society. PMID:24580838

  18. Stigma and HIV risk among Metis in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin; Pant, Sunil Babu; Comfort, Megan; Ekstrand, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other parts of Asia, the HIV epidemic in Nepal is concentrated among a small number of groups, including transgender people, or Metis. This study was conducted to explore the social context of stigma among Metis in Nepal to better understand their risk for HIV. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Metis in Kathmandu, Nepal. We found that stigma from families leading to rural-urban migration exposed Metis to discrimination from law enforcement, employers and sexual partners, which influenced their risk for HIV. Specific HIV-related risks identified were rape by law enforcement officers, inconsistent condom use and high reported numbers of sexual partners. These data point to an immediate need to work with law enforcement to reduce violence targeting Metis. HIV prevention, housing and employment outreach to Metis in rural areas and those who migrate to urban areas is also needed. Finally, there is a need for more research to determine the prevalence of HIV among Metis, to explore risk within sexual networks and to better understand of the relationship between Metis and their families in order to develop future programmes and interventions. PMID:21058085

  19. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 in rural communities, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Lee, I L; Tan, T C; Tan, P C; Nanthiney, D R; Biraj, M K; Surendra, K M; Suresh, K G

    2012-04-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite. To date, there have been sporadic and scanty studies on Blastocystis sp. carried out in rural communities in Nepal. We surveyed the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. and its possible associated risk factors, and reported the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtype in two rural communities, Bolde Phediche and Bahunipati, in Nepal. Human faecal samples were collected from 241 participants, cultured using in vitro cultivation and examined for Blastocystis sp. The presence of Blastocystis sp. in faecal samples was further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently genotyped using subtype-specific sequence tagged site (STS) primers. There were 26.1% (63/241) of the participants that were infected by Blastocystis sp. We detected 84.1% (53/63) of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 infections in these rural communities. The unusually high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 can be attributed to the rearing of family-owned animals in barns built close to their houses. Eighty one percent (51/63) of the Blastocystis sp. infected participants drank not boiled or unfiltered water. The present study revealed that Blastocystis sp. could pose a health concern to the communities and travellers to the hilly area in Nepal. Infection may be transmitted through human-to-human, zoonotic and waterborne transmissions. We provide recommendations to ensure good public health practices.

  20. Unveiling the silence: women's sexual health and experiences in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Menger, Lauren M; Kaufman, Michelle R; Harman, Jennifer J; Tsang, Samantha W; Shrestha, Deepti Khati

    2015-01-01

    Rising rates of HIV in Nepal signal an impending epidemic. In order to develop culturally appropriate and effective actions and programmes to reduce HIV transmission, it is necessary to understand attitudes, behaviours and norms surrounding sexual networking and safer-sex practices in Nepal. Nepali women are thought to be at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, sexual violence and exploitation and other sexual health disparities due to cultural scripts limiting access to education, ability to control sexual relationships and acceptability in discussing sex and sexual health. The present study comprises a series of interviews with 25 women living in Kathmandu (13 individual interviews and 2 focus-group discussions) about their knowledge and experiences related to sex and sexual health. Interviews were translated and transcribed and two independent coders conducted a thematic analysis. Overall, the women described sex as primarily a male domain. Sex and sexual health were viewed as taboo discussion topics and formal sex education was perceived as minimally available and far from comprehensive in its scope. This formative study can inform future interventions aimed at reducing the spread of STIs/HIV in Nepal and empowering women on issues of sexual health and well-being. PMID:25036591

  1. Newborn Health Interventions and Challenges for Implementation in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Vishnu; Gelal, Khageshwor; Neupane, Subas

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal mortality is a major challenge in reducing child mortality rates in Nepal. Despite efforts by the Government of Nepal, data from the last three demographic and health surveys show a rise in the contribution of neonatal deaths to infant and child mortality. The Government of Nepal has implemented community-based programs that were piloted and then scaled up based on lessons learned. These programs include, but are not limited to ensuring safe motherhood, birth preparedness package, community-based newborn care package, and integrated management of childhood illnesses. Despite the implementation of such programs on a larger scale, their effective coverage is yet to be achieved. Health system challenges included an inadequate policy environment, funding gaps, inadequate procurement, and insufficient supplies of commodities, while human resource management has been found to be impeding service delivery. Such bottlenecks at policy, institutional and service delivery level need to be addressed incorporating health information in decision-making as well as working in partnership with communities to facilitate the utilization of available services. PMID:26904534

  2. Public and Private School Performance in Nepal: An Analysis Using the SLC Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…

  3. Understanding effects of armed conflict on health outcomes: the case of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective There is abundance of literature on adverse effects of conflict on the health of the population. In contrast to this, sporadic data in Nepal claim improvements in most of the health indicators during the decade-long armed conflict (1996-2006). However, systematic information to support or reject this claim is scant. This study reviews Nepal's key health indicators before and after the violent conflict and explores the possible factors facilitating the progress. Methods A secondary analysis has been conducted of two demographic health surveys-Nepal Family Health Survey (NFHS) 1996 and Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2006; the latter was supplemented by a study carried out by the Nepal Health Research Council in 2006. Results The data show Nepal has made progress in 16 out of 19 health indicators which are part of the Millennium Development Goals whilst three indicators have remained static. Our analysis suggests a number of conflict and non-conflict factors which may have led to this success. Conclusion The lessons learnt from Nepal could be replicable elsewhere in conflict and post-conflict environments. A nationwide large-scale empirical study is needed to further assess the determinants of Nepal's success in the health sector at a time the country experienced a decade of armed conflict. PMID:21122098

  4. Does Private School Competition Improve Public School Performance? The Case of Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for school leaving certificate (SLC) exam, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of private school competition on public school performance for the case of Nepal. The study uses the number of private schools in the neighborhood as a measure of competition. The identification…

  5. Epidemic of Hysteria in a School of Rural Eastern Nepal: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakya, Rabi

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The headmaster of a school (NRMV) in rural eastern Nepal, pleaded for help from the public health Department of Psychiatry, BKIHS, Dharan, Nepal, to prevent closure of his school as guardians of many students refused to send their children to his school, which was supposedly haunted by evil spirits. The author, along with his staff,…

  6. Exploring the Nature and Reasons for Sexual Violence within Marriage among Young Women in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Shah, Iqbal; Tamang, Jyotsna

    2010-01-01

    Sexual violence within marriage (SVWM) is a major public health and human right issue and yet remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. An exploratory study using free listing, in-depth case histories and causal flow analysis was conducted among two major ethnic groups in Nepal. Descriptive data collected from free listing…

  7. Save the Children Nonformal Education and Early Childhood Development Activities in Rural Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhold, Amy Jo

    In 1981, Save the Children (SC) opened an office in Nepal to support projects related to health, education, income generation, and resource management. Statistics show that between 7 and 8 million of Nepal's 19 million people live below the poverty line, and almost 2 out of 3 adolescent girls do not attend school, placing the overall female…

  8. School Decentralisation in Nepal: A Disjuncture between Macro-Level Advocacy and Micro-Level Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanal, Peshal

    2010-01-01

    While school decentralisation policy in Nepal has been taking effect for more than 8 years with the financial and technical assistance of the World Bank, confusion and controversy have been prevalent in relation to its goals, outcomes and sustainability. This article explores the issues of school decentralisation in Nepal by relating the Bank's…

  9. Determinants of Child Immunization in Nepal: The Role of Women's Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lee, Hae nim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1.4 million or 13% of all children who die each year could be prevented with widely-available vaccines. Objective: We examined if women's empowerment improved child immunization using data on 1,056 mothers with young children from Nepal. Methods: The study utilized the 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, a…

  10. Level of awareness about legalization of abortion in Nepal: a study at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, H; Risal, A

    2010-06-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 25.0% of all pregnancies worldwide end in induced abortion, approximately 50 million each year. More than half of these abortions are performed under unsafe conditions resulting in high maternal mortality ratio specially in developing countries like Nepal. Abortion was legalized under specified conditions in March 2002 in Nepal. But still a large proportion of population are unaware of the legalization and the conditions under which it is permitted. Legal reform alone cannot reduce abortion related deaths in our country. This study was undertaken with the main objective to study the level of awareness about legalization of abortion in women attending gyne out patients department of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital (NMCTH), which will give a baseline knowledge for further dissemination and advocacy about abortion law. Total 200 women participated in the study. Overall 133 (66.5%) women said they were aware of legalization of abortion in Nepal. Women of age group 20-34 years, urban residents, service holders, Brahmin/Chhetri caste and with higher education were more aware about it. Majority (92.0%) of the women received information from the media. Detail knowledge about legal conditions under which abortion can be performed specially in second trimester was found to be poor. Large proportion (71.0%) of the women were still unaware of the availability of comprehensive abortion care services at our hospital, which is being provided since last seven years. Public education and advocacy campaigns are crucial to create awareness about the new legislation and availability of services. Unless the advocacy and awareness campaign reaches women, they are not likely to benefit from the legal reform and services.

  11. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  12. Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of

  13. Infant vaccination timing: Beyond traditional coverage metrics for maximizing impact of vaccine programs, an example from southern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michelle M.; Katz, Joanne; Englund, Janet A.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Shrestha, Laxman; LeClerq, Steven C.; Steinhoff, Mark; Tielsch, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunization programs currently measure coverage by assessing the proportion of children 12–24 months who have been immunized but this does not address the important question of when the scheduled vaccines were administered. Data capturing the timing of vaccination in first 6 months, when severe disease is most likely to occur, are limited. Objective To estimate the time to Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) (recommended at birth), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-H, influenza b-hepatitis B (DTP-Hib-HepB), and oral polio vaccine (OPV) (recommended at 6, 10, and 14 weeks) vaccinations and risk factors for vaccination delay in infants <6 months of age in a district in southern Nepal where traditional coverage metrics are high. Design/methods Infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of maternal influenza vaccination were visited weekly at home from birth through age 6 months to ascertain if any vaccinations had been given in the prior week. Infant, maternal, and household characteristics were recorded. BCG, DTP-Hib-HepB, and OPV vaccination coverage at 4 and 6 months was estimated. Time to vaccination was estimated through Kaplan–Meier curves; Cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for delay for the first vaccine. Results The median age of BCG, first OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB receipt was 22, 21, and 18 weeks, respectively. Almost half of infants received no BCG by age 6 months. Only 8% and 7% of infants had received three doses of OPV and DTP-Hib-HepB, respectively, by age 6 months. Conclusion A significant delay in receipt of infant vaccines was found in a prospective, population-based, cohort in southern Nepal despite traditional coverage metrics being high. Immunization programs should consider measuring time to receipt relative to the official schedule in order to maximize benefits for disease control and child health. PMID:26788880

  14. Association of Cord Blood Levels of Lead, Arsenic, and Zinc and Home Environment with Children Neurodevelopment at 36 Months Living in Chitwan Valley, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Umezaki, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Takeo; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Background Inconsistent results continue to be reported from studies linking low-level prenatal lead exposure and child development. Because of limited earlier epidemiological studies with birth cohort follow up design, it still remains inconclusive that either the associations of cord blood level of toxic, and essential elements, and postnatal raising environment on neurodevelopment of children remains constant throughout childhood or change over time. Aims This study aims to investigate the influence of in utero toxic [lead (Pb) and arsenic (As)] and essential elements [zinc (Zn)] levels on neurodevelopment of 36 months children in Chitwan valley, Nepal taking the postnatal environment into account. Study Designs and Subjects In this birth cohort study, participants (N=100 mother-infants’ pairs) were recruited in Chitwan district, Nepal. We measured Pb, As and Zn concentrations in cord blood. Postnatal raising environment (i.e., Home score or home environment hereafter) was evaluated using Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. Neurodevelopment of children at 36 months of age (n=70) were assessed using Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID II). Multivariate regression was performed (n=70) to see the association of in utero toxic and essential elements level and home environment with neurodevelopment score adjusted for covariates. Results Cord blood levels of Pb, As and Zn were not associated with any BSID II cluster scores of 36 months children. The children with relatively superior HOME score and concurrent nutritional status (weight at 36 months) showed better cognitive development (i.e., MDI scores) and motor functions than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion In this general population in Nepal, prenatal Pb, As and Zn levels are not important determinants of the neurodevelopment of 36- month-old children while a consistent beneficial effect of a stimulating home environment on neurodevelopmental indicators

  15. Participatory health development in rural Nepal: clarifying the process of community empowerment.

    PubMed

    Purdey, A F; Adhikari, G B; Robinson, S A; Cox, P W

    1994-01-01

    Community-based participatory development empowers villagers to develop community cohesion and confidence, increase their ability to identify, analyze, and priorize their own needs, and organize the resources to meet these needs. An important first step in the process involves establishing a cohesive and functional community group. The authors believe that this is best accomplished through villagers' critical examination of their experiences with development including their understanding of reasons for success or failure, and the gradual emergence of a model of working together that acknowledges and builds on participation and collective expertise. This approach to development is demonstrating encouraging results in a rural area of western Nepal in a university affiliated Canadian/Nepali Health Development Project. This paper describes two mini-projects to illustrate the evolution of group formation through reflection, analysis, and action, and identifies outcomes that could serve as indicators of community empowerment. The paper also presents a generic model of empowerment, and offers lessons learned by the project through the application of the empowerment process to sustainable health development. PMID:8002357

  16. Comparative analysis of contributing parameters for rainfall-triggered landslides in the Lesser Himalaya of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Yamanaka, Minoru; Dhakal, Santosh; Bhandary, Netra Prakash; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2009-08-01

    In the Himalaya, people live in widely spread settlements and suffer more from landslides than from any other type of natural disaster. The intense summer monsoons are the main factor in triggering landslides. However, the relations between landslides and slope hydrology have not been a focal topic in Himalayan landslide research. This paper deals with the contributing parameters for the rainfall-triggered landslides which occurred during an extreme monsoon rainfall event on 23 July 2002, in the south-western hills of Kathmandu valley, in the Lesser Himalaya, Nepal. Parameters such as bedrock geology, geomorphology, geotechnical properties of soil, and clay mineralogy are described in this paper. Landslide modeling was performed in SEEP/W and SLOPE/W to understand the relationship of pore water pressure variations in soil layers and to determine the spatial variation of landslide occurrence. Soil characteristics, low angle of internal friction of fines in soil, medium range of soil permeability, presence of clay minerals in soil, bedrock hydrogeology, and human intervention were found to be the main contributing parameters for slope failures in the region.

  17. Participatory health development in rural Nepal: clarifying the process of community empowerment.

    PubMed

    Purdey, A F; Adhikari, G B; Robinson, S A; Cox, P W

    1994-01-01

    Community-based participatory development empowers villagers to develop community cohesion and confidence, increase their ability to identify, analyze, and priorize their own needs, and organize the resources to meet these needs. An important first step in the process involves establishing a cohesive and functional community group. The authors believe that this is best accomplished through villagers' critical examination of their experiences with development including their understanding of reasons for success or failure, and the gradual emergence of a model of working together that acknowledges and builds on participation and collective expertise. This approach to development is demonstrating encouraging results in a rural area of western Nepal in a university affiliated Canadian/Nepali Health Development Project. This paper describes two mini-projects to illustrate the evolution of group formation through reflection, analysis, and action, and identifies outcomes that could serve as indicators of community empowerment. The paper also presents a generic model of empowerment, and offers lessons learned by the project through the application of the empowerment process to sustainable health development.

  18. Data-Driven Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the…

  19. Women's autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background How socio-demographic factors influence women's autonomy in decision making on health care including purchasing goods and visiting family and relatives are very poorly studied in Nepal. This study aims to explore the links between women's household position and their autonomy in decision making. Methods We used Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2006, which provided data on ever married women aged 15-49 years (n = 8257). The data consists of women's four types of household decision making; own health care, making major household purchases, making purchase for daily household needs and visits to her family or relatives. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of these variables to all four types of decision making. Results Women's autonomy in decision making is positively associated with their age, employment and number of living children. Women from rural area and Terai region have less autonomy in decision making in all four types of outcome measure. There is a mixed variation in women's autonomy in the development region across all outcome measures. Western women are more likely to make decision in own health care (1.2-1.6), while they are less likely to purchase daily household needs (0.6-0.9). Women's increased education is positively associated with autonomy in own health care decision making (p < 0.01), however their more schooling (SLC and above) shows non-significance with other outcome measures. Interestingly, rich women are less likely to have autonomy to make decision in own healthcare. Conclusions Women from rural area and Terai region needs specific empowerment programme to enable them to be more autonomous in the household decision making. Women's autonomy by education, wealth quintile and development region needs a further social science investigation to observe the variations within each stratum. A more comprehensive strategy can enable women to access

  20. Conditions in rural Nepal for which depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate initiation is not recommended: implications for community-based service delivery.

    PubMed

    Rai, C; Thapa, S; Day, J; Bhattarai, L; McMullen, S; Jha, R; Shrestha, S; Bastola, S; Rivera, R

    1999-07-01

    The presence of medical conditions that might affect the use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) as a contraceptive method was assessed in a rural district in Nepal. A general health survey was conducted in nonpregnant and noncontracepting women aged 15-44 years to determine the presence of any health problems. The survey included a general assessment interview by nonphysicians, followed by formal medical histories and physical exams by female gynecologists. Possible pregnancy (nine cases) and abnormal uterine bleeding (one case) were the only conditions identified in which DMPA should not be used, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Five additional cases of cardiovascular problems, in which DMPA initiation is not usually recommended, were also detected. Recently developed checklists based on the WHO criteria for DMPA use would have identified all of these health conditions. This checklist would allow the safe delivery of DMPA at the community health worker level, and increase the availability and accessibility of DMPA in rural Nepal.

  1. Attempts to bring the trained teachers in the schools of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, Jeevan

    2016-07-01

    To develop space activities and to industrialize astronomy, base of space education in the high schools must be very effective. This paper highlights the present scenario of space education and discusses the syllabus of astronomy in the different education level of Nepal. Astronomy is included in the curriculum of science book of middle school and high school which contains very few contents of solar system, constellations, galaxy, black holes and formation of stars. There is no any degree for higher studies in astronomy as a separate department in any university of Nepal. This paper also highlights the space activities and national level programs conducting in Nepal to support astronomy education. With the rise of many astronomical clubs and societies in the different regions of Nepal, astronomy education has been more effective in the recent time. Series of Galileo Teacher's Training Program in the different parts of Nepal being organized by Global Hands on Universe in cooperation with local astronomy clubs will be discuss in brief. The attempts to bring more trained and skilled teachers in the classroom by the government and non-government agencies are now gradually increasing. The competition of private schools and their capacity building workshops to their teachers to attract more students is also playing active role to shape the school education effective. The challenges, prospects and the practice of effective astronomy education prevailing in Nepal will be discuss. Key Words: Nepal, Astronomy Education, GTTP, Trained Teachers

  2. The Burden of Parasitic Zoonoses in Nepal: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Ale, Anita; Torgerson, Paul; Praet, Nicolas; Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Pandey, Basu Dev; Pun, Sher Bahadur; Lake, Rob; Vercruysse, Jozef; Joshi, Durga Datt; Havelaar, Arie H.; Duchateau, Luc; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko

    2014-01-01

    Background Parasitic zoonoses (PZs) pose a significant but often neglected threat to public health, especially in developing countries. In order to obtain a better understanding of their health impact, summary measures of population health may be calculated, such as the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). However, the data required to calculate such measures are often not readily available for these diseases, which may lead to a vicious circle of under-recognition and under-funding. Methodology We examined the burden of PZs in Nepal through a systematic review of online and offline data sources. PZs were classified qualitatively according to endemicity, and where possible a quantitative burden assessment was conducted in terms of the annual number of incident cases, deaths and DALYs. Principal Findings Between 2000 and 2012, the highest annual burden was imposed by neurocysticercosis and congenital toxoplasmosis (14,268 DALYs [95% Credibility Interval (CrI): 5450–27,694] and 9255 DALYs [95% CrI: 6135–13,292], respectively), followed by cystic echinococcosis (251 DALYs [95% CrI: 105–458]). Nepal is probably endemic for trichinellosis, toxocarosis, diphyllobothriosis, foodborne trematodosis, taeniosis, and zoonotic intestinal helminthic and protozoal infections, but insufficient data were available to quantify their health impact. Sporadic cases of alveolar echinococcosis, angiostrongylosis, capillariosis, dirofilariosis, gnathostomosis, sparganosis and cutaneous leishmaniosis may occur. Conclusions/Significance In settings with limited surveillance capacity, it is possible to quantify the health impact of PZs and other neglected diseases, thereby interrupting the vicious circle of neglect. In Nepal, we found that several PZs are endemic and are imposing a significant burden to public health, higher than that of malaria, and comparable to that of HIV/AIDS. However, several critical data gaps remain. Enhanced surveillance for the endemic PZs identified in this

  3. Dealing with hidden issues: trafficked women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudel, M; Shrestha, A

    1996-11-01

    This article discusses approaches to dealing with prostitution in Nepal and exportation of women prostitutes to Asia and the Middle East. It is estimated that over 200,000 Nepalese women are in Indian brothels, and tens of thousands are exported each year to other countries and forced either into prostitution or other oppressive conditions. In Nepal, women prostitutes are rejected as wives or daughters, regardless of the reasons involved. Women Acting Together for Change (WATCH) organized a national public hearing in June 1995 on these issues. During the hearing, 11 women and one man shared their views about being forced into prostitution, the ineffectiveness of the law, and social rejection. Participants at this forum questioned the legal practice of human rights and decided that law was a hindrance. Government representatives on the "listening bench" responded defensively and argued that prostitutes were unwilling to use the law, but agreed that the government should punish traffickers and commit politically to ending the trafficking in women. Roundtable discussions among concerned people after a day of hearings decided to initiate a nationwide coalition against the trafficking in women. The alliance would consist of 17 people and include nongovernmental representatives, lawyers, women who testified, representatives of the National Planning Council, and representatives from women's groups. The sex trade is viewed as a part of the national economy and a very profitable enterprise. Extreme poverty and few employment options are strong incentives for the continuation of prostitution. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of women as born for the sexual pleasure of men. Nepal's national economy and policies have contributed to family poverty and to migration to other countries where women are exploited. The forum revealed schisms in the government commitment to Article 20 of the constitution. PMID:12291818

  4. Deformation of slopes damaged during the 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Densmore, A.; Jordan, C.; Williams, J.; Kincey, M.; Oven, K.

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Nepal Earthquake Sequence (EQS; the Gorkha EQ (eqG), Mw 7.8 [25/04/15]; the Kodari EQ (eqK), Mw 6.7 [26/05/15]; and Dolakha EQ (eqD), Mw 7.3 [12/05/15], plus associated aftershocks) triggered widespread landsliding, strongly evident in satellite imagery. In addition to the observed failures, pervasive ground cracking has been widely reported in Nepal. This is indicative of hillslope 'damage' (weakening) and, hence, the onset of shear surface development in as-yet unfailed slopes - a phenomenon previously observed in areas subjected to high-magnitude earthquake ground shaking and subsequent ongoing landsliding. Recent work on the efficacy of earthquakes in triggering landslides has proposed that the occurrence of failures is a function of damage accumulated in the slope. We present a unique field monitoring dataset on continuing slope deformation from hillslopes damaged during the 2015 Nepal EQS, in response to precipitation and continuing seismicity. Our study site is the Upper Bhote Koshi (UBK), with sites chosen from a chronology of landslide inventories captured from remotely sensed imagery since the Gorkha earthquake. Instruments were deployed during the monsoon on new and pre-existing landslides, and across cracked ground to monitoring precipitation inputs, slope-scale (micro-)seismicity, and slope displacements. Using our dataset, we draw preliminary conclusions on how the spatially-variable legacy of damage accumulated during high-magnitude earthquake-induced ground shaking events is manifest in patterns, rates and styles of post-seismic slope deformation.

  5. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides.

    PubMed

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus.

  6. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides

    PubMed Central

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus. PMID

  7. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides.

    PubMed

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus. PMID

  8. Implementation of the Arsenic Biosand Filter in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcott, S.; Ngai, T.; Shrestha, R.; Pokharel, K.; Walewijk, S.

    2004-05-01

    A low-cost, household-scale drinking water filter, the Arsenic Biosand Filter (ABF), appropriate for rural Nepal, was developed by researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and two local partners (ENPHO and RWSSSP) to simultaneously remove arsenic and pathogens from tubewell water. The project implementation site is the Terai region of southern Nepal, where about 90% of people receive water from tubewells and where about 25+% and 40+% of tubewells are contaminated with arsenic (naturally-occurring) and coliforms (from human and animal sources) respectively, causing severe health consequences such as cancers and gastrointestinal illnesses. Despite growing recognition of the immediacy of the arsenic crisis in this region, many previous arsenic technology projects have failed. This is because many of the available technologies have serious drawbacks, including complex production methods, high maintenance, high costs, insufficient filtration rate, and/or reliance on materials unavailable in remote villages. In addition, most technologies treat arsenic and pathogens independently, resulting in complicated treatment operations. Implementation deficiencies including ineffective technology transfer, confusing NGO responsibilities, organizational non-sustainability, lack of user education and contribution, and inadequate long-term maintenance and monitoring capacity are other major problems. The ABF design is optimized based on the socio-economic conditions of rural Terai and is constructed using locally available labor and materials. It was the only arsenic remediation technology to win the prestigious World Bank Development Marketplace Competition in 2003. Funding from this prize will provide start-up capital to pilot a technology transfer network. In 2004, the team has established an in-country technology dissemination and implementation center and is building local capacity in arsenic-affected villages towards long-term, self-reliant, user-participatory safe

  9. Western Samoa.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Western Samoa, which lies 2575 km northeast of Auckland, New Zealand, focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations the US. The population of Western Samoa, as of 1985, totals 163,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 13/1000; life expectancy is 65 years. The main islands are formed ranges of extinct volcanoes. Volcanic activity last occurred in 1911. More than 2000 years age, waves of Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to the Samoan Islands. Samoans are the 2nd largest Polynesian group, after the Maoris of New Zealand, and speak a Polynesian dialect. Samoans have tended to retain their traditional ways despite exposure to European influence for more than 150 years. Most Samoans live within the traditional social system based on an extended family group, headed by a chief. Western Samoans are Christian. Education is free but not compulsory. In 1967, 95% of the children of primary school age attended school. From 1947 to 1961, a series of constitutional advances, assisted by visits from UN missions, brought Western Samoa from dependent status to self-government and finally to independence. The 1960 constitution is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take Samoan customs into account. The present head of state holds his position for life. Future heads of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly for 5-year terms. The Parliament consists of the Legislative Assembly and the head of state. The Supreme Court is the superior court of record and has full jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and constitutional matters. The "matai" of chief system still dominates the politics of Western Samoa, although several political parties have been formed and seem to be taking root. The "matai" system is a predominantly conservative force but does provide for change. Western Samoa is predominantly

  10. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  11. Women’s perception of quality of maternity services: a longitudinal survey in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of maternity service, the mother’s assessment of quality is central because emotional, cultural and respectful supports are vital during labour and the delivery process. This study compared client-perceived quality of maternity services between birth centres, public and private hospitals in a central hills district of Nepal. Methods A cohort of 701 pregnant women of 5 months or more gestational age were recruited and interviewed, followed by another interview within 45 days of delivery. Perception of quality was measured by a 20-item scale with three sub-scales: health facility, health care delivery, and interpersonal aspects. Perceived quality scores were analysed by ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons and multiple linear regression. Results Within the health facility sub-scale, birth centre was rated lowest on items ‘adequacy of medical equipment’, ‘health staff suited to women’s health’ and ‘adequacy of health staff’, whereas public hospital was rated the lowest with respect to ‘adequacy of room’, ‘adequacy of water’, ‘environment clean’, ‘privacy’ and ‘adequacy of information’. Mean scores of total quality and sub-scales health facility and health care delivery for women attending private hospital were higher (p < 0.001) than those using birth centre or public hospital. Mean score of the sub-scale interpersonal aspects for public hospital users was lower (p < 0.001) than those delivered at private hospital and birth centre. However, perception on interpersonal aspects by women using public hospital improved significantly after delivery (p < 0.001). Conclusions Overall, perception of quality differed significantly by types of health facility used for delivery. They rated lowest the supplies and equipment in birth centres and the amenities and interpersonal aspects in the public hospital. Accordingly, attention to these aspects is needed to improve the quality. PMID:24456544

  12. Traditional massage of newborns in Nepal: implications for trials of improved practice.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Luke C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Khatry, Subarna K; Tielsch, James M

    2005-04-01

    Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity.

  13. Women's autonomy and husbands' involvement in maternal health care in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Deependra Kaji; Niehof, Anke

    2013-09-01

    Both increasing women's autonomy and increasing husbands' involvement in maternal health care are promising strategies to enhance maternal health care utilization. However, these two may be at odds with each other insofar as autonomous women may not seek their husband's involvement, and involved husbands may limit women's autonomy. This study assessed the relationship between women's autonomy and husbands' involvement in maternal health care. Field work for this study was carried out during September-November 2011 in the Kailali district of Nepal. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to investigate the extent of husbands' involvement in maternal health care. A survey was carried out among 341 randomly selected women who delivered a live baby within one year prior to the survey. The results show that husbands were involved in giving advice, supporting to reduce the household work burden, and making financial and transportation arrangements for the delivery. After adjustment for other covariates, economic autonomy was associated with lower likelihood of discussion with husband during pregnancy, while domestic decision-making autonomy was associated with both lower likelihood of discussion with husband during pregnancy and the husband's presence at antenatal care (ANC) visits. Movement autonomy was associated with lower likelihood of the husband's presence at ANC visits. Intra-spousal communication was associated with higher likelihood of discussing health with the husband during pregnancy, birth preparedness, and the husbands' presence at the health facility delivery. The magnitude and direction of association varied per autonomy dimension. These findings suggest that programs to improve the women's autonomy and at the same time increase the husband's involvement should be carefully planned. Despite the traditional cultural beliefs that go against the involvement of husbands, Nepalese husbands are increasingly entering into the area of maternal

  14. Nutrition education and mega-dose vitamin A supplementation in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, G P; Pant, C R; Tilden, R L; Pokhrel, R P; Atmarita; Curtale, F

    1998-01-01

    Two approaches to improve vitamin A nutriture are compared: nutrition education and mega-dose capsule distribution. The impact of these programmes on vitamin A deficiency (VAD), wasting malnutrition, and excessive childhood mortality are compared for approximately 40,000 children who were assigned to either intervention cohorts or a control group from 75 sites within seven districts in two ecological settings (Terai, or lowland, and hills) of Nepal. Twenty-four months after the implementation of the project, the reduction of risk of xerophthalmia was greater among children of mothers who were able to identify vitamin A-rich foods [relative risk (RR) = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.10-0.62] than among children who received mega-dose capsules (RR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.41-0.84). The risk of mortality at two years was reduced for both the nutrition education cohort (RR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.48-0.86) and capsule distribution cohort (RR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42-0.77). The nutrition education program, however, was more expensive to deliver than the capsule distribution programme. High rates of participation in the supplementation programme were achieved within a short period. The nutrition education message spread rapidly throughout the study population, although practice was slower to change. Where maternal literacy was low and channels of communication were limited, the capsule programme appeared to be more cost-effective. However, economies of scale for nationwide programmes exist for nutrition education programmes that do not exist for capsule distribution programmes. A comprehensive national programme requires both dietary supplementation and nutrition education. PMID:10773903

  15. Strong ground motion in the Kathmandu Valley during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Nobuo; Shigefuji, Michiko; Rajaure, Sudhir; Bijukchhen, Subeg; Ichiyanagi, Masayoshi; Dhital, Megh Raj; Sasatani, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    On 25 April 2015, a large earthquake of Mw 7.8 occurred along the Main Himalayan Thrust fault in central Nepal. It was caused by a collision of the Indian Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. The epicenter was near the Gorkha region, 80 km northwest of Kathmandu, and the rupture propagated toward east from the epicentral region passing through the sediment-filled Kathmandu Valley. This event resulted in over 8000 fatalities, mostly in Kathmandu and the adjacent districts. We succeeded in observing strong ground motions at our four observation sites (one rock site and three sedimentary sites) in the Kathmandu Valley during this devastating earthquake. While the observed peak ground acceleration values were smaller than the predicted ones that were derived from the use of a ground motion prediction equation, the observed peak ground velocity values were slightly larger than the predicted ones. The ground velocities observed at the rock site (KTP) showed a simple velocity pulse, resulting in monotonic-step displacements associated with the permanent tectonic offset. The vertical ground velocities observed at the sedimentary sites had the same pulse motions that were observed at the rock site. In contrast, the horizontal ground velocities as well as accelerations observed at three sedimentary sites showed long duration with conspicuous long-period oscillations, due to the valley response. The horizontal valley response was characterized by large amplification (about 10) and prolonged oscillations. However, the predominant period and envelope shape of their oscillations differed from site to site, indicating a complicated basin structure. Finally, on the basis of the velocity response spectra, we show that the horizontal long-period oscillations on the sedimentary sites had enough destructive power to damage high-rise buildings with natural periods of 3 to 5 s.

  16. Comparative Spatial Dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Colin; Pant, Dhan Kumar; Joshi, Durga Datt; Sharma, Minu; Dahal, Meena; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne disease of major importance in Asia. Recent increases in cases have spawned the development of more stringent JE surveillance. Due to the difficulty of making a clinical diagnosis, increased tracking of common symptoms associated with JE—generally classified as the umbrella term, acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) has been developed in many countries. In Nepal, there is some debate as to what AES cases are, and how JE risk factors relate to AES risk. Three parts of this analysis included investigating the temporal pattern of cases, examining the age and vaccination status patterns among AES surveillance data, and then focusing on spatial patterns of risk factors. AES and JE cases from 2007–2011 reported at a district level (n = 75) were examined in relation to landscape risk factors. Landscape pattern indices were used to quantify landscape patterns associated with JE risk. The relative spatial distribution of landscape risk factors were compared using geographically weighted regression. Pattern indices describing the amount of irrigated land edge density and the degree of landscape mixing for irrigated areas were positively associated with JE and AES, while fragmented forest measured by the number of forest patches were negatively associated with AES and JE. For both JE and AES, the local GWR models outperformed global models, indicating spatial heterogeneity in risks. Temporally, the patterns of JE and AES risk were almost identical; suggesting the relative higher caseload of AES compared to JE could provide a valuable early-warning signal for JE surveillance and reduce diagnostic testing costs. Overall, the landscape variables associated with a high degree of landscape mixing and small scale irrigated agriculture were positively linked to JE and AES risk, highlighting the importance of integrating land management policies, disease prevention strategies and promoting healthy sustainable livelihoods in both rural

  17. The national free delivery policy in Nepal: early evidence of its effects on health facilities.

    PubMed

    Witter, Sophie; Khadka, Sunil; Nath, Hom; Tiwari, Suresh

    2011-11-01

    Nepal faces the challenge of high levels of poverty, difficult access to health facilities and poor, though improving, health indicators. In response, in the past 5 years it has been experimenting with a range of approaches to removing user fees. Access to health care is now enshrined as a constitutional right for all. This article examines the latest policy, which was introduced in January 2009: free delivery care across the country. The study objective was to understand the effects of the policy on health facilities. Study methods included structured forms to retrieve financial and activity data from national, district and facility records (comparing 10 months before implementation with 10 months after). These were supplemented by semi-structured interviews with key informants at different levels of the health system. Findings include that utilization of services (at the facilities visited) continues to rise, with caesareans proportionate to the general growth in deliveries. Funds for the free delivery policy ('Aama') are found to be adequate to cover the main costs of services, with some surplus which can be invested in staff and in improving services. The system for reimbursing facilities is operating without undue delay and there is satisfaction with the flexibility of use of resources which it allows and the additional incentives for staff. The main concerns relate to wider systemic issues-in particular, understaffing in some key posts and areas, and dwindling general revenues for the facilities, especially through loss of wider user fee revenues. This may explain the ongoing charges for patients, which both facilities and patients report. It will be challenging to build on the gains of the past few years and sustain them, at the same time as merging the separate free care funding streams. PMID:22027923

  18. Estimating Indoor PM2.5 and CO Concentrations in Households in Southern Nepal: The Nepal Cookstove Intervention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Zeger, Scott; Breysse, Patrick; Katz, Joanne; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C.; Tielsch, James M.

    2016-01-01

    High concentrations of household air pollution (HAP) due to biomass fuel usage with unvented, insufficient combustion devices are thought to be an important health risk factor in South Asia population. To better characterize the indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO), and to understand their impact on health in rural southern Nepal, this study analyzed daily monitoring data collected with DataRAM pDR-1000 and LASCAR CO data logger in 2980 households using traditional biomass cookstove indoor through the Nepal Cookstove Intervention Trial–Phase I between March 2010 and October 2011. Daily average PM2.5 and CO concentrations collected in area near stove were 1,376 (95% CI, 1,331–1,423) μg/m3 and 10.9 (10.5–11.3) parts per million (ppm) among households with traditional cookstoves. The 95th percentile, hours above 100μg/m3 for PM2.5 or 6ppm for CO, and hours above 1000μg/m3 for PM2.5 or 9ppm for CO were also reported. An algorithm was developed to differentiate stove-influenced (SI) periods from non-stove-influenced (non-SI) periods in monitoring data. Average stove-influenced concentrations were 3,469 (3,350–3,588) μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 21.8 (21.1–22.6) ppm for CO. Dry season significantly increased PM2.5 concentration in all metrics; wood was the cleanest fuel for PM2.5 and CO, while adding dung into the fuel increased concentrations of both pollutants. For studies in rural southern Nepal, CO concentration is not a viable surrogate for PM2.5 concentrations based on the low correlation between these measures. In sum, this study filled a gap in knowledge on HAP in rural Nepal using traditional cookstoves and revealed very high concentrations in these households. PMID:27389398

  19. Seismic safety assessment of existing masonry infill structures in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaulagain, Hemchandra; Rodrigues, Hugo; Spacone, Enrico; Varum, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Nepal are constructed with RC frames and masonry infill panels. These structures exhibit a highly non-linear inelastic behavior resulting from the interaction between the panels and frames. This paper presents an extensive case study of existing RC buildings in Nepal. Non-linear analyses were performed on structural models of the buildings considered as a bare frame and with masonry infill, in order to evaluate the influence of infill walls on the failure mechanisms. Five three-storey buildings with different structural configurations and detailing were selected. The effect of masonry infill panels on structural response was delineated by comparing the bare-framed response with the infill response. Seismic performance is evaluated with regard to global strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, inter-storey drift, and total deflection of the structure. A parametric analysis of structures with masonry infill is also performed. For this, the influence of different material properties is studied, namely diagonal compressive stress, modulus of elasticity and tensile stress of masonry infill panels. Study results show that masonry infill increases the global strength and stiffness of the structures; it decreases the inter-storey drift and hence the total displacement of the structure. The results quantify the influence of the infill panels on structural response and, in particular, the effect of the diagonal compressive strength of the masonry wall.

  20. Abortion law in Nepal: the road to reform.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Shyam

    2004-11-01

    In 2002 Nepal's parliament passed a liberal abortion law, after nearly three decades of reform efforts. This paper reviews the history of the movement for reform and the combination of factors that contributed to its success. These include sustained advocacy for reform; the dissemination of knowledge, information and evidence; adoption of the reform agenda by the public sector and its leadership in involving other stakeholders; the existence of work for safe motherhood as the context in which the initiative could gain support; an active women's rights movement and support from international and multilateral organisations; sustained involvement of local NGOs, civil society and professional organisations; the involvement of journalists and the media; the absence of significant opposition; courageous government officials and an enabling democratic political system. The overriding rationale for reforming the abortion law in Nepal has been to ensure safe motherhood and women's rights. The first government abortion services officially began in March 2004 at the Maternity Hospital in Kathmandu; services will be expanded gradually to other public and private hospitals and private clinics in the coming years.

  1. Service provider perspectives on post-abortion contraception in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fan; Puri, Mahesh; Rocca, Corinne H; Blum, Maya; Henderson, Jillian T

    2016-01-01

    The government of Nepal has articulated a commitment to the provision of post-abortion contraception since the implementation of a legal safe abortion policy in 2004. Despite this, gaps in services remain. This study examined the perspectives of abortion service providers and administrators regarding strengths and shortcomings of post-abortion contraceptive service provision. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 abortion providers and administrators at four major health facilities that provide legal abortion in Nepal. Facility factors perceived to impact post-abortion contraceptive services included on-site availability of contraceptive supplies, dedicated and well-trained staff and adequate infrastructure. Cultural norms emerged as influencing contraceptive demand by patients, including method use being unacceptable for women whose husbands migrate and limited decision-making power among women. Service providers described their personal views on appropriate childbearing and the use of specific contraceptive methods that influenced counselling. Findings suggest that improvements to a facility's infrastructure and training to address provider biases and misinformation may improve post-abortion family planning uptake. Adapting services to be sensitive to cultural expectations and norms may help address some barriers to contraceptive use. More research is needed to determine how to best meet the contraceptive needs of women who have infrequent sexual activity or who may face stigma for using family planning, including adolescents, unmarried women and women whose husbands migrate.

  2. A community practitioner abroad: listening to women in Dailekh, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, and has a strongly patriarchal culture. This study reports on methods used to explore women's opportunities in decision-making roles in Dailekh, Nepal. Action-based research was used to support women to identify barriers and to enable them to find solutions which could increase meaningful, practical and genuine representation. Participants were women in nominal positions of leadership in the community and subsequently also men in leadership roles. Focus groups and interviews enabled data to be collected and analysed using participatory and 'rich picture' tools. A five-stage framework approach was used to analyse data. A major theme of 'power' emerged comprised of supporting themes; 'place in society 'formal power,' informal power and 'voice'. These outcomes formed the basis for identifying viable action plans generated by the participants of both genders to promote meaningful involvement of women in community decision making. Women were clear that involving men and women in the actions was key to increasing success. PMID:26373023

  3. Pitfalls of CITES Implementation in Nepal: A Policy Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  4. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted.

  5. A harm reduction programme for injecting drug users in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1997-01-01

    The Lifesaving and Lifegiving Society (LALS), a street-based nongovernmental organization established in Nepal in 1991, utilizes a harm-reduction strategy to minimize the spread of HIV among injecting drug users. Community health outreach workers, many of whom are former drug addicts, work in the streets of Kathmandu, educating, counseling, and distributing bleach, sterile water, swabs, and clean needles. They demonstrate how to clean syringes and distribute condoms. LALS also provides primary health care services such as treatment for abscesses. Clients are informed about the limited drug treatment services in Nepal and are offered the option of home detoxification under LALS supervision. LALS promotes the message that drug users should be treated as victims of a disease rather than as criminals. Family involvement, fostered through home visits, is considered important to sustaining behavioral changes and family members are informed about ways of encouraging drug users to give up drug use or at least practice safe injecting techniques. Education of and networking with Narcotics Division and other police officers has been essential to LALS' success. LALS is working with the Nepali Red Cross on integrating HIV prevention into family planning programs. A current priority is to reduce dependence on funding from donor agencies and mobilize support from private businesses.

  6. Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, R R; Haberl, R; Laber, J; Manandhar, R; Mader, J

    2001-01-01

    Surface water pollution is one of the serious environmental problems in urban centers in Nepal due to the discharge of untreated wastewater into the river-system, turning them into open sewers. Wastewater treatment plants are almost non-existent in the country except for a few in the Kathmandu Valley and even these are not functioning well. Successful implementation of a few constructed wetland systems within the past three years has attracted attention to this promising technology. A two-staged subsurface flow constructed wetland for hospital wastewater treatment and constructed wetlands for treatment of greywater and septage is now becoming a demonstration site of constructed wetland systems in Nepal. Beside these systems, five constructed wetlands have already been designed and some are under construction for the treatment of leachate and septage in Pokhara municipality, wastewater in Kathmandu University, two hospitals and a school. This paper discusses the present condition and treatment performance of constructed wetlands that are now in operation. Furthermore, the concept of the treatment wetlands under construction is also described here. With the present experience, several recommendations are pointed out for the promotion of this technology in the developing countries.

  7. The population decline of Gyps vultures in India and Nepal has slowed since veterinary use of diclofenac was banned.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Vibhu; Bishwakarma, Mohan Chandra; Chaudhary, Anand; Cuthbert, Richard; Dave, Ruchi; Kulkarni, Mandar; Kumar, Sashi; Paudel, Khadananda; Ranade, Sachin; Shringarpure, Rohan; Green, Rhys E

    2012-01-01

    Populations of oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis), long-billed vulture (Gyps indicus) and slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris) crashed during the mid-1990s throughout the Indian subcontinent. Surveys in India, initially conducted in 1991-1993 and repeated in 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2007, revealed that the population of Gyps bengalensis had fallen by 2007 to 0.1% of its numbers in the early 1990s, with the population of Gyps indicus and G. tenuirostris combined having fallen to 3.2% of its earlier level. A survey of G. bengalensis in western Nepal indicated that the size of the population in 2009 was 25% of that in 2002. In this paper, repeat surveys conducted in 2011 were analysed to estimate recent population trends. Populations of all three species of vulture remained at a low level, but the decline had slowed and may even have reversed for G. bengalensis, both in India and Nepal. However, estimates of the most recent population trends are imprecise, so it is possible that declines may be continuing, though at a significantly slower rate. The degree to which the decline of G. bengalensis in India has slowed is consistent with the expected effects on population trend of a measured change in the level of contamination of ungulate carcasses with the drug diclofenac, which is toxic to vultures, following a ban on its veterinary use in 2006. The most recent available information indicates that the elimination of diclofenac from the vultures' food supply is incomplete, so further efforts are required to fully implement the ban.

  8. Thunderstorm characteristics in Nepal during the pre-monsoon season 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Shrestha, Rajendra; Karki, Ramchandra

    2014-02-01

    A training period of lightning location data usage has been carried out in Nepal during the pre-monsoon season April-June 2012. The training was one part of a Finnish-Nepalese Project (FNEP) between the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology of Nepal (DHM) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). FNEP aimed for the development of operational meteorological readiness in a developing country such as Nepal. The lightning location training included the introduction to lightning location techniques and principles and the actual hands-on training for the operational DHM forecasters. The lightning location system used was the Vaisala long range Global Lightning Dataset 360 (GLD360), which has practically a global coverage. During the three months of training, a dataset of Nepalese lightning was also collected, indicating the pre-monsoon thunderstorm characteristics of Nepal.

  9. Surveillance of Influenza A Virus and Its Subtypes in Migratory Wild Birds of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karmacharya, Dibesh; Manandhar, Sulochana; Sharma, Ajay; Bhatta, Tarka; Adhikari, Pratikshya; Sherchan, Adarsh Man; Shrestha, Bishwo; Bista, Manisha; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Oberoi, Mohinder; Bisht, Khadak; Hero, Jean-Marc; Dissanayake, Ravi; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Hughes, Jane; Debnath, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Nepal boarders India and China and all three countries lie within the Central Asian Flyway for migratory birds. Novel influenza A H7N9 caused human fatalities in China in 2013. Subclinical infections of influenza A H7N9 in birds and the potential for virus dispersal by migratory birds prompted this study to assess avian H7N9 viral intrusion into Nepal. Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory birds was implemented in early 2014 with assistance from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Of 1811 environmental fecal samples collected from seven wetland migratory bird roosting areas, influenza A H9N2 was found in one sample from a ruddy shelduck in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve located in southern Nepal. Avian H7N9 and other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were not detected. This study provides baseline data on the status of avian influenza virus in migratory bird populations in Nepal.

  10. India, Nepal, Tibet, Himalaya Mountains as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    India, Nepal, Tibet, Himalaya Mountains, looking east toward Ganges Plain, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 8th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 126 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 12 hours.

  11. Effect of education and household characteristics on infant and child mortality in urban Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pant, P D

    1991-10-01

    Infant and child mortality differentials are analysed by education of parents and other family members, access to toilet, electricity and source of drinking water in urban Nepal, using data from the Nepal Fertility and Family Planning Survey, 1986. The analyses showed significant effects of education, access to toilet and electricity in lowering infant and child mortality. Access to toilet and electricity are proxies for household socioeconomic status which suggests that education and household resources are complementary in lowering the infant and child mortality.

  12. Treatment Contact Coverage for Probable Depressive and Probable Alcohol Use Disorders in Four Low- and Middle-Income Country Districts: The PRIME Cross-Sectional Community Surveys

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary J.; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Breuer, Erica; Murhar, Vaibhav; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Medhin, Girmay; Kigozi, Fred; Shidhaye, Rahul; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    Context A robust evidence base is now emerging that indicates that treatment for depression and alcohol use disorders (AUD) delivered in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) can be effective. However, the coverage of services for these conditions in most LMIC settings remains unknown. Objective To describe the methods of a repeat cross-sectional survey to determine changes in treatment contact coverage for probable depression and for probable AUD in four LMIC districts, and to present the baseline findings regarding treatment contact coverage. Methods Population-based cross-sectional surveys with structured questionnaires, which included validated screening tools to identify probable cases. We defined contact coverage as being the proportion of cases who sought professional help in the past 12 months. Setting Sodo District, Ethiopia; Sehore District, India; Chitwan District, Nepal; and Kamuli District, Uganda Participants 8036 adults residing in these districts between May 2013 and May 2014 Main Outcome Measures Treatment contact coverage was defined as having sought care from a specialist, generalist, or other health care provider for symptoms related to depression or AUD. Results The proportion of adults who screened positive for depression over the past 12 months ranged from 11.2% in Nepal to 29.7% in India and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged between 8.1% in Nepal to 23.5% in India. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable depression was 23.7%. The proportion of adults who screened positive for AUD over the past 12 months ranged from 1.7% in Uganda to 13.9% in Ethiopia and treatment contact coverage over the past 12 months ranged from 2.8% in India to 5.1% in Nepal. In Ethiopia, lifetime contact coverage for probable AUD was 13.1%. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with and contribute to the limited evidence base which indicates low treatment contact coverage for depression and for AUD in LMIC. The planned follow up

  13. The need for a national urbanization policy in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ertur, O

    1994-09-01

    There is a need for a national urbanization policy in Nepal as a means of redressing regional disparities in development between the hills, the Kathmandu Valley, and the Terai versus rural and urban areas. A settlement system would complement urban and rural development and reduce dependency on India. An urbanization policy would be both systematic and guided by public and private investment in existing urban and rural settlements. Regional investment in development would contribute to commercialization and agricultural industrialization (development and linkage of market towns and service centers, strengthening of basic infrastructure and land use patterns, strengthening of urban areas around transportation centers, promoting nonfarm employment opportunities, establishing strong financial and technical institutions in middle-sized cities, and strengthening municipalities' mobilization of local resources and financing). Nepal has been one of the least developed countries in its region. The agricultural economy provides economic support for 80% of total population. In 1991, density was 130 person per sq. km. 9% of the total population live in urban areas, but the rate of urban growth is the highest among South Asian Regional Cooperation countries (7.3% in Nepal compared to 6.1% in Bangladesh and 3.7% in India). Rural markets and towns are rapidly becoming urbanized but without basic infrastructure. The spatial component of urbanization must be emphasized. Total population increased in the Terai from 37% in 1971 to 47% in 1991, which increased population density by 31% but not cultivation. Harsh physical conditions in mountainous regions and lack of cultivable land are push factors. Pull factors are employment opportunities in emerging urban centers and the availability of agricultural employment in the Terai. Movement to lowlands is enhanced by the eradication of malaria. 53% of the urban population is in the Terai in 1991, which also has 65% of cultivable land, 35

  14. Negotiating geophysical hazards in Nepal: An interdisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oven, Katie; Petley, Dave; Rosser, Nick; Dunn, Chris; Rigg, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the impact of natural hazards reflects not only the nature of geophysical processes but also the social conditions that prevail. The need for collaborative research to address these complex interactions between the natural and human systems is well recognised, however moving from theory to practice presents a number of significant challenges. How researchers frame problems; develop their research questions; select the methodologies to explore these questions; and privilege certain knowledges over others, can be seen to vary between physical and social science. Drawing on a case study examining the vulnerability of rural communities to landslides in the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley, Central Nepal, this paper explores how these barriers can be overcome and the benefits of undertaking interdisciplinary research within the natural hazards field. This research investigates the different framings of landslide risk and vulnerability from different stakeholder and disciplinary perspectives. Specifically, we ask: 1. Who is vulnerable to landslide hazard? 2. Why do people occupy landslide prone areas? 3. How do ‘at risk' rural communities perceive and respond to landslide hazard and risk? The findings, based on a series of participatory methodologies, challenge a number of assumptions made regarding landslide vulnerability in mountain communities. Within the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley clear transitions in settlement patterns, rural livelihoods and thus the occupation of landslide prone areas have been seen over time. For the majority of households, their decision to occupy these areas is driven by the economic and social benefits associated with the Arniko Highway which runs through the valley, linking Nepal with Tibet. Landslide vulnerability therefore emerges not just from societal marginalisation but also from situations of relative prosperity. The findings suggest that occupants of landslide prone areas have a good understanding of landslide hazard

  15. Connecting source and transport: Suspended sediments in the Nepal Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andermann, Christoff; Crave, Alain; Gloaguen, Richard; Davy, Philippe; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the dynamics of sediment fluxes is a key issue to constrain modern erosion rates in mountain belts and determine the still debated level of control exerted by precipitation, topography and tectonics. The well defined monsoon seasonality in the Himalayas, together with active tectonics and strong relief provide an ideal environment to assess these possible interactions. For this purpose, we present a new compilation of daily suspended sediment data for 12 stations of the major rivers of the Nepal Himalayas. We analyze the relationships of sediment transport with daily river discharge and precipitation data as well as with morphometric parameters. We show that suspended sediment concentrations vary systematically through the seasons and asynchronously to river discharge displaying a hysteresis effect. This clockwise hysteresis effect disappears when suspended sediment fluxes are directly compared with direct storm discharge. Therefore we attribute the hysteresis effect to groundwater dilution rather than a sediment supply limitation. We infer a rating model to calculate erosion rates directly from long river discharge chronicles. We show that, when normalized by drainage area and mean sediment flux, all rivers exhibit the same trend. This similarity implies that all river basins have the same erosion behavior, independent of location, size and catchment characteristics. Erosion rates calculated from suspended sediment fluxes range between 0.1 and 2.8 mm/yr. The erosion rates of the three main basins of Nepal are in the range 0.9-1.5 mm/yr, Erosion rates in the Higher Himalayas are relatively low (<0.5 mm/yr, except for Kali Gandaki), while in the Lesser Himalayas they range from 0.2 to 2 mm/yr. We propose that material transport in the rivers depends on hillslope sediment supply, which is, in turn, controlled by those rainfalls producing direct runoff. In other words, the rivers in the Nepal Himalayas are supply-limited and the hillsopes as a

  16. Western blots.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lita A

    2013-01-01

    Western analysis of apolipoproteins, lipoproteins, and proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism can be challenging due to their size, hydrophobic nature, and, in some cases, low abundance. Here we describe a Western blotting method that has been used successfully for many proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism, as well as intact LDL or HDL particles. Proteins or lipoprotein particles separated by gel electrophoresis are transferred to a PVDF membrane in a Hoefer TE22 transfer tank with Tris-Glycine-SDS-Methanol transfer buffer. The membrane is blocked with 3 % BSA/5 % milk to prevent nonspecific binding of antibody to the membrane and is then incubated with primary antibody that binds specifically to the protein of interest. After washing away unbound primary antibody, the membrane is then incubated with an HRP-labeled secondary antibody that binds primary antibody. After washing away unbound secondary antibody, the membrane is then incubated with a substrate for HRP, generating a chemiluminescent signal at the location of the protein of interest. The protein is visualized by exposing the membrane to an autoradiography film or an imaging device. Information on the use of several human antibodies, including apoA-I, A-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoD, apoL1, apoM, PON1, SAA, ABCA1, nitrotyrosine, and LCAT, is provided. This method can be used for Western blotting of virtually any protein as well as native lipoprotein particles. PMID:23912997

  17. 76 FR 43933 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  18. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  19. Geomorphic changes induced by the April-May 2015 earthquake sequence in the Pharak-Khumbu area (Nepal): preliminary assessments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landsliding is a common process shaping mountain slopes. There are various potential landslide triggers (rainfall, bank erosion, earthquakes) and their effectiveness depends on their distribution, frequency and magnitude. In a Himalayan context, the effects of monsoon rainfall can be assessed every year whereas the unpredictability and low frequency of large earthquakes make their role in triggering slope instability more obscure. A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Nepal (Gorkha District) on 25 April 2015 and was followed by many aftershocks exceeding magnitude 5, including another strong 7.3 magnitude earthquake on May 12, 2015 (Dolakha District). This seismic crisis provides an exceptional opportunity to assess the disruptions that earthquakes may cause in "regular" geomorphic systems controlled by rainfall. Here we present field observations carried out in the Pharak-Khumbu area (East Nepal, Dudh Kosi catchment) before and after the April-May 2015 earthquakes. The Pharak, a "middle mountains" (2000-4500 m) area, is affected by monsoon rains (3000 m/yr at 2500 m) and characterised by steep hillslopes, shaped by different geomorphic processes according to slope height and aspect, rock type and strength, inherited landforms, stream connectivity and current land use changes. This study focuses on the south of Lukla (Phakding District), and more specifically on the Khari Khola catchment and its surroundings. The area lies at the transition between the Higher Himalayan crystallines and the Lesser Himalayan meta-sediments. On the basis of our diachronic observations (March and November 2015), we surveyed and mapped new earthquake-induced slope instabilities such as rock falls, rockslides, landslides and debris flows and a combination of several of them. Interviews with local people also helped to assess the exact timing of some events. While the first M 7.8 earthquake produced significant impacts in the northern Khumbu area, the M 7.3 aftershock seems to have

  20. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert® MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Baral, S.; Shrestha, P.; Puri, M.; Kandel, S.; Lamichanne, B.; Elsey, H.; Brouwer, M.; Goel, S.; Chinnakali, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Twenty-two districts of Nepal, where intensified case-finding (ICF) activities for tuberculosis (TB) were implemented among risk groups under the TB REACH initiative in collaboration with the National TB Programme from July 2013 to November 2015. Objectives: To assess the yield of TB screening using an algorithm with smear microscopy followed by Xpert® MTB/RIF. Design: A descriptive study using routinely collected data. Results: Of 145 679 individuals screened, 28 574 (19.6%) had presumptive TB; 1239 (4.3%) of these were diagnosed with TB and 1195 (96%) were initiated on anti-tuberculosis treatment. The yield of screening was highest among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) (6.1%), followed by household contacts (3.5%) and urban slum dwellers (0.5%). Among other risk groups, such as prisoners, factory workers, refugees and individuals with diabetes, the yield was less than 0.5%. The number needed to screen to diagnose an active TB case was 17 for PLHIV, 29 for household contacts and 197 for urban slum dwellers. Of 11 525 patients from ICF and the routine programme, 112 (1%) were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB. Conclusion: There was a substantial yield of TB cases among risk groups such as PLHIV and household contacts. Although the yield in urban slum dwellers was found to be moderate, some intervention should nonetheless be targeted because of the large population and poor access to care in this group. PMID:27358808

  1. Consequences among protest survivors of 2006 in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Arjun, Shrestha

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on the secondary data gathered from various health institutions, human right organizations, a political party and news agencies in Nepal. The Centre for Victims of Torture (CVICT) has its own primary data of traumatized victims from the mobile medical rescue team and from observing for human rights violations. There have been gross human rights abuses. Even the rescue team was not found to be safe from the incident. Moreover, the head and neck along with the vital organs of the body were made the target. The injured people were managed in different hospitals. Many victims suffer from the aftermath of this brutality through combat fatigue, also called acute crisis reaction. They are in need of comprehensive rehabilitation in the form of medical, psychological and social assistance. PMID:17456907

  2. Nepal's War on Human Rights: A summit higher than Everest

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal; Dahal, Khagendra; Mills, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Nepal has witnessed serious human rights violations including arbitrary arrests, detentions, "disappearances", extra judicial executions, abductions and torture carried out by both the Royal Nepalese Army and the Maoist rebels in the 10 years of the "peoples war". Women and children have borne the brunt of the conflict. Massive displacement has led to adverse social and psychological consequences. While the reasons for the conflict are mainly indigenous and rooted in the social and economic in-equities, remedies for health inequities must come not only from the health sector but also from broad social policies and adopting a participatory and conflict-sensitive approach to development. Meanwhile the international community needs to use its leverage to urge both sides to accept a human rights accord and honor international human rights and humanitarian laws, while investigating allegations of abuse and prosecute those responsible. PMID:15985165

  3. Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges.

  4. Atmospheric changes observed during April 2015 Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Nandita D.

    2016-03-01

    A massive earthquake shook Nepal on 25 April 2015, with a moment magnitude of 7.9 Mw, its hypocenter at a depth of 10 km. Atmospheric changes that precede an earthquake might offer the hope of early warning and evacuation. Although the existence of such precursory signals is highly controversial, an attempt has been made to investigate the atmospheric changes from two months prior, to five months following this deadly earthquake. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar ozone were found to be higher by 40% and 6% respectively prior to the occurrence of the earthquake. The UV aerosol index (UVI), AOD and columnar NO2 increased, while columnar ozone and sea level pressure dropped following the earthquake.

  5. Trend of blood group distribution among the Jirels of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, R H; Subba, B; Kunwar, C B; Subedi, J; Blengero, J; Williams, S; Towne, B

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to find out the trend of blood group distribution among the Jirels, a small tribe, descended from Kirat tribe and to compare with other castes within Nepal and with people of other continents. Blood group distribution (ABO grouping and Rh typing) was studied among 2093 Jirels (Male-1057 and Female-1036). The frequency of distribution of A, B, O and AB was 55.05%, 14.72%, 21.64% and 8.6% respectively. The group A was found to be most common among the Jirels where as O is most common in the world. Only 0.14%of the Jirels were was found to be Rhesus Negative (Rh -ve).

  6. Kusunda: An Indo-Pacific language in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Paul; Usher, Timothy; Ruhlen, Merritt; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Kusunda people of central Nepal have long been regarded as a relic tribe of South Asia. They are, or were until recently, seminomadic hunter-gatherers, living in jungles and forests, with a language that shows no similarities to surrounding languages. They are often described as shorter and darker than neighboring tribes. Our research indicates that the Kusunda language is a member of the Indo-Pacific family. This is a surprising finding inasmuch as the Indo-Pacific family is located on New Guinea and surrounding islands. The possibility that Kusunda is a remnant of the migration that led to the initial peopling of New Guinea and Australia warrants additional investigation from both a linguistic and genetic perspective. PMID:15056764

  7. Promoting astronomy for the development of society in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suresh; Neupane, Sudeep

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy as one of the oldest sciences has influenced and spurred steady development of society and culture. Inherent superstitious beliefs and their related rituals that have been hampering the progress and prosperity of nations have been dispelled and reduced considerably through the promotion of astronomical activities at all levels of the society. For disseminating basic knowledge and logic of astronomical facts that were deemed important for the development of our society, various programmes have been conducted through mass media. Many talk programmes, seminars and star parties were organised in different places. Our experiences when planning and executing such programmes are summarised and illustrated. The effectiveness of our programmes with the participation of general public is discussed in detail. Positive results of our activities that have contributed towards creation of substantial awareness of astronomy for the development of our society in Nepal are explained.

  8. Coping with poor water supplies: empirical evidence from Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Katuwal, Hari; Bohara, Alok K

    2011-03-01

    The authors examined the demand for clean drinking water using treatment behaviors in Kathmandu, Nepal. Water supply is inadequate, unreliable and low quality. Households engage in several strategies to cope with the unreliable and poor quality of water supplies. Some of the major coping strategies are hauling, storing, and point-of-use treatment. Boiling, filtering, and use of Uro-guard are some of the major treatment methods. Using Water Survey of Kathmandu, the authors estimated the effect of wealth, education, information, gender, caste/ethnicity and opinion about water quality on drinking water treatment behaviors. The results show that people tend to increase boiling and then filtering instead of only one method if they are wealthier. In addition, people boil and then filter instead of boiling only and filtering only if they think that water delivered to the tap is dirty. Exposure to information has the strongest effect in general for the selection of all available treatment modes.

  9. Kathmandu, Nepal: still an enteric fever capital of the world.

    PubMed

    Karkey, Abhilasha; Aryjal, Amit; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, has been previously coined an enteric fever capital of the world. Several studies have poignantly emphasized the significant burden of enteric fever within the local population and in travellers visiting the area. The population of Kathmandu is increasing and available figures suggest that enteric fever caused by Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A show no significant signs of decreasing. Furthermore, our recent research demonstrates that the ratio of disease caused by these two organisms is shifting towards S. Paratyphi A. Here, we outline some of the major features of enteric fever in Kathmandu, including diagnosis, seasonal variation, transmission, and some characteristics of the infecting organisms. Our findings highlight the requirement for better understanding of the disease within the city; in turn, this will aid development of a targeted control strategy. PMID:19745524

  10. Engineering geological aspect of Gorkha Earthquake 2015, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Andermann, Christoff; Cook, Kristen

    2016-04-01

    Strong shaking by earthquake causes massif landsliding with severe effects on infrastructure and human lives. The distribution of landslides and other hazards are depending on the combination of earthquake and local characteristics which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. The Himalayas are one of the most active mountain belts with several kilometers of relief and is very prone to catastrophic mass failure. Strong and shallow earthquakes are very common and cause wide spread collapse of hillslopes, increasing the background landslide rate by several magnitude. The Himalaya is facing many small and large earthquakes in the past i.e. earthquakes i.e. Bihar-Nepal earthquake 1934 (Ms 8.2); Large Kangra earthquake of 1905 (Ms 7.8); Gorkha earthquake 2015 (Mw 7.8). The Mw 7.9 Gorkha earthquake has occurred on and around the main Himalayan Thrust with a hypocentral depth of 15 km (GEER 2015) followed by Mw 7.3 aftershock in Kodari causing 8700+ deaths and leaving hundreds of thousands of homeless. Most of the 3000 aftershocks located by National Seismological Center (NSC) within the first 45 days following the Gorkha Earthquake are concentrated in a narrow 40 km-wide band at midcrustal to shallow depth along the strike of the southern slope of the high Himalaya (Adhikari et al. 2015) and the ground shaking was substantially lower in the short-period range than would be expected for and earthquake of this magnitude (Moss et al. 2015). The effect of this earthquake is very unique in affected areas by showing topographic effect, liquefaction and land subsidence. More than 5000 landslides were triggered by this earthquake (Earthquake without Frontiers, 2015). Most of the landslides are shallow and occurred in weathered bedrock and appear to have mobilized primarily as raveling failures, rock slides and rock falls. Majority of landslides are limited to a zone which runs east-west, approximately parallel the lesser and higher Himalaya. There are numerous cracks in

  11. Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges. PMID:23836312

  12. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  13. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  14. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  15. Macroseismic Intensities from the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. S.; Hough, S. E.; Gahalaut, V. K.; Hung, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake, the largest central Himalayan earthquake in eighty-one years, yielded few instrumental recording of strong motion. To supplement these we collected 3800 detailed media and first-person accounts of macroseismic effects that included sufficiently detailed information to assign intensities. Our resultant macroseismic intensity map reveals the distribution of shaking in Nepal and the adjacent Gangetic basin. A key observation was that only in rare instances did near-field shaking intensities exceed intensity 8 on the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS), a level that corresponds with heavy damage or total collapse of many unengineered masonry structures. Within the Kathmandu Valley, intensities were generally 6-7 EMS, with generally lower intensities in the center of the valley than along the edges and foothills. This surprising (and fortunate) result can be explained by the nature of the mainshock ground motions, which were dominated by energy at periods significantly longer than the resonant periods of vernacular structures throughout Kathmandu. Outside the Kathmandu Valley the earthquake took a heavy toll on a number of remote villages, where many especially vulnerable masonry houses collapsed catastrophically in shaking equivalent to 7-8 EMS. Intensities were also generally higher along ridges and small hills, suggesting that topographic amplification played a significant role in controlling damage. The spatially rich intensity data set provides an opportunity to consider several key issues, including amplification of shaking in the Ganges basin, and the distribution of shaking across the rupture zone. Of note, relatively higher intensities within the near-field region are found to correlate with zones of enhanced high-frequency source radiation imaged by teleseismic back-projection (Avouac et al., 2015). We further reconsider intensities from a sequence of earthquakes on 26 August 1833, and conclude the largest of these ruptured

  16. Representative rainfall thresholds for landslides in the Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Hasegawa, Shuichi

    2008-08-01

    Measuring some 2400 km in length, the Himalaya accommodate millions of people in northern India and Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and parts of other Asian nations. Every year, especially during monsoon rains, landslides and related natural events in these mountains cause tremendous damage to lives, property, infrastructure, and environment. In the context of the Himalaya, however, the rainfall thresholds for landslide initiation are not well understood. This paper describes regional aspects of rainfall thresholds for landslides in the Himalaya. Some 677 landslides occurring from 1951 to 2006 were studied to analyze rainfall thresholds. Out of the 677 landslides, however, only 193 associated with rainfall data were analyzed to yield a threshold relationship between rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, and landslide initiation. The threshold relationship fitted to the lower boundary of the field defined by landslide-triggering rainfall events is I = 73.90 D- 0.79 ( I = rainfall intensity in mm h - 1 and D = duration in hours), revealing that when the daily precipitation exceeds 144 mm, the risk of landslides on Himalayan mountain slopes is high. Normalized rainfall intensity-duration relationships and landslide initiation thresholds were established from the data after normalizing rainfall-intensity data with respect to mean annual precipitation ( MAP) as an index in which NI = 1.10 D- 0.59 ( NI = normalized intensity in h - 1 ). Finally, the role of antecedent rainfall in causing landslides was also investigated by considering daily rainfall during failure and the cumulative rainfall to discover at what point antecedent rainfall plays an important role in Himalayan landslide processes. Rainfall thresholds presented in this paper are generalized so they can be used in landslide warning systems in the Nepal Himalaya.

  17. A sustainable approach towards rural development: dry toilets in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, M R

    2005-01-01

    Existing inadequate sewerage systems and direct disposal of household waste into water courses has tremendously increased water pollution. Dry toilets are feasible in rural and peri-urban areas to reduce the consumption of costlier water that is required for flushing. As conventional treatment technologies require high investment, and operation and maintenance costs, dry toilets are the only suitable option left for sanitation in the 21st century when working with limited financial resources. To reduce environmental degradation and overcome this problem, the dry toilet is only the realistic option in Nepal. Two reactors, one exposed to sunrays and the other without sunrays, were constructed. In the model with sunrays, it was found that in 48 days of observation faecal coliform presence depleted to 610 cells per gm from the initial value of 7 x 10(10) and volatile organic matter came down from 98.09% to 70.18%. Similarly, in the other model, the destruction of faecal coliform in 65 days was found to be 920 cells/gm while the destruction of organic matter took 75 days. Also, observing from 313 people in a cluster on the pilot project, the annually recovered value of N, P and K was found to be 1565 kg, 125 kg, 344 kg, respectively. This paper deals with the different types of dry ecological toilet, their performance and feasibility study in Nepal, with the full involvement of local people, based on complete laboratory analysis and regular monitoring. Using dry toilets will save 14 LPCD, which is equivalent to 14 MLD and the resulting demand will become only 80 MLD for the urban area of Kathmandu. The result advocates the implementation of ecological dry toilets to save valuable water wasted in flushing, as well as saving the resources needed to treat the waste. PMID:16477967

  18. Features of positive ground flashes observed in Kathmandu Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Pitri Bhakta; Sharma, Shriram; Baral, Kedarnath

    2016-07-01

    Lightning vertical electric fields pertinent to the subtropical thunderstorms occurring over the rugged terrain have been measured and recorded at a hilly station Kathmandu, Nepal. In the present work, waveforms of the positive ground flashes have been selected from all the records and were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that fine structure of electric field signature pertinent to the positive return stroke; have been analyzed and presented from Nepal. One hundred and thirty three (133) of the total of four hundred twenty-five (425) flashes were selected from seven thunderstorm days and analyzed. Of the data recorded for seven days, 133 flashes (31.3%) were positive flashes and 276 flashes (64.9%) were cloud flashes. Majority of the positive ground flashes were found to be single stroke ones, whereas, the average number of strokes per flash is found to be 1.1 with a maximum value of 4. Majority of the positive ground flashes were found either lacking the initial breakdown process and the leader stage or these processes could not be detected. The return strokes are found to be succeeded by large in cloud activity in the continuing current portion of the flash. The average zero-crossing time of the positive return strokes was found to be 60.45 μs with a range of 447.81 μs and the average rise time was found to be 9.44 μs with a range of 42.56 μs.

  19. The role of auxiliary nurse-midwives and community health volunteers in expanding access to medical abortion in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Puri, Mahesh; Tamang, Anand; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Joshi, Deepak

    2015-02-01

    Medical abortion was introduced in Nepal in 2009, but rural women's access to medical abortion services remained limited. We conducted a district-level operations research study to assess the effectiveness of training 13 auxiliary nurse-midwives as medical abortion providers, and 120 female community health volunteers as communicators and referral agents for expanding access to medical abortion for rural women. Interviews with service providers and women who received medical abortion were undertaken and service statistics were analysed. Compared to a neighbouring district with no intervention, there was a significant increase in the intervention area in community health volunteers' knowledge of the legal conditions for abortion, the advantages and disadvantages of medical abortion, safe places for an abortion, medical abortion drugs, correct gestational age for home use of medical abortion, and carrying out a urine pregnancy test. In a one-year period in 2011-12, the community health volunteers did pregnancy tests for 584 women and referred 114 women to the auxiliary nurse-midwives for abortion; 307 women in the intervention area received medical abortion services from auxiliary nurse-midwives. There were no complications that required referral to a higher-level facility except for one incomplete abortion. Almost all women who opted for medical abortion were happy with the services provided. The study demonstrated that auxiliary nurse-midwives can independently and confidently provide medical abortion safely and effectively at the sub-health post level, and community health volunteers are effective change agents in informing women about medical abortion. PMID:25702073

  20. District nursing in Dominica.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, P M; Luteijn, A J; Nasiiro, R S; Bruney, V; Smith, R J; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-10-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the use of a questionnaire. Check-ups for hypertension, diabetes, pregnancy and immunisations constituted 40% of all reasons for encounter. The district nurses dealt with 80% of all contacts; only 20% of all patients were referred to the district medical officer. There are several discouragements to the motivation of the nurses. In addition to being a nurse, all have their family and other obligations. Postgraduate training with diversified certification and upgrading of wages could contribute to a continued high motivation and increased job satisfaction.

  1. Career intentions of medical students in the setting of Nepal's rapidly expanding private medical education system.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Ian; Shrestha, Suvash; Reich, Nicholas G; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-08-01

    The number of medical students trained in Nepal each year has increased nearly fifty-fold in the last 15 years, primarily through the creation of private medical schools. It is unknown where this expanding cohort of new physicians will ultimately practice. We distributed an anonymous survey to students in their last 2 years of medical school at four medical schools in Nepal to examine two dimensions of career intention: the intention to practice in Nepal and the intention to practice in rural areas. Eighty-five per cent of the eligible study population participated, for a total of 469 medical students. Of these, 88% thought it was likely they would practice in Nepal and 88% thought it likely they would practice in urban areas. Those students who indicated a greater likelihood of practicing abroad came from families with higher incomes, were more likely to think earning a good salary was very important to their decision to become a physician, and were less likely to think they could earn a good salary in Nepal. Students whose tuition was paid by the government were no more likely to indicate an intention to practice in Nepal than students paying their own tuition at private medical schools. Students who indicated a greater likelihood of practicing in rural areas were more likely to be male, to have gone to a government secondary school, to have been born in a village, or to have received a scholarship from the Ministry of Education that requires rural service. Based on our findings, we suggest the following policy changes: (1) medical schools consider selecting for students from rural backgrounds or government secondary schools who are more likely to intend to practice in rural areas, and (2) increase the number of post-graduate positions--weighted toward rural health needs--to retain students in Nepal.

  2. Young eclogite from the Greater Himalayan Sequence, Arun Valley, eastern Nepal: P- T- t path and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrie, S. L.; Kohn, M. J.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Garnet geochronology was used to provide the first direct measurement of the timing of eclogitization in the central Himalaya. Lu-Hf dates from garnet separates in one relict eclogite from the Arun River Valley in eastern Nepal indicate an age of 20.7 ± 0.4 Ma, significantly younger than ultra-high pressure eclogites from the western Himalaya, reflecting either different origins or substantial time lags in tectonics along strike. Four proximal garnet amphibolites from structurally lower horizons are 14-15 Ma, similar to post-eclogitization ages published for rocks along strike in southern Tibet. P- T calculations indicate three metamorphic episodes for the eclogite: i) eclogite-facies metamorphism at ˜ 670 °C and ≥ 15 kbar at 23-16 Ma; ii) a peak- T granulite event at ˜ 780 °C and 12 kbar; and iii) late-stage amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ˜ 675 °C and 6 kbar at ˜ 14 Ma. The garnet amphibolites were metamorphosed at ˜ 660 °C. Three models are considered to explain the observed P- T- t evolution. The first assumes that the Main Himalayan Thrust (basal thrust of the Himalayan thrust system) cuts deeper at Arun than elsewhere. While conceptually the simplest, this model has difficulty explaining both the granulite-facies overprint and the pulse of exhumation between 25 and 14 Ma. A second model assumes that (aborted) subduction, slab breakoff, and ascent of India's leading edge occurred diachronously: ˜ 50 Ma in the western Himalaya, ˜ 25 Ma in the central Himalaya of Nepal, and presumably later in the eastern Himalaya. This model explains the P- T- t path, particularly heating during initial exhumation, but implies significant along-strike diachroneity, which is generally lacking in other features of the Himalaya. A third model assumes repeated loss of mantle lithosphere, first by slab breakoff at ˜ 50 Ma, and again by delamination at ˜ 25 Ma; this model explains the P- T- t path, but requires geographically restricted tectonic behavior at Arun

  3. Evaluation of district mental healthcare plans: the PRIME consortium methodology

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary J.; Rathod, Sujit D.; Hanlon, Charlotte; Breuer, Erica; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Medhin, Girmay; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Prince, Martin; Thornicroft, Graham; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the implementation and impact of real-world mental health programmes delivered at scale in low-resource settings. Aims To describe the cross-country research methods used to evaluate district-level mental healthcare plans (MHCPs) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda. Method Multidisciplinary methods conducted at community, health facility and district levels, embedded within a theory of change. Results The following designs are employed to evaluate the MHCPs: (a) repeat community-based cross-sectional surveys to measure change in population-level contact coverage; (b) repeat facility-based surveys to assess change in detection of disorders; (c) disorder-specific cohorts to assess the effect on patient outcomes; and (d) multilevel case studies to evaluate the process of implementation. Conclusions To evaluate whether and how a health-system-level intervention is effective, multidisciplinary research methods are required at different population levels. Although challenging, such methods may be replicated across diverse settings. PMID:26447175

  4. PLANT DIVERSITY OF WESTERN CHITWAN FLORISTIC APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, D. R.; Shivakoti, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies and documents the plant biodiversity of western Chitwan, Nepal. Specifically, our attention was focussed on the plants of forests, grasslands and common lands based on our “Reciprocal Relation of Population and Environment Study Project” conducted during January-April 1996. This species-diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous flora was recorded from 117, 117, and 1049 sampling quadrats of 10×10, 3×3 and 1×1 m2, respectively. The flora of our study plots contains 236 species that belong to 191 genera and 66 families. Of 236 species of plants, 119, 113, 59, 35 and 119 species were recorded from Tikauli forest, National Park forest, forests along the Narayani river, grasslands of National Park and common lands of the western Chitwan, respectively. Dicotyledons represent 184 (77.97%) species of the total flora species followed by monocotyledons (46 spp., 19.49%) and ferns (6 spp., 2.54%), respectively. The five largest families are Leguminosae (38 spp.), Poaceae (27 spp.), Asteraceae (22 spp.), Rubiaceae (10 spp.), and Scrophulariaceae (9 spp.). Hedyotis, Grewia and Lindernia, each with 4 spp., are the most speciose genera in the flora. PMID:22899874

  5. Scalability and Sustainability in Uncertain Environments: Recovery from the Nepal Earthquakes, April 25 and May 12, 2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comfort, L. K.; Joshi, J. B. D.; Yuldashev, F.

    2015-12-01

    Decision making in disaster recovery involves both rapid scaling up of resources and personnel from external sources, to rebuild a damaged community, and consequent scaling down of this influx of new actors, organizations, and resources as the community returns to daily operations. How to integrate new concepts, technologies, and resources into communities to rebuild the social, economic, and political infrastructure in stronger, more sustainable ways, as well to reconstruct the damaged technical infrastructure represents a challenging set of problems for any community. This problem is critical in environments exposed to recurring risk of interacting hazards that characterize metropolitan regions today. This analysis will examine the process of decision making that is being initiated at national, regional, district, and municipal levels in Nepal following the April 25 and May 12, 2015 Earthquakes as a field study of this process in action. We will build on an initial brief reconnaissance trip to Nepal, June 30 - July 10, 2015, just as response operations were ending and the transition to recovery was beginning. It will capture this transition process to identify the organizational structure through which it operates and the communication and coordination processes that enhance or impede the development of sustainable, disaster-resilient communities as they recover from disaster. We will collect three types of data from different sources, and use appropriate methods of analysis for each type of data. For documentary analysis, we will trace the logic of governmental action for managing risk and recovering from disaster that is stated in public laws, policies, and documents. For electronic media, we will use content analysis to identify key actors, organizations, transactions, and interactions among actors, and conduct a network analysis, using standard measures of centrality, distance, closeness, and clustering. We will use expert interviews and satellite maps to

  6. National Scale-up of Zinc Promotion in Nepal: Results from a Post-project Population-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Vicki M.; Paudel, Mahesh; Banke, Kathryn K.

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund recommend using a new oral rehydration solution (ORS) plus zinc supplementation for 10-14 days for the treatment of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The Social Marketing Plus for Diarrhoeal Disease Control: Point of Use Water Disinfection and Zinc Treatment (POUZN) project in Nepal was one of the first zinc-promotion projects to move beyond pilot efforts into a scaled-up programme with national-level reach. This study used data from a survey conducted in 26 districts in Nepal in 2008 to examine zinc-use behaviour, knowledge, and beliefs of caregivers of children aged less than six years, other diarrhoea-treatment practices, and recollection of project communication messages. The results of the survey indicated that, by six months following the onset of a zinc-promotion campaign, the majority (67.5%) of children (n=289), aged less than six years, with diarrhoea were treated with ORS, and 15.4% were treated with zinc. Over half (53.1%) of all caregivers (n=3,550) interviewed had heard about zinc products; most (97.1%) of those who had heard of zinc knew that zinc should be used for the treatment of diarrhoea. Zinc-related knowledge and behaviours were positively associated with recall of communication messages. Children whose caregivers recalled the mass-media message that zinc should be used for 10 days [odds ratio (OR)=2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-2.19] and whose caregivers perceived that zinc is easy to obtain (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.49-2.09) were more likely to be treated with zinc for 10 days, along with ORS. The findings demonstrated that mass media play an important role in increasing caregivers’ knowledge about zinc and encouraging trial and correct use. Future efforts should also focus on understanding the factors that motivate providers to continue recommending antibiotics and antidiarrhoeals instead of zinc. These findings are being used for informing the design

  7. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  8. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape.

  9. Unmet need for family planning in Nepal during the first two years postpartum.

    PubMed

    Mehata, Suresh; Paudel, Yuba Raj; Mehta, Ranju; Dariang, Maureen; Poudel, Pradeep; Barnett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

  10. An Overture for eCAM: Science, Technology and Innovation Initiation for Prosperous, Healthy Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kaphle, Krishna; Bhuju, Dinesh Raj; Jha, Pramod Kr; Bhattarai, Hom Nath

    2011-01-01

    Nepal the "Shangri-La" in the lap of the Himalayas is gearing up for modern times as it starts rebuilding after a decade of senseless violence and destruction. The nation one of the poorest in the global development index is rich in natural resources and biodiversity. Reports of medicinal plants far exceeding those recorded and reported so far are encouraging and at the same time concerns for medicinal plants under threat as a result of overexploitation are emerging from Nepal. The harsh mountain terrains, lack of industrialization and harnessing potentiality of its areas of strength; water; natural resources and tourism make it poor in per capita income which averages ~ 300 US$, with half the population living under >1$ a day. Nepal is beginning to realize that the way ahead is only possible through the path of Science and Technology (ST). Nepal Academy of Science and Technology formerly known as Royal Academy of Science and Technology organized the fifth national conference held every 4 years that took place in the capital Kathmandu during November 10-12, 2008. The ST initiation event saw the participation of ~ 1400 people representing over 150 organizations from the country and experts from abroad. The theme for the fifth national meet was "Science, Technology and Innovation for Prosperous Nepal". Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) was an important theme in the event as the realization for the need of ST research focused in CAM for harnessing the chemo diversity potential was univocally approved.

  11. Unmet Need for Family Planning in Nepal during the First Two Years Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Dariang, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive use during the postpartum period is critical for maternal and child health. However, little is known about the use of family planning and the determinants in Nepal during this period. This study explored pregnancy spacing, unmet need, family planning use, and fertility behaviour among postpartum women in Nepal using child level data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. More than one-quarter of women who gave birth in the last five years became pregnant within 24 months of giving birth and 52% had an unmet need for family planning within 24 months postpartum. Significantly higher rates of unmet need were found among rural and hill residents, the poorest quintile, and Muslims. Despite wanting to space or limit pregnancies, nonuse of modern family planning methods by women and returned fertility increased the risk of unintended pregnancy. High unmet need for family planning in Nepal, especially in high risk groups, indicates the need for more equitable and higher quality postpartum family planning services, including availability of range of methods and counselling which will help to further reduce maternal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Nepal. PMID:25003125

  12. Micronutrients Deficiency, a Hidden Hunger in Nepal: Prevalence, Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a global challenge to health as in Nepal. In Nepal, the targeted beneficiaries are less aware about importance of micronutrients (MNs), which has resulted in low intake of foods rich in MNs. Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) have huge impact on health of vulnerable population like women and children and have jeopardized the national economy and prosperity of developing countries including Nepal. However, less attention has been paid towards MNDs, which can be prevented. Therefore, this study aims to draw attention of the concerned authorities and researchers to combat against MNDs in Nepal. This study showed that different types of MNDs with higher prevalence exist in Nepal. The major causes of MNDs were poor diet, diseases and infestations, and poor health caring practices. The results of MNDs were unwanted child and maternal mortality, impairments of lives, and reduction in productivity and intellectual capacity. School health and nutrition education and supplementation and fortification of essential MNs proved to be effective while dietary diversification and economic growth and poverty eradication seemed promising. Control and prevention of MNDs can help to achieve Millennium Development Goals as well, so studies in this sector should be emphasized. PMID:27347513

  13. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  14. Knowledge on uterine prolapse among married women of reproductive age in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binjwala; Devkota, Bhimsen; Khadka, Badri Bahadur; Choulagai, Bishnu; Pahari, Durga Prasad; Onta, Sharad; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Uterine prolapse (UP), which affects about 10% of women of reproductive age in Nepal, is the most frequently reported cause of poor health in women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. Currently, women’s awareness of UP is unknown, and attempts to unravel the UP problem are inadequate. This study aims to assess UP knowledge among married reproductive women, and determine the association between UP knowledge and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods Our cross-sectional descriptive study investigated 25 districts representing all five administrative regions, three ecological zones, and urban and rural settings. We used structured questionnaires to interview 4,693 married women aged 15–49 years. We assessed UP knowledge by asking women whether they had ever heard about UP, followed by specific questions about symptoms and preventive measures. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population regarding socioeconomic status, assessed how many participants had ever heard about UP, and determined UP knowledge level among participants who had heard about the condition. Simple regression analysis identified a possible association between socioeconomic characteristics, ever heard about UP, and level of UP knowledge. Results Mean age of participants was 30 years (SD [standard deviation] 7.4), 67.5% were educated, 48% belonged to the advantaged Brahmin and Chhetri groups, and 22.2% were Janajati from the hill and terai zones. Fifty-three percent had never heard about UP. Among women who had heard about UP, 37.5% had satisfactory knowledge. Any knowledge about UP was associated with both urban and rural settings, age group, and education level. However, satisfactory knowledge about UP was associated with administrative region, ecological zones, caste/ethnic group, and age group of women. Conclusion Fifty-three percent of participants had never heard about UP, and UP knowledge level was satisfactory in 37.% of those who had ever heard about UP

  15. Social health insurance: a knowledge-do gap in eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jha, N; Karki, P; Das, B P; Chapagain, N

    2007-01-01

    Health care costs, and those for inpatient care in particular, pose a barrier to seeking health care, and cost be a major cause of indebtedness and impoverishment, particularly among the poor. The Ministry of Health in Nepal intends to initiate alternative financing schemes such as community and social health insurance schemes as a means to supplement the government health sector financing source. Social Health Insurance (SHI) is a mechanism for financing and purchasing / delivering health care to workers in the formal sector regulated by the government. Considering all these facts BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) has introduced SHI scheme in 2000 as an alternative health care financing mechanism to the community people of Sunsari and Morang districts. In the beginning small area was elected as a pilot project to launch the scheme. A major objective of SHI is to reduce poverty caused by paying for health care and to prevent already vulnerable families from falling into deeper poverty when facing health problems. A total of 26 organizations with 19799 populations are at present in SHI scheme. Sixteen rural based organizations with 14,047 populations and 10 urban based organizations with 5752 people are the beneficiaries in this scheme. BPKIHS SHI Scheme is the outcome of the visionary thinking on social solidarity and as an alternative health care financing mechanism to the community. BPKIHS is mobilizing people's organizations and is offering health services through its health insurance scheme at subsidized expenses. This has helped people to avail with health facilities who otherwise would have been left vulnerable because of their penetrating health needs. There is huge gap between premium collection and expenditures. The expenditures are more and this may be due to knowledge - do gap in the program. If conditions are unsuitable, SHI can lead to higher costs of care, inefficient allocation of health care resources, inequitable provision and

  16. Social health insurance: a knowledge-do gap in eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jha, N; Karki, P; Das, B P; Chapagain, N

    2007-01-01

    Health care costs, and those for inpatient care in particular, pose a barrier to seeking health care, and cost be a major cause of indebtedness and impoverishment, particularly among the poor. The Ministry of Health in Nepal intends to initiate alternative financing schemes such as community and social health insurance schemes as a means to supplement the government health sector financing source. Social Health Insurance (SHI) is a mechanism for financing and purchasing / delivering health care to workers in the formal sector regulated by the government. Considering all these facts BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) has introduced SHI scheme in 2000 as an alternative health care financing mechanism to the community people of Sunsari and Morang districts. In the beginning small area was elected as a pilot project to launch the scheme. A major objective of SHI is to reduce poverty caused by paying for health care and to prevent already vulnerable families from falling into deeper poverty when facing health problems. A total of 26 organizations with 19799 populations are at present in SHI scheme. Sixteen rural based organizations with 14,047 populations and 10 urban based organizations with 5752 people are the beneficiaries in this scheme. BPKIHS SHI Scheme is the outcome of the visionary thinking on social solidarity and as an alternative health care financing mechanism to the community. BPKIHS is mobilizing people's organizations and is offering health services through its health insurance scheme at subsidized expenses. This has helped people to avail with health facilities who otherwise would have been left vulnerable because of their penetrating health needs. There is huge gap between premium collection and expenditures. The expenditures are more and this may be due to knowledge - do gap in the program. If conditions are unsuitable, SHI can lead to higher costs of care, inefficient allocation of health care resources, inequitable provision and

  17. Evaluation of alternate outreach models for cataract services in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bharatpur Eye Hospital in Chitwan District, a primarily agrarian setting in south-central Nepal, reduced the number of diagnostic screening and treatment (DST) camps by one half (151 to 75) in an attempt to increase both the efficiency of its outreach program and the number of people that go directly to the hospital for service. The Hospital evaluated the two program models in terms of program costs, cataract surgical utilization, hospital direct payment and patient equity. Methods The study is a prospective, before and after, study of the impact of an alternate outreach model on cataract service utilization patterns and cost per outreach camp and cost per cataract surgery at Bharatpur Eye Hospital, comparing the service years July 2006 to June 2007, with July 2007 to June 2008. Study findings were based on routinely gathered hospital and outreach administrative data. Results The total cost of the DST camps decreased by approximately US$2000. The cost per camp increased from US$52 to $78 and the cost per cataract surgery decreased from US$ 3.80 to $3.20. The number of patients who went directly to the hospital, and paid for cataract surgery, increased from 432 (17%) to 623 (25%). The total number of cataract surgical procedures at Bharatpur Eye Hospital remained very similar between the two service years (2501 and 2449, respectively). The presenting visual acuity and sex of the two cataract surgical populations were very similar (favouring women, 53 and 55% in the two years, respectively). A shift toward younger men and women occurred with a 245 (64%) increase in people age 50-59 years, and shift away from people age 70 years and older with a 236 (22%) reduction. The age and sex distribution of the direct paying patients were very similar in the two years. Conclusion The new, more concentrated, more rural DST model of service delivery reduced overall outreach program costs, cost per cataract surgery transported, while increasing direct payments to the

  18. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  19. Clinic Attendance for Antiretroviral Pills Pick-Up among HIV-Positive People in Nepal: Roles of Perceived Family Support and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Ghimire, Mamata; Shibanuma, Akira; Pant, Madhab Raj; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive people’s clinic attendance for medication pick-up is critical for successful HIV treatment. However, limited evidence exists on it especially in low-income settings such as Nepal. Moreover, the role of family support in clinic attendance remains under-explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the association between perceived family support and regular clinic attendance and to assess factors associated with regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral pills pick-up among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 HIV-positive people in three districts of Nepal. Clinic attendance was assessed retrospectively for the period of 12 months. To assess the factors associated, an interview survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire from July to August, 2015. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with regular clinic attendance. Results Of 423 HIV-positive people, only 32.6% attended the clinics regularly. They were more likely to attend them regularly when they received high family support (AOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.29, 6.92), participated in support programs (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.82), and had knowledge on the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 5.99). In contrast, they were less likely to attend them regularly when they commuted more than 60 minutes to the clinics (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.93), when they self-rated their health status as being very good (AOR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.44), good (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.46), and fair (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.70). Conclusion HIV-positive individuals are more likely to attend the clinics regularly when they receive high family support, know the benefits of antiretroviral therapy, and participate in support programs. To improve clinic attendance, family support should be incorporated with HIV care programs in resource limited settings

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2013-06-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya.