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Sample records for diurnal activity cycles

  1. Diurnal anisotropy during solar activity cycle twenty and diffusion-convection model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Riker, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Underground muon telescope data obtained at Embudo and Neutron monitor data obtained at Deep River are divided into two sets; one covers the ascending phase of the cycle (1965-70) and the other covers the descending phase (1971-76). The amplitude of diurnal anisotropy calculated from the data does not agree with the value predicted by the simplified version of the Diffusion-Convection Model (DCM); the discrepancy is worse for neutron data.

  2. Phototrophic biofilm activity and dynamics of diurnal Cd cycling in a freshwater stream.

    PubMed

    Beck, Aaron J; Janssen, Felix; Polerecky, Lubos; Herlory, Olivier; De Beer, Dirk

    2009-10-01

    Diel cycles of dissolved cationic metal concentrations commonly occur in freshwater streams in apparent response to coincident cycles in water quality parameters (pH, O2, temperature). Hourly sampling of the Cd-contaminated Riou Mort (France) revealed large diel cycles in "total" dissolved Cd (232-357 nM; < 0.45 microm) and "truly" dissolved Cd (56-297 nM; < 0.02 microm) which were strongly correlated with changes in water pH. Using measured fluxes, a dissolved O2 model was constructed that indicated that benthic metabolic activities, respiration and photosynthesis, were responsible for the diel O2 (and thus, CO2 and pH) variation in the stream. However, microsensor measurements also showed that the pH changes occurred at the biofilm interface earlier than in the bulk water column. This difference in timing was reflected in the Cd dynamics, where pH-controlled sorption effects caused Cd partitioning from the truly dissolved pool onto the biofilm in the morning, and from the truly dissolved pool onto large colloids (0.02-0.45 microm) later in the day. Because this process causes large changes in the bioavailable Cd fraction, it has significant implications for Cd toxicity in freshwater streams. This study demonstrates the profound control of benthic microbiological processes on the cycling of heavy metals in aquatic systems.

  3. An investigation of how radiation may cause accelerated rates of tropical cyclogenesis and diurnal cycles of convective activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, M. E.

    2015-08-01

    Recent cloud-resolving numerical modeling results suggest that radiative forcing causes accelerated rates of tropical cyclogenesis and early intensification. Furthermore, observational studies of tropical cyclones have found that oscillations of the cloud canopy areal extent often occur that are clearly related to the solar diurnal cycle. A theory is put forward to explain these findings. The primary mechanism that seems responsible can be considered a refinement of the mechanism proposed by Gray and Jacobson (1977) to explain diurnal variations of oceanic tropical deep cumulus convection. It is hypothesized that differential radiative cooling or heating between a relatively cloud-free environment and a developing tropical disturbance generates circulations that can have very significant influences on convective activity in the core of the system. It is further suggested that there are benefits to understanding this mechanism by viewing it in terms of the lateral propagation of thermally driven gravity wave circulations, also known as buoyancy bores. Numerical model experiments indicate that mean environmental radiative cooling outside the cloud system is playing an important role in causing a significant horizontal differential radiative forcing and accelerating the rate of tropical cyclogenesis. As an expansive stratiform cloud layer forms aloft within a developing system the mean low-level radiative cooling is reduced, while at mid levels small warming occurs. During the daytime there is not a very large differential radiative forcing between the environment and the cloud system, but at nighttime when there is strong radiative clear-sky cooling of the environment it becomes significant. Thermally driven circulations develop, characterized by relatively weak subsidence in the environment but much stronger upward motion in the cloud system. This upward motion leads to a cooling tendency and increased relative humidity. The increased relative humidity at night

  4. An investigation of how radiation may cause accelerated rates of tropical cyclogenesis and diurnal cycles of convective activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, M. E.

    2015-03-01

    Recent cloud-resolving numerical modeling results suggest that radiative forcing causes accelerated rates of tropical cyclogenesis and early intensification. Furthermore, observational studies of tropical cyclones have found that oscillations of the cloud canopy areal extent often occur that are clearly related to the solar diurnal cycle. A theory is put forward to explain these findings. The primary mechanism that seems responsible can be considered a refinement of the mechanism proposed by Gray and Jacobson (1977) to explain diurnal variations of oceanic tropical deep cumulus convection. It is hypothesized that differential radiative cooling or heating between a relatively cloud-free environment and a developing tropical disturbance generates circulations that can have very significant influences on convective activity in the core of the system. It is further suggested that there are benefits to understanding this mechanism by viewing it in terms of the lateral propagation of thermally driven gravity wave circulations, also known as buoyancy bores. Numerical model experiments indicate that mean environmental radiative cooling outside the cloud system is playing an important role in causing a significant horizontal differential radiative forcing and accelerating the rate of tropical cyclogenesis. As an expansive stratiform cloud layer forms aloft within a developing system the mean low level radiative cooling is reduced while at mid levels small warming occurs. During the daytime there is not a very large differential radiative forcing between the environment and the cloud system, but at nighttime when there is strong radiative clear sky cooling of the environment it becomes significant. Thermally driven circulations develop, characterized by relatively weak subsidence in the environment but much stronger upward motion in the cloud system. This upward motion leads to a cooling tendency and increased relative humidity. The increased relative humidity at night

  5. In situ monitoring of the diurnal cycling of dynamic metal species in a stream under contrasting photobenthic biofilm activity and hydrological conditions.

    PubMed

    Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Hezard, Teddy; Masson, Matthieu; Schäfer, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    The diurnal evolution of the dynamic fraction, i.e., the potentially bioavailable fraction, of Cd, Cu, and Pb in a small river impacted by mining and smelting waste was studied in situ, under contrasting biofilm activity and hydrological conditions, using an automated voltammetric analyzer. The in situ, near real-time measurements revealed persistent dynamic metal species diurnal cycles. These cycles were affected mainly by the biochemical conditions rather than hydrological conditions. The data obtained from the in situ measurements, coupled with complementary laboratory analyses, revealed that various processes control the diurnal dynamic metal species cycles in the studied site; the trends of the diurnal cycles of the dynamic metal species can be different from those observed for the dissolved metal species measured in filtered samples. Moreover, the dynamic fraction of a given cationic metal can show diurnal cycles with opposite trends depending on the environmental conditions. All these findings highlight the interest and importance of automated, continuous measurements of specific relevant environmental metal fractions, compared to punctual weekly or monthly traditional sampling strategies of total dissolved metal analysis, to allow more appropriate water quality control and reliable assessment of metal ecotoxicological impact.

  6. Diurnal Cycle of Convection during Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    During the special observing period (SOP) of the DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE field campaign, conducted over the Indian Ocean from October to November 2011, two sounding networks, one north and one south of the equator, took 4-8 soundings/day. This dataset with 3-hr time resolution offers a unique opportunity to investigate the diurnal cycle of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) convection which was present within the southern sounding array (SSA) for extended periods during the SOP. For example, during the first half of October 2011 when the ITCZ was located between 3°S and 8°S, TRMM 3B42 3-h rainfall averaged over the SSA exhibited a prominent diurnal cycle with a late night/early morning maximum and an early evening minimum. The rainfall diurnal range during this period over the SSA was 4.8 mm which was ~50% of the daily mean (10.1 mm). Mean rainfall over the northern sounding array was much lighter (0.9 mm) during this period with a diurnal cycle nearly out of phase with that over the SSA. Using primarily sounding and satellite data, we will explore the characteristics of this diurnally varying convection and what, if any, influence it may have had on the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) signal.

  7. Antagonism of rat orexin receptors by almorexant attenuates central chemoreception in wakefulness in the active period of the diurnal cycle.

    PubMed

    Li, Aihua; Nattie, Eugene

    2010-08-01

    Central chemoreception, the highly sensitive ventilatory response to small changes in CO(2)/pH, involves many sites. Hypothalamic orexin neurons are CO(2) sensitive in vitro, prepro-orexin knockout mice have a reduced CO(2) response prominently in wakefulness, and focal antagonism of the orexin receptor 1 (OX(1)R) in two central chemoreceptor sites, the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) or the medullary raphé, results in a reduction of the CO(2) response predominately in wakefulness (-30% and -16%, respectively). Here we hypothesize that acute and selective inhibition of both orexin receptors (OX(1)R and OX(2)R) at all central locations by an orally administered dual orexin receptor antagonist, almorexant, will substantially attenuate the CO(2) response in a vigilance-state- and diurnal-cycle-dependent manner. We found that almorexant attenuated the CO(2) response by 26% only in wakefulness during the dark period of the diurnal cycle to a level observed during NREM sleep in the light period in controls suggesting that the sleep-wake difference in the CO(2) response can be in large part attributed to orexin. Almorexant also decreased wakefulness and increased NREM and REM sleep during the dark period, as previously reported, and unexpectedly decreased the number of sighs and post-sigh apnoeas during wakefulness in both the light and the dark period and during both wakefulness and NREM sleep in the dark period. The results support our hypothesis that the orexin system participates importantly in central chemoreception in a vigilance-state- and diurnal-cycle-dependent manner and indicate a role for orexin in the important process of sighing.

  8. Tropical Cyclone Diurnal Cycle as Observed by TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leppert, Kenneth D., II; Cecil, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Using infrared satellite data, previous work has shown a consistent diurnal cycle in the pattern of cold cloud tops around mature tropical cyclones. In particular, an increase in the coverage by cold cloud tops often occurs in the inner core of the storm around the time of sunset and subsequently propagates outward to several hundred kilometers over the course of the following day. This consistent cycle may have important implications for structure and intensity changes of tropical cyclones and the forecasting of such changes. Because infrared satellite measurements are primarily sensitive to cloud top, the goal of this study is to use passive and active microwave measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR), respectively, to examine and better understand the tropical cyclone diurnal cycle throughout a larger depth of the storm's clouds. The National Hurricane Center's best track dataset was used to extract all PR and TMI pixels within 1000 km of each tropical cyclone that occurred in the Atlantic basin between 1998-2011. Then the data was composited according to radius (100-km bins from 0-1000 km) and local standard time (LST; 3-hr bins). Specifically, PR composites involved finding the percentage of pixels with reflectivity greater than or equal to 20 dBZ at various heights (i.e., 2-14 km in increments of 2 km) as a function of radius and time. The 37- and 85- GHz TMI channels are especially sensitive to scattering by precipitation-sized ice in the mid to upper portions of clouds. Hence, the percentage of 37- and 85-GHz polarization corrected temperatures less than various thresholds were calculated using data from all storms as a function of radius and time. For 37 GHz, thresholds of 260 K, 265 K, 270 K, and 275 K were used, and for 85 GHz, thresholds of 200-270 K in increments of 10 K were utilized. Note that convection forced by the interactions of a tropical cyclone with land (e.g., due

  9. Sensitivity of Amazonian TOA flux diurnal cycle composite monthly variability to choice of reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, J. Brant; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2016-05-01

    Amazonian deep convection experiences a strong diurnal cycle driven by the cycle in surface sensible heat flux, which contributes to a significant diurnal cycle in the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux. Even when accounting for seasonal variability, the TOA flux diurnal cycle varies significantly on the monthly timescale. Previous work shows evidence supporting a connection between variability in the convective and radiative cycles, likely modulated by variability in monthly atmospheric state (e.g., convective instability). The hypothesized relationships are further investigated with regression analysis of the radiative diurnal cycle and atmospheric state using additional meteorological variables representing convective instability and upper tropospheric humidity. The results are recalculated with three different reanalyses to test the reliability of the results. The radiative diurnal cycle sensitivity to upper tropospheric humidity is about equal in magnitude to that of convective instability. In addition, the results are recalculated with the data subdivided into the wet and dry seasons. Overall, clear-sky radiative effects have a dominant role in radiative diurnal cycle variability during the dry season. Because of this, even in a convectively active region, the clear-sky radiative effects must be accounted for in order to fully explain the monthly variability in diurnal cycle. Finally, while there is general agreement between the different reanalysis-based results when examining the full data time domain (without regard to time of year), there are significant disagreements when the data are divided into wet and dry seasons. The questionable reliability of reanalysis data is a major limitation.

  10. The effect of the lunar cycle on fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraging ecology of nocturnally and diurnally active spiny mice.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Roee; Dayan, Tamar; Levy, Ofir; Schubert, Iris; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage.

  11. The Effect of the Lunar Cycle on Fecal Cortisol Metabolite Levels and Foraging Ecology of Nocturnally and Diurnally Active Spiny Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage. PMID:21829733

  12. Diurnal Thermal Cycling Effects on Backscatter of Thin Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Gow, A. J.; Perovich, D. K.; Hsu, C. C.; Ding, K. H.; Kong, J. A.; Grenfell, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    To invesigate effects on polarimetric backscatter of sea ice grown under diurnal cycling conditions, we carried out an experiment inJanuary 1994 at the outdoor Geophysical Research Facility in the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.

  13. Multiscale Interactions over the Maritime Continent: Feedbacks between Atmospheric Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves and Diurnal Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, D.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKW), initiated over the Indian Ocean, and the diurnally varying convection over the Maritime Continent are primary interest of this presentation. Mutliscale interactions between local and propagating convection lead to substantial enhancement of the local diurnal cycle over that region. CCKW activity strongly modulates magnitude of the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent, but not its temporal evolution, which maintains characteristics of a diurnal cycle. The impact is such that precipitation is highly increased during convective part of the CCKW and little suppressed during its non-convective part. Timing of the increase in diurnal cycle magnitude strongly depends on the time of the day of the CCKW approach to the Maritime Continent. It is shown that precipitation anomaly associated with CCKW is phase locked with local diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent and that has implications for CCKW ability to propagate across that region. The composite daily-zonal evolution of the precipitation anomaly associated with CCKW is such that it is "in-phase" with local diurnal cycle over Sumatra, Borneo and surrounding seas. This presentation is based on analysis of TRMM precipitation data and newly developed CCKW trajectories database.

  14. The Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. P.; Fowler, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Position and intensity data from the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) are combined with global, gridded precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) for the period 1998 to 2013 to study diurnal variability of precipitation in tropical cyclones. The comprehensive global coverage and large sample size afforded by the two data sets allow robust statistical analysis of storm-averaged diurnal variations and permit stratification of the data in various ways. There is a clearly detectable diurnal variation of precipitation in tropical cyclones with peak rainfall occurring near 0600 local time. For storms of all intensities the amplitude of the diurnal harmonic, which dominates the diurnal cycle, is approximately 7% of the mean rain rate. This corresponds to a peak-to-peak variation of about 15% over the course of the day. The diurnal cycle is similar in all ocean basins. There is evidence that the amplitude of the diurnal cycle increases with increasing storm intensity, but the results are not statistically significant. The results have implications for hurricane forecasting and for our understanding of the processes that regulate oceanic convection.

  15. Controls on diurnal streamflow cycles in a high altitude catchment in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutzner, R.; Weijs, S. V.; Tarolli, P.; Calaf, M.; Oldroyd, H. J.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The study of streamflow diurnal cycles is of primary importance to understand hydrological processes happening at various spatial scales. In high altitude alpine catchments, streamflow diurnal cycles are typically dominated by snow or icemelt. During a field campaign in the summer 2012 in a small catchment in the Swiss Alps (Val Ferret catchment, draining area of 20.4 km2, mean altitude of 2423 m above sea level (asl), ranging from 1773 m to 3206 m asl, glaciarized area: 2%), we observed streamflow diurnal cycles throughout the season in two monitored sub-basins of the watershed. To study in detail the diurnal cycles, we make use of a wireless network of meteorological stations, time-lapse photography, a fully equipped energy-balance station and water electrical conductivity monitored at the gauging stations. In the first sub-basin, we observed a transition from a snowmelt to an evapotranspiration induced diurnal streamflow cycle. In the second sub-basin, we observed a snowmelt/icemelt dominated diurnal cycle during the entire season due to the presence of a small glacier. Comparisons between icemelt and evapotranspiration cycles showed that the two processes were happening at the same times of day but with a different sign. The amplitude of the icemelt cycle decreased exponentially during the season and was larger than of the amplitude of the evapotranspiration cycle which was relatively constant during the season. A conceptual model was applied to estimate the effect of evapotranspiration on the diurnal streamflow cycle in the icemelt dominated sub-basin. The model makes use of the latent heat measured at the energy balance station, the streamflow loss due to evapotranspiration and the computation of active evapotranspiration areas. Our study suggests that evapotranspiration from the riparian area damps the icemelt-diurnal streamflow cycle resulting in a possible underestimation of glacier mass changes.

  16. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate near real time fire emissions estimates are required for air quality forecasts. To date, most approaches are based on satellite-derived estimates of fire radiative power (FRP), which can be converted to fire radiative energy (FRE) which is directly related to fire emissions. Uncertainties in these FRE estimates are often substantial. This is for a large part because the most often used low-Earth orbit satellite-based instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have a relatively poor sampling of the usually pronounced fire diurnal cycle. In this paper we explore the spatial variation of this fire diurnal cycle and its drivers using data from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). In addition, we sampled data from the SEVIRI instrument at MODIS detection opportunities to develop two approaches to estimate hourly FRE based on MODIS active fire detections. The first approach ignored the fire diurnal cycle, assuming persistent fire activity between two MODIS observations, while the second approach combined knowledge on the climatology of the fire diurnal cycle with active fire detections to estimate hourly FRE. The full SEVIRI time series, providing full coverage of the fire diurnal cycle, were used to evaluate the results. Our study period comprised of 3 years (2010-2012), and we focused on Africa and the Mediterranean basin to avoid the use of potentially lower quality SEVIRI data obtained at very far off-nadir view angles. We found that the fire diurnal cycle varies substantially over the study region, and depends on both fuel and weather conditions. For example, more "intense" fires characterized by a fire diurnal cycle with high peak fire activity, long duration over the day, and with nighttime fire activity are most common in areas of large fire size (i.e., large burned area per fire event). These areas are most prevalent in relatively arid regions. Ignoring the fire diurnal

  17. DIURNAL CYCLE OF PRECIPITABLE WATER VAPOR OVER SPAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Torres, B.; Laulainen, Nels S.; Bennouna, Yasmine; de Frutos, A. M.

    2011-05-20

    Despite the importance of the diurnal cycle of precipitable water vapor (PWV), its knowledge is very limited due to the lack of data with sufficient temporal resolution. Currently, from GPS receivers, PWV can be obtained with high temporal resolution in all weather conditions for all hours of the day. In this study we have calculated the diurnal cycle of PWV for ten GPS stations over Spain. The minimum value is reached approximately at the same time at all the stations, ~0400-0500 UTC, whereas the maximum is reached in the second half of the day, but with a larger dispersion of its occurrence between stations. The amplitude of the cycle ranges between 0.72 mm and 1.78 mm. The highest values are recorded at the stations on the Mediterranean coast, with a doubling of the values of the stations on the Atlantic coast or inland. The amplitude of the PWV cycle, relative to the annual mean value, ranges between 8.8 % on the Mediterranean coast and 3.6 % on the Atlantic coast. Two distinctly different seasonal diurnal cycles have been identified, one in winter and other in summer, with spring and autumn being only transition states. The winter cycle is quite similar at all locations, whereas in summer, local effects are felt strongly, making the diurnal cycle quite different between stations. The amplitude of the summer cycle is 1.69 mm, it is almost double the winter one (0.93 mm). Analogous to the annual cycles, the seasonal cycles of the different stations are more similar during the night and early morning hours than during the afternoon. The observed features of the PWV diurnal cycle are explained in a qualitative way on the basis of the air temperature, the transport of moisture by local winds, and the turbulent vertical mixing.

  18. Annual Climatology of the Diurnal Cycle on the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Alan; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    We show the annual climatology of the diurnal cycle, stratified by opaque cloud, using the full hourly resolution of the Canadian Prairie data. The opaque cloud field itself has distinct cold and warm season diurnal climatologies; with a near-sunrise peak of cloud in the cold season and an early afternoon peak in the warm season. There are two primary climate states on the Canadian Prairies, separated by the freezing point of water, because a reflective surface snow cover acts as a climate switch. Both cold and warm season climatologies can be seen in the transition months of November, March and April with a large difference in mean temperature. In the cold season with snow, the diurnal ranges of temperature and relative humidity increase quasi-linearly with decreasing cloud, and increase from December to March with increased solar forcing. The warm season months, April to September, show a homogeneous coupling to the cloud cover, and a diurnal cycle of temperature and humidity that depends only on net longwave. Our improved representation of the diurnal cycle shows that the warm season coupling between diurnal temperature range and net longwave is weakly quadratic through the origin, rather than the linear coupling shown in earlier papers. We calculate the conceptually important 24-h imbalances of temperature and relative humidity (and other thermodynamic variables) as a function of opaque cloud cover. In the warm season under nearly clear skies, there is a warming of +2oC and a drying of -6% over the 24-h cycle, which is about 12% of their diurnal ranges. We summarize results on conserved variable diagrams and explore the impact of surface windspeed on the diurnal cycle in the cold and warm seasons. In all months, the fall in minimum temperature is reduced with increasing windspeed, which reduces the diurnal temperature range. In July and August, there is an increase of afternoon maximum temperature and humidity at low windspeeds, and a corresponding rise in

  19. Dissociation between diurnal cycles in locomotor activity, feeding behavior and hepatic PERIOD2 expression in chronic alcohol-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Werner, John H; Lee, Donghoon; Sheppard, Aaron D; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Duffield, Giles E

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption contributes to fatty liver disease. Our studies revealed that the hepatic circadian clock is disturbed in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis, and effects of chronic alcohol administration upon the clock itself may contribute to steatosis. We extended these findings to explore the effects of chronic alcohol treatment on daily feeding and locomotor activity patterns. Mice were chronically pair-fed ad libitum for 4 weeks using the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet, with calorie-controlled liquid and standard chow diets as control groups. Locomotor activity, feeding activity, and real-time bioluminescence recording of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE expression in tissue explants were measured. Mice on liquid control and chow diets exhibited normal profiles of locomotor activity, with a ratio of 22:78% day/night activity and a peak during early night. This pattern was dramatically altered in alcohol-fed mice, marked by a 49:51% ratio and the absence of a distinct peak. While chow-diet fed mice had a normal 24:76% ratio of feeding activity, with a peak in the early night, this pattern was dramatically altered in both liquid-diet groups: mice had a 43:57% ratio, and an absence of a distinct peak. Temporal differences were also observed between the two liquid-diet groups during late day. Cosinor analysis revealed a ∼4-h and ∼6-h shift in the alcohol-fed group feeding and locomotor activity rhythms, respectively. Analysis of hepatic PER2 expression revealed that the molecular clock in alcohol-fed and control liquid-diet mice was shifted by ∼11 h and ∼6 h, respectively. No differences were observed in suprachiasmatic nucleus explants, suggesting that changes in circadian phase in the liver were generated independently from the central clock. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption and a liquid diet can differentially modulate the daily rhythmicity of locomotor and feeding behaviors, aspects that might contribute to disturbances in the circadian

  20. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus): Changes in baseline activity, reactivity, and fecal excretion of glucocorticoids across the diurnal cycle

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Breanna N.; Saltzman, Wendy; de Jong, Trynke R.; Milnes, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The California mouse, Peromyscus californicus, is an increasingly popular animal model in behavioral, neural, and endocrine studies, but little is known about its baseline hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity or HPA responses to stressors. We characterized plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in P. californicus under baseline conditions across the diurnal cycle, in response to pharmacological manipulation of the HPA axis, and in response to a variety of stressors at different times of day. In addition, we explored the use of fecal samples to monitor adrenocortical activity non-invasively. California mice have very high baseline levels of circulating CORT that change markedly over 24 hours, but that do not differ between the sexes. This species may be somewhat glucocorticoid-resistant in comparison to other rodents as a relatively high dose of dexamethasone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) was required to suppress plasma CORT for 8 h post-injection. CORT responses to stressors and ACTH injection differed with time of day, as CORT concentrations were elevated more readily during the morning (inactive period) than in the evening (active period) when compared to time-matched control. Data from 3H-CORT injection studies show that the time course for excretion of fecal CORT, or glucocorticoid metabolites, differs with time of injection. Mice injected in the evening excreted the majority of fecal radioactivity 2–4 h post-injection whereas mice injected during the morning did so at 14–16 h post-injection. Unfortunately, the antibody we used does not adequately bind the most prevalent fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and therefore we could not validate its use for fecal assays. PMID:23026495

  1. Epigenetic mechanisms in diurnal cycles of metabolism and neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Powell, Weston T; LaSalle, Janine M

    2015-10-15

    The circadian cycle is a genetically encoded clock that drives cellular rhythms of transcription, translation and metabolism. The circadian clock interacts with the diurnal environment that also drives transcription and metabolism during light/dark, sleep/wake, hot/cold and feast/fast daily and seasonal cycles. Epigenetic regulation provides a mechanism for cells to integrate genetic programs with environmental signals in order produce an adaptive and consistent output. Recent studies have revealed that DNA methylation is one epigenetic mechanism that entrains the circadian clock to a diurnal environment. We also review recent circadian findings in the epigenetic neurodevelopmental disorders Prader-Willi, Angelman and Rett syndromes and hypothesize a link between optimal brain development and intact synchrony between circadian and diurnal rhythms. PMID:26105183

  2. Impacts of the diurnal cycle of solar radiation on spiral rainbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shunwu; Ma, Yue; Ge, Xuyang

    2016-09-01

    Based on idealized numerical simulations, the impacts of the diurnal cycle of solar radiation on the diurnal variation of outer rainbands in a tropical cyclone are examined. It is found that cold pools associated with precipitation-driven downdrafts are essential for the growth and propagation of spiral rainbands. The downdrafts result in surface outflows, which act as a lifting mechanism to trigger the convection cell along the leading edge of the cold pools. The diurnal cycle of solar radiation may modulate the diurnal behavior of the spiral rainbands. In the daytime, shortwave radiation will suppress the outer convection and thus weaken the cold pools. Meanwhile, the limited cold pool activity leads to a strong modification of the moisture field, which in turn inhibits further convection development.

  3. Assimilating Satellite SST Observations into a Diurnal Cycle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, S.; Haines, K.; Nichols, N. K.

    2006-12-01

    The wealth of satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data now available opens the possibility of large improvements in SST estimation. However the use of such data is not straight forward; a major difficulty in assimilating satellite observations is that they represent a near surface temperature, whereas in ocean models the top level represents the temperature at a greater depth. During the day, under favourable conditions of clear skies and calm winds, the near surface temperature is often seen to have a diurnal cycle that is picked up in satellite observations. Current ocean models do not have the vertical or temporal resolution to adequately represent this daytime warming. The usual approach is to discard daytime observations as they are considered diurnally `corrupted'. A new assimilation technique is developed here that assimilates observations into a diurnal cycle model. The diurnal cycle of SSTs are modelled using a 1-D mixed layer model with fine near surface resolution and 6 hourly forcing from NWP analyses. The accuracy of the SST estimates are hampered by uncertainties in the forcing data. The extent of diurnal SST warming at a particular location and time is predominately governed by a non-linear response to cloud cover and sea surface wind speeds which greatly affect the air-sea fluxes. The method proposed here combines infrared and microwave SST satellite observations in order to derive corrections to the cloud cover and wind speed values over the day. By adjusting the forcing, SST estimation and air-sea fluxes should be improved and are at least more consistent with each other. This new technique for assimilating SST data can be considered a tool for producing more accurate diurnal warming estimates.

  4. Cumulus Moistening, the Diurnal Cycle, and Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, J. H.; Johnson, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric soundings, cloud radar, and air-sea flux measurements collected during DYNAMO (Dynamics of the MJO) are employed to study the initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean. Findings indicate that moistening of the troposphere during MJO initiation occurs in two stages: low-to-midlevel moistening in the suppressed phase (i.e., prior to the onset of deep convection), followed by deep-column moistening during the early active phase. The first stage of moistening occurs as the drying by large-scale subsidence and horizontal advection wane and convective clouds increase in areal coverage and deepen from shallow to congestus. Analysis of the suppressed phase reveals the striking degree to which the moistening characteristic of this period is accomplished by the diurnal cycle of cumulus clouds. This diurnal cycle is driven by the cycle in sea surface temperature and air-sea fluxes linked to shallow oceanic diurnal warm layers. This coupled diurnal cycle, and the associated afternoon peak in convective cloud depth, cloud areal coverage, and cumulus moistening, likely drives more vigorous overall moistening than would occur without this diurnal cycle. A conspicuous finding pertaining to the suppressed phase convection is the prominence of mesoscale cloud organization (i.e., open cells and horizontal convective rolls), which is hypothesized to enhance convective instability in localized patches, thereby promoting deeper, more vigorous cumulus moistening than would otherwise occur.

  5. Diurnal cycle of convection during the CAIPEEX 2011 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, EA; Malap, Neelam; Kulkarni, Gayatri; Murugavel, P.; Nair, Sathy; Burger, Roelof; Prabha, Thara V.

    2016-10-01

    The diurnal cycle of convective storm events is investigated in the study with the help of C-band radar reflectivity data during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX 2011) in combination with other ground-based observations. A threshold reflectivity of 25 dBZ is used to identify the initiation of storms. Observations from collocated sensors such as a microwave radiometer profiler, water vapor measurement from eddy covariance system, and wind lidar measurements are used to investigate the characteristic features and diurnal cycle of convectively initiated storms from 21st September to 5th November 2011. The maximum reflectivity follows a normal distribution with a mean value of 40 dBZ. The cloud depth over the domain varied between 5 and 15 km corresponding to a range of reflectivity of 30-50 dBZ values. In the diurnal cycle, double maximum in the precipitation flux is noted—one during the afternoon hours associated with the diurnal heating and the other in the nocturnal periods. The nocturnal precipitation maximum is attributed to initiation of several single-cell storms (of congestus type) with a duration that is larger than the storms initiated during the daytime. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) showed a diurnal variation and was directly linked with the surface level water vapor content. The high CAPE favored single storms with a reflectivity >40 dBZ and higher echo top heights. In the evening or late night hours, a nocturnal low-level jet present over the location together with the reduced stability above the cloud base favored enhancement of low-level moisture, CAPE, and further initiation of new convection. The study illustrated how collocated observations could be used to study storm initiation and associated thermodynamic features.

  6. The Diurnal Cycle over the Maritime Continent and its Interaction with the MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, A. J.; Peatman, S.; Baranowski, D. B.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Schmidtko, S.

    2014-12-01

    The complex land-sea distribution and topography of the maritime continent acts to disrupt or even completely block the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific. This leads to changes in tropical latent heat release and subsequent impacts on global circulation. Convection over the maritime continent is dominated by the diurnal cycle. Where the mean diurnal cycle is strong (over the islands and surrounding seas), 80% of the MJO precipitation signal in the maritime continent is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. The canonical view of the MJO as the smooth eastward propagation of a large-scale precipitation envelope also breaks down over the islands of the Maritime Continent. Instead, a vanguard of precipitation jumps ahead of the main body by approximately 6 days or 2000 km. Hence, there can be enhanced precipitation over Sumatra, Borneo or New Guinea when the large-scale MJO envelope over the surrounding ocean is one of suppressed precipitation. This behaviour is discussed in terms of an interaction between the diurnal cycle and the MJO circulation. The diurnal cycle is also strong in the ocean. Seaglider measurements taken during the CINDY/DYNAMO campaign show the existence of a diurnal warm layer in the upper few metres of the ocean. This has a significant effect on the surface fluxes, of an order of Watts per square metre. The diurnal warm layer is favoured during the inactive phase of the MJO and may act to help precondition the atmosphere to convection. The activities of the MJO Task Force and Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction project will be discussed in this context.

  7. Diurnal Cycles in Water Quality Across the Periodic Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Diurnal cycles in water quality can provide important clues to the processes that regulate aquatic chemistry, but they often are masked by longer-term, larger-amplitude variability, making their detection and quantification difficult. Here I outline several methods that can detect diurnal cycles even when they are massively obscured by statistically ill-behaved noise. I demonstrate these methods using high-frequency water quality data from the Plylimon catchment in mid-Wales (Neal et al., 2013; Kirchner and Neal, 2013). Several aspects combine to make the Plynlimon data set unique worldwide. Collected at 7-hour intervals, the Plynlimon data set is much more densely sampled than typical long-term weekly or monthly water quality data. This 7-hour sampling was also continued for two years, much longer than typical intensive sampling campaigns, and the resulting time series encompass a wide range of climatic and hydrological conditions. Furthermore, each sample was analyzed for a wide range of solutes with diverse sources in the natural environment. However, the 7-hour sampling frequency is both coarse and irregular in comparison to diurnal cycles, making their detection and quantification difficult. Nonetheless, the methods outlined here enable detection of statistically significant diurnal cycles in over 30 solutes at Plynlimon, including alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs), alkaline earths (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba), transition metals (Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb), nonmetals (B, NO3, Si, As, and Se), lanthanides and actinides (La, Ce, Pr, and U), as well as total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Gran alkalinity, pH, and electrical conductivity. These solutes span every row of the periodic table, and more than six orders of magnitude in concentration. Many of these diurnal cycles are subtle, representing only a few percent, at most, of the total variance in the concentration time series. Nonetheless they are diagnostically

  8. Coastal diurnal cycle of summer clouds of Western Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, João P. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Trigo, Isabel F.; Moreira, Nuno

    2014-05-01

    During the summer, anticyclonic conditions are frequent off the coast of Iberia, causing prevailing northerly winds, large-scale subsidence, coastal upwelling and colder SSTs. These conditions allow the maintenance of extensive stratocumulus decks off the coast. In coastal regions and during nighttime, these decks frequently penetrate inland together with the marine boundary layer, leading to overcast and often foggy conditions which are dissipated during the morning. The aim of this study is to further explore and characterize this process, since little climatological information about it exists so far. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) has recently released the so-called cloud property dataset using SEVIRI (CLAAS), which is a Climate Data Record (CDR) of cloud, surface albedo and radiation properties covering 9 years (2004-2013) of SEVIRI measurements. Their monthly mean diurnal cycle of cloud properties products are used here to explore the coastal diurnal cycle, in terms of cloud fractions and heights. These observations show the alternation between two different convection regimes over Iberian coastal regions: on one hand, diurnal deep convection development over land, with the growth of a well developed boundary layer due to strong surface heating followed by the formation of shallow cumulus that eventually become deeper over the afternoon; on the other the penetration of the stratocumulus decks over land during the night, with lower boundary layers and higher cloud fraction. The results are compared to regional climate simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) over Iberia, forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis and two resolutions; a 50km Euro-Cordex and high 9km resolution. The model reproduces the observed diurnal cycle of clouds in the summer remarkably well, especially regarding the evolution of the spatial patterns of cloudiness during the diurnal cycle. The model is then used to explain

  9. Sampling of the Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation using TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Bell, Thomas L.; Xu, Li-Ming; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We examine the temporal sampling of tropical regions using observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR). We conclude that PR estimates at any one hour, even using three years of data, are inadequate to describe the diurnal cycle of precipitation over regions smaller than 12 degrees, due to high spatial variability in sampling. We show that the optimum period of accumulation is four hours. Diurnal signatures display half as much sampling error when averaged over four hours of local time. A similar pattern of sampling variability is found in the TMI data, despite the TMI's wider swath and increased sampling. These results are verified using an orbital model. The sensitivity of the sampling to satellite altitude is presented, as well as sampling patterns at the new TRMM altitude of 402.5 km.

  10. Solar cycle and diurnal dependence of auroral structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partamies, N.; Whiter, D.; Syrjäsuo, M.; Kauristie, K.

    2014-10-01

    In order to facilitate usage of optical data in space climate studies, we have developed an automated algorithm to quantify the complexity of auroral structures as they appear in ground-based all-sky images. The image analysis is based on a computationally determined "arciness" value, which describes how arc like the auroral structures in the image are. With this new automatic method we have analyzed the type of aurora in about 1 million images of green aurora (λ = 557.7nm) captured at five camera stations in Finnish and Swedish Lapland in 1996-2007. We found that highly arc like structures can be observed in any time sector and their portion of the auroral structures varies much less than the fraction of more complex forms. The diurnal distribution of arciness is in agreement with an earlier study with high arc occurrence rate in the evening hours and steadily decreasing toward the late morning hours. The evolution of less arc-like auroral structures is more dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity and solar cycle than the occurrence of arcs. The median arciness is higher during the years close to the solar minimum than during the rest of the solar cycle. Unlike earlier proposed, the occurrence rate of both arcs and more complex auroral structures increases toward the solar maximum and decreases toward the solar minimum. The cyclic behavior of auroral structures seen in our data is much more systematic and clear than previously reported visual studies suggest. The continuous arciness index describing the complexity of auroral structures can improve our understanding on auroral morphology beyond the few commonly accepted structure classes, such as arcs, patches, and omega bands. Arciness can further be used to study the relationship of auroral structures at different complexity levels and magnetospheric dynamics.

  11. Diurnal Radiation Cycle Impact in Different Stages of Hurricane Edouard (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Tang, X.

    2015-12-01

    This work examines the impact of diurnally varying radiation cycle on the intensity, structure and track of Hurricane Edouard (2014) at different stages of its life cycle through convection-permitting simulations.During the formation stage, nighttime destabilization through radiative cooling may promote deep moist convection that eventually leads to the genesis of the storm while a tropical cyclone fails to develop in the absence of the night phase despite a strong incipient vortex under favorable environmental conditions. The nighttime radiative cooling further enhances the primary vortex before the storm undergoes rapid intensification (RI). Thereafter, the nighttime radiative cooling mainly increases convective activities outside of the primary eyewall that leads to stronger/broader outer rainbands and larger storm size during the mature stage of the hurricane but there is little impact on the hurricane intensity in terms of maximum surface wind speed. There is no apparent eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) simulated in both sensitivity experiments without the diurnal cycle (daytime only and nighttime only) while the control forecast undergoes secondary eyewall formation during the mature stage of Edourad (as observed), suggesting the potential role of the diurnally varying radiative impact. Through changing the strength of the initial vortex during the formation stage, the diurnal cycle may also alter the track of the storm.

  12. Diurnal cycles in water quality across the periodic table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, James

    2014-05-01

    Diurnal cycles in water quality can provide important clues to the processes that regulate aquatic chemistry, but they often are masked by longer-term, larger-amplitude variability, making their detection and quantification difficult. Here I outline methods that can detect diurnal cycles even when they are massively obscured by statistically ill-behaved noise. I demonstrate these methods using high-frequency water quality data from the Plylimon catchment in mid-Wales (Neal et al., 2013; Kirchner and Neal, 2013). Several aspects combine to make the Plynlimon data set unique worldwide. Collected at 7-hour intervals, the Plynlimon data set is much more densely sampled than typical long-term weekly or monthly water quality data. This 7-hour sampling was also continued for two years, much longer than typical intensive sampling campaigns, and the resulting time series encompass a wide range of climatic and hydrological conditions. Furthermore, each sample was analyzed for a wide range of solutes with diverse sources in the natural environment. However, the 7-hour sampling frequency is both coarse and irregular in comparison to diurnal cycles, making their detection and quantification difficult. Nonetheless, the methods outlined here enable detection of statistically significant diurnal cycles in over 30 solutes at Plynlimon, including alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs), alkaline earths (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba), transition metals (Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb), nonmetals (B, NO3, Si, As, and Se), lanthanides and actinides (La, Ce, Pr, and U), as well as total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Gran alkalinity, pH, and electrical conductivity. These solutes span every row of the periodic table, and more than six orders of magnitude in concentration. Many of these diurnal cycles are subtle, representing only a few percent, at most, of the total variance in the concentration time series. Nonetheless they are diagnostically useful

  13. Diurnal Cycles of Tree Mass Obtained Using Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llamas, R. A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.; Lintz, H. E.; Kleinknecht, G. J.; Miller, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    We used a non-invasive technique to estimate the mass of trees using accelerometers. The technique was inspired by Selker et al., 2011 who performed experiments with an oak tree to estimate the time-varying canopy mass. The technique consists of placing an accelerometer on the trunk of a live tree. The resonance frequency is related to the mass of the tree. Wind drives the tree and the accelerometer data are analyzed to obtain estimates of the resonance frequency and mass of the tree. In addition to wind speed and direction, we also collected ambient temperature and rain accumulation using co-located instruments. We collected data for 3 months using several accelerometers configured for different sampling rates. Analysis of the data revealed diurnal cycles in temperature, wind speed, and tree mass derived from the tree resonance frequency. We used the Welch method for power spectral density estimation to obtain hourly estimates of the tree resonance frequency. Our hypothesis is that the mass diurnal cycle is related to the tree water content.

  14. Scale interaction between the MJO and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peatman, Simon; Matthews, Adrian; Stevens, David

    2013-04-01

    The Maritime Continent is a highly-populated region of many islands and shallow oceans, located in the oceanic warm pool, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A strong diurnal cycle of precipitation exists due to onshore breezes causing strong convergence of moist air - enhanced by topographic effects - over the land during the day time, peaking during afternoon-evening. The respective diurnal cycle over the ocean is far weaker and does not peak until early in the morning. On intra-seasonal time-scales the greatest source of variability in the tropics is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The convectively active part of the MJO propagates slowly (~5 ms-1) eastward through the warm pool from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific, followed by the convectively suppressed part. The complex topography of the Maritime Continent means the exact nature of the propagation through this region is unclear. Model simulations of the MJO are often poor over the region, leading to errors in latent heat release and, subsequently, global errors in medium-range weather prediction and climate simulation. Using 14 northern hemisphere winters of high-resolution satellite data it is shown that, over regions where the diurnal cycle is strong, more than 80% of the variance in precipitation during an MJO cycle is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. A canonical view of the MJO is of smooth eastward progression of a large-scale precipitation envelope over the warm pool. However, by computing "MJO harmonics" it is shown that the leading edge of the precipitation envelope advances over the islands of the Maritime Continent approximately 6 days or 2000 km ahead of the main body. This behaviour can be accommodated within existing theories of MJO propagation. When the active convective MJO envelope is over the eastern Indian Ocean, frictional moisture convergence and topographic blocking in the easterlies of the equatorial Kelvin wave response supply moisture to

  15. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from low-Earth orbit satellites sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate near real time fire emissions estimates are required for air quality forecasts. To date, most approaches are based on satellite-derived estimates of fire radiative power (FRP), which can be converted to fire radiative energy (FRE) which is directly related to fire emissions. Uncertainties in these FRE estimations are often substantial. This is for a large part because the most often used low-Earth orbit satellite-based instruments like the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have a relatively poor sampling of the usually pronounced fire diurnal cycle. In this paper we explore the spatial variation of this fire diurnal cycle and its drivers. Specifically, we assess how representing the fire diurnal cycle affects FRP and FRE estimations when using data collected at MODIS overpasses. Using data assimilation we explored three different methods to estimate hourly FRE, based on an incremental sophistication of parameterizing the fire diurnal cycle. We sampled data from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) at MODIS detection opportunities to drive the three approaches. The full SEVIRI time-series, providing full coverage of the diurnal cycle, were used to evaluate the results. Our study period comprised three years (2010-2012), and we focussed on Africa and the Mediterranean basin to avoid the use of potentially lower quality SEVIRI data obtained at very far off-nadir view angles. We found that the fire diurnal cycle varies substantially over the study region, and depends on both fuel and weather conditions. For example, more "intense" fires characterized by a fire diurnal cycle with high peak fire activity, long duration over the day, and with nighttime fire activity are most common in areas of large fire size (i.e., large burned area per fire event). These areas are most prevalent in relatively arid regions. Ignoring the fire diurnal cycle as done currently in some approaches caused structural

  16. Cumulus moistening, the diurnal cycle, and large-scale tropical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, James H., Jr.

    Observations and modeling techniques are employed to diagnose the importance of the diurnal cycle in large-scale tropical climate. In the first part of the study, soundings, radar, and surface flux measurements collected in the Indian Ocean DYNAMO experiment (Dynamics of the Madden--Julian Oscillation, or MJO) are employed to study MJO convective onset. According to these observations, MJO onset takes place as follows: moistening of the low--midtroposphere is accomplished by cumuliform clouds that deepen as the drying by large-scale subsidence and horizontal advection simultaneously wane. This relaxing of subsidence is tied to decreasing column radiative cooling, which links back to the evolving cloud population. A new finding from these observations is the high degree to which the diurnal cycle linked to air-sea and radiative fluxes invigorates clouds and drives column moistening each day. This diurnally modulated cloud field exhibits pronounced mesoscale organization in the form of open cells and horizontal convective rolls. Based on these findings, it is hypothesized that the diurnal cycle and mesoscale cloud organization represent two manners in which local convective processes promote more vigorous day-to-day tropospheric moistening than would otherwise occur. A suite of model tests are carried out in the second part of the study to 1) test the hypothesis that the diurnal cycle drives moistening on longer timescales, and 2) better understand the relative roles of diurnally varying sea surface temperature (SST) and direct atmospheric radiative heating in the diurnal cycle of convection. Moist convection is explicitly represented in the model, the diurnal cycle of SST is prescribed, and cloud-interactive radiation is simulated with a diurnal cycle in shortwave heating. The large-scale dynamics are parameterized using the spectral weak temperature gradient (WTG) technique recently introduced by Herman and Raymond. In this scheme, external (i.e., large

  17. [Diurnal activity rhythm of Clethrionomys rufocanus].

    PubMed

    Jin, Jianli; Zhang, Chunmei; Yang, Chunwen

    2003-06-01

    The diurnal activity rhythm of Clethrionomys rufocanus was studied under three different food conditions in a laboratory. The activity occurred both in the daytime and at night, but mainly at night (19:00-4:00). The mice fed with Mouse food exhibited six small peaks in their daily activity, and those fed with grass or hay exhibited seven, but the peak of the out-nest night activity was 2-3 hours earlier. The activity amount of out-nest was 30,518.0 +/- 3,694.9 s for those fed with grass, the next was 21,811.7 +/- 2,288.0 s for those fed with hay, and the least was 15,038.0 +/- 666.0 s for those fed with mouse food. The activity amount of feeding was 10,867.3 +/- 1,612.1 s for those fed with grass, much more than those fed with mouse food and hay. The activity amount for drinking was 988.5 +/- 79.1 s (fed with hay), 568.9 +/- 60.9 s (fed with mouse food) and 139.3 +/- 47.2 s (fed with grass).

  18. Diurnal Variability of the Hydrologic Cycle and Radiative Fluxes: Comparisons Between Observation and a GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Xin; Randall, David A.; Fowler, Laura D.

    2000-01-01

    The simulated diurnal cycle is in many ways an ideal test bed for new physical parameterizations. The purpose of this paper is to compare observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Experiment, and the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study with the diurnal variability of the Amazonian hydrologic cycle and radiative energy budget as simulated by the Colorado State University general circulation model, and to evaluate improvements and deficiencies of the model physics. The model uses a prognostic cumulus kinetic energy (CKE) to relax the quasi-equilibrium closure of the Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization. A parameter, alpha, is used to relate the CKE to the cumulus mass flux. This parameter is expected to vary with cloud depth, mean shear, and the level of convective activity, but up to now a single constant value for all cloud types has been used. The results of the present study show clearly that this approach cannot yield realistic simulations of both the diurnal cycle and the monthly mean climate state. Improved results are obtained using a version of the model in which alpha is permitted to vary with cloud depth.

  19. Diurnal patterns in lightning activity over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Eldo E.; Bürgesser, Rodrigo E.; Castellano, Nesvit E.; Nicora, M. Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Satellite observations of lightning flash distribution data are used to examine the diurnal cycle of lightning activity over the tropical and subtropical regions of South America. A harmonic analysis is used to study the spatial variations in the peak and strength of diurnal lightning activity across this area. Results show that in the northern and central regions of South America, the times of maxima in lightning activity was concentrated from late afternoon to evening hours (between 14:00 and 18:00 local time), which may be associated with the peaking of the local convective activity connected with heating of the surface caused by daytime insolation. In subtropical South America, particularly in the area limited by 25°S, 35°S of latitude and 70°W, 50°W of longitude, the time of maximum lightning activity was shifted to nocturnal hours, extending from close to midnight to early morning hours. This behavior can be associated to the peak in mesoscale convective systems in the region which occurs in the morning hours. The annual flash densities in the tropical and subtropical parts of the continent were found to have comparable magnitudes. However, the contribution of the continental tropics to the global electric circuit dominates over the continental subtropics contribution throughout all seasons, since the surface covered by the tropical region is more than twice the area covered by the subtropical region.

  20. Spatial patterns in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. R. H.; Crow, W. T.; Hain, C.

    2013-05-01

    This paper investigates the structural difference in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) over land resulting from choice of measuring device or model framework. It is shown that the timing can be reliably estimated from temporally sparse observations acquired from a constellation of low Earth orbiting satellites given record lengths of at least three months. Based on a year of data, the spatial patterns of mean DTC timing are compared between Ka-band temperature estimates, geostationary thermal infrared (TIR) temperature estimates and numerical weather prediction model output from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). It is found that the spatial patterns can be explained by vegetation effects, sensing depth differences and more speculatively the orientation of orographic relief features. In absolute terms, the GMAO model puts the peak of the DTC on average at 12:50 local solar time, 23 min before TIR with a peak temperature at 13:13. Since TIR is the shallowest observation of the land surface, this small difference represents a structural error that possibly affects the models ability to assimilate observations that are closely tied to the DTC. For non-desert areas, the Ka-band observations have only a small delay of about 15 min with the TIR observations which is in agreement with their respective theoretical sensing depth. The results of this comparison provide insights into the structural differences between temperature measurements and models, and can be used as a first step to account for these differences in a coherent way.

  1. Covariability in the Monthly Mean Convective and Radiative Diurnal Cycles in the Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodson, Jason B.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal cycle of convective clouds greatly influences the radiative energy balance in convectively active regions of Earth, through both direct presence, and the production of anvil and stratiform clouds. Previous studies show that the frequency and properties of convective clouds can vary on monthly timescales as a result of variability in the monthly mean atmospheric state. Furthermore, the radiative budget in convectively active regions also varies by up to 7 Wm-2 in convectively active regions. These facts suggest that convective clouds connect atmospheric state variability and radiation variability beyond clear sky effects alone. Previous research has identified monthly covariability between the diurnal cycle of CERES-observed top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes and multiple atmospheric state variables from reanalysis over the Amazon region. ASVs that enhance (reduce) deep convection, such as CAPE (LTS), tend to shift the daily OLR and cloud albedo maxima earlier (later) in the day by 2-3 hr. We first test the analysis method using multiple reanalysis products for both the dry and wet seasons to further investigate the robustness of the preliminary results. We then use CloudSat data as an independent cloud observing system to further evaluate the relationships of cloud properties to variability in radiation and atmospheric states. While CERES can decompose OLR variability into clear sky and cloud effects, it cannot determine what variability in cloud properties lead to variability in the radiative cloud effects. Cloud frequency, cloud top height, and cloud microphysics all contribute to the cloud radiative effect, all of which are observable by CloudSat. In addition, CloudSat can also observe the presence and variability of deep convective cores responsible for the production of anvil clouds. We use these capabilities to determine the covariability of convective cloud properties and the radiative diurnal cycle.

  2. Spatial patterns in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. R. H.; Crow, W. T.; Hain, C.

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the structural difference in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) over land resulting from choice of measuring device or model framework. It is shown that the timing can be reliably estimated from temporally sparse observations acquired from a constellation of low Earth-orbiting satellites given record lengths of at least three months. Based on a year of data, the spatial patterns of mean DTC timing are compared between temperature estimates from microwave Ka-band, geostationary thermal infrared (TIR), and numerical weather prediction model output from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). It is found that the spatial patterns can be explained by vegetation effects, sensing depth differences and more speculatively the orientation of orographic relief features. In absolute terms, the GMAO model puts the peak of the DTC on average at 12:50 local solar time, 23 min before TIR with a peak temperature at 13:13 (both averaged over Africa and Europe). Since TIR is the shallowest observation of the land surface, this small difference represents a structural error that possibly affects the model's ability to assimilate observations that are closely tied to the DTC. The equivalent average timing for Ka-band is 13:44, which is influenced by the effect of increased sensing depth in desert areas. For non-desert areas, the Ka-band observations lag the TIR observations by only 15 min, which is in agreement with their respective theoretical sensing depth. The results of this comparison provide insights into the structural differences between temperature measurements and models, and can be used as a first step to account for these differences in a coherent way.

  3. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Anaerobic Chemostat Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Subjected to Diurnal Temperature Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Hebly, Marit; de Ridder, Dick; de Hulster, Erik A. F.; de la Torre Cortes, Pilar; Pronk, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal temperature cycling is an intrinsic characteristic of many exposed microbial ecosystems. However, its influence on yeast physiology and the yeast transcriptome has not been studied in detail. In this study, 24-h sinusoidal temperature cycles, oscillating between 12°C and 30°C, were imposed on anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After three diurnal temperature cycles (DTC), concentrations of glucose and extracellular metabolites as well as CO2 production rates showed regular, reproducible circadian rhythms. DTC also led to waves of transcriptional activation and repression, which involved one-sixth of the yeast genome. A substantial fraction of these DTC-responsive genes appeared to respond primarily to changes in the glucose concentration. Elimination of known glucose-responsive genes revealed an overrepresentation of previously identified temperature-responsive genes as well as genes involved in the cell cycle and de novo purine biosynthesis. In-depth analysis demonstrated that DTC led to a partial synchronization of the cell cycle of the yeast populations in chemostat cultures, which was lost upon release from DTC. Comparison of DTC results with data from steady-state cultures showed that the 24-h DTC was sufficiently slow to allow S. cerevisiae chemostat cultures to acclimate their transcriptome and physiology at the DTC temperature maximum and to approach acclimation at the DTC temperature minimum. Furthermore, this comparison and literature data on growth rate-dependent cell cycle phase distribution indicated that cell cycle synchronization was most likely an effect of imposed fluctuations of the relative growth rate (μ/μmax) rather than a direct effect of temperature. PMID:24814792

  4. Physiological and transcriptional responses of anaerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to diurnal temperature cycles.

    PubMed

    Hebly, Marit; de Ridder, Dick; de Hulster, Erik A F; de la Torre Cortes, Pilar; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2014-07-01

    Diurnal temperature cycling is an intrinsic characteristic of many exposed microbial ecosystems. However, its influence on yeast physiology and the yeast transcriptome has not been studied in detail. In this study, 24-h sinusoidal temperature cycles, oscillating between 12°C and 30°C, were imposed on anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After three diurnal temperature cycles (DTC), concentrations of glucose and extracellular metabolites as well as CO2 production rates showed regular, reproducible circadian rhythms. DTC also led to waves of transcriptional activation and repression, which involved one-sixth of the yeast genome. A substantial fraction of these DTC-responsive genes appeared to respond primarily to changes in the glucose concentration. Elimination of known glucose-responsive genes revealed an overrepresentation of previously identified temperature-responsive genes as well as genes involved in the cell cycle and de novo purine biosynthesis. In-depth analysis demonstrated that DTC led to a partial synchronization of the cell cycle of the yeast populations in chemostat cultures, which was lost upon release from DTC. Comparison of DTC results with data from steady-state cultures showed that the 24-h DTC was sufficiently slow to allow S. cerevisiae chemostat cultures to acclimate their transcriptome and physiology at the DTC temperature maximum and to approach acclimation at the DTC temperature minimum. Furthermore, this comparison and literature data on growth rate-dependent cell cycle phase distribution indicated that cell cycle synchronization was most likely an effect of imposed fluctuations of the relative growth rate (μ/μmax) rather than a direct effect of temperature.

  5. Diurnal Cycles of Sulfate Reduction under Oxic Conditions in Cyanobacterial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Fründ, Claudia; Cohen, Yehuda

    1992-01-01

    Diurnal cycles of sulfate reduction were examined in a well-developed cyanobacterial mat which grew in an outdoor experimental hypersaline pond system at a constant salinity of 75 ± 5% for 3 years. Vertical profiles of sulfate reduction were determined for the upper 12 mm of the microbial mat. Sulfate reduction activities were compared with diurnal variations of oxygen and sulfide concentrations measured by microelectrodes. Significant activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected under aerobic conditions during the daytime, with maximal activity at 2 p.m. When comparing sulfate reduction activities in sediment cores taken at 6 a.m. and 12 a.m. and incubated at a constant temperature in the light and in the dark, a distinct stimulation of the activity in the vertical profile of sulfate reduction by light was evident. It is therefore concluded that the maximal in situ activities, measured at 2 p.m. in the chemocline of the cyanobacterial mat, cannot be attributed to diurnal changes of temperature alone. The response of sulfate-reducing bacteria to the addition of specific carbon sources was significantly different in the cyanobacterial layer, the anoxygenic phototrophic bacterial layer, and the permanently reduced layer of the microbial mat. Sulfate reduction in the mat layer exposed to high oxygen concentrations as a result of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis was enhanced only by glycolate; in the microzone where the chemocline is found during the daytime, ethanol was the only carbon source to enhance sulfate reduction, while both ethanol and lactate enhanced this activity in the permanently reduced zone. PMID:16348641

  6. Rhythms of ghrelin, leptin, and sleep in rats: effects of the normal diurnal cycle, restricted feeding, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Bodosi, B; Gardi, J; Hajdu, I; Szentirmai, E; Obal, F; Krueger, J M

    2004-11-01

    To determine the relationships among plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations and hypothalamic ghrelin contents, and sleep, cortical brain temperature (Tcrt), and feeding, we determined these parameters in rats in three experimental conditions: in free-feeding rats with normal diurnal rhythms, in rats with feeding restricted to the 12-h light period (RF), and in rats subjected to 5-h of sleep deprivation (SD) at the beginning of the light cycle. Plasma ghrelin and leptin displayed diurnal rhythms with the ghrelin peak preceding and the leptin peak following the major daily feeding peak in hour 1 after dark onset. RF reversed the diurnal rhythm of these hormones and the rhythm of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and significantly altered the rhythm of Tcrt. In contrast, the duration and intensity of non-REMS (NREMS) were hardly responsive to RF. SD failed to change leptin concentrations, but it promptly stimulated plasma ghrelin and induced eating. SD elicited biphasic variations in the hypothalamic ghrelin contents. SD increased plasma corticosterone, but corticosterone did not seem to influence either leptin or ghrelin. The results suggest a strong relationship between feeding and the diurnal rhythm of leptin and that feeding also fundamentally modulates the diurnal rhythm of ghrelin. The variations in hypothalamic ghrelin contents might be associated with sleep-wake activity in rats, but, unlike the previous observations in humans, obvious links could not be detected between sleep and the diurnal rhythms of plasma concentrations of either ghrelin or leptin in the rat. PMID:15475503

  7. Linking diurnal cycles of river flow to interannual variations in climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundquist, Jessica D.; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Many rivers in the Western United States have diurnal variations exceeding 10% of their mean flow in the spring and summer months. The shape and timing of the diurnal cycle is influenced by an interplay of the snow, topography, vegetation, and meteorology in a basin, and the measured result differs between wet and dry years. The largest interannual differences occur during the latter half of the melt season, as the snowline retreats to the highest elevations and most shaded slopes in a basin. In most basins, during this period, the hour of peak discharge shifts to later in the day, and the relative amplitude of the diurnal cycle decreases. The magnitude and rate of these changes in the diurnal cycle vary between years and may provide clues about how long- term hydroclimatic variations affect short-term basin dynamics.

  8. Long-term changes of the diurnal temperature cycle: implications about mechanisms of global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.

    We use a global climate model to investigate the impact of a wide range of radiative forcing and feedback mechanisms on the diurnal cycle of surface air temperature. This allows us not only to rule out many potential explanations for observed diurnal changes, but to infer fundamental information concerning the nature and location of the principal global climate forcings of this century. We conclude that the observed changes of the diurnal cycle result neither from natural climate variability nor a globally-distributed forcing, but rather they require the combination of a (negative) radiative forcing located primarily over continental regions together with the known globally-distributed forcing due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Tropospheric aerosols can account for part of the continentally-located forcing, but alone they do not damp the diurnal cycle as observed. Only an increase of continental cloud cover, possibly a consequence of anthropogenic aerosols, can damp the diurnal cycle by an amount comparable to observations. A corollary of these results is quantitative confirmation of the widely held suspicion that anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming has been substantially counterbalanced by a forced cooling. Under the assumption that the cloud change is sulfate driven, a further implication is that the net rate of global warming is likely to increase substantially in coming years. We note that, on the long run, the daily maximum temperature will increase by an amount not much less than the increase of the mean temperature.

  9. Diurnal and circadian variation of sleep and alertness in men vs. naturally cycling women.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Diane B; Shechter, Ari; Boudreau, Philippe; Begum, Esmot Ara; Ng Ying-Kin, Ng Mien Kwong

    2016-09-27

    This study quantifies sex differences in the diurnal and circadian variation of sleep and waking while controlling for menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptive use. We compared the diurnal and circadian variation of sleep and alertness of 8 women studied during two phases of the menstrual cycle and 3 women studied during their midfollicular phase with that of 15 men. Participants underwent an ultradian sleep-wake cycle (USW) procedure consisting of 36 cycles of 60-min wake episodes alternating with 60-min nap opportunities. Core body temperature (CBT), salivary melatonin, subjective alertness, and polysomnographically recorded sleep were measured throughout this procedure. All analyzed measures showed a significant diurnal and circadian variation throughout the USW procedure. Compared with men, women demonstrated a significant phase advance of the CBT but not melatonin rhythms, as well as an advance in the diurnal and circadian variation of sleep measures and subjective alertness. Furthermore, women experienced an increased amplitude of the diurnal and circadian variation of alertness, mainly due to a larger decline in the nocturnal nadir. Our results indicate that women are likely initiating sleep at a later circadian phase than men, which may be one factor contributing to the increased susceptibility to sleep disturbances reported in women. Lower nighttime alertness is also observed, suggesting a physiological basis for a greater susceptibility to maladaptation to night shift work in women. PMID:27621470

  10. Mixed Layer Dynamics and the Diurnal Cycle in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenegrat, J. O.; McPhaden, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    A unique 8-month data set of moored near-surface velocity observations is used to examine the diurnal cycle of near-surface shear and stratification at 0°N, 23°W in the central equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The ocean diurnal cycle is strongly modulated by seasonal variability in wind forcing, and during trade wind conditions descending diurnal shear layers are observed regularly in the late afternoon and evening. These descending shear layers are associated with reduced Richardson number, and marginal instability of the equatorial undercurrent below the mixed layer. The significance of these findings for deep-cycle turbulence in the central equatorial Atlantic will be discussed in relation to recent work from the Pacific.

  11. Diurnal cycling of urban aerosols under different weather regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorič, Asta; Drinovec, Luka; Močnik, Griša; Remškar, Maja; Vaupotič, Janja; Stanič, Samo

    2016-04-01

    A one month measurement campaign was performed in summer 2014 in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia (population 280,000), aiming to study temporal and spatial distribution of urban aerosols and the mixing state of primary and secondary aerosols. Two background locations were chosen for this purpose, the first one in the city center (urban background - KIS) and the second one in the suburban background (Brezovica). Simultaneous measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number size distribution of submicron aerosols (PM1) were conducted at both locations. In the summer season emission from traffic related sources is expected to be the main local contribution to BC concentration. Concentrations of aerosol species and gaseous pollutants within the planetary boundary layer are controlled by the balance between emission sources of primary aerosols and gases, production of secondary aerosols, chemical reactions of precursor gases under solar radiation and the rate of dilution by mixing within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as well as with tropospheric air. Only local emission sources contribute to BC concentration during the stable PBL with low mixing layer height, whereas during the time of fully mixed PBL, regionally transported BC and other aerosols can contribute to the surface measurements. The study describes the diurnal behaviour of the submicron aerosol at the urban and suburban background location under different weather regimes. Particles in three size modes - nucleation (< 25 nm, NUM), Aitken (25 - 90 nm, AIM) and accumulation mode (90 - 800 nm, ACM), as well as BC mass concentration were evaluated separately for sunny, cloudy and rainy days, taking into account modelled values of PBL height. Higher particle number and black carbon concentrations were observed at the urban background (KIS) than at the suburban background location (Brezovica). Significant diurnal pattern of total particle concentration and black carbon concentration was observed at both

  12. Simulation of the annual and diurnal cycles of rainfall over South Africa by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Rouault, Mathieu; Roy, Shouraseni Sen

    2014-10-01

    The capability of a current state-of-the-art regional climate model for simulating the diurnal and annual cycles of rainfall over a complex subtropical region is documented here. Hourly rainfall is simulated over Southern Africa for 1998-2006 by the non-hydrostatic model weather research and forecasting (WRF), and compared to a network of 103 stations covering South Africa. We used five simulations, four of which consist of different parameterizations for atmospheric convection at a 0.5 × 0.5° resolution, performed to test the physic-dependency of the results. The fifth experiment uses explicit convection over tropical South Africa at a 1/30° resolution. WRF simulates realistic mean rainfall fields, albeit wet biases over tropical Africa. The model mean biases are strongly modulated by the convective scheme used for the simulations. The annual cycle of rainfall is well simulated over South Africa, mostly influenced by tropical summer rainfall except in the Western Cape region experiencing winter rainfall. The diurnal cycle shows a timing bias, with atmospheric convection occurring too early in the afternoon, and causing too abundant rainfall. This result, particularly true in summer over the northeastern part of the country, is weakly physic-dependent. Cloud-resolving simulations do not clearly reduce the diurnal cycle biases. In the end, the rainfall overestimations appear to be mostly imputable to the afternoon hours of the austral summer rainy season, i.e., the periods during which convective activity is intense over the region.

  13. LES of large wind farm during a diurnal cycle: Analysis of Energy and Scalar flux budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Calaf, M.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    With an expanding role of wind energy in satisfying energy demands around the world, wind farms are covering increasingly larger surfaces to the point where interaction between wind farms and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) might have significant implications. Furthermore, many wind farm sites lie over existing farmland for which water is a precious resource. In this context, a relevant question yet to be fully understood, is whether large wind farms alter near surface temperatures and evaporation rates and if so, by how much. In the present study, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of a geostrophic wind driven ABL with two active scalars, temperature and specific humidity, in the presence of Coriolis forces with an embedded wind farm are performed. Multiple 'synthetic' diurnal cycles are simulated by imposing a time-varying surface temperature and specific humidity. Wind turbines are modeled using the "actuator disk" approach along with the flexibility to reorient according to varying flow directions. LES is performed using the "pseudo-spectral" approach implying that an infinitely large wind farm is simulated. Comparison of simulations with and without wind farms show clear differences in vertical profiles of horizontal velocity magnitude and direction, turbulent kinetic energy and scalar fluxes. To better understand these differences, a detailed analysis of the constituent terms of budget equations of mean and turbulent kinetic energy and sensible and latent heat fluxes has been performed for different stratification regimes as the ABL evolves during the diurnal cycle. The analyses help explain the effect of wind farms on the characteristics of the low-level jet, depth of the stable boundary layer, formation and growth of the convective boundary layer (CBL) and scalar fluxes at the surface.

  14. What are the determinants of the diurnal cycle of cloud properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at untangling the influence of aerosols and meteorological factors on the diurnal cycle of cloud parameters based on a regional analysis of polar orbiting, geostationary satellite and reanalysis data. Aerosols affect the life time of clouds by changing their microphysical properties and dynamics dependent on the meteorological regime. In these systems, cloud properties change over time periods of hours and are highly variable spatially. Contributing to uncertainties of the Earth's radiation budget, the investigation of the aerosol-cloud-meteorology system from a regional perspective and on a daily basis is an important aspect of climate system research. In order to clarify to what extent cloud properties and their diurnal cycles are a result of cloud feedbacks to aerosols or meteorological conditions, multivariate statistics, in particular artificial neural networks, are used. Daily aerosol property data (MODIS) and meteorological parameters (ERA-Interim reanalysis) are used as input parameters and are related through a model to the observed output, i.e. diurnal cycles of cloud parameters (SEVIRI). Once the network is trained, the relevance of influencing factors for the diurnal cycle of cloud parameters is determined by sensitivity analysis.

  15. Diurnal cycle of precipitation over Fujian Province during the pre-summer rainy season in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Anning; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Ben; Fang, Dexian; Zhang, Lujun; Wu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Precipitation diurnal cycle over Fujian in the pre-summer rainy season has been revealed based on the hourly rain gauge data during 2009-2013. The precipitation amount (PA) over northwestern Fujian and most southeast coasts shows relatively small diurnal variability. This is in contrast to large diurnal variations in the mountainous areas. Regional differences in precipitation diurnal cycles are obviously noted among the coastal, valley, hilly, and mountainous areas. The precipitation diurnal cycles are significantly affected by the terrain elevation and distance to coast, PA and precipitation frequency (PF) show much more pronounced double diurnal peaks with the terrain elevation and distance to coast increased. However, the precipitation intensity (PI) basically shows one distinct late afternoon diurnal peak for different elevations and distances to coast. Four typical patterns of precipitation diurnal cycle are further identified by cluster analysis. The four typical PF patterns show relatively apparent morning peaks over coasts, inland mountains, and hills in addition to distinct late afternoon maxima. Low PF with weak diurnal amplitude is mainly located over the coastal areas, while high PF with strong diurnal amplitude is found over the valley, hilly, and mountainous regions. The PA exhibits a weak early morning peak and a relatively strong late afternoon peak over coastal, hilly, or mountainous areas and windward slopes but only one distinct late afternoon peak over the valley regions and leeward slopes. The amplitude of PA diurnal cycle is the weakest over the coastal areas but the strongest over the valley regions or leeward slopes among the four PA patterns. The four PI diurnal cycle patterns consistently show distinct afternoon peaks.

  16. On the Sensitivity of the Diurnal Cycle in the Amazon to Convective Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itterly, K. F.; Taylor, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    The sensitivity of the diurnal cycle to convective intensity is investigated for the wet season (DJF) and dry season (JJA) in the Amazon region. Model output reveals large water and energy budget errors in tropical rainforests, arising from a misrepresentation of the diurnal cycle of the complex processes inherent to diurnally forced moist convection. Daily, 3-hourly satellite observations of CERES Ed3a SYN1DEG TOA fluxes and 3-hourly TRMM 3B42 precipitation rate from 2002-2012 are split into regimes of convective intensity using percentile definitions for both daily minimum OLR and daily maximum precipitation rate to define regimes. These satellite-defined regimes are then co-located with convective parameters calculated from radiosonde observations. Diurnal statistics from satellite include: phase, amplitude, precipitation onset, precipitation duration and diurnal mean. The diurnal phase of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and longwave cloud forcing (LWCF) occurs several hours earlier on convective days compared to stable days, however, climatological precipitation phase is less sensitive to convective intensity, occurring between 1-4PM local time for all regimes and 1-2 hours later on very convective days, which is related to longer duration precipitation events from increased humidity. Diurnal convection in the Amazon is strongly related to 8AM values of both dynamic and thermodynamic variables, most of which are related to: the background moisture content of the troposphere, the stability of the lower troposphere, convective inhibition (CIN) and wind speed and direction in the column. Morning values of CIN, lifted condensation level (LCL), level of free convection (LFC) and equilibrium level (EL) are lower in DJF than JJA, and lower on very convective days than stable days for all stations. Higher background humidity is related to longer duration precipitation events (r-values between 0.4-0.6, depending on station and season), earlier phases and onset times

  17. Diurnal anisotropy of cosmic rays during intensive solar activity for the period 2001-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezari, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2016-07-01

    The diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity, based on the records of two neutron monitor stations at Athens (Greece) and Oulu (Finland) for the time period 2001 to 2014, is studied. This period covers the maximum and the descending phase of the solar cycle 23, the minimum of the solar cycles 23/24 and the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24.These two stations differ in their geographic latitude and magnetic threshold rigidity. The amplitude and phase of the diurnal anisotropy vectors have been calculated on annual and monthly basis. From our analysis it is resulted that there is a different behaviour in the characteristics of the diurnal anisotropy during the different phases of the solar cycle, depended on the solar magnetic field polarity, but also during extreme events of solar activity, such as Ground Level Enhancements and cosmic ray events, such as Forbush decreases and magnetospheric events. These results may be useful to Space Weather forecasting and especially to Biomagnetic studies.

  18. The impact of the diurnal insolation cycle on the tropical cyclone heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Morgan E.; Perez-Betancourt, Diamilet; Wing, Allison A.

    A hurricane, or tropical cyclone, is understood as a heat engine that moves heat from the warm sea surface to the cold tropopause. The efficiency of this engine depends in part on the strength and duration of solar heating. Over land, peak rainfall associated with individual thunderstorms occurs in the late afternoon. Over ocean, with its markedly higher surface heat capacity, deep convection responds more to radiational cooling than daytime surface heating. However, the role of daily varying solar forcing on the dynamics of tropical cyclones is poorly understood. Recently, Dunion et al. (2014) reported significant, repeating diurnal behavior propagating outward from tropical cyclone centers, using infrared imagery from nine years of North Atlantic tropical cyclones. We study the impact of the diurnal cycle on tropical cyclones using a high resolution 3D numerical model, the System for Atmospheric Modeling (Khairoutdinov and Randall 2003). Simulations are run with and without variable sunlight. We are able to reproduce the observational finding of Dunion et al. (2014), and further identify a diurnally-varying residual circulation in the tropical cyclone at midlevels. The impact of the diurnal cycle on the equilibrium dynamics of tropical cyclones is also discussed.

  19. Variability of radiatively forced diurnal cycle of intense convection in the tropical west pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.M.; Sheaffer, J.D.; Thorson, W.B.

    1996-04-01

    Strong differences occur in daytime versus nighttime (DVN) net radiative cooling in clear versus cloudy areas of the tropical atmosphere. Daytime average cooling is approximately -0.7{degrees}C/day, whereas nighttime net tropospheric cooling rates are about -1.5{degrees}C/day, an approximately two-to-one difference. The comparatively strong nocturnal cooling in clear areas gives rise to a diurnally varying vertical circulation and horizontal convergence cycle. Various manifestations of this cyclic process include the observed early morning heavy rainfall maxima over the tropical oceans. The radiatively driven DVN circulation appears to strongly modulate the resulting diurnal cycle of intense convection which creates the highest, coldest cloudiness over maritime tropical areas and is likely a fundamental mechanism governing both small and large scale dynamics over much of the tropical environment.

  20. The diurnal cycle of water ice on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, M C; Capaccioni, F; Ciarniello, M; Filacchione, G; Formisano, M; Mottola, S; Raponi, A; Tosi, F; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Erard, S; Leyrat, C; Schmitt, B; Ammannito, E; Arnold, G; Barucci, M A; Combi, M; Capria, M T; Cerroni, P; Ip, W-H; Kuehrt, E; McCord, T B; Palomba, E; Beck, P; Quirico, E

    2015-09-24

    Observations of cometary nuclei have revealed a very limited amount of surface water ice, which is insufficient to explain the observed water outgassing. This was clearly demonstrated on comet 9P/Tempel 1, where the dust jets (driven by volatiles) were only partially correlated with the exposed ice regions. The observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko have revealed that activity has a diurnal variation in intensity arising from changing insolation conditions. It was previously concluded that water vapour was generated in ice-rich subsurface layers with a transport mechanism linked to solar illumination, but that has not hitherto been observed. Periodic condensations of water vapour very close to, or on, the surface were suggested to explain short-lived outbursts seen near sunrise on comet 9P/Tempel 1. Here we report observations of water ice on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, appearing and disappearing in a cyclic pattern that follows local illumination conditions, providing a source of localized activity. This water cycle appears to be an important process in the evolution of the comet, leading to cyclical modification of the relative abundance of water ice on its surface. PMID:26399830

  1. The diurnal cycle of water ice on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, M C; Capaccioni, F; Ciarniello, M; Filacchione, G; Formisano, M; Mottola, S; Raponi, A; Tosi, F; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Erard, S; Leyrat, C; Schmitt, B; Ammannito, E; Arnold, G; Barucci, M A; Combi, M; Capria, M T; Cerroni, P; Ip, W-H; Kuehrt, E; McCord, T B; Palomba, E; Beck, P; Quirico, E

    2015-09-24

    Observations of cometary nuclei have revealed a very limited amount of surface water ice, which is insufficient to explain the observed water outgassing. This was clearly demonstrated on comet 9P/Tempel 1, where the dust jets (driven by volatiles) were only partially correlated with the exposed ice regions. The observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko have revealed that activity has a diurnal variation in intensity arising from changing insolation conditions. It was previously concluded that water vapour was generated in ice-rich subsurface layers with a transport mechanism linked to solar illumination, but that has not hitherto been observed. Periodic condensations of water vapour very close to, or on, the surface were suggested to explain short-lived outbursts seen near sunrise on comet 9P/Tempel 1. Here we report observations of water ice on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, appearing and disappearing in a cyclic pattern that follows local illumination conditions, providing a source of localized activity. This water cycle appears to be an important process in the evolution of the comet, leading to cyclical modification of the relative abundance of water ice on its surface.

  2. Removing Diurnal Cycle Contamination in Satellite-Derived Tropospheric Temperatures: Understanding Tropical Tropospheric Trend Discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po-Chedley, S.; Thorsen, T. J.; Fu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical mid-tropospheric temperature (TMT) time series have been constructed by several independent research teams using satellite microwave sounding unit (MSU) measurements beginning in 1978 and advanced MSU (AMSU) measurements since 1998. Despite careful efforts to homogenize the MSU/AMSU measurements, tropical TMT trends disagree by a factor of three even though each analysis uses the same basic data. Previous studies suggest that the discrepancy in tropical TMT temperature trends is largely caused by differences in both the NOAA-9 warm target factor and diurnal drift corrections used by various teams to homogenize the MSU/AMSU measurements. This work introduces a new observationally-based method for removing biases related to satellite diurnal drift. The method relies on minimizing inter-satellite and inter-node drifts by subtracting out a common diurnal cycle determined via linear regression. It is demonstrated that this method is effective at removing intersatellite biases and biases between the ascending (PM) and descending (AM) node of individual satellites in the TMT time series. After TMT bias correction, the ratio of tropical tropospheric temperature trends relative to surface temperature trends is in accord with the ratio from global climate models. It is shown that bias corrections for diurnal drift based on a climate model produce tropical trends very similar to those from the observationally-based correction, with a trend differences smaller than 0.02 K decade-1. Differences among various TMT datasets are explored further. Tropical trends from this work are comparable to those from the Remote Sensing System (RSS) and NOAA datasets despite small differences. Larger differences between this work and UAH are attributed to differences in the treatment of the NOAA-9 target factor and the UAH diurnal cycle correction.

  3. Diurnal Cycle of Convection in the East Pacific ITCZ during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the EPIC-2001 intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ over the Mexican warm pool region (10N, 95W) of the East Pacific. This study focuses on the pronounced observed diurnal cycle of environmental and convective parameters within the experiment domain. Data from three primary sources are examined: the R/V Ronald H. Brown C-band weather radar, 4-hourly soundings from the Brown and the Global Atmospherics, Inc. National Lightning Detection Network (long range product). Satellite data from TRMM, GOES and OV-1 are also used. The domain boundary layer shows a robust daily evolution of moist enthalpy (as reflect by equivalent potential temperature, theta-e, or wet bulb potential temperature, theta-w), with contributions from changes in both dry and moist entropy. Peak theta-w is found after local nightfall; the average diurnal range of theta-w is approximately 1 deg C. A composite diurnal cycle of convective properties was derived from the C-band volume scans, sampled continuously through the experiment at 10 minute updates. Products derived from the volumetric data include a surface PPI, 15 and 30 dBZ echo top height, vertically integrated liquid, and 6 km (mixed phase region) reflectivity CAPPIs. For almost all products, the parameter means showed virtually no diurnal cycle. However, for the upper-level products, the parameter spectra showed a clear peak in the occurrence of deep/vigorous convection (the "tail end of the distribution") between 7-9 UTC (1-3 AM local), while overall frequency of occurrence peaked later, from 12-15 UTC (6-9 AM local). This represents a daily "outbreak" of isolated deep cells a couple of hours after sunset and subsequent growth, organization and decay through the nighttime hours. The coherence of the diurnal cycle of the convective spectrum is impressive given the wide variety of convective organization observed during the experiment, and given the modulation

  4. Large Eddy Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle in Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, P; Bretherton, C

    2008-03-03

    This paper describes a series of 6 day large eddy simulations of a deep, sometimes drizzling stratocumulus-topped boundary layer based on forcings from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 field campaign. The base simulation was found to reproduce the observed mean boundary layer properties quite well. The diurnal cycle of liquid water path was also well captured, although good agreement appears to result partially from compensating errors in the diurnal cycles of cloud base and cloud top due to overentrainment around midday. At other times of the day, entrainment is found to be proportional to the vertically-integrated buoyancy flux. Model stratification matches observations well; turbulence profiles suggest that the boundary layer is always at least somewhat decoupled. Model drizzle appears to be too sensitive to liquid water path and subcloud evaporation appears to be too weak. Removing the diurnal cycle of subsidence had little effect on simulated cloud albedo. Simulations with changed droplet concentration and drizzle susceptibility showed large liquid water path differences at night, but differences were quite small at midday. Droplet concentration also had a significant impact on entrainment, primarily through droplet sedimentation feedback rather than through drizzle processes.

  5. Satellite-based investigation of the boundary layer diurnal cycle over the Southeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painemal, D.; Minnis, P.

    2012-12-01

    Retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES-10, produced at NASA Langley Research Center, are used to investigate the diurnal and semidiurnal cycle in the Southeast Pacific boundary layer during October-November of 2008. The GOES-10 cloud top height (Ht) is estimated by applying a linear regression to the difference between GOES-10 cloud top temperature and TRMM microwave Imager (TMI) sea surface temperature. A high linear correlation (0.86) and a negligible bias (5 m) between GOES-10 Ht and its in situ counterpart during VOCALS Regional Experiment, give confidence on the linear method used to retrieve Ht. Moreover, the good quality of GOES retrievals is further confirmed with independent measurements from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MODIS on board NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites. Daily mean GOES Ht shows a typical zonal gradient, with values between 600-1200 m along the coast and heights near 1700 m 15 degrees offshore. In terms of the diurnal cycle, we find amplitudes that fluctuate between 40-160 m, with the largest magnitudes far offshore. A 12 hour cycle is also evident in coastal regions, with a maximum magnitude of 80 m at 20S. The semidiurnal cycle is consistent with a NE-SW propagating wave pattern in Ht with a phase speed of 23-25 m/s, in agreement with modeling studies that show a subsidence wave that propagates away from the South American coast. The evolution of the boundary layer depth is closely linked to the liquid water path (LWP) cycle derived from a satellite microwave dataset. Both Ht and LWP yield their diurnal maxima near 2-5 LST, whereas the afternoon semidiurnal harmonic is a maximum at 16-19 LST and midnight over coastal and offshore regions respectively. The modulation of the subsidence wave over the cloud cover cycle is also apparent, and its consequences are further discussed in this presentation.

  6. New sources for the hot oxygen geocorona: Solar cycle, seasonal, latitudinal, and diurnal variations

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, M.P.; Richards, P.G.; Torr, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    This paper demonstrates the variability of thermospheric sources of hot oxygen atoms. Numerical calculations were performed for day and night, high and low solar activity, summer and winter, and low- and middle-latitude conditions. Under most conditions, reactions involving metastable species are more important hot {Omicron} sources than previously considered dissociative recombination of {Omicron}{sub 2}{sup +} and NO{sup +}. All the hot {Omicron} sources are an order of magnitude lower at midnight than at noon. At night, dissociative recombination of O{sub 2}{sup +} and NO{sup +} are the most important sources. Quenching of vibrationally excited N{sub 2} (N{sub 2}{sup *}) by {Omicron} is the most important metastable source at night. Above 300 km, hot {Omicron} kinetic energy is greater during winter than during summer, indicating a dominance of cooler hot {Omicron} sources during summer. The N{sub 2}{sup *} source dominates at low altitudes. At high altitudes it is almost negligible at solar minimum, but increases to become the dominant source at solar maximum. Atomic oxygen quenching of N({sup 2}D) is a large source at solar minimum and is still important at solar maximum. Overall, seasonal variations are small compared to solar cycle, diurnal and latitudinal variations. While quenching of metastable species if more important at midlatitudes than at low latitudes, there is little latitudinal variation in hot {Omicron} production due to dissociative recombination of NO{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +}. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The simulation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over land in a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, P.; Chaboureau, J. P.; Beljaars, A.; Betts, A. K.; Köhler, M.; Miller, M.; Redelsperger, J. L.

    2004-10-01

    In the context of the European Cloud Systems project, the problem of the simulation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over land is addressed with the aid of cloud-resolving (CRM) and single-column (SCM) model simulations of an idealized midlatitude case for which observations of large-scale and surface forcing are available. The CRM results are compared to different versions of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) convection schemes using different convective trigger procedures and convective closures. In the CRM, maximum rainfall intensity occurs at 15 h (local time). In this idealized midlatitude case, most schemes do not reproduce the afternoon precipitation peak, as (i) they cannot reproduce the gradual growth (typically over 3 hours) of the deep convective cloud layer and (ii) they produce a diurnal cycle of precipitation that is in phase with the diurnal cycle of the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the convective inhibition (CIN), consistent with the parcel theory and CAPE closure used in the bulk mass-flux scheme. The scheme that links the triggering to the large-scale vertical velocity gets the maximum precipitation at the right time, but this may be artificial as the vertical velocity is enforced in the single-column context. The study is then extended to the global scale using ensembles of 72-hour global forecasts at resolution T511 (40 km), and long-range single 40-day forecasts at resolution T159 (125 km) with the ECMWF general-circulation model. The focus is on tropical South America and Africa where the diurnal cycle is most pronounced. The forecasts are evaluated against analyses and observed radiosonde data, as well as observed surface and satellite-derived rainfall rates. The ECMWF model version with improved convective trigger produces the smallest biases overall. It also shifts the rainfall maximum to 12 h compared to 9.5 h in the original version. In contrast to the SCM, the vertical

  8. Seasonal Change of the Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation over Japan and Malaysia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Taikan; Musiake, Katumi

    1994-12-01

    The diurnal cycle of precipitation is investigated using ground-based hourly observations for more than 10 years both in Japan and Malaysia. The diurnal cycle of precipitation in Japan is classified into three clusters. The first one has a peak in the morning, and the stations categorized into this cluster are located in coastal regions. The second cluster has two peaks in the morning and in the evening. These stations are located in an inland region. The morning peak in the above two clusters is dominant in June, when it is `baiu' in Japan. Baiu is the rainy season related to the southwest Asian monsoon. The third cluster is an exceptional case. No morning peak is observed in the stations of the third cluster and they have a comparatively strong evening peak.In the case of the Malay Peninsula, the inland region has a pronounced peak of rainfall at 1600 LST; the magnitude exceeds the mean of each month by 200%. This evening peak is too sharp to be represented by a 24-h-cycle sine wave decomposed by Fourier transform. The intensity also becomes higher at the peak time (1500 LST). The magnitude of the diurnal cycle of mean intensity is larger than the annual cycle of monthly mean intensity. The morning peak of precipitation is observed during the southwest monsoon season on the west coast, and during the northeast monsoon season on the east coast. The intensity of precipitation is not significantly high during this period; namely, the increase of the probability or the duration of precipitation forms this morning peak. These evidences indicate the mechanism of the convective rainfall by the thermodynamic forcing in the evening, and the low-level convergence between the local land sea breeze and the predominant monsoon wind in the morning.

  9. Dependence of upper atmosphere photochemistry on the shape of the diurnal cycle of the photolysis rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montecinos, S.; Barrientos, P.

    2006-03-01

    A photochemical model of the atmosphere constitutes a non-linear, non-autonomous dynamical system, enforced by the Earth's rotation. Some studies have shown that the region of the mesopause tends towards non-linear responses such as period-doubling cascades and chaos. In these studies, simple go approximations for the diurnal variations of the photolysis rates are assumed. The goal of this article is to investigate what happens if the more realistic, calculated photolysis rates are introduced. It is found that, if the usual approximations-sinusoidal and step functions-are assumed, the responses of the system are similar: it converges to a 2-day periodic solution. If the more realistic, calculated diurnal cycle is introduced, a new 4-day subharmonic appear.

  10. Satellite-based Dust Source Identification over North Africa: Diurnal Cycle, Meteorological Controls, and Interannual Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepanski, Kerstin; Tegen, Ina; Macke, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Mineral dust aerosol emitted from arid and semi-arid areas impacts on the weather and climate system by affecting e.g. radiation fluxes and nutrient cycles. To estimate the effect of dust aerosol, detailed knowledge on the spatio-temporal distribution of active dust sources is necessary. For a better representation of dust-related processes in numerical models and climate change projections the knowledge on the natural variability of dust source activity has to be improved. As dust sources are mostly located over remote areas satellite observations are suitable for identifying active dust sources. The accuracy of dust source identification using such an indirect method is limited by the temporal resolution and the ambiguities of the retrieval. Here, a data set on the spatial (1°x1°) and temporal (3-hourly) distribution of dust source activations (DSA) over North Africa is compiled by analyzing 15-minute Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) infra-red (IR) dust index images since March 2006. The index is designed using radiances measured by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) on-board MSG at 8.7 µm, 10.8 µm and 12.0 µm which are converted to brightness temperatures (BTs). To strengthen the dust signal, differences of BTs are used to compute RGB-composite images. This newly data set providing information on the diurnal cycle of dust emission has been used (1) to identify most active dust source areas, and (2) to investigate on the temporal distribution of DSAs. Over the Sahara Desert 65% of dust sources become active during 06-09 UTC pointing towards an important role of the break-down of the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) for dust mobilization besides other meteorological features like density currents, haboobs, and cyclones. Furthermore the role of the nocturnal LLJs for dust mobilization over the Sahara is investigated by weather observations and a regional modeling study. Four years of DSA observations indicate an interannual variability in

  11. Influence of Observed Diurnal Cycles of Aerosol Optical Depth on Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arola, A.; Eck, T. F.; Huttunen, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Lindfors, A. V.; Myhre, G.; Smirinov, A.; Tripathi, S. N.; Yu, H.

    2013-01-01

    The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) or aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE). The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally.We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather small and it was relatively small even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast) does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant effect on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on 24 h ADRE was

  12. What the diurnal cycle of precipitation tells us about land-atmosphere coupling strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Craig; Song, Hyojong; Roundy, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    The key attributes of a coupled forecast model are the coupling strengths between the land-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere schemes. If a model cannot skillfully capture the diurnal cycle of clouds and precipitation, then it likely cannot be expected to yield accurate long-term climate projections. The seasonal drought forecast skill shortfalls of the U.S. NCEP Coupled Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2) have been directly linked to its unrealistically strong land-atmosphere coupling strength. Most models can be similarly categorized, which is to say, sensitivity to the land physics (i.e., soil moisture constraints on evapotranspiration) is too strong. In nature, the land signal: noise ratio appears to be at a much lower value. Diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling strength requires at a minimum: surface soil moisture state, surface turbulent heat fluxes, and atmospheric moisture and instability. Full-on diagnosis would entail hacking into the code and inserting a number of tracers. This study addresses the question: What if, given the soil wetness anomaly, model biases in coupling sign and/or strength could be diagnosed from phase shifts in the diurnal precipitation frequency cycle? We use 34-years of output from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) to investigate the variation in diurnal precipitation frequency cycle between so-called "wet-advantage" and "dry-advantage" coupling regimes over the U.S. southern Great Plains. Wet-advantage occurs when the atmospheric state is closer to the wet adiabatic rate and convection is triggered by a strong increase in the moist static energy from the surface. In contrast, dry-advantage occurs when the atmosphere is drier and the temperature profile is close to the dry adiabatic lapse rate, which favors convection over areas of large boundary layer growth due to high sensible heat fluxes at the surface. We find that there is a significant difference in the

  13. Diurnal cycle in convergence patterns in the boundary layer east of the Andes and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolini, Matilde; Skabar, Yanina García

    2011-06-01

    The South American Low-Level Jet Experiment (SALLJEX) provided a unique dataset to investigate the existence of a mesoscale low-level circulation and of a diurnal cycle in its related convergence pattern over the Southeastern South American region east of the Andes, as well as its relationship with deep convection during the warm season. The present paper builds upon high-resolution analyses produced, assimilating the data collected during the SALLJEX field campaign using BRAMS, and explores their capability to reproduce mesoscale circulations not resolved by the low density observational network available in this region. Results of the analyses show a diurnal oscillation signal in the mean boundary layer convergence pattern over the plains with a nocturnal (daytime) convergence (divergence) maximum. These results are coherent with previous findings of a nocturnal phase in the mature stage of organized deep convection and related precipitation in subtropical latitudes east of the Andes during the warm season. The diurnal cycle of convergence/divergence in the boundary layer is described over a 15-day period, during which different synoptic conditions occurred. During weakly forced environments a regime characterized by nocturnal eastward anomaly flow and convergence and daytime westward anomaly flow and divergence related to a mesoscale northwestern mountain-central plain flow regime dominates over the plains between the Andes Mountains, the Parana River Valley, and the southern Brazil mountain range. In contrast, during synoptic conditions dominated by the presence of a deep thermal low over northwestern Argentina and a related low-level jet, convergence at night is mainly accomplished by the predominantly meridional low-level jet, which exhibits an anomalous weak wind speed diurnal cycle with respect to its summer climatological mean. On the other hand daytime divergence is completely produced by the zonal wind component as in the previous synoptic situation

  14. Interpolation of surface radiative temperature measured from polar orbiting satellites to a diurnal cycle: 1. Without clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Menglin; Dickinson, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    The land surface skin temperature diurnal cycle (LSTD) is an important element of the climate system. This variable, however, cannot be directly obtained globally from polar orbiting satellites because such satellites only pass a given area twice per day and because their infrared channels cannot observe the surface when the sky is cloudy. To obtain the skin temperature diurnal cycle and fully utilize satellite measurements, we have designed an efficient algorithm that combines model results with satellite and surface-based observations and interpolates satellite twice-daily observations into the diurnal cycle. Climatological information from a climate model, CCM3/BATS, is used to determine a normalized shape (typical pattern) of the diurnal temperature for different latitudes, seasons, and vegetation types. The satellite observations, which are by themselves inadequate, are combined with the normalized modeled diurnal typical patterns to obtain the skin temperature diurnal cycle. The normalized typical patterns depend on the parameters of the diurnal insolation, such as sunrise, sunset, and peak times, and are also affected by the type of vegetation cover and soil moisture. The underlying physical foundation of this algorithm is that the diurnal cycle of temperature can be viewed as a composite of a daily average, diurnal periodic component, and random aperiodic component (noise). With the assumption that the noise can be ignored, the daily average can be inferred from satellite twice-per-day measurements and the periodic part can be obtained from modeled climatologies, providing a reasonable approach for estimation of the diurnal cycle of skin temperature. The general framework of the algorithm and its application for the clear-sky (cloud free) conditions are presented. This cloud-free version of algorithm is evaluated using FIFE and BOREAS field experiment surface observations. Regional tests over the Mississippi River basin have also been conducted using GOES-8

  15. Simulations of polarization dependent contrast during the diurnal heating cycle for passive millimeter-wave imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John P.; Murakowski, Maciej; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2013-09-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) sensors are especially suited to persistent surveillance applications due to their ability to operate during day/night conditions and through transient atmospheric obscurants such as clouds, rain and fog. The contrast of targets will change throughout a diurnal heating cycle and this change will be polarization dependent. Simulations are presented from a ray tracing program developed for the mmW regime that has been modified to account for polarization information. Results are shown demonstrating periods during the day when the contrast of certain targets drop to zero for a linear polarization state while the orthogonal state still maintains a high contrast.

  16. Diurnal Cycle of Convection and Interaction with the Large-Scale Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salby, Murry

    2002-01-01

    The science in this effort was scheduled in the project's 3rd and 4th years, after a long record of high-resolution Global Cloud Imagery (GCI) had been produced. Unfortunately, political disruptions that interfered with this project led to its funding being terminated after only two years of support. Nevertheless, the availability of intermediate data opened the door to a number of important scientific studies. Beyond considerations of the diurnal cycle addressed in this grant, the GCI wakes possible a wide range of studies surrounding convection, cloud and precipitation. Several are already underway with colleagues in the US and abroad, who have requested the GCI.

  17. Technical Note: Glacial influence in tropical mountain hydrosystems evidenced by the diurnal cycle in water levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauvy-Fraunié, S.; Condom, T.; Rabatel, A.; Villacis, M.; Jacobsen, D.; Dangles, O.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide, the rapid shrinking of glaciers in response to ongoing climate change is modifying the glacial meltwater contribution to hydrosystems in glacierized catchments. Determining the influence of glacial runoff to streams is therefore of critical importance to evaluate potential impact of glacier retreat on water quality and aquatic biota. This task has challenged both glacier hydrologists and ecologists over the last 20 yr due to both structural and functional complexity of the glacier-stream system interface. Here we propose quantifying the diurnal cycle amplitude of the streamflow to determine the glacial influence in glacierized catchments. We performed water-level measurements using water pressure loggers over 10 months at 30 min time steps in 15 stream sites in 2 glacier-fed catchments in the Ecuadorian Andes (> 4000 m a.s.l.) where no perennial snow cover is observed outside the glaciers. For each stream site, we performed wavelet analyses on water-level time series, determined the scale-averaged wavelet power spectrum at 24 h scale and defined three metrics, namely the power, frequency and temporal clustering of the diurnal flow variation. The three metrics were then compared to the percentage of the glacier cover in the catchments, a metric of glacial influence widely used in the literature. As expected, we found that the diurnal variation power of glacier-fed streams decreased downstream with the addition of non-glacial tributaries. We also found that the diurnal variation power and the percentage of the glacier cover in the catchment were significantly positively correlated. Furthermore, we found that our method permits the detection of glacial signal in supposedly non-glacial sites, thereby revealing glacial meltwater resurgence. While we specifically focused on the tropical Andes in this paper, our approach to determine glacial influence may have potential applications in temperate and arctic glacierized catchments. The measure of diurnal water

  18. On the modeling of atmospheric pollutant dispersion during a diurnal cycle: A finite element study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, Roseane A. S.; Duda, Fernando P.; Pimentel, Luiz Cláudio G.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a numerical model to study pollutant dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The model accounts for the mechanisms of advection by the mean wind in the horizontal direction, turbulent diffusion in the vertical direction to ground surface, dry deposition, and radioactive decay. More importantly, the model is capable of accounting for the evolution of the ABL structure over a diurnal cycle by considering parameterizations for the wind-speed and eddy-diffusivity profiles that depend on the atmospheric stability condition, which in turn undergoes dramatic changes throughout the day. To solve the resulting advection-diffusion equation, we propose a numerical method based on a stabilized finite element formulation. After validating the numerical model by simulating classical experiments and comparing its predictions with those available in literature, we study the dispersion of a pollutant during a full diurnal ABL cycle with the meteorological parameters generated by AERMET for a 24-h period on a 1-h basis.

  19. Diurnal cycle of greenhouse gases and biogenic hydrocarbons during summer near Cool, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, B. A.; Floerchinger, C.; Knighton, W. B.; Dubey, M. K.; Herndon, S. C.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Shaw, W. J.; Barnard, J.; Laulainen, N.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis by forests is a large sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and also a large source of biogenic volatile organics (VOCs) that produce aerosols, nucleate clouds, and interact with nitrogen oxides (NOx) to produce ozone. To elucidate these complex biogeochemical mechanisms, we performed continuous high temporal resolution measurements of CO2, VOC, trace gases, and aerosol in June 2010 at the T1 site, 70 km from Sacramento, CA, during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010. Throughout the month we find that diurnal profiles exhibit minima in CO2 and maxima in isoprene during daytime. Both their amplitudes are modulated strongly by cloud cover consistent with a common photosynthetic mechanism. In contrast, we find that diurnal monoterpene profiles peak at night while CO2 is at its maxima. Their amplitudes are modulated by temperature and boundary layer height. The monoterpenes and CO2 cycle show larger increases at warmer temperatures, suggesting respiration as a common driver. Additional measurements of CH4, CO, benzene, toluene, NO, NOy and O3 are used to define biogeochemical cycling of greenhouse gases and are demonstrated as a baseline for separating anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and observing transport of greenhouse gases and air pollution.

  20. Discovery of a widespread low-latitude diurnal CO2 frost cycle on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, Sylvain; Kleinböhl, Armin; Hayne, Paul O.; Heavens, Nicholas G.; Kass, David M.; McCleese, Daniel J.; Schofield, John T.; Shirley, James H.

    2016-07-01

    While the detection of CO2 ice has only been reported outside the Martian polar regions at very high elevation (i.e., Elysium, Olympus Mons, and the Tharsis Montes), nighttime surface observations by the Mars Climate Sounder on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter document the widespread occurrence of atmospherically corrected ground temperatures consistent with the presence of extensive carbon dioxide frost deposits in the dusty low thermal inertia units at middle/low latitudes. Thermal infrared emissivities, interpreted in conjunction with mass balance modeling, suggest micrometer size CO2 ice crystals forming optically thin layers never exceeding a few hundreds of microns in thickness (i.e., 10-2 kg m-2) locally, which is insufficient to generate a measurable diurnal pressure cycle (<<0.1% of the Martian atmosphere). Atmospheric temperatures at middle/low latitudes are not consistent with precipitation of CO2 ice, suggesting that condensation occurs on the surface. The recurring growth and sublimation of CO2 ice on Martian dusty terrains may be an important process preventing soil induration and promoting dynamic phenomena (soil avalanching and fluidization and regolith gardening), maintaining a reservoir of micrometer size dust particles that are mobile and available for lifting. The discovery of this diurnal CO2 cycle represents an important step forward in our understanding of the way the Martian atmosphere interacts with the surface.

  1. Analysis of mRNA translation states in Arabidopsis over the diurnal cycle by polysome microarray.

    PubMed

    Missra, Anamika; von Arnim, Albrecht G

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulation at the level of translation occurs in response to environmental perturbation and is increasingly recognized as a factor affecting plant development. Despite extensive knowledge of transcriptional control, very little is known about translational regulation of genes in response to the daily light/dark cycles. Here we describe the experimental layout designed to address how the translation states of genes change at various times during a diurnal cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We have adopted a strategy combining sucrose-gradient profiling of ribosomes and high-throughput microarray analysis of the ribosome-associated mRNA to investigate the translational landscape of the Arabidopsis genome. This is a powerful technique that can be easily extended to study translation regulation in different genetic backgrounds and under various environmental conditions.

  2. The diurnal cycle of rainfall over New Guinea in convection-permitting WRF simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassim, M. E. E.; Lane, T. P.; Grabowski, W. W.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the diurnal cycle of rainfall over New Guinea using a series of convection-permitting numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We focus our simulations on a period of suppressed regional-scale conditions (February 2010) during which local diurnal forcings are maximised. Additionally, we focus our study on the occurrence and dynamics of offshore-propagating convective systems that contribute to the observed early-morning rainfall maximum north-east of New Guinea.

    In general, modelled diurnal precipitation shows good agreement with satellite-observed rainfall, albeit with some timing and intensity differences. The simulations also reproduce the occurrence and variability of overnight convection that propagate offshore as organised squall lines north-east of New Guinea. The occurrence of these offshore systems is largely controlled by background conditions. Days with offshore-propagating convection have more middle tropospheric moisture, larger convective available potential energy, and greater low-level moisture convergence. Convection has similar characteristics over the terrain on days with and without offshore propagation.

    The offshore-propagating convection manifests via a multi-stage evolutionary process. First, scattered convection over land, which is remnant of the daytime maximum, moves towards the coast and becomes reorganised near the region of coastal convergence associated with the land breeze. The convection then moves offshore in the form of a squall line at ˜ 5 ms-1. In addition, cool anomalies associated with gravity waves generated by precipitating land convection propagate offshore at a dry hydrostatic gravity wave speed (of ˜ 15 ms-1) and act to destabilise the coastal/offshore environment prior to the arrival of the squall line. Although the gravity

  3. A one-year study of the diurnal cycle of meteorology, clouds and radiation in the West African Sahel region

    DOE PAGES

    Collow, Allison B.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2015-09-09

    Here, the diurnal cycles of meteorological and radiation variables are analysed during the wet and dry seasons over the Sahel region of West Africa during 2006 using surface data collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programme's Mobile Facility, satellite radiation measurements from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument aboard Meteosat 8, and reanalysis products from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The meteorological analysis builds upon past studies of the diurnal cycle in the region by incorporating diurnal cycles of lower tropospheric wind profiles, thermodynamic profiles, integrated water vapour and liquid water measurements, and cloud radar measurementsmore » of frequency and location. These meteorological measurements are complemented by 3 h measurements of the diurnal cycles of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface short-wave (SW) and long-wave (LW) radiative fluxes and cloud radiative effects (CREs), and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (RFD) and atmospheric CREs. Cirrus cloudiness during the dry season is shown to peak in coverage in the afternoon, while convective clouds during the wet season are shown to peak near dawn and have an afternoon minimum related to the rise of the lifting condensation level into the Saharan Air Layer. The LW and SW RFDs and CREs exhibit diurnal cycles during both seasons, but there is a relatively small difference in the LW cycles during the two seasons (10 – 30 W m–2 depending on the variable and time of day). Small differences in the TOA CREs during the two seasons are overwhelmed by large differences in the surface SW CREs, which exceed 100 W m–2. A significant surface SW CRE during the wet season combined with a negligible TOA SW CRE produces a diurnal cycle in the atmospheric CRE that is modulated primarily by the SW surface CRE, peaks at midday at ~150 W m–2, and varies widely from day to day.« less

  4. A one-year study of the diurnal cycle of meteorology, clouds and radiation in the West African Sahel region

    SciTech Connect

    Collow, Allison B.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

    2015-09-09

    Here, the diurnal cycles of meteorological and radiation variables are analysed during the wet and dry seasons over the Sahel region of West Africa during 2006 using surface data collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programme's Mobile Facility, satellite radiation measurements from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument aboard Meteosat 8, and reanalysis products from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The meteorological analysis builds upon past studies of the diurnal cycle in the region by incorporating diurnal cycles of lower tropospheric wind profiles, thermodynamic profiles, integrated water vapour and liquid water measurements, and cloud radar measurements of frequency and location. These meteorological measurements are complemented by 3 h measurements of the diurnal cycles of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface short-wave (SW) and long-wave (LW) radiative fluxes and cloud radiative effects (CREs), and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (RFD) and atmospheric CREs. Cirrus cloudiness during the dry season is shown to peak in coverage in the afternoon, while convective clouds during the wet season are shown to peak near dawn and have an afternoon minimum related to the rise of the lifting condensation level into the Saharan Air Layer. The LW and SW RFDs and CREs exhibit diurnal cycles during both seasons, but there is a relatively small difference in the LW cycles during the two seasons (10 – 30 W m–2 depending on the variable and time of day). Small differences in the TOA CREs during the two seasons are overwhelmed by large differences in the surface SW CREs, which exceed 100 W m–2. A significant surface SW CRE during the wet season combined with a negligible TOA SW CRE produces a diurnal cycle in the atmospheric CRE that is modulated primarily by the SW surface CRE, peaks at midday at ~150 W m–2, and varies widely from day to day.

  5. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and geomagnetic Sq-variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, G.; Ruzhin, Y.

    Statistic analyses demonstrate that the probability of earthquake occurrence in many earthquake regions strongly depends on the time of day, that is on Local Time (e.g. Conrad, 1909, 1932; Shimshoni, 1971; Duma, 1997; Duma and Vilardo, 1998). This also applies to strong earthquake activity. Moreover, recent observations reveal an involvement of the regular diurnal variations of the Earth's magnetic field, commonly known as Sq-variations, in this geodynamic process of changing earthquake activity with the time of day (Duma, 1996, 1999). In the article it is attempted to quantify the forces which result from the interaction between the induced Sq-variation currents in the Earth's lithosphere and the regional Earth's magnetic field, in order to assess the influence on the tectonic stress field and on seismic activity. A reliable model is obtained, which indicates a high energy involved in this process. The effect of Sq-induction is compared with the results of the large scale electromagnetic experiment "Khibiny" (Velikhov, 1989), where a giant artificial current loop was activated in the Barents Sea.

  6. Studying the Diurnal Cycle of Convection Using a TRMM-Calibrated Infrared Rain Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a satellite infrared (IR) technique for estimating convective and stratiform rainfall and its application in studying the diurnal variability of rainfall on a global scale is presented. The Convective-Stratiform Technique (CST), calibrated by coincident, physically retrieved rain rates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), is applied over the global tropics. The technique makes use of the IR data from the TRMM Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) before application to global geosynchronous satellite data. The calibrated CST technique has the advantages of high spatial resolution (4 km), filtering of nonraining cirrus clouds, and the stratification of the rainfall into its convective and stratiform components, the last being important for the calculation of vertical profiles of latent heating. The diurnal cycle of rainfall, as well as the division between convective and Stratiform rainfall will be presented. The technique is validated using available data sets and compared to other global rainfall products such as Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) IR product, calibrated with TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data. Results from five years of PR data will show the global-tropical partitioning of convective and stratiform rainfall.

  7. Studying the Diurnal Cycle of Convection Using a TRMM-Calibrated Infrared Rain Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Manyin, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The development of a satellite infrared (IR) technique for estimating convective and stratiform rainfall and its application in studying the diurnal variability of rainfall on a global scale is presented. The Convective-Stratiform Technique (CST), calibrated by coincident, physically retrieved rain rates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), is applied over the global tropics. The technique makes use of the IR data from the TRMM Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) before application to global geosynchronous satellite data. The calibrated CST technique has the advantages of high spatial resolution (4 km), filtering of non-raining cirrus clouds, and the stratification of the rainfall into its convective and stratiform components, the last being important for the calculation of vertical profiles of latent heating. The diurnal cycle of rainfall, as well as the division between convective and stratiform rainfall will be presented. The technique is validated using available data sets and compared to other global rainfall products such as Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) IR product, calibrated with TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data. Results from five years of PR data will show the global-tropical partitioning of convective and stratiform rainfall.

  8. Convective Cloud and Rainfall Processes Over the Maritime Continent: Simulation and Analysis of the Diurnal Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.

    The Maritime Continent experiences strong moist convection, which produces significant rainfall and drives large fluxes of heat and moisture to the upper troposphere. Despite the importance of these processes to global circulations, current predictions of climate change over this region are still highly uncertain, largely due to inadequate representation of the diurnally-varying processes related to convection. In this work, a coupled numerical model of the land-atmosphere system (RegCM3-IBIS) is used to investigate how more physically-realistic representations of these processes can be incorporated into large-scale climate models. In particular, this work improves simulations of convective-radiative feedbacks and the role of cumulus clouds in mediating the diurnal cycle of rainfall. Three key contributions are made to the development of RegCM3-IBIS. Two pieces of work relate directly to the formation and dissipation of convective clouds: a new representation of convective cloud cover, and a new parameterization of convective rainfall production. These formulations only contain parameters that can be directly quantified from observational data, are independent of model user choices such as domain size or resolution, and explicitly account for subgrid variability in cloud water content and nonlinearities in rainfall production. The third key piece of work introduces a new method for representation of cloud formation within the boundary layer. A comprehensive evaluation of the improved model was undertaken using a range of satellite-derived and ground-based datasets, including a new dataset from Singapore's Changi airport that documents diurnal variation of the local boundary layer height. The performance of RegCM3-IBIS with the new formulations is greatly improved across all evaluation metrics, including cloud cover, cloud liquid water, radiative fluxes and rainfall, indicating consistent improvement in physical realism throughout the simulation. This work

  9. The semi-diurnal cycle of dissipation in a ROFI: model-measurement comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John H.; Burchard, Hans; Fisher, Neil R.; Rippeth, Tom P.

    2002-07-01

    The Liverpool Bay Region of Freshwater Influence in the Irish Sea exhibits strong horizontal gradients which interact with the dominant tidal flow. A 25 h series of measurements of the cycle of turbulent dissipation with the FLY dissipation profiler shows a strong asymmetry between ebb and flood which is associated with a cycle of increasing stratification on the ebb and progressive mixing on the flood which results in vertical homogeneity as high water is approached. At this time strong dissipation extends throughout the water column in contrast to the ebb when there is a near shutdown of dissipation in the upper half of the column. The cycle of stratification and dissipation is closely consistent for the two semi-diurnal tidal cycles observed. We have attempted to simulate this situation, which involves a complex suite of processes including tidal straining and mixing, using a version of the k-ɛ closure scheme in a 1-d dynamical model which is forced by a combination of the observed tidal flow and horizontal temperature and salinity gradients. The latter were measured directly at the end of the observational series but, in order to focus on the cycle of dissipation, the correct reproduction of the temperature and salinity cycle can be assured by a nudging procedure which obliges the model temperature and salinity values to track the observations. With or without this procedure, the model gives a reasonable account of the dissipation and its asymmetric behaviour on ebb and flood although nudging improves the timing of peak dissipation in the upper part of the water column near highwater. The model has also been used to examine the ratio of shear production (P/ɛ) and buoyancy inputs to dissipation (B/ɛ). The variation of these quantities over the tidal cycle confirms the important role of convective motions forced by tidal straining near the end of the flood phase of the tide.

  10. Keeping the clock set under the midnight sun: diurnal periodicity and synchrony of avian Isospora parasites cycle in the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Dolnik, Olga V; Metzger, Benjamin J; Loonen, Maarten J J E

    2011-08-01

    For Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) parasites of passerine birds, diurnal periodicity of oocyst output is a well-described phenomenon. From the temporal zone to the tropics, oocyst production is correlated with the light-dark cycle, peaking in the afternoon hours. However, nothing is known about the existence of diurnal periodicity of these parasites in the birds of High Arctic environments, under permanent light during summer. We sampled free-ranging Snow Bunting (Aves: Passeriformes), on Svalbard in summer and tested oocysts output of Isospora plectrophenaxia. Here we show that under the permanent light conditions of Arctic summer in the wild, Isospora plectrophenaxia, a parasite of the Snow Bunting, still keeps the 24-h rhythm of oocyst output with the peak in the post-meridiem hours, despite the absence of diurnal periodicity in host's activity. Our findings prove the ability of avian Isospora to invoke alternative cues for synchronizing the circadian rhythms. Possible cues and adaptive significance of diurnal periodicity of parasite output in High Arctic are discussed. The maintenance of synchronization and timing of the parasite life-cycle stages is under positive selection pressure even in permanent daylight in the Arctic. PMID:21756419

  11. Diurnal Cycle of Convection and Interaction with the Large-Scale Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salby, Murry L.

    2002-01-01

    The science in this effort was scheduled in the project's third and fourth years, after a long record of high-resolution Global Cloud Imagery (GCI) had been produced. Unfortunately, political disruptions that interfered with this project led to its funding being terminated after only two years of support. Nevertheless, the availability of intermediate data opened the door to a number of important scientific studies. Beyond considerations of the diurnal cycle addressed in this grant, the GCI makes possible a wide range of studies surrounding convection, cloud, and precipitation. Several are already underway with colleagues in the US and abroad, including global cloud simulations, a global precipitation product, global precipitation simulations, upper tropospheric humidity, asynoptic sampling studies, convective organization studies, equatorial wave simulations, and the tropical tropopause.

  12. On the Sensitivity of the Diurnal Cycle in the Amazon to Convective Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itterly, Kyle; Taylor, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This presentation uses publicly available CERES and radiosonde data to investigate the sensitivity of thetropical convective diurnal cycle to atmosphere state. Averaging surface observations into regimes of convective intensitydefined by satellite shows great promise for physical understandingof convection.• Convective processes in the Amazon are highly variable seasonallyand locally.• Buoyancy/CIN more important JJA– Mesoscale/synoptic features easier to separate– Length/depth of buoyancy layer very important in DJF (EL).• Moisture more important DJF, esp. UTH– Humidity of lower atmosphere significantly impacts LTS, LCL and abilityfor parcels to reach LFC.• Lower level jet strength/direction important• Convective initiation correlated with LTS, LR, LTH, EL• Duration/Phase better correlated with humidity variables• Surface Flux amplitude well correlated with convection

  13. Resolving the diurnal cycle in satellite derived sea surface temperatures and its significance on surface heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, R. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Marine surface heat fluxes across the globe need to be resolved on a smaller time scale in order to determine how changes in their diurnal cycle contribute to surface turbulent fluxes. In order to do this, the sea surface temperatures used to calculate the fluxes also need to accurately represent diurnal changes. Since most satellite derived sea surface temperature products are time-averaged and smoothed so that intradiurnal variations are neglected, and insitu measurements are scarce in global spatial coverage, modeling of the diurnal cycle of SSTs becomes necessary. A bulk flux model, POSH (Gentemann et al. 2009), will be used to calculate a global field of diurnally varying sea surface temperatures (dSSTs) over the course of 2 months in two different annual seasons, winter and summer. As the model produces a dSST field, surface turbulent heat fluxes are calculated using the Bourassa (2006) flux model. In order to compute fluxes, bulk atmospheric variables are taken from the MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) reanalysis dataset. Sea surface temperatures are obtained from the AVHRR-only Reynolds Daily OI Sea Surface Temperature product (Reynolds et al. 2007). The Reynolds SST is bias-corrected relative to a 7-day in-situ SST so therefore it does not resolve the diurnal cycle itself. The Reynolds SST product will serve as a foundation temperature, or the temperature that is independent from the effects of diurnal heating (Donolan et al. 2007), of which the amplitude of the diurnal heating will be added to. Finally, 2-monthly average differences in dSSTs versus Daily OI SSTs and uncertainties in the biases will be compared. From these statistics, climactic and modeling significance of the inclusion of diurnal heating can be evaluated. We find that latent heat fluxes in the tropics are increased by roughly 10 Wm-2 when the diurnal variability is considered (Fig. 1). This change in flux decreases poleward. The tropical changes are

  14. Hydrogen Cycle in a Megacity: Diurnal Variation, Holiday Effect and Source Fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M. K.; Rahn, T. A.; Olsen, S.; Mazzoleni, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-05-01

    Mexico City with a population of 25 million, the largest mega-city in North America, provides a testing ground for regional and global impacts on air quality and climate of increasing urbanization. To help understand the biogeochemistry of Mexico City a comprehensive international multi-agency Megacity Initiative: Impact on Regional and Global Environment (MILAGRO) field campaign was conducted in March 2006. We report diurnal and weekly observations of molecular hydrogen, CO, and CO2 in Mexico City. A regular diurnal profile with peak concentrations of hydrogen in early morning caused by the high traffic and shallow boundary layer was revealed. A record level of hydrogen of 5 ppm, a factor of 10 above background levels, was measured. We hypothesize that most of the hydrogen is coming from automobiles. However, we did observe emissions from other industrial or power plant sources. Analysis of the H2/CO, CO/CO2, and H2/CO2 ratios are developed as a chemical fingerprinting method to delineate these sources and relate them to combustion efficiency. We utilize H2/CO ratios to diagnose traffic patterns, for example the early morning H2/CO peak is attributed to sluggish rush our traffic. We also observe significantly (25%) lower hydrogen during the weekend holidays than workdays. Finally, regional scale modeling of the Mexico City hydrogen cycle is performed using the Weather Research Forecast: Chemistry (WRF-CHM) model at 1 km resolution. The model results are compared to our measurements to gain a quantitative understanding of hydrogen sources and sinks in Mexico City. Our findings are significant to the understanding of the global hydrogen cycle and developing an urban baseline for hydrogen to assess potential perturbations to it from transitioning to a hydrogen economy.

  15. The Hydrogen Cycle in a Megacity: Diurnal Variation, Holiday Effect and Source Fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M. K.; Rahn, T. A.; Olsen, S.; Mazzoleni, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Mexico City with a population of 25 million, the largest mega-city in North America, provides a testing ground for regional and global impacts on air quality and climate of increasing urbanization. To help understand the biogeochemistry of Mexico City a comprehensive international multi-agency Megacity Initiative: Impact on Regional and Global Environment (MILAGRO) field campaign was conducted in March 2006. We report diurnal and weekly observations of molecular hydrogen, CO, and CO2 in Mexico City. A regular diurnal profile with peak concentrations of hydrogen in early morning caused by the high traffic and shallow boundary layer was revealed. A record level of hydrogen of 5 ppm, a factor of 10 above background, was measured. We hypothesize that most of the hydrogen is coming from automobiles; however, we did observe emissions from other industrial or power plant sources. Analysis of the H2/CO, CO/CO2, and H2/CO2 ratios are developed as a chemical fingerprinting method to delineate these sources and relate them to combustion efficiency. We also utilize H2/CO ratios to diagnose traffic patterns. For example, the early morning H2/CO peak is attributed to sluggish rush our traffic. Furthermore we observe significantly lower hydrogen during the weekend holidays than workdays. Finally, regional scale modeling of the Mexico City hydrogen cycle is performed using the Weather Research Forecast: Chemistry (WRF-CHM) model at 3 km resolution. The model results are compared to our measurements to gain a quantitative understanding of hydrogen sources and sinks in Mexico City. Our findings are significant to the understanding of the global hydrogen cycle and developing an urban baseline for hydrogen to assess potential perturbations to it from transitioning to a hydrogen economy.

  16. Productivity Estimation of Hypersaline Microbial Mat Communities - Diurnal Cycles of Dissolved Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Less, G.; Cohen, Y.; Luz, B.; Lazar, B.

    2002-05-01

    Hypersaline microbial mat communities (MMC) are the modern equivalents of the Archean stromatolities, the first photosynthetic organisms on Earth. An estimate of their oxygen production rate is important to the understanding of oxygen evolution on Earth ca. 2 b.y.b.p. Here we use the diurnal cycle of dissolved oxygen, O2/Ar ratio and the isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen to calculate net and gross primary productivity of MMC growing in a large scale (80 m2) experimental pan. The pan is inoculated with MMC taken from the Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt and filled with 90\\permil evaporated Red Sea water brine up to a depth of ca. 0.25 m. It is equipped with computerized flow through system that is programmed to pump pan water at selected time intervals into a sampling cell fitted with dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity and temperature sensors connected to a datalogger. Manual brine samples were taken for calibrating the sensors, mass spectrometric analyses and for measurements of additional relevant parameters. Dissolved oxygen concentrations fluctuate during the diurnal cycle being highly supersaturated except for the end of the night. The O2 curve varies seasonally and has a typical "shark fin" shape due to the MMC metabolic response to the shape of the diurnal light curve. The dissolved oxygen data were fitted to a smooth curve that its time derivative (dO2 /dt) is defined as: Z dO2 /dt=GP-R-k(O2(meas)- O2(sat)) where z is the depth (m); GP and R are the MMC gross production and respiration (mol m-2 d-1), respectively; k is the gas exchange coefficient (m d-1); O2(meas) and O2(sat) (mol L-1) are the measured and equilibrium dissolved oxygen concentrations, respectively. The high resolution sampling of the automated system produces O2 curves that enable the calculation of smooth and reliable time derivatives. The calculations yield net production values that vary between 1,000 10-6 to -100 10-6 mol O2 m-2 h-1 and day respiration rates between 60 10-6 to 30 10

  17. How do changes in the Diurnal Cycle affect Bi-stability and Climate Sensitivity in the Habitable Zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, R.; Valerio, L.

    2013-09-01

    In this study we deal with the effect of varying the length of the diurnal cycle on its bi-stability properties. By using a general circulation model, PlaSim, we consider several values for the diurnal cycle, from tidally locked, to that of 1 Earth day. For each value of the diurnal cycle, we slowly modulate the solar constant between 1510 and 1000 Wm-2 and perform a hysteresis experiment. It is found that the width of the bi-stable region, i.e. the range of climate states - determined here by changes in S* - which support two climatic attractors, reduces when the diurnal cycle is increased in length and disappears - signifying the merging of both attractors - for climates with a diurnal cycle greater than 180 days. Crucial to the loss of bi-stability is the longitudinally asymmetric distribution of solar radiation, incident on the planet's surface, leading to the development of equatorial sea-ice. For diurnal cycles where bi-stability is found, the longitudinally asymmetric heating is sufficiently compensated for by the strength of the zonal winds and the rate of solar distribution, which redistribute heat and maintain the meridional temperature gradient across all longitudes. Conversely, for mono-stable regimes, the energy transport associated with zonal winds becomes insufficient to compensate for the increase in the length of the diurnal cycle, resulting in large zonal temperature gradients along the equatorial band. Furthermore, the results found here confirm and reenforce the robustness of those found in Boschi et al (2013), showing that, for climates which support bistability, it may be possible to parameterise variables such as the material entropy production and the meridional heat transport in terms of the surface and emission temperatures, within reasonably well defined upper and lower bounds, even when considering a wide range of planetary rotation speeds and changes to the infrared opacity. This paves the way for the possibility of practically deducing

  18. Diurnal Cycle of Oxygen and Sulfide Microgradients and Microbial Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterial Mat Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Bo B.; Revsbech, Niels P.; Blackburn, T. Henry; Cohen, Yehuda

    1979-01-01

    The diurnal variation in the microgradients of O2, H2S, and Eh were studied in the benthic cyanobacterial mats of a hypersaline desert lake (Solar Lake, Sinai). The results were related to light intensity, light penetration into the mat, temperature, pH, NH4+, photosynthetic activity, pigments, and the zonation of the microbial community. Extreme diurnal variation was found, with an O2 peak of 0.5 mM at 1 to 2 mm of depth below the mat surface during day and a H2S peak of 2.5 mM at 2 to 3 mm of depth at night. At the O2-H2S interface, the two compounds coexisted over a depth interval of 0.2 to 1 mm and with a turnover time of a few minutes. The photic zone reached 2.5 mm into the mat in summer, and the main 14CO2 light fixation took place at 1 to 2 mm of depth. During winter, light and photosynthesis were restricted to the uppermost 1 mm. The quantitative dynamics of O2 and H2S were calculated from the chemical gradients and from the measured diffusion coefficients. PMID:16345415

  19. Modeling diurnal land temperature cycles over Los Angeles using downscaled GOES imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Qihao; Fu, Peng

    2014-11-01

    Land surface temperature is a key parameter for monitoring urban heat islands, assessing heat related risks, and estimating building energy consumption. These environmental issues are characterized by high temporal variability. A possible solution from the remote sensing perspective is to utilize geostationary satellites images, for instance, images from Geostationary Operational Environmental System (GOES) and Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). These satellite systems, however, with coarse spatial but high temporal resolution (sub-hourly imagery at 3-10 km resolution), often limit their usage to meteorological forecasting and global climate modeling. Therefore, how to develop efficient and effective methods to disaggregate these coarse resolution images to a proper scale suitable for regional and local studies need be explored. In this study, we propose a least square support vector machine (LSSVM) method to achieve the goal of downscaling of GOES image data to half-hourly 1-km LSTs by fusing it with MODIS data products and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data. The result of downscaling suggests that the proposed method successfully disaggregated GOES images to half-hourly 1-km LSTs with accuracy of approximately 2.5 K when validated against with MODIS LSTs at the same over-passing time. The synthetic LST datasets were further explored for monitoring of surface urban heat island (UHI) in the Los Angeles region by extracting key diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) parameters. It is found that the datasets and DTC derived parameters were more suitable for monitoring of daytime- other than nighttime-UHI. With the downscaled GOES 1-km LSTs, the diurnal temperature variations can well be characterized. An accuracy of about 2.5 K was achieved in terms of the fitted results at both 1 km and 5 km resolutions.

  20. Diurnal and seasonal cycles of ozone precursors observed from continuous measurement at an urban site in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kuang-Ling; Ting, Chien-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wingenter, Oliver W.; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    Hourly measurement of 56 ozone precursors was conducted by a monitoring station located in a metropolitan area in central Taiwan. After nearly a year of continuous operation at this urban site, both diurnal and seasonal cycles of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were clearly observed, which were caused by the interplay between source, chemical loss, and meteorology. Selected species representing three different types of major sources, namely, the household fuel leakage, vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation, as well as biogenic emissions exhibit dramatic diurnal or seasonal cycles with each displaying its own unique characteristics. Ethane and propane, largely originated from leakage of natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), showed concentrations elevating throughout the night and early morning, but began to decrease toward noon as the nocturnal temperature inversion elevated. Because of the lower chemical reactivity and somewhat more constant emissions than other measured target compounds, their diurnal cycles were presumably the direct reflection of the mixing height over the metropolitan area. For compounds originating from vehicular plus evaporative emissions such as benzene, which accounts for most of the monitored compounds, their diurnal cycles were also largely controlled by the variation in the height of temperature inversion. Of all the 56 species monitored, isoprene, an abundant biogenic species largely released by plants, showed distinct diurnal and seasonal cycles different from the other measured NMHCs. Its concentration usually peaked at noon in summer and fell when temperature and solar radiation reached their maximum levels, demonstrating the close relationship of isoprene with photosynthesis. Seasonal variation was also clearly observed for the other NMHCs quantified. With the exception of isoprene, most species show higher average concentration in winter and lower average concentration in summer with the fall values being the

  1. Diurnal and seasonal cycles of ozone precursors observed from continuous measurement at an urban site in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kuang-Ling; Ting, Chien-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wingenter, Oliver W.; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    Hourly measurement of 56 ozone precursors was conducted by a monitoring station located in a metropolitan area in central Taiwan. After nearly a year of continuous operation at this urban site, both diurnal and seasonal cycles of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were clearly observed, which was caused by the interplay between source, chemical loss, and meteorology. Selected species representing three different types of major sources namely the household fuel leakage, vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation, as well as biogenic emissions exhibit dramatic diurnal or seasonal cycles with each displaying its own unique characteristics. Ethane and propane, largely originated from leakage of natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), showed concentrations elevating throughout the night and early morning, but began to decrease towards noon as the nocturnal temperature inversion elevated. Because of the lower chemical reactivity and somewhat more constant emissions than other measured target compounds, their diurnal cycles were presumably the direct reflection of the mixing height over the metropolitan area. For compounds originating from vehicular plus evaporative emissions such as benzene, which accounts for most of the monitored compounds, their diurnal cycles were also largely controlled by the variation in the height of temperature inversion. Of all the 56 species monitored, isoprene, an abundant biogenic species largely released by plants, showed distinct diurnal and seasonal cycles different from the other measured NMHCs. Its concentration usually peaked at noon in summer and fall when temperature and solar radiation reached their maximum level, demonstrating the close relationship of isoprene with photosynthesis. Seasonal variation was also clearly observed for the other NMHCs quantified. With the exception of isoprene, most species show higher average concentration in winter and lower in summer with the fall values being the intermediate, which presumably

  2. The boreal springtime formation of the Somali Jet: dynamics of its seasonal evolution and diurnal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, E. E.; Cook, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    While the Somali Jet has been widely studied during the boreal summer months (JJAS), the early stages of the jet's formation in April and May are not as well documented or understood. Riddle and Cook (2008) noted that starting in mid-April, a strong southerly cross-equatorial jet is present at 925 hPa along the coast of East Africa. This preliminary stage in the development of the Somali Jet is distinct from the fully-formed Somali Jet in that 1) it is confined to a narrow region along the coast and 2) it consists solely of a meridional branch which terminates over the Horn of Africa. In this study, we examine the dynamics associated with the springtime jet's seasonal evolution and diurnal cycle using the NCEP II reanalysis and a high-resolution regional model simulation. A momentum budget analysis based on the NCEP II climatology shows that the cross-equatorial flow along the east African coast is governed by the large-scale pressure difference between northern and southern hemispheres over the Arabian Sea basin. This north-south pressure gradient becomes positive in early March and increases gradually throughout the boreal spring, primarily due to strong surface heating over the Asian landmass to the north, and cooling over southern Africa. However, the springtime coastal jet does not acquire a jet-like structure until mid-April when the zonal land/sea pressure gradient between the Indian Ocean and the African continent disappears, eliminating the previously strong zonal (onshore) component to the flow. The zonal branch of the Somali jet forms over the Arabian Sea in June, when depressions over India and Africa merge to form the zonal monsoon trough. The timing of the zonal branch formation is coincident with the onset of the Indian monsoon. The diurnal cycle of the springtime Somali Jet is examined using a high resolution regional climate model and found to be controlled primarily by day/night changes in surface friction. This study provides a physical

  3. Diurnal cycles control the fate of contaminants at an Andean river confluence impacted by legacy mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten, P.; Guerra, P. A.; Simonson, K.; Bonilla, C.; Pizarro, G. E.; Escauriaza, C. R.; González, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of hydrologic-geochemical interactions in arid environments is a controlling factor in quality and quantity of water available for human consumption and agriculture. When acid drainage affects these watersheds, water quality is gravely degraded. Despite its effect on watersheds, the relationship between time changes in hydrological variables and water quality in arid regions has not been studied thoroughly. Temporal variations in acid drainage can control when the transport of toxic elements is increased. We performed field work at the Azufre River (pH 2, E.C~10.9 mS/cm) and Caracarani River (pH 8.7, E.C~1.2 mS/cm) confluence, located in the Northern Chilean Altiplano (at 4000 m asl). We registered stream flowrates (total flowrate~430 L/s), temperature and electric conductivity (E.C) hourly using in-stream data loggers during one year. We also measured turbidity and pH during one field survey at different distances from the junction, as a proxy of the formation of iron-aluminum particles that cycle trace elements in these environments. We found turbidity-pH diurnal cycles were caused by upstream hourly changes in upstream flowrate: when the Caracarani River flowrate reached its daily peak, particle formation occurred, while the dissolution of particles occurred when the Azufre River reached its maximum value. This last process occurred due to upstream freeze-thaw cycles. This study shows how the dynamics of natural confluences determines chemical transport. The formation of particles enriched in toxic elements can promote settling as a natural attenuation process, while their dissolution will produce their release and transport long distances downstream. It is important to consider time as an important variable in water quality monitoring and in water management infrastructure where pulses of contamination can have potentially negative effects in its use. Acknowledgements: Funding was provided by "Proyecto Fondecyt 1130936" and "CONICYT

  4. SOLAR CYCLE DEPENDENCE OF THE DIURNAL ANISOTROPY OF 0.6 TeV COSMIC-RAY INTENSITY OBSERVED WITH THE MATSUSHIRO UNDERGROUND MUON DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, K.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Kato, C.; Yasue, S.; Mori, S.; Takita, M.; Kota, J.

    2010-04-01

    We analyze the temporal variation of the diurnal anisotropy of sub-TeV cosmic-ray intensity observed with the Matsushiro (Japan) underground muon detector over two full solar activity cycles in 1985-2008. We find an anisotropy component in the solar diurnal anisotropy superimposed on the Compton-Getting anisotropy due to Earth's orbital motion around the Sun. The phase of this additional anisotropy is almost constant at {approx}15:00 local solar time corresponding to the direction perpendicular to the average interplanetary magnetic field at Earth's orbit, while the amplitude varies between a maximum (0.043% +- 0.002%) and minimum ({approx}0.008% +- 0.002%) in a clear correlation with the solar activity. We find a significant time lag between the temporal variations of the amplitude and the sunspot number (SSN) and obtain the best correlation coefficient of +0.74 with the SSN delayed for 26 months. We suggest that this anisotropy might be interpreted in terms of the energy change due to the solar-wind-induced electric field expected for galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) crossing the wavy neutral sheet. The average amplitude of the sidereal diurnal variation over the entire period is 0.034% +- 0.003%, which is roughly one-third of the amplitude reported from air shower and deep-underground muon experiments monitoring multi-TeV GCR intensity suggesting a significant attenuation of the anisotropy due to the solar modulation. We find, on the other hand, only a weak positive correlation between the sidereal diurnal anisotropy and the solar activity cycle in which the amplitude in the 'active' solar activity epoch is about twice the amplitude in the 'quiet' solar activity epoch. This implies that only one-fourth of the total attenuation varies in correlation with the solar activity cycle and/or the solar magnetic cycle. We finally examine the temporal variation of the 'single-band valley depth' (SBVD) quoted by the Milagro experiment and, in contrast with recent Milagro

  5. New Seasonal Shift in In-Stream Diurnal Nitrate Cycles Identified by Mining High-Frequency Data.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Alice H; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of in-situ monitoring devices, such as UV-spectrometers, makes the study of short-term stream chemistry variation relevant, especially the study of diurnal cycles, which are not yet fully understood. Our study is based on high-frequency data from an agricultural catchment (Studienlandschaft Schwingbachtal, Germany). We propose a novel approach, i.e. the combination of cluster analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis, to mine from these data nitrate behavior patterns. As a result, we observe a seasonality of nitrate diurnal cycles, that differs from the most common cycle seasonality described in the literature, i.e. pre-dawn peaks in spring. Our cycles appear in summer and the maximum and minimum shift to a later time in late summer/autumn. This is observed both for water- and energy-limited years, thus potentially stressing the role of evapotranspiration. This concluding hypothesis on the role of evapotranspiration on nitrate stream concentration, which was obtained through data mining, broadens the perspective on the diurnal cycling of stream nitrate concentrations. PMID:27073838

  6. New Seasonal Shift in In-Stream Diurnal Nitrate Cycles Identified by Mining High-Frequency Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of in-situ monitoring devices, such as UV-spectrometers, makes the study of short-term stream chemistry variation relevant, especially the study of diurnal cycles, which are not yet fully understood. Our study is based on high-frequency data from an agricultural catchment (Studienlandschaft Schwingbachtal, Germany). We propose a novel approach, i.e. the combination of cluster analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis, to mine from these data nitrate behavior patterns. As a result, we observe a seasonality of nitrate diurnal cycles, that differs from the most common cycle seasonality described in the literature, i.e. pre-dawn peaks in spring. Our cycles appear in summer and the maximum and minimum shift to a later time in late summer/autumn. This is observed both for water- and energy-limited years, thus potentially stressing the role of evapotranspiration. This concluding hypothesis on the role of evapotranspiration on nitrate stream concentration, which was obtained through data mining, broadens the perspective on the diurnal cycling of stream nitrate concentrations. PMID:27073838

  7. Solar activity secular cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mordvinov, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term variations in solar activity secular cycles have been studied using a method for the expansion of reconstructed sunspot number series Sn( t) for 11400 years in terms of natural orthogonal functions. It has been established that three expansion components describe more than 98% of all Sn( t) variations. In this case, the contribution of the first expansion component is about 92%. The averaged form of the 88year secular cycle has been determined based on the form of the first expansion coordinate function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle have been revealed based on the time function conjugate to the first function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle coincide with those observed in the Sn( t) series spectrum. A change in the secular cycle form and the time variations in this form are described by the second and third expansion components, the contributions of which are about 4 and 2%, respectively. The variations in the steepness of the secular cycle branches are more pronounced in the 200-year cycle, and the secular cycle amplitude varies more evidently in the 2300-year cycle.

  8. Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, P.J.; Clayson, C.A.; Curry, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    In the tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Ocean, the clouds and the cloud-radiation feedback can only be understood in the context of air/sea interactions and the ocean mixed layer. Considerable interest has been shown in attempting to explain why sea surface temperature (SST) rarely rises above 30{degrees}C, and gradients of the SST. For the most part, observational studies that address this issue have been conducted using monthly cloud and SST data, and the focus has been on intraseasonal and interannual time scales. For the unstable tropical atmosphere, using monthly averaged data misses a key feedback between clouds and SST that occurs on the cloud-SST coupling time scale, which was estimated to be 3-6 days for the unstable tropical atmosphere. This time scale is the time needed for a change in cloud properties, due to the change of ocean surface evaporation caused by SST variation, to feed back to the SST variation, to feed back to the SST through its effect on the surface heat flux. This paper addresses the relationship between clouds, surface radiation flux and SST of the TWP ocean over the diurnal cycle.

  9. The diurnal water cycle at Curiosity: Role of exchange with the regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savijärvi, Hannu; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kemppinen, Osku

    2016-02-01

    Hourly temperatures T, relative humidities RH and mass mixing ratios of moisture q at 1.6 m derived from the Mars Science Laboratory REMS-H and REMS-P measurements are shown for MSL sols 15-17 (Curiosity at Bradbury) and 80-82 (Curiosity at Rocknest). They are compared to column model simulations with and without adsorption to porous regolith. The observed mixing ratio is small at night (10-30 ppmm). It increases rapidly to 50-80 ppmm after sunrise and decreases slowly during the evening. The model gives a good account of the observed T and, with adsorption and realistic precipitable water content (PWC), reproduces the diurnal cycles of both RH and q relatively well. The suggested regolith thermal inertia is 300 tiu and porosity 35-40% for both sites. According to the simulations moisture is adsorbed and diffused to the cooling regolith in the evening from the lowest very stable air layer. It is then desorbed in the morning from the rapidly warming regolith and mixed throughout the growing convective boundary layer. Estimates of PWC based on night-time near-surface moistures (assuming an even distribution with height) might therefore be on the low side in areas of porous adsorbing regolith.

  10. Inter-annual Variability of Biomass Burning Aerosol Optical Depth in Southern Amazonia, and the Impact of These Aerosols on the Diurnal Cycle of Solar Flux Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Artaxo, P.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Procopio, A. S.; Prins, E. M.; Feltz, J. M.; Smirnov, A.; Dubovik, O.; Reid, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    The inter-annual variability of the magnitude of biomass burning in southern Amazonia has been relatively large over the last decade. The extent of the burning in the latter half of a given dry season (July-October) depends largely on the rainfall amount and timing, with drought years exhibiting many more fires and smoke than average. Additionally, new regulations aimed at controlling burning may also affect inter-annual variability. We present measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from biomass burning smoke as measured by AERONET sites in Rondonia and Mato Grosso from 1993-2002. These AOD measurements are shown to follow similar inter-annual variability as the fire counts determined by the multi-spectral radiance measurements obtained with GOES-8. However, the AOD at these sites exhibit relatively little diurnal variation despite a very large diurnal cycle in satellite detected fire counts. In order to quantify the changes in the diurnal cycle of solar flux reduction as a result of aerosol attenuation at the peak of the burning season, we model the diurnal cycle of total shortwave (SW; 300-4000 nm), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), and Ultraviolet- A (UVA; 320-400 nm) fluxes in mid-September using the AERONET monthly average AOD measurements (AOD(550 nm) = 1.11). These average diurnal cycle flux reductions show significant temporal delays in the morning for equivalent flux levels in all three spectral bands, of ~50 min to 2 hr 15 min at mid-morning (midpoint between sunrise and solar noon). The largest time delays in flux occur in the UVA band and the smallest in the total SW broadband due to a rapid decrease in AOD as wavelength increases for the accumulation mode smoke aerosols. The time delays in solar flux have implications for possible delay of the onset of cumulus convection, the shortening of the photo-period when plants photosynthesize, and reduced time interval for UVA fluxes which may have implications for photochemical

  11. Diurnal rhythms of free estradiol and cortisol during the normal menstrual cycle in women with major depression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ai-Min; Ji, Yi-Fu; Van Someren, Eus J W; Hofman, Michel A; Liu, Rong-Yu; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2004-02-01

    To investigate whether depression is accompanied by changes in diurnal rhythms of free estradiol and cortisol in different phases of the menstrual cycle, we measured these two hormone levels in saliva samples collected every 2 h for 24 h from 15 healthy normally cycling women and 12 age-matched normally cycling women suffering from major depression taking antidepressants. The assessments were repeated four times over one menstrual cycle: during menstruation and in the late follicular/peri-ovulating, early to mid-luteal and late luteal phases, respectively. Quantification with a nonlinear periodic regression model revealed distinct diurnal rhythms in free estradiol and free cortisol in all subjects. For the diurnal cortisol rhythm, significant differences were found in the peak-width and ultradian amplitude among different menstrual phases, both in controls and depressed patients, while no significant differences were found between the two groups. The diurnal estradiol rhythm, on the other hand, was quite consistent among different menstrual phases within both groups, while the depressed patients had overall larger amplitudes than controls, which is negatively correlated with disease duration. Significant positive correlations between the two hormone rhythms were found for 24-h mean level (mesor), peak, and trough in late luteal phase, and for ultradian harmonics in early to mid-luteal phase in controls, but only for ultradian harmonics in late follicular/peri-ovulating phase and for acrophase in the menstruation phase in depressed patients. A sub-analysis was also performed in patients who received Fluoxetine (n = 7). The findings implicate a close correlation between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, both of which may be involved in depression.

  12. Satellite-based Assessment of Global Warm Cloud Properties Associated with Aerosols, Atmospheric Stability, and Diurnal Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Toshihisa; Masunaga, Hirohiko; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chin, Mian; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines variability in marine low cloud properties derived from semi-global observations by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, as linked to the aerosol index (AI) and lower-tropospheric stability (LTS). AI is derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (Terra MODIS) sensor and the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transportation (GOCART) model, and is used to represent column-integrated aerosol concentrations. LTS is derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and represents the background thermodynamic environment in which the clouds form. Global statistics reveal that cloud droplet size tends to be smallest in polluted (high-AI) and strong inversion (high-LTS) environments. Statistical quantification shows that cloud droplet size is better correlated with AI than it is with LTS. Simultaneously, the cloud liquid water path (CLWP) tends to decrease as AI increases. This correlation does not support the hypothesis or assumption that constant or increased CLWP is associated with high aerosol concentrations. Global variability in corrected cloud albedo (CCA), the product of cloud optical depth and cloud fraction, is very well explained by LTS, while both AI and LTS are needed to explain local variability in CCA. Most of the local correlations between AI and cloud properties are similar to the results from the global statistics, while weak anomalous aerosol-cloud correlations appear locally in the regions where simultaneous high (low) AI and low (high) LTS compensate each other. Daytime diurnal cycles explain additional variability in cloud properties. CCA has the largest diurnal cycle in high-LTS regions. Cloud droplet size and CLWP have weak diurnal cycles that differ between clean and polluted environments. The combined results suggest that investigations of marine low cloud radiative forcing and its relationship to hypothesized aerosol indirect effects must consider the combined effects of aerosols

  13. Interannual, seasonal and diurnal Mars surface environmental cycles observed from Viking to Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, German; Vicente-Retortillo, Álvaro; Kemppinen, Osku; Fischer, Erik; Fairen, Alberto G.; Guzewich, Scott David; Haberle, Robert; Lemmon, Mark T.; Newman, Claire E.; Renno, Nilton O.; Richardson, Mark I.; Smith, Michael D.; De la Torre, Manuel; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze in-situ environmental data from the Viking landers to the Curiosity rover to estimate atmospheric pressure, near-surface air and ground temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and dust opacity with the highest confidence possible. We study the interannual, seasonal and diurnal variability of these quantities at the various landing sites over a span of more than twenty Martian years to characterize the climate on Mars and its variability. Additionally, we characterize the radiative environment at the various landing sites by estimating the daily UV irradiation (also called insolation and defined as the total amount of solar UV energy received on flat surface during one sol) and by analyzing its interannual and seasonal variability.In this study we use measurements conducted by the Viking Meteorology Instrument System (VMIS) and Viking lander camera onboard the Viking landers (VL); the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology (ASIMET) package and the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) onboard the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) lander; the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and Pancam instruments onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER); the Meteorological Station (MET), Thermal Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) and Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) onboard the Phoenix (PHX) lander; and the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) and Mastcam instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover.A thorough analysis of in-situ environmental data from past and present missions is important to aid in the selection of the Mars 2020 landing site. We plan to extend our analysis of Mars surface environmental cycles by using upcoming data from the Temperature and Wind sensors (TWINS) instrument onboard the InSight mission and the Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) instrument onboard the Mars 2020 mission.

  14. The Antarctic Krill Euphausia superba Shows Diurnal Cycles of Transcription under Natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Albiero, Alessandro; Sales, Gabriele; Millino, Caterina; Mazzotta, Gabriella M.; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Costa, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Background Polar environments are characterized by extreme seasonal changes in day length, light intensity and spectrum, the extent of sea ice during the winter, and food availability. A key species of the Southern Ocean ecosystem, the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral mechanisms to adapt to daily and seasonal changes. The molecular organization of the clockwork underlying these biological rhythms is, nevertheless, still only partially understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome sequence of the Antarctic krill is not yet available. A normalized cDNA library was produced and pyrosequenced in the attempt to identify large numbers of transcripts. All available E. superba sequences were then assembled to create the most complete existing oligonucleotide microarray platform with a total of 32,217 probes. Gene expression signatures of specimens collected in the Ross Sea at five different time points over a 24-hour cycle were defined, and 1,308 genes differentially expressed were identified. Of the corresponding transcripts, 609 showed a significant sinusoidal expression pattern; about 40% of these exibithed a 24-hour periodicity while the other 60% was characterized by a shorter (about 12-hour) rhythm. We assigned the differentially expressed genes to functional categories and noticed that those concerning translation, proteolysis, energy and metabolic process, redox regulation, visual transduction and stress response, which are most likely related to daily environmental changes, were significantly enriched. Two transcripts of peroxiredoxin, thought to represent the ancestral timekeeping system that evolved about 2.5 billion years ago, were also identified as were two isoforms of the EsRh1 opsin and two novel arrestin1 sequences involved in the visual transduction cascade. Conclusions Our work represents the first characterization of the krill diurnal transcriptome under natural conditions and provides a first

  15. Measuring diurnal cycles of plant transpiration fluxes in the Arctic with an automated clear chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, L. R.; Raz Yaseef, N.; Curtis, J. B.; Rahn, T. A.; Young, J. M.; Newman, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    Evapotranspiration is an important greenhouse gas and a major component of the hydrological cycle, but methodological challenges still limit our knowledge of this flux. Measuring evapotranspiration is even more difficult when aiming to partition plant transpiration and soil evaporation. Information on this process for arctic systems is very limited. In order to decrease this gap, our objective was to directly measure plant transpiration in Barrow, Alaska (71.3°N 156.7°W). A commercial system allows measuring carbon soil respiration fluxes with an automated clear chamber connected to an infrared gas-analyzer (Licor 8100), and while it simultaneously measures water concentrations, it is not calibrated to measure vapor fluxes. We calibrated the clear chamber against a previously established method based on a Licor 6400 soil chamber, and we developed a code to calculate fluxes. We performed laboratory comparisons in New Mexico and field comparisons in the Arctic, suggesting that this is a valid tool for a large range of climates. In the field we found a strong correlation between the two instruments with R2 of 0.79. Even with 24 hours of daylight in the Arctic, the system captures a clear diurnal transpiration flux, peaking at 0.9 mmol m-2 s-1 and showing no flux at the lowest points. This new method should be a powerful approach for long term measurements of specific vegetation types or surface features. Such Data can also be used to help understand controls on larger scale eddy covariance tower measurements of evapotranspiration.

  16. A widespread low-latitude diurnal CO2 frost cycle on Mars revealed by Mars Climate Sounder observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, S.; Kleinboehl, A.; Hayne, P. O.; Kass, D. M.; McCleese, D. J.; Shirley, J. H.; Schofield, J. T.; Heavens, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    Surface observations by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter document the widespread occurrence of atmospherically-corrected ground temperatures consistent with the presence of extensive CO2 frost deposits at low latitudes at 3AM. While the detection of CO2 ice has previously been reported outside the polar regions, in discrete locations associated with very high elevation terrains (i.e. associated with Elysium, Olympus Mons and the Tharsis Montes), our observations provide the first observational evidence of a global-scale diurnal CO2 cycle involving the atmosphere and the surface. MCS surface temperatures consistent with the presence of ephemeral diurnal CO2 frost deposits are strongly correlated with geologic terrains characterized by high emissivity, high albedo, and low thermal inertia. All of these properties are conducive to low nighttime temperatures. Thermal modeling of these low inertia terrains (i.e. < 75 J m-2K-1s-1/2), which cover a large fraction of the Martian surface, confirms that the regolith frequently reaches CO2 frost point temperatures at all latitudes near 3AM, with seasonal variations noticed. In addition, models used in conjunction with MCS temperature retrievals also predict that right before sunrise, nearly all of the Martian dusty low thermal inertia units are frosted at some point during the Mars Year. Energy/mass balance modeling suggests deposits with depths of up to several hundreds of microns of CO2 (<<0.1% of the Martian atmosphere). This is not sufficient to generate a measurable diurnal pressure cycle. The discovery of this diurnal CO2 cycle may nonetheless represent an important step forward in our understanding of the way the Mars atmosphere interacts with the surface.

  17. (abstract) Variations in Polarimetric Backscatter of Saline Ice Grown Under Diurnal Thermal Cycling Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Hsu, C. C.; Ding, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in January 1994 at the Geophysical Research Facility in the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. To investigate effects on polarimetric scattering signatures of sea ice growth under diurnal temperature variations, an ice sheet was grown for 2.5 days for the thickness of 10 cm and a polarimetric radar operating at C-band was used to obtain backscattering data in conjunction with ice-characterization measurements. The ice sheet was grown in the late morning of January 19, 1994. The initial growth rate was slow due to high insolation and temperature. As the air temperature dropped during the night, the growth rate increased significantly. The air temperature changed drastically from about -10(deg)C to -35(deg)C between day and night. The temperature cycle was repeated during the next day and the growth rate varied in the same manner. The surface of the ice was partially covered by frost flowers and the areal coverage increased as the ice became thicker. Throughout the ice growth duration of 2.5 days, polarimetric backscatter data were collected at roughly every centimeter of ice growth. For each set of radar measurements of saline ice, a set of calibration measurements was carried out with trihedrial corner reflectors and a metallic sphere. Measured polarimetric backscattering coefficients of the ice sheet reveal a strong correlation between radar data and temperature variations. As the temperature increased (decreased), the backscatter increased (decreased) correspondingly. From the ice-characterization data, temperatures of the air, at the ice-air interface, and in the ice layer had the same variation trend. Another interesting experimental observation is that the salinity measured as a function of ice depth from a sample of 10-cm thich ice indicated that the salinity variations had a similar cycle as the temperature; i.e., the salinity profile recorded the history of the temperature variations. Characterization data of the

  18. Diurnal cycles of gaseous mercury within the snowpack at Kuujjuarapik/Whapmagoostui, Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dommergue, Aurélien; Ferrari, Christophe P; Poissant, Laurier; Gauchard, Pierre-Alexis; Boutron, Claude F

    2003-08-01

    Mercury is a globally dispersed and toxic pollutant that can be transported far from its emission sources. In polar and subpolar regions, recent research activities have demonstrated its ability to be converted and deposited rapidly onto snow surfaces during the so-known Mercury Depletion Events (MDEs). The fate of mercury once deposited onto snow surfaces is still unclear: a part could be re-emitted to the atmosphere, the other part could contaminate water systems at the snowmelt. Its capacity to transform to more toxic form and to bioaccumulate in the food chain has consequently made mercury a threat for Arctic ecosystems. The snowpack is a medium that greatly interacts with a variety of atmospheric gases. Its role in the understanding of the fate of deposited mercury is crucial though it is poorly understood. In April 2002, we studied an environmental component of mercury, which is interstitial gaseous mercury (IGM) present in the air of the snowpack at Kuujjuarapik/Whapmagoostui (55 degrees N, 77 degrees W), Canada on the east shore of the Hudson Bay. We report here for the first time continuous IGM measurements at various depths inside a seasonal snowpack. IGM concentrations exhibit a well-marked diurnal cycle with uninterrupted events of Hg0 depletion and production within the snowpack. A possible explanation of Hg0 depletion within the snowpack may be Hg0 oxidation processes. Additionally, we assume that the notable production of Hg0 during the daytime may be the results of photoreduction and photoinitiated reduction of Hg(II) complexes. These new observations show that the snowpack plays undoubtedly a role in the global mercury cycle.

  19. Diurnal cycle of precipitation over the British Isles in a 0.44° WRF multiphysics regional climate ensemble over the period 1990-1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, P. A.; Mulligan, F. J.; Broderick, C.

    2016-02-01

    The diurnal cycle of precipitation is an important and fundamental cycle in Earth's climate system, yet many aspects of this cycle remain poorly understood. As a result climate models have struggled to accurately simulate the timing of the peak and the amplitude of the cycle. This has led to a large number of modelling studies on the diurnal cycle of precipitation which have focussed mainly on the influence of grid spacing and/or convective parameterizations. Results from these investigations have shown that, while grid spacing and convective parameterizations are important factors in the diurnal cycle, it cannot be fully explained by these factors and it must also be subject to other factors. In this study, we use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to investigate four of these other factors, namely the land surface model (LSM), microphysics, longwave radiation and planetary boundary layer in the case of the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the British Isles. We also compare their impact with the effect of two different convective schemes. We find that all simulations have two main problems: (1) there is a large bias (too much precipitation) in both summer and winter (+19 and +38 % respectively for the ensemble averages), and (2) WRF summer precipitation is dominated by a diurnal (24-h) component (~28 % of the mean precipitation) whereas the observations show a predominantly semidiurnal (12-h) component with a much smaller amplitude (~10 % of mean precipitation). The choice of LSM has a large influence on the simulated diurnal cycle in summer with the remaining physics schemes showing very little effect. The magnitude of the LSM effect in summer is as large as 35 % on average and up to 50 % at the peak of the cycle. While neither of the two LSMs examined here capture the harmonic content of the diurnal cycle of precipitation very well, we find that use of the RUC LSM results in better agreement with the observations compared with Noah.

  20. Seasonal Cycle of the Near-Surface Diurnal Wind Field Over the Bay of La Paz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrent, Cuauhtémoc; Zaitsev, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The results of numerical simulations of the troposphere over the Bay of La Paz, calculated for the months of January, April, July and October during the period 2006-2010 with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF v3.5) regional model, are used to describe the seasonal features of the diurnal cycle of planetary boundary-layer winds. Two distinct near-surface diurnal flows with strong seasonal variability were identified: (1) a nocturnal and matutinal breeze directed from the subtropical Pacific Ocean, over the Baja California peninsula and the Bay of La Paz, into the Gulf of California that is associated with the regional sea-surface temperature difference between those two major water bodies; and (2) a mid to late afternoon onshore sea-breeze related to the peninsula's daily cycle of insolation heating that evolves with counter-clockwise rotation over the Bay of La Paz. The model results reveal the interaction over Baja California of opposing afternoon sea-breeze fronts that originate from the subtropical Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California, with a convergence line forming over the peaks of the peninsula's topography and the associated presence of a closed vertical circulation cell over the Bay of La Paz and the adjacent Gulf. The collision of the opposing sea-breeze fronts over the narrow peninsula drives convection that is relatively weak due to the reduced heat source and only appears to produce precipitation sporadically. The spatial structure of the sea-breeze fronts over the Bay of La Paz region is complex due to shoreline curvature and nearby topographic features. A comparison of the numerical results with available meteorological near-surface observations indicates that the modelling methodology adequately reproduced the observed features of the seasonal variability of the local planetary boundary-layer diurnal wind cycle and confirms that the low-level atmospheric circulation over the Bay of La Paz is dominated by kinetic energy in the diurnal band

  1. Effects of the diurnal cycle in solar radiation on the tropical Indian Ocean mixed layer variability during wintertime Madden-Julian Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanlong; Han, Weiqing; Shinoda, Toshiaki; Wang, Chunzai; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Moum, James N.; Wang, Jih-Wang

    2013-10-01

    The effects of solar radiation diurnal cycle on intraseasonal mixed layer variability in the tropical Indian Ocean during boreal wintertime Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events are examined using the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model. Two parallel experiments, the main run and the experimental run, are performed for the period of 2005-2011 with daily atmospheric forcing except that an idealized hourly shortwave radiation diurnal cycle is included in the main run. The results show that the diurnal cycle of solar radiation generally warms the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) north of 10°S, particularly during the calm phase of the MJO when sea surface wind is weak, mixed layer is thin, and the SST diurnal cycle amplitude (dSST) is large. The diurnal cycle enhances the MJO-forced intraseasonal SST variability by about 20% in key regions like the Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR; 55°-70°E, 12°-4°S) and the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO; 65°-95°E, 3°S-3°N) primarily through nonlinear rectification. The model also well reproduced the upper-ocean variations monitored by the CINDY/DYNAMO field campaign between September-November 2011. During this period, dSST reaches 0.7°C in the CEIO region, and intraseasonal SST variability is significantly amplified. In the SCTR region where mean easterly winds are strong during this period, diurnal SST variation and its impact on intraseasonal ocean variability are much weaker. In both regions, the diurnal cycle also has a large impact on the upward surface turbulent heat flux QT and induces diurnal variation of QT with a peak-to-peak difference of O(10 W m-2).

  2. Sampling considerations for designing Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) oviposition studies in Iquitos, Peru: substrate preference, diurnal periodicity, and gonotrophic cycle length.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jacklyn; Astete, Helvio; Morrison, Amy C; Scott, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    When devising methods to sample Aedes aegypti (L.) eggs from naturally-occurring containers to investigate selective oviposition, failure to take into account certain aspects of Ae. aegypti behavior can bias study inferences. In Iquitos, Peru, we tested three assumptions related to designing Ae. aegypti oviposition field studies, as follows: 1) lining containers with paper as an oviposition substrate does not affect oviposition; 2) diurnal egg-laying activity peaks in the late afternoon or early evening, and there is little oviposition during midday; and 3) the gonotrophic cycle length of wild females averages from 3 to 4 d. When wild females were presented with containers lined and unlined with paper toweling, the presence of paper increased oviposition in plastic and metal containers, but had no effect in cement containers. Recording the number of eggs laid by Ae. aegypti every 2 h throughout the day delineated a bimodal diurnal oviposition pattern, with a small morning peak, decreased activity during midday, and a predominant peak in the late afternoon and evening from 16:00 to 20:00 h. Daily monitoring of captive individual Fo females revealed that the gonotrophic cycle length was typically 3-4 d for the Iquitos population. These findings will be used to adjust field study design to 1) account for sampling eggs using paper toweling, and 2) determine the time of day and number of days over which to sample Ae. aegypti eggs. We explored how failure to consider these behaviors could potentially bias field assessments of oviposition preferences.

  3. Diurnal Variation in Gravity Wave Activity at Low and Middle Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrioli, V. F.; Fritts, D. C.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.; Janches, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We employ a modified composite day extension of the Hocking (2005) analysis method to study gravity wave (GW) activity in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using 4 meteor radars spanning latitudes from 7deg S to 53.6deg S. Diurnal and semidiurnal modulations were observed in GW variances over all sites. Semidiurnal modulation with downward phase propagation was observed at lower latitudes mainly near the equinoxes. Diurnal modulations occur mainly near solstice and, except for the zonal component at Cariri (7deg S), do not exhibit downward phase propagation. At a higher latitude (SAAMER, 53.6deg S) these modulations are only observed in the meridional component where we can observe diurnal variation from March to May, and semidiurnal, during January, February, October (above 88 km) and November. Some of these modulations with downward phase progression correlate well with wind shear. When the wind shear is well correlated with the maximum of the variances the diurnal tide has its largest amplitudes, i.e., near equinox. Correlations exhibiting variations with tidal phases suggest significant GW-tidal interactions that have different characters depending on the tidal components and possible mean wind shears. Modulations that do not exhibit phase variations could be indicative of diurnal variations in GW sources.

  4. Diurnal activities of the brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in and near tasseling corn fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for effective management of the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, in corn and other crops has been increasing in recent years. To identify when and where the stink bugs are most likely to occur for targeted insecticide application, diurnal activities of stink bugs in and near the field...

  5. Genome-wide RNA polymerase II profiles and RNA accumulation reveal kinetics of transcription and associated epigenetic changes during diurnal cycles.

    PubMed

    Le Martelot, Gwendal; Canella, Donatella; Symul, Laura; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Gilardi, Federica; Liechti, Robin; Martin, Olivier; Harshman, Keith; Delorenzi, Mauro; Desvergne, Béatrice; Herr, Winship; Deplancke, Bart; Schibler, Ueli; Rougemont, Jacques; Guex, Nicolas; Hernandez, Nouria; Naef, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Interactions of cell-autonomous circadian oscillators with diurnal cycles govern the temporal compartmentalization of cell physiology in mammals. To understand the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of diurnal rhythms in mouse liver genome-wide, we generated temporal DNA occupancy profiles by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) as well as profiles of the histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. We used these data to quantify the relationships of phases and amplitudes between different marks. We found that rhythmic Pol II recruitment at promoters rather than rhythmic transition from paused to productive elongation underlies diurnal gene transcription, a conclusion further supported by modeling. Moreover, Pol II occupancy preceded mRNA accumulation by 3 hours, consistent with mRNA half-lives. Both methylation marks showed that the epigenetic landscape is highly dynamic and globally remodeled during the 24-hour cycle. While promoters of transcribed genes had tri-methylated H3K4 even at their trough activity times, tri-methylation levels reached their peak, on average, 1 hour after Pol II. Meanwhile, rhythms in tri-methylation of H3K36 lagged transcription by 3 hours. Finally, modeling profiles of Pol II occupancy and mRNA accumulation identified three classes of genes: one showing rhythmicity both in transcriptional and mRNA accumulation, a second class with rhythmic transcription but flat mRNA levels, and a third with constant transcription but rhythmic mRNAs. The latter class emphasizes widespread temporally gated posttranscriptional regulation in the mouse liver.

  6. The Diurnal Cycle of the Boundary Layer, Convection, Clouds, and Surface Radiation in a Coastal Monsoon Environment (Darwin Australia)

    SciTech Connect

    May, Peter T.; Long, Charles N.; Protat, Alain

    2012-08-01

    The diurnal variation of convection and associated cloud and radiative properties remains a significant issue in global NWP and climate models. This study analyzes observed diurnal variability of convection in a coastal monsoonal environment examining the interaction of convective rain clouds, their associated cloud properties, and the impact on the surface radiation and corresponding boundary layer structure during periods where convection is suppressed or active on the large scale. The analysis uses data from the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) as well as routine measurements from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Both active monsoonal and large-scale suppressed (buildup and break) conditions are examined and demonstrate that the diurnal variation of rainfall is much larger during the break periods and the spatial distribution of rainfall is very different between the monsoon and break regimes. During the active monsoon the total net radiative input to the surface is decreased by more than 3 times the amount than during the break regime - this total radiative cloud forcing is found to be dominated by the shortwave (SW) cloud effects because of the much larger optical thicknesses and persistence of long-lasting anvils and cirrus cloud decks associated with the monsoon regime. These differences in monsoon versus break surface radiative energy contribute to low-level air temperature differences in the boundary layer over the land surfaces.

  7. Sensor Measurements and Sediment Incubations Indicate Diurnal Redox Cycling Associate With Arsenic Mobilization at a Bangladeshi Rice Paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T.; Lin, C.; Ramanathan, N.; Neumann, R.; Harvey, C.; Jay, J.

    2007-12-01

    The presence of arsenic in the groundwater has led to the largest environmental poisoning in history; tens of millions of people in the Ganges Delta continue to drink groundwater that is dangerously contaminated with arsenic (As). Rice fields receive large loads of arsenic with irrigation water and provide recharge to the underlying aquifer. It is currently not known whether rice fields are a sink or source of arsenic in the hydrologic system. In the dry season, as As(III)-containing minerals are oxidized, As(V) is released and will adhere to Fe hydr(oxide) minerals. When sediments are inundated with water, reducing conditions will then drive reduction of Fe hydr(oxides) and release of As. We have been intensively studying a field site in Munshiganj, Bangladesh with extremely high levels of arsenic in groundwater (up to 1.2 mg/L). To better understand geochemical and microbial processes leading to As mobilization in surface sediment, we deployed sensors to take temporally dense measurements across our experimental rice paddy. Data collected in both 2006 and 2007 showed trends in geochemical parameters indicating that diurnal, possibly plant-induced, processes may be important. Over a two month period, nitrate concentrations decrease consistently each day as ammonium levels increase, presumably through temperature driven reductive processes. Nitrate concentrations in the subsurface then increase while ammonium levels decrease, possibly due to root oxygen leakage or rapid infiltration of oxygen rich surface water. Using sediment from the rice paddy and artificial irrigation water, laboratory microcosms were constructed to simulate the diurnal cycles observed at the field site. In carbon-ammended treatments, Fe and As cycling can occur on the order of days. Oscillations in redox conditions on diurnal as well as seasonal time scales may be important in the mobilization of arsenic into aquifers. By elucidating As mobilization mechanisms at an experimental rice paddy

  8. The trehalose pathway in maize: conservation and gene regulation in response to the diurnal cycle and extended darkness

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Clémence; Bledsoe, Samuel W.; Siekman, Allison; Kollman, Alec; Waters, Brian M.; Feil, Regina; Stitt, Mark; Lagrimini, L. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Energy resources in plants are managed in continuously changing environments, such as changes occurring during the day/night cycle. Shading is an environmental disruption that decreases photosynthesis, compromises energy status, and impacts on crop productivity. The trehalose pathway plays a central but not well-defined role in maintaining energy balance. Here, we characterized the maize trehalose pathway genes and deciphered the impacts of the diurnal cycle and disruption of the day/night cycle on trehalose pathway gene expression and sugar metabolism. The maize genome encodes 14 trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) genes, 11 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) genes, and one trehalase gene. Transcript abundance of most of these genes was impacted by the day/night cycle and extended dark stress, as were sucrose, hexose sugars, starch, and trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) levels. After extended darkness, T6P levels inversely followed class II TPS and sucrose non-fermenting-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) target gene expression. Most significantly, T6P no longer tracked sucrose levels after extended darkness. These results showed: (i) conservation of the trehalose pathway in maize; (ii) that sucrose, hexose, starch, T6P, and TPS/TPP transcripts respond to the diurnal cycle; and(iii) that extended darkness disrupts the correlation between T6P and sucrose/hexose pools and affects SnRK1 target gene expression. A model for the role of the trehalose pathway in sensing of sucrose and energy status in maize seedlings is proposed. PMID:25271261

  9. Impact of Shallow Clouds on Cloud-Permitting WRF Simulations of the Diurnal Cycle of Convection over the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.; Burleyson, C. D.; Hagos, S. M.; Comstock, J. M.; Berg, L. K.; Schumacher, C.; Giangrande, S. E.; Long, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding and representing the diurnal cycle of convection in climate models remains one of the most significant challenges in climate science. In this study, we examine the radiative impact of shallow cumulus clouds on a month-long cloud-permitting (Δx = 1 km) WRF simulation of convection over the Amazon region during the GoAmazon2014/5 field campaign. Compared to observations collected at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), the model underestimates the frequency of shallow cumulus clouds during daytime, resulting in large positive biases in downward shortwave radiation reaching the surface. This overestimation of shortwave heating in turn drives excessive surface latent and sensible heat fluxes in the model. As a result, simulated deep convection peaks too early during the day and total precipitation is excessive compared to observations. We use the AMF observations to develop a shallow cumulus cloud parameterization scheme that mitigates the bias in shallow cumulus cloud radiative effects. Impacts of the new parameterization of shallow cumulus on the simulation of deep convection and precipitation are examined. Our results highlight the importance of cloud-radiative interactions and land-atmosphere feedbacks on the diurnal cycle of convection in this region.

  10. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  11. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M.; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants and

  12. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  13. Understanding the diurnal cycle in fluvial dissolved organic carbon - The interplay of in-stream residence time, day length and organic matter turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing interest in characterising the diurnal fluctuation of stream solute concentrations because observed data series derived from spot samples may be highly subjective if such diurnal fluctuations are large. This can therefore lead to large uncertainties, bias or systematic errors in calculation of fluvial solute fluxes, depending upon the particular sampling regime. A simplistic approach would be to assume diurnal fluctuations are constant throughout the water year, but this study proposes diurnal cycles in stream water quality can only be interpreted in the context of stream residence time and changing day length. Three years of hourly dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and flow data from the River Dee catchment (1674 km2) were analysed, and statistical analysis of the entire record shows there is no consistent diurnal cycle in the record. From the 3-year record (1095 days) there were only 96 diurnal cycles could be analysed. Cycles were quantified in terms of their: relative and absolute amplitude; duration; time to maximum concentration; asymmetry; percentile flow and in-stream residence time. The median diurnal cycle showed an amplitude that was 9.2% of the starting concentration; it was not significantly asymmetric; and occurred at the 19th percentile flow. The median DOC removal rate was 0.07 mg C/l/hr with an inter-quartile range of 0.052-0.100 mg C/l/hr. Results were interpreted as controlled by two, separate, zero-order kinetic rate laws, one for the day and one for the night. There was no single diurnal cycle present across the record, rather a number of different cycles controlled by the combination of in-stream residence time and exposure to contrasting light conditions. Over the 3-year period the average in-stream loss of DOC was 32%. The diurnal cycles evident in high resolution DOC data are interpretable, but require contextual information for their influence on in-stream processes to be understood or for them to be utilised.

  14. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Kazil, Jan; Feingold, Graham; Yamaguchi, Takanobu

    2016-05-12

    Observed and projected trends in large-scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how do marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to changes in large-scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds over the course of a diurnal cycle, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and strongermore » entrainment. The dynamical driver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning–afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ⪆ 50 g m−2, longwave emissions are insensitive to LWP. This leads to the general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. We find that large-scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment and in part because shear from large-scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large-scale wind takes over

  15. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, Jan; Feingold, Graham; Yamaguchi, Takanobu

    2016-05-01

    Observed and projected trends in large-scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how do marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to changes in large-scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds over the course of a diurnal cycle, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment. The dynamical driver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning-afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ⪆ 50 g m-2, longwave emissions are insensitive to LWP. This leads to the general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. We find that large-scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment and in part because shear from large-scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large-scale wind takes over from buoyancy

  16. Diurnal changes in the synthesis of the neurosteroid 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone stimulating locomotor activity in newts.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Teppei; Haraguchi, Shogo; Vaudry, Hubert; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    We recently identified 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone as a novel amphibian neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity in newts. Because male newts show marked diurnal changes in locomotor activity, we hypothesized that 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone may be a key factor for the induction of diurnal changes in locomotor activity in male newts. In this study, we found diurnal changes in 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain of male newts, which paralleled locomotor activity. Interestingly, the production of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in the male newt brain increased during the dark phase when locomotor activity of males was high.

  17. Alcohol Usage and Abrupt Cessation Modulate Diurnal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Norrell, Stacy; Reyes-Vasquez, Cruz; Burau, Keith; Dafny, Nachum

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol has many effects throughout the body. The effect on circadian rhythms and the correlation of these effects to withdrawal effects of alcohol present interesting findings. By measuring 3 planes of activity of female Sprague-Dawley rats during alcohol usage and continuing study through the first two days following withdrawal of alcohol allow for the observation of a drastic modulation of the circadian pattern of activity. PMID:20615456

  18. Dynamic proteomic profiling of a unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece ATCC51142 across light-dark diurnal cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Aryal, Uma K.; Stockel, Jana; Krovvidi, Ravi K.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Jacobs, Jon M.

    2011-12-01

    Unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece are recognized for their ability to execute nitrogen (N2)-fixation in the dark and photosynthesis in the light. Systems-wide dynamic proteomic profiling with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis reveals fundamental insights into the control and regulation of these functions. To expand upon the current knowledge of protein expression patterns in Cyanothece ATCC51142, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using partial ("unsaturated") metabolic labeling and high mass accuracy LC-MS analysis. This dynamic proteomic profiling identified 721 actively synthesized proteins with significant temporal changes in expression throughout the light-dark cycles, of which 425 proteins matched with previously characterized cycling transcripts. The remaining 296 proteins contained a cluster of proteins uniquely involved in DNA replication and repair, protein degradation, tRNA synthesis and modification, transport and binding, and regulatory functions. Analysis of protein functions revealed that the expression of nitrogenase in the dark is mediated by higher respiration and glycogen metabolism. We have also shown that Cyanothece ATCC51142 utilizes alternative pathways for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) acquisition, particularly, aspartic acid and glutamate as substrates of C and N, respectively. Utilization of phosphoketolase (PHK) pathway for the conversion of xylulose-5P to pyruvate and acetyl-P likely constitutes an alternative strategy to compensate higher ATP and NADPH demand. In conclusion, this study provides a deeper insight into how Cyanothece ATCC51142 modulates cellular functions to accommodate photosynthesis and N2-fixation within the single cell.

  19. Analysis of water-soluble ions and their precursor gases over diurnal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Song, Sang-Keun; Jung, Kweon; Kim, Nam-Jin

    2013-10-01

    A detailed description of an interactive relationship is made between water-soluble ionic components in PM2.5 and their precursor gases using the hourly resolution data measured at an urban monitoring site in Seoul during the year of 2010. Their diurnal variability was found to be correlated with their precursor gases (HNO3 and NH3). In the case of NO3- and NH4+, a close similarity was seen in their diurnal trends, especially during spring. There were no noticeable differences in the formation pathway of NO3-, SO42- , and NH4+ aerosols between day and night. For NO3- formation, heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 might play a significant role in the nighttime enhancement of the oxidation rate. In addition, the concentrations of major anions (e.g. NO3-, SO42- , and Cl-) exhibited highly diverse seasonal patterns with their maximum values occurring in spring, summer, and winter, respectively. The overall results of this study suggest that the formation pathway of NO3- and SO42- aerosols should be regulated by a competing relationship between the NH3-lean (spring and winter) and NH3-rich conditions (summer and fall).

  20. Aerosol dynamics in the equatorial Pacific Marine boundary layer: Microphysics, diurnal cycles and entertainment

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A D; Litchy, M; Li, Z

    1996-04-01

    During July-August of 1994 the authors measured the size resolved physiochemical properties of aerosol particles at Christmas Island in the equatorial Pacific. In spite of rapid diurnal conversion of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) the authors found no evidence for new particle production in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and more than 95% of all particles were consistently larger than 0.02{mu}m diameter, indicating an aged aerosol number (size-distribution) was bimodal with peaks near 0.05{mu}m and 0.2{mu}m particle diameter (D{sub p}) and had a cloud-processed intermode minimum at about 0.09{mu}m that varied in phase with diurnal changes in ozone concentration. This suggests that the number distribution for condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation (CCN) was maintained by a quasiequilibrium between entrainment (estimated to be 0.6{+-}0.2 cm s{sup {minus}1}) from sources aloft and processes in the MBL. This implies a replenishment timescale for nuclei of about 2 and 4 days for this region. The stability of the distribution and the 0.09{mu}m cloud processed minima suggests trade winds cumulus supersaturations near 0.35% and updrafts near 1 m s{sup {minus}1}. 17 refs., 4 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Diurnal variations in response of rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase activity to food intake.

    PubMed

    Kato, H; Saito, M

    1980-01-01

    Effects of fasting and refeeding on the hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase activity were examined in rats that had been fed during the night. The tyrosine aminotransferase activity showed clear diurnal variations, with a maximal activity after the feeding time. The tyrosine aminotransferase rhythm persisted even under starvation, though the amplitude decreased remarkably. When the starved rats were refed at night, the tyrosine aminotransferase activity increased rapidly to a high level, but it increased slowly to a rather lower level when they were refed in daytime.

  2. Diurnal cycle and multi-decadal trend of formaldehyde in the remote atmosphere near 46° N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, B.; Marais, E. A.; Bovy, B.; Bader, W.; Lejeune, B.; Roland, G.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.

    2015-11-01

    Only very few long-term trends of formaldehyde (HCHO) exist. Furthermore, many uncertainties remain as to its diurnal cycle, representing a large short-term variability superimposed on seasonal and inter-annual variations that should be accounted for when comparing ground-based observations to e.g., model results. In this study, we derive a multi-decadal time series (January 1988-June 2015) of HCHO total columns from ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.), allowing for the characterization of the mid-latitudinal atmosphere for background conditions. First we investigate the HCHO diurnal variation, peaking around noontime and mainly driven by the intra-day insolation modulation and methane (CH4) oxidation. We also characterize quantitatively the diurnal cycles by adjusting a parametric model to the observations, which links the daytime to the HCHO columns according to the monthly intra-day regimes. It is then employed to scale all the individual FTIR measurements on a given daytime in order to remove the effect of the intra-day modulation for improving the trend determination and the comparison with HCHO columns simulated by the state-of-the-art chemical transport model GEOS-Chem v9-02. Such a parametric model will be useful to scale the Jungfraujoch HCHO columns on satellite overpass times in the framework of future calibration/validation efforts of space borne sensors. GEOS-Chem sensitivity tests suggest then that the seasonal and inter-annual HCHO column variations above Jungfraujoch are predominantly led by the atmospheric CH4 oxidation, with a maximum contribution of 25 % from the anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compound precursors during wintertime. Finally, trend analysis of the so-scaled 27 year FTIR time series reveals a long-term evolution of the HCHO columns in the remote troposphere to be related with the

  3. Diurnal cycle and multi-decadal trend of formaldehyde in the remote atmosphere near 46° N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Bruno; Marais, Eloise A.; Bovy, Benoît; Bader, Whitney; Lejeune, Bernard; Roland, Ginette; Servais, Christian; Mahieu, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    Only very few long-term records of formaldehyde (HCHO) exist that are suitable for trend analysis. Furthermore, many uncertainties remain as to its diurnal cycle, representing a large short-term variability superimposed on seasonal and inter-annual variations that should be accounted for when comparing ground-based observations to, e.g., model results. In this study, we derive a multi-decadal time series (January 1988-June 2015) of HCHO total columns from ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a. s. l. ), allowing for the characterization of the mid-latitudinal atmosphere for background conditions. First we investigate the HCHO diurnal variation, peaking around noontime and mainly driven by the intra-day insolation modulation and methane (CH4) oxidation. We also characterize quantitatively the diurnal cycles by adjusting a parametric model to the observations, which links the daytime to the HCHO columns according to the monthly intra-day regimes. It is then employed to scale all the individual FTIR measurements on a given daytime in order to remove the effect of the intra-day modulation for improving the trend determination and the comparison with HCHO columns simulated by the state-of-the-art GEOS-Chem v9-02 chemical transport model. Such a parametric model will be useful to scale the Jungfraujoch HCHO columns on satellite overpass times in the framework of future calibration/validation efforts of space-borne sensors. GEOS-Chem sensitivity tests suggest then that the seasonal and inter-annual HCHO column variations above Jungfraujoch are predominantly led by the atmospheric CH4 oxidation, with a maximum contribution of 25 % from the anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compound precursors during wintertime. Finally, trend analysis of the so-scaled 27-year FTIR time series reveals a long-term evolution of the HCHO columns in the

  4. Feeding and diurnal related activity of lateral hypothalamic neurons in freely behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Sasaki, K; Nishino, H; Fukuda, M; Shibata, R

    1986-05-14

    Activity of 64 single neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) was recorded for 1-8 days in freely behaving rats. The activity of 26 (40.6%) neurons varied with circadian rhythm and in relation to feeding. Activity of 23 of these neurons decreased during consumption of each pellet, and that of one increased. The activity of two other neurons increased intermittently, at night, prior to and during eating and drinking episodes. All changed activity with sleep-wake changes; increasing in the dark or upon arousal, and decreasing in the light or during slow wave sleep, but the activity was independent of individual movement, except feeding. The activity of 29 (45.3%) neurons varied only diurnally. Of these, 26 neurons also had sleep-wake responses and activity changes that corresponded to behavior. The firing rate of the other 3 neurons was independent of sleep-wake condition or individual feeding activity, but gradually increased in the dark to a maximum in the early morning, then subsided rapidly in 1-2 h. Four (6.3%) neurons were related only to feeding and not to diurnal rhythm, and 5 (7.8%) neurons were not related to either. Of the 5 neurons that were unrelated to either diurnal rhythm or feeding acts, 3 increased activity at light on and decreased it at light off for 4-13 min. These data suggest LHA neuronal involvement in control of short term feeding or individual feeding episodes, and long term feeding or circadian feeding rhythm.

  5. Time to pay attention: attentional performance time-stamped prefrontal cholinergic activation, diurnality and performance

    PubMed Central

    Paolone, Giovanna; Lee, Theresa M.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Although the impairments in cognitive performance that result from shifting or disrupting daily rhythms have been demonstrated, the neuronal mechanisms that optimize fixed time daily performance are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that daily practice of a sustained attention task (SAT) evokes a diurnal activity pattern in rats. Here we report that SAT practice at a fixed time produced practice time-stamped increases in prefrontal cholinergic neurotransmission that persisted after SAT practice was terminated and in a different environment. SAT time-stamped cholinergic activation occurred irrespective of whether the SAT was practiced during the light or dark phase or in constant light conditions. In contrast, prior daily practice of an operant schedule of reinforcement, albeit generating more rewards and lever presses per session than the SAT, neither activated the cholinergic system nor affected the animals' nocturnal activity pattern. Likewise, food-restricted animals exhibited strong food anticipatory activity (FAA) and attenuated activity during the dark period but FAA was not associated with increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity. Removal of cholinergic neurons impaired SAT performance and facilitated the reemergence of nocturnality. Shifting SAT practice away from a fixed time resulted in significantly lower performance. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrated that fixed time, daily practice of a task assessing attention generates a precisely practice time-stamped activation of the cortical cholinergic input system. Time-stamped cholinergic activation benefits fixed time performance and, if practiced during the light phase, contributes to a diurnal activity pattern. PMID:22933795

  6. Are rainforest owl monkeys cathemeral? Diurnal activity of black-headed owl monkeys, Aotus nigriceps, at Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru.

    PubMed

    Khimji, Shenaz N; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Aotus are traditionally considered strictly nocturnal, however, in recent years cathemeral habits have been described in a single species of owl monkey, Aotus azarai, which occur in the highly seasonal habitat of the Argentinean Chaco. This finding raises the question as to whether other species of Aotus exhibit cathemeral activity in less seasonal habitats. In this study, we observed the diurnal activity of one group of A. nigriceps living in the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru over 65 days. The data collected indicate that A. nigriceps has only sporadic diurnal bouts of activity. In addition, nocturnal luminosity of the previous night, rainfall, and temperature did not correlate with the minor diurnal activity exhibited. This suggests that for A. nigriceps the potential costs of shifting to diurnality may outweigh its prospective advantages in this rainforest environment.

  7. Diurnal and menstrual cycles in body temperature are regulated differently: a 28-day ambulatory study in healthy women with thermal discomfort of cold extremities and controls.

    PubMed

    Kräuchi, Kurt; Konieczka, Katarzyna; Roescheisen-Weich, Corina; Gompper, Britta; Hauenstein, Daniela; Schoetzau, Andreas; Fraenkl, Stephan; Flammer, Josef

    2014-02-01

    Diurnal cycle variations in body-heat loss and heat production, and their resulting core body temperature (CBT), are relatively well investigated; however, little is known about their variations across the menstrual cycle under ambulatory conditions. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether menstrual cycle variations in distal and proximal skin temperatures exhibit similar patterns to those of diurnal variations, with lower internal heat conductance when CBT is high, i.e. during the luteal phase. Furthermore, we tested these relationships in two groups of women, with and without thermal discomfort of cold extremities (TDCE). In total, 19 healthy eumenorrheic women with regular menstrual cycles (28-32 days), 9 with habitual TDCE (ages 29 ± 1.5 year; BMI 20.1 ± 0.4) and 10 controls without these symptoms (CON: aged 27 ± 0.8 year; BMI 22.7 ± 0.6; p < 0.004 different to TDCE) took part in the study. Twenty-eight days continuous ambulatory skin temperature measurements of distal (mean of hands and feet) and proximal (mean of sternum and infraclavicular regions) skin regions, thighs, and calves were carried out under real-life, ambulatory conditions (i-Buttons® skin probes, sampling rate: 2.5 min). The distal minus proximal skin temperature gradient (DPG) provided a valuable measure for heat redistribution from the core to the shell, and, hence, for internal heat conduction. Additionally, basal body temperature was measured sublingually directly after waking up in bed. Mean diurnal amplitudes in skin temperatures increased from proximal to distal skin regions and the 24-h mean values were inversely related. TDCE compared to CON showed significantly lower hand skin temperatures and DPG during daytime. However, menstrual cycle phase did not modify these diurnal patterns, indicating that menstrual and diurnal cycle variations in skin temperatures reveal additive effects. Most striking was the finding that all measured skin

  8. Opposite patterns of diurnal activity in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Copula sivickisi.

    PubMed

    Garm, A; Bielecki, J; Petie, R; Nilsson, D-E

    2012-02-01

    Cubozoan medusae have a stereotypic set of 24 eyes, some of which are structurally similar to vertebrate and cephalopod eyes. Across the approximately 25 described species, this set of eyes varies surprisingly little, suggesting that they are involved in an equally stereotypic set of visual tasks. During the day Tripedalia cystophora is found at the edge of mangrove lagoons where it accumulates close to the surface in sun-lit patches between the prop roots. Copula sivickisi (formerly named Carybdea sivickisi) is associated with coral reefs and has been observed to be active at night. At least superficially, the eyes of the two species are close to identical. We studied the diurnal activity pattern of these two species both in the wild and under controlled conditions in laboratory experiments. Despite the very similar visual systems, we found that they display opposite patterns of diurnal activity. T. cystophora is active exclusively during the day, whereas C. sivickisi is actively swimming at night, when it forages and mates. At night T. cystophora is found on the muddy bottom of the mangrove lagoon. C. sivickisi spends the day attached to structures such as the underside of stones and coral skeletons. This species difference seems to have evolved to optimize foraging, since the patterns of activity follow those of the available prey items in their respective habitats. PMID:22426630

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Optimal Resource Management during the Diurnal Cycle in Emiliania huxleyi by Genome-Scale Reconstruction and an Extended Flux Balance Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Knies, David; Wittmüß, Philipp; Appel, Sebastian; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Feuer, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    The coccolithophorid unicellular alga Emiliania huxleyi is known to form large blooms, which have a strong effect on the marine carbon cycle. As a photosynthetic organism, it is subjected to a circadian rhythm due to the changing light conditions throughout the day. For a better understanding of the metabolic processes under these periodically-changing environmental conditions, a genome-scale model based on a genome reconstruction of the E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 was created. It comprises 410 reactions and 363 metabolites. Biomass composition is variable based on the differentiation into functional biomass components and storage metabolites. The model is analyzed with a flux balance analysis approach called diurnal flux balance analysis (diuFBA) that was designed for organisms with a circadian rhythm. It allows storage metabolites to accumulate or be consumed over the diurnal cycle, while keeping the structure of a classical FBA problem. A feature of this approach is that the production and consumption of storage metabolites is not defined externally via the biomass composition, but the result of optimal resource management adapted to the diurnally-changing environmental conditions. The model in combination with this approach is able to simulate the variable biomass composition during the diurnal cycle in proximity to literature data. PMID:26516924

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Optimal Resource Management during the Diurnal Cycle in Emiliania huxleyi by Genome-Scale Reconstruction and an Extended Flux Balance Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Knies, David; Wittmüß, Philipp; Appel, Sebastian; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Feuer, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    The coccolithophorid unicellular alga Emiliania huxleyi is known to form large blooms, which have a strong effect on the marine carbon cycle. As a photosynthetic organism, it is subjected to a circadian rhythm due to the changing light conditions throughout the day. For a better understanding of the metabolic processes under these periodically-changing environmental conditions, a genome-scale model based on a genome reconstruction of the E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 was created. It comprises 410 reactions and 363 metabolites. Biomass composition is variable based on the differentiation into functional biomass components and storage metabolites. The model is analyzed with a flux balance analysis approach called diurnal flux balance analysis (diuFBA) that was designed for organisms with a circadian rhythm. It allows storage metabolites to accumulate or be consumed over the diurnal cycle, while keeping the structure of a classical FBA problem. A feature of this approach is that the production and consumption of storage metabolites is not defined externally via the biomass composition, but the result of optimal resource management adapted to the diurnally-changing environmental conditions. The model in combination with this approach is able to simulate the variable biomass composition during the diurnal cycle in proximity to literature data. PMID:26516924

  11. Diurnal cycle of methane flux from a lake, with high emissions during nighttime caused by convection in the water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgrajsek, E.; Sahlee, E.; Rutgersson, A.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have stressed the importance of lakes as major contributors of methane to the atmosphere (e.g. Bastviken et al 2011). However there is still a lack of continuous long time flux measurements over lakes as well as poor understanding of the magnitude of methane fluxes through ebullition and vegetation pathways. In this study the Eddy covariance method has been used for measuring methane fluxes from a lake in central Sweden. At several occasions during the long time measuring campaign (autumn 2010-autumn 2012), a diurnal cycle of methane, with high fluxes during night and low during day, has been captured. Some of the high flux events during nighttime were comparable in magnitude to what previously only been measured from vegetation regions in lakes at these latitudes (e.g. Kankaala et al 2004) and from tropical reservoirs (e.g. Bastviken 2009). During these occasions the difference between air and water temperature (ΔT=Ta-Tw) also displayed an diurnal cycle, with ΔT being positive during day and negative during night with the corresponding change in the sensible heat flux i.e. negative during daytime and positive during nighttime. The high nighttime methane fluxes could be explained with this difference in air and water temperature, which will cool the water surface during night, creating convective mixing in the lake, while during daytime the water will be stably stratified. Temperature measurements made at different vertical levels in the lake water confirm this water stratification. The nighttime convective mixing may act to disturb the bottom water, triggering methane ebullition events and bringing methane rich water up to the surface, which can be emitted to the atmosphere. With this study we want to emphasis the necessity of introducing also complex physical processes when estimating air-water exchange fluxes and also measure methane fluxes not only at few occasions during daytime but also during night and for longer measuring periods. References

  12. Diurnal-activity Patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdul Hameed Mohamed Samsoor; Asokan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal time-activity patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) were studied between 2005 and 2006 in the Nagapattinam District of Southern India. Bee-eaters were observed to spend an average of 52.5% of their day time scanning, 21.3% feeding, 13.3% flying, 8.8% resting and 4.1% engaging in preening activities. The time spent on scanning varied among seasons in 2005 (p<0.05) and among time blocks (p<0.05), but it did not vary among years or habitats (p>0.05). The feeding patterns differed among years, seasons within years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05). The flying habits varied among years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05) but did not change between seasons within years (p>0.05). The resting habits differed among years and habitats (p<0.05) but did not differ among seasons within years or time blocks (p>0.05). Preening differed among years and time blocks (p<0.05) but did not vary among seasons within years or habitats (p>0.05). We conclude that several factors, such as food availability, environmental factors and predation threats, may affect the diurnal activity patterns of Bee-eaters between habitats and seasons; a further study could clarify this conclusion. PMID:26868589

  13. A parameter study of the effect of the diurnal cycle on the atmospheric dynamics of slowly-rotating planets using a simple GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Read, Peter L.

    2016-10-01

    The large set of discovered exoplanets provides a multitude of possible planetary characteristics that need to be understood. To analyse and compare the dominant contributions to their atmospheric circulation in the most general way, it is beneficial to study the properties of different circulation regimes with reference to non-dimensional parameter spaces. Our work is concerned with the nonlinear responses to the diurnal heating cycle and their impact on the broader circulation in order to understand the emergence and maintenance of equatorial super-rotation in atmospheres of bodies similar to Venus and Titan.We use a hierarchy of simple GCMs with increasing temporal resolution in thermal forcing (i.e. annually averaged, seasonal cycle, diurnal cycle) using a simple 2-band, semi-gray radiation scheme for a terrestrial-style planetary atmosphere. In our parameter space we vary key parameters such as the thermal Rossby number (planetary rotation rate), the Greenhouse parameter (the ratio between short- and long-wave optical thickness), the thermal inertia of the surface, and atmospheric equilibrium time-scale. The resulting circulations show an increased equatorial super-rotating wind due to the diurnal cycle when the atmosphere is heated at the top. We investigate and quantify the accelerating effect of the thermal tides.

  14. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas)

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (Ψx) of –0.95 MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a Ψx of –1.5 MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755

  15. Impacts of the triggering function of cumulus parameterization on warm-season diurnal rainfall cycles at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Chi; Pan, Hua-Lu; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the impacts of the triggering function of the deep convection scheme on diurnal rainfall variation in the middle latitudes by using the single-column version of the Community Atmospheric Model (SCAM). Using the climate statistics of a long-term ensemble analysis of SCAM simulations, we quantified and validated the diurnal rainfall climatological regimes at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The results showed that the averaged diurnal rainfall cycle simulated using the default Zhang-Mcfarlane (ZM) scheme of the SCAM peaks near noon, which is far earlier than the observed nighttime peak phase. This bias was due to the ZM scheme, which produced spurious daytime rainfall, even during days in which only light rainfall was observed. By contrast, using a weather-focused scheme, the Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS) scheme, we successfully simulated the nocturnal peak of the diurnal cycle. Experiments conducted on the ZM and SAS schemes featuring different triggering functions revealed that the relaxation of launching parcels above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the inclusion of convective inhibition (CIN) were crucial designs for the model to capture the nocturnal rainfall events of the SGP. The inclusion of CIN reduces spurious weak convective events, and the allowance of launching parcels being above the PBL better captures convective cloud base. The results of this study highlight the modulatory effect of low-level inhomogeneity on the diurnal variation of convection over midlatitudes and the importance of the triggering function of the deep convection scheme in capturing those variations.

  16. Discernible signals of aerosol effects on the diurnal, weekly and decadal variations in thunderstorm activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol can affect atmospheric convection, cloud and precipitation in a variety of means by altering energy balance at the surface and in the atmospheric column, and by altering cloud micro- and macro-physical properties. The effects are often contingent upon meteorological variables and aerosol properties. By reducing surface energy budget, aerosol tends to suppress convection, but aerosol-induced heating in the lower atmosphere can destabilize the upper atmosphere and strengthen convection. Aerosol-induced altering cloud microphysics may also suppress or invigorate cloud development pending on various factors. In this talk, I will illustrate how aerosols likely contribute to the thunderstorm variability on three distinct time scales from diurnal, weekly to decadal and how different types of aerosols and varying meteorological conditions may affect with the observed trends. I will first demonstrate the opposite effects of conservative scattering and hygroscopic aerosols versus absorbing and hydrophobic aerosol on the long-term trends of thunderstorms. I will then illustrate that aerosol can have a discernible effect on the weekly cycle of thunderstorms and there is the dependence of the phase of the weekly cycle on aerosol types. Last, I will show how aerosol delays the occurrence of thunderstorms. Of course, the plausible connections are subject to various uncertainties that should be tackled with more rigorous modeling and extensive observation studies.

  17. Analysis of Diurnal, Planetary and Mean Wind Activity using TIMED, MF and Meteor Radar Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Ruth S.; Riggin, Dennis R.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this research are: 1) To validate TIMED Doppler Interferometer (TIDI) winds using ground-based MF and meteor winds; and 2) To examine short-term (i. e., day-to-day and week-to-week) variability of the diurnal tide. This objective was to have originally been met using comparisons of short-term diurnal tidal determinations from ground-based (GB) winds with planetary-scale diurnal nonmigrating tidal definitions from TIDI winds.

  18. Effects of diurnal bright/dim light intensity on circadian core temperature and activity rhythms in the Japanese macaque.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Nana; Nigi, Hideo; Tokura, Hiromi

    2002-12-01

    Circadian rhythms of core temperature and activity were studied using three Japanese macaques under influences of two different light intensities during the daytime. Nocturnal core temperature and activity onset time were lower and advanced, respectively, in bright as compared to dim light. These results suggest the possibility that diurnal bright light could influence the circadian organization.

  19. Relationships between diurnal blood pressure variation, physical activity, and health-related QOL.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yasuko; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Tochikubo, Osamu; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Kihara, Minoru; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the associations between diurnal blood pressure variation, physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Ninety-seven volunteers, including 52 hypertensive patients and 45 healthy subjects (average age, 48 years) participated in this study. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured using TM2425 (A&D Co). Physical activity was measured using actigraphy, and HRQOL was assessed by a Medical Outcome Study Short-Forum 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). Awake mean physical activity positively correlated with the nocturnal dip in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.242, p < 0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (r = 0.219, p < 0.04). The score of physical functioning positively correlated with awake mean physical activity (r = 0.265, p < 0.02). The score of role-emotional also correlated with awake mean physical activity (r = 0.269, p = 0.01). Using multiple regression analysis, the nocturnal dip in SBP was found to be correlated with awake and sleep mean physical activities (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, physical activity is associated with the nocturnal dip in blood pressure. Moreover, physical activity correlates with some of the factors of HRQOL.

  20. Diurnal Variation in Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Activity in the United States Population

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Goals & Background Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity has been reported to be greater in the afternoon than the early morning, but data are scarce. We examined diurnal variation of ALT in a national population-based sample. Study Participants in the 1999–2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were randomly assigned to morning (AM) (n=4,474 adolescents, 11,235 adults) or afternoon/evening (PM) (n=4,887 adolescents, 11,735 adults) examinations. We examined ALT distributions graphically and compared both geometric mean ALT and the prevalence of elevated ALT, defined as >31 IU/L for adolescent boys, >24 IU/L for adolescent girls, >43 IU/L for adult men and >30 IU/L for adult women, between AM and PM examination groups. Results The examination groups were similar with the exception in the AM group of a longer fasting time and slightly higher prevalence of diabetes among adolescents and viral hepatitis B among adult women. ALT distributions were similar between examination sessions among the four groups. Among adolescents and men, neither mean ALT nor prevalence of abnormal ALT differed by examination group. Among women, mean ALT was statistically significantly, but minimally higher in the PM (19.6 IU/L) than the AM group (19.1 IU/L; p=0.009). Among one subgroup, women with chronic viral hepatitis, there was a higher prevalence of abnormal ALT in the PM (p=0.018 in unadjusted analysis). Adjusting for liver injury risk factors had little effect on the difference in mean ALT. Conclusions In general, clinically significant diurnal variation in ALT activity was not found in the U.S. population. PMID:23164687

  1. Influence of diurnal cycles on metal concentrations and loads in streams draining abandoned mine lands: an example from High Ore Creek, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Milodragovich, Lica; Belanger-Woods, Jodi

    2007-11-01

    Diurnal water samples were collected simultaneously at four locations along High Ore Creek (Montana, USA), a small stream with near-neutral pH that contains elevated concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cd, and As from abandoned mines near its headwaters. During the same time period, two sets of synoptic samples were collected by workers moving in opposite directions along the stream. Large diurnal fluctuations in Zn concentration were found at three of the 24-h monitoring stations, but not at the outlet to a settling pond. Because the concentrations of Zn were dropping at most locations in the creek during the day (in response to the daily cycle of day-time attenuation and night-time release), the synoptic sampler who moved upstream obtained a data set that led to the conclusion that Zn load increased with distance downstream. The sampler who moved in a downstream direction obtained the opposite results. Thus, failure to take short-term diurnal cycling into account can lead to incorrect conclusions regarding spatial or temporal trends in water quality within a watershed.

  2. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  3. SEASONAL AND DIURNAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) COMMUNITIES IN A VEGETATION TRANSITION REGION OF SOUTHEASTERN NEW MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The densities of active ant colonies were estimated in three habitats: creosotebush shrubland, grassland, and shinnery-oak mesquite dunes. Diurnal foraging patterns were studied at bait boards. Species richness of ant communities in this transitional region (8-12 species) was co...

  4. Diurnal variations of saltation activity at Tazhong: the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinghua; He, Qing; Mamtimin, Ali; Huo, Wen; Liu, Xinchun

    2013-02-01

    The Taklimakan Desert of China is a region of frequent sandstorms and, thus, is a major sand and dust source area. Tazhong, a small mining village, is located near the center of the Taklimakan Desert at a distance of 220 km from the desert margins. Near Tazhong, we conducted a 2-year field investigation designed to monitor the diurnal variation of saltation activity using fast-responding piezoelectric saltation sensors (Sensits). Results suggest that saltation activity tends to occur more frequently during daytime in all seasons, relatively high levels of saltation activity are maintained from around 11:30 to around 16:30 local standard time (LST), because of stronger wind speed, higher soil temperature and lower relative humidity. During the spring and summer seasons, the saltation activity can occur at any time of the day, while there are some periods with zero saltation seconds at night and in the early morning during autumn and winter seasons. The results confirm that sandstorms tend to occur more frequently during daylight hours, so it may be helpful to forecast and guard against the occurrence of blowing sand or sandstorms in the Taklimakan Desert.

  5. Fos expression in the sleep-active cell group of the ventrolateral preoptic area in the diurnal murid rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Novak, C M; Smale, L; Nunez, A A

    1999-02-13

    The ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) of the nocturnal laboratory rat receives direct input from the retina and is active during sleep; however, nothing is known about VLPO function in day-active (diurnal) species. In the first study, we used 24-h videotaping of Arvicanthis niloticus, a diurnal murid rodent, to estimate the distribution of sleep and wakefulness across a 12:12 light-dark cycle. Based on behavioral data, A. niloticus were perfused at a time when the animals are inactive (zeitgeber time (ZT) 20) or at a time when they are awake and active (ZT 23). The brains were processed for immunocytochemistry for Fos, an immediate early gene product used as an index of neural activity. Animals had more Fos-immunoreactive (Fos+) cells in the VLPO at ZT 20 than at ZT 23. The pattern of change in Fos expression seen in this area suggest that the VLPO serves the same function in A. niloticus as in rats. Eye injections of cholera toxin (beta subunit) were used to identify the retinal inputs to the VLPO of A. niloticus. In these animals, the VLPO had only very sparse retinal inputs compared to the rat. Together, these results raise the possibility that inputs from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) or the retina affect neuronal activity in the VLPO differently in rats and A. niloticus, thereby, contributing to differences in their sleep/wake patterns. PMID:10082823

  6. Stellar activity cycles and asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.

    2011-12-01

    The success of helioseismology is due to its capability to accurately measure the p-mode parameters of the solar eigenmode spectrum, which allow us to infer unique information about the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun from its surface all the way down to the core. It has contributed greatly to a clearer understanding of the Sun and provided insights into the complex solar magnetism, by means for instance of the variability of the characteristics of the p-mode spectrum. Indeed, variations in the mean strength of the solar magnetic field lead to significant shifts in the frequencies of even the lowest-degree p modes with high levels of correlation with solar surface activity proxies. These frequency shifts are explained to arise from structural changes in the outer layers of the Sun during the 11-year activity cycle, which is understood to be driven by a dynamo process. However, clear differences between p-mode frequencies and solar surface activity during the unusually extended minimum of cycle 23 were observed. The origin of the p-mode variability is thus far from being properly understood and a better comprehension of its relationship with solar and stellar activity cycles will help us in our understanding of the dynamo processes. Spectroscopic measurements of Ca H and K emission lines revealed magnetic activity variations in a large sample of solar-type stars with timescales ranging from 2.5 and 25 years. This broad range of cycle periods is thought to reflect differences in the rotational properties and the depths of the surface convection zones with various masses and ages. However, spectroscopic measurements are only good proxies of surface magnetic fields. The recent discovery of variations with magnetic activity in the p-mode oscillation frequencies of the solar-like star HD 49933 observed by CoRoT, with a frequency dependence comparable in shape to the one observed in the Sun, opens a new era in the study of the physical phenomena involved in the

  7. Diurnal changes in the xanthophyll cycle pigments of freshwater algae correlate with the environmental hydrogen peroxide concentration rather than non-photochemical quenching

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Thomas; Miller, Ramona; Aigner, Siegfried; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In photosynthetic organisms exposure to high light induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in part is prevented by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). As one of the most stable and longest-lived ROS, H2O2 is involved in key signalling pathways in development and stress responses, although in excess it can induce damage. A ubiquitous response to high light is the induction of the xanthophyll cycle, but its role in algae is unclear as it is not always associated with NPQ induction. The aim of this study was to reveal how diurnal changes in the level of H2O2 are regulated in a freshwater algal community. Methods A natural freshwater community of algae in a temporary rainwater pool was studied, comprising photosynthetic Euglena species, benthic Navicula diatoms, Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species. Diurnal measurements were made of photosynthetic performance, concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and H2O2. The frequently studied model organisms Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species were isolated to study photosynthesis-related H2O2 responses to high light. Key Results NPQ was shown to prevent H2O2 release in Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species under high light; in addition, dissolved organic carbon excited by UV-B radiation was probably responsible for a part of the H2O2 produced in the water column. Concentrations of H2O2 peaked at 2 µm at midday and algae rapidly scavenged H2O2 rather than releasing it. A vertical H2O2 gradient was observed that was lowest next to diatom-rich benthic algal mats. The diurnal changes in photosynthetic pigments included the violaxanthin and diadinoxanthin cycles; the former was induced prior to the latter, but neither was strictly correlated with NPQ. Conclusions The diurnal cycling of H2O2 was apparently modulated by the organisms in this freshwater algal community. Although the community showed flexibility in its levels of NPQ, the diurnal changes in

  8. Foraging Activity Pattern Is Shaped by Water Loss Rates in a Diurnal Desert Rodent.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Porter, Warren P; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2016-08-01

    Although animals fine-tune their activity to avoid excess heat, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of such behaviors. As the global climate changes, such understanding is particularly important for projecting shifts in the activity patterns of populations and communities. We studied how foraging decisions vary with biotic and abiotic pressures. By tracking the foraging behavior of diurnal desert spiny mice in their natural habitat and estimating the energy and water costs and benefits of foraging, we asked how risk management and thermoregulatory requirements affect foraging decisions. We found that water requirements had the strongest effect on the observed foraging decisions. In their arid environment, mice often lose water while foraging for seeds and cease foraging even at high energetic returns when water loss is high. Mice also foraged more often when energy expenditure was high and for longer times under high seed densities and low predation risks. Gaining insight into both energy and water balance will be crucial to understanding the forces exerted by changing climatic conditions on animal energetics, behavior, and ecology. PMID:27420785

  9. Diurnal and nocturnal activity budgets of zoo elephants in an outdoor facility.

    PubMed

    Horback, Kristina M; Miller, Lance J; Andrews, Jeff R M; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the activity budgets of 15 African elephants (1 bull, 6 cows, 2 male juveniles, 2 female juveniles, and 4 male calves) living at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park during the summers of 2010 and 2011. Onsite behavioral data (n = 600 hr) were collected for approximately 12 weeks from 0400 to 0830 and 1100 to 2400 during the 2010 and 2011 summer season. Foraging was the most common behavior state during the day followed by resting, and walking. During the evening hours, the elephants spent majority of their time foraging, resting, and sleeping. The average rate of self-maintenance behavior events (dust, wallow, etc.) increased from 0600 to 0700, 1100 to 1500, and from 1700 to 1900. Positive social behavior events (touch other, play, etc.) remained high from 0500 to 2300, with peaks at 0600, 1300, 1500, and 1900. Negative social events occurred at low rates throughout the day and night, with peaks at 0600, 1900, and 2200. The majority of positive behavior events during the daylight and nighttime hours involved the mother-calf pairs. Furthermore, the calves and juveniles initiated approximately 60% of all social events during the daytime and 57% of all social interactions at night. The results of this study demonstrate the differences between diurnal and nocturnal activity budgets of a multi-age and sex elephant herd in a zoological facility, which highlights the importance of managing elephants to meet their 24 hr behavioral needs.

  10. Diurnal and nocturnal activity budgets of zoo elephants in an outdoor facility.

    PubMed

    Horback, Kristina M; Miller, Lance J; Andrews, Jeff R M; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the activity budgets of 15 African elephants (1 bull, 6 cows, 2 male juveniles, 2 female juveniles, and 4 male calves) living at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park during the summers of 2010 and 2011. Onsite behavioral data (n = 600 hr) were collected for approximately 12 weeks from 0400 to 0830 and 1100 to 2400 during the 2010 and 2011 summer season. Foraging was the most common behavior state during the day followed by resting, and walking. During the evening hours, the elephants spent majority of their time foraging, resting, and sleeping. The average rate of self-maintenance behavior events (dust, wallow, etc.) increased from 0600 to 0700, 1100 to 1500, and from 1700 to 1900. Positive social behavior events (touch other, play, etc.) remained high from 0500 to 2300, with peaks at 0600, 1300, 1500, and 1900. Negative social events occurred at low rates throughout the day and night, with peaks at 0600, 1900, and 2200. The majority of positive behavior events during the daylight and nighttime hours involved the mother-calf pairs. Furthermore, the calves and juveniles initiated approximately 60% of all social events during the daytime and 57% of all social interactions at night. The results of this study demonstrate the differences between diurnal and nocturnal activity budgets of a multi-age and sex elephant herd in a zoological facility, which highlights the importance of managing elephants to meet their 24 hr behavioral needs. PMID:25113850

  11. The pulse of a montane ecosystem: coupled diurnal cycles in solar flux, snowmelt, evapotranspiration, groundwater, and streamflow at Sagehen Creek (Sierra Nevada, California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, James

    2016-04-01

    Forested catchments in the subalpine snow zone provide interesting opportunities to study the interplay between energy and water fluxes under seasonally variable degrees of forcing by transpiration and snowmelt. In such catchments, diurnal cycles in solar flux drive snowmelt and evapotranspiration, which in turn lead to diurnal cycles (with opposing phases) in groundwater levels. These in turn are linked to diurnal cycles in stream stage and discharge, which potentially provide a spatially integrated measure of snowmelt and evapotranspiration rates in the surrounding landscape. Here I analyze ecohydrological controls on diurnal stream and groundwater fluctuations induced by snowmelt and evapotranspiration (ET) at Sagehen Creek, in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. There is a clear 6-hour lag between radiation forcing and the stream or groundwater response. This is not a travel-time delay, but instead a 90-degree dynamical phase lag arising from the integro-differential relationship between groundwater storage and recharge, ET, and streamflow. The time derivative of groundwater levels is strongly positively correlated with solar flux during snowmelt periods, reflecting snowmelt recharge to the riparian aquifer during daytime. Conversely, this derivative is strongly negatively correlated with solar flux during snow-free summer months, reflecting transpiration withdrawals from the riparian aquifer. As the snow cover disappears, the correlation between the solar flux and the time derivative of groundwater levels abruptly shifts from positive (snowmelt dominance) to negative (ET dominance). During this transition, the groundwater cycles briefly vanish when the opposing forcings (snowmelt and ET) are of equal magnitude, and thus cancel each other out. Stream stage fluctuations integrate these relationships over the altitude range of the catchment. Rates of rise and fall in stream stage are positively correlated with solar flux when the whole catchment is snow

  12. Mouse aldehyde-oxidase-4 controls diurnal rhythms, fat deposition and locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Mineko; Barzago, Maria Monica; Kurosaki, Mami; Fratelli, Maddalena; Bolis, Marco; Borsotti, Andrea; Bigini, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bagnati, Renzo; Passoni, Alice; Pastorelli, Roberta; Brunelli, Laura; Toschi, Ivan; Cesari, Valentina; Sanoh, Seigo; Garattini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde-oxidase-4 (AOX4) is one of the mouse aldehyde oxidase isoenzymes and its physiological function is unknown. The major source of AOX4 is the Harderian-gland, where the enzyme is characterized by daily rhythmic fluctuations. Deletion of the Aox4 gene causes perturbations in the expression of the circadian-rhythms gene pathway, as indicated by transcriptomic analysis. AOX4 inactivation alters the diurnal oscillations in the expression of master clock-genes. Similar effects are observed in other organs devoid of AOX4, such as white adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus indicating a systemic action. While perturbations of clock-genes is sex-independent in the Harderian-gland and hypothalamus, sex influences this trait in liver and white-adipose-tissue which are characterized by the presence of AOX isoforms other than AOX4. In knock-out animals, perturbations in clock-gene expression are accompanied by reduced locomotor activity, resistance to diet induced obesity and to hepatic steatosis. All these effects are observed in female and male animals. Resistance to obesity is due to diminished fat accumulation resulting from increased energy dissipation, as white-adipocytes undergo trans-differentiation towards brown-adipocytes. Metabolomics and enzymatic data indicate that 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and tryptophan are novel endogenous AOX4 substrates, potentially involved in AOX4 systemic actions. PMID:27456060

  13. The Diurnal Cycle of Particle Sizes, Compositions, and Densities observed in Sacramento, CA during CARES Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beránek, J.; Vaden, T.; Imre, D. G.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2010-12-01

    A central objective of the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was to characterize unequivocally all aspects related to organics in aerosols. To this end, a range of instruments measured loadings, size distributions, compositions, densities, CCN activities, and optical properties of aerosol sampled in Sacramento, CA over the month of June 2010. We present the results of measurements conducted by our single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT. SPLAT was used to measure the size, composition, and density of individual particles with diameters between 50 to 2000 nm. SPLAT measured the vacuum aerodynamic diameters (dva) of more than 2 million particles and the compositions of ~350,000 particles, each day. In addition, SPLAT was used in combination with a differential mobility analyzer to measure the density, or effective density of individual particles. These measurements were typically conducted twice per day: in the morning, and mid-afternoon. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that under most conditions, the particles were relatively small (below 200 nm), and the vast majority of them were composed of oxygenated organics mixed with various amounts of sulfates. Analysis of the mass spectra shows that the oxygenated organics in these particles are the oxidized products of biogenic volatile organic precursors. In addition to particles composed of SOA mixed with sulfates, we detected and characterized fresh and processed soot particles, biomass burning aerosol, organic amines, sea salt - fresh and processed - and a small number of dust and other inorganic particles, commonly found in urban environment. SOA mixed with sulfates were the vast majority of particles at all times, while the other particle types exhibited episodic behavior. The data shows a reproducible diurnal pattern in SOA size distributions, number concentrations, and compositions. Early in the morning the particle number concentrations are relatively low, and the particle size

  14. CRTC2 activation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but not paraventricular nucleus, varies in a diurnal fashion and increases with nighttime light exposure

    PubMed Central

    Highland, Julie A.; Weiser, Michael J.; Hinds, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Entrainment of the intrinsic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) molecular clock to the light-dark cycle depends on photic-driven intracellular signal transduction responses of SCN neurons that converge on cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated regulation of gene transcription. Characterization of the CREB coactivator proteins CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs) has revealed a greater degree of differential activity-dependent modulation of CREB transactivational function than previously appreciated. In confirmation of recent reports, we found an enrichment of crtc2 mRNA and prominent CRTC2 protein expression within the SCN of adult male rats. With use of a hypothalamic organotypic culture preparation for initial CRTC2-reactive antibody characterization, we found that CRTC2 immunoreactivity in hypothalamic neurons shifted from a predominantly cytoplasmic profile under basal culture conditions to a primarily nuclear localization (CRTC2 activation) 30 min after adenylate cyclase stimulation. In adult rat SCN, we found a diurnal variation in CRTC2 activation (peak at zeitgeber time of 4 h and trough at zeitgeber time of 16–20 h) but no variation in the total number of CRTC2-immunoreactive cells. There was no diurnal variation of CRTC2 activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, another site of enriched CRTC2 expression. Exposure of rats to light (50 lux) for 30 min during the second half of their dark (nighttime) phase produced CRTC2 activation. We observed in the SCN a parallel change in the expression of a CREB-regulated gene (FOS). In contrast, nighttime light exposure had no effect on CRTC2 activation or FOS expression in the paraventricular nucleus, nor did it affect corticosterone hormone levels. These results suggest that CRTC2 participates in CREB-dependent photic entrainment of SCN function. PMID:25080490

  15. Diurnal variation in the fraction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the active form in the mammary gland of the lactating rat.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R A; Middleton, B; West, D W

    1986-01-01

    'Expressed' and 'total' activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) were measured in freeze-clamped samples of mammary glands from lactating rats at intervals throughout the 24 h light/dark cycle. 'Expressed' activities were measured in microsomal fractions isolated and assayed in the presence of 100 mM-KF. 'Total' activities were determined in microsomal preparations from the same homogenates but washed free of KF and incubated with exogenously added sheep liver phosphoprotein phosphatase before assay. Both 'expressed' and 'total' activities of HMG-CoA reductase underwent a diurnal cycle, which had a major peak 6 h into the light phase and a nadir 15 h later, i.e. 9 h into the dark period. Both activities showed a secondary peak of activity (around 68% of the maximum activity) at the time of changeover from dark to light, with a trough in the value of the 'expressed' activity that was close to the nadir value. 'Expressed' activity was lower than 'total' at all time points, indicating the presence of enzyme molecules inactivated by covalent phosphorylation. Nevertheless the 'expressed'/'total' activity ratio was comparatively constant and varied only between 43% and 75%. Immunotitration of enzyme activity, with antiserum raised in sheep against purified rat liver HMG-CoA reductase, confirmed the presence of both active and inactive forms of the enzyme and indicated that at the peak and nadir the variation in 'expressed' HMG-CoA reductase activity resulted from changes in the total number of enzyme molecules rather than from covalent modification. The sample obtained after 3 h of the light phase exhibited an anomalously low 'total' HMG-CoA reductase activity, which could be increased when Cl- replaced F- in the homogenization medium. The result suggests that at that time the activity of the enzyme could be regulated by mechanisms other than covalent phosphorylation or degradation. PMID:3814075

  16. Large-eddy simulation of the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer and influence of the radiative forcing during the Wangara experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Ozzo, Cédric; Carissimo, Bertrand; Milliez, Maya; Musson-Genon, Luc; Dupont, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The ability to simulate the whole diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer in order to study the complex turbulent structures remains a difficult topic. Consequently large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed with the open source CFD code Code_Saturne [Archambeau et al., 2004]. First the code is validated on an atmospheric convective case [Schmidt and Schumann, 1989] where different subgrid-scale (SGS) models are compared: two non-dynamical SGS models [Smagorinsky, 1963] [Nicoud and Ducros, 1999] and two dynamical SGS models [Germano et al., 1991 ; Lilly, 1992] [Wong and Lilly, 1994]. Then LES are performed to simulate the whole diurnal cycle of the Wangara experiment (Day 33-34). The results are compared to measurements , RANS "k-ɛ" model and other LES performed by [Basu et al., 2008] using a locally averaged scale-dependent dynamic (LASDD) SGS model. Thereafter the influence of the radiative forcing on the atmosphere is studied testing several SGS models. The results are especially discussed on nocturnal low level jet and potential temperature gradient in the stable boundary layer. References: [Archambeau et al., 2004] Archambeau F., Mehitoua N., Sakiz M. (2004). Code_Saturne: a finite volume code for the computation of turbulent incompressible flows. International Journal on Finite Volumes 1(1). [Basu et al., 2008] Basu S., Vinuesa J. F., and Swift A. (2008). Dynamic LES modeling of a diurnal cycle. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47 :1156-1174. [Germano et al., 1991] Germano M., Piomelli U., Moin P., and Cabot W. H. (1991). A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy-viscosity model. Physics of Fluids, A3 :1760-1765. [Lilly, 1992] Lilly D. K. (1992). A proposed modification of the Germano subgrid-scale closure method. Physics of Fluids, A 4 :633-635. [Schmidt and Schumann, 1989] Schmidt H. and Schumann U. (1989). Coherent structure of the convective boundary layer derived from lage-eddy simulation. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 200 :511-562. [Smagorinsky

  17. Diurnal time-activity budgets of redheads (Aythya americana) wintering in seagrass beds and coastal ponds in Louisiana and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michot, T.C.; Woodin, M.C.; Adair, S.E.; Moser, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    Diurnal time-activity budgets were determined for wintering redheads (Aythya americana) from estuarine seagrass beds in Louisiana (Chandeleur Sound) and Texas (Laguna Madre) and from ponds adjacent to the Laguna Madre. Activities differed (p<0.0001) by location, month, and diurnal time period. Resting and feeding were the most frequent activities of redheads at the two estuarine sites, whereas drinking was almost nonexistent. Birds on ponds in Texas engaged most frequently in resting and drinking, but feeding was very infrequent. Redheads from the Louisiana estuarine site rested less than birds in Texas at either the Laguna Madre or freshwater ponds. Redheads in Louisiana fed more than birds in Texas; this was partially because of weather differences (colder temperatures in Louisiana), but the location effect was still significant even when we adjusted the model for weather effects. Redheads in Louisiana showed increased resting and decreased feeding as winter progressed, but redheads in Texas did not exhibit a seasonal pattern in either resting or feeding. In Louisiana, birds maintained a high level of feeding activity during the early morning throughout the winter, whereas afternoon feeding tapered off in mid- to late-winter. Texas birds showed a shift from morning feeding in early winter to afternoon feeding in late winter. Males and females at both Chandeleur Sound and Laguna Madre showed differences in their activities, but because the absolute difference seldom exceeded 2%, biological significance is questionable. Diurnal time-activity budgets of redheads on the wintering grounds are influenced by water salinities and the use of dietary fresh water, as well as by weather conditions, tides, and perhaps vegetation differences between sites. The opportunity to osmoregulate via dietary freshwater, vs. via nasal salt glands, may have a significant effect on behavioral allocations. ?? Springer 2006.

  18. Comparison of Infant and Adult Rats in Exploratory Activity, Diurnal Patterns, and Responses to Novel and Anxiety-Provoking Environments

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2008-01-01

    Infant rats emerge from the maternal nest at Postnatal Day 17–18 to have their first critical environmental experiences; they may be particularly sensitive to experiences or experimental interventions that can affect their adult capacity. The authors address open questions on 2 components of normative environmental exploration, locomotor activity and response to anxiety-provoking locations, in Postnatal Day 18 infant and Postnatal Day 60 adult rats. The authors compare diurnal patterns of locomotor activity, wheel running, novel and familiar open-field activity, and 2 measures of anxiety. Infants have an equivalent capacity to adults for locomotor activity and wheel running and a fundamentally adult-like diurnal rhythm, except that they do not anticipate light–dark transitions, are more perturbable at their most somnolent, and are more or less active during specific limited phases than adults. Infants initially have a lower rate of locomotor activity in novel environments and have a greater willingness to be active in anxiety-provoking locations. Such differences may allow enhanced gathering of environmental information by the infant and are important to consider in the design of experiments using infants. PMID:17592936

  19. Four years of CO2 and meteorological measurements in Mataró (Catalonia, Spain). An example of the CO2 diurnal cycles in a Mediterranean coastal city.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcoll Masanes, Roger; Font, Anna; Comerma, Marta; Morguí, Josep-Anton; Àgueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Cañas, Lidia; Grossi, Claudia; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Since November 2009, in collaboration with the science section of the Mataró Museum, IC3 is measuring CO2 concentration in the roof of this museum using a calibrated infrared (IR) analyzer (GMP343 Vaisala Carbocap®). The measurements began within the frame of the CarboSchools project (EU Science in Society programme). Meteorological variables (ambient temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, barometric pressure, wind direction and wind speed) are also measured with a Davis Vantage Pro2 Station. The Mataró Museum is located in the Mediterranean coastal city of Mataró (41.540174° N, 2.445486° E), 25 Km north-east of Barcelona. The in-situ meteorological data (pressure, temperature and humidity) is used to adjust the settings of the GMP343 every minute to calculate CO2 concentration. From late 2009 to 2012 CO2 data was calibrated using integrated discrete flask samples that were collected fortnightly and then measured using an optical analyzer (Licor-7000). From 2013 onwards CO2 GMP343 data has been calibrated by data inter-comparison with a Picarro G2301. Both the Picarro G2301 and the Licor-7000 analyzers were calibrated and referred to the International Scale using a scale strategy with seven NOAA reference cylinders. The dataset shows that CO2 signal in the coastal city of Mataró is regulated by the periodic land-sea breezes and the local emissions. The CO2 variability along the year (diurnal and seasonal CO2 signal) responds to the variability of the influence of the sea-land breezes, the contribution of the land and the sea ecosystems in the CO2 cycle and the variability of anthropogenic emissions Finally the CO2 data from Mataró is compared with the CO2 time series from other stations which have the same equipment but are located in different ecosystems. The other stations presented here are (1) DEC3: Located at the Ebre River Delta in a coastal and agricultural area. This station is also provided with GC and Picarro instrumentation and is part of

  20. The effect of sulfate concentration on (sub)millimeter-scale sulfide δ 34S in hypersaline cyanobacterial mats over the diurnal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fike, David A.; Finke, Niko; Zha, Jessica; Blake, Garrett; Hoehler, Tori M.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2009-10-01

    Substantial isotopic fractionations are associated with many microbial sulfur metabolisms and measurements of the bulk δ 34S isotopic composition of sulfur species (predominantly sulfates and/or sulfides) have been a key component in developing our understanding of both modern and ancient biogeochemical cycling. However, the interpretations of bulk δ 34S measurements are often non-unique, making reconstructions of paleoenvironmental conditions or microbial ecology challenging. In particular, the link between the μm-scale microbial activity that generates isotopic signatures and their eventual preservation as a bulk rock value in the geologic record has remained elusive, in large part because of the difficulty of extracting sufficient material at small scales. Here we investigate the potential for small-scale (˜100 μm-1 cm) δ 34S variability to provide additional constraints for environmental and/or ecological reconstructions. We have investigated the impact of sulfate concentrations (0.2, 1, and 80 mM SO 4) on the δ 34S composition of hydrogen sulfide produced over the diurnal (day/night) cycle in cyanobacterial mats from Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Sulfide was captured as silver sulfide on the surface of a 2.5 cm metallic silver disk partially submerged beneath the mat surface. Subsequent analyses were conducted on a Cameca 7f-GEO secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) to record spatial δ 34S variability within the mats under different environmental conditions. Isotope measurements were made in a 2-dimensional grid for each incubation, documenting both lateral and vertical isotopic variation within the mats. Typical grids consisted of ˜400-800 individual measurements covering a lateral distance of ˜1 mm and a vertical depth of ˜5-15 mm. There is a large isotopic enrichment (˜10-20‰) in the uppermost mm of sulfide in those mats where [SO 4] was non-limiting (field and lab incubations at 80 mM). This is attributed to rapid recycling of

  1. Influence of menarche on the relation between diurnal cortisol production and ventral striatum activity during reward anticipation

    PubMed Central

    LeMoult, Joelle; Colich, Natalie L.; Sherdell, Lindsey; Hamilton, J. Paul; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by an increase in risk-taking and reward-seeking behaviors. In other populations, increased risk taking has been associated with tighter coupling between cortisol production and ventral striatum (VS) activation during reward anticipation; this relation has not yet been examined, however, as a function of adolescent development. This study examined the influence of pubertal development on the association between diurnal cortisol production and VS activity during reward anticipation. Pre- and post-menarcheal girls collected diurnal cortisol and completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging-based monetary incentive delay task, from which we extracted estimates of VS activity during the anticipation of reward, anticipation of loss and anticipation of non-incentive neutral trials. Post-menarcheal girls showed greater coupling between the cortisol awakening response and VS activation during anticipation of reward and loss than did their pre-menarcheal counterparts. Post-menarcheal girls did not differ from pre-menarcheal girls in their cortisol-VS coupling during anticipation of neutral trials, suggesting that puberty-related changes in cortisol-VS coupling are specific to affective stimuli. Interestingly, behavioral responses during the task indicate that post-menarcheal girls are faster to engage with affective stimuli than are pre-menarcheal girls. Thus, post-menarcheal girls exhibit neurobiological and behavioral patterns that have been associated with risk taking and that may underlie the dramatic increase in risk-taking behavior documented during adolescence. PMID:25678549

  2. Photoregulation of Biological Activity by Photochromic Reagents, IV. A Model for Diurnal Variation of Enzymic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Bieth, Joseph; Wassermann, Norbert; Vratsanos, Spyros M.; Erlanger, Bernard F.

    1970-01-01

    Levels of acetylcholinesterase activity can be made to vary in response to the presence or absence of sunlight in a system that can be considered as a model for photoperiodic processes found in nature. The enzyme is rendered photosensitive by the presence of a photochromic inhibitor, N-p-phenylazophenylcarbamyl choline, which changes from a trans to a cis isomer under the influence of the light of the sun and reverts back to the trans isomer in the dark. The two isomers differ in their ability acetylcholinesterase, thus rendering the enzyme system responsive to sunlight. The relationship of this system to photoresponsive processes in nature is discussed, and a possible role in photoregulation is suggested for naturally occurring carotenoids. PMID:5269248

  3. On the diurnal cycle of urban aerosols, black carbon and the occurrence of new particle formation events in springtime São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Hakala, J.; Nieminen, T.; Manninen, H. E.; Morais, F.; Aalto, P. P.; Siivola, E.; Carbone, S.; Hillamo, R.; Artaxo, P.; Virkkula, A.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.

    2012-12-01

    Large conurbations are a significant source of the anthropogenic pollution and demographic differences between cities that result in a different pollution burden. The metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP, population 20 million) accounts for one fifth of the Brazilian vehicular fleet. A feature of MASP is the amount of ethanol used by the vehicular fleet, known to exacerbate air quality. The study describes the diurnal behaviour of the submicron aerosol and relies on total particle number concentration, particle number size distribution, light scattering and light absorption measurements. Modelled planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth and air mass movement data were used to aid the interpretation. During morning rush-hour, stagnant air and a shallow PBL height favour the accumulation of aerosol pollution. During clear-sky conditions, there was a wind shift towards the edge of the city indicating a heat island effect with implications on particulate pollution levels at the site. The median total particle number concentration for the submicron aerosol typically varied in the range 1.6 × 104-3.2 × 104 cm-3 frequently exceeding 4 × 104 cm-3 during the day. During weekdays, nucleation-mode particles are responsible for most of the particles by numbers. The highest concentrations of total particle number concentrations and black carbon (BC) were observed on Fridays. Median diurnal values for light absorption and light scattering (at 637 nm wavelength) varied in the range 12-33 Mm-1 and 21-64 Mm-1, respectively. The former one is equal to 1.8-5.0 μg m-3 of BC. The growth of the PBL, from the morning rush-hour until noon, is consistent with the diurnal cycle of BC mass concentrations. Weekday hourly median single-scattering albedo (ω0) varied in the range 0.59-0.76. Overall, this suggests a top of atmosphere (TOA) warming effect. However, considering the low surface reflectance of urban areas, for the given range of ω0, the TOA radiative forcing can be either positive

  4. Adult Female Rats Altered Diurnal Locomotor Activity Pattern Following Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T.; Kohllepin, S; Yang, P.B.; Burau, K.D.; Dafny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed pharmacological agents and also used as cognitive enhancement and for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the repetitive dose-response effects of MPD on rhythm locomotor activity pattern of female WKY rats and compare to prior study done on male. The hypothesis is that change in the circadian activity pattern indicates a long-lasting effect of the drug. Four animal groups (saline control, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD dose groups) were housed in a sound-controlled room at 12:12 light/dark cycle. All received saline injections on experimental day 1 (ED 1). On EDs 2-7, the control group received saline injection; the other groups received 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg MPD, respectively. On ED 8-10, injections were withheld. On ED 11, each group received the same dose as EDs 2-7. Hourly histograms and cosine statistical analyses calculating the acrophase (ϕ), amplitude (A), and MESOR (M) were applied to assess the 24-hour circadian activity pattern. The 0.6 and 2.5 mg/kg MPD groups exhibited significant (p<0.05) change in their circadian activity pattern on ED 11. The 10.0 mg/kg MPD group exhibited tolerance on ED 11 and also a significant change in activity pattern on ED 8 compared to ED 1, consistent with withdrawal behavior (p<0.007). In conclusion, chronic MPD administration alters circadian locomotor activity of adult female WKY rats and confirms that chronic MPD use elicits long lasting effects PMID:23893293

  5. Interferon-α effects on diurnal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity: relationship with proinflammatory cytokines and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Raison, CL; Borisov, AS; Woolwine, BJ; Massung, Breanne; Vogt, G; Miller, AH

    2012-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-α has been used to investigate pathways by which innate immune cytokines influence the brain and behavior. Accordingly, the impact of IFN-α on diurnal secretion of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis hormones was assessed in 33 patients eligible for treatment with IFN-α plus ribavirin for hepatitis C. In addition, the relationship between IFN-α-induced HPA axis changes and proinflammatory cytokines and behavior was examined. Plasma ACTH and cortisol as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 and their soluble receptors, were measured hourly between 0900 and 2100 hours at baseline and following approximately 12 weeks of either no treatment (n = 13) or treatment with IFN-α/ribavirin (n = 20). Plasma IFN-α was also measured at each visit. Depression and fatigue were assessed using the Montgomery–Asberg depression rating scale and the multidimensional fatigue inventory. Compared to no treatment, IFN-α/ribavirin administration was associated with significant flattening of the diurnal ACTH and cortisol slope and increased evening plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Flattening of the cortisol slope and increases in evening cortisol were correlated with increases in depression (r = 0.38, P < 0.05 and r = 0.36, P < 0.05, respectively) and fatigue (r = 0.43, P < 0.05 and r = 0.49, P < 0.01, respectively). No relationship was found between immune and HPA axis measures, although increases in plasma IFN-α, TNF-α and soluble TNF-α receptor2 were independently correlated with behavioral endpoints. These data indicate that chronic exposure to innate immune cytokines may contribute to the altered diurnal HPA axis activity and behavior found in medically ill individuals. However, given the lack of correlation between HPA axis and immune measures, the mechanism by which chronic cytokine exposure influences HPA axis function remains to be determined. PMID:18521089

  6. The influence of enclosure design on diurnal activity and stereotypic behaviour in captive Malayan Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus).

    PubMed

    Tan, H M; Ong, S M; Langat, G; Bahaman, A R; Sharma, R S K; Sumita, S

    2013-04-01

    The effect of enclosure design on diurnal activity and stereotypic behaviour was assessed in 17 adult Malayan Sun bears (Helarctos malayanus), kept either in barren indoor enclosures or relatively enriched outdoor enclosures. Locomotion was the most frequent activity observed in the indoor bears, followed by resting. In contrast, conspecifics housed outdoors spent most of the time resting. Eleven forms of stereotypic behaviours were recorded in the bears, with pacing being the most common. The frequency and repertoire of stereotypies were significantly higher in the indoor bears irrespective of enclosure size. Novel forms of locomotor (forward-reverse pacing) and oral (allo-sucking) stereotypies were recorded. Oral stereotypies were predominant in the bears housed indoors, while patrolling was confined to the outdoor bears. Enclosure complexity significantly influences activity budget and occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, highlighting the importance of appropriate enclosure design and enrichment for the welfare of captive bears.

  7. The Hydrologic Cycle Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Danny M.; Goodman, H. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Huntsville, Alabama supports the acquisition, production, archival and dissemination of data relevant to the study of the global hydrologic cycle. This paper describes the Hydrologic Cycle DAAC, surveys its principle data holdings, addresses future growth, and gives information for accessing the data sets.

  8. A quantitative analysis of the effects of activity and time of day on the diurnal variations of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Clark, L A; Denby, L; Pregibon, D; Harshfield, G A; Pickering, T G; Blank, S; Laragh, J H

    1987-01-01

    The effects of activity and time of day on blood pressure (BP) were analyzed in 461 patients with untreated hypertension who wore a noninvasive portable BP recorder which took readings every 15 minutes for 24 hours. Patients recorded activity and location in a diary. The data were analyzed separately for two groups of patients: the 190 who stayed at home and the 271 who went to work. The effects of 16 different activities on BP were estimated by relating the BP to the associated activity and to the individual's clinic BP. Blood pressure was higher at work than at home, but the increment of BP for individual activities was similar in the two locations. The overall effect of activities on BP variability was computed using a one-way analysis of covariance model. For the patients who went to work this model accounted for 40% of the observed variation (R2) for systolic and 39% for diastolic BP. A similar model using time of day instead of activity accounted for 33% of variability in both systolic and diastolic BP. Combining activity and time of day was little better than activity alone (41% for both). After allowing for the effects of activity on BP, where sleep is one of the activities, there was no significant diurnal variation of BP. We conclude that there is no important circadian rhythm of BP which is independent of activity. PMID:3597670

  9. Prematurity, Birth Weight, and Socioeconomic Status Are Linked to Atypical Diurnal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, case-controlled longitudinal design, 180 preterm and fullterm infants who had been enrolled at birth participated in a comprehensive assessment battery at age 23. Of these, 149 young adults, 34 formerly full-term and 115 formerly preterm (22 healthy preterm, 48 with medical complications, 21 with neurological complications, and 24 small for gestational age) donated five saliva samples from a single day that were assayed for cortisol to assess diurnal variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Analyses were conducted to determine whether prematurity category, birth weight, and socioeconomic status were associated with differences in HPA axis function. Pre- and perinatal circumstances associated with prematurity influenced the activity of this environmentally sensitive physiological system. Results are consistent with the theory of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and highlight a possible mechanism for the link between prematurity and health disparities later in life. PMID:26676400

  10. A possible activity cycle in Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincunegui, C.; Díaz, R. F.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Several late-type stars present activity cycles resembling the Solar one. This fact has been observed mostly in stars ranging from F to K, i.e., in stars with a radiative core and an outer convective layer. Aims: This work aims at studying whether an activity cycle can be detected in the dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri, which is supposed to be completely convective. Methods: We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed over 7 years. We discarded the spectra that present flare activity, and analyze the remaining activity levels using four different statistical techniques to look for a period of activity. Results: We find strong evidence of a cyclic activity, with a period of ~442 days. We also estimate that the Ca ~II S index varies around 130% due to activity variations outside of flares.

  11. Lidar and CTIPe model studies of the fast amplitude growth with altitude of the diurnal temperature "tides" in the Antarctic winter lower thermosphere and dependence on geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Weichun; Chu, Xinzhao; Lu, Xian; Chen, Cao; Fuller-Rowell, Timothy J.; Codrescu, Mihail; Richmond, Arthur D.

    2015-02-01

    Four years of lidar observations at McMurdo reveal that the fast amplitude growth with altitude of diurnal temperature tides from 100 to 110 km during Antarctic winters, exceeding that of the freely propagating tides from the lower atmosphere, increases in strength with the Kp magnetic activity index. Simulations with the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics (CTIPe) model reproduce the lidar observations and exhibit concentric ring structures of diurnal amplitudes encircling the south geomagnetic pole and overlapping the auroral zone. These findings point to a magnetospheric source origin. Mechanistic studies using CTIPe show that the adiabatic cooling/heating associated with Hall ion drag is the dominant source of this feature, while Joule heating is a minor contributor due to the counteraction by Joule-heating-induced adiabatic cooling. The sum of total dynamical effects and Joule heating explains ~80% of the diurnal amplitudes. Auroral particle heating, lower atmosphere tides, and direct solar heating have minor contributions.

  12. A possible activity cycle in Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincunegui, C.; Díaz, R. F.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    Several late-type stars (stars with a radiative core and an outer convective layer) present activity cycles resembling the Solar one. This work aims at studying whether an activity cycle can be detected in the dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri, which is supposed to be completely convective. We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed along 7 years. We analize the activity levels to look for a period of activity. We find strong evidence of a cyclic activity, with a period of ˜442 days. We also estimated that the Ca II S index varies around 130% due to activity variations outside of flares.

  13. Observations of Air Quality at the Edge of Kathmandu, Nepal, and the Diurnal Cycle of Air Pollution In and Around the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, A. K.; Prinn, R. G.; Regmi, R. P.

    2006-12-01

    The Kathmandu Valley is a bowl-shaped basin in the Nepal Himalaya, with a rapidly growing city surrounded by rice fields and steep terraced and forested mountain slopes. The valley's air quality is influenced by urban and rural emissions, nocturnal pooling of cold air, slope winds, and a daily exchange of air through mountain passes. To understand these processes and to inform air pollution policy in Nepal, we have carried out the most comprehensive study of air pollution in Nepal to date. During the 9-month dry season of 2004-2005, we carried out continuous measurements every minute of carbon monoxide, ozone, PM10, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, temperature, and humidity on the eastern edge of Kathmandu city, at a site that daily received air from both the city and rural areas. We recorded the diurnal cycle of the vertical temperature structure and stability with temperature loggers on towers and mountains. A sodar measured the mixed layer height and upper-level winds. 24-hour simultaneous bag sampling campaigns on mountain peaks, passes, the rural valley, and within the city provided glimpses of the spatial patterns of the diurnal cycle of CO -- a useful tracer of anthropogenic emissions. We measured winds on mountain passes and ozone on mountain peaks. At our main measurement site we found a daily-recurring pattern of CO and PM10, with an afternoon low showing rural background levels, even though the arriving air had traversed the city. This was followed by an evening peak starting at sunset, a second low late at night, and a morning peak enhanced by re-circulation. Pollutants emitted in the valley only traveled out of the valley between the late morning and sunset. During winter months, rush hour was outside of this period, enhancing the morning and evening peaks. Within the city, ozone dropped to zero at night. At mid-day we observed an ozone peak enhanced by photochemical production when the air mass that had been stagnant over the city swept

  14. The impact of revised simplified Arakawa-Schubert scheme on the simulation of mean and diurnal variability associated with active and break phases of Indian summer monsoon using CFSv2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganai, Malay; Krishna, R. Phani Murali; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Mahakur, M.

    2016-08-01

    The impact of revised simplified Arakawa-Schubert (RSAS) convective parameterization scheme in Climate Forecast System (CFS) version 2 (CFSv2) on the simulation of active and break phases of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) has been investigated. The results revealed that RSAS showed better fidelity in simulating monsoon features from diurnal to daily scales during active and break periods as compared to SAS simulation. Prominent improvement can be noted in simulating diurnal phase of precipitation in RSAS over central India (CI) and equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) region during active periods. The spatial distribution of precipitation largely improved in RSAS simulation during active and break episodes. CFSv2 with SAS simulation has noticeable dry bias over CI and wet bias over EIO region which appeared to be largely reduced in RSAS simulation during both phases of the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO). During active periods, RSAS simulates more realistic probability distribution function (PDF) in good agreement with the observation. The relative improvement has been identified in outgoing longwave radiation, monsoon circulations, and vertical velocities in RSAS over SAS simulation. The improvement of rainfall distribution appears to be contributed by proper simulation of convective rainfall in RSAS. CFSv2 with RSAS simulation is able to simulate observed diurnal cycle of rainfall over CI. It correctly reproduces the time of maximum rainfall over CI. It is found that the improved feedback between moisture and convective processes in RSAS may be attributed to its improved simulation. Besides improvement, RSAS could not reproduce proper tropospheric temperature, cloud hydrometeors over ISM domain which shows the scope for future development.

  15. ChemCam Passive Sky Spectroscopy at Gale Crater: Diurnal and Seasonal cycles of O2, H2O, and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.; Bender, S. C.; Wolff, M. J.; Johnson, J. R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Blaney, D. L.; DeFlores, L. P.; Harri, A. M.; Kemppinen, O.; Genzer, M.; Moores, J.; Wong, M. H.; Trainer, M. G.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.; Franz, H. B.; Barraclough, B. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Lefèvre, F.; Lasue, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) ChemCam spectrometer has been measuring atmospheric aerosol properties and gas abundances for more than one Martian year, doing so by operating in passive mode and observing scattered sky light at two different elevation angles. We perform these observations at 1 - 2 week intervals, occasionally acquiring multiple observations on a given day to assess the diurnal cycle. Six parameters are retrieved from each observation: dust aerosol particle effective radius, ice aerosol particle effective radius, the fraction of opacity contributed by ice rather than dust aerosol, the ratio of aerosol extinction scale height to gas pressure scale height (as a parameterization of the aerosol vertical profile), the O2 volume mixing ratio, and the water vapor column abundance (in precipitable microns). The retrieval works by first constructing a ratio of the spectra from the two elevation angles and then fitting a discrete ordinates multiple scattering radiative transfer model. Total column opacity, CO2 mixing ratio, and atmospheric pressure are exogenous inputs. They are sourced from Mastcam, SAM QMS, and REMS measurements, respectively. An important feature of our procedure, which we have verified by numerical experimentation, is that the retrieved gas abundances have negligible sensitivity to the accuracy of the aerosol parameter solutions or to exogenous inputs or to a wide range of model assumptions. We will present a survey of the results from the extensive ChemCam passive sky data set, including comparisons to related SAM and REMS in-situ atmospheric sampling and to Mastcam and Navcam sky observation campaigns. We will show that O2 has temporal variation unexplained by existing photochemical models and has vertical variations within the bottom 10 km of the atmosphere in some seasons. We will also show the water vapor is well mixed within the bottom 10 km in some seasons but not in others, and we will address a variety of aerosol phenomena.

  16. Forecasting the solar activity cycle: new insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, Dibyendu; Karak, Bidya Binay

    2013-07-01

    Having advance knowledge of solar activity is important because the Sun's magnetic output governs space weather and impacts technologies reliant on space. However, the irregular nature of the solar cycle makes solar activity predictions a challenging task. This is best achieved through appropriately constrained solar dynamo simulations and as such the first step towards predictions is to understand the underlying physics of the solar dynamo mechanism. In Babcock-Leighton type dynamo models, the poloidal field is generated near the solar surface whereas the toroidal field is generated in the solar interior. Therefore a finite time is necessary for the coupling of the spatially segregated source layers of the dynamo. This time delay introduces a memory in the dynamo mechanism which allows forecasting of future solar activity. Here we discuss how this forecasting ability of the solar cycle is affected by downward turbulent pumping of magnetic flux. With significant turbulent pumping the memory of the dynamo is severely degraded and thus long term prediction of the solar cycle is not possible; only a short term prediction of the next cycle peak may be possible based on observational data assimilation at the previous cycle minimum.

  17. Diurnal cycle of O[sub 3] and monoterpenes in a coniferous forest: Importance of atmospheric stability, surface exchange, and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, C.; Janson, R.W. )

    1993-03-20

    A one-dimensional model of turbulent diffusion and chemistry has been applied to evaluate measurements of the diurnal variation of O[sub 3] and monoterpenes in a coniferous forest in Sweden. The role of photochemical, meteorological, and surface exchange processes was investigated by studying days characteristic of neutral and stable/unstable conditions, respectively. The atmospheric concentrations and surface exchange rates of O[sub 3], monoterpenes and NO[sub x] were taken from measurements at the site, using chamber techniques for the flux measurements. The model calculations showed the predominant role of turbulent mixing in the observed diurnal variation of O[sub 3] and monoterpenes. The reaction with OH accounted for 50-60% of the terpene loss over a 24-hour period with a well-mixed boundary layer and about 40% when nighttime conditions were stable. Increasing the background O[sub 3] concentration to 80-90 ppbv increased the relative importance of the terpene + O[sub 3] reaction to equal that of the OH reaction. The terpene chemical lifetime was found to be shortest, less than 1 hour, under neutral nighttime conditions when NO[sub 3] concentrations were high. Under stable nighttime conditions, the lower boundary layer became chemically less active due to the depletion of O[sub 3] and NO[sub 3]. Terpene reactions were found to be significant nighttime sinks for O[sub 3] and NO[sub 3] under stable conditions and during periods or at sites of nocturnal terpene emission rates greater than 150 [mu]g/m[sup 2] h. An increase in NO[sub x] concentrations from 0.5 ppbv to 1 and then 5 ppbv, changed O[sub 3] concentrations first up and then down, by not more than 1 ppbv. At terpene emission rates of 50-100 [mu]g (m[sup 2] h)[sup [minus]1], the terpene + OH reaction caused less than 5% of the OH loss near the surface, while at a rate of 1,500 [mu]g (m[sup 2] h)[sup [minus]1], it accounted for up to 30-40% of OH loss. 54 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Perturbed rhythmic activation of signaling pathways in mice deficient for Sterol Carrier Protein 2-dependent diurnal lipid transport and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jouffe, Céline; Gobet, Cédric; Martin, Eva; Métairon, Sylviane; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan; Gachon, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Through evolution, most of the living species have acquired a time keeping system to anticipate daily changes caused by the rotation of the Earth. In all of the systems this pacemaker is based on a molecular transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop able to generate rhythmic gene expression with a period close to 24 hours. Recent evidences suggest that post-transcriptional regulations activated mostly by systemic cues play a fundamental role in the process, fine tuning the time keeping system and linking it to animal physiology. Among these signals, we consider the role of lipid transport and metabolism regulated by SCP2. Mice harboring a deletion of the Scp2 locus present a modulated diurnal accumulation of lipids in the liver and a perturbed activation of several signaling pathways including PPARα, SREBP, LRH-1, TORC1 and its upstream regulators. This defect in signaling pathways activation feedbacks upon the clock by lengthening the circadian period of animals through post-translational regulation of core clock regulators, showing that rhythmic lipid transport is a major player in the establishment of rhythmic mRNA and protein expression landscape. PMID:27097688

  19. Diurnal feeding rhythms in north sea copepods measured by Gut fluorescence, digestive enzyme activity and grazing on labelled food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, M. A.; Oosterhuis, S. S.

    Results obtained with three methods for measuring feeding rhythms of copepods were different. Gut fluorescence showed clear day-night variation during 2 out of 3 cruises at the Oyster Ground in the North Sea. The species studied ( Pseudocalanus, Temora, Centropages, Calanus) had highest gut fluorescence during the night in May and September, the larger species demonstrating the largest difference. Gut fluorescence was positively correlated with ambient chlorophyll concentrations. Gut clearance rate was not dependent on temperature but on gut fullness. Gut passage times at high gut fluorescence levels were ˜25 minutes, at low levels 2 hours. In grazing experiments with 14C labelled food, filtering rates declined after 5 to 15 minutes, presumably before the first defecation of radioactive material. Filtering rates in Temora were higher at night than by day during May and July, but not in Pseudocalanus and Calanus during September. No diurnal pattern of amylase and tryptic activity was found, except in July for amylase but then probably due to vertical migration. The activity of these digestive enzymes appeared to be least and gut fluorescence most suitable for the detection of grazing rhythms. The occurrence of high fluorescence levels at night in all species studied suggests that intermittent feeding by copepods on phytoplankton is a general phenomenon from spring to autumn. The increase in foraging activity appeared to start well before complete darkness, during May and July even one hour or more before sunset.

  20. Nocturnal and diurnal activity of armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) associated with wintering Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.

    2010-01-01

    Several Pterygoplichthys species, members of the Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae, have been widely introduced outside their native ranges. In this paper, I present observations on the diel activity pattern of non-native Pterygoplichthys, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus, with respect to their attachment and grazing on endangered Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris. The study was conducted in December 2009 at Volusia Blue Spring, an artesianal spring system in the St. Johns River basin, Florida (USA). Supplemented by information gathered during previous visits to the spring site, this study revealed that adult Pterygoplichthys are active throughout the diel period (day, twilight and night). However, juvenile Pterygoplichthys were largely nocturnal and only at night did they consistently join adults in attaching to manatees. The juveniles generally remain hidden during the day, probably responding to presence of diurnal predators, mainly birds. Differences in diel behaviors among different Pterygoplichthys size classes in Florida are consistent with published observations on loricariids inhabiting clearwater streams within their native ranges.

  1. Temporal, Spatial, and Diurnal Patterns in Avian Activity at the Shuttle Landing Facility, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Vickie L.; Rowe, Sean P.; Breininger, David R.

    1997-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in bird abundance within the five-mile airspace at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) on John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, USA were investigated for purposes of quantifying Bird Aircraft Strike Hazards (BASH). The airspace is surrounded by the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) which provides habitat for approximately 331 resident and migratory bird species. Potential bird strike hazards were greatest around sunrise and sunset for most avian taxonomic groups, including wading birds, most raptors, pelicans, gulls/terns, shorebirds, and passerines. Turkey Vultures and Black Vultures were identified as a primary threat to aircraft operations and were represented in 33% of the samples. Diurnal vulture activity varied seasonally with the development of air thermals in the airspace surrounding the SLF. Variation in the presence and abundance of migratory species was shown for American Robins, swallows, and several species of shorebirds. Analyses of bird activities provides for planning of avionics operations during periods of low-dsk and allows for risk minimization measures during periods of high-risk.

  2. (Un-)expected nocturnal activity in "Diurnal" Lemur catta supports cathemerality as one of the key adaptations of the lemurid radiation.

    PubMed

    Donati, Giuseppe; Santini, Luca; Razafindramanana, Josia; Boitani, Luigi; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to operate during the day and at night (i.e., cathemerality) is common among mammals but has rarely been identified in primates. Adaptive hypotheses assume that cathemerality represents a stable adaptation in primates, while nonadaptive hypotheses propose that it is the result of an evolutionary disequilibrium arising from human impacts on natural habitats. Madagascar offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of activity patterns as there we find a monophyletic primate radiation that shows nocturnal, diurnal, and cathemeral patterns. However, when and why cathemeral activity evolved in lemurs is the subject of intense debate. Thus far, this activity pattern has been regularly observed in only three lemurid genera but the actual number of lemur species exhibiting this activity is as yet unknown. Here we show that the ring-tailed lemur, Lemur catta, a species previously considered to be diurnal, can in fact be cathemeral in the wild. In neighboring but distinct forest areas these lemurs exhibited either mainly diurnal or cathemeral activity. We found that, as in other cathemeral lemurs, activity was entrained by photoperiod and masked by nocturnal luminosity. Our results confirm the relationship between transitional eye anatomy and physiology and 24-h activity, thus supporting the adaptive scenario. Also, on the basis of the most recent strepsirrhine phylogenetic reconstruction, using parsimony criterion, our findings suggest pushing back the emergence of cathemerality to stem lemurids. Flexible activity over 24-h could thus have been one of the key adaptations of the early lemurid radiation possibly driven by Madagascar's island ecology.

  3. POSSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN AD LEO

    SciTech Connect

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Petrucci, Romina; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Jofré, Emiliano

    2014-01-20

    AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star that has been extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully convective boundary, studying its long-term chromospheric activity in detail could be an appreciable contribution to dynamo theory. Here, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we analyze the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both of these totally independent time series, we obtain a possible activity cycle with a period of approximately seven years and a less significant shorter cycle of approximately two years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe different spectral features simultaneously, we also analyze the relation between simultaneous measurements of the Na I index (R{sub D}{sup ′}), Hα, and Ca II K fluxes at different activity levels of AD Leo, including flares.

  4. Diurnality of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Moyer, R.; Poe, A.; Pan, D.; Abraha, M.; Chen, J.; Zondlo, M. A.; Robertson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are important contributors to the greenhouse gas balance of the atmosphere. Agricultural soils contribute ~65% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Understanding temporal and spatial variability of N2O emissions from agricultural soils is vital for closure of the global N2O budget and the development of mitigation opportunities. Recent studies have observed higher N2O fluxes during the day and lower at night. Understanding the mechanisms of such diurnality may have important consequences for our understanding of the N cycle. We tested the hypothesis that diurnal cycles are driven by root carbon exudes that stimulate denitrification and therefore N2O production. Alternatively, we considered that the cycle could result from higher afternoon temperatures that accelerate soil microbial activity. We removed all plants from a corn field plot and left another plot untouched. We measured soil N2O emissions in each plot using a standard static chamber technique throughout the corn growing season. And also compared static chamber results to ecosystem level N2O emissions as measured by eddy covariance tower equipped with an open-path N2O sensor. We also measured soil and air temperatures and soil water and inorganic N contents. Soil N2O emissions followed soil inorganic N concentrations and in control plot chambers ranged from 10 μg N m-2 hr-1 before fertilization to 13×103 after fertilization. We found strong diurnal cycles measured by both techniques with emissions low during night and morning hours and high during the afternoon. Corn removal had no effect on diurnality, but had a strong effect on the magnitude of soil N2O emissions. Soil temperature exhibited a weak correlation with soil N2O emissions and could not explain diurnal patterns. Further studies are underway to explore additional mechanisms that might contribute to this potentially important phenomena.

  5. Diurnal variation in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity is determined by the -203A>C polymorphism of the CYP7A1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Vlachová, Miluše; Blahová, Tereza; Lánská, Věra; Leníček, Martin; Piťha, Jan; Vítek, Libor; Kovář, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the promoter polymorphism -203A>C of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase encoding gene (CYP7A1) affects diurnal variation in CYP7A1 enzyme activity. Methods The study included 16 healthy male volunteers – 8 homozygous for -203A and 8 homozygous for the -203C allele of CYP7A1. Three 15-hour examinations (from 7am to 10pm) were carried out for each of the participants: after one-day treatment with cholestyramine; after one-day treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA); and a control examination without any treatment. The plasma concentration of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), a marker of CYP7A1 activity, was determined in all the experiments at 90-min intervals. Results CYP7A1 activity was up-regulated after treatment with cholestyramine and suppressed after treatment with CDCA. There were no differences between -203A and -203C allele carriers in the response of enzyme activity to both drugs. In the control experiment, -203A allele carriers displayed diurnal variation in enzyme activity, whereas CYP7A1 activity did not change in -203C allele carriers. These results were confirmed by modeling the dynamics of C4 using polynomial regression. Conclusion The promoter polymorphism of the CYP7A1 gene has a pronounced impact on diurnal variation in CYP7A1 activity. PMID:27106353

  6. Seasonal divergence in the interannual responses of Northern Hemisphere vegetation activity to variations in diurnal climate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoyan; Liang, Eryuan; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Huang, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal asymmetry in the interannual variations in the daytime and nighttime climate in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is well documented, but its consequences for vegetation activity remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the interannual responses of vegetation activity to variations of seasonal mean daytime and nighttime climate in NH (>30 °N) during the past decades using remote sensing retrievals, FLUXNET and tree ring data. Despite a generally significant and positive response of vegetation activity to seasonal mean maximum temperature () in ~22–25% of the boreal (>50 °N) NH between spring and autumn, spring-summer progressive water limitations appear to decouple vegetation activity from the mean summer , particularly in climate zones with dry summers. Drought alleviation during autumn results in vegetation recovery from the marked warming-induced drought limitations observed in spring and summer across 24–26% of the temperate NH. Vegetation activity exhibits a pervasively negative correlation with the autumn mean minimum temperature, which is in contrast to the ambiguous patterns observed in spring and summer. Our findings provide new insights into how seasonal asymmetry in the interannual variations in the mean daytime and nighttime climate interacts with water limitations to produce spatiotemporally variable responses of vegetation growth. PMID:26751166

  7. Seasonal divergence in the interannual responses of Northern Hemisphere vegetation activity to variations in diurnal climate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoyan; Liang, Eryuan; Beck, Pieter S A; Huang, Yongmei

    2016-01-11

    Seasonal asymmetry in the interannual variations in the daytime and nighttime climate in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is well documented, but its consequences for vegetation activity remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the interannual responses of vegetation activity to variations of seasonal mean daytime and nighttime climate in NH (>30 °N) during the past decades using remote sensing retrievals, FLUXNET and tree ring data. Despite a generally significant and positive response of vegetation activity to seasonal mean maximum temperature (Tmax) in ~22-25% of the boreal (>50 °N) NH between spring and autumn, spring-summer progressive water limitations appear to decouple vegetation activity from the mean summer Tmax, particularly in climate zones with dry summers. Drought alleviation during autumn results in vegetation recovery from the marked warming-induced drought limitations observed in spring and summer across 24-26% of the temperate NH. Vegetation activity exhibits a pervasively negative correlation with the autumn mean minimum temperature, which is in contrast to the ambiguous patterns observed in spring and summer. Our findings provide new insights into how seasonal asymmetry in the interannual variations in the mean daytime and nighttime climate interacts with water limitations to produce spatiotemporally variable responses of vegetation growth.

  8. Transcriptome Phase Distribution Analysis Reveals Diurnal Regulated Biological Processes and Key Pathways in Rice Flag Leaves and Seedling Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meina; Xing, Zhuo; Yang, Wenqiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Han; Gong, Xiaojie; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hu, Xingming; Wang, Dong; Qian, Qian; Wang, Tai; Su, Zhen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2011-01-01

    Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological

  9. [Effect of feeding rhythm on digestive activities and diurnal variation in rumen content in sheep].

    PubMed

    Dulphy, J P; Elmeddah, Y; Baumont, R

    1988-01-01

    Three feeding frequencies of late-cut grass hay (two times per day at 8 h interval, once a day, two times per day at 12 h interval) were compared in sheep fitted or not with a rumen fistula. The following parameters were recorded: daily dry matter intake, ingestive activities, reticulorumen load before and after the large meal following each feeding. The daily dry matter intake was not significantly affected by the treatments although it tended to be lower with one only feeding per day. The animals consumed a larger meal after a single feeding in the morning than after two feedings and they thereafter had more small meals during the day. The total time spent eating and ruminating was similar for the three treatments, always with more time spent ruminating in the night than in the day. Whatever the feeding interval (8 or 12 h), the weight of the reticulorumen content was higher after the evening meal.

  10. Characteristics of high energy cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy on day-to-day basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, C. M.; Tiwari, D. P.

    2008-10-01

    Diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity for the period of 1989 to 2000 at Kiel, Haleakakla, Rome, Hermanus, Calgary, and Goose Bay neutron monitors has been studied. Frequency histograms are generated for each year by using the daily values of amplitudes and phases. In the present analysis we have derived the yearly mean amplitude and phase of the diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity. It has been concluded from the analysis that the diurnal amplitude is mostly concentrated in between the amplitude values of 0.1% and 0.4%, whereas the phase of diurnal anisotropy is concentrated in the belt of 100 to 225 degrees. As such, the various characteristics of long-term diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity for the maxima of solar activity cycle 22 to the next maxima of solar activity cycle 23 have been studied. The minimum amplitudes are apparent for the minimum solar activity periods starting from 1995 and up to 1997 at Kiel, Haleakakla, Rome, Hermanus, Calgary and Goose Bay stations. The diurnal amplitude has been found to have almost recovered to its values observed during 1989 to 1990. It is also seen that the diurnal amplitudes are much larger by a factor of two at high/middle latitude stations as compared to that for low latitude stations, where the amplitudes are even ˜01% or less during 1996. The phase is significantly earlier during 1996 and 1997 with some significant change starting in 1995. As such, competitive is a continuous decreasing trend in the diurnal phase with smaller change at high/middle latitude and significantly much larger change at low latitudes.

  11. Stochastic cycle selection in active flow networks.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Francis G; Forrow, Aden; Fawcett, Joanna B; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-07-19

    Active biological flow networks pervade nature and span a wide range of scales, from arterial blood vessels and bronchial mucus transport in humans to bacterial flow through porous media or plasmodial shuttle streaming in slime molds. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about the self-organization principles that govern flow statistics in such nonequilibrium networks. Here we connect concepts from lattice field theory, graph theory, and transition rate theory to understand how topology controls dynamics in a generic model for actively driven flow on a network. Our combined theoretical and numerical analysis identifies symmetry-based rules that make it possible to classify and predict the selection statistics of complex flow cycles from the network topology. The conceptual framework developed here is applicable to a broad class of biological and nonbiological far-from-equilibrium networks, including actively controlled information flows, and establishes a correspondence between active flow networks and generalized ice-type models. PMID:27382186

  12. Diurnally driven scaling properties of Amazonian rainfall fields: Fourier spectra and order-q statistical moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, JuliáN. E.; Poveda, GermáN.

    2009-06-01

    The influence of the diurnal cycle on spatial scaling properties of Amazonian rainfall fields is investigated using data gathered during the January-February 1999 Wet Season Atmospheric Meso-scale Campaign in the state of Rondonia (Brazil, SW Amazonia). Most intense precipitation events with large spatial coverage occur during early afternoon. Amplitudes of average and maximum intensity diurnal cycles are higher during the easterly than during the westerly atmospheric regime. The diurnal cycle of average rainfall occupancy exhibits a significantly larger amplitude during the westerly regime. Storms exhibit power law Fourier spectra, E(k) = ck-β, with two scaling regimes characterized by different scaling exponents (β1 and β2), separated at a critical distance, which depends on the spatial extent of rainfall organization. Inversely correlated diurnal cycles for β1 and β2 reflect rainfall organization patterns at different spatial scales through the 24-h period. The break occurs at smaller (larger) spatial scales during the morning (afternoon-evening). Average values of c and β exhibit inversely related diurnal cycles, and different behavior during either atmospheric regime. Order-q statistical moments indicate multiscaling of rainfall fields. Departures from simple scaling are also driven by the diurnal cycle, reflecting differences in convective activity and the spatial organization of rainfall throughout the 24-h cycle. Departures from simple scaling are dependent on the moment order q. Clear-cut differences between the estimated order-q statistical moments appear during both atmospheric regimes. These results shed light toward linking physical processes with statistics in Amazonian storms.

  13. Role of eastward propagating convection systems in the diurnal cycle and seasonal mean summertime rainfall over the U. S. Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X; Lau, N C; Klein, S A

    2006-06-07

    By diagnosing the 3-hourly North American Regional Reanalysis rainfall dataset for the 1979-2003 period, it is illustrated that the eastward propagation of convection systems from the Rockies to the Great Plains plays an essential role for the warm season climate over the central U.S. This eastward propagating mode could be the deciding factor for the observed nocturnal rainfall peak over the Great Plains. The results also suggest that nearly half of the total summer mean rainfall over this region is associated with these propagating convection systems. For instance, the extreme wet condition of the 1993 summer may be attributed to the frequent occurrence of propagating convection events and enhanced diurnal rainfall amplitude over the Great Plains. Thus, proper representation of this important propagating component in GCMs is essential for simulating the diurnal and seasonal mean characteristics of summertime rainfall over the central US.

  14. (Un-)expected nocturnal activity in "Diurnal" Lemur catta supports cathemerality as one of the key adaptations of the lemurid radiation.

    PubMed

    Donati, Giuseppe; Santini, Luca; Razafindramanana, Josia; Boitani, Luigi; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to operate during the day and at night (i.e., cathemerality) is common among mammals but has rarely been identified in primates. Adaptive hypotheses assume that cathemerality represents a stable adaptation in primates, while nonadaptive hypotheses propose that it is the result of an evolutionary disequilibrium arising from human impacts on natural habitats. Madagascar offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of activity patterns as there we find a monophyletic primate radiation that shows nocturnal, diurnal, and cathemeral patterns. However, when and why cathemeral activity evolved in lemurs is the subject of intense debate. Thus far, this activity pattern has been regularly observed in only three lemurid genera but the actual number of lemur species exhibiting this activity is as yet unknown. Here we show that the ring-tailed lemur, Lemur catta, a species previously considered to be diurnal, can in fact be cathemeral in the wild. In neighboring but distinct forest areas these lemurs exhibited either mainly diurnal or cathemeral activity. We found that, as in other cathemeral lemurs, activity was entrained by photoperiod and masked by nocturnal luminosity. Our results confirm the relationship between transitional eye anatomy and physiology and 24-h activity, thus supporting the adaptive scenario. Also, on the basis of the most recent strepsirrhine phylogenetic reconstruction, using parsimony criterion, our findings suggest pushing back the emergence of cathemerality to stem lemurids. Flexible activity over 24-h could thus have been one of the key adaptations of the early lemurid radiation possibly driven by Madagascar's island ecology. PMID:23180596

  15. Reproducibility of summertime diurnal precipitation over northern Eurasia simulated by CMIP5 climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, N.; Takayabu, Y. N.

    2015-12-01

    Reproducibility of diurnal precipitation over northern Eurasia simulated by CMIP5 climate models in their historical runs were evaluated, in comparison with station data (NCDC-9813) and satellite data (GSMaP-V5). We first calculated diurnal cycles by averaging precipitation at each local solar time (LST) in June-July-August during 1981-2000 over the continent of northern Eurasia (0-180E, 45-90N). Then we examined occurrence time of maximum precipitation and a contribution of diurnally varying precipitation to the total precipitation.The contribution of diurnal precipitation was about 21% in both NCDC-9813 and GSMaP-V5. The maximum precipitation occurred at 18LST in NCDC-9813 but 16LST in GSMaP-V5, indicating some uncertainties even in the observational datasets. The diurnal contribution of the CMIP5 models varied largely from 11% to 62%, and their timing of the precipitation maximum ranged from 11LST to 20LST. Interestingly, the contribution and the timing had strong negative correlation of -0.65. The models with larger diurnal precipitation showed precipitation maximum earlier around noon. Next, we compared sensitivity of precipitation to surface temperature and tropospheric humidity between 5 models with large diurnal precipitation (LDMs) and 5 models with small diurnal precipitation (SDMs). Precipitation in LDMs showed high sensitivity to surface temperature, indicating its close relationship with local instability. On the other hand, synoptic disturbances were more active in SDMs with a dominant role of the large scale condensation, and precipitation in SDMs was more related with tropospheric moisture. Therefore, the relative importance of the local instability and the synoptic disturbances was suggested to be an important factor in determining the contribution and timing of the diurnal precipitation. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

  16. The sleep-wake cycle and motor activity, but not temperature, are disrupted over the light-dark cycle in mice genetically depleted of serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Solarewicz, Julia Z.; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M.; Mateika, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role that serotonin has in the modulation of sleep and wakefulness across a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle and determined whether temperature and motor activity are directly responsible for potential disruptions to arousal state. Telemetry transmitters were implanted in 24 wild-type mice (Tph2+/+) and 24 mice with a null mutation for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2−/−). After surgery, electroencephalography, core body temperature, and motor activity were recorded for 24 h. Temperature for a given arousal state (quiet and active wake, non-rapid eye movement, and paradoxical sleep) was similar in the Tph2+/+ and Tph2−/− mice across the light-dark cycle. The percentage of time spent in active wakefulness, along with motor activity, was decreased in the Tph2+/+ compared with the Tph2−/− mice at the start and end of the dark cycle. This difference persisted into the light cycle. In contrast, the time spent in a given arousal state was similar at the remaining time points. Despite this similarity, periods of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and wakefulness were less consolidated in the Tph2+/+ compared with the Tph2−/− mice throughout the light-dark cycle. We conclude that the depletion of serotonin does not disrupt the diurnal variation in the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and temperature. However, serotonin may suppress photic and nonphotic inputs that manifest at light-dark transitions and serve to shorten the ultraradian duration of wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Finally, alterations in the sleep-wake cycle following depletion of serotonin are unrelated to disruptions in the modulation of temperature. PMID:25394829

  17. The sleep-wake cycle and motor activity, but not temperature, are disrupted over the light-dark cycle in mice genetically depleted of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Solarewicz, Julia Z; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Mateika, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role that serotonin has in the modulation of sleep and wakefulness across a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle and determined whether temperature and motor activity are directly responsible for potential disruptions to arousal state. Telemetry transmitters were implanted in 24 wild-type mice (Tph2(+/+)) and 24 mice with a null mutation for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2(-/-)). After surgery, electroencephalography, core body temperature, and motor activity were recorded for 24 h. Temperature for a given arousal state (quiet and active wake, non-rapid eye movement, and paradoxical sleep) was similar in the Tph2(+/+) and Tph2(-/-) mice across the light-dark cycle. The percentage of time spent in active wakefulness, along with motor activity, was decreased in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice at the start and end of the dark cycle. This difference persisted into the light cycle. In contrast, the time spent in a given arousal state was similar at the remaining time points. Despite this similarity, periods of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and wakefulness were less consolidated in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice throughout the light-dark cycle. We conclude that the depletion of serotonin does not disrupt the diurnal variation in the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and temperature. However, serotonin may suppress photic and nonphotic inputs that manifest at light-dark transitions and serve to shorten the ultraradian duration of wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Finally, alterations in the sleep-wake cycle following depletion of serotonin are unrelated to disruptions in the modulation of temperature.

  18. Permanent active longitudes and activity cycles on RS CVn stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1998-08-01

    A new analysis of the published long-term photometric observations has revealed permanent active-longitude structures in four RS CVn stars: EI Eri, II Peg, sigma Gem, and HR 7275. Two active longitudes separated by half of the period are found to dominate on the surface during all available seasons. The positions of the longitudes on three stars (EI Eri, II Peg, HR 7275) are migrating in the orbital reference frame, and there is no preferred orientation with respect to the line of centres in the binaries. The rate of migration is approximately constant. In case of sigma Gem the active longitude migration is synchronized with the orbital motion in the direction of the line of centres in the binary. The active region lifetimes can be longer than the time span of the observations (>=15 yr). The periods of the active longitude rotation are determined: for EI Eri 1fd 9510, for II Peg 6fd 7066, for sigma Gem 19fd 604, for HR 7275 28fd 263. Long-term activity cycles of the stars are discovered from the analysis of the relative contribution of the two longitudes to the photometric variability. One longitude is found to be usually more active than the other at a given moment, and the change of the activity level between the longitudes is cyclic with periods of years. The switch of the activity takes a much shorter time, about a few months, similar to the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon found for FK Com stars. Moments of switching are regarded as new tracers of the activity, and total cycles, which return activity to the same longitude, are found to be for EI Eri 9.0 yr, for II Peg 9.3 yr, for sigma Gem 14.9 yr, for HR 7275 17.5 yr.

  19. Upper cut-off rigidity for corotation anisotropy during solar activity cycles 20 and 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Riker, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    At the Eleventh International Conference on Cosmic Rays in 1969, the results of a study of the solar diurnal variations of solar rays observed during the ascending phase of solar activity cycle twenty was discussed. The diurnal variation, observed underground during 1965-68 period, and results from an extraterrestrial anisotropy having a continuously increasing upper cut-off rigidity R sub c were reported. However, the coupling functions applicable to underground telescopes were controversial then. This situation has improved now. Those results wsere re-examined and extended to cover the period 1965-78. The coupling functions given by Murakami et al. for underground muons and those given by Lockwood and Weber for neutron monitors were used showed that a great deal of care should be exercised in the value of R sub c was calculated. Although numerical values of R sub c are a little different, the trend for 1965-68 period remains unchanged. Highest value of R sub c occur in 1970 and the lowest value occurs in 1976.

  20. Climatology of diurnal tide and its long-term variability in the lower middle atmosphere over a tropical station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. Vinay; Dutta, Gopa; Mohammad, Salauddin; Rao, B. Venkateswara

    2016-07-01

    ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-interim) data of winds for two solar cycles (1991-2012) are harmonically analyzed to delineate the characteristics and variability of diurnal tide over a tropical site (13.5° N, 79.5° E). The diurnal cycle horizontal winds measured by Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar between May 2005 and April 2006 have been used to compute 24 h tidal amplitudes and phases and compared with the corresponding results obtained from ERA winds. The climatological diurnal tidal amplitudes and phases have been estimated from surface to ˜33 km using ERA interim data. The amplitudes and phases obtained in the present study are found to compare reasonably well with Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM-09). Diurnal tides show larger amplitudes in the lower troposphere below 5 km during summer and in the mid-stratosphere mainly during equinoctial months and early winter. Water vapor and convection in the lower troposphere are observed to play major roles in exciting 24-h tide. Correlations between diurnal amplitude and integrated water vapor and between diurnal amplitude and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) are 0.59 and -0.34, respectively. Ozone mixing ratio correlates (ρ = 0.66) well with diurnal amplitude and shows annual variation in the troposphere whereas semi-annual variation is observed at stratospheric heights with stronger peaks in equinoctial months. A clear annual variation of diurnal amplitude is displayed in the troposphere and interannual variability becomes prominent in the stratosphere which could be partly due to the influence of equatorial stratospheric QBO. The influence of solar activity on diurnal oscillations is found to be insignificant.

  1. Heterogeneous Boundary Layers through the Diurnal Cycle: Evaluation of the WRF Wind Farm Parameterization using Scanning Lidar Observations and Wind Turbine Power Measurements during a Range of Stability Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    As wind energy deployment increases, questions arise regarding impacts on local climates and how these impacts evolve with the diurnal cycle of the boundary layer. Satellite observations suggest nocturnal increases of surface temperatures, and measurements of turbine wakes document stronger and more persistent reductions of wind speed and increases in turbulence downwind of turbines during stable conditions. Validations of mesoscale parameterizations of these effects have been constrained to idealized conditions defined by neutrally-stratified conditions and/or limited wind directions and wind speeds, or by comparison to idealized large-eddy simulations. Synthesis of conventional meteorological measurements and unconventional measurements can offer unique insights for validating models over a large heterogeneous domain. The CWEX-13 field experiment provides an extensive dataset for such validation at spatial scales on the order of 10 km in a range of atmospheric stability and wind conditions. CWEX-13 took place within a 300 MW wind farm in central Iowa during summer 2013 and featured strong diurnal cycles. The wind turbines are sited irregularly, creating a heterogenous "canopy". Three profiling lidars, numerous surface flux stations, and a scanning lidar sampled wakes from multiple turbines. Further, the wind farm owner/operator has provided access to turbine power production and wind speed measurement data for model validation, providing ~ 200 measurements of proxies that integrate the wind profile over the rotor disk, from 40 m to 120 m above the surface. Building on previous work that identified optimal physics options, grid configurations, and boundary condition data sets by comparison to lidar wind profile measurements, we execute simulations with the WRF Wind Farm Parameterization for a ten-day period featuring moderate winds and strong diurnal cycles. We evaluate simulations with different modeling choices (e.g., vertical resolution, approaches to

  2. Diurnal behaviour of some salivary parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus (flow rate, pH, thiocianat, LDH activity)--note II.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, S; Bădiţă, D; Artino, M; Dragomir, M; Huidovici, E; Niţă, V; Chiţoi, E

    1998-01-01

    The study was performed on 31 diabetic patients of both sexes, divided in 2 groups: group I--17 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) and group II--14 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) and compared with a control group of 16 non-diabetic subjects. Mixed saliva was sampled without stimulation during 2 periods of the day: 07:30-08:00 before breakfast and 17:30-18:00 before dinner. We determined: salivary flow rate, pH with Merck indicator and, after homogenization, the thiocianat with the FeCl3 method and LDH activity (the Norbert method adapted in our laboratory for saliva). Our study showed the same diurnal changes in flow rate and salivary pH in both diabetic and control groups: minimal values in the morning and maximal ones in the afternoon. In non-smoking diabetic patients the salivary thiocianat had maximal values in the morning and minimal ones in the afternoon; similar behaviour, but less obvious was observed in smoking diabetic patients and in the control group regardless of the smoking habit. LDH activity showed unsignificant diurnal variations in the diabetic patients. In the control group we found a significant decrease of LDH activity in the afternoon. The discussion is about the implication of these salivary parameters in the pathology of oral cavity: gingivitis, periodontitis and caries in diabetic patients.

  3. Long term changes in cosmic ray diurnal variations observed by ion chambers in Hong Kong and Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, L. S.; Kusunose, M.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    Yearly average solar diurnal variations of cosmic ray ion chamber data are inspected from a view point of the eleven and the 22 year solar activity cycle modulations. Ion chamber data and neutron data from various stations are added. From an inspection of observed data, a simple approximation that the 11 year and the 22 year variations of the solar diurnal variation are along 18-hour and 12-hour axes, respectively is proposed. The 18-hour component of diurnal variation in the 11 year cycle increases toward the solar active years. The 12-hour component is enhanced when the solar general magnetic field is parallel to the rotation vector, and is almost zero for the other state. The transition occurs when the amplitude of the 18-hour component is greater owing to the transition of the field during the maximum phase of solar activity. The 22 year shift is consistent with the drift modulation model in heliosphere.

  4. The contribution of the pineal gland on daily rhythms and masking in diurnal grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Shuboni, Dorela D; Agha, Amna A; Groves, Thomas K H; Gall, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both. Removing the pineal gland had no effect on the hourly distribution of activity across a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle or on the patterns of sleep-like behavior at night. Masking effects of light at night on activity were also not significantly different in pinealectomized and control grass rats, as 1h pulses of light stimulated increases in activity of sham and pinealectomized animals to a similar extent. In addition, the circadian regulation of activity was unaffected by the surgical condition of the animals. Our results suggest that the pineal gland does not contribute to diurnality in the grass rat, thus highlighting the complexity of temporal niche transitions. The current data raise interesting questions about how and why genetic and neural mechanisms linking melatonin to sleep regulatory systems might vary among mammals that reached a diurnal niche via parallel and independent pathways.

  5. An 'In Situ' Calibration-Correction Procedure (KCICLO) Based on AOD Diurnal Cycle: Comparative Results Between AERONET and Reprocessed (KCICLO method) AOD-Alpha Data Series at El Arenosillo, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Sorribas, M.; Berjon, A.; de Frutos, A. M.; Laulainen, Nels S.

    2008-01-31

    A comparative evaluation is carried out for nearly 5 years (February 2000 to May 2004) of data of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured at the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site El Arenosillo (Huelva, southwestern Spain). The AERONET database and the reprocessed data set using a new correction procedure, which we call the KCICLO method, are compared with respect to the aerosol local climatology. The cause and necessity of AOD reprocessing were due to the existence of an observed fictitious diurnal cycle (including negative values) because of a deficient calibration as explained in detail in the companion paper (V. E. Cachorro et al., submitted manuscript, 2007). The derived alpha Ångström coefficient is also compared, as it appears to be an excellent indicator of the AOD data quality, because of its sensitivity to AOD variations and errors. Some illustrative cases show the influence of this fictitious diurnal cycle on the shape and values of diurnal variations of the AOD (or alpha), reaching differences as high as 100%, and the improvement resulting from using the KCICLO method. Absolute and relative differences are evaluated from the overall average of AOD and alpha coefficient of AERONET and KCICLO data series, making an exhaustive analysis for each spectral channel and for every photometer separately. Although great variability is shown for each filter and each photometer, apart from photometer 114 data that did not reach level 2.0, the discrepancy in the AOD local climatology in the four filters varies as a whole from 2.3% to 8.5% (2.4% for alpha coefficient). These values show a considerable reduction because of the compensating effect between the different photometers (positive or negative bias), and several jumps that break the continuity of the data series are observed. When monthly and yearly averages are analyzed, the differences are considerably reduced in such a way that the local climatology is not substantially affected, but we must be cautious

  6. Cold and hunger induce diurnality in a nocturnal mammal.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Riede, Sjaak J; Gorter, Jenke A; Eijer, Willem G; Sellix, Michael T; Menaker, Michael; Daan, Serge; Pilorz, Violetta; Hut, Roelof A

    2014-10-21

    The mammalian circadian system synchronizes daily timing of activity and rest with the environmental light-dark cycle. Although the underlying molecular oscillatory mechanism is well studied, factors that influence phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns (temporal niche switching, chronotype) are presently unknown. Molecular evidence suggests that metabolism may influence the circadian molecular clock, but evidence at the level of the organism is lacking. Here we show that a metabolic challenge by cold and hunger induces diurnality in otherwise nocturnal mice. Lowering ambient temperature changes the phase of circadian light-dark entrainment in mice by increasing daytime and decreasing nighttime activity. This effect is further enhanced by simulated food shortage, which identifies metabolic balance as the underlying common factor influencing circadian organization. Clock gene expression analysis shows that the underlying neuronal mechanism is downstream from or parallel to the main circadian pacemaker (the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) and that the behavioral phenotype is accompanied by phase adjustment of peripheral tissues. These findings indicate that nocturnal mammals can display considerable plasticity in circadian organization and may adopt a diurnal phenotype when energetically challenged. Our previously defined circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis proposes that such circadian plasticity, which naturally occurs in nocturnal mammals, reflects adaptive maintenance of energy balance. Quantification of energy expenditure shows that diurnality under natural conditions reduces thermoregulatory costs in small burrowing mammals like mice. Metabolic feedback on circadian organization thus provides functional benefits by reducing energy expenditure. Our findings may help to clarify relationships between sleep-wake patterns and metabolic phenotypes in humans. PMID:25288753

  7. Cold and hunger induce diurnality in a nocturnal mammal.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Riede, Sjaak J; Gorter, Jenke A; Eijer, Willem G; Sellix, Michael T; Menaker, Michael; Daan, Serge; Pilorz, Violetta; Hut, Roelof A

    2014-10-21

    The mammalian circadian system synchronizes daily timing of activity and rest with the environmental light-dark cycle. Although the underlying molecular oscillatory mechanism is well studied, factors that influence phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns (temporal niche switching, chronotype) are presently unknown. Molecular evidence suggests that metabolism may influence the circadian molecular clock, but evidence at the level of the organism is lacking. Here we show that a metabolic challenge by cold and hunger induces diurnality in otherwise nocturnal mice. Lowering ambient temperature changes the phase of circadian light-dark entrainment in mice by increasing daytime and decreasing nighttime activity. This effect is further enhanced by simulated food shortage, which identifies metabolic balance as the underlying common factor influencing circadian organization. Clock gene expression analysis shows that the underlying neuronal mechanism is downstream from or parallel to the main circadian pacemaker (the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) and that the behavioral phenotype is accompanied by phase adjustment of peripheral tissues. These findings indicate that nocturnal mammals can display considerable plasticity in circadian organization and may adopt a diurnal phenotype when energetically challenged. Our previously defined circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis proposes that such circadian plasticity, which naturally occurs in nocturnal mammals, reflects adaptive maintenance of energy balance. Quantification of energy expenditure shows that diurnality under natural conditions reduces thermoregulatory costs in small burrowing mammals like mice. Metabolic feedback on circadian organization thus provides functional benefits by reducing energy expenditure. Our findings may help to clarify relationships between sleep-wake patterns and metabolic phenotypes in humans.

  8. Coronal activity cycles in solar analog stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    We propose continuation into AO13 of the ongoing long-term program for the monitoring of coronal cycles in a sample of five solar-type stars in three stellar systems. The targets have been monitored continuously since AO1, yielding the first unambiguous evidence of cyclic behavior in the X-ray emission from the coronae of cool stars. Thanks to the long-term monitoring our program is starting to show evidence of the complex behavior of stellar cycles, with significant cycle-to-cycle variability becoming apparent. The observations requested in AO-13 will allow us to capitalize on our long-term investment of XMM-Newton observing time and to continue assembling a unique long-term data set that is likely to remain unmatched for a long time.

  9. Diurnal variations from muon data at Takeyama underground station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, K.; Imai, K.; Imai, T.; Kudo, S.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    An underground station, Takeyama, is introduced, and some results of the solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations for the period between 1967 and 1984 are presented. There are clear tendencies of double and single solar cycle variations in the daily variations which are in good accord with those detected by other underground and neutron monitor observations.

  10. Meridional Flow Variations in Cycles 23 and 24: Active Latitude Control of Sunspot Cycle Amplitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the meridional motions of magnetic elements observed in the photosphere over sunspot cycles 23 and 24 using magnetograms from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. Our measurements confirm the finding of Komm, Howard, and Harvey (1993) that the poleward meridional flow weakens at cycle maxima. Our high spatial and temporal resolution analyses show that this variation is in the form of a superimposed inflow toward the active latitudes. This inflow is weaker in cycle 24 when compared to the inflow in 23, the stronger cycle. This systematic modulation of the meridional flow can modulate the amplitude of the following sunspot cycle through its influence on the Sun's polar fields.

  11. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise. PMID:27124542

  12. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise.

  13. Diurnal Lightning Distributions as Observed by the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Jeff C.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Christian, Hugh J.

    2007-01-01

    Data obtained from the Optical Transient Detector (April 1995 to March 2000) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (December 1997 to December 2005) satellites (70 and 35 inclination low earth orbits, respectively) are used to statistically determine the number of flashes in the annual and seasonal diurnal cycle as a function of local and universal time. The data are further subdivided by season, land versus ocean, northern versus southern hemisphere, and other spatial (e.g., continents) and temporal (e.g., time of peak diurnal amplitude) categories. The data include corrections for detection efficiency and instrument view time. Continental results display strong diurnal variation, with a lightning peak in the late afternoon and a minimum in late morning. In regions of the world dominated by large mesoscale convective systems the peak in the diurnal curve shifts toward late evening or early morning hours. The maximum diurnal flash rate occurs in June-August, corresponding to the Northern Hemisphere summer, while the minimum occurs in December-February. Summer lightning dominates over winter activity and springtime lightning dominates over autumn activity at most continental locations. This latter behavior occurs especially strongly over the Amazon region in South America in September-November. Oceanic lightning activity in winter and autumn tends to exceed that in summer and spring. Global lightning is well correlated in phase but not in amplitude with the Carnegie curve. The diurnal flash rate varies about 4-35 percent about the mean, while the Carnegie curve varies around 4-15 percent.

  14. Rest-Activity Cycles in Childhood and Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Roseanne; Hoffmann, Robert; Emslie, Graham; Rintelman, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Lewis, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To quantify circadian rhythms in rest-activity cycles in depressed children and adolescents. Method: Restactivity cycles were evaluated by actigraphy over five consecutive 24-hour periods in 100 children and adolescents, including 59 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 41 healthy normal controls. Total activity, total…

  15. Inferences on Stellar Activity and Stellar Cycles from Asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, William J.; Basu, Sarbani

    2014-12-01

    The solar activity cycle can be studied using many different types of observations, such as counting sunspots, measuring emission in the Ca II H&K lines, magnetograms, radio emissions, etc. One of the more recent ways of studying solar activity is to use the changing properties of solar oscillations. Stellar activity cycles are generally studied using the Ca II lines, or sometimes using photometry. Asteroseismology is potentially an exciting means of studying these cycles. In this article we examine whether or not asteroseismic data can be used for this purpose, and what the asteroseismic signatures of stellar activity are. We also examine how asteroseismology may help in more indirect ways.

  16. Microhabitat use and diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks (Oxyura leucocephala Scopoli, 1769) wintering at Burdur Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nergiz, Humeyra; Tabur, Mehmet Ali; Ayvaz, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    Diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks were investigated with respect to sex and temporal environmental variables to document behavioral responses to winter conditions and nutritional requirements at Burdur Lake where the largest winter concentrations occur. Behaviors of males and females were recorded separately in randomly selected focal flocks during 1140 sessions. For the entire population a large proportion of time was spent resting. During the day they spent 61% of time resting, 22% feeding, 12% comfort and 5% in locomotion. Resting peaked in the middle of day while feeding was observed frequently in evening and morning. Time use did not differ significantly between sexes. However, it was detected that more time was spent feeding during windy days as wave-height increased.

  17. Diurnal Cycles of Aerosol Optical Properties at Pico Tres Padres, Mexico City: Evidences for Changes in Particle Morphology and Secondary Aerosol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M.; Chakrabarty, R.; Moosmuller, H.; Onasch, T.; Zavala, M.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties affect planetary radiative balance and depend on chemical composition, size distribution, and morphology. During the MILAGRO field campaign, we measured aerosol absorption and scattering in Mexico City using the Los Alamos aerosol photoacoustic (LAPA) instrument operating at 781 nm. The LAPA was mounted on-board the Aerodyne Research Inc. mobile laboratory, which hosted a variety of gaseous and aerosol instruments. During the campaign, the laboratory was moved to different sites, capturing spatial and temporal variability. Additionally, we collected ambient aerosols on Nuclepore filters for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. SEM images of selected filters were taken to study particle morphology. Between March 7th and 19th air was sampled at the top of Pico Tres Padres, a mountain on the north side of Mexico City. Aerosol absorption and scattering followed diurnal patterns related to boundary layer height and solar insulation. We report an analysis of aerosol absorption, scattering, and morphology for three days (9th, 11th and 12th of March 2006). The single scattering albedo (SSA, ratio of scattering to total extinction) showed a drop in the tens-of-minutes-to-hour time frame after the boundary layer grew above the sampling site. Later in the day the SSA rose steadily reaching a maximum in the afternoon. The SEM images showed a variety of aerosol shapes including fractal-like aggregates, spherical particles, and other shapes. The absorption correlated with the CO2 signal and qualitatively with the fraction of fractal-like particles to the total particle count. In the afternoon the SSA qualitatively correlated with a relative increase in spherical particles and total particle count. These observed changes in optical properties and morphology can be explained by the dominant contribution of freshly emitted particles in the morning and by secondary particle formation in the afternoon. SSA hourly averaged values ranged from ~0.63 in

  18. Transcriptomic and proteomic dynamics in the metabolism of a diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 during a diurnal light–dark cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Welkie, David; Zhang, Xiaohui; Markillie, Meng; Taylor, Ronald; Orr, Galya; Jacobs, Jon; Bhide, Ketaki; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Gritsenko, Marina; Mitchell, Hugh; Smith, Richard D; Sherman, Louis A

    2014-12-29

    Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 is an excellent cyanobacterial model organism with great potential to be applied as a biocatalyst for the production of high value compounds. Like other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterial species, it has a tightly regulated metabolism synchronized to the light-dark cycle. Utilizing transcriptomic and proteomic methods, we were able to quantify the relationships between transcription and translation underlying central and secondary metabolism in response to nitrogen free, 12 hour light and 12 hour dark conditions.

  19. Forecasting the Peak of the Present Solar Activity Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Rabab; Marzouk, Beshir

    2016-07-01

    Solar forecasting of the level of sun Activity is very important subject for all space programs. Most predictions are based on the physical conditions prevailing at or before the solar cycle minimum preceding the maximum in question. Our aim is to predict the maximum peak of cycle 24 using precursor techniques in particular those using spotless event, geomagnetic aa min. index and solar flux F10.7. Also prediction of exact date of the maximum (Tr) is taken in consideration. A study of variation over previous spotless event for cycles 7-23 and that for even cycles (8-22) are carried out for the prediction. Linear correlation between RM and spotless event around the preceding minimum gives RM24t = 101.9with rise time Tr = 4.5 Y. For the even cycles RM24e = 108.3 with rise time Tr = 3.9 Y. Based on the average aa min. index for the year of sunspot minimum cycles (13 - 23), we estimate the expected amplitude for cycle 24 to be RMaa = 116.5 for both the total and even cycles. Application of the data of solar flux F10.7 which cover only cycles (19-23) was taken in consideration and gives predicted maximum amplitude R24 10.7 = 146, which are over estimation. Our result indicating a somewhat weaker cycle 24 as compared to cycles 21-23.

  20. Response of Solar Oscillations to Magnetic Activity in Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, K.; Tripathy, S. C.; Hill, F.

    2015-12-01

    Acoustic mode parameters are generally used to study the variability of the solar interior in response to changing magnetic activity. While oscillation frequencies do vary in phase with the solar activity, the mode amplitudes are anti-correlated. Now, continuous measurements from ground and space allow us study the origin of such variability in detail. Here we use intermediate-dgree mode frequencies computed from a ground-based 6-site network ( GONG), covering almost two solar cycles from the minimum of cycle 23 to the declining phase of cycle 24, to investigate the effect of remarkably low solar activity on the solar oscillations in current cycle and the preceding minimum; is the response of acoustic oscillations to magnetic activity in cycle 24 similar to cycle 23 or there are differences between cycles 23 and 24? In this paper, we analyze results for both solar cycles, and try to understand the origin of similarities/differences between them. We will also compare our findings with the contemporaneous observations from space (SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI).

  1. The connection between stellar activity cycles and magnetic field topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, V.; Jardine, M.; Vidotto, A. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Boro Saikia, S.; Bouvier, J.; Fares, R.; Folsom, C. P.; Gregory, S. G.; Hussain, G.; Jeffers, S. V.; Marsden, S. C.; Morin, J.; Moutou, C.; do Nascimento, J. D.; Petit, P.; Waite, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Zeeman Doppler imaging has successfully mapped the large-scale magnetic fields of stars over a large range of spectral types, rotation periods and ages. When observed over multiple epochs, some stars show polarity reversals in their global magnetic fields. On the Sun, polarity reversals are a feature of its activity cycle. In this paper, we examine the magnetic properties of stars with existing chromospherically determined cycle periods. Previous authors have suggested that cycle periods lie on multiple branches, either in the cycle period-Rossby number plane or the cycle period-rotation period plane. We find some evidence that stars along the active branch show significant average toroidal fields that exhibit large temporal variations while stars exclusively on the inactive branch remain dominantly poloidal throughout their entire cycle. This lends credence to the idea that different shear layers are in operation along each branch. There is also evidence that the short magnetic polarity switches observed on some stars are characteristic of the inactive branch while the longer chromospherically determined periods are characteristic of the active branch. This may explain the discrepancy between the magnetic and chromospheric cycle periods found on some stars. These results represent a first attempt at linking global magnetic field properties obtained form ZDI and activity cycles.

  2. A solar cycle timing predictor - The latitude of active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A 'Spoerer butterfly' method is used to examine solar cycle 22. It is shown from the latitude of active regions that the cycle can now be expected to peak near November 1989 + or - 8 months, basically near the latter half of 1989.

  3. The connection between stellar activity cycles and magnetic field topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, V.; Jardine, M.; Vidotto, A. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Boro Saikia, S.; Bouvier, J.; Fares, R.; Folsom, C. P.; Gregory, S. G.; Hussain, G.; Jeffers, S. V.; Marsden, S. C.; Morin, J.; Moutou, C.; do Nascimento, J. D.; Petit, P.; Waite, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI) has successfully mapped the large-scale magnetic fields of stars over a large range of spectral types, rotation periods and ages. When observed over multiple epochs, some stars show polarity reversals in their global magnetic fields. On the Sun, polarity reversals are a feature of its activity cycle. In this paper, we examine the magnetic properties of stars with existing chromospherically determined cycle periods. Previous authors have suggested that cycle periods lie on multiple branches, either in the cycle period-Rossby number plane or the cycle period-rotation period plane. We find some evidence that stars along the active branch show significant average toroidal fields that exhibit large temporal variations while stars exclusively on the inactive branch remain dominantly poloidal throughout their entire cycle. This lends credence to the idea that different shear layers are in operation along each branch. There is also evidence that the short magnetic polarity switches observed on some stars are characteristic of the inactive branch while the longer chromospherically determined periods are characteristic of the active branch. This may explain the discrepancy between the magnetic and chromospheric cycle periods found on some stars. These results represent a first attempt at linking global magnetic field properties obtained from ZDI and activity cycles.

  4. Butterfly Diagram and Activity Cycles in HR 1099

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2007-04-01

    We analyze photometric data of the active RS CVn-type star HR 1099 for the years 1975-2006 with an inversion technique and reveal the nature of two activity cycles of 15-16 yr and 5.3+/-0.1 yr duration. The 16 yr cycle is related to variations of the total spot area and is coupled with the differential rotation, while the 5.3 yr cycle is caused by the symmetric redistribution of the spotted area between the opposite stellar hemispheres (flip-flop cycle). We recover long-lived active regions comprising two active longitudes that migrate in the orbital reference frame with a variable rate because of the differential rotation along with changes in the mean spot latitudes. The migration pattern is periodic with the 16 yr cycle. Combining the longitudinal migration of the active regions with a previously measured differential rotation law, we recover the first stellar butterfly diagram without an assumption about spot shapes. We find that mean latitudes of active regions at opposite longitudes change antisymmetrically in the course of the 16 yr cycle: while one active region migrates to the pole, the other approaches the equator. This suggests a precession of the global magnetic field with respect to the stellar rotational axis.

  5. Meridional Flow Variations in Cycles 23 and 24: Active Latitude Control of Sunspot Cycle Amplitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the meridional motions of magnetic elements observed in the photosphere over sunspot cycles 23 and 24 using magnetograms from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. Our measurements confirm the finding of Komm, Howard, and Harvey (1993) that the poleward meridional flow weakens at cycle maxima. Our high spatial and temporal resolution analyses show that this variation is in the form of a superimposed inflow toward the active latitudes. This inflow is weaker in cycle 24 when compared to the inflow in 23, the stronger cycle. This systematic modulation of the meridional flow should also modulate the amplitude of the following sunspot cycle through its influence on the Sun's polar fields. The observational evidence and the theoretical consequences (similar to those of Cameron and Schussler (2012)) will be described.

  6. Meridional Flow Variations in Cycles 23 and 24: Active Latitude Control of Sunspot Cycle Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, L.

    2013-07-01

    We have measured the meridional motions of magnetic elements observed in the photosphere over sunspot cycles 23 and 24 using magnetograms from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. Our measurements confirm the finding of Komm, Howard, and Harvey (1993) that the poleward meridional flow weakens at cycle maxima. Our high spatial and temporal resolution analyses show that this variation is in the form of a superimposed inflow toward the active latitudes. This inflow is weaker in cycle 24 when compared to the inflow in 23, the stronger cycle. This systematic modulation of the meridional flow should also modulate the amplitude of the following sunspot cycle through its influence on the Sun’s polar fields. The observational evidence and the theoretical consequences (similar to those of Cameron and Schussler (2012)) will be described. Komm, Howard, and Harvey (1993) Solar Phys. 147, 207. Cameron and Schussler (2012) Astron. Astrophys. 548, A57.

  7. High-resolution mapping of Martian water ice clouds using Mars Express OMEGA observations – Derivation of the diurnal cloud life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szantai, Andre; Audouard, Joachim; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Forget, Francois; Pottier, Alizée; Millour, Ehouarn; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The mapping in space and time of water ice clouds can help to explain the Martian water cycle and atmospheric circulation. For this purpose, an ice cloud index (ICI) corresponding to the depth of a water ice absorption band at 3.4 microns is derived from a series of OMEGA images (spectels) covering 5 Martian years. The ICI values for the corresponding pixels are then binned on a high-resolution regular grid (1° longitude x 1° latitude x 5° Ls x 1 h local time) and averaged. Inside each bin, the cloud cover is calculated by dividing the number of pixels considered as cloudy (after comparison to a threshold) to the number of all (valid) pixelsWe compare the maps of clouds obtained around local time 14:00 with collocated TES cloud observations (which were only obtained around this time of the day). A good agreement is found.Averaged ICI compared to the water ice column variable from the Martian Climate Database (MCD) show a correct correlation (~0.5) , which increases when values limited to the tropics only are compared.The number of gridpoints containing ICI values is small ( ~1%), but by taking several neighbor gridpoints and over longer periods, we can observe a cloud life cycle during daytime. An example in the the tropics, around the northern summer solstice, shows a decrease of cloudiness in the morning followed by an increase in the afternoon.

  8. Diurnal variations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  9. Acute behavioral responses to light and darkness in nocturnal Mus musculus and diurnal Arvicanthis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Shuboni, D D; Cramm, S; Yan, L; Nunez, A A; Smale, Laura

    2012-08-01

    The term masking refers to immediate responses to stimuli that override the influence of the circadian timekeeping system on behavior and physiology. Masking by light and darkness plays an important role in shaping an organism's daily pattern of activity. Nocturnal animals generally become more active in response to darkness (positive masking) and less active in response to light (negative masking), and diurnal animals generally have opposite patterns of response. These responses can vary as a function of light intensity as well as time of day. Few studies have directly compared masking in diurnal and nocturnal species, and none have compared rhythms in masking behavior of diurnal and nocturnal species. Here, we assessed masking in nocturnal mice (Mus musculus) and diurnal grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus). In the first experiment, animals were housed in a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle, with dark or light pulses presented at 6 Zeitgeber times (ZTs; with ZT0 = lights on). Light pulses during the dark phase produced negative masking in nocturnal mice but only at ZT14, whereas light pulses resulted in positive masking in diurnal grass rats across the dark phase. In both species, dark pulses had no effect on behavior. In the 2nd experiment, animals were kept in constant darkness or constant light and were presented with light or dark pulses, respectively, at 6 circadian times (CTs). CT0 corresponded to ZT0 of the preceding LD cycle. Rhythms in masking responses to light differed between species; responses were evident at all CTs in grass rats but only at CT14 in mice. Responses to darkness were observed only in mice, in which there was a significant increase in activity at CT 22. In the 3rd experiment, animals were kept on a 3.5:3.5-h LD cycle. Surprisingly, masking was evident only in grass rats. In mice, levels of activity during the light and dark phases of the 7-h cycle did not differ, even though the same animals had responded to discrete photic stimuli in the

  10. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species.

  11. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth’s biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this “geothermal glacial refugia” hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species. PMID:24616489

  12. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species. PMID:24616489

  13. Differential arousal regulation by prokineticin 2 signaling in the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun-Yong; Burton, Katherine J; Neal, Matthew L; Qiao, Yu; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Sun, Yanjun; Xu, Xiangmin; Ma, Yuanye; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    The temporal organization of activity/rest or sleep/wake rhythms for mammals is regulated by the interaction of light/dark cycle and circadian clocks. The neural and molecular mechanisms that confine the active phase to either day or night period for the diurnal and the nocturnal mammals are unclear. Here we report that prokineticin 2, previously shown as a circadian clock output molecule, is expressed in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and the expression of prokineticin 2 in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is oscillatory in a clock-dependent manner. We further show that the prokineticin 2 signaling is required for the activity and arousal suppression by light in the mouse. Between the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey, a signaling receptor for prokineticin 2 is differentially expressed in the retinorecipient suprachiasmatic nucleus and the superior colliculus, brain projection targets of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Blockade with a selective antagonist reveals the respectively inhibitory and stimulatory effect of prokineticin 2 signaling on the arousal levels for the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey. Thus, the mammalian diurnality or nocturnality is likely determined by the differential signaling of prokineticin 2 from the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells onto their retinorecipient brain targets. PMID:27535380

  14. Data Assimilation Approach for Forecast of Solar Activity Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitiashvili, Irina N.

    2016-11-01

    Numerous attempts to predict future solar cycles are mostly based on empirical relations derived from observations of previous cycles, and they yield a wide range of predicted strengths and durations of the cycles. Results obtained with current dynamo models also deviate strongly from each other, thus raising questions about criteria to quantify the reliability of such predictions. The primary difficulties in modeling future solar activity are shortcomings of both the dynamo models and observations that do not allow us to determine the current and past states of the global solar magnetic structure and its dynamics. Data assimilation is a relatively new approach to develop physics-based predictions and estimate their uncertainties in situations where the physical properties of a system are not well-known. This paper presents an application of the ensemble Kalman filter method for modeling and prediction of solar cycles through use of a low-order nonlinear dynamo model that includes the essential physics and can describe general properties of the sunspot cycles. Despite the simplicity of this model, the data assimilation approach provides reasonable estimates for the strengths of future solar cycles. In particular, the prediction of Cycle 24 calculated and published in 2008 is so far holding up quite well. In this paper, I will present my first attempt to predict Cycle 25 using the data assimilation approach, and discuss the uncertainties of that prediction.

  15. Nocturnal activity by diurnal lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi, S. virgatus) eaten by small owls (Glaucidium gnoma, Otus trichopsis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, W.W.; Gehlbach, F.R.; Middendorf, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    Whiskered screech-owls (Otus trichopsis) and northern pygmy-owls (Glaucidium gnoma) delivered freshly caught Yarrow's spiny lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi) and striped plateau lizards (S. virgatus) to nestlings from dusk to dark in southeastern Arizona. This observation stimulated studies of the prey deliveries by the owls and lizard activity patterns, because the lizards are not known to be nocturnal. Lizards were more frequent prey of both owls than endothermic vertebrates but infrequent compared to arthropods, a pattern in the pygmy-owl that differs from its northern populations. Yarrow's spiny lizard, the most abundant and frequently captured lizard, was most active in the morning but also active in the evening. Striped plateau lizard, the second most abundant and depredated species, had morning and evening peaks of activity. Few lizards, including S. clarki and Urosaurus ornatus, but not Cnemidophorus exsanguis and C. sonorae, were active at or after dark, when relatively few were captured by the owls.

  16. Diurnal Growth of Tall Fescue Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Hans; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1988-01-01

    Tall fescue leaf blades elongate at near constant rates during most of the light and dark periods of the diurnal cycle, with the dark rate being higher by 60 to 65%. Our objective was to determine relationships among diurnal rates of leaf elongation, deposition of water and deposition of dry matter (DM) into the elongation zone. Two separate experiments were conducted, both with a 15-hour photoperiod and constant 21°C at the growth zone. Increased rates of leaf elongation in darkness were due to proportionally increased rates of elongation of 4-millimeter segments of the elongation zone. Length of the total elongation zone was 30 millimeters in both light and darkness. The spatial distribution of water contents in the elongation zone varied little during the diurnal cycle. Thus, dark stimulation of leaf elongation rate (+65%) and of water deposition (+77%) into elongation zones were similar. Water content per unit leaf length increased by 50% between the basal and distal limits of the elongation zone, indicating that tissue also grew in the lateral and vertical dimensions. Longitudinal growth of tissue, however, allowed 5 to 7 times more water deposition into the elongation zone than growth in cross-sectional area. This relationship was similar in light and darkness. In both light and darkness net rates of DM deposition (microgram per millimeter leaf length per hour) increased from the zone of cell division towards the region of most active elongation, 10 to 15 millimeters from the ligule, then decreased towards the distal end of the elongation zone. Net DM deposition rates (microgram per hour) integrated over the 30-millimeter elongation zone were similar during light and darkness. Thus, DM in the elongation zone was diluted during darkness as a result of increased water deposition. Net DM deposition rates at and above the distal end of the elongation zone were clearly positive during the light, but were close to zero or negative in darkness. Thus, DM deposition

  17. Diurnal activity of soil surface arthropods in agroecosystems: design for an inexpensive time-sorting pitfall trap

    SciTech Connect

    Blumberg, A.Y.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The design for an inexpensive time-sorting pitfall trap is presented. The basis of the mechanism is a rotary stepping solenoid powered by lantern batteries. Traps were utilized to sample soil surface arthropods at two hour intervals for five 24 hr periods in 1983. One trap each was placed in conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) agroecosystems. Soil arthropod surface activity was greatest in CT on 9 July during the dawn and dusk periods but the data did not indicate other dominant trends. Activity in NT was greatest during dusk on 27 June, but again no other dominant trends were evident. When CT and NT are combined over the sample dates, surface soil arthropod activity peaked during dusk, with a smaller activity peak at dawn. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  18. 40 CFR 1060.525 - How do I test fuel systems for diurnal emissions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tank with the carbon canister and vent line in a SHED meeting the specifications of 40 CFR 86.107-96(a... measure diurnal emissions: (1) Diurnal measurements are based on a representative temperature cycle. For marine fuel tanks, the temperature cycle specifies fuel temperatures rather than ambient...

  19. 40 CFR 1060.525 - How do I test fuel systems for diurnal emissions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tank with the carbon canister and vent line in a SHED meeting the specifications of 40 CFR 86.107-96(a... measure diurnal emissions: (1) Diurnal measurements are based on a representative temperature cycle. For marine fuel tanks, the temperature cycle specifies fuel temperatures rather than ambient...

  20. Plans and Activities for NASA's Global Water Cycle Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, C. A.

    2002-05-01

    Strictly speaking, the water (or hydrologic) cycle is by definition a global phenomenon. To observe, analyze, characterize, understand, and predict its structure and variations requires a coordinated, global effort of observations as well as global prediction systems which can assimilate and predict key fluxes and quantities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the unique capability of space-based experimental and research measurements that observe the Earth's system as well as core modelling activities to exploit these space-based observations for assimilation in diagnostic studies and initialization in weather and climate predictions. A summary of NASA's current water-cycle activities and implementation plans will be presented. Currently, NASA's Global Water and Energy Cycle and Terrestrial Hydrology (formally known as the Land Surface Hydrology) Programs are the key funding sources which support relevant scientific research. These programs not only fund individual scientists, but also support large-scale field missions (for example the Cold Land Processes Experiment, CLPX, and the Soil Moisture Experiment, SMEx) which are critical for calibration/validation of space instruments and retrievals as well as gaining fundamental understanding of local-scale processes which comprise the global system. In addition, a new initiative for Water and Energy cycle Research (WatER) is being formulated which responds to the recent charge of USGCRP and NRC scientific panels calling for focused and prioritized research plans that serve to make significant strides in our understanding and prediction of the global water cycle. Following NASA's unique vocation, the WatER initative sets priorities for science/research support for key observable quantities of the water cycle (precipitation and surface wetness) whose instrument technology is tactable and scientfic end-returns not only benefit water-cycle predictions, but also serve to benefit other critical

  1. The onset of the solar active cycle 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in being able to predict the main characteristics of a solar activity cycle (SAC). One would like to know, for instance, how large the amplitude (R sub m) of a cycle is likely to be, i.e., the annual mean of the sunspot numbers at the maximum of SAC. Also, how long a cycle is likely to last, i.e., its period. It would also be interesting to be able to predict the details, like how steep the ascending phase of a cycle is likely to be. Questions like these are of practical importance to NASA in planning the launch schedule for the low altitude, expensive spacecrafts like the Hubble Space Telescope, the Space Station, etc. Also, one has to choose a proper orbit, so that once launched the threat of an atmospheric drag on the spacecraft is properly taken into account. Cosmic ray data seem to indicate that solar activity cycle 22 will surpass SAC 21 in activity. The value of R sub m for SAC 22 may approach that of SAC 19. It would be interesting to see whether this prediction is borne out. Researchers are greatly encouraged to proceed with the development of a comprehensive prediction model which includes information provided by cosmic ray data.

  2. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR {epsilon} ERIDANI

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Petrucci, R.; Brown, B. P.; Soderblom, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Hall, J. C.; Basu, S.

    2013-02-01

    The active K2 dwarf {epsilon} Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in {epsilon} Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 {+-} 0.03 years and 12.7 {+-} 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Boehm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of {epsilon} Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.

  3. Memory performance is related to the cortisol awakening response in older people, but not to the diurnal cortisol slope.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Pulopulos, Matias M; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    There are large individual differences in age-related cognitive decline. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) functioning has been suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the diurnal cortisol cycle, measured as the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and the diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) and the memory performance of healthy older people. To do so, we assessed the verbal, visual, and working memory performance of 64 participants (32 men) from 57 to 76 years old who also provided 14 saliva samples on two consecutive weekdays to determine their diurnal cortisol cycle. The CAR was linearly and negatively associated with verbal (significantly) and visual (marginally) memory domains, but not with working memory. Sex did not moderate these relationships. Furthermore, no associations were found between the DCS and any of the three memory domains assessed. Our results indicate that the two components of the diurnal cortisol cycle have different relationships with memory performance, with the CAR being more relevant than DCS in understanding the link from HPA-axis activity and regulation to different types of memory. These results suggest that the CAR is related to memory domains dependent on hippocampal functioning (i.e., declarative memory), but not to those that are more dependent on prefrontal cortex functioning (i.e., working memory).

  4. Focusing pharmacoeconomic activities: reimbursement or the drug life cycle?

    PubMed

    Langley, Paul C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of pharmacoeconomic activities in the drug life cycle and not just as activities to support reimbursement applications and market entry. These activities are important in establishing the value case for a drug product to both internal and external audiences. Unless these activities are fully integrated into establishing the business case for a product from the pre-phase I period of drug discovery, manufacturers run the risk of establishing a unit price for the product and claims for cost-effectiveness which are inconsistent with achieving reimbursement. Importantly, manufacturers need to consider at an early stage the evidentiary and analytical needs for product evaluation under formulary submission guidelines (AMCP; NICE) and the integration of pharmacoeconomic activities over the life cycle. These activities include justifying assumptions for business opportunity assessments and an early commitment to developing a mock reimbursement submission at post-phase II. The integration of pharmacoeconomic activities in the drug cycle is not only an antidote to excessive clinical optimism but also provides the basis for an effective assessment of the likely performance of new products in the health-care market place at a price and formulary position acceptable both to the manufacturer and the reimburser.

  5. Periods of activity cycles in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliorin, N. I.; Ruzmaykin, A. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The mean magnetic field dynamo theory is utilized to obtain the qualitative dependence of the period of activity on the angular velocity of rotation for stars with sufficiently extensive convective shells. The dependence of the cycle period on the spectral class is also discussed.

  6. FOC/48 Monthly Activation (camera Section - Cycle 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miebach, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    This is an FOC engineering program needed to RE-ACTIVATE the FOC/48 detector according to CARD item 3.4.2.1 every 30 days. In order to avoid HV-ON cycles on the Intensifier HV Power Supplies the Camera Section is turned ON ONLY.

  7. Spots, activity cycles, and differential rotation on cool stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I. Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The first results are reported from a search for activity cycles in stars similar to the sun based on modelling their spotting with an algorithm developed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Of the more than thirty program stars, 10 manifested a cyclical variation in their central latitudes and total starspot area. The observed cycles have durations of 4-15 years, i.e., analogous to the 11 year Schwabe sunspot cycle. Most of the stars have a rough analog of the solar butterfly pattern, with a reduction in the average latitude of the spots as their area increases. A flip-flop effect during the epoch of the maximum average latitude is noted in a number of these objects (e.g., the analog LQ Hya of the young sun or the RS CVn-type variable V711 Tau), as well as a reduction in the photometric rotation period of a star as the spots drift toward the equator, an analog of the differential rotation effect in the sun. Unlike in the sun, the observed spot formation cycles do not correlate uniquely with other indicators of activity— chromospheric emission in the CaII HK lines (Be Cet, EK Dra, Dx Leo), H line emission (LQ Hya, VY Ari, EV Lac), or cyclical flare activity (EV Lac). In V833 Tau, BY Dra, EK Dra, and VY Ari short Schwabe cycles coexist with long cycles that are analogous to the Gleissberg solar cycle, in which the spotted area can approach half the entire area of the star.

  8. A cycling workstation to facilitate physical activity in office settings.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C

    2014-07-01

    Facilitating physical activity during the workday may help desk-bound workers reduce risks associated with sedentary behavior. We 1) evaluated the efficacy of a cycling workstation to increase energy expenditure while performing a typing task and 2) fabricated a power measurement system to determine the accuracy and reliability of an exercise cycle. Ten individuals performed 10 min trials of sitting while typing (SIT type) and pedaling while typing (PED type). Expired gases were recorded and typing performance was assessed. Metabolic cost during PED type was ∼ 2.5 × greater compared to SIT type (255 ± 14 vs. 100 ± 11 kcal h(-1), P < 0.01). Typing time and number of typing errors did not differ between PED type and SIT type (7.7 ± 1.5 vs. 7.6 ± 1.6 min, P = 0.51, 3.3 ± 4.6 vs. 3.8 ± 2.7 errors, P = 0.80). The exercise cycle overestimated power by 14-138% compared to actual power but actual power was reliable (r = 0.998, P < 0.01). A cycling workstation can facilitate physical activity without compromising typing performance. The exercise cycle's inaccuracy could be misleading to users. PMID:24681071

  9. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  10. Diurnal variation of the potassium layer in the upper atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Feng, W.; Höffner, J.; Marsh, D. R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dawkins, E. C. M.; Viehl, T. P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Measurements of the diurnal cycle of potassium (K) atoms between 80 and 110 km have been made during October (for the years 2004–2011) using a Doppler lidar at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54.1°N, 11.7°E). A pronounced diurnal variation is observed in the K number density, which is explored by using a detailed description of the neutral and ionized chemistry of K in a three‐dimensional chemistry climate model. The model captures both the amplitude and phase of the diurnal and semidiurnal variability of the layer, although the peak diurnal amplitude around 90 km is overestimated. The model shows that the total potassium density (≈ K + K+ + KHCO3) exhibits little diurnal variation at each altitude, and the diurnal variations are largely driven by photochemical conversion between these reservoir species. In contrast, tidally driven vertical transport has a small effect at this midlatitude location, and diurnal fluctuations in temperature are of little significance because they are small and the chemistry of K is relatively temperature independent. PMID:27478284

  11. The active RS Canum Venaticorum binary II Pegasi. IV. The SPOT activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Ilyin, I.; Tuominen, I.

    1999-10-01

    A total of 6 new surface images of II Peg obtained for the years 1997 and 1998 confirms the recently revealed permanent active longitude structure. The lower limit of the active longitudes' lifetime is now extended up to 25 years. A new ``flip-flop'' phenomenon, redefined as a switch of the activity between the active longitudes, has started in summer of 1998. It coincides reasonably well with the moment predicted from the activity cycle of the star. This confirms definitely the cyclic behaviour of the activity of II Peg we recently discovered. Therefore, we assign numbers to the cycles of 4.65 yr since the earliest photoelectric observations of II Peg and define the active longitudes as ``odd'' and ``even'' corresponding to odd and even numbers of cycles. With such a definition, in late 1998 the 7th cycle began and the ``odd'' active longitude became more active. From the analysis of the spot area evolution within the active longitudes we conclude that the activity cycle is developed as a rearrangement of the nearly constant amount of the spot area between the active longitudes. We discuss the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon as a tracer of stellar activity and the role of the unseen secondary in establishing the cycle. Based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), La Palma, Spain; the 1.25m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Ukraine; the Phoenix 10 robotic telescope, APT Observatory, Arizona, USA.}

  12. A Geomagnetic Precursor Technique for Predicting the Solar Activity Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, E. I.; Rabin, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Western hemisphere has been recording sunspot numbers since Galileo discovered sunspots in the early 17th century, and the roughly 11-year solar cycle has been recognized since the 19th century. However, predicting the strength of any particular cycle remains a relatively imprecise task. This project's aim was to update and improve a forecasting technique based on geomagnetic precursors of future solar activity The model is a refinement of R. J. Thompson's 1993 paper that relates the number of geomagnetically disturbed days, as defined by the aa and Ap indices, to the sum of the sunspot number in the current and the previous cycle, Rn + Rn-1.[1] The method exploits the fact that two cycles coexist for some period on the Sun near solar minimum and therefore that the number of sunspots and disturbed days during the declining phase of one cycle gives an indication of the following cycle's strength. We wrote and updated IDL software procedures to define disturbed days with varying threshold values and graphed Rn + Rn-1 against them. The aa threshold was derived from the Ap threshold. After comparing the graphs for Ap values from 20 to 50, an Ap threshold of 30 and the corresponding aa threshold of 44 were chosen as yielding the best correlation. Confidence regions were computed to provide a quantitative uncertainty on future predictions. The 80% confidence region gives a range of ±40 in sunspot number. [1] Thompson, R. J. (1993). A technique for predicting the amplitude of the solar cycle. Solar Physics, 148, 2, 383-388.

  13. SOLAR ROTATION RATE DURING THE CYCLE 24 MINIMUM IN ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Antia, H. M.; Basu, Sarbani E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.ed

    2010-09-01

    The minimum of solar cycle 24 is significantly different from most other minima in terms of its duration as well as its abnormally low levels of activity. Using available helioseismic data that cover epochs from the minimum of cycle 23 to now, we study the differences in the nature of the solar rotation between the minima of cycles 23 and 24. We find that there are significant differences between the rotation rates during the two minima. There are differences in the zonal-flow pattern too. We find that the band of fast rotating region close to the equator bifurcated around 2005 and recombined by 2008. This behavior is different from that during the cycle 23 minimum. By autocorrelating the zonal-flow pattern with a time shift, we find that in terms of solar dynamics, solar cycle 23 lasted for a period of 11.7 years, consistent with the result of Howe et al. (2009). The autocorrelation coefficient also confirms that the zonal-flow pattern penetrates through the convection zone.

  14. Activity Scratchpad Prototype: Simplifying the Rover Activity Planning Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover mission depends on the Science Activity Planner as its primary interface to the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers. Scientists alternate between a series of mouse clicks and keyboard inputs to create a set of instructions for the rovers. To accelerate planning by minimizing mouse usage, a rover planning editor should receive the majority of inputted commands from the keyboard. Thorough investigation of the Eclipse platform's Java editor has provided the understanding of the base model for the Activity Scratchpad. Desirable Eclipse features can be mapped to specific rover planning commands, such as auto-completion for activity titles and content assist for target names. A custom editor imitating the Java editor's features was created with an XML parser for experimenting purposes. The prototype editor minimized effort for redundant tasks and significantly improved the visual representation of XML syntax by highlighting keywords, coloring rules, folding projections, and providing hover assist, templates and an outline view of the code.

  15. Annual and diurnal african biomass burning temporal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Lagoudakis, E.

    2009-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning emissions. Here we conduct the first analysis of one full year of geostationary active fire detections and fire radiative power data recorded over Africa at 15-min temporal interval and a 3 km sub-satellite spatial resolution by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) imaging radiometer onboard the Meteosat-8 satellite. We use these data to provide new insights into the rates and totals of open biomass burning over Africa, particularly into the extremely strong seasonal and diurnal cycles that exist across the continent. We estimate peak daily biomass combustion totals to be 9 and 6 million tonnes of fuel per day in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively, and total fuel consumption between February 2004 and January 2005 is estimated to be at least 855 million tonnes. Analysis is carried out with regard to fire pixel temporal persistence, and we note that the majority of African fires are detected only once in consecutive 15 min imaging slots. An investigation of the variability of the diurnal fire cycle is carried out with respect to 20 different land cover types, and whilst differences are noted between land covers, the fire diurnal cycle characteristics for most land cover type are very similar in both African hemispheres. We compare the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) derived biomass combustion estimates to burned-areas, both at the scale of individual fires and over the entire continent at a 1-degree scale. Fuel consumption estimates are found to be less than 2 kg/m2 for all land cover types noted to be subject to significant fire activity, and for savanna grasslands where literature values are commonly reported the FRP-derived median fuel consumption estimate of 300 g/m2 is well within commonly quoted values. Meteosat-derived FRP data of the type presented here is now available freely to interested users continuously and in near real-time for Africa, Europe and parts

  16. Diurnal polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, P.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical theory is developed to describe diurnal polar motion in the earth which arises as a forced response due to lunisolar torques and tidal deformation. Doodson's expansion of the tide generating potential is used to represent the lunisolar torques. Both the magnitudes and the rates of change of perturbations in the earth's inertia tensor are included in the dynamical equations for the polar motion so as to account for rotational and tidal deformation. It is found that in a deformable earth with Love's number k = 0.29, the angular momentum vector departs by as much as 20 cm from the rotation axis rather than remaining within 1 or 2 cm as it would in a rigid earth. This 20 cm separation is significant in the interpretation of submeter polar motion observations because it necessitates an additional coordinate transformation in order to remove what would otherwise be a 20 cm error source in the conversion between inertial and terrestrial reference systems.

  17. Magnetic activity in the young solar analog LQ Hydrae. I. Active longitudes and cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Pelt, J.; Tuominen, I.

    2002-11-01

    We present the first evidence that a single active dwarf of solar type can show a long-lived, nonaxisymmetric spot distribution - active longitudes on opposite hemispheres, similar to evolved, rapidly rotating RS CVn-type binary stars. We analyse new as well as published photometric observations of the young active dwarf LQ Hya, spanning almost 20 years. We find that activity of the star has three activity cycles: a 5.2-yr ``flip-flop'' cycle, a 7.7-yr period in the amplitude modulation of the brightness and an approximately 15-yr period in variations of the mean brightness. The two shorter cycles are related to the alternating active longitudes and are similar to cycles observed in RS CVn-type stars. The 15-yr cycle reflects periodic changes of the mean spottedness of the star and resembles the solar 11-year cycle. The spot rotation period (about 1.6 days) changes during the 15-yr cycle, indicating the presence of small differential rotation. The lengths of the three cycles are related as 3:2:1, with the repetition of the spot configuration after 15 years. We discuss the possibility that the observed spot cycles represent two different magnetic dynamo modes operating in LQ Hya: an axisymmetric mode, as in the Sun, and a nonaxisymmetric higher order mode with two cycles in spot patterns. Our results suggest that young stars exhibit their cycles in spot distribution, as seen in LQ Hya. This is in contrast to the conclusion based on the analysis of Ca Ii H&K emission from plages. The results suggest also that the Vaughan-Preston gap represents a transition from a multiple-mode dynamo to a single-mode dynamo. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/394/505

  18. Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance index for assessing xanthophyll cycle activity: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large

  19. Patterns of Diurnal Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Fraction Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2015-04-01

    The spatial patterns of subtropical marine stratocumulus cloud fraction variability on diurnal time scales are examined using high temporal resolution cloud masks based on 30-min 4 km x 4 km geosynchronous IR data for the period 2003-2010. This data set permits comparison of low cloud fraction variability characteristics among the three marine stratocumulus regions in the southeast Pacific, southeast Atlantic and northeast Pacific. In all three regions, the largest diurnal cycles and earliest time of cloud break up occur on the edges of the cloud field where cloud fractions are in general lower. During the peak season of cloudiness in the southeast Pacific and southeast Atlantic the amplitude of the diurnal cycle on the edges of the cloud deck was greater than 40%, more than double the value found in the center of each cloud deck. The rate at which the cloud breaks up during the day is closely tied to starting cloud fraction at dawn and the shortwave radiative flux. The maximum rate of cloud breakup occurs near 1200 LT. Cloud fraction begins to increase at 1600 LT (before the sun sets) and reaches its maximum value just before dawn. The diurnal cycle characteristics of the southeast Pacific and southeast Atlantic marine stratocumulus cloud decks are more similar to each other than to those in the northeast Pacific. The northeast Pacific cloud deck has weaker diurnal variation, slower rates of cloud breakup during the day for a given cloud fraction at dawn, and higher probabilities for cloud break up overnight.

  20. Impact of activation process on fog life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Marie; Burnet, Frédéric; Lac, Christine; Roberts, Greg; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Elias, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Fogs are complex meteorological system dealing with fine scale processes. Subtle interaction between radiative, dynamic, turbulent and microphysic processes can lead to different fog life cycle, which make prediction difficult. The droplets that composed fogs are formed trough the activation of aerosol particles called CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) described by the Köhler theory (Köhler, 1936). The number and distribution of the droplets activated during fog formation is determined by the aerosols particles properties and number and the ambient vapor supersaturation of the atmosphere. In the frame of the PreViBOSS project, an in-situ measurement platform of fog properties at ground level was deployed at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research) during winter 2010 to 2013. Microphysics data supply a detailed characterization of number size spectrum from dry to wet aerosols particles and inform on the abilities of the aerosols particles to act as a CCN. 48 fog events have been studied. Supersaturation critical values and concentrations of CCN have been determined and linked to aerosols properties. The main impact of aerosols size distribution on activation have been pointed out. The study of droplets spectra evolution reveals the major physical processes into fogs and suggests that even if thermodynamic dominates the fog life cycle, activation process seems to have a significant effect. Large eddy simulation of fog run with Meso-NH model allow to explore precisely the interaction between fog physical processes and to quantify activation impact. Supersaturation modelling is a key point, a new pseudo-prognostic scheme (Thouron et al., 2012) is used. Confrontation between a detailed experimental study and three-dimensional fine scale simulation in LES provides an accurate investigation of the impact of activation process on fog life cycle.

  1. Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh V.; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-04-22

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian cycle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece 51142 can fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. Thus, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of two processes: photosynthesis during the day, and nitrogen fixation at night. While previous studies have examined periodic changes transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. We found that ~30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes in numerous individual pathways, such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogen metabolism, were co-regulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. Our analyses suggest that the demands of nitrogen fixation greatly influence major metabolic activities inside Cyanothece cells and thus drive various cellular activities. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium

  2. Diurnal and spatial variation of remotely sensed precipitation over Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, D.; Iyengar, G. R.; Mitra, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    The climate of India is dominated by monsoon systems. The remotely sensed estimates obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are used to examine the most of the Indian monsoon systems. This study deals with the diurnal and spatial variation of precipitation over the Indian region. The precipitation data from TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), blended from a variety of sources (including rain gauges over land) and having both daily and 3- hourly output are being used for evaluation of the Numerical Weather Prediction models Basu (2007) of National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting. The precipitation obtained from TRMM 3B42 for this study period has a spatial resolution of 0.25º X 0.25º latitude-longitude. The 3-hourly averaged values are centered at the middle of each 3 hr period. South Asian regions are dominated by seasonal climatic fluctuations and the major rainy season is the southwest monsoon season. In addition to the seasonal fluctuations, Indian summer monsoon is modulated by diurnal fluctuations; nature of diurnal variation of rainfall varies from place to place and depends upon the locations, topography of the region. Diurnal variation of rain-rate, frequency of rain, conditional rain rate, and maximum and minimum rain occurrence is studied. Over Indian tropical region, maximum rainfall over land and Bay of Bengal regions is observed during the late-afternoon and early-morning period, respectively. Drizzle or less rainfall occur frequently in the morning over most land areas, whereas convective activity occurs during the afternoon. The model predicted diurnal cycle of precipitation peaks too early (by ~3h) and the amplitude is too strong over Indian land region and tropical ocean region.

  3. Epigenome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis of Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Diurnal Preference.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chloe C Y; Parsons, Michael J; Lester, Kathryn J; Burrage, Joe; Eley, Thalia C; Mill, Jonathan; Dempster, Emma L; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-12-01

    Diurnal preference is an individual's preference for daily activities and sleep timing and is strongly correlated with the underlying circadian clock and the sleep-wake cycle validating its use as an indirect circadian measure in humans. Recent research has implicated DNA methylation as a mechanism involved in the regulation of the circadian clock system in humans and other mammals. In order to evaluate the extent of epigenetic differences associated with diurnal preference, we examined genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in DNA from monozygotic (MZ) twin-pairs discordant for diurnal preference. MZ twins were selected from a longitudinal twin study designed to investigate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the development of emotional and behavioral difficulties. Fifteen pairs of MZ twins were identified in which one member scored considerably higher on the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) than the other. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were assessed in twins' buccal cell DNA using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Quality control and data pre-processing was undertaken using the wateRmelon package. Differentially methylated probes (DMPs) were identified using an analysis strategy taking into account both the significance and the magnitude of DNA methylation differences. Our data indicate that DNA methylation differences are detectable in MZ twins discordant for diurnal preference. Moreover, downstream gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis on the top-ranked diurnal preference associated DMPs revealed significant enrichment of pathways that have been previously associated with circadian rhythm regulation, including cell adhesion processes and calcium ion binding.

  4. The Cell Cycle: An Activity Using Paper Plates to Represent Time Spent in Phases of the Cell Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, students are given the opportunity to combine skills in math and geometry for a biology lesson in the cell cycle. Students utilize the data they collect and analyze from an online onion-root-tip activity to create a paper-plate time clock representing a 24-hour cell cycle. By dividing the paper plate into appropriate phases of…

  5. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Keawrayup, S.; Duvallet, G.; Sukonthabhirom, S.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.

    2012-01-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  6. Short-period Stellar Activity Cycles with Kepler Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Theresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2015-07-01

    We study the short-periodic component of stellar activity with a cycle period of {P}{cyc}\\lt {10}3 days using the Kepler mission photometry of fast-rotating (1\\lt P\\lt 4 days) stars with spectra of M4V to F3V. Applying the originally developed two non-spectral methods, we measured the effective period of stellar cycles in 462 objects. The obtained results are in accordance with previous measurements by Vida et al. and do not seem to result from a beating effect. The performed measurements of Pcyc cluster in a specific branch that covers the previously unstudied region in the Saar & Brandenburg diagram and connects the branch of inactive stars with the area populated by super-active objects. It is shown that the formation of the discovered branch is due to the α-quenching effect, which saturates the magnetic dynamo and decreases the cycle periods with the increase of the inverted Rossby number. This finding is important in the context of the discussion on catastrophic quenching and other heuristic approximations of the nonlinear α-effect.

  7. The variations of prominence activities during solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, Masumi

    The prominence activities (prominence eruption/disappearance) in the solar atmosphere closely relate with the CMEs that cause great influences on heliosphere and magnetosphere. Gopal-swarmy et al. (2003) reported that 72 The Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) is observing Sun in microwave (17 GHz) since 1992. At a flare, the main component of the microwave from Sun is emitted from non-thermal electrons that are accelerated by flare. On the other hand, the main component of the microwave is thermal emission when Sun is quiet, and a prominence is clearly observed in microwave because there is the prominence on the limb. We developed the automatic prominence activity detection program based on 17 GHz images observed by NoRH, and investigated the variation of the properties of the prominence activities that oc-curred from 1992 to the end of 2009. We found the following results. 1. The variation in the number of prominence activities is similar to that of sunspots during one solar cycle but there are differences between the peak times of prominence activities and sunspots. 2. The frequency distribution as a function of the magnitude of the prominence activities the size of activated prominences at each phase shows a power-law distribution. The power-law index of the distribution does not change except around the solar minimum. 3. The number of promi-nence activities has a dependence on the latitude On the other hand the average magnitude is independent of the latitude. In the paper, we will also discuss the relationship the other properties of prominence eruptions, solar cycle and the photospheric magnetic field.

  8. Ethanol Metabolism Activates Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase, Chk2

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Dahn L.; Mahan Schneider, Katrina J.; Nuss, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ethanol abuse results in hepatocyte injury and impairs hepatocyte replication. We have previously shown that ethanol metabolism results in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition, which is partially mediated by inhibitory phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc2. To further delineate the mechanisms by which ethanol metabolism mediates this G2/M arrest, we investigated the involvement of upstream regulators of Cdc2 activity. Cdc2 is activated by the phosphatase Cdc25C. The activity of Cdc25C can, in turn, be regulated by the checkpoint kinase, Chk2, which is regulated by the kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). To investigate the involvement of these regulators of Cdc2 activity, VA-13 cells, which are Hep G2 cells modified to efficiently express alcohol dehydrogenase, were cultured in the presence or absence of 25 mM ethanol. Immunoblots were performed to determine the effects of ethanol metabolism on the activation of Cdc25C, Chk2, and ATM. Ethanol metabolism increased the active forms of ATM, and Chk2, as well as the phosphorylated form of Cdc25C. Additionally, inhibition of ATM resulted in approximately 50% of the cells being rescued from the G2/M cell cycle arrest, and ameliorated the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2. Our findings demonstrate that ethanol metabolism activates ATM. ATM can activate the checkpoint kinase Chk2, resulting in phosphorylation of Cdc25C, and ultimately in the accumulation of inactive Cdc2. This may, in part, explain the ethanol metabolism-mediated impairment in hepatocyte replication, which may be important in the initiation and progression of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:21924579

  9. Numerical Analysis of an Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikeos, J.; Rowe, A.; Tura, A.

    2006-04-01

    An alternative cycle proposed for refrigeration and gas liquefaction is active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration. This technology relies on solid materials exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect (MCE), a nearly reversible temperature change induced by a magnetic field change. This work focuses on numerical simulations of the AMR refrigeration cycle. A transient one-dimensional finite element model developed in FEMLAB™ incorporates energy equations for the refrigerant and the heat transfer fluid. The results of the model are validated by comparison to room temperature experiments with Gd. Predictions are then made for the performance of DyAl2 AMR beds near 70 K. Numerical results for simulations significantly above the Curie temperature are found to be dependent upon the initial conditions.

  10. Diurnal Variation of Precipitation During MC3E Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Di; Matsui, Toshi; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Hou, Arthur; Rienecker, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The diurnal variation of precipitation processes in the United States (US) is well recognized but incompletely understood (Cabone et al. 2002). The diurnal cycle of precipitation has been studied using surface rainfall data, radar reflectivity data, and satellite-derived cloudiness and precipitation (Wallace 1975; Dai et al. 1999; Carbone et al. 2002; Carbone and Tuttle, 2008; Parker and Ahijevych, 2007; Matsui et al. 2010 and others). These observations indicate that the summer-time precipitation most of the North America and typically feature late-afternoon precipitation maxima. These diurnal variation of precipitation can also be generally categorized into three different types: 1) afternoon rainfall maxima due to mesoscale and local circulations over the south and east of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, 2) nocturnal rainfall maxima from eastward-propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the Lee side of Rocky Mountain regions and 3) afternoon rainfall maxima in the Appalachian Mountains, and then propagate eastward toward the coast. The main objective of this paper is to use a regional cloud-scale model with very high-resolution (i.e., WRF) to examine the WRF ability to simulate diurnal variation of precipitation. Specifically, the study will (1) identify the physical processes responsible to diurnal variation of precipitation, (2) examine the sensitivity of resolution (2, 6, 18, and 30 km) to model simulated diurnal variation of precipitation and (3) identify the relationships between microphysics and cumulus parameterization schemes.

  11. Synthesis and degradation of nitrate reductase during the cell cycle of Chlorella sorokiniana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velasco, P. J.; Tischner, R.; Huffaker, R. C.; Whitaker, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the diurnal variations of nitrate reductase (NR) activity during the life cycle of synchronized Chlorella sorokiniana cells grown with a 7:5 light-dark cycle showed that the NADH:NR activity, as well as the NR partial activities NADH:cytochrome c reductase and reduced methyl viologen:NR, closely paralleled the appearance and disappearance of NR protein as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and immunoblots. Results of pulse-labeling experiments with [35S]methionine further confirmed that diurnal variations of the enzyme activities can be entirely accounted for by the concomitant synthesis and degradation of the NR protein.

  12. EEG activity during estral cycle in the rat.

    PubMed

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Juárez, J; Ponce-de-León, M; Ramos, J; Velázquez, P N

    1992-10-01

    EEG activity was recorded from right and left parietal cortex in adult female rats daily during 6 days. Immediately after EEG recording vaginal smears were taken and were microscopically analyzed to determine the estral stage. Absolute and relative powers and interhemispheric correlation of EEG activity were calculated and compared between estral stages. Interhemispheric correlation was significantly lower during diestrous as compared to proestrous and estrous. Absolute and relative powers did not show significant differences between estral stages. Absolute powers of alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 bands were significantly higher at the right parietal cortex. Comparisons of the same EEG records with estral stages randomly grouped showed no significant differences for any of the EEG parameters. EEG activity is a sensitive tool to study functional changes related to the estral cycle.

  13. Sunspot Activity Near Cycle Minimum and What it Might Suggest for Cycle 24, the Next Sunspot Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    In late 2008, 12-month moving averages of sunspot number, number of spotless days, number of groups, area of sunspots, and area per group were reflective of sunspot cycle minimum conditions for cycle 24, these values being of or near record value. The first spotless day occurred in January 2004 and the first new-cycle, high-latitude spot was reported in January 2008, although old-cycle, low-latitude spots have continued to be seen through April 2009, yielding an overlap of old and new cycle spots of at least 16 mo. New-cycle spots first became dominant over old-cycle spots in September 2008. The minimum value of the weighted mean latitude of sunspots occurred in May 2007, measuring 6.6 deg, and the minimum value of the highest-latitude spot followed in June 2007, measuring 11.7 deg. A cycle length of at least 150 mo is inferred for cycle 23, making it the longest cycle of the modern era. Based on both the maximum-minimum and amplitude-period relationships, cycle 24 is expected to be only of average to below-average size, peaking probably in late 2012 to early 2013, unless it proves to be a statistical outlier.

  14. Diurnal patterns of blowing sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex process that involves an interaction between solar heating, thermal instability, atmospheric turbulence, wind strength, and surface threshold conditions. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances the convect...

  15. Sources of solar wind over the solar activity cycle

    PubMed Central

    Poletto, Giannina

    2012-01-01

    Fast solar wind has been recognized, about 40 years ago, to originate in polar coronal holes (CHs), that, since then, have been identified with sources of recurrent high speed wind streams. As of today, however, there is no general consensus about whether there are, within CHs, preferential locations where the solar wind is accelerated. Knowledge of slow wind sources is far from complete as well. Slow wind observed in situ can be traced back to its solar source by backward extrapolation of magnetic fields whose field lines are streamlines of the outflowing plasma. However, this technique often has not the necessary precision for an indisputable identification of the region where wind originates. As the Sun progresses through its activity cycle, different wind sources prevail and contribute to filling the heliosphere. Our present knowledge of different wind sources is here summarized. Also, a Section addresses the problem of wind acceleration in the low corona, as inferred from an analysis of UV data, and illustrates changes between fast and slow wind profiles and possible signatures of changes along the solar cycle. A brief reference to recent work about the deep roots of solar wind and their changes over different solar cycles concludes the review. PMID:25685421

  16. Sources of solar wind over the solar activity cycle.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Giannina

    2013-05-01

    Fast solar wind has been recognized, about 40 years ago, to originate in polar coronal holes (CHs), that, since then, have been identified with sources of recurrent high speed wind streams. As of today, however, there is no general consensus about whether there are, within CHs, preferential locations where the solar wind is accelerated. Knowledge of slow wind sources is far from complete as well. Slow wind observed in situ can be traced back to its solar source by backward extrapolation of magnetic fields whose field lines are streamlines of the outflowing plasma. However, this technique often has not the necessary precision for an indisputable identification of the region where wind originates. As the Sun progresses through its activity cycle, different wind sources prevail and contribute to filling the heliosphere. Our present knowledge of different wind sources is here summarized. Also, a Section addresses the problem of wind acceleration in the low corona, as inferred from an analysis of UV data, and illustrates changes between fast and slow wind profiles and possible signatures of changes along the solar cycle. A brief reference to recent work about the deep roots of solar wind and their changes over different solar cycles concludes the review.

  17. Shifting Nicotiana attenuata's diurnal rhythm does not alter its resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Herden, Jasmin; Meldau, Stefan; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Kunert, Grit; Joo, Youngsung; Baldwin, Ian T; Schuman, Meredith C

    2016-07-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants are less resistant to attack by the generalist lepidopteran herbivore Trichoplusia ni when plants and herbivores are entrained to opposite, versus identical diurnal cycles and tested under constant conditions. This effect is associated with circadian fluctuations in levels of jasmonic acid, the transcription factor MYC2, and glucosinolate contents in leaves. We tested whether a similar effect could be observed in a different plant-herbivore system: the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and its co-evolved specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. We measured larval growth on plants under both constant and diurnal conditions following identical or opposite entrainment, profiled the metabolome of attacked leaf tissue, quantified specific metabolites known to reduce M. sexta growth, and monitored M. sexta feeding activity under all experimental conditions. Entrainment did not consistently affect M. sexta growth or plant defense induction. However, both were reduced under constant dark conditions, as was M. sexta feeding activity. Our data indicate that the response induced by M. sexta in N. attenuata is robust to diurnal cues and independent of plant or herbivore entrainment. We propose that while the patterns of constitutive or general damage-induced defense may undergo circadian fluctuation, the orchestration of specific induced responses is more complex. PMID:26699809

  18. Inferring land surface parameters from the diurnal variability of microwave and infrared temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, Hamidreza; Temimi, Marouane; AghaKouchak, Amir; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Khanbilvardi, Reza; Shields, Gerarda; Tesfagiorgis, Kibrewossen

    This study investigates the properties of the diurnal cycle of microwave brightness temperatures (TB), namely the phase and the amplitude, and their variability in time and space over the globe to infer information on key land surface parameters like changes in soil texture spatial distribution, soil moisture conditions, and vegetation density. The phase corresponds to the lag between Land Surface Temperature (LST) and TB diurnal cycles. The amplitude is determined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum of TB diurnal cycle. The diurnal cycle of TB was constructed using observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). The latter offer a series of sensors, namely, F13, F14, and F15 that were used in this study for a higher temporal coverage and more accurate diurnal cycle determination. LST estimates, which are available every 3 h from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database were used to build the LST diurnal cycle. ISCCP LST data is an infrared-based temperature with almost no penetration and is the representative of top skin temperature. The analyses of the diurnal cycles showed that the diurnal amplitude of TB decreases as the vegetation density increases, especially in the case of low frequencies which penetrate deeper into the canopy which makes them more sensitive to changes in vegetation density. The interannual variations of TB diurnal amplitudes were also in agreement with the seasonality of the vegetation cover. Over desert and rain forest regions where surface conditions do not vary significantly throughout the year, the changes in diurnal amplitudes were the lowest. A relationship between phase and amplitude values was established. It was found that the amplitude of TB diurnal cycle decreases when the phase lag increases. The spatial distribution of the determined diurnal properties, namely, phase and amplitude of TB

  19. Diurnal blood pressure variation and related behavioral factors.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2011-03-01

    Blood pressure (BP) varies according to many internal and external factors, and behavioral factors have an important role in diurnal BP variation. BP rises sharply on waking in the morning and falls during sleep at night, although it varies throughout the day and night. These changes in BP are closely related to mental and physical activities, and the sympathetic nervous system mainly contributes to the diurnal variation in BP. Other behavioral factors, such as food consumption and obesity, dietary intake of sodium, drinking and smoking habits, consumption of coffee and tea, and bathing, also affect the diurnal variation in BP. Alterations in diurnal BP variation due to behavioral factors are frequently seen in patients with hypertension and can be classified as morning hypertension, daytime hypertension and nighttime hypertension. Appropriate lifestyle modifications may normalize or improve both the level and rhythm of BP in these patients.

  20. A diurnal serum lipid integrates hepatic lipogenesis and peripheral fatty acid utilization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sihao; Brown, Jonathan D.; Stanya, Kristopher J.; Homan, Edwin; Leidl, Mathias; Inouye, Karen; Bhargava, Prerna; Gangl, Matthew R.; Dai, Lingling; Hatano, Ben; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Saghatelian, Alan; Plutzky, Jorge; Lee, Chih-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Food intake increases the activity of hepatic de novo lipogenesis, which mediates the conversion of glucose to fats for storage or utilization. In mice, this program follows a circadian rhythm that peaks with nocturnal feeding1,2 and is repressed by Rev-erbα/β and an HDAC3-containing complex3–5 during the day. The transcriptional activators controlling rhythmic lipid synthesis in the dark cycle remain poorly defined. Disturbances in hepatic lipogenesis are also associated with systemic metabolic phenotypes6–8, suggesting that lipogenesis in the liver communicates with peripheral tissues to control energy substrate homeostasis. Here we identify a PPARδ-dependent de novo lipogenic pathway in the liver that modulates fat utilization by muscle via a circulating lipid. The nuclear receptor PPARδ controls diurnal expression of lipogenic genes in the dark/feeding cycle. Liver-specific PPARδ activation increases, while hepatocyte-Ppard deletion reduces, muscle fatty acid (FA) uptake. Unbiased metabolite profiling identifies PC(18:0/18:1), or 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC), as a serum lipid regulated by diurnal hepatic PPARδ activity. PC(18:0/18:1) reduces postprandial lipid levels and increases FA utilization through muscle PPARα. High fat feeding diminishes rhythmic production of PC(18:0/18:1), whereas PC(18:0/18:1) administration in db/db mice improves metabolic homeostasis. These findings reveal an integrated regulatory circuit coupling lipid synthesis in the liver to energy utilization in muscle by coordinating the activity of two closely related nuclear receptors. These data implicate alterations in diurnal hepatic PPARδ-PC(18:0/18:1) signaling in metabolic disorders including obesity. PMID:24153306

  1. Lidar observation campaigns on diurnal variations of the sodium layer in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jihong

    2016-07-01

    Based on observations from daytime lidars in eastern China, diurnal cycles of the sodium layer over Beijing (40.5°N, 116°E) are investigated. Diurnal variations of Na density, root mean square (RMS) layer width, and centroid height of the sodium layer are analyzed. Results reveal that the large diurnal cycles of the sodium layer are controlled mainly by 24-hr oscillations at the Beijing observation site. The diurnal variation over Beijing was controlled principally by photoionization and photochemistry effects during another campaign, and there was little evidence of direct tidal perturbations. The comparisons suggest that the diurnal variation of the sodium layer perhaps has obvious regional characteristics across China. The variation can be either controlled mainly by tidal perturbations or by photoionization and photochemistry effects in different seasons.

  2. Genipin as a novel chemical activator of EBV lytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungki; Lee, Minjung; Ryu, Eunhyun; Moon, Aree; Jeong, Choon-Sik; Jung, Yong Woo; Park, Gyu Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus that causes acute infection and establishes life-long latency. EBV causes several human cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma. Antiviral agents can be categorized as virucides, antiviral chemotherapeutic agents, and immunomodulators. Most antiviral agents affect actively replicating viruses, but not their latent forms. Novel antiviral agents must be active on both the replicating and the latent forms of the virus. Gardenia jasminoides is an evergreen flowering plant belonging to the Rubiaceae family and is most commonly found growing wild in Vietnam, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan, Myanmar, and India. Genipin is an aglycone derived from an iridoid glycoside called geniposide, which is present in large quantities in the fruit of G. jasminoides. In this study, genipin was evaluated for its role as an antitumor and antiviral agent that produces inhibitory effects against EBV and EBV associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). In SNU719 cells, one of EBVaGCs, genipin caused significant cytotoxicity (70 μM), induced methylation on EBV C promoter and tumor suppressor gene BCL7A, arrested cell-cycle progress (S phases), upregulated EBV latent/lytic genes in a dose-dependent manner, stimulated EBV progeny production, activated EBV F promoter for EBV lytic activation, and suppressed EBV infection. These results indicated that genipin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and EBVaGC. PMID:25626372

  3. Effects of Low Activity Solar Cycle on Orbital Debris Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, Samual B.; Sutton, Eric K.; Lin, chin S.; Liou, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Long duration of low solar activity in the last solar minimum has an undesirable consequence of extending the lifetime of orbital debris. The AFRL TacSat-2 satellite decommissioned in 2008 has finally re-entered into the atmosphere on February 5th after more than one year overdue. Concerning its demise we have monitored its orbital decay and monthly forecasted Tacsat-2 re-entry since September 2010 by using the Orbital Element Prediction (OEP) model developed by the AFRL Orbital Drag Environment program. The model combines estimates of future solar activity with neutral density models, drag coefficient models, and an orbit propagator to predict satellite lifetime. We run the OEP model with solar indices forecast by the NASA Marshall Solar Activity Future Estimation model, and neutral density forecast by the MSIS-00 neutral density model. Based on the two line elements in 2010 up to mid September, we estimated at a 50% confidence level TacSat-2's re-entry time to be in early February 2011, which turned out to be in good agreement with Tacsat-2's actual re-entry date. The potential space weather effects of the coming low activity solar cycle on satellite lifetime and orbital debris population are examined. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of solar flux on the orbital debris population in the 200-600 km altitude environment. The results are discussed for developing satellite orbital drag application product.

  4. Genipin as a novel chemical activator of EBV lytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungki; Lee, Minjung; Ryu, Eunhyun; Moon, Aree; Jeong, Choon-Sik; Jung, Yong Woo; Park, Gyu Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus that causes acute infection and establishes life-long latency. EBV causes several human cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma. Antiviral agents can be categorized as virucides, antiviral chemotherapeutic agents, and immunomodulators. Most antiviral agents affect actively replicating viruses, but not their latent forms. Novel antiviral agents must be active on both the replicating and the latent forms of the virus. Gardenia jasminoides is an evergreen flowering plant belonging to the Rubiaceae family and is most commonly found growing wild in Vietnam, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan, Myanmar, and India. Genipin is an aglycone derived from an iridoid glycoside called geniposide, which is present in large quantities in the fruit of G. jasminoides. In this study, genipin was evaluated for its role as an antitumor and antiviral agent that produces inhibitory effects against EBV and EBV associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). In SNU719 cells, one of EBVaGCs, genipin caused significant cytotoxicity (70 μM), induced methylation on EBV C promoter and tumor suppressor gene BCL7A, arrested cell-cycle progress (S phases), upregulated EBV latent/lytic genes in a dose-dependent manner, stimulated EBV progeny production, activated EBV F promoter for EBV lytic activation, and suppressed EBV infection. These results indicated that genipin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and EBVaGC.

  5. Solar wind and coronal rotation during an activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Rui; Brun, Allan Sacha

    The properties of the solar wind flow are strongly affected by the time-varying strength and geometry of the global background magnetic field. The wind velocity and mass flux depend directly on the size and position of the wind sources at the surface, and on the geometry of the magnetic flux-tubes along which the wind flows. We address these problems by performing numerical simulations coupling a kinematic dynamo code (STELEM) evolve in a 2.5D axisymmetric coronal MHD code (DIP) covering an 11 yr activity cycle. The latitudinal distribution of the calculated wind velocities agrees with in-situ (ULYSSES, HELIO) and radio measurements (IPS). The transition from fast to slow wind flows can be explained in terms of the high overall flux-tube superradial expansion factors in the vicinities of coronal streamer boundaries. We found that the Alfvén radii and the global Sun's mass loss rate vary considerably throughout the cycle (by a factor 4.5 and 1.6, respectively), leading to strong temporal modulations of the global angular momentum flux and magnetic braking torque. The slowly varying magnetic topology introduces strong non-uniformities in the coronal rotation rate in the first few solar radii. Finally, we point out directions to assess the effects of surface transient phenomena on the global properties of the solar wind.

  6. Global changes in biogeochemical cycles in response to human activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Melillo, Jerry

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of our research was to characterize biogeochemical cycles at continental and global scales in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This characterization applied to both natural ecosystems and those disturbed by human activity. The primary elements of interest were carbon and nitrogen and the analysis sought to quantify standing stocks and dynamic cycling processes. The translocation of major nutrients from the terrestrial landscape to the atmosphere (via trace gases) and to fluvial systems (via leaching, erosional losses, and point source pollution) were of particular importance to this study. Our aim was to develop the first generation of Earth System Models. Our research was organized around the construction and testing of component biogeochemical models which treated terrestrial ecosystem processes, aquatic nutrient transport through drainage basins, and trace gas exchanges at the continental and global scale. A suite of three complementary models were defined within this construct. The models were organized to operate at a 1/2 degree latitude by longitude level of spatial resolution and to execute at a monthly time step. This discretization afforded us the opportunity to understand the dynamics of the biosphere down to subregional scales, while simultaneously placing these dynamics into a global context.

  7. Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustín; Contigiani, Marta S.

    2013-01-01

    Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities. PMID:23335900

  8. Diurnal Rhythms Result in Significant Changes in the Cellular Protein Complement in the Cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142

    SciTech Connect

    Stockel, Jana; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Welsh, Eric A.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-02-22

    Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ,30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic approaches to examine the impact of diurnal rhythms on the protein complement in Cyanothece 51142. We found that 250 proteins accounting for,5% of the predicted ORFs from the Cyanothece 51142 genome and 20% of proteins detected under alternating light/dark conditions exhibited periodic oscillations in their abundances. Our results suggest that altered enzyme activities at different phases during the diurnal cycle can be attributed to changes in the abundance of related proteins and key compounds. The integration of global proteomics and transcriptomic data further revealed that post-transcriptional events are important for temporal regulation of processes such as photosynthesis in Cyanothece 51142. This analysis is the first comprehensive report on global quantitative proteomics in a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium and uncovers novel findings about diurnal rhythms.

  9. A New Simple Dynamo Model for Stellar Activity Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, N.; Schmitt, D.; Pipin, V.; Hamba, F.

    2016-06-01

    A new simple dynamo model for stellar activity cycle is proposed. By considering an inhomogeneous flow effect on turbulence, it is shown that turbulent cross helicity (velocity-magnetic-field correlation) enters the expression of turbulent electromotive force as the coupling coefficient for the mean absolute vorticity. This makes the present model different from the current α-Ω-type models in two main ways. First, in addition to the usual helicity (α) and turbulent magnetic diffusivity (β) effects, we consider the cross-helicity effect as a key ingredient of the dynamo process. Second, the spatiotemporal evolution of cross helicity is solved simultaneously with the mean magnetic fields. The basic scenario is as follows. In the presence of turbulent cross helicity, the toroidal field is induced by the toroidal rotation. Then, as in usual models, the α effect generates the poloidal field from the toroidal one. This induced poloidal field produces a turbulent cross helicity whose sign is opposite to the original one (negative production). With this cross helicity of the reversed sign, a reversal in field configuration starts. Eigenvalue analyses of the simplest possible model give a butterfly diagram, which confirms the above scenario and the equatorward migrations, the phase relationship between the cross helicity and magnetic fields. These results suggest that the oscillation of the turbulent cross helicity is a key for the activity cycle. The reversal of the cross helicity is not the result of the magnetic-field reversal, but the cause of the latter. This new model is expected to open up the possibility of the mean-field or turbulence closure dynamo approaches.

  10. A New Simple Dynamo Model for Stellar Activity Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, N.; Schmitt, D.; Pipin, V.; Hamba, F.

    2016-06-01

    A new simple dynamo model for stellar activity cycle is proposed. By considering an inhomogeneous flow effect on turbulence, it is shown that turbulent cross helicity (velocity–magnetic-field correlation) enters the expression of turbulent electromotive force as the coupling coefficient for the mean absolute vorticity. This makes the present model different from the current α–Ω-type models in two main ways. First, in addition to the usual helicity (α) and turbulent magnetic diffusivity (β) effects, we consider the cross-helicity effect as a key ingredient of the dynamo process. Second, the spatiotemporal evolution of cross helicity is solved simultaneously with the mean magnetic fields. The basic scenario is as follows. In the presence of turbulent cross helicity, the toroidal field is induced by the toroidal rotation. Then, as in usual models, the α effect generates the poloidal field from the toroidal one. This induced poloidal field produces a turbulent cross helicity whose sign is opposite to the original one (negative production). With this cross helicity of the reversed sign, a reversal in field configuration starts. Eigenvalue analyses of the simplest possible model give a butterfly diagram, which confirms the above scenario and the equatorward migrations, the phase relationship between the cross helicity and magnetic fields. These results suggest that the oscillation of the turbulent cross helicity is a key for the activity cycle. The reversal of the cross helicity is not the result of the magnetic-field reversal, but the cause of the latter. This new model is expected to open up the possibility of the mean-field or turbulence closure dynamo approaches.

  11. [Suppression of cycling activity in sheep using parenteral progestagen treatment].

    PubMed

    Janett, F; Camponovo, L; Lanker, U; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic progestagen preparations Chlormadinone acetate (CAP, Chronosyn, Veterinaria AG Zürich) and Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, Nadigest, G Streuli & Co. Uznach) on cycling activity and fertility in sheep. A flock of 28 non pregnant white alpine sheep was randomly divided into three groups, A (n = 10), B (n = 9) and C (n = 9). During a period of 4 weeks the cycling activity was confirmed by blood progesterone analysis. Thereafter, the animals of group A were treated with 50 mg CAP, those of group B with 140 mg MPA and those of group C with physiological saline solution. All injections were given intramuscularly. Suppression of endogenous progesterone secretion lasted from 28 to 49 days (mean = 39 days) in group A and from 42 to 70 days (mean = 50 days) in group B. The synchronization effect of both preparations was unsatisfactory as the occurrence of first estrus was distributed over a period of 3 weeks in group A and 4 weeks in group B. These findings could also be confirmed by the lambing period which lasted 52 days in group A and 36 days in group B. Control animals lambed within 9 days due to the synchronizing effect of the ram. The first fertile estrus was observed 36 days (group A) and 45 days (group B) after the treatment. In group A all 10 animals and in groups B and C 8 of 9 ewes each became pregnant. Parenteral progestagen application with CAP and MPA is a simple, safe and reversible method of estrus suppression in the sheep. The minimal suppressive duration of 4 (CAP) and 5 weeks (MPA) is not sufficient when a period of 3 months (alpine pasture period) is desired.

  12. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 73 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, with different diurnal variations of the integrated total humidity content. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). The numerical tools, Singular Value Decomposition and classical Multidimensional Scaling methods, are used to study these variations, considering the measurements made at each stations, as sample in the analysis. The aim of this investigation is to identify the IWV variability with respect to the local time associated to the different climate regions. In order to improve our analysis, all available weather information, such as radiosondes measurements (which are few), measurements of pressure and temperature and Numerical Weather Models reanalysis data, are used. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl, 1999 a: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12, 2451-2473. Dai, A., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999 b: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycle over the contiguous United States.J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6377-6402. KEYWORDS: water vapor, diurnal cycle, GNSS

  13. The sequence of learning cycle activities in high school chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Michael R.; Renner, John W.

    The sequence of the three phases of two high school learning cycles in chemistry was altered in order to: (I ) give insights into the factors which account for the success of the learning cycle, (2) serve as an indirect test of the association between Piaget's theory and the learning cycle, and (3) to compare the learning cycle with traditional instruction. Each of the six sequences (one n o d and five altered) was studied with content and atritudc measures. The outcomes of the study supported the contention that the normal learning cycle sequence is the optimum sequence for achievement of content knowledge.

  14. Diurnal changes in the rabbit's visual evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, A C; Krul, W H; Brandenburg, J

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits that have been exposed to the natural cycles of day and night exhibit marked diurnal changes in the shape of their Visual Evoked Potential in constant environmental conditions. The results of exposure to artificial 24 hr light-dark cycles strongly suggest that it is the regular alternation of daylight and darkness which acts as the synchronizing "Zeitgeber" for the V.E.P. rhythm which exists after exposure to the natural cycles of day and night. It would seem further that the V.E.P. changes reflect a square-wave like rhythm in the sensitivity of the visual system to photic stimuli, in which the sensitivity is much higher at night than in the day-time. The probable importance of the diurnal V.E.P. rhythm for the occurrence of daily fluctuations in behaviour is discussed. PMID:563382

  15. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes.

  16. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. PMID:23906116

  17. ENZYME ACTIVITIES DURING THE ASEXUAL CYCLE OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

    PubMed Central

    Stine, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Three enzymes, (a) nicotinamide adenine diphosphate-dependent glutamic dehydrogenase (NAD enzyme), (b) nictoinamide adenine triphosphate-dependent glutamic dehydrogenase (NADP enzyme), and (c) nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotidase (NADase), were measured in separate extracts of Neurospora crassa grown in Vogel's medium N and medium N + glutamate. Specific activities and total units per culture of each enzyme were determined at nine separate intervals phased throughout the asexual cycle. The separate dehydrogenases were lowest in the conidia, increased slowly during germination, and increased rapidly during logarithmic mycelial growth. The amounts of these enzymes present during germination were small when compared with those found later during the production of the conidiophores. The NAD enzyme may be necessary for pregermination synthesis. The NADP-enzyme synthesis was associated with the appearance of the germ tube. Although higher levels of the dehydrogenases in the conidiophores resulted in more enzyme being found in the differentiated conidia, the rate of germination was uneffected. The greatest activity for the NADase enzyme was associated with the conidia, early phases of germination, and later production of new conidia. NADase decreased significantly with the onset of logarithmic growth, remained low during the differentiation of conidiophores, and increased considerably as the conidiophores aged. PMID:4384627

  18. Diurnal variability of precipitation from TRMM measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2006-12-01

    This investigation focuses on developing a better understanding of the assorted mechanisms controlling the global distribution of diurnal rainfall variability. The horizontal distributions of precipitation's diurnal cycle, based on eight years of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) measurements involving three TRMM standard algorithms, are analyzed in detail at various spatiotemporal scales. Results demonstrate the prominence of the late-evening to early-morning precipitation maxima over oceans and the mid- to late-afternoon maxima over continents, but also reveal a widespread distribution of secondary maxima occurring over both oceans and continents, maxima which generally mirror their counterpart regime's behavior. That is, many ocean regions exhibit clear-cut secondary afternoon precipitation maxima while many continental areas exhibit just as evident secondary morning maxima. Notably, this investigation represents the first comprehensive study of these secondary maxima and their widespread nature when analyzed using a global precipitation dataset. The characteristics of the secondary maxima are thoroughly mapped and described on a global grid. In addition, a Fourier harmonic decomposition scheme is used to examine detailed amplitude and phase properties of the primary and secondary maxima -- as well as tertiary and quartern modes. Accordingly, the advantages, ambiguities, and pitfalls resulting from using harmonic analysis are also examined.

  19. How snowpack heterogeneity affects diurnal streamflow timing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Diurnal cycles of streamflow in snow-fed rivers can be used to infer the average time a water parcel spends in transit from the top of the snowpack to a stream gauge in the river channel. This travel time, which is measured as the difference between the hour of peak snowmelt in the afternoon and the hour of maximum discharge each day, ranges from a few hours to almost a full day later. Travel times increase with longer percolation times through deeper snowpacks, and prior studies of small basins have related the timing of a stream's diurnal peak to the amount of snow stored in a basin. However, in many larger basins the time of peak flow is nearly constant during the first half of the melt season, with little or no variation between years. This apparent self-organization at larger scales can be reproduced by employing heterogeneous observations of snow depths and melt rates in a model that couples porous medium flow through an evolving snowpack with free surface flow in a channel. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Long-Range Solar Activity Predictions: A Reprieve from Cycle #24's Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richon, K.; Schatten, K.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the field of long-range solar activity predictions and provide an outlook into future solar activity. Orbital predictions for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) depend strongly on exospheric densities. Solar activity forecasting is important in this regard, as the solar ultra-violet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth, forming the exosphere in which satellites orbit. Rather than concentrate on statistical, or numerical methods, we utilize a class of techniques (precursor methods) which is founded in physical theory. The geomagnetic precursor method was originally developed by the Russian geophysicist, Ohl, using geomagnetic observations to predict future solar activity. It was later extended to solar observations, and placed within the context of physical theory, namely the workings of the Sun s Babcock dynamo. We later expanded the prediction methods with a SOlar Dynamo Amplitude (SODA) index. The SODA index is a measure of the buried solar magnetic flux, using toroidal and poloidal field components. It allows one to predict future solar activity during any phase of the solar cycle, whereas previously, one was restricted to making predictions only at solar minimum. We are encouraged that solar cycle #23's behavior fell closely along our predicted curve, peaking near 192, comparable to the Schatten, Myers and Sofia (1996) forecast of 182+/-30. Cycle #23 extends from 1996 through approximately 2006 or 2007, with cycle #24 starting thereafter. We discuss the current forecast of solar cycle #24, (2006-2016), with a predicted smoothed F10.7 radio flux of 142+/-28 (1-sigma errors). This, we believe, represents a reprieve, in terms of reduced fuel costs, etc., for new satellites to be launched or old satellites (requiring reboosting) which have been placed in LEO. By monitoring the Sun s most deeply rooted magnetic fields; long-range solar activity can be predicted. Although a degree of uncertainty

  1. Diurnal patterns of blowing sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal pattern of blowing sand results from a complex process that involves the interaction between the sun, wind, and earth. During the day, solar heating produces thermal instability, which enhances the convective mixing of high momentum winds from the upper levels of the atmosphere to the s...

  2. Correction of fluvial fluxes of chemical species for diurnal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.; Moody, C. S.; Burt, T. P.

    2013-02-01

    SummaryMany river solute concentrations exhibit a diurnal cycle, caused by slower in-stream biogeochemical processes at night compared to daylight hours. So, if sample observations of such solutes are not taken across the diurnal cycle, derived estimates of solute concentrations and fluxes will be subject to bias. We developed a simple two-rate model to correct daily sampling results using estimates of in-stream residence time and day length and applied the method to the example of a monitoring point on the River Tees in northern England for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and flux. Estimates of day and night-time degradation rates combined with assessment of the daily in-stream residence time suggest that derived fluxes would be overestimated by up to 19% when diurnal variation was considered due to the highest concentrations of DOC and highest flows being in winter when day lengths are shortest. The maximum correction for diurnal differences in degradation rates was 17%. There was a significant interaction between model degradation rates and in-stream residence times but the effect of latitude on day length was insignificant. We propose a general method to estimate the correction factor and in-stream residence time based on gauging station data, which is relevant to other rivers where sufficient data are available to support the method.

  3. A Krebs Cycle Component Limits Caspase Activation Rate through Mitochondrial Surface Restriction of CRL Activation.

    PubMed

    Aram, Lior; Braun, Tslil; Braverman, Carmel; Kaplan, Yosef; Ravid, Liat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Arama, Eli

    2016-04-01

    How cells avoid excessive caspase activity and unwanted cell death during apoptotic caspase-mediated removal of large cellular structures is poorly understood. We investigate caspase-mediated extrusion of spermatid cytoplasmic contents in Drosophila during spermatid individualization. We show that a Krebs cycle component, the ATP-specific form of the succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (A-Sβ), binds to and activates the Cullin-3-based ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) complex required for caspase activation in spermatids. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that this interaction occurs on the mitochondrial surface, thereby limiting the source of CRL3 complex activation to the vicinity of this organelle and reducing the potential rate of caspase activation by at least 60%. Domain swapping between A-Sβ and the GTP-specific SCSβ (G-Sβ), which functions redundantly in the Krebs cycle, show that the metabolic and structural roles of A-Sβ in spermatids can be uncoupled, highlighting a moonlighting function of this Krebs cycle component in CRL activation.

  4. A Krebs Cycle Component Limits Caspase Activation Rate through Mitochondrial Surface Restriction of CRL Activation.

    PubMed

    Aram, Lior; Braun, Tslil; Braverman, Carmel; Kaplan, Yosef; Ravid, Liat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Arama, Eli

    2016-04-01

    How cells avoid excessive caspase activity and unwanted cell death during apoptotic caspase-mediated removal of large cellular structures is poorly understood. We investigate caspase-mediated extrusion of spermatid cytoplasmic contents in Drosophila during spermatid individualization. We show that a Krebs cycle component, the ATP-specific form of the succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (A-Sβ), binds to and activates the Cullin-3-based ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) complex required for caspase activation in spermatids. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that this interaction occurs on the mitochondrial surface, thereby limiting the source of CRL3 complex activation to the vicinity of this organelle and reducing the potential rate of caspase activation by at least 60%. Domain swapping between A-Sβ and the GTP-specific SCSβ (G-Sβ), which functions redundantly in the Krebs cycle, show that the metabolic and structural roles of A-Sβ in spermatids can be uncoupled, highlighting a moonlighting function of this Krebs cycle component in CRL activation. PMID:27052834

  5. Assessment of downscaled current and future projections of diurnal rainfall patterns for the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, B. C.; Sobolowski, Stefan; King, Martin P.

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigate the diurnal precipitation cycle in high-resolution regional climate simulations for present (2000-2010) and future time periods (2030-2040 and 2040-2050) over subregions of the Himalayas. The future periods are simulated under a high-emission scenario, Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) in order to maximize any projected externally driven precipitation signal. For present climate, 4-hourly simulated precipitation is first evaluated against observations to establish model credibility. The diurnal cycle, which is typically characterized by a bimodal structure with primary (secondary) maxima in nighttime (afternoon), is reasonably well represented in the present, giving us confidence when assessing potential future changes. The timing of the precipitation maxima and minima is found to match the observed timings well in the diurnal cycle. In general, the Weather Research and Forecasting model captures the principal shape of the diurnal cycle observed over all the subregions. Under projected future conditions, no significant changes in the diurnal cycle occur. The results suggest modest changes in diurnal precipitation under RCP8.5 emission scenario, as evidenced by an increase in afternoon precipitation around the Himalayas. Although the projected future changes of precipitation presented in this article are within of the expected range of precipitation changes caution must be exercised when interpreting single-model experiments.

  6. Ammonia Seasonal and Diurnal Variability: Ground-based Measurement and Global Model Simulation Comparisons to Evaluate Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.; Sun, K.; Khan, M. A.; Tao, L.; Ginoux, P. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    related to relative humidity and temperature dependent aerosol partitioning are observed in diurnal cycles measured in the urban region of Baltimore but are not predicted by model simulations. However, inorganic aerosol species concentrations measured by the IMPROVE network compare well with monthly measurements in the same region. Comparisons with Ammonia Monitoring Network (AMoN) monthly ammonia gas phase concentration observations over multiple years as well as mobile measurements of ammonia in urban areas will also be presented. Significant discrepancies exist between observed and modeled ammonia concentrations. Future inclusion of model emission variability to account for seasonal changes in emissions and temperature as well as diurnal cycles influenced by rush hour emissions and agricultural activities will advance our ability to predict ammonia dynamics.

  7. A Summary of Closed Brayton Cycle Development Activities at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has been involved in the development of Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) power conversion technology since the 1960's. CBC systems can be coupled to reactor, isotope, or solar heat sources and offer the potential for high efficiency, long life, and scalability to high power. In the 1960's and 1970's, NASA and industry developed the 10 kW Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) and the 2 kW mini-BRU demonstrating technical feasibility and performance, In the 1980's, a 25 kW CBC Solar Dynamic (SD) power system option was developed for Space Station Freedom and the technology was demonstrated in the 1990's as part of the 2 kW SO Ground Test Demonstration (GTD). Since the early 2000's, NASA has been pursuing CBC technology for space reactor applications. Before it was cancelled, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (HMO) mission was considering a 100 kWclass CBC system coupled to a gas-cooled fission reactor. Currently, CBC technology is being explored for Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems to provide base power on the moon and Mars. These recent activities have resulted in several CBC-related technology development projects including a 50 kW Alternator Test Unit, a 20 kW Dual Brayton Test Loop, a 2 kW Direct Drive Gas Brayton Test Loop, and a 12 kW FSP Power Conversion Unit design.

  8. Quantifying promoter activity during the developmental cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yanguang; Gao, Leiqiong; Zhang, Yan; Xian, Yuqi; Hua, Ziyu; Elaasar, Hiba; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that undergoes a characteristic development cycle correlating with stage-specific gene expression profiles. Taking advantage of recent developments in the genetic transformation in C. trachomatis, we constructed a versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to study the development-dependent function of C. trachomatis promoters in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism that controls C. trachomatis adaptability. We validated the use of the GFP reporter system by visualizing the activity of an early euo gene promoter. Additionally, we uncovered a new ompA promoter, which we named P3, utilizing the GFP reporter system combined with 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), in vitro transcription assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), and flow cytometry. Mutagenesis of the P3 region verifies that P3 is a new class of C. trachomatis σ66-dependent promoter, which requires an extended −10 TGn motif for transcription. These results corroborate complex developmentally controlled ompA expression in C. trachomatis. The exploitation of genetically labeled C. trachomatis organisms with P3-driven GFP allows for the observation of changes in ompA expression in response to developmental signals. The results of this study could be used to complement previous findings and to advance understanding of C. trachomatis genetic expression. PMID:27263495

  9. A Solar Cycle Dependence of Nonlinearity in Magnetospheric Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay R; Wing, Simon

    2005-03-08

    The nonlinear dependencies inherent to the historical K(sub)p data stream (1932-2003) are examined using mutual information and cumulant based cost as discriminating statistics. The discriminating statistics are compared with surrogate data streams that are constructed using the corrected amplitude adjustment Fourier transform (CAAFT) method and capture the linear properties of the original K(sub)p data. Differences are regularly seen in the discriminating statistics a few years prior to solar minima, while no differences are apparent at the time of solar maximum. These results suggest that the dynamics of the magnetosphere tend to be more linear at solar maximum than at solar minimum. The strong nonlinear dependencies tend to peak on a timescale around 40-50 hours and are statistically significant up to one week. Because the solar wind driver variables, VB(sub)s and dynamical pressure exhibit a much shorter decorrelation time for nonlinearities, the results seem to indicate that the nonlinearity is related to internal magnetospheric dynamics. Moreover, the timescales for the nonlinearity seem to be on the same order as that for storm/ring current relaxation. We suggest that the strong solar wind driving that occurs around solar maximum dominates the magnetospheric dynamics suppressing the internal magnetospheric nonlinearity. On the other hand, in the descending phase of the solar cycle just prior to solar minimum, when magnetospheric activity is weaker, the dynamics exhibit a significant nonlinear internal magnetospheric response that may be related to increased solar wind speed.

  10. The circadian oscillator in Synechococcus elongatus controls metabolite partitioning during diurnal growth

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Spencer; Jun, Darae; Rubin, Benjamin E.; Golden, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a genetically tractable model cyanobacterium that has been engineered to produce industrially relevant biomolecules and is the best-studied model for a prokaryotic circadian clock. However, the organism is commonly grown in continuous light in the laboratory, and data on metabolic processes under diurnal conditions are lacking. Moreover, the influence of the circadian clock on diurnal metabolism has been investigated only briefly. Here, we demonstrate that the circadian oscillator influences rhythms of metabolism during diurnal growth, even though light–dark cycles can drive metabolic rhythms independently. Moreover, the phenotype associated with loss of the core oscillator protein, KaiC, is distinct from that caused by absence of the circadian output transcriptional regulator, RpaA (regulator of phycobilisome-associated A). Although RpaA activity is important for carbon degradation at night, KaiC is dispensable for those processes. Untargeted metabolomics analysis and glycogen kinetics suggest that functional KaiC is important for metabolite partitioning in the morning. Additionally, output from the oscillator functions to inhibit RpaA activity in the morning, and kaiC-null strains expressing a mutant KaiC phosphomimetic, KaiC-pST, in which the oscillator is locked in the most active output state, phenocopies a ΔrpaA strain. Inhibition of RpaA by the oscillator in the morning suppresses metabolic processes that normally are active at night, and kaiC-null strains show indications of oxidative pentose phosphate pathway activation as well as increased abundance of primary metabolites. Inhibitory clock output may serve to allow secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the morning, and some metabolites resulting from these processes may feed back to reinforce clock timing. PMID:25825710

  11. The circadian oscillator in Synechococcus elongatus controls metabolite partitioning during diurnal growth.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Spencer; Jun, Darae; Rubin, Benjamin E; Golden, Susan S

    2015-04-14

    Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a genetically tractable model cyanobacterium that has been engineered to produce industrially relevant biomolecules and is the best-studied model for a prokaryotic circadian clock. However, the organism is commonly grown in continuous light in the laboratory, and data on metabolic processes under diurnal conditions are lacking. Moreover, the influence of the circadian clock on diurnal metabolism has been investigated only briefly. Here, we demonstrate that the circadian oscillator influences rhythms of metabolism during diurnal growth, even though light-dark cycles can drive metabolic rhythms independently. Moreover, the phenotype associated with loss of the core oscillator protein, KaiC, is distinct from that caused by absence of the circadian output transcriptional regulator, RpaA (regulator of phycobilisome-associated A). Although RpaA activity is important for carbon degradation at night, KaiC is dispensable for those processes. Untargeted metabolomics analysis and glycogen kinetics suggest that functional KaiC is important for metabolite partitioning in the morning. Additionally, output from the oscillator functions to inhibit RpaA activity in the morning, and kaiC-null strains expressing a mutant KaiC phosphomimetic, KaiC-pST, in which the oscillator is locked in the most active output state, phenocopies a ΔrpaA strain. Inhibition of RpaA by the oscillator in the morning suppresses metabolic processes that normally are active at night, and kaiC-null strains show indications of oxidative pentose phosphate pathway activation as well as increased abundance of primary metabolites. Inhibitory clock output may serve to allow secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the morning, and some metabolites resulting from these processes may feed back to reinforce clock timing.

  12. Activities of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enzymes, Glyoxylate Cycle Enzymes, and Fructose Diphosphatase in Bakers' Yeast During Adaptation to Acetate Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Gosling, J. P.; Duggan, P. F.

    1971-01-01

    Bakers' yeast oxidizes acetate at a high rate only after an adaptation period during which the capacity of the glyoxylate cycle is found to increase. There was apparently no necessity for the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, the capacity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, or the concentrations of the cytochromes to increase for this adaptation to occur. Elevation of fructose 1,6 diphosphatase occurred only when acetate oxidation was nearly maximal. Cycloheximide almost completely inhibited adaptation as well as increases in the activities of isocitrate lyase and aconitate hydratase, the only enzymes assayed. p-Fluorophenylalanine was partially effective and chloramphenicol did not inhibit at all. The presence of ammonium, which considerably delayed adaptation of the yeast to acetate oxidation, inhibited the increases in the activities of the glyoxylate cycle enzymes to different degrees, demonstrating noncoordinate control of these enzymes. Under the various conditions, the only enzyme activity increase consistently related to the rising oxygen uptake rate was that of isocitrate lyase which apparently limited the activity of the cycle. PMID:5557595

  13. Unique Regulation of the Melatonin Synthetic Pathway in the Retina of Diurnal Female Arvicanthis ansorgei (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Gianesini, Coralie; Clesse, Daniel; Tosini, Gianluca; Hicks, David; Laurent, Virginie

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge about melatonin synthesis and its potential roles within the retina remains fragmented, especially in mammals where studies have focused on the penultimate enzyme of melatonin synthesis arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), whereas the final enzyme necessary for melatonin production is hydroxyindole-O-methytransferase (HIOMT). We explored multiple parameters of the melatonin synthetic pathway in the cone-rich retina of a diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis ansorgei, cones being previously implicated as probable reservoirs of melatonin production. We analyzed the temporal and spatial expression of Aa-nat mRNA and AA-NAT protein and enzymatic activity of AA-NAT, HIOMT, as well as the melatonin receptor type 1 and melatonin itself. We report that Aa-nat mRNA was localized principally to cones and ganglion cells (retinal ganglion cell [RGC]) with opposing cyclic expression, being maximal in cones during the night, and maximal in RGC in the daytime. AA-NAT protein was also immunolocalized to these same populations, and was present and active throughout the 24-hour period. HIOMT immunolocalization mirrored that of AA-NAT, but expression levels and activity were extremely low and remained uniform throughout the 24-hour period. MT1 showed a complementary expression pattern to the synthetic enzymes, present in rod photoreceptors, some inner retinal neurons and RGC. Surprisingly, melatonin levels were consistently low throughout the day/night cycle, in accordance with the low activity levels of HIOMT. These data demonstrate that the melatonin synthetic pathway in a diurnal rodent differs from that described for other tissues and species (nocturnal and diurnal), the contrasting phase expression in photoreceptors and RGC, suggesting distinct roles in these populations.

  14. Observations of SST diurnal variability in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qianguang; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou; Chen, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a 3-hourly time resolution gap free sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is generated to resolve the diurnal cycle in the South China Sea (SCS, 0°-25°N, 100°-125°E).It takes advantage of hourly geostationary satellite MTSAT observations and combines three infrared and two microwave polar satellite observations at different local times. First, all the data are classified into eight SST datasets at 3 hour intervals and then remapped to 0.05°resolution grids. A series of critical quality control is done to remove the outliers.Then bias adjustment is applied to the polar satellite observations with reference to the MTSAT data. Finally, the six satellites SST data are blended by using the optimal interpolated algorithm. The 3-hourly blended SST is compared against buoy measurements. It shows a good agreement that the biases do not exceed 0.2 °C and root mean square errors range from 0.5 to 0.65 °C. A typical diurnal cycle similar to sine wave is observed. The minimum SST occurs at around 0600h and warming peak occurring between 1300h and 1500h local solar time and then decrease in the late afternoon, tapering off at night on March 13, 2008 for example. The frequency of diurnal warming events derived from four years of the blended SST provides solid statistics to investigate the seasonal and spatial distributions of the diurnal warming in the SCS. The sea surface diurnal warming tends to appear more easily in spring, especially in the coastal regions than other seasons and the central regions.

  15. Fuel cycle centers revisited: Consolidation of fuel cycle activities in a few countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kratzer, M.B.

    1996-07-01

    Despite varied expressions, the general impression remains that the international fuel cycle center concept, whatever its merits, is visionary. It also is quite possibly unattainable in light of strong national pressures toward independence and self-sufficiency in all things nuclear. Is the fuel cycle center an idea that has come and gone? Is it an idea whose time has not yet come? Or is it, as this paper suggests, an idea that has already arrived on the scene, attracting little attention or even acknowledgement of its presence? The difficult in answering this questions arises, in part, from the fact that despite its long and obvious appeal, there has been very little systematic analysis of the concept itself. Such obvious questions as how many and where fuel cycle centers should be located; what characteristics should the hot country or countries possess; and what are the institutional forms or features that endow the concept with enhanced proliferation protection have rarely been seriously and systematically addressed. The title of this paper focuses on limiting the geographic spread of fuel cycle facilities, and some may suggest that doing so does not necessarily call for any type of international or multinational arrangements applicable to those that exist. It is a premise of this paper, however, that a restriction on the number of countries possessing sensitive fuel cycle facilities necessarily involves some degree of multinationalization. This is not only because in every instance a nonproliferation pledge and international or multinational safeguards, or both, will be applied to the facility, but also because a restriction on the number of countries possessing these facilities implies that those in existence will serve a multinational market. This feature in itself is an important form of international auspices. Thus, the two concepts--limitation and multinationalization--if not necessarily one and the same, are at least de facto corollaries.

  16. Extracellular enzyme activity and biogeochemical cycling in restored prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, L.; Hernandez, D.; Schade, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Winter microbial activity in mid-latitude prairie ecosystems is thermally sensitive and significantly influenced by snow depth. Snow insulates the soil column facilitating microbial processing of complex organic substrates. Previous studies in forests and tundra ecosystems suggest patterns of substrate utilization and limitation are seasonal; above freezing, soil microbes access fresh litter inputs and sugar exudates from plant roots, while under frozen condition they recycle nutrients incorporated in microbial biomass. In order to liberate nutrients required for carbon degradation, soil microbes invest energy in the production of extracellular enzymes that cleave monomers from polymer bonds. The inverse relationship between relative enzyme abundance and substrate availability makes enzyme assays a useful proxy to assess changes in resources over time. Our objective in this study was to assess patterns in microbial biomass, nutrient availability, and extracellular enzyme activity in four snow exclosure sites over a seven-month period. Over the past three years, we have maintained a snow removal experiment on two restored prairies in central Minnesota. In each prairie, snow was continuously removed annually from two 4 x 4 m plots by shoveling after each snow event. Extractable C, N and P, and microbial C, N and P in soil samples were measured in samples collected from these snow removal plots, as well as in adjacent unmanipulated prairie control plots. Pools of C, N, and P were estimated using standard extraction protocols, and microbial pools were estimated using chloroform fumigation direct extraction (CFDE). We conducted fluorometric extracellular enzyme assays (EEA) to assess how the degradation potential of cellulose (cellobiohydrolase, CBH), protein (leucine aminopeptidase, LAP), and phosphate esters (phosphatase, PHOS) changed seasonally. Microbial C and N declined between October and June, while microbial P declined during the fall and winter, but increased

  17. Circadian rhythms in glucose and lipid metabolism in nocturnal and diurnal mammals.

    PubMed

    Kumar Jha, Pawan; Challet, Etienne; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2015-12-15

    Most aspects of energy metabolism display clear variations during day and night. This daily rhythmicity of metabolic functions, including hormone release, is governed by a circadian system that consists of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN) and many secondary clocks in the brain and peripheral organs. The SCN control peripheral timing via the autonomic and neuroendocrine system, as well as via behavioral outputs. The sleep-wake cycle, the feeding/fasting rhythm and most hormonal rhythms, including that of leptin, ghrelin and glucocorticoids, usually show an opposite phase (relative to the light-dark cycle) in diurnal and nocturnal species. By contrast, the SCN clock is most active at the same astronomical times in these two categories of mammals. Moreover, in both species, pineal melatonin is secreted only at night. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by central and peripheral clock mechanisms. Most experimental knowledge comes from studies in nocturnal laboratory rodents. Nevertheless, we will also mention some relevant findings in diurnal mammals, including humans. It will become clear that as a consequence of the tight connections between the circadian clock system and energy metabolism, circadian clock impairments (e.g., mutations or knock-out of clock genes) and circadian clock misalignments (such as during shift work and chronic jet-lag) have an adverse effect on energy metabolism, that may trigger or enhancing obese and diabetic symptoms.

  18. Circadian rhythms in glucose and lipid metabolism in nocturnal and diurnal mammals.

    PubMed

    Kumar Jha, Pawan; Challet, Etienne; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2015-12-15

    Most aspects of energy metabolism display clear variations during day and night. This daily rhythmicity of metabolic functions, including hormone release, is governed by a circadian system that consists of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN) and many secondary clocks in the brain and peripheral organs. The SCN control peripheral timing via the autonomic and neuroendocrine system, as well as via behavioral outputs. The sleep-wake cycle, the feeding/fasting rhythm and most hormonal rhythms, including that of leptin, ghrelin and glucocorticoids, usually show an opposite phase (relative to the light-dark cycle) in diurnal and nocturnal species. By contrast, the SCN clock is most active at the same astronomical times in these two categories of mammals. Moreover, in both species, pineal melatonin is secreted only at night. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by central and peripheral clock mechanisms. Most experimental knowledge comes from studies in nocturnal laboratory rodents. Nevertheless, we will also mention some relevant findings in diurnal mammals, including humans. It will become clear that as a consequence of the tight connections between the circadian clock system and energy metabolism, circadian clock impairments (e.g., mutations or knock-out of clock genes) and circadian clock misalignments (such as during shift work and chronic jet-lag) have an adverse effect on energy metabolism, that may trigger or enhancing obese and diabetic symptoms. PMID:25662277

  19. Diurnal patterns of productivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi revealed with the Soil Ecosystem Observatory.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Allen, Michael F

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are the most abundant plant symbiont and a major pathway of carbon sequestration in soils. However, their basic biology, including their activity throughout a 24-h day : night cycle, remains unknown. We employed the in situ Soil Ecosystem Observatory to quantify the rates of diurnal growth, dieback and net productivity of extra-radical AM fungi. AM fungal hyphae showed significantly different rates of growth and dieback over a period of 24 h and paralleled the circadian-driven photosynthetic oscillations observed in plants. The greatest rates (and incidences) of growth and dieback occurred between noon and 18:00 h. Growth and dieback events often occurred simultaneously and were tightly coupled with soil temperature and moisture, suggesting a rapid acclimation of the external phase of AM fungi to the immediate environment. Changes in the environmental conditions and variability of the mycorrhizosphere may alter the diurnal patterns of productivity of AM fungi, thereby modifying soil carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling and host plant success.

  20. Monitoring seasonal and diurnal changes in photosynthetic pigments with automated PRI and NDVI sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.; Kovalchuck, O.; Wong, C. Y. S.; Harris, A.; Garrity, S. R.

    2015-07-01

    The vegetation indices normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and photochemical reflectance index (PRI) provide indicators of pigmentation and photosynthetic activity that can be used to model photosynthesis from remote sensing with the light-use-efficiency model. To help develop and validate this approach, reliable proximal NDVI and PRI sensors have been needed. We tested new NDVI and PRI sensors, "spectral reflectance sensors" (SRS sensors; recently developed by Decagon Devices, during spring activation of photosynthetic activity in evergreen and deciduous stands. We also evaluated two methods of sensor cross-calibration - one that considered sky conditions (cloud cover) at midday only, and another that also considered diurnal sun angle effects. Cross-calibration clearly affected sensor agreement with independent measurements, with the best method dependent upon the study aim and time frame (seasonal vs. diurnal). The seasonal patterns of NDVI and PRI differed for evergreen and deciduous species, demonstrating the complementary nature of these two indices. Over the spring season, PRI was most strongly influenced by changing chlorophyll : carotenoid pool sizes, while over the diurnal timescale, PRI was most affected by the xanthophyll cycle epoxidation state. This finding demonstrates that the SRS PRI sensors can resolve different processes affecting PRI over different timescales. The advent of small, inexpensive, automated PRI and NDVI sensors offers new ways to explore environmental and physiological constraints on photosynthesis, and may be particularly well suited for use at flux tower sites. Wider application of automated sensors could lead to improved integration of flux and remote sensing approaches for studying photosynthetic carbon uptake, and could help define the concept of contrasting vegetation optical types.

  1. Monitoring seasonal and diurnal changes in photosynthetic pigments with automated PRI and NDVI sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.; Kovalchuk, O.; Wong, C. Y. S.; Harris, A.; Garrity, S. R.

    2015-02-01

    The vegetation indices normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and photochemical reflectance index (PRI) provide indicators of pigmentation and photosynthetic activity that can be used to model photosynthesis from remote sensing with the light-use efficiency model. To help develop and validate this approach, reliable proximal NDVI and PRI sensors have been needed. We tested new NDVI and PRI sensors, "SRS" sensors recently developed by Decagon Devices, during spring activation of photosynthetic activity in evergreen and deciduous stands. We also evaluated two methods of sensor cross-calibration, one that considered sky conditions (cloud cover) at midday only, and the other that also considered diurnal sun angle effects. Cross-calibration clearly affected sensor agreement with independent measurements, with the best method dependent upon the study aim and time frame (seasonal vs. diurnal). The seasonal patterns of NDVI and PRI differed for evergreen and deciduous species, demonstrating the complementary nature of these two indices. Over the spring season, PRI was most strongly influenced by changing chlorophyll : carotenoid pool sizes, while over the diurnal time scale PRI was most affected by the xanthophyll cycle epoxidation state. This finding demonstrates that the SRS PRI sensors can resolve different processes affecting PRI over different time scales. The advent of small, inexpensive, automated PRI and NDVI sensors offers new ways to explore environmental and physiological constraints on photosynthesis, and may be particularly well-suited for use at flux tower sites. Wider application of automated sensors could lead to improved integration of flux and remote sensing approaches to studying photosynthetic carbon uptake, and could help define the concept of contrasting vegetation optical types.

  2. Altered Electroencephalographic Activity Associated with Changes in the Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle of C57BL/6J Mice in Response to a Photoperiod Shortening

    PubMed Central

    Rozov, Stanislav V.; Zant, Janneke C.; Gurevicius, Kestutis; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents. Methods: We used electroencephalogram to assess the distribution of vigilance states, perform spectral analysis, and estimate the homeostatic sleep drive. In addition, we analyzed spontaneous locomotion of C57BL/6J mice under symmetric, 22-, 21-, and 20-h-long light–dark cycles using video recording and tracking methods. Results and Conclusions: We found that shortening of photoperiod caused a significant increase of slow wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep suggesting an elevation of sleep pressure under such conditions. While the rhythm of spontaneous locomotion was completely entrained by all light–dark cycles tested, periodic changes in the power of the θ- and γ-frequency ranges during wakefulness gradually disappeared under 22- and 21-h-long light–dark cycles. This was associated with a significant increase in the θ–γ phase-amplitude coupling during wakefulness. Our results thus provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impairment of learning and memory retention, which is associated with disturbed circadian regulation.

  3. Altered Electroencephalographic Activity Associated with Changes in the Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle of C57BL/6J Mice in Response to a Photoperiod Shortening

    PubMed Central

    Rozov, Stanislav V.; Zant, Janneke C.; Gurevicius, Kestutis; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents. Methods: We used electroencephalogram to assess the distribution of vigilance states, perform spectral analysis, and estimate the homeostatic sleep drive. In addition, we analyzed spontaneous locomotion of C57BL/6J mice under symmetric, 22-, 21-, and 20-h-long light–dark cycles using video recording and tracking methods. Results and Conclusions: We found that shortening of photoperiod caused a significant increase of slow wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep suggesting an elevation of sleep pressure under such conditions. While the rhythm of spontaneous locomotion was completely entrained by all light–dark cycles tested, periodic changes in the power of the θ- and γ-frequency ranges during wakefulness gradually disappeared under 22- and 21-h-long light–dark cycles. This was associated with a significant increase in the θ–γ phase-amplitude coupling during wakefulness. Our results thus provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impairment of learning and memory retention, which is associated with disturbed circadian regulation. PMID:27630549

  4. Life cycle assessment of active and passive groundwater remediation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Finkel, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Groundwater remediation technologies, such as pump-and-treat (PTS) and funnel-and-gate systems (FGS), aim at reducing locally appearing contaminations. Therefore, these methodologies are basically evaluated with respect to their capability to yield local improvements of an environmental situation, commonly neglecting that their application is also associated with secondary impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a widely accepted method of assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts related to a product, process or service. This study presents the set-up of a LCA framework in order to compare the secondary impacts caused by two conceptually different technologies at the site of a former manufactured gas plant in the city of Karlsruhe, Germany. As a FGS is already operating at this site, a hypothetical PTS of the same functionality is adopted. During the LCA, the remediation systems are evaluated by focusing on the main technical elements and their significance with respect to resource depletion and potential adverse effects on ecological quality, as well as on human health. Seven impact categories are distinguished to address a broad spectrum of possible environmental loads. A main point of discussion is the reliability of technical assumptions and performance predictions for the future. It is obvious that a high uncertainty exists when estimating impact specific indicator values over operation times of decades. An uncertainty analysis is conducted to include the imprecision of the underlying emission and consumption data and a scenario analysis is utilised to contrast various possible technological variants. Though the results of the study are highly site-specific, a generalised relative evaluation of potential impacts and their main sources is the principle objective rather than a discussion of the calculated absolute impacts. A crucial finding that can be applied to any other site is the central role of steel, which particularly derogates

  5. Life cycle assessment of active and passive groundwater remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Peter; Finkel, Michael

    2006-02-10

    Groundwater remediation technologies, such as pump-and-treat (PTS) and funnel-and-gate systems (FGS), aim at reducing locally appearing contaminations. Therefore, these methodologies are basically evaluated with respect to their capability to yield local improvements of an environmental situation, commonly neglecting that their application is also associated with secondary impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a widely accepted method of assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts related to a product, process or service. This study presents the set-up of a LCA framework in order to compare the secondary impacts caused by two conceptually different technologies at the site of a former manufactured gas plant in the city of Karlsruhe, Germany. As a FGS is already operating at this site, a hypothetical PTS of the same functionality is adopted. During the LCA, the remediation systems are evaluated by focusing on the main technical elements and their significance with respect to resource depletion and potential adverse effects on ecological quality, as well as on human health. Seven impact categories are distinguished to address a broad spectrum of possible environmental loads. A main point of discussion is the reliability of technical assumptions and performance predictions for the future. It is obvious that a high uncertainty exists when estimating impact specific indicator values over operation times of decades. An uncertainty analysis is conducted to include the imprecision of the underlying emission and consumption data and a scenario analysis is utilised to contrast various possible technological variants. Though the results of the study are highly site-specific, a generalised relative evaluation of potential impacts and their main sources is the principle objective rather than a discussion of the calculated absolute impacts. A crucial finding that can be applied to any other site is the central role of steel, which particularly derogates

  6. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin O Exhibits Cell Cycle Modulating Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hodille, Elisabeth; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Berkova, Nadia; Serrier, Asma; Badiou, Cedric; Gilquin, Benoit; Brun, Virginie; Vandenesch, François; Terman, David S.; Lina, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of an intact epithelial barrier constitutes a pivotal defense mechanism against infections. Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen that produces multiple factors including exotoxins that promote tissue alterations. The aim of the present study is to investigate the cytopathic effect of staphylococcal exotoxins SEA, SEG, SEI, SElM, SElN and SElO on the cell cycle of various human cell lines. Among all tested exotoxins only SEIO inhibited the proliferation of a broad panel of human tumor cell lines in vitro. Evaluation of a LDH release and a DNA fragmentation of host cells exposed to SEIO revealed that the toxin does not induce necrosis or apoptosis. Analysis of the DNA content of tumor cells synchronized by serum starvation after exposure to SEIO showed G0/G1 cell cycle delay. The cell cycle modulating feature of SEIO was confirmed by the flow cytometry analysis of synchronized cells exposed to supernatants of isogenic S. aureus strains wherein only supernatant of the SElO producing strain induced G0/G1 phase delay. The results of yeast-two-hybrid analysis indicated that SEIO’s potential partner is cullin-3, involved in the transition from G1 to S phase. In conclusion, we provide evidence that SEIO inhibits cell proliferation without inducing cell death, by delaying host cell entry into the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. We speculate that this unique cell cycle modulating feature allows SEIO producing bacteria to gain advantage by arresting the cell cycle of target cells as part of a broader invasive strategy. PMID:27148168

  7. Teaching Ecosystems and Matter Cycles with Creative Drama Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokadar, Hulusi; Yilmaz, Gulcin Cihan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of creative drama-based instruction on seventh graders' science achievements in the ecology and matter cycles unit and their attitudes toward science. The study is an experimental study carried out in one of the public elementary schools in Turkey during 2005-2006 schooling year. An ecological…

  8. Diurnal variation of oxygen and carbonate system parameters in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Dufore, C.; Smiley, N.; Jackson, C.; Halley, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen and carbonate system parameters were measured, in situ, over diurnal cycles in Tampa Bay and Florida Bay, Florida. All system parameters showed distinct diurnal trends in Tampa Bay with an average range of diurnal variation of 39.1 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 165.1 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.22 for pH, 0.093 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 218.1 μatm for pCO2. Average range of diurnal variation for system parameters in Tampa Bay was 73% to 93% of the seasonal range of variability for dissolved oxygen and pH. All system parameters measured in Florida Bay showed distinct variation over diurnal time-scales. However, clear diurnal trends were less evident. The average range of diurnal variability in Florida Bay was 62.8 μmol kg− 1 for total alkalinity, 130.4 μmol kg− 1 for total CO2, 0.13 for pH, 0.053 mmol L− 1 for dissolved oxygen, and 139.8 μatm for pCO2. The average range of diurnal variation was 14% to 102% of the seasonal ranges for these parameters. Diurnal variability in system parameters was most influenced by primary productivity and respiration of benthic communities in Tampa Bay, and by precipitation and dissolution of calcium carbonate in Florida Bay. Our data indicate that use of seasonal data sets without careful consideration of diurnal variability may impart significant error in calculations of annual carbon and oxygen budgets. These observations reinforce the need for higher temporal resolution measurements of oxygen and carbon system parameters in coastal ecosystems.

  9. Computational Simulation of the Activation Cycle of Gα Subunit in the G Protein Cycle Using an Elastic Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Hyeok; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hee Ryung; Jeon, Tae-Joon; Choi, Jae Boong; Chung, Ka Young; Kim, Moon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) interact with GDP-bound G protein heterotrimers (Gαβγ) promoting GDP/GTP exchange, which results in dissociation of Gα from the receptor and Gβγ. The GTPase activity of Gα hydrolyzes GTP to GDP, and the GDP-bound Gα interacts with Gβγ, forming a GDP-bound G protein heterotrimer. The G protein cycle is allosterically modulated by conformational changes of the Gα subunit. Although biochemical and biophysical methods have elucidated the structure and dynamics of Gα, the precise conformational mechanisms underlying the G protein cycle are not fully understood yet. Simulation methods could help to provide additional details to gain further insight into G protein signal transduction mechanisms. In this study, using the available X-ray crystal structures of Gα, we simulated the entire G protein cycle and described not only the steric features of the Gα structure, but also conformational changes at each step. Each reference structure in the G protein cycle was modeled as an elastic network model and subjected to normal mode analysis. Our simulation data suggests that activated receptors trigger conformational changes of the Gα subunit that are thermodynamically favorable for opening of the nucleotide-binding pocket and GDP release. Furthermore, the effects of GTP binding and hydrolysis on mobility changes of the C and N termini and switch regions are elucidated. In summary, our simulation results enabled us to provide detailed descriptions of the structural and dynamic features of the G protein cycle. PMID:27483005

  10. Chronic non-invasive corticosterone administration abolishes the diurnal pattern of tph2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Nina C.; Montoya, Christian D.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Both hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and serotonergic systems are commonly dysregulated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We describe here a non-invasive rat model for hypercortisolism, as observed in major depression, and its effects on physiology, behavior, and the expression of tph2, the gene encoding tryptophan hydroxylase 2, the rate-limiting enzyme for brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) synthesis. We delivered corticosterone (40 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml or 400 µg/ml) or vehicle to adrenal-intact adult, male rats via the drinking water for three weeks. On days 15, 16, 17 and 18, respectively, the rats’ emotionality was assessed in the open-field (OF), social interaction (SI), elevated plus-maze (EPM), and forced swim tests (FST). On day 21, half of the rats in each group were killed 2 h into the dark phase of a 12/12 h reversed light/dark cycle; the other half were killed 2 h into the light phase. We then measured indices of HPA axis activity, plasma glucose and interleukin-6 (IL-6) availability, and neuronal tph2 expression at each time point. Chronic corticosterone intake was sufficient to cause increased anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in a dose-dependent manner. It also disrupted the diurnal pattern of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), corticosterone, and glucose concentrations, caused adrenal atrophy, and prevented regular weight gain. No diurnal or treatment-dependent changes were found for plasma levels of IL-6. Remarkably, all doses of corticosterone treatment abolished the diurnal variation of tph2 mRNA expression in the brainstem dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) by elevating the gene’s expression during the animals’ inactive (light) phase. Our data demonstrate that chronic elevation of corticosterone creates a vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome that is associated with increased tph2 expression, similar to that observed in depressed patients. PMID:21924839

  11. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  12. Diurnal Emotional States Impact the Sleep Course

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Julien; Mandai, Osamu; Honoré, Jacques; Kobayashi, Toshinori; Sequeira, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Diurnal emotional experiences seem to affect several characteristics of sleep architecture. However, this influence remains unclear, especially for positive emotions. In addition, electrodermal activity (EDA), a sympathetic robust indicator of emotional arousal, differs depending on the sleep stage. The present research has a double aim: to identify the specific effects of pre-sleep emotional states on the architecture of the subsequent sleep period; to relate such states to the sympathetic activation during the same sleep period. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers (20.1 ± 1.0 yo.) participated in the experiment and each one slept 9 nights at the laboratory, divided into 3 sessions, one per week. Each session was organized over three nights. A reference night, allowing baseline pre-sleep and sleep recordings, preceded an experimental night before which participants watched a negative, neutral, or positive movie. The third and last night was devoted to analyzing the potential recovery or persistence of emotional effects induced before the experimental night. Standard polysomnography and EDA were recorded during all the nights. Results Firstly, we found that experimental pre-sleep emotional induction increased the Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep rate following both negative and positive movies. While this increase was spread over the whole night for positive induction, it was limited to the second half of the sleep period for negative induction. Secondly, the valence of the pre-sleep movie also impacted the sympathetic activation during Non-REM stage 3 sleep, which increased after negative induction and decreased after positive induction. Conclusion Pre-sleep controlled emotional states impacted the subsequent REM sleep rate and modulated the sympathetic activity during the sleep period. The outcomes of this study offer interesting perspectives related to the effect of diurnal emotional influences on sleep regulation and open new avenues for potential

  13. [Bioelectric activity of cervix uteri in normal menstrual cycle and in the syndrome of sclerocystic ovaries].

    PubMed

    Rymashevskiĭ, V K; Kozhin, A A; Chzhan Chun'; Gorchakov, L A

    1974-10-01

    34 20-26 year old women with anovulatory cycles with the Stein syndrome and 5 women with normal menstrual cycles were studied in regard to bioelectric cervical activity by means of a vaginal probe and the micrograph ''Medicore.'' In the control group, an increase of progesterone in the 2nd phase of the cycle led to a decrease in the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude. In the anovulatory cycle, the extended activity of estrogens and minimal amount of progesterone stimulated a high tone of uterine impulses, which was substantiated by a high EMG proved to be effective and useful in the diagnosis of gynecological patients. PMID:4440834

  14. Diurnal variation of mesospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    1982-03-01

    Four Petrel rockets were flown from South Uist on October 2, 1979, to investigate the ozone concentration variation predicted by photochemical models between day and night in the mesosphere by means of interference filters that defined an approximately 10 nm bandwidth. The first two rockets contained photometers with wavebands centered at 265 and 290 nm, while the last two employed a single waveband at 265 nm. Results show significant diurnal variation above 54 km, which exceeds a factor of 2 above 65 km and reaches a factor of 10 between night and sunrise at 90 km.

  15. Treatment with melatonin after status epilepticus attenuates seizure activity and neuronal damage but does not prevent the disturbance in diurnal rhythms and behavioral alterations in spontaneously hypertensive rats in kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Petkova, Zlatina; Tchekalarova, Jana; Pechlivanova, Daniela; Moyanova, Slavianka; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Popov, Deyan; Markova, Petya; Lozanov, Valentin; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Melatonin is involved in the control of circadian and seasonal rhythmicity, possesses potent antioxidant activity, and exerts a neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effect. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are widely accepted as an experimental model of essential hypertension with hyperactivity, deficient sustained attention, and alterations in circadian autonomic profiles. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether melatonin treatment during epileptogenesis can prevent the deleterious consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in SHRs in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe of epilepsy (TLE). Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) were EEG- and video-recorded during and after the treatment protocol. Melatonin (10mg/kg diluted in drinking water, 8weeks) increased the seizure-latent period, decreased the frequency of SRSs, and attenuated the circadian rhythm of seizure activity in SHRs. However, melatonin was unable to affect the disturbed diurnal rhythms and behavioral changes associated with epilepsy, including the decreased anxiety level, depression, and impaired spatial memory. Melatonin reduced neuronal damage specifically in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and piriform cortex and decreased hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels both in control and epileptic SHRs. Although long-term melatonin treatment after SE shows a potential to attenuate seizure activity and neuronal loss, it is unable to restore epilepsy-associated behavioral abnormalities in SHRs. PMID:24440891

  16. Treatment with melatonin after status epilepticus attenuates seizure activity and neuronal damage but does not prevent the disturbance in diurnal rhythms and behavioral alterations in spontaneously hypertensive rats in kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Petkova, Zlatina; Tchekalarova, Jana; Pechlivanova, Daniela; Moyanova, Slavianka; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Popov, Deyan; Markova, Petya; Lozanov, Valentin; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Melatonin is involved in the control of circadian and seasonal rhythmicity, possesses potent antioxidant activity, and exerts a neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effect. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are widely accepted as an experimental model of essential hypertension with hyperactivity, deficient sustained attention, and alterations in circadian autonomic profiles. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether melatonin treatment during epileptogenesis can prevent the deleterious consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in SHRs in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe of epilepsy (TLE). Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) were EEG- and video-recorded during and after the treatment protocol. Melatonin (10mg/kg diluted in drinking water, 8weeks) increased the seizure-latent period, decreased the frequency of SRSs, and attenuated the circadian rhythm of seizure activity in SHRs. However, melatonin was unable to affect the disturbed diurnal rhythms and behavioral changes associated with epilepsy, including the decreased anxiety level, depression, and impaired spatial memory. Melatonin reduced neuronal damage specifically in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and piriform cortex and decreased hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels both in control and epileptic SHRs. Although long-term melatonin treatment after SE shows a potential to attenuate seizure activity and neuronal loss, it is unable to restore epilepsy-associated behavioral abnormalities in SHRs.

  17. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  18. Diurnal changes in ocean color in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Kovach, Charles; Yang, Haoping; Salisbury, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Coastal processes can change on hourly time scales in response to tides, winds and biological activity, which can influence the color of surface waters. These temporal and spatial ocean color changes require satellite validation for applications using bio-optical products to delineate diurnal processes. The diurnal color change and capability for satellite ocean color response were determined with in situ and satellite observations. Hourly variations in satellite ocean color are dependent on several properties which include: a) sensor characterization b) advection of water masses and c) diurnal response of biological and optical water properties. The in situ diurnal changes in ocean color in a dynamic turbid coastal region in the northern Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET -WavCIS CSI-06) site that provides up to 8-10 observations per day (in 15-30 minute increments). These in situ diurnal changes were used to validate and quantify natural bio-optical fluctuations in satellite ocean color measurements. Satellite capability to detect changes in ocean color was characterized by using overlapping afternoon orbits of the VIIRS-NPP ocean color sensor within 100 minutes. Results show the capability of multiple satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in dynamic coastal regions that are impacted by tides, re-suspension, and river plume dispersion. Hourly changes in satellite ocean color were validated with in situ observation on multiple occurrences during different times of the afternoon. Also, the spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes shows the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooms and decay during the afternoon period. Results suggest that determining the temporal and spatial changes in a color / phytoplankton bloom from the morning to afternoon time period will require additional satellite coverage periods in the coastal zone.

  19. Cdk1 activity acts as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle progression with periodic transcription

    PubMed Central

    Banyai, Gabor; Baïdi, Feriel; Coudreuse, Damien; Szilagyi, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and requires the periodic expression of particular gene clusters in different cell cycle phases. However, the interplay between the networks that generate these transcriptional oscillations and the core cell cycle machinery remains largely unexplored. In this work, we use a synthetic regulable Cdk1 module to demonstrate that periodic expression is governed by quantitative changes in Cdk1 activity, with different clusters directly responding to specific activity levels. We further establish that cell cycle events neither participate in nor interfere with the Cdk1-driven transcriptional program, provided that cells are exposed to the appropriate Cdk1 activities. These findings contrast with current models that propose self-sustained and Cdk1-independent transcriptional oscillations. Our work therefore supports a model in which Cdk1 activity serves as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle transitions with the expression of critical genes to bring about proper cell cycle progression. PMID:27045731

  20. Prediction of Solar Activity from Solar Background Magnetic Field Variations in Cycles 21-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Simon J.; Zharkov, Sergei I.; Zharkova, Valentina V.

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  1. Prediction of solar activity from solar background magnetic field variations in cycles 21-23

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, Simon J.; Zharkov, Sergei I.; Zharkova, Valentina V. E-mail: s.zharkov@hull.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  2. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Results Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. Conclusion This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training

  3. Diurnal variation of rainfall in the Yangtze River Valley during the spring-summer transition from TRMM measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guixing; Sha, Weiming; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Ueno, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    A 12 year archive of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rain rate is used to document the regionality of diurnal rainfall cycle in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV). The regional rain peaks, local phase shifts, rain event's behavior, and related seasonal change from March to August are examined. In the middle reach of YRV, rainfall appears mainly in early morning and displays a distinct local shift of diurnal phase. Such features are well established at each presummer (from May to June) and result from the eastward migrating events with a late night growth in size. They are supported by the low-level convergence that moves from the east slope of the Tibetan Plateau to the middle reach of YRV, as the deviated wind vector rotates clockwise to enhance southerlies at late night and southwesterlies in the morning. In the lower reach of YRV, however, one observes an eruption of morning rainfall with less local difference in diurnal phase. Morning rainfall is active in presummers of some years but suppressed in some others, contributing greatly to the variance of rainfall budget and resulting in anomalous wet/dry seasons. It is found to arise from a local growth of rain events rather than the migrating events from the middle reach. A majority of these organized convections prefer to form and develop in a belt-shaped zone where the nocturnal southwesterlies of warm/moist air impinge on the Meiyu front in the lower troposphere.

  4. Respiratory Muscle Activity During Simultaneous Stationary Cycling and Inspiratory Muscle Training.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Nathan J; Folsom, Ian A; Gaz, Dan V; Kakuk, Alynn C; Mack, Jessica L; Ver Mulm, Jacyln A

    2015-12-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) strengthens the muscles of respiration, improves breathing efficiency, and increases fitness. The IMT is generally performed independently of aerobic exercise; however, it is not clear whether there is added benefit of performing the IMT while simultaneously performing aerobic exercise in terms of activating and strengthening inspiratory muscles. The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of IMT on respiratory muscle electromyography (EMG) activity during stationary cycling in the upright and drops postures as compared with that when the IMT was performed alone. Diaphragm and sternocleidomastoid EMG activity was measured under different resting and cycling postures, with and without the use of the IMT at 40% maximal inspiratory pressure (n = 10; mean age 37). Cycling in an upright posture while simultaneously performing the IMT resulted in a significantly greater diaphragm EMG activity than while performing the IMT at rest in upright or drops postures (p ≤ 0.05). Cycling in drops postures while performing the IMT had a significantly greater diaphragm EMG activity than when performing the IMT at rest in either upright or drops postures (p ≤ 0.05). Sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased with both cycling and IMT, although posture had little effect. These results support our hypothesis in that the IMT while cycling increases respiratory EMG activity to a significantly greater extent than when performing the IMT solely at rest, suggesting that the combination of IMT and cycling may provide an additive training effect. PMID:26584054

  5. The Life Cycle of Active Region Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Thompson, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a contemporary view of how solar active region magnetic fields are understood to be generated, transported and dispersed. Empirical trends of active region properties that guide model development are discussed. Physical principles considered important for active region evolution are introduced and advances in modeling are reviewed.

  6. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy: energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Gorter, Jenke A; Riede, Sjaak J; Hut, Roelof A

    2015-08-01

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The circadian thermo-energetics (CTE) hypothesis predicts that diurnal activity patterns reduce daily energy expenditure (DEE) compared with nocturnal activity patterns. Here, we tested the CTE hypothesis by quantifying the energetic consequences of relevant environmental factors in mice. Under natural conditions, diurnality reduces DEE by 6-10% in energetically challenged mice. Combined with night-time torpor, as observed in mice under prolonged food scarcity, DEE can be reduced by ∼20%. The dominant factor determining the energetic benefit of diurnality is thermal buffering provided by a sheltered resting location. Compared with nocturnal animals, diurnal animals encounter higher ambient temperatures during both day and night, leading to reduced thermogenesis costs in temperate climates. Analysis of weather station data shows that diurnality is energetically beneficial on almost all days of the year in a temperate climate region. Furthermore, diurnality provides energetic benefits at all investigated geographical locations on European longitudinal and latitudinal transects. The reduction of DEE by diurnality provides an ultimate explanation for temporal niche switching observed in typically nocturnal small mammals under energetically challenging conditions. Diurnality allows mammals to compensate for reductions in food availability and temperature as it reduces energetic needs. The optimal circadian organization of an animal ultimately depends on the balance between energetic consequences and other fitness consequences of the selected temporal niche.

  7. ιHorologi, the first coronal activity cycle in a young solar-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stelzer, B.; Metcalfe, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Context. The shortest chromospheric (Ca ii H&K) activity cycle (1.6 yr) has been recently discovered in the young (~600 Myr) solar-like star ι Hor. Coronal X-ray activity cycles have only been discovered in a few stars other than the Sun, all of them with an older age and a lower activity level than ι Hor. Aims: We intended to find the X-ray coronal counterpart of the chromospheric cycle for ι Hor. This represents the first X-ray cycle observed in an active star, as well as the paradigm of the first coronal cycles in the life of a solar-like star. Methods: We monitored ι Hor with XMM-Newton observations spanning almost two years. The spectra of each observation are fit with two-temperature coronal models to study the long-term variability of the star. Results: We find a cyclic behavior in X-rays very similar to the contemporaneous chromospheric cycle. The continuous chromospheric monitoring for more than three cycle lengths shows a trend toward decreasing amplitude, apparently modulated by a longer term trend. The second cycle is disrupted prior to reaching its maximum, followed by a brief episode of chaotic variability before the cyclic behavior resumes, only to be disrupted again after slightly more than one cycle. Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an activity cycle of ~1.6 yr in ι Hor both in X-rays and Ca ii H&K. It is likely subject to the modulation of a longer, not yet constrained second cycle. The 1.6 yr cycle is the shortest coronal one observed to date, and ι Hor represents the most active star for which a coronal activity cycle has been found. This cycle is probably representative of the first coronal cycles in the life of a solar-like star, at the age when life started on Earth. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Comparison of modeled diurnally varying sea surface temperatures to satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, R. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    A subset of modeled, global diurnally varying sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is created using a physically based, one-dimensional, upper ocean heating model, POSH or Profiles in Oceanic Surface Heating. The model is forced with a nighttime minimum temperature approximated by the Reynolds OI daily AVHRR-only and reanalysis data from NASA's MERRA dataset. To assess the model's ability to replicate the diurnal cycle of SSTs, the model output is compared to satellite-retrieved data for the entire cycle. SEVIRI hourly 5-km SST swath data are used for the comparison and regridded to the 25-km model grid. In the analysis of SST differences between the two products, difference plots at each time step are not sufficient to determine the quality of POSH's representation of the diurnal cycle. The differences in SST can be a combination of a nighttime offset and a shift in the onset of the heating cycle. Furthermore, the caveats associated with gap filling by the interpolation technique can deteriorate the quality of the comparison, especially when the satellite data are not continuous over time. To establish quality criteria, a 2D histogram is computed to determine the percent of coverage per 0.25-degree grid cell. This is a combined measure of the density (how many satellite grid points lie within the 0.25-degree cell) and the continuity (how often, in hours, the grid cell is sampled over the day). In a best-case scenario approach for the comparison, a total of 89 grid locations are selected at which time series of SSTs are extracted from the satellite and model data. The results in Figure 1 indicate that the Reynolds product estimates the nighttime minimum temperature reasonably well, while the model consistently overestimates the peak of the diurnal cycle compared to the satellite data. Moreover, the diurnal heating in the satellite data persists approximately 3 hours longer than the diurnal heating produced by the model. Since the difference averaged over all hours of

  9. Impact of land-sea breezes at different scales on the diurnal rainfall in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Wang, Shih-Yu

    2014-10-01

    The formation mechanism of diurnal rainfall in Taiwan is commonly recognized as a result of local forcings involving solar thermal heating and island-scale land-sea breeze (LSB) interacting with orography. This study found that the diurnal variation of the large-scale circulation over the East Asia-Western North Pacific (EAWNP) modulates considerably the diurnal rainfall in Taiwan. It is shown that the interaction between the two LSB systems—the island-scale LSB and the large-scale LSB over EAWNP—facilitates the formation of the early morning rainfall in western Taiwan, afternoon rainfall in central Taiwan, and nighttime rainfall in eastern Taiwan. Moreover, the post-1998 strengthening of a shallow, low-level southerly wind belt along the coast of Southeast China appears to intensify the diurnal rainfall activity in Taiwan. These findings reveal the role of the large-scale LSB and its long-term variation in the modulation of local diurnal rainfall.

  10. Leg muscle activation and distance setting of the leg cycle ergometer for use by the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Chill; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Young-Ik

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] This study verified the leg muscle activities of elderly subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. [Subjects] Forty-one elderly persons were the subjects of this study. [Methods] For the three distances corresponding to knee flexion angles of 15, 45, and 70, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were measured while the subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer. [Results] The rectus femoris and biceps femoris showed statistically significant increases as the distance between the cycle ergometer and the body increased, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activation showed a statistically significant increase as the distance from the body to the cycle ergometer decreased. [Conclusion] When the elderly have limb muscle weakness, leg cycle ergometer distances should be adjusted.

  11. Rhinosporidium seeberi Nuclear Cycle Activities Using Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Darly; Mendoza, Leonel; Vilela, Raquel

    2016-02-01

    Rhinosporidium seeberi is an uncultivated Ichthyosporean infecting animals, including humans. Recent studies suggested R. seeberi undergoes synchronized nuclear division without cytokinesis. We used confocal microscopy to investigate R. seeberi nuclear division cycles in formalin-fixed tissues stained with DAPI and phalloidin. We report that R. seeberi nuclei in juvenile and intermediary sporangia synchronously divided without cytokinesis. Intermediary sporangia display numerous 3-4 μm nuclei at different mitotic stages as well as a thick inner layer with strong affinity for phalloidin. Mature sporangia showed numerous 5-12 μm cell-walled endospores, each containing a 2-4 μm in diameter nucleus. Phalloidin did not bind to the inner layers of mature sporangia or endospores. The development of a "germinative zone" in the inner layer of mature sporangia containing hundreds of nuclei was also confirmed. This study establishes that during the R. seeberi life cycle synchronous nuclear divisions without cytokinesis takes place, resulting in the formation of thousands of nuclei. Cytokinesis, on the other hand, is a 1-time event and occurs in the latest stages of intermediate sporangia, after the formation of thousands of nuclei and just before mature sporangia development. PMID:26461427

  12. Diurnal temperature effect on nitrate removal and production efficiency in bedform-induced hyporheic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers and aquifers are connected through the hyporheic zone (HZ). Pore water in the subsurface sediments is continuously exchanged with the overlying surface water. The exchange of water, mass and energy occurring along the surface-subsurface interface or within the HZ exerts a strong influence on the quality of both surface and subsurface waters, and fluvial ecology. Moreover, the HZ is rich in biologically active sediment, creating a favorable condition for microbially-facilitated reactions to occur, including organic carbon oxidation (aerobic respiration), nitrification, and denitrification. Inorganic N, especially NO3-, is of concern as a drinking water pollutant and as a cause for eutrophication that threatens ecosystems. The biogeochemical reactions in the HZ could produce or consume NO3- and thus the HZ could serve a nitrate source or sink role in the fluvial system. In addition, hyporheic exchange across the sediment-water interface (SWI) leads to penetration of diel temperature cycles from the river, leading to dynamic HZ temperature pattern. This in turn affects biogeochemical reactions in the HZ. The main objective of this study is to integrate all the processes that occur along the SWI to understand how diurnal temperature variations affect the biogeochemical function of the HZ. We conducted numerical simulations of coupled turbulent open-channel fluid flow, porous fluid flow, porous heat transport and reactive solute transport to study feedbacks and coupling between these processes. We assumed sinusoidally varying diurnal temperature variations. We studied the effects of different mean temperatures and different amplitudes of the diurnal temperature variations on nitrate removal or production efficiency in the HZ. The simulation results show that the average temperature effect on the HZ nitrate source-sink functionality and its associated efficiency has strong dependence on the [NO3-]/[NH4+ ] ratio in the river. However, the effects of the

  13. Cycling for Students with ASD: Self-Regulation Promotes Sustained Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Teri; Reid, Greg; Butler-Kisber, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism often lack motivation to engage in sustained physical activity. Three adolescents with severe autism participated in a 16-week program and each regularly completed 30 min of cycling at the end of program. This study investigated the effect of a self-regulation instructional strategy on sustained cycling, which included…

  14. Diurnal rhythm of agouti-related protein and its relation to corticosterone and food intake.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Yun; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Barsh, Gregory S; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J

    2002-10-01

    In the present study we examined the diurnal patterns of agouti-related protein (AGRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and their relation to circulating glucocorticoids and food intake. Animals were killed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h diurnal cycle, and the expression of AGRP and POMC mRNA was evaluated by semiquantitative in situ hybridization analysis. We observed a significant diurnal rhythm in AGRP mRNA expression, with a marked peak at 2200 h (4 h after lights off) and a trough at 1000 h (4 h after lights on), consistent with the overall day-night rhythm of food intake. In contrast, POMC mRNA levels did not show a significant fluctuation across the diurnal cycle, although there was a tendency for levels to decrease after the onset of the dark cycle. Corticosterone secretion temporally coincided with the rising phase of AGRP mRNA expression. Depletion of corticosterone by adrenalectomy abolished the AGRP diurnal rhythm by suppressing the nighttime expression, but did not alter the feeding rhythm. Exposure of adrenalectomized rats to constant corticosterone replacement (10 or 50 mg continuous release corticosterone pellet) resulted in fixed AGRP mRNA expression throughout the 12-h light, 12-h dark cycle. A relatively high level of corticosterone (50 mg) significantly increased AGRP mRNA expression, with a positive correlation between these two measures. These results indicate that 1) the diurnal expression of AGRP mRNA is regulated by corticosterone independently of the light/dark cue; and 2) a normal endogenous corticosterone rhythm is required for generating the diurnal AGRP rhythm.

  15. Climate-vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  16. Climate–vegetation control on the diurnal and seasonal variations of surface urban heat islands in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Li, Dan; Huang, Dian; Zhu, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Remotely sensed surface urban heat islands (UHIs) have gained considerable interest in recent decades due to the easy access and the wall-to-wall coverage of satellite products. The magnitude or intensity of surface UHIs have been well documented at regional and global scales, yet a systematic evaluation of the temporal variability over large areas is still lacking. In this study, the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs) in China are examined using Aqua/Terra MODIS data from 2008 to 2012. Results show that the mean annual SUHIIs varied greatly in a diurnal cycle, characterized by a positive day-night difference (DND) in Southeast China and the opposite in Northeast and Northwest China. Also, the SUHIIs differed dramatically in a seasonal cycle, indicated by a positive summer-winter difference (SWD) in the day and a negative SWD at night, accompanied by the highly diverse DNDs across seasons and geographic regions. Northwest and Northeast China overall showed the largest DND and SWD (>3 °C), respectively. These diurnal and seasonal variations depend strongly on local climate-vegetation regimes, as indicated by a strong positive correlation between DND and precipitation (and air temperature) and a negative relationship between DND and vegetation activity across cities and seasons. In particular, SHUIIs were quadratically correlated with the mean annual precipitation across space, suggesting that there might be a threshold in terms of the effects induced by local background climate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal variability of UHIs for more accurate characterization of the associated ecological and social-economic consequences.

  17. Thermospheric tides at equinox: Simulations with coupled composition and auroral forcings. 1. Diurnal component

    SciTech Connect

    Fesen, C.G. ); Roble, R.G.; Ridley, E.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Thermospheric tidal components calculated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermospheric general circulation model have been revised by including the effects of self-consistent composition couplings and auroral processes. Calculations are presented for equinox conditions at solar cycle minimum and maximum. The diurnal neutral winds and perturbation temperatures predicted by the model are compared with radar observations and the MSIS-86 model at low, mid, and high latitudes. Sensitivity tests indicate that the feedback between composition and dynamics affects the diurnal tidal temperature amplitudes up to 50% and the diurnal winds by about 15%. The calculated phases are within an hour of uncoupled composition calculations. Auroral processes dominate the diurnal waves at high latitudes, where the wind amplitudes may be double or triple those calculated for solar forcing only. The high-latitude energy and momentum sources must be included in the model formulations in order to reproduce observations of the September 1984 Equinox Transition Study exospheric temperatures.

  18. Microbial activity and diversity during extreme freeze-thaw cycles in periglacial soils, 5400 m elevation, Cordillera Vilcanota, Perú.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S K; Nemergut, D R; Miller, A E; Freeman, K R; King, A J; Seimon, A

    2009-09-01

    High-elevation periglacial soils are among the most extreme soil systems on Earth and may be good analogs for the polar regions of Mars where oligotrophic mineral soils abut with polar ice caps. Here we report on preliminary studies carried out during an expedition to an area where recent glacial retreat has exposed porous mineral soils to extreme, daily freeze-thaw cycles and high UV fluxes. We used in situ methods to show that inorganic nitrogen (NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+)) was being actively cycled even during a period when diurnal soil temperatures (5 cm depth) ranged from -12 to 27 degrees C and when sub-zero, soil cooling rates reached 1.8 degrees C h(-1) (the most rapid soil cooling rates recorded to date). Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of microbial phylotypes present at our highest sites (5410 m above sea level) showed the presence of nitrifying bacteria of the genus Nitrospira and newly discovered nitrite-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. These soils were overwhelmingly dominated (>70% of phylotypes) by photosynthetic bacteria that were related to novel cyanobacteria previously found almost exclusively in other plant-free, high-elevation soils. We also demonstrated that soils from our highest sites had higher potential for mineralizing glutamate and higher microbial biomass than lower elevation soils that had been more recently covered by ice. Overall, our findings indicate that a diverse and robustly functioning microbial ecosystem is present in these previously unstudied high-elevation soils.

  19. Microbial activity and diversity during extreme freeze-thaw cycles in periglacial soils, 5400 m elevation, Cordillera Vilcanota, Perú.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S K; Nemergut, D R; Miller, A E; Freeman, K R; King, A J; Seimon, A

    2009-09-01

    High-elevation periglacial soils are among the most extreme soil systems on Earth and may be good analogs for the polar regions of Mars where oligotrophic mineral soils abut with polar ice caps. Here we report on preliminary studies carried out during an expedition to an area where recent glacial retreat has exposed porous mineral soils to extreme, daily freeze-thaw cycles and high UV fluxes. We used in situ methods to show that inorganic nitrogen (NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+)) was being actively cycled even during a period when diurnal soil temperatures (5 cm depth) ranged from -12 to 27 degrees C and when sub-zero, soil cooling rates reached 1.8 degrees C h(-1) (the most rapid soil cooling rates recorded to date). Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of microbial phylotypes present at our highest sites (5410 m above sea level) showed the presence of nitrifying bacteria of the genus Nitrospira and newly discovered nitrite-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. These soils were overwhelmingly dominated (>70% of phylotypes) by photosynthetic bacteria that were related to novel cyanobacteria previously found almost exclusively in other plant-free, high-elevation soils. We also demonstrated that soils from our highest sites had higher potential for mineralizing glutamate and higher microbial biomass than lower elevation soils that had been more recently covered by ice. Overall, our findings indicate that a diverse and robustly functioning microbial ecosystem is present in these previously unstudied high-elevation soils. PMID:19597697

  20. Possible chromospheric activity cycles in II Peg, UX Ari and V711 Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2009-02-01

    We study the Mount Wilson indices we obtained indirectly from IUE high and low resolution spectra of the RS CVn-type systems II Peg (K2IV), UX Ari (K0IV+G5V) and V711 Tau (K1IV+G5V), extensively observed by IUE from 1978 to 1996. We analyze the activity signatures, which correspond to the primary star, with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. From the analysis of V711 Tau data, we found a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of 18 years and a shorter ~3 year cycle, which could be associated to a chromospheric flip-flop cycle. The data of II Peg also suggest a chromospheric cycle of ~21 years and a flip-flop cycle of ~9 years. Finally, we obtained a possible chromospheric cycle of ~6 years for UX Ari.

  1. Diurnal changes in seawater carbonate chemistry speciation at increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Schulz, K G; Riebesell, U

    2013-01-01

    Natural variability in seawater pH and associated carbonate chemistry parameters is in part driven by biological activities such as photosynthesis and respiration. The amplitude of these variations is expected to increase with increasing seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the future, because of simultaneously decreasing buffer capacity. Here, we address this experimentally during a diurnal cycle in a mesocosm CO2 perturbation study. We show that for about the same amount of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) utilized in net community production diel variability in proton (H(+)) and CO2 concentrations was almost three times higher at CO2 levels of about 675 ± 65 in comparison with levels of 310 ± 30 μatm. With a simple model, adequately simulating our measurements, we visualize carbonate chemistry variability expected for different oceanic regions with relatively low or high net community production. Since enhanced diurnal variability in CO2 and proton concentration may require stronger cellular regulation in phytoplankton to maintain respective gradients, the ability to adjust may differ between communities adapted to low in comparison with high natural variability.

  2. Diurnal variations in CO2 flux from peatland floodplains: Implications for models of ecosystem respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulsbra, Claire; Rickards, Nathan; Brown, Sarah; Evans, Martin; Boult, Stephen; Alderson, Danielle

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores, and within these environments, floodplains have been identified as hotspots of carbon processing, potentially releasing substantial amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere. Previous monitoring campaigns have shown that such CO2 release from ecosystem respiration is linked not only to soil temperature and water table depth, but also to CO2 sequestration via primary productivity, thought to be because the root exudates produced during photosynthesis stimulate microbial activity. This suggests that extrapolation models that are parameterised on data collected during day light hours, when vegetation is photosynthesising, may overestimate ecosystem respiration rates at night, which has important implications for estimates of annual CO2 flux and carbon budgeting. To investigate this hypothesis, monitoring data is collected on the CO2 flux from UK peatland floodplains over the full diurnal cycle. This is done via ex-situ manual data collection from mesocosms using an infra-red gas analyser, and the in-situ automated collection of CO2 concentration data from boreholes within the peat using GasClams®. Preliminary data collected during the summer months suggest that night time respiration is suppressed compared to that during the day, and that the significant predictors of respiration are different when examining day and night time data. This highlights the importance of incorporating diurnal variations into models of ecosystem respiration.

  3. The impact of diurnal sleep on the consolidation of a complex gross motor adaptation task

    PubMed Central

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Birklbauer, Juergen; Schabus, Manuel; Eibenberger, Patrick; Rigler, Sandra; Mueller, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal sleep effects on consolidation of a complex, ecological valid gross motor adaptation task were examined using a bicycle with an inverse steering device. We tested 24 male subjects aged between 20 and 29 years using a between-subjects design. Participants were trained to adapt to the inverse steering bicycle during 45 min. Performance was tested before (TEST1) and after (TEST2) training, as well as after a 2 h retention interval (TEST3). During retention, participants either slept or remained awake. To assess gross motor performance, subjects had to ride the inverse steering bicycle 3 × 30 m straight-line and 3 × 30 m through a slalom. Beyond riding time, we sophisticatedly measured performance accuracy (standard deviation of steering angle) in both conditions using a rotatory potentiometer. A significant decrease of accuracy during straight-line riding after nap and wakefulness was shown. Accuracy during slalom riding remained stable after wakefulness but was reduced after sleep. We found that the duration of rapid eye movement sleep as well as sleep spindle activity are negatively related with gross motor performance changes over sleep. Together these findings suggest that the consolidation of adaptation to a new steering device does not benefit from a 2 h midday nap. We speculate that in case of strongly overlearned motor patterns such as normal cycling, diurnal sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep might even help to protect everyday needed skills, and to rapidly forget newly acquired, interfering and irrelevant material. PMID:25256866

  4. Diurnal rhythms in ornithine decarboxylase activity and norepinephrine and acetylcholine synthesis in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen of young and aged rats during Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, D P; Brusco, L I; Selgas, L; Esquifino, A I

    1998-04-13

    Aging has been associated with attenuation of amplitude and changes in period of many circadian rhythms. The present study was carried out to examine, in young (50 days old) and old (18 months old) rats, whether 24-h rhythms of cell proliferation (as assessed by measuring ornithine decarboxylase activity) and of presynaptic adrenergic and cholinergic markers change in lymph nodes and spleen during Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis. Groups of young and old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied the day before, and on days 6, 12 and 18 after Freund's adjuvant injection. On day 16 after adjuvant injection, inflammation of hind paws, mainly in the ankle joints, was less marked in old than in young rats. Lymph node and splenic ornithine decarboxylase activity exhibited significant 24-h variations with maximal activity during daily hours. Before treatment, enzyme activity values were significantly lower in old rats in both tissues examined. During the immune reaction, lymph node and splenic ornithine decarboxylase augmented 8-10-fold, with progressively smaller amplitude of daily variations as arthritis developed. In every case, mesor and amplitude of ornithine decarboxylase activity were lowest in old rats. Submaxillary lymph node and splenic tyrosine hydroxylase activity attained maximal values at night. At every time interval after mycobacterium adjuvant injection, amplitude and mesor of tyrosine hydroxylase activity rhythm were lowest in old rats. A maximum in submaxillary lymph node 3H-acetylcholine synthesis occurred at the afternoon. On day 6 and 12 after Freund's adjuvant injection, lymph node 3H-acetylcholine synthesis was significantly smaller in old rats. Day-night differences in submaxillary lymph node or splenic ornithine decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase activities, or in submaxillary lymph node 3H-acetylcholine synthesis, of rats treated with the adjuvant's vehicle, did not differ significantly from those seen in untreated controls. The results are

  5. A 22-yrs Hurricane Cycle and its Relation to Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Pazos, Marni

    Applying spectral analysis to the Atlantic and Pacific hurricane time series, we found period-icities that coincide with the main sunspot and magnetic solar cycles. To assess the possibility that these periodicities could be associated to solar activity, we obtain correlations between hurricane occurrence and several solar activity-related phenomena, such as the total solar irra-diance, the cosmic ray flux and the Dst index of geomagnetic activity. Our results indicate that the highest significant correlations are found between the Atlantic and Pacific hurricanes and the Dst index. Most importantly, both oceans present the highest hurricane-Dst correlations during the ascending part of odd solar cycles and the descending phase of even solar cycles. This shows not only the existence of a 22yrs cycle but also the nature of such periodicity. Fur-thermore, we found that the Atlantic hurricanes behave differently from the Pacific hurricanes in relation to the solar activity-related disturbances considered.

  6. Inactivation of thioredoxin f1 leads to decreased light activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and altered diurnal starch turnover in leaves of Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Thormählen, Ina; Ruber, Joachim; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Ehrlich, Sven-Matthias; Massot, Vincent; Hümmer, Christine; Tezycka, Justyna; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Geigenberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplast thioredoxin f (Trx f) is an important regulator of primary metabolic enzymes. However, genetic evidence for its physiological importance is largely lacking. To test the functional significance of Trx f in vivo, Arabidopsis mutants with insertions in the trx f1 gene were studied, showing a drastic decrease in Trx f leaf content. Knockout of Trx f1 led to strong attenuation in reductive light activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), the key enzyme of starch synthesis, in leaves during the day and in isolated chloroplasts, while sucrose-dependent redox activation of AGPase in darkened leaves was not affected. The decrease in light-activation of AGPase in leaves was accompanied by a decrease in starch accumulation, an increase in sucrose levels and a decrease in starch-to-sucrose ratio. Analysis of metabolite levels at the end of day shows that inhibition of starch synthesis was unlikely due to shortage of substrates or changes in allosteric effectors. Metabolite profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry pinpoints only a small number of metabolites affected, including sugars, organic acids and ethanolamine. Interestingly, metabolite data indicate carbon shortage in trx f1 mutant leaves at the end of night. Overall, results provide in planta evidence for the role played by Trx f in the light activation of AGPase and photosynthetic carbon partitioning in plants.

  7. Magnetic Tilts and Polarity Separations in Sunspot Groups and Active Regions the Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, S. I.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    We present the analysis of magnetic tilts in active regions and sunspot groups for 1996-2005 that are automatically extracted from the Solar Feature Catalogues (http://solar.inf.brad.ac.uk ). We investigate the statistical variations of magnetic field tilt in sunspot groups and whole active regions, their longitudinal and latitudinal distributions, drifts and daily polarity separation during different phases of the solar cycle 23. The classification results are compared with the similar research for the previous cycles and the specifics on the cycle 23 is discussed in conjunction to the solar dynamo theory.

  8. Frowning and Jaw Clenching Muscle Activity Reflects the Perception of Effort During Incremental Workload Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ding-Hau; Chou, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yi-Lang; Chiou, Wen-Ko

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether facial electromyography (EMG) recordings reflect the perception of effort and primary active lower limb muscle activity during incremental workload cycling. The effects of exercise intensity on EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS), masseter and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles, heart rate (HR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated, and the correlations among these parameters were determined. Eighteen males and 15 females performed continuous incremental workload cycling exercise until exhaustion. CS, masseter and VL muscle activities were continuously recorded using EMG during exercise. HR was also continuously monitored during the test. During the final 30 s of each stage of cycle ergometer exercise, participants were asked to report their feeling of exertion on the adult OMNI-Cycle RPE. HR and EMG activity of the facial muscles and the primary active lower limb muscle were strongly correlated with RPE; they increased with power output. Furthermore, facial muscle activity increased significantly during high-intensity exercise. Masseter muscle activity was strongly and positively correlated with HR, RPE and VL activity. The present investigation supports the view that facial EMG activity reflects the perception of effort. The jaw clenching facial expression can be considered an important factor for improving the reporting of perceived effort during high-intensity exercise in males and females. Key points Frowning and jaw clenching muscle activity reflects the perception of effort during incremental workload cycling. EMG activity of the masseter muscle was strongly and positively correlated with RPE, HR and lower limb EMG activity during incremental workload cycling. The jaw clenching facial expression can be considered an important factor for estimating the intensity of effort. PMID:25435786

  9. Viral activities and life cycles in deep subseafloor sediments.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Tim; Orsi, William D; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2015-12-01

    Viruses are highly abundant in marine subsurface sediments and can even exceed the number of prokaryotes. However, their activity and quantitative impact on microbial populations are still poorly understood. Here, we use gene expression data from published continental margin subseafloor metatranscriptomes to qualitatively assess viral diversity and activity in sediments up to 159 metres below seafloor (mbsf). Mining of the metatranscriptomic data revealed 4651 representative viral homologues (RVHs), representing 2.2% of all metatranscriptome sequence reads, which have close translated homology (average 77%, range 60-97% amino acid identity) to viral proteins. Archaea-infecting RVHs are exclusively detected in the upper 30 mbsf, whereas RVHs for filamentous inoviruses predominate in the deepest sediment layers. RVHs indicative of lysogenic phage-host interactions and lytic activity, notably cell lysis, are detected at all analysed depths and suggest a dynamic virus-host association in the marine deep biosphere studied here. Ongoing lytic viral activity is further indicated by the expression of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat-associated cascade genes involved in cellular defence against viral attacks. The data indicate the activity of viruses in subsurface sediment of the Peruvian margin and suggest that viruses indeed cause cell mortality and may play an important role in the turnover of subseafloor microbial biomass. PMID:26109514

  10. Viral activities and life cycles in deep subseafloor sediments.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Tim; Orsi, William D; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2015-12-01

    Viruses are highly abundant in marine subsurface sediments and can even exceed the number of prokaryotes. However, their activity and quantitative impact on microbial populations are still poorly understood. Here, we use gene expression data from published continental margin subseafloor metatranscriptomes to qualitatively assess viral diversity and activity in sediments up to 159 metres below seafloor (mbsf). Mining of the metatranscriptomic data revealed 4651 representative viral homologues (RVHs), representing 2.2% of all metatranscriptome sequence reads, which have close translated homology (average 77%, range 60-97% amino acid identity) to viral proteins. Archaea-infecting RVHs are exclusively detected in the upper 30 mbsf, whereas RVHs for filamentous inoviruses predominate in the deepest sediment layers. RVHs indicative of lysogenic phage-host interactions and lytic activity, notably cell lysis, are detected at all analysed depths and suggest a dynamic virus-host association in the marine deep biosphere studied here. Ongoing lytic viral activity is further indicated by the expression of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat-associated cascade genes involved in cellular defence against viral attacks. The data indicate the activity of viruses in subsurface sediment of the Peruvian margin and suggest that viruses indeed cause cell mortality and may play an important role in the turnover of subseafloor microbial biomass.

  11. A cell cycle-controlled redox switch regulates the topoisomerase IV activity

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sharath; Janakiraman, Balaganesh; Kumar, Lokesh

    2015-01-01

    Topoisomerase IV (topo IV), an essential factor during chromosome segregation, resolves the catenated chromosomes at the end of each replication cycle. How the decatenating activity of the topo IV is regulated during the early stages of the chromosome cycle despite being in continuous association with the chromosome remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel cell cycle-regulated protein in Caulobacter crescentus, NstA (negative switch for topo IV decatenation activity), that inhibits the decatenation activity of the topo IV during early stages of the cell cycle. We demonstrate that in C. crescentus, NstA acts by binding to the ParC DNA-binding subunit of topo IV. Most importantly, we uncover a dynamic oscillation of the intracellular redox state during the cell cycle, which correlates with and controls NstA activity. Thus, we propose that predetermined dynamic intracellular redox fluctuations may act as a global regulatory switch to control cellular development and cell cycle progression and may help retain pathogens in a suitable cell cycle state when encountering redox stress from the host immune response. PMID:26063575

  12. Adrenal-dependent diurnal modulation of conditioned fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Chun, Lauren E; Fardi, Sara; Hinds, Laura R; Spencer, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered conditioned fear extinction expression and impaired circadian function including dysregulation of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. We examined in adult male rats the relationship between conditioned fear extinction learning, circadian phase, and endogenous glucocorticoids (CORT). Rats maintained on a 12h light:dark cycle were trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions (conditioned fear acquisition and 2 extinction sessions) that were administered during either the rats' active or inactive circadian phase. In an initial experiment we found that rats at both circadian phases acquired and extinguished auditory cue conditioned fear to a similar degree in the first extinction session. However, rats trained and tested at zeitgeber time-16 (ZT16) (active phase) showed enhanced extinction memory expression during the second extinction session compared to rats trained and tested at ZT4 (inactive phase). In a follow-up experiment, adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham surgery rats were similarly trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions at either ZT4 or ZT16. ADX had no effect on conditioned fear acquisition or conditioned fear memory. Sham ADX rats trained and tested at ZT16 exhibited better extinction learning across the two extinction sessions compared to all other groups of rats. These results indicate that conditioned fear extinction learning is modulated by time of day, and this diurnal modulation requires the presence of adrenal hormones. These results support an important role of CORT-dependent circadian processes in regulating conditioned fear extinction learning, which may be capitalized upon to optimize effective treatment of PTSD.

  13. Wastes from selected activities in two light-water reactor fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.R.; Hill, O.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents projected volumes and radioactivities of wastes from the production of electrical energy using light-water reactors (LWR). The projections are based upon data developed for a recent environmental impact statement in which the transuranic wastes (i.e., those wastes containing certain long-lived alpha emitters at concentrations of at least 370 becquerels, or 10 nCi, per gram of waste) from fuel cycle activities were characterized. In addition, since the WG.7 assumed that all fuel cycle wastes except mill tailings are placed in a mined geologic repository, the nontransuranic wastes from several activities are included in the projections reported. The LWR fuel cycles considered are the LWR, once-through fuel cycle (Strategy 1), in which spent fuel is packaged in metal canisters and then isolated in geologic formations; and the LWR U/Pu recycle fuel cycle (Strategy 2), wherein spent fuel is reprocessed for recovery and recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWRs. The wastes projected for the two LWR fuel cycles are summarized. The reactor operations and decommissioning were found to dominate the rate of waste generation in each cycle. These activities account for at least 85% of the fuel cycle waste volume (not including head-end wastes) when normalized to per unit electrical energy generated. At 10 years out of reactor, however, spent fuel elements in Strategy 1 represent 98% of the fuel cycle activity but only 4% of the volume. Similarly, the packaged high-level waste, fuel hulls and hardware in Strategy 2 concentrate greater than 95% of the activity in 2% of the waste volume.

  14. The Met Office's new operational analysis system for diurnally varying skin-SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    While, James; Mao, Chongyuan; Martin, Matthew; Good, Simon; Sykes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Diurnal variations in skin Sea Surface Temperature (skin SST), which can be as large as several degrees, play an important role in determining the heat flux between the ocean and atmosphere. As such, since February 2015 the Met Office, as part of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS), has been producing an operational analysis of the diurnal cycle of skin SST. This product consists of three components: an underlying 'foundation' SST (based on the OSTIA analysis), a warm layer where solar heating is important, and a cool skin where cooling due to long wave radiation dominates. A major development in this system is the use of a 4D-Var data assimilation technique with multiple outer-loops to improve estimates of the warm layer. Observations assimilated come from the SEVIRI, GOES-W, MTSAT2, and NOAA-AVHRR infra-red satellite instruments. Through their assimilation, the observations act to update the applied heat and wind flux such that the diurnal cycle in the warm layer is improved. In this presentation we describe the analysis system and how it produces a skin SST product. Particular attention is paid to the data assimilation aspects and on the observation processing. We also present results from a three month validation period showing that the system is well able to reproduce a drifter based climatology of the diurnal cycle in SST. A direct validation of our diurnal SST output against near surface Argo data is also given.

  15. Microbial Enzyme Activity and Carbon Cycling in Grassland Soil Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes are necessary to degrade complex organic compounds present in soils. Using physical fractionation procedures, we tested whether old soil carbon is spatially isolated from degradative enzymes across a prairie restoration chronosequence in Illinois, USA. We found that carbon-degrading enzymes were abundant in all soil fractions, including macroaggregates, microaggregates, and the clay fraction, which contains carbon with a mean residence time of ~200 years. The activities of two cellulose-degrading enzymes and a chitin-degrading enzyme were 2-10 times greater in organic matter fractions than in bulk soil, consistent with the rapid turnover of these fractions. Polyphenol oxidase activity was 3 times greater in the clay fraction than in the bulk soil, despite very slow carbon turnover in this fraction. Changes in enzyme activity across the restoration chronosequence were small once adjusted for increases in soil carbon concentration, although polyphenol oxidase activity per unit carbon declined by 50% in native prairie versus cultivated soil. These results are consistent with a `two-pool' model of enzyme and carbon turnover in grassland soils. In light organic matter fractions, enzyme production and carbon turnover both occur rapidly. However, in mineral-dominated fractions, both enzymes and their carbon substrates are immobilized on mineral surfaces, leading to slow turnover. Soil carbon accumulation in the clay fraction and across the prairie restoration chronosequence probably reflects increasing physical isolation of enzymes and substrates on the molecular scale, rather than the micron to millimeter scale.

  16. Life Cycle of the Salmon. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabochia, Kathy

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  17. Brain and behavioural evidence for rest-activity cycles in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Brown, Euan R; Piscopo, Stefania; De Stefano, Rosanna; Giuditta, Antonio

    2006-09-25

    Octopus vulgaris maintained under a 12/12h light/dark cycle exhibit a pronounced nocturnal activity pattern. Animals deprived of rest during the light period show a marked 'rebound' in activity in the following 24h. 'Active' octopuses attack faster than 'quiet' animals and brain activity recorded electrically intensifies during 'quiet' behaviour. Thus, in Octopus as in vertebrates, brain areas involved in memory or 'higher' processes exhibit 'off-line' activity during rest periods.

  18. Do Male And Female Cyclists' Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2015-12-01

    Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists' cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men's brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise. PMID:26866769

  19. Do Male And Female Cyclists' Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2015-12-01

    Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists' cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men's brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.

  20. Diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Isaac; Arkin, Philip; Ferraro, Ralph; Eriksson, Patrick; Fetzer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    regions where the diurnal peak occurs at other times of the day. The early morning peak time is because of a peak in convective activities in early morning. Additionally, a double peak was observed in tropospheric humidity over some regions which is consistent with double peak in precipitation.

  1. Enhanced cytosolic NADP-ME2 activity in A. thaliana affects plant development, stress tolerance and specific diurnal and nocturnal cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Badia, Mariana B; Arias, Cintia L; Tronconi, Marcos A; Maurino, Verónica G; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F; Wheeler, Mariel C Gerrard

    2015-11-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana has four NADP-dependent malic enzymes (NADP-ME 1-4) for reversible malate decarboxylation, with NADP-ME2 being the only cytosolic isoform ubiquitously expressed and responsible for most of the total activity. In this work, we further investigated its physiological function by characterizing Arabidopsis plants over-expressing NADP-ME2 constitutively. In comparison to wild type, these plants exhibited reduced rosette and root sizes, delayed flowering time and increased sensitivity to mannitol and polyethylene glycol. The increased NADP-ME2 activity led to a decreased expression of other ME and malate dehydrogenase isoforms and generated a redox imbalance with opposite characteristics depending on the time point of the day analyzed. The over-expressing plants also presented a higher content of C4 organic acids and sugars under normal growth conditions. However, the accumulation of these metabolites in the over-expressing plants was substantially less pronounced after osmotic stress exposure compared to wild type. Also, a lower level of several amino acids and osmoprotector compounds was observed in transgenic plants. Thus, the gain of NADP-ME2 expression has profound consequences in the modulation of primary metabolism in A. thaliana, which reflect the relevance of this enzyme and its substrates and products in plant homeostasis.

  2. Is the Valles caldera entering a new cycle of activity?

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, J.A.; Gardner, J.N.

    1995-05-01

    The Valles caldera formed during two major rhyolitic ignimbrite eruptive episodes (the Bandelier Tuff) at 1.61 and 1.22 Ma, after some 12 m.y. of activity in the Jemez Mountains volcanic field, New Mexico. Several subsequent eruptions between 1.22 and 0.52 Ma produced dominantly high-silica rhyolite lava domes and tephras within the caldera. These were followed by a dormancy of 0.46 m.y. prior to the most recent intracaldera activity, the longest hiatus since the inception of the Bandelier magma system at approximately 1.8 Ma. The youngest volcanic activity at approximately 60 ka produced the SW moat rhyolites, a series of lavas and tuffs that display abundant petrologic evidence of being newly generated melts. Petrographic textures conform closely to published predictions for silicic magmas generated by intrusion of basaltic magma into continental crust. The Valles caldera may currently be the site of renewed silicic magma generation, induced by intrusion of mafic magma at depth. Recent seismic investigations revealed the presence of a large low-velocity anomaly in the lower crust beneath the caldera. The generally aseismic character of the caldera, despite abundant regional seismicity, may be attributed to a heated crustal column, the local effect of 13 m.y. of magmatism and emplacement of mid-crustal plutons. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Projected Increase in Diurnal and Inter-Diurnal Variations of European Summer Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattiaux, J.; Douville, H.; Schoetter, R.; Parey, S.; Yiou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The current European warming is expected to be associated with an increased temperature variability in summer, particularly at the daily time-scale. Such an increase would affect hot extremes and accentuate the societal and environmental impacts caused by the mean warming. Here we investigate future changes in the short-term variability of European summer temperatures using two indices that have been seldom documented so far: the variations within one day (diurnal temperature range, DTR) and the variations from one day to the next (inter-diurnal temperature variability, ITV). These rapid variations represent key issues for impact communities, in particular energy providers vulnerable to sudden surges in electricity demand. Besides, the ITV provides a measure of daily variability that is not disturbed by longer-term variations in the mean (e.g., seasonal cycle and/or a multi-year trend), whereas traditional measures such as standard deviation or variance are. We use 21st-century projections performed by 34 models of the CMIP5 ensemble under the three RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Models are evaluated over the present-day period against the E-OBS dataset. In Europe, both indices of summer temperature variability are projected to increase, with a rather good model agreement on the sign, while uncertainties remain on the amplitude. In particular, we show that extremely high day-to-day and/or diurnal temperature variations are expected to occur more frequently. We highlight the singularity of the European area, since ITV and DTR changes do not systematically coincide over other regions (e.g., the U.S). Then we investigate the physical processes underlying these ITV and DTR changes in the CMIP5 projections. The respective contributions of the summer drying of European soils, the reduction in cloud cover and the changes in large-scale dynamics are estimated. Finally, the possibility of reducing model uncertainties through constraints emerging from both present

  4. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of RNA polymerase II basal transcription activity.

    PubMed Central

    Yonaha, M; Chibazakura, T; Kitajima, S; Yasukochi, Y

    1995-01-01

    Regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II) in eukaryotic cells requires both basal and regulatory transcription factors. In this report we have investigated in vitro pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle by using nuclear extracts from synchronized HeLa cells. It is shown that pol II basal transcription activity is low in the S and G2 phases and high in early G1 phase and TFIID is the rate limiting component of pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle. Further analyses reveal that TFIID exists as a less active form in the S and G2 phases and nuclear extracts from S and G2 phase cells contain a heat-sensitive repressor(s) of TATA box binding protein (TBP). These results suggest that pol II basal transcription activity is regulated by a qualitative change in the TFIID complex, which could involve repression of TBP, during the cell cycle. Images PMID:7479063

  5. Effect of suprachiasmatic lesions on diurnal heart rate rhythm in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleh, M. A.; Winget, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    Heart rate and locomotor activity of rats kept under 12L/12D illumination regimen were recorded every six minutes for ten days using implantable radio transmitters. Some of the rats then received bilateral RF lesions into the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Control sham operations were performed on the rest of the animals. After recovery from surgery, recording of heart rate and locomotor activity was continued for ten days. SCN-lesioned rats showed no significant diurnal fluctuation in heart rate, while normal and sham-operated rats showed the normal diurnal rhythm in that function. The arrhythmic diurnal heart-rate pattern of SCN rats appeared to be correlated with their sporadic activity pattern. The integrity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus is therefore necessary for the generation and/or expression of diurnal rhythmicity in heart rate in the rat.

  6. Diurnal rhythm of melatonin binding in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Laitinen, J.T.; Castren, E.; Vakkuri, O.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    We used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to localize and characterize 2-/sup 125/I-melatonin binding sites in the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei in relation to pineal melatonin production. In a light:dark cycle of 12:12 h, binding density exhibited significant diurnal variation with a peak at the dark-light transition and a trough 12 hours later. Saturation studies suggested that the decreased binding at light-dark transition might be due to a shift of the putative melatonin receptor to a low affinity state.

  7. Active vibration and balance system for closed cycle thermodynamic machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass. A method is also provided.

  8. Diurnal and longitudinal variations in the earth's ionosphere in the period of solstice in conditions of a deep minimum of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Bessarab, F. S.; Zakharenkova, I. E.; Vesnin, A. M.; Ratovsky, K. G.; Galkin, I. A.; Chernyak, Iu. V.; Yasyukevich, Yu. V.; Koren'kova, N. A.; Kotova, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The results of studies of longitudinal and LT variations in parameters of the ionosphere-plasmasphere system, obtained using the Global Self-Consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP), assimilation ionospheric model IRI Real-Time Assimilation Mapping (IRTAM), and satellite and ground-based observational data are presented in the paper. The study of the main morphological features of longitudinal and LT variations in the critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer ( foF2) and total electron content ( TEC) depending on latitude in the winter solstice during a solar-activity minimum (December 22, 2009) is carried out. It is shown that the variations in foF2 and TEC, on the whole, are identical, and so mutually substitutable, while creating empirical models of these parameters in quiet geomagnetic conditions. The longitudinal and LT variations in both foF2 and TEC are within an order of magnitude everywhere except for the equator anomaly region, where LT variation is larger by an order of magnitude than longitudinal variation. According to the results of the study, in the American longitudinal sector at all latitudes of the Southern (summer) Hemisphere, maxima of foF2 and TEC are formed. The near-equatorial and high-latitudinal maxima are separated out from these. The estimate of the contribution into the longitudinal variation in foF2 and TEC for various local time sectors and at various latitudes has been obtained for the first time. In the Southern (summer) Hemisphere, longitudinal variation in foF2 and TEC is formed in the nighttime.

  9. OECD/NEA Ongoing activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cornet, S.M.; McCarthy, K.; Chauvin, N.

    2013-07-01

    As part of its role in encouraging international collaboration, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is coordinating a series of projects related to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (WPFC) comprises five different expert groups covering all aspects of the fuel cycle from front to back-end. Activities related to fuels, materials, physics, separation chemistry, and fuel cycles scenarios are being undertaken. By publishing state-of-the-art reports and organizing workshops, the groups are able to disseminate recent research advancements to the international community. Current activities mainly focus on advanced nuclear systems, and experts are working on analyzing results and establishing challenges associated to the adoption of new materials and fuels. By comparing different codes, the Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios is aiming at gaining further understanding of the scientific issues and specific national needs associated with the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. At the back end of the fuel cycle, separation technologies (aqueous and pyrochemical processing) are being assessed. Current and future activities comprise studies on minor actinides separation and post Fukushima studies. Regular workshops are also organized to discuss recent developments on Partitioning and Transmutation. In addition, the Nuclear Development Committee (NDC) focuses on the analysis of the economics of nuclear power across the fuel cycle in the context of changes of electricity markets, social acceptance and technological advances and assesses the availability of the nuclear fuel and infrastructure required for the deployment of existing and future nuclear power. The Expert Group on the Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (EBENFC), in particular, is looking at assessing economic and financial issues related to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel. (authors)

  10. TGEV nucleocapsid protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through activation of p53 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Li; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Xu, Xingang; Tong, Dewen

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • TGEV N protein reduces cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. • TGEV N protein induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by regulating p53 signaling. • TGEV N protein plays important roles in TGEV-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. - Abstract: Our previous studies showed that TGEV infection could induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of p53 signaling in cultured host cells. However, it is unclear which viral gene causes these effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGEV nucleocapsid (N) protein on PK-15 cells. We found that TGEV N protein suppressed cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis. Characterization of various cellular proteins that are involved in regulating cell cycle progression demonstrated that the expression of N gene resulted in an accumulation of p53 and p21, which suppressed cyclin B1, cdc2 and cdk2 expression. Moreover, the expression of TGEV N gene promoted translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which in turn caused the release of cytochrome c, followed by activation of caspase-3, resulting in cell apoptosis in the transfected PK-15 cells following cell cycle arrest. Further studies showed that p53 inhibitor attenuated TGEV N protein induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and apoptosis through reversing the expression changes of cdc2, cdk2 and cyclin B1 and the translocation changes of Bax and cytochrome c induced by TGEV N protein. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TGEV N protein might play an important role in TGEV infection-induced p53 activation and cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases and apoptosis occurrence.

  11. The phase shift between the hemispheres in the solar activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibalova, A. S.; Obridko, V. N.; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2016-10-01

    The shift between the solar activity cycles in the northern and southern hemispheres of the Sun is studied using data on sunspot number and area. The data obtained are compared with archival information on episodes of appreciable solar-cycle asymmetry. The small phase shift between recent activity cycles in the northern and southern solar hemispheres differs considerably from the shift for episodes of appreciable deviations from dipolar symmetry in the sunspot distribution detected with various degrees of confidence in archival astronomical data from the 17th-19th centuries. The current time shift between the hemispheres is insignificant, about 6-7 months. This shift has changed its sign twice in recent solar history; this probably corresponds to more or less periodic variations with a timescale close to the duration of the Gleissberg cycle.

  12. Finding year-long activity cycles in ground-based and space-borne photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida, Krisztián; Oláh, Katalin; Szabó, Róbert

    2015-08-01

    Using long­term ground­based photometry of fast­rotating M­-dwarfs (EY Dra, V405 And, GSC 3377­0296 and V374 Peg), all with rotational periods near 0.5 day, but with different internal structures, we found activity cycles in the form of long-­term brightness changes, on the time scales of about one year. Using the cycling stars as templates, we searched for similar, fast rotating (P < 1d), active, late­-type targets in the Kepler Input Catalogue. Analysing the light curves of these 39 stars, we found hints of 300­-900 day­-long cycles in 9 cases detecting small variations in the rotation periods caused by differential rotation and the changing spot emergence latitudes over the cycle (i.e., the butterfly diagram).

  13. Centriole maturation requires regulated Plk1 activity during two consecutive cell cycles.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dong; Farmer, Veronica; Shukla, Anil; James, Jana; Gruskin, Richard; Kiriyama, Shigeo; Loncarek, Jadranka

    2014-09-29

    Newly formed centrioles in cycling cells undergo a maturation process that is almost two cell cycles long before they become competent to function as microtubule-organizing centers and basal bodies. As a result, each cell contains three generations of centrioles, only one of which is able to form cilia. It is not known how this long and complex process is regulated. We show that controlled Plk1 activity is required for gradual biochemical and structural maturation of the centrioles and timely appendage assembly. Inhibition of Plk1 impeded accumulation of appendage proteins and appendage formation. Unscheduled Plk1 activity, either in cycling or interphase-arrested cells, accelerated centriole maturation and appendage and cilia formation on the nascent centrioles, erasing the age difference between centrioles in one cell. These findings provide a new understanding of how the centriole cycle is regulated and how proper cilia and centrosome numbers are maintained in the cells.

  14. The solar cycle variation of the rates of CMEs and related activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are an important aspect of the physics of the corona and heliosphere. This paper presents results of a study of occurrence frequencies of CMEs and related activity tracers over more than a complete solar activity cycle. To properly estimate occurrence rates, observed CME rates must be corrected for instrument duty cycles, detection efficiencies away from the skyplane, mass detection thresholds, and geometrical considerations. These corrections are evaluated using CME data from 1976-1989 obtained with the Skylab, SMM and SOLWIND coronagraphs and the Helios-2 photometers. The major results are: (1) the occurrence rate of CMEs tends to track the activity cycle in both amplitude and phase; (2) the corrected rates from different instruments are reasonably consistent; and (3) over the long term, no one class of solar activity tracer is better correlated with CME rate than any other (with the possible exception of type II bursts).

  15. CoRoT Reveals a Magnetic Activity Cycle in a Sun-Like Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Rafael A.; Mathur, Savita; Salabert, David; Ballot, Jérôme; Régulo, Clara; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Baglin, Annie

    2010-08-01

    The 11-year activity cycle of the Sun is a consequence of a dynamo process occurring beneath its surface. We analyzed photometric data obtained by the CoRoT space mission, showing solarlike oscillations in the star HD49933, for signatures of stellar magnetic activity. Asteroseismic measurements of global changes in the oscillation frequencies and mode amplitudes reveal a modulation of at least 120 days, with the minimum frequency shift corresponding to maximum amplitude as in the Sun. These observations are evidence of a stellar magnetic activity cycle taking place beneath the surface of HD49933 and provide constraints for stellar dynamo models under conditions different from those of the Sun.

  16. Evaluating Diurnal Variations of Summer Precipitation over the Asian Monsoon Region based on TRMM Satellite Data and Coupled model outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Wu, G.

    2013-12-01

    Climatological characteristics of diurnal variations in summer precipitation over the entire Asian monsoon region are comprehensively investigated based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data during 1998-2008. The amplitude and phase of diurnal precipitation show a distinct geographical pattern. Significant diurnal variations occur over most of continental and coastal areas including the Maritime Continent, with the relative amplitude exceeding 40%, indicating that the precipitation peak is 1.4 times the 24-h mean. Although the diurnal variations of summer precipitation over the continental areas are characterized by an afternoon peak (1500-1800 Local Solar Time (LST)), over the central Indochina Peninsula and central and southern Indian Peninsula the diurnal phase is delayed to after 2100 LST, suggesting the diurnal behaviors over these areas different from the general continental areas. The weak diurnal variations with relative amplitudes less than 40% exist mainly over oceanic areas in the western Pacific and most of Indian Ocean, with the rainfall peak mainly occurring from midnight to early morning (0000-0600 LST), indicating a typical oceanic regime characterized by an early morning peak. However, apparent exceptions occur over the South China Sea (SCS), Bay of Bengal (BOB), and eastern Arabian Sea, with the rainfall peak occurring in daytime (0900-1500 LST). Prominent meridional propagations of the diurnal phase exist in South Asia and East Asia. The diurnal precipitation variations are also evaluated using the simulated outputs from several coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) participating in CMIP3 (such as CNRM-CM3 and MRI-GCGM2.3.2) and CMIP5 (FGOALS-g2). As compared with those from TRMM data, current state-of-the-art CGCMs still have significant problems in simulating the diurnal variability of the Asian summer monsoon. Although most models can capture the amplitude and phase of the diurnal rainfall cycle over continental

  17. A Comparison Between Global Proxies of the Sun's Magnetic Activity Cycle: Inferences from Helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broomhall, A.-M.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    The last solar minimum was, by recent standards, unusually deep and long. We are now close to the maximum of the subsequent solar cycle, which is relatively weak. In this article we make comparisons between different global (unresolved) measures of the Sun's magnetic activity to investigate how they are responding to this weak-activity epoch. We focus on helioseismic data, which are sensitive to conditions, including the characteristics of the magnetic field, in the solar interior. Also considered are measures of the magnetic field in the photosphere (sunspot number and sunspot area), the chromosphere and corona (10.7 cm radio flux and 530.3 nm green coronal index), and two measures of the Sun's magnetic activity closer to Earth (the interplanetary magnetic field and the galactic cosmic-ray intensity). Scaled versions of the activity proxies diverge from the helioseismic data around 2000, indicating a change in relationship between the proxies. The degree of divergence varies from proxy to proxy, with sunspot area and 10.7 cm flux showing only small deviations, while sunspot number, coronal index, and the two interplanetary proxies show much larger departures. In Cycle 24 the deviations in the solar proxies and the helioseismic data decrease, raising the possibility that the deviations observed in Cycle 23 are just symptomatic of a 22-year Hale cycle. However, the deviations in the helioseismic data and the interplanetary proxies increase in Cycle 24. Interestingly, the divergence in the solar proxies and the helioseismic data are not reflected in the shorter-term variations (often referred to as quasi-biennial oscillations) observed on top of the dominant 11-year solar cycle. However, despite being highly correlated in Cycle 22, the short-term variations in the interplanetary proxies show very little correlation with the helioseismic data during Cycles 23 and 24.

  18. Diurnal heating and cloudiness in the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, R.S.; Leovy, C.B. ); Boville, B.A.; Briegleb, B.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, the authors assess the suitability of the heating fields in the latest version of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2) for modeling the thermal forcing of atmospheric tides. Accordingly, diurnal variations of the surface pressure, outgoing longwave radiation, cloudiness, and precipitation are examined in the CCM2. The fields of radiative, sensible, and latent heating are similarly analyzed. These results are subjectively compared with available data. Equatorial diurnal surface pressure tides are fairly well simulated by CCM2. The model successfully reproduces the semidiurnal surface pressure tides; however, this may result in part from reflection of wave energy at the upper boundary. The CCM2 large-scale diurnal OLR is generally consistent with observations. The moist-convective scheme in the model is able to reproduce the diurnally varying cloudiness and precipitation patterns associated with land-sea contrasts; however, the amplitudes of CCM2 diurnal continental convective cloudiness are weaker than observations. The CCM2 boundary-layer sensible heating is consistent with a very limited set of observations, and with estimates obtained from simple models of diffusive heating. Although the CCM2 tropospheric solar radiative heating is similar in magnitude to previous estimates, there are substantial differences in the vertical structures. A definitive assessment of the validity of the CCM2 diurnal cycle is precluded by the lack of detailed observations and the limitations of our CCM2 sample. Nevertheless, the authors conclude that the global-scale components of the CCM2 diurnal heating are useful proxies for the true diurnal forcing of the tides. 45 refs., 18 figs.

  19. Relationships between solar activity and climate change. [sunspot cycle effects on lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. O.

    1974-01-01

    Recurrent droughts are related to the double sunspot cycle. It is suggested that high solar activity generally increases meridional circulations and blocking patterns at high and intermediate latitudes, especially in winter. This effect is related to the sudden formation of cirrus clouds during strong geomagnetic activity that originates in the solar corpuscular emission.

  20. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r<-0.5 and p<0.04). Significant positive relationship was observed between skin temperature and low frequency components of neuromuscular activation from vastus lateralis (r>0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test.

  1. Body temperature and physical activity correlates of the menstrual cycle in Chacma Baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus).

    PubMed

    Nyakudya, Trevor T; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the temporal relationship between abdominal temperature, physical activity, perineal swelling, and urinary progesterone and estradiol concentrations over the menstrual cycle in unrestrained captive baboons. Using a miniature temperature-sensitive data logger surgically implanted in the abdominal cavity and an activity data logger implanted subcutaneously on the trunk, we measured, continuously over 6 months at 10-min intervals, abdominal temperature and physical activity patterns in four female adult baboons Papio hamadryas ursinus (12.9-19.9 kg), in cages in an indoor animal facility (22-25°C). We monitored menstrual bleeding and perineal swelling changes, and measured urinary progesterone and estradiol concentrations, daily for up to 6 months, to ascertain the stage and length of the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle was 36 ± 2 days (mean ± SD) long and the baboons exhibited cyclic changes in perineal swellings, abdominal temperature, physical activity, urinary progesterone, and estradiol concentrations over the cycle. Mean 24-hr abdominal temperature during the luteal phase was significantly higher than during the periovulatory phase (ANOVA, F((2, 9)) = 4.7; P = 0.04), but not different to that during the proliferative phase. Physical activity followed a similar pattern, with mean 24-hr physical activity almost twice as high in the luteal than in the periovulatory phase (ANOVA, P = 0.58; F((2, 12)) = 5.8). We have characterized correlates of the menstrual cycle in baboons and shown, for the first time, a rhythm of physical activity and abdominal temperature over the menstrual cycle, with a nadir of temperature and activity at ovulation.

  2. Surface electromyographic activities of upper body muscles during high-intensity cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Marie Clare; Watson, Hugh; Simpson, Alan; Kilgore, Lon; Baker, Julien S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate upper body muscle activity during a 30 s Wingate test. Eighteen physically active participants performed a Wingate test while muscle activity was recorded from the brachioradialis (BR), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB) and upper trapezius (UT). Measurements were obtained at rest, during a function maximal contraction (FMC) and during the 30 s Wingate test, whilst participants were positioned in a seated position on the cycle ergometer. All muscles were significantly active for the duration of the test. When normalized as a %FMC no differences in activity were found between muscles. Across the 30 s, power output was found to significantly decrease, whereas no changes were found in upper body muscle activity. All muscles investigated were active during the Wingate test and therefore confirmed previous findings that the upper body significantly contributes to power profiles obtained during high intensity cycle ergometry in addition to its role in stabilizing the body.

  3. Tubulin dynamics during the cytoplasmic cohesiveness cycle in artificially activated sea urchin eggs.

    PubMed

    Coffe, G; Foucault, G; Raymond, M N; Pudles, J

    1983-12-01

    Sedimentation studies and [3H]colchicine-binding assays have demonstrated a relationship between the cytoplasmic cohesiveness cycles and the changes in tubulin organization in Paracentrotus lividus eggs activated by 2.5 mM procaine. The same amount of tubulin (20-25% of the total egg tubulin) is involved in these cyclic process and appears to undergo polymerization and depolymerization cycles. Electron microscopy studies reveal that the microtubules formed during these cytoplasmic cohesiveness cycles are under a particulate form which is sedimentable at low speed. Activation experiments carried out in the presence of cytochalasin B (CB) show that the increase in the cytoplasmic cohesiveness is highly reduced while tubulin polymerization and depolymerization cycles and pronuclear centration are not affected. Although tubulin or actin polymerization can be independently triggered in procaine-activated eggs, the increase in cytoplasmic cohesiveness requires the polymerization of both proteins. However, the cytoplasmic cohesiveness cycles appear to be regulated by tubulin polymerization and depolymerization cycles. PMID:6641809

  4. Biotic and abiotic controls on diurnal fluctuations in labile soil phosphorus of a wet tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Vandecar, Karen L; Lawrence, Deborah; Wood, Tana; Oberbauer, Steven F; Das, Rishiraj; Tully, Katherine; Schwendenmann, Luitgard

    2009-09-01

    The productivity of many tropical wet forests is generally limited by bioavailable phosphorus (P). Microbial activity is a key regulator of P availability in that it determines both the supply of P through organic matter decomposition and the depletion of bioavailable P through microbial uptake. Both microbial uptake and mineralization occur rapidly, and their net effect on P availability varies with soil moisture, temperature, and soil organic matter quantity and quality. Exploring the mechanisms driving P availability at fine temporal scales can provide insight into the coupling of carbon, water, and nutrient cycles, and ultimately, the response of tropical forests to climate change. Despite the recognized importance of P cycling to the dynamics of wet tropical forests and their potential sensitivity to short-term fluctuations in bioavailable P, the diurnal pattern of P remains poorly understood. This study quantifies diurnal fluctuations in labile soil P and evaluates the importance of biotic and abiotic factors in driving these patterns. To this end, measurements of labile P were made every other hour in a Costa Rican wet tropical forest oxisol. Spatial and temporal variation in Bray-extractable P were investigated in relation to ecosystem carbon flux, soil CO2 efflux, soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation, and sap-flow velocity. Spatially averaged bi-hourly (every two hours) labile P ranged from 0.88 to 2.48 microg/g across days. The amplitude in labile P throughout the day was 0.61-0.82 microg/g (41-54% of mean P concentrations) and was characterized by a bimodal pattern with a decrease at midday. Labile P increased with soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature and declined with increasing sap flow and solar radiation. Together, soil CO2 efflux, soil temperature, and sap flow explained 86% of variation in labile P.

  5. Seasonal and diurnal patterns in the dispersion of SO2 from Mt. Nyiragongo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingwell, Adam; Rutgersson, Anna; Claremar, Björn; Arellano, Santiago; Yalire, Mathieu M.; Galle, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Mt. Nyiragongo is an active volcano located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, close to the border of Rwanda and about 15 km north of the city of Goma (∼ 1,000,000 inhabitants). Gases emitted from Nyiragongo might pose a persistent hazard to local inhabitants and the environment. While both ground- and satellite-based observations of the emissions exist, prior to this study, no detailed analysis of the dispersion of the emissions have been made. We have conducted a dispersion study, using a modelling system to determine the geographical distribution of SO2. A combination of a meteorological model (WRF), a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART-WRF) and flux data based on DOAS measurements from the NOVAC-network is used. Since observations can only be made during the day, we use random sampling of fluxes and ensemble modelling to estimate night-time emissions. Seasonal variations in the dispersion follows the migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. In June-August, the area with the highest surface concentrations is located to the northwest, and in December-February, to the southwest of the source. Diurnal variations in surface concentrations were determined by the development of the planetary boundary layer and the lake-/land breeze cycle around lake Kivu. Both processes contribute to low surface concentrations during the day and high concentrations during the night. However, the strong northerly trade winds in November-March weakened the lake breeze, contributing to higher daytime surface concentrations along the northern shore of Lake Kivu, including the city of Goma. For further analysis and measurements, it is important to include both seasonal and diurnal cycles in order to safely cover periods of high and potentially hazardous concentrations.

  6. Mechanisms for Diurnal Variability of Global Tropical Rainfall Observed from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Smith, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior and various controls of diurnal variability in tropical-subtropical rainfall are investigated using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation measurements retrieved from: (1) TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), (2) Precipitation Radar (PR), and (3) TMI/PR Combined, standard level 2 algorithms for the 1998 annual cycle. Results show that the diurnal variability characteristics of precipitation are consistent for all three algorithms, providing assurance that TRMM retrievals are providing consistent estimates of rainfall variability. As anticipated, most ocean areas exhibit more rainfall at night, while over most land areas rainfall peaks during daytime ,however, various important exceptions are found. The dominant feature of the oceanic diurnal cycle is a rainfall maximum in late-evening/early-morning (LE-EM) hours, while over land the dominant maximum occurs in the mid- to late-afternoon (MLA). In conjunction with these maxima are pronounced seasonal variations of the diurnal amplitudes. Amplitude analysis shows that the diurnal pattern and its seasonal evolution are closely related to the rainfall accumulation pattern and its seasonal evolution. In addition, the horizontal distribution of diurnal variability indicates that for oceanic rainfall there is a secondary MLA maximum, co-existing with the LE-EM maximum, at latitudes dominated by large scale convergence and deep convection. Analogously, there is a preponderance for an LE-EM maximum over land, co-existing with the stronger MLA maximum, although it is not evident that this secondary continental feature is closely associated with the large scale circulation. The ocean results clearly indicate that rainfall diurnal variability associated with large scale convection is an integral part of the atmospheric general circulation.

  7. Diurnal variation in the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and carbon fixation in iron-limited phytoplankton in the NE subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuback, Nina; Flecken, Mirkko; Maldonado, Maria T.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2016-02-01

    Active chlorophyll a fluorescence approaches, including fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF), have the potential to provide estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. FRRF-derived productivity rates are based on estimates of charge separation in reaction center II (ETRRCII), which must be converted into ecologically relevant units of carbon fixation. Understanding sources of variability in the coupling of ETRRCII and carbon fixation provides physiological insight into phytoplankton photosynthesis and is critical for the application of FRRF as a primary productivity measurement tool. In the present study, we simultaneously measured phytoplankton carbon fixation and ETRRCII in the iron-limited NE subarctic Pacific over the course of a diurnal cycle. We show that rates of ETRRCII are closely tied to the diurnal cycle in light availability, whereas rates of carbon fixation appear to be influenced by endogenous changes in metabolic energy allocation under iron-limited conditions. Unsynchronized diurnal oscillations of the two rates led to 3.5-fold changes in the conversion factor between ETRRCII and carbon fixation (Kc / nPSII). Consequently, diurnal variability in phytoplankton carbon fixation cannot be adequately captured with FRRF approaches if a constant conversion factor is applied. Utilizing several auxiliary photophysiological measurements, we observed that a high conversion factor is associated with conditions of excess light and correlates with the increased expression of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the pigment antenna, as derived from FRRF measurements. The observed correlation between NPQ and Kc / nPSII requires further validation but has the potential to improve estimates of phytoplankton carbon fixation rates from FRRF measurements alone.

  8. Diurnal variation in the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and carbon fixation in iron-limited phytoplankton in the NE subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuback, N.; Flecken, M.; Maldonado, M. T.; Tortell, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    Active chlorophyll a fluorescence approaches, including fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF), have the potential to provide estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. FRRF-derived productivity rates are based on estimates of charge separation at PSII (ETRRCII), which must be converted into ecologically relevant units of carbon fixation. Understanding sources of variability in the coupling of ETRRCII and carbon fixation provides physiological insight into phytoplankton photosynthesis, and is critical for the application of FRRF as a primary productivity measurement tool. In the present study, we simultaneously measured phytoplankton carbon fixation and ETRRCII in the iron-limited NE subarctic Pacific, over the course of a diurnal cycle. We show that rates of ETRRCII are closely tied to the diurnal cycle in light availability, whereas rates of carbon fixation appear to be influenced by endogenous changes in metabolic energy allocation under iron-limited conditions. Unsynchronized diurnal oscillations of the two rates led to 3.5 fold changes in the conversion factor coupling ETRRCII and carbon fixation (Φe:C / nPSII). Consequently, diurnal variability in phytoplankton carbon fixation cannot be adequately captured with FRRF approaches if a constant conversion factor is applied. Utilizing several auxiliary photophysiological measurements, we observed that a high conversion factor is associated with conditions of excess light, and correlates with the expression of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the pigment antenna, as derived from FRRF measurements. The observed correlation between NPQ and the conversion factor Φe:C / nPSII has the potential to improve estimates of phytoplankton carbon fixation rates from FRRF measurements alone.

  9. The effects of feedback lighting on the circadian drinking rhythm in the diurnal new world primate Saimiri sciureus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, J. S.; Sulzman, F. M.

    1988-01-01

    Feedback lighting provides illumination primarily during the subjective night (i.e., the photosensitive portion of the circadian cycle) in response to a given behavior. This technique has previously been used to test the nonparametric model of entrainment in nocturnal rodents. In three species (Rattus norvegicus, Mesocricetus auratus, and Mus musculus), the free-running period of the locomotor activity rhythm was similar whether the animals were exposed to continuous light or discrete light pulses occurring essentially only during the subjective night (i.e., feedback lighting). In the current experiments, feedback lighting was presented to squirrel monkeys so that light fell predominantly during the subjective night. Feedback lighting was linked to the drinking behavior in this diurnal primate so that when the animal drank, the lights went out. Despite the seemingly adverse predicament, the monkeys maintained regular circadian drinking rhythms. Furthermore, just as the period of the free-running activity rhythms of nocturnal rodents exposed to continuous light or feedback lighting were similar, the period of the drinking rhythms of the squirrel monkeys in continuous light and feedback lighting were comparable (25.6 +/- 0.1 and 25.9 +/- 0.1 hours, respectively), despite a substantial decrease in the total amount of light exposure associated with feedback lighting. The free-running period of monkeys exposed to continuous dark (24.5 +/- 0.1 hours) was significantly shorter than either of the two lighting conditions (P < 0.001). The results presented for the drinking rhythm were confirmed by examination of the temperature and activity rhythms. Therefore, discrete light pulses given predominately during the subjective night are capable of simulating the effects of continuous light on the free-running period of the circadian rhythms of a diurnal primate. The response of squirrel monkeys to feedback lighting thus lends further support for the model and suggests that the

  10. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear. PMID:18346077

  11. Effects of aluminum on activity of krebs cycle enzymes and glutamate dehydrogenase in rat brain homogenate.

    PubMed

    Zatta, P; Lain, E; Cagnolini, C

    2000-05-01

    Aluminum is a neurotoxic agent for animals and humans that has been implicated as an etiological factor in several neurodegenerative diseases and as a destabilizer of cell membranes. Due to its high reactivity, Al3+ is able to interfere with several biological functions, including enzymatic activities in key metabolic pathways. In this paper we report that, among the enzymes that constitute the Krebs cycle, only two are activated by aluminum: alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase. In contrast, aconitase, shows decreased activity in the presence of the metal ion. Al3+ also inhibits glutamate dehydrogenase, an allosteric enzyme that is closely linked to the Krebs cycle. A possible correlation between aluminum, the Krebs cycle and aging processes is discussed.

  12. Orbitofrontal cortex activity related to emotional processing changes across the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    Protopopescu, Xenia; Pan, Hong; Altemus, Margaret; Tuescher, Oliver; Polanecsky, Margaret; McEwen, Bruce; Silbersweig, David; Stern, Emily

    2005-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in the representation of emotional stimuli, assignment of emotional valence/salience to stimuli, stimulus-reinforcement association learning, motivation, and socio-emotional control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in female subjects without premenstrual mood symptoms, we found that OFC activity to emotional linguistic stimuli varies depending on the menstrual cycle phase. Specifically, anterior-medial OFC activity for negative vs. neutral stimuli was increased premenstrually and decreased postmenstrually. The inverse pattern was seen in the lateral OFC. These findings suggest that specific subregional OFC activity to emotional stimuli is modulated across the menstrual cycle. The data also demonstrate that menstrual cycle phase is an important consideration in further studies attempting to elucidate the neural substrates of affective representation. PMID:16247013

  13. Sex-dependent activity of the spinal excitatory amino acid transporter: Role of estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Felice, Valeria D; Golubeva, Anna V; Cryan, John F; O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2016-10-01

    Females are more likely to experience visceral pain than males, yet mechanisms underlying this sex bias are not fully elucidated. Moreover, pain sensitivity can change throughout the menstrual cycle. Alterations in the glutamatergic system have been implicated in several pain-disorders; however, whether these are sex-dependent is unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate sex differences in the spinal cord glutamate uptake and how it varies across the estrous cycle. The activity of the glutamate transporters, excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) was assessed using an ex vivo aspartate radioactive uptake assay in the lumbosacral spinal cord in Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. The gene expression of EAATs, glutamate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B and the estrogen receptors ERα & ERβ in the spinal cord were also analyzed. EAAT activity was lower in females, particularly during the estrus phase, and this was the only cycle stage that was responsive to the pharmacological effects of the EAATs activator riluzole. Interestingly, EAAT1 mRNA expression was lower in high-estrogen and high-ERα states compared to diestrus in females. We conclude that the Spinal EAAT activity in females is different to that in males, and varies across the estrous cycle. Furthermore, the expression levels of estrogen receptors also showed a cycle-dependent pattern that may affect EAATs function and expression. PMID:27471194

  14. Low-intensity cycling affects the muscle activation pattern of consequent countermovement jumps.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Gonzalo J; Mon, Javier; Acero, Rafael M; Sanchez, Jose A; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Players (eg, basketball, soccer, and football) often use a static bicycle during a game to maintain warming. However, the effectiveness of this procedure has not been addressed in the literature. Thus, it remains unknown whether low-intensity cycling movement can affect explosive movement performance. In this study, 10 male subjects performed countermovement jumps before and after a 15-minutes cycling bout at 35% of their maximal power output. Three sessions were tested for 3 different cadences of cycling: freely chosen cadence, 20% lower than freely chosen cadence (FCC-20%), and 20% higher than freely chosen cadence (FCC+20%). Jump height, kinematics, and electromyogram were recorded simultaneously during the countermovement jumps. The results showed a significant decreasing in the height of countermovement jump after cycling at freely chosen cadence and FCC-20% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively), but not for FCC+20% cadences. The electromyographic parameters suggest that changes in the countermovement jump after cycling can be attributed to alteration of the pattern of activation and may be modulated by the preceding cycling cadence. Our study indicates that to avoid a possible negative effect of the cycling in the subsequent explosive movements, a cadence 20% higher than the preferred cadence must be used.

  15. Cycles of activity, group composition, and diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Sussman, R W; Tattersall, I

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6-8 individuals. However, we found the animals to be nocturnal and that groups contained an adult male, an adult female and their offspring (groups numbering from 2 to 4 individuals). L.m.mongoz is thus the only species of the genus Lemur studied to date that is active exclusively at night and that lives in family groups. L.m.mongoz was also found to have a very specialized diet. During our study, it was observed to feed on only five species of plant and mainly on the nectar-producing parts (flowers and nectaries) of four of these species. It spent most of its feeding time licking nectar from the flowers of the kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra, and is probably a major pollinator of this tree in Madagascar. In Africa and South and Central America, the kapok tree is usually bat-pollinated. A dietary preference for nectar, although common among bats, has not previously been observed in primates.

  16. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Langel, Jennifer L.; Smale, Laura; Esquiva, Gema; Hannibal, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) in mediation of these acute responses to light. ipRGCs are photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) as neurotransmitters. PACAP is useful for the study of central ipRGC projections because, in the retina, it is found exclusively within melanopsin cells. Little is known about the central projections of ipRGCs in diurnal species. Here, we first characterized these cells in the retina of the diurnal Nile grass rat using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The same basic subtypes of melanopsin cells that have been described in other mammals were present, but nearly 25% of them were displaced, primarily in its superior region. PACAP was present in 87.7% of all melanopsin cells, while 97.4% of PACAP cells contained melanopsin. We then investigated central projections of ipRGCs by examining the distribution of immunoreactive PACAP fibers in intact and enucleated animals. This revealed evidence that these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), pretectum, and superior colliculus. This distribution was confirmed with injections of cholera toxin subunit β coupled with Alexa Fluor 488 in one eye and Alexa Fluor 594 in the other, combined with IHC staining of PACAP. These studies also revealed that the ventral and dorsal LGN and the caudal olivary pretectal nucleus receive less innervation from ipRGCs than that reported in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical. PMID:26236201

  17. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Langel, Jennifer L; Smale, Laura; Esquiva, Gema; Hannibal, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) in mediation of these acute responses to light. ipRGCs are photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) as neurotransmitters. PACAP is useful for the study of central ipRGC projections because, in the retina, it is found exclusively within melanopsin cells. Little is known about the central projections of ipRGCs in diurnal species. Here, we first characterized these cells in the retina of the diurnal Nile grass rat using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The same basic subtypes of melanopsin cells that have been described in other mammals were present, but nearly 25% of them were displaced, primarily in its superior region. PACAP was present in 87.7% of all melanopsin cells, while 97.4% of PACAP cells contained melanopsin. We then investigated central projections of ipRGCs by examining the distribution of immunoreactive PACAP fibers in intact and enucleated animals. This revealed evidence that these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), pretectum, and superior colliculus. This distribution was confirmed with injections of cholera toxin subunit β coupled with Alexa Fluor 488 in one eye and Alexa Fluor 594 in the other, combined with IHC staining of PACAP. These studies also revealed that the ventral and dorsal LGN and the caudal olivary pretectal nucleus receive less innervation from ipRGCs than that reported in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical.

  18. Restraint stress delays reentrainment in male and female diurnal and nocturnal rodents.

    PubMed

    Mohawk, Jennifer A; Lee, Theresa M

    2005-06-01

    A temporary loss of normal circadian entrainment, such as that associated with shift work and transmeridian travel, can result in an array of detrimental symptoms, making rapid reentrainment of rhythmicity essential. While there is a wealth of literature examining the effects of stress on the entrained circadian system, less is known about the influence of stress on circadian function following a phase shift of the light: dark (LD) cycle. The authors find that recovery of locomotor activity synchronization is altered by restraint stress in the diurnal rodent Octodon degus (degu) and the nocturnal rat. In the first experiment, degus were subjected to a 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle. Sixty minutes after the new lights-on, animals underwent 60 min of restraint stress. The number of days it took each animal to reentrain its activity rhythms to the new LD cycle was recorded and compared to the number of days it took the animal to reentrain under control conditions. When subjected to restraint stress, degus took 30% longer to reentrain their activity rhythms (p < 0.01). In a second experiment, rats underwent a similar experimental paradigm. As with the degus, stress significantly delayed the reentrainment of rats' activity rhythms (p < 0.01). There was no interaction between sex and stress on the rate of reentrainment for either rats or degus. Furthermore, there was no effect of stress on the free-running activity rhythm of degus, suggesting that the effect of stress on reentrainment rate is not secondary to alterations of period length. Together, these data point to a detrimental effect of stress on recovery of entrainment of circadian rhythms, which is independent of activity niche and sex. PMID:15851531

  19. Effects of physical activity on pupil cycle time (PCT) in healthy Indian male.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Suparna; Avadhany, Sandhya T

    2014-01-01

    Globally, physical inactivity is an important risk factor for the development of non-communicable disease consisting of coronary artery disease, as well as, other diseases including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancers. Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity in the eye is determined by the pupil cycle time (PCT) can be comparable with cardiac parasympathetic response and thereby determine the morbidity and mortality among individuals. The PCT is measured by throwing white light on the edge of the pupil. Pupil cycling is a feature of pupillary reflex arc. The aim of this study is to establish the effect of physical activity on the PCT. The counting of PCT was done for 90 cycles and average one count is considered a single PCT. The physical activity level (PAL) was determined by administering a physical activity level questionnaire developed in the Division of Nutrition, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore. The PAL is classified as < 1.4 as sedentary, 1.55 to 1.75 moderately active, and > 1.75 heavily active. Thirty healthy male volunteers in the age group of 18-50 years and with BMI of 18.5 kg/m2-30 kg/m2 were studied. We obtained PCT of 962.00 ± 105.72 msec in sedentary, 896.77 ± 85.88 msec in moderately active and 889.45 ± 68.71 msec in heavily active individuals. Linear regression analysis shows there is statistically significant difference between the three different groups of physical activity level with a b value of 0 and R2 being 0.19. Increase in physical activity led to decrease in the PCT i.e. increase in the parasympathetic tone in the eye. Pupil cycle time (PCT) is a simple noninvasive tool to assess and differentiate the PNS function in different activity level of individual. PMID:25906609

  20. Diurnal and seasonal change in stem respiration of Larix principis-rupprechtii trees, northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Zhao, Miao; Xu, Xiangtao; Sun, Zhenzhong; Yin, Guodong; Piao, Shilong

    2014-01-01

    Stem respiration is a critical and uncertain component of ecosystem carbon cycle. Few studies reported diurnal change in stem respiration as well as its linkage with climate. In this study, we investigated the diurnal and seasonal change in stem respiration and its linkage with environmental factors, in larch plantations of northern China from 2010 to 2012. The stem respiration per unit surface area (RS) showed clear diurnal cycles, ranging from 1.65±0.10 to 2.69±0.15 µmol m(-2) s(-1), increased after 6∶00, peaked at 15∶00 and then decreased. Both stem temperature and air temperature show similar diurnal pattern, while the diurnal pattern of air relative humidity is just the opposite to Rs. Similar to the diurnal cycles, seasonal change in RS followed the pattern of stem temperature. RS increased from May (1.28±0.07 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) when the stem temperature was relatively low and peaked in July (3.02±0.10 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) when the stem temperature was also the highest. Further regression analyses show that RS exponentially increases with increasing temperature, and the Q10 of Rs at mid daytime (1.97±0.17 at 12∶00 and 1.96±0.10 at 15∶00) is significantly lower than that of mid nighttime (2.60±0.14 at 00∶00 and 2.71±0.25 at 03∶00) Q10. This result not only implies that Rs is more sensitive to night than day warming, but also highlights that temperature responses of Rs estimated by only daytime measurement can lead to underestimated stem respiration increase under global warming, especially considering that temperature increase is faster during nighttime.

  1. Statistical properties of Hα flares in relation to sunspots and active regions in the cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, S. I.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2011-02-01

    The statistical properties of Hα flare occurrences compared with those of sunspot and active region areas in the cycle 23. The flare numbers in the cycle 23 of all significances and locations were obtained from the Solar Geophysical Data (SGD) and the other data were taken from the automated Solar Feature Catalogues (SFC, http://solar.inf.brad.ac.uk). The average monthly flare occurrences during the whole cycle correlate closely with the total and cumulative areas of active regions and sunspots. The cumulative distribution of solar flare occurrences at different latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres versus the time reveal a strong asymmetry with a domination of one or other hemispheres similar to the cumulative distributions of sunspots and active regions. Although the sunspot area asymmetry lags the flare occurrence asymmetry by about a few months at the ascending phase of the cycle and up to 12 months in the descending one. The latitudinal distribution of flare occurrences in the whole period reveals a well defined maximum at 18∘ in the northern and two maxima at 14∘ and 20∘ in the southern hemisphere. The longitudinal distributions of flare occurrence residuals of the running values and those averaged with a one year filter reveal a set of persistent longitudes in the opposite hemispheres lasting for about 1.0-1.5 years and changing quickly a few times over the cycle phases.

  2. [The development of the activity-rest cycle in the rabbit fetus].

    PubMed

    Belich, A I; Nazarova, L A

    1988-01-01

    On 25-30-day rabbit foetuses, in chronic experiments using constant synchronous recording of the motor activity and heart rate, studies have been made of temporal organization of the activity-rest cycle. Already in 25-day foetus, three functional conditions may be distinguished: active, intermediate and resting ones, the duration of the latter increasing to the end of gestation up to 8-10 min, whereas the duration of the intermediate phase decreases, reaching its minimum to the 30th day if not being completely reduced. Cyclic pattern of active and resting phases is observed in 28-day foetuses; to the 29th-30th day, these phases from a unique activity-rest cycle, its duration reaching 20-30 min to the end of intrauterine period. It is suggested that the resting phase in foetal rabbits serves as a basis for the development of polyphasic sleep in adult animals. PMID:3414220

  3. Menstrual cycle phase does not affect sympathetic neural activity in women with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stickford, Abigail SL; VanGundy, Tiffany B; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) are primarily premenopausal women, which may be attributed to female sex hormones. We tested the hypothesis that hormonal fluctuations of the menstrual cycle alter sympathetic neural activity and orthostatic tolerance in POTS women. Ten POTS women were studied during the early follicular (EF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle. Haemodynamics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured when supine, during 60 deg upright tilt for 45 min or until presyncope, and during the cold pressor test (CPT) and Valsalva manoeuvres. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance were higher during rest and tilting in the ML than EF phase; however, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output were similar between phases. There were no mean ± SD differences in MSNA burst frequency (8 ± 8 EF phase vs. 10 ± 10 bursts min–1 ML phase at rest; 34 ± 15 EF phase vs. 36 ± 16 bursts min–1 ML phase at 5 min tilt), burst incidence or total activity, nor any differences in the cardiovagal and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivities between phases under any condition. The incidence of presyncope was also the same between phases. There were no differences in haemodynamic or sympathetic responses to CPT or Valsalva. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not affect sympathetic neural activity but modulates blood pressure and vasoconstriction in POTS women during tilting. Thus, factors other than sympathetic neural activity are probably responsible for the symptoms of orthostatic intolerance across the menstrual cycle in women with POTS. Key points Women with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) report fluctuations in orthostatic tolerance throughout the menstrual cycle. The mechanism(s) underlying blood pressure control across the m