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Sample records for divergent transcriptomic responses

  1. Divergent transcriptomic responses to repeated and single cold exposures in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Marshall, Katie E; Westwood, J Timothy; Clark, Melody S; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-12-01

    Insects in the field are exposed to multiple bouts of cold, and there is increasing evidence that the fitness consequences of repeated cold exposure differ from the impacts of a single cold exposure. We tested the hypothesis that different kinds of cold exposure (in this case, single short, prolonged and repeated cold exposure) would result in differential gene expression. We exposed 3 day old adult female wild-type Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to -0.5°C for a single 2 h exposure, a single 10 h exposure, or five 2 h exposures on consecutive days, and extracted RNA after 6 h of recovery. Global gene expression was quantified using an oligonucleotide microarray and validated with real-time PCR using different biological replicates. We identified 76 genes upregulated in response to multiple cold exposure, 69 in response to prolonged cold exposure and 20 genes upregulated in response to a single short cold exposure, with a small amount of overlap between treatments. Three genes--Turandot A, Hephaestus and CG11374--were upregulated in response to all three cold exposure treatments. Key functional groups upregulated include genes associated with muscle structure and function, the immune response, stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and egg production. We conclude that cold exposure has wide-ranging effects on gene expression in D. melanogaster and that increased duration or frequency of cold exposure has impacts different to those of a single short cold exposure. This has important implications for extrapolating laboratory studies of insect overwintering that are based on only a single cold exposure.

  2. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-05

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation.

  3. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A.; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y.; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-01-01

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk–basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological–genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk–basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation. PMID:27339131

  4. A phylogenetically based transcriptome age index mirrors ontogenetic divergence patterns.

    PubMed

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Tautz, Diethard

    2010-12-09

    Parallels between phylogeny and ontogeny have been discussed for almost two centuries, and a number of theories have been proposed to explain such patterns. Especially elusive is the phylotypic stage, a phase during development where species within a phylum are particularly similar to each other. Although this has formerly been interpreted as a recapitulation of phylogeny, it is now thought to reflect an ontogenetic progression phase, where strong constraints on developmental regulation and gene interactions exist. Several studies have shown that genes expressed during this stage evolve at a slower rate, but it has so far not been possible to derive an unequivocal molecular signature associated with this stage. Here we use a combination of phylostratigraphy and stage-specific gene expression data to generate a cumulative index that reflects the evolutionary age of the transcriptome at given ontogenetic stages. Using zebrafish ontogeny and adult development as a model, we find that the phylotypic stage does indeed express the oldest transcriptome set and that younger sets are expressed during early and late development, thus faithfully mirroring the hourglass model of morphological divergence. Reproductively active animals show the youngest transcriptome, with major differences between males and females. Notably, ageing animals express increasingly older genes. Comparisons with similar data sets from flies and nematodes show that this pattern occurs across phyla. Our results indicate that an old transcriptome marks the phylotypic phase and that phylogenetic differences at other ontogenetic stages correlate with the expression of newly evolved genes.

  5. Different contributions of local- and distant-regulatory changes to transcriptome divergence between stickleback ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Asano; Kusakabe, Makoto; Yoshida, Kohta; Ravinet, Mark; Makino, Takashi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kitano, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Differential gene expression can play an important role in phenotypic evolution and divergent adaptation. Although differential gene expression can be caused by both local- and distant-regulatory changes, we know little about their relative contribution to transcriptome evolution in natural populations. Here, we conducted expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis to investigate the genetic architecture underlying transcriptome divergence between marine and stream ecotypes of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We identified both local and distant eQTLs, some of which constitute hotspots, regions with a disproportionate number of significant eQTLs relative to the genomic background. The majority of local eQTLs including those in the hotspots caused expression changes consistent with the direction of transcriptomic divergence between ecotypes. Genome scan analysis showed that many local eQTLs overlapped with genomic regions of high differentiation. In contrast, nearly half of the distant eQTLs including those in the hotspots caused opposite expression changes, and few overlapped with regions of high differentiation, indicating that distant eQTLs may act as a constraint of transcriptome evolution. Finally, a comparison between two salinity conditions revealed that nearly half of eQTL hotspots were environment specific, suggesting that analysis of genetic architecture in multiple conditions is essential for predicting response to selection.

  6. Unphysical divergences in response theory.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shane M; Roy, Saswata; Furche, Filipp

    2016-10-07

    Transition densities between excited states are key for nonlinear theoretical spectroscopy and multi-state non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) simulations. In the framework of response theory, these transition densities are accessible from poles of the quadratic response function. It was shown recently that the thus obtained transition densities within time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) exhibit unphysical divergences when the difference in excitation energy of the two states of interest matches another excitation energy. This unphysical behavior is a consequence of spurious poles in the quadratic response function. We show that the incorrect pole structure of the quadratic response is not limited to TDHF and adiabatic TDDFT, but is also present in many other approximate many-electron response functions, including those from coupled cluster and multiconfigurational self-consistent field response theory. The divergences appear in regions of the potential energy surface where the ground state is perfectly well behaved, and they are frequently encountered in NAMD simulations of photochemical reactions. The origin of the divergences is traced to an incorrect instantaneous time-dependence of the effective Hamiltonian. The implications for computations of frequency-dependent response properties are considerable and call into question the validity of conventional approximate many-electron response theories beyond linear response.

  7. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of ISAV-infected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar unravels divergent immune responses associated to head-kidney, liver and gills tissues.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Boltaña, Sebastian; Cabrejos, Maria E; Yáñez, José M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus causing high mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The collective data from the Atlantic salmon-ISAV interactions, performed "in vitro" using various salmon cell lines and "in vivo" fish infected with different ISAV isolates, have shown a strong regulation of immune related transcripts during the infection. Despite this strong defence response, the majority of fish succumb to infections with ISAV. The deficient protection of the host against ISAV is in part due to virulence factors of the virus, which allow evade the host-defence machinery. As such, the viral replication is uninhibited and viral loads quickly spread to several tissues causing massive cellular damage before the host can develop an effective cell-mediated and humoral outcome. To interrogate the correlation of the viral replication with the host defence response, we used fish that have been infected by cohabitation with ISAV-injected salmons. Whole gene expression patterns were measured with RNA-seq using RNA extracted from Head-kidney, Liver and Gills. The results show divergent mRNA abundance of functional modules related to interferon pathway, adaptive/innate immune response and cellular proliferation/differentiation. Furthermore, gene regulation in distinct tissues during the infection process was independently controlled within the each tissue and the observed mRNA expression suggests high modulation of the ISAV-segment transcription. Importantly this is the first time that strong correlations between functional modules containing significant immune process with protein-protein affinities and viral-segment transcription have been made between different tissues of ISAV-infected fish.

  8. f-divergence cutoff index to simultaneously identify differential expression in the integrated transcriptome and proteome

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaojun; Hemberg, Martin; Cansizoglu, Ertugrul; Belin, Stephane; Kosik, Kenneth; Kreiman, Gabriel; Steen, Hanno; Steen, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The ability to integrate ‘omics’ (i.e. transcriptomics and proteomics) is becoming increasingly important to the understanding of regulatory mechanisms. There are currently no tools available to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) across different ‘omics’ data types or multi-dimensional data including time courses. We present fCI (f-divergence Cut-out Index), a model capable of simultaneously identifying DEGs from continuous and discrete transcriptomic, proteomic and integrated proteogenomic data. We show that fCI can be used across multiple diverse sets of data and can unambiguously find genes that show functional modulation, developmental changes or misregulation. Applying fCI to several proteogenomics datasets, we identified a number of important genes that showed distinctive regulation patterns. The package fCI is available at R Bioconductor and http://software.steenlab.org/fCI/. PMID:26980280

  9. The avian transcriptome response to malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-05-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 postinfection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). We found considerable differences in the transcriptomes of infected and uninfected individuals, with a large number of genes differentially expressed during both peak and decreasing parasitemia stages. These genes were overrepresented among functions involved in the immune system, stress response, cell death regulation, metabolism, and telomerase activity. Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse) revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. By using RNA-sequencing we gained a more complete view of the host response, and were able to pinpoint not only well-documented host genes but also unannotated genes with clear significance during infection, such as microRNAs. This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe that it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections.

  10. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveal Divergent Lifestyle Features of Nematode Endoparasitic Fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yiling; Liu, Keke; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Wang, Niuniu; Shu, Chi; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Chengshu; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Hirsutella minnesotensis [Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)] is a dominant endoparasitic fungus by using conidia that adhere to and penetrate the secondary stage juveniles of soybean cyst nematode. Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota). The genome of H. minnesotensis is 51.4 Mb and encodes 12,702 genes enriched with transposable elements up to 32%. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that H. minnesotensis was diverged from entomopathogenic fungi in Hypocreales. Genome of H. minnesotensis is similar to those of entomopathogenic fungi to have fewer genes encoding lectins for adhesion and glycoside hydrolases for cellulose degradation, but is different from those of nematode-trapping fungi to possess more genes for protein degradation, signal transduction, and secondary metabolism. Those results indicate that H. minnesotensis has evolved different mechanism for nematode endoparasitism compared with nematode-trapping fungi. Transcriptomics analyses for the time-scale parasitism revealed the upregulations of lectins, secreted proteases and the genes for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites that could be putatively involved in host surface adhesion, cuticle degradation, and host manipulation. Genome and transcriptome analyses provided comprehensive understanding of the evolution and lifestyle of nematode endoparasitism. PMID:25359922

  11. Evaluation of Monocot and Eudicot Divergence Using the Sugarcane Transcriptome1[w

    PubMed Central

    Vincentz, Michel; Cara, Frank A.A.; Okura, Vagner K.; da Silva, Felipe R.; Pedrosa, Guilherme L.; Hemerly, Adriana S.; Capella, Adriana N.; Marins, Mozart; Ferreira, Paulo C.; França, Suzelei C.; Grivet, Laurent; Vettore, Andre L.; Kemper, Edson L.; Burnquist, Willian L.; Targon, Maria L.P.; Siqueira, Walter J.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Marino, Celso L.; Camargo, Luis E.A.; Carrer, Helaine; Coutinho, Luis L.; Furlan, Luiz R.; Lemos, Manoel V.F.; Nunes, Luiz R.; Gomes, Suely L.; Santelli, Roberto V.; Goldman, Maria H.; Bacci, Maurício; Giglioti, Eder A.; Thiemann, Otávio H.; Silva, Flávio H.; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Nobrega, Francisco G.; Arruda, Paulo; Menck, Carlos F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Over 40,000 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) consensus sequences assembled from 237,954 expressed sequence tags were compared with the protein and DNA sequences from other angiosperms, including the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). Approximately two-thirds of the sugarcane transcriptome have similar sequences in Arabidopsis. These sequences may represent a core set of proteins or protein domains that are conserved among monocots and eudicots and probably encode for essential angiosperm functions. The remaining sequences represent putative monocot-specific genetic material, one-half of which were found only in sugarcane. These monocot-specific cDNAs represent either novelties or, in many cases, fast-evolving sequences that diverged substantially from their eudicot homologs. The wide comparative genome analysis presented here provides information on the evolutionary changes that underlie the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Our comparative analysis also led to the identification of several not yet annotated putative genes and possible gene loss events in Arabidopsis. PMID:15020759

  12. Transcriptome-wide comparison of sequence variation in divergent ecotypes of kokanee salmon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High throughput next-generation sequencing technology has enabled the collection of genome-wide sequence data and revolutionized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in a broad range of species. When analyzed within a population genomics framework, SNP-based genotypic data may be used to investigate questions of evolutionary, ecological, and conservation significance in natural populations of non-model organisms. Kokanee salmon are recently diverged freshwater populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that exhibit reproductive ecotypes (stream-spawning and shore-spawning) in lakes throughout western North America and northeast Asia. Current conservation and management strategies may treat these ecotypes as discrete stocks, however their recent divergence and low levels of gene flow make in-season genetic stock identification a challenge. The development of genome-wide SNP markers is an essential step towards fine-scale stock identification, and may enable a direct investigation of the genetic basis of ecotype divergence. Results We used pooled cDNA samples from both ecotypes of kokanee to generate 750 million base pairs of transcriptome sequence data. These raw data were assembled into 11,074 high coverage contigs from which we identified 32,699 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms. A subset of these putative SNPs was validated using high-resolution melt analysis and Sanger resequencing to genotype independent samples of kokanee and anadromous sockeye salmon. We also identified a number of contigs that were composed entirely of reads from a single ecotype, which may indicate regions of differential gene expression between the two reproductive ecotypes. In addition, we found some evidence for greater pathogen load among the kokanee sampled in stream-spawning habitats, suggesting a possible evolutionary advantage to shore-spawning that warrants further study. Conclusions This study provides novel genomic resources to support population

  13. Reptilian-transcriptome v1.0, a glimpse in the brain transcriptome of five divergent Sauropsida lineages and the phylogenetic position of turtles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reptiles are largely under-represented in comparative genomics despite the fact that they are substantially more diverse in many respects than mammals. Given the high divergence of reptiles from classical model species, next-generation sequencing of their transcriptomes is an approach of choice for gene identification and annotation. Results Here, we use 454 technology to sequence the brain transcriptome of four divergent reptilian and one reference avian species: the Nile crocodile, the corn snake, the bearded dragon, the red-eared turtle, and the chicken. Using an in-house pipeline for recursive similarity searches of >3,000,000 reads against multiple databases from 7 reference vertebrates, we compile a reptilian comparative transcriptomics dataset, with homology assignment for 20,000 to 31,000 transcripts per species and a cumulated non-redundant sequence length of 248.6 Mbases. Our approach identifies the majority (87%) of chicken brain transcripts and about 50% of de novo assembled reptilian transcripts. In addition to 57,502 microsatellite loci, we identify thousands of SNP and indel polymorphisms for population genetic and linkage analyses. We also build very large multiple alignments for Sauropsida and mammals (two million residues per species) and perform extensive phylogenetic analyses suggesting that turtles are not basal living reptiles but are rather associated with Archosaurians, hence, potentially answering a long-standing question in the phylogeny of Amniotes. Conclusions The reptilian transcriptome (freely available at http://www.reptilian-transcriptomes.org) should prove a useful new resource as reptiles are becoming important new models for comparative genomics, ecology, and evolutionary developmental genetics. PMID:21943375

  14. Mapping of chimpanzee full-length cDNAs onto the human genome unveils large potential divergence of the transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Sakate, Ryuichi; Suto, Yumiko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Tanoue, Tetsuya; Hida, Munetomo; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Kusuda, Jun; Gojobori, Takashi; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki; Hirai, Momoki

    2007-09-01

    The genetic basis of the phenotypic difference between human and chimpanzee is one of the most actively pursued issues in current genomics. Although the genomic divergence between the two species has been described, the transcriptomic divergence has not been well documented. Thus, we newly sequenced and analyzed chimpanzee full-length cDNAs (FLcDNAs) representing 87 protein-coding genes. The number of nucleotide substitutions and sites of insertions/deletions (indels) was counted as a measure of sequence divergence between the chimpanzee FLcDNAs and the human genome onto which the FLcDNAs were mapped. Difference in transcription start/termination sites (TSSs/TTSs) and alternative splicing (AS) exons was also counted as a measure of structural divergence between the chimpanzee FLcDNAs and their orthologous human transcripts (NCBI RefSeq). As a result, we found that transposons (Alu) and repetitive segments caused large indels, which strikingly increased the average amount of sequence divergence up to more than 2% in the 3'-UTRs. Moreover, 20 out of the 87 transcripts contained more than 10% structural divergence in length. In particular, two-thirds of the structural divergence was found in the 3'-UTRs, and variable transcription start sites were conspicuous in the 5'-UTRs. As both transcriptional and translational efficiency were supposed to be related to 5'- and 3'-UTR sequences, these results lead to the idea that the difference in gene regulation can be a major cause of the difference in phenotype between human and chimpanzee.

  15. Muscle transcriptomic profiles in pigs with divergent phenotypes for fatness traits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Selection for increasing intramuscular fat content would definitively improve the palatability and juiciness of pig meat as well as the sensorial and organoleptic properties of cured products. However, evidences obtained in human and model organisms suggest that high levels of intramuscular fat might alter muscle lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. We have analysed this issue by determining the transcriptomic profiles of Duroc pigs with divergent phenotypes for 13 fatness traits. The strong aptitude of Duroc pigs to have high levels of intramuscular fat makes them a valuable model to analyse the mechanisms that regulate muscle lipid metabolism, an issue with evident implications in the elucidation of the genetic basis of human metabolic diseases such as obesity and insulin resistance. Results Muscle gene expression profiles of 68 Duroc pigs belonging to two groups (HIGH and LOW) with extreme phenotypes for lipid deposition and composition traits have been analysed. Microarray and quantitative PCR analysis showed that genes related to fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis and triacylglycerol synthesis were upregulated in the muscle tissue of HIGH pigs, which are fatter and have higher amounts of intramuscular fat than their LOW counterparts. Paradoxically, lipolytic genes also showed increased mRNA levels in the HIGH group suggesting the existence of a cycle where triacylglycerols are continuously synthesized and degraded. Several genes related to the insulin-signalling pathway, that is usually impaired in obese humans, were also upregulated. Finally, genes related to antigen-processing and presentation were downregulated in the HIGH group. Conclusion Our data suggest that selection for increasing intramuscular fat content in pigs would lead to a shift but not a disruption of the metabolic homeostasis of muscle cells. Future studies on the post-translational changes affecting protein activity or expression as well as information about protein location within the

  16. Replicated evolution of integrated plastic responses during early adaptive divergence.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Kevin J; Robinson, Beren W

    2006-04-01

    Colonization of a novel environment is expected to result in adaptive divergence from the ancestral population when selection favors a new phenotypic optimum. Local adaptation in the new environment occurs through the accumulation and integration of character states that positively affect fitness. The role played by plastic traits in adaptation to a novel environment has generally been ignored, except for variable environments. We propose that if conditions in a relatively stable but novel environment induce phenotypically plastic responses in many traits, and if genetic variation exists in the form of those responses, then selection may initially favor the accumulation and integration of functionally useful plastic responses. Early divergence between ancestral and colonist forms will then occur with respect to their plastic responses across the gradient bounded by ancestral and novel environmental conditions. To test this, we compared the magnitude, integration, and pattern of plastic character responses in external body form induced by shallow versus open water conditions between two sunfish ecomorphs that coexist in four postglacial lakes. The novel sunfish ecomorph is present in the deeper open water habitat, whereas the ancestral ecomorph inhabits the shallow waters along the lake margin. Plastic responses by open water ecomorphs were more correlated than those of their local shallow water ecomorph in two of the populations, whereas equal levels of correlated plastic character responses occurred between ecomorphs in the other two populations. Small but persistent differences occurred between ecomorph pairs in the pattern of their character responses, suggesting a recent divergence. Open water ecomorphs shared some similarities in the covariance among plastic responses to rearing environment. Replication in the form of correlated plastic responses among populations of open water ecomorphs suggests that plastic character states may evolve under selection

  17. Transcriptome analysis of porcine M. semimembranosus divergent in intramuscular fat as a consequence of dietary protein restriction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is positively correlated with aspects of pork palatability, including flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. The ratio of energy to protein in the finishing diet of growing pigs can impact on IMF content with consequences for pork quality. The objective of this study was to compare gene expression profiles of Musculus semimembranosus (SM) of animals divergent for IMF as a consequence of protein dietary restriction in an isocaloric diet. The animal model was derived through the imposition of low or high protein diets during the finisher stage in Duroc gilts. RNA was extracted from post mortem SM tissue, processed and hybridised to Affymetrix porcine GeneChip® arrays. Results IMF content of SM muscle was increased on the low protein diet (3.60 ± 0.38% versus 1.92 ± 0.35%). Backfat depth was also greater in animals on the low protein diet, and average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were lower, but muscle depth, protein content and moisture content were not affected. A total of 542 annotated genes were differentially expressed (DE) between animals on low and high protein diets, with 351 down-regulated and 191 up-regulated on the low protein diet. Transcript differences were validated for a subset of DE genes by qPCR. Alterations in functions related to cell cycle, muscle growth, extracellular matrix organisation, collagen development, lipogenesis and lipolysis, were observed. Expression of adipokines including LEP, TNFα and HIF1α were increased and the hypoxic stress response was induced. Many of the identified transcriptomic responses have also been observed in genetic and fetal programming models of differential IMF accumulation, indicating they may be robust biological indicators of IMF content. Conclusion An extensive perturbation of overall energy metabolism in muscle occurs in response to protein restriction. A low protein diet can modulate IMF content of the SM by altering gene pathways

  18. The statistical geometry of transcriptome divergence in cell-type evolution and cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cong; Forrest, Alistair R R; Wagner, Günter P

    2015-01-14

    In evolution, body plan complexity increases due to an increase in the number of individualized cell types. Yet, there is very little understanding of the mechanisms that produce this form of organismal complexity. One model for the origin of novel cell types is the sister cell-type model. According to this model, each cell type arises together with a sister cell type through specialization from an ancestral cell type. A key prediction of the sister cell-type model is that gene expression profiles of cell types exhibit tree structure. Here we present a statistical model for detecting tree structure in transcriptomic data and apply it to transcriptomes from ENCODE and FANTOM5. We show that transcriptomes of normal cells harbour substantial amounts of hierarchical structure. In contrast, cancer cell lines have less tree structure, suggesting that the emergence of cancer cells follows different principles from that of evolutionary cell-type origination.

  19. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level. PMID:26633380

  20. An evaluation of transcriptome-based exon capture for frog phylogenomics across multiple scales of divergence (Class: Amphibia, Order: Anura).

    PubMed

    Portik, Daniel M; Smith, Lydia L; Bi, Ke

    2016-09-01

    Custom sequence capture experiments are becoming an efficient approach for gathering large sets of orthologous markers in nonmodel organisms. Transcriptome-based exon capture utilizes transcript sequences to design capture probes, typically using a reference genome to identify intron-exon boundaries to exclude shorter exons (<200 bp). Here, we test directly using transcript sequences for probe design, which are often composed of multiple exons of varying lengths. Using 1260 orthologous transcripts, we conducted sequence captures across multiple phylogenetic scales for frogs, including outgroups ~100 Myr divergent from the ingroup. We recovered a large phylogenomic data set consisting of sequence alignments for 1047 of the 1260 transcriptome-based loci (~561 000 bp) and a large quantity of highly variable regions flanking the exons in transcripts (~70 000 bp), the latter improving substantially by only including ingroup species (~797 000 bp). We recovered both shorter (<100 bp) and longer exons (>200 bp), with no major reduction in coverage towards the ends of exons. We observed significant differences in the performance of blocking oligos for target enrichment and nontarget depletion during captures, and differences in PCR duplication rates resulting from the number of individuals pooled for capture reactions. We explicitly tested the effects of phylogenetic distance on capture sensitivity, specificity, and missing data, and provide a baseline estimate of expectations for these metrics based on a priori knowledge of nuclear pairwise differences among samples. We provide recommendations for transcriptome-based exon capture design based on our results, cost estimates and offer multiple pipelines for data assembly and analysis.

  1. Distinct Strains of Toxoplasma gondii Feature Divergent Transcriptomes Regardless of Developmental Stage

    SciTech Connect

    Croken, Matthew; Ma, Yan Fen; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Orr, Galya; Weiss, Louis M.; Kim, Kami

    2014-11-13

    Using high through-put RNA sequencing, we assayed the transcriptomes of three different strains of Toxoplasma gondii representing three common genotypes under both in vitro tachyzoite and in vitro bradyzoite-inducing alkaline stress culture conditions. Strikingly, the differences in transcriptional profiles between the strains, RH, PLK, and CTG, is much greater than differences between tachyzoites and alkaline stressed in vitro bradyzoites. With an FDR of 10%, we identify 241 genes differentially expressed between CTG tachyzoites and in vitro bradyzoites, including 5 putative AP2 transcription factors. We also observe close association between cell cycle regulated genes and differentiation. By Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), there are a number of KEGG pathways associated with the in vitro bradyzoite transcriptomes of PLK and CTG, including pyrimidine metabolism and DNA replication. These functions are likely associated with cell-cycle arrest. When comparing mRNA levels between strains, we identify 1,526 genes that are differentially expressed regardless of culture-condition as well as 846 differentially expressed only in bradyzoites and 542 differentially expressed only in tachyzoites between at least two strains. Using GSEA, we identify ribosomal proteins as being expressed at significantly higher levels in the CTG strain than in either the RH or PLK strains. This association holds true regardless of life cycle stage.

  2. Distinct Strains of Toxoplasma gondii Feature Divergent Transcriptomes Regardless of Developmental Stage

    DOE PAGES

    Croken, Matthew; Ma, Yan Fen; Markillie, Lye Meng; ...

    2014-11-13

    Using high through-put RNA sequencing, we assayed the transcriptomes of three different strains of Toxoplasma gondii representing three common genotypes under both in vitro tachyzoite and in vitro bradyzoite-inducing alkaline stress culture conditions. Strikingly, the differences in transcriptional profiles between the strains, RH, PLK, and CTG, is much greater than differences between tachyzoites and alkaline stressed in vitro bradyzoites. With an FDR of 10%, we identify 241 genes differentially expressed between CTG tachyzoites and in vitro bradyzoites, including 5 putative AP2 transcription factors. We also observe close association between cell cycle regulated genes and differentiation. By Gene Set Enrichment Analysismore » (GSEA), there are a number of KEGG pathways associated with the in vitro bradyzoite transcriptomes of PLK and CTG, including pyrimidine metabolism and DNA replication. These functions are likely associated with cell-cycle arrest. When comparing mRNA levels between strains, we identify 1,526 genes that are differentially expressed regardless of culture-condition as well as 846 differentially expressed only in bradyzoites and 542 differentially expressed only in tachyzoites between at least two strains. Using GSEA, we identify ribosomal proteins as being expressed at significantly higher levels in the CTG strain than in either the RH or PLK strains. This association holds true regardless of life cycle stage.« less

  3. Transcriptome dynamics of the microRNA inhibition response

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiayu; Leucci, Elenora; Vendramin, Roberto; Kauppinen, Sakari; Lund, Anders H.; Krogh, Anders; Parker, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-resolution time series study of transcriptome dynamics following antimiR-mediated inhibition of miR-9 in a Hodgkin lymphoma cell-line—the first such dynamic study of the microRNA inhibition response—revealing both general and specific aspects of the physiological response. We show miR-9 inhibition inducing a multiphasic transcriptome response, with a direct target perturbation before 4 h, earlier than previously reported, amplified by a downstream peak at ∼32 h consistent with an indirect response due to secondary coherent regulation. Predictive modelling indicates a major role for miR-9 in post-transcriptional control of RNA processing and RNA binding protein regulation. Cluster analysis identifies multiple co-regulated gene regulatory modules. Functionally, we observe a shift over time from mRNA processing at early time points to translation at later time points. We validate the key observations with independent time series qPCR and we experimentally validate key predicted miR-9 targets. Methodologically, we developed sensitive functional data analytic predictive methods to analyse the weak response inherent in microRNA inhibition experiments. The methods of this study will be applicable to similar high-resolution time series transcriptome analyses and provides the context for more accurate experimental design and interpretation of future microRNA inhibition studies. PMID:26089393

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Nah, Gyoungju; Lee, Moonsub; Kim, Do-Soon; Rayburn, A. Lane; Voigt, Thomas; Lee, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG) groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY). The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation. PMID:27032112

  5. Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver.

    PubMed

    Hinke, Jefferson T; Salwicka, Kasia; Trivelpiece, Susan G; Watters, George M; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z

    2007-10-01

    The responses of predators to environmental variability in the Antarctic Peninsula region have exhibited divergent patterns owing to variation in the geographic settings of colonies and predator life-history strategies. Five breeding colonies of Pygoscelis penguins from King George Island and Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, were examined to (1) compare the responses of sympatric congeners to recent changes in their Antarctic ecosystem and (2) assess underlying causes for such responses. We used linear regression and correlation analyses to compare indices of abundance, recruitment, and summer breeding performance of the Adélie (P. adeliae), gentoo (P. papua), and chinstrap penguins (P. antarctica). Breeding colonies of Adélie and chinstrap penguins have declined by roughly 50% since the mid-1970s, and recruitment indices of Adélie penguins have declined by roughly 80%, but no such patterns are evident for gentoo penguins. Fledging success, however, has remained stable at all breeding colonies. The different trends in abundance and recruitment indices for each species, despite generally similar indices of summer performance, suggest that winter conditions contribute to the divergent responses among the penguins. In particular, strong correlations between indices of penguin and krill recruitment suggest that penguins in the South Shetland Islands may live under an increasingly krill-limited system that has disproportionate effects on the survival of juvenile birds.

  6. Transcriptome resources for the perennial sunflower Helianthus maximiliani obtained from ecologically divergent populations.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Darby, Brian J; Ungerer, Mark C

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a rapid means to generate genomic resources for species exhibiting interesting ecological and evolutionary variation but for which such resources are scant or nonexistent. In the current report, we utilize 454 pyrosequencing to obtain transcriptome information for multiple individuals and tissue types from geographically disparate and ecologically differentiated populations of the perennial sunflower species Helianthus maximiliani. A total of 850 275 raw reads were obtained averaging 355 bp in length. Reads were assembled, postprocessing, into 16 681 unique contigs with an N50 of 898 bp and a total length of 13.6 Mb. A majority (67%) of these contigs were annotated based on comparison with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome (TAIR10). Contigs were identified that exhibit high similarity to genes associated with natural variation in flowering time and freezing tolerance in other plant species and will facilitate future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of clinal life history variation and adaptive differentiation in H. maximiliani. Large numbers of gene-associated simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also were identified that can be deployed in mapping and population genomic analyses.

  7. Divergent phenological response to hydroclimate variability in forested mountain watersheds.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Taehee; Band, Lawrence E; Miniat, Chelcy F; Song, Conghe; Bolstad, Paul V; Vose, James M; Love, Jason P

    2014-08-01

    Mountain watersheds are primary sources of freshwater, carbon sequestration, and other ecosystem services. There is significant interest in the effects of climate change and variability on these processes over short to long time scales. Much of the impact of hydroclimate variability in forest ecosystems is manifested in vegetation dynamics in space and time. In steep terrain, leaf phenology responds to topoclimate in complex ways, and can produce specific and measurable shifts in landscape forest patterns. The onset of spring is usually delayed at a specific rate with increasing elevation (often called Hopkins' Law; Hopkins, 1918), reflecting the dominant controls of temperature on greenup timing. Contrary with greenup, leaf senescence shows inconsistent trends along elevation gradients. Here, we present mechanisms and an explanation for this variability and its significance for ecosystem patterns and services in response to climate. We use moderate-resolution imaging spectro-radiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data to derive landscape-induced phenological patterns over topoclimate gradients in a humid temperate broadleaf forest in southern Appalachians. These phenological patterns are validated with different sets of field observations. Our data demonstrate that divergent behavior of leaf senescence with elevation is closely related to late growing season hydroclimate variability in temperature and water balance patterns. Specifically, a drier late growing season is associated with earlier leaf senescence at low elevation than at middle elevation. The effect of drought stress on vegetation senescence timing also leads to tighter coupling between growing season length and ecosystem water use estimated from observed precipitation and runoff generation. This study indicates increased late growing season drought may be leading to divergent ecosystem response between high and low elevation forests. Landscape-induced phenological patterns

  8. Transcriptomic responses to environmental temperature in eurythermal and stenothermal fishes.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A; Buckley, Bradley A

    2015-06-01

    Ectothermic species like fishes differ greatly in the thermal ranges they tolerate; some eurythermal species may encounter temperature ranges in excess of 25°C, whereas stenothermal species in polar and tropical waters live at essentially constant temperatures. Thermal specialization comes with fitness trade-offs and as temperature increases due to global warming, the physiological basis of specialization and thermal plasticity has become of great interest. Over the past 50 years, comparative physiologists have studied the physiological and molecular differences between stenothermal and eurythermal fishes. It is now well known that many stenothermal fishes have lost an inducible heat shock response (HSR). Recent advances in transcriptomics have now made it possible to examine genome-wide changes in gene expression (GE) in non-model ecologically important fish, broadening our view beyond the HSR to regulation of genes involved in hundreds of other cellular processes. Here, we review the major findings from transcriptomic studies of extreme eurythermal and stenothermal fishes in response to acute and long-term exposure to temperature, both time scales being critically important for predicting climate change responses. We consider possible molecular adaptations that underlie eurythermy and stenothermy in teleosts. Furthermore, we highlight the challenges that still face the field of comparative environmental genomics and suggest fruitful paths of future investigation.

  9. Sex, Scavengers, and Chaperones: Transcriptome Secrets of Divergent Symbiodinium Thermal Tolerances.

    PubMed

    Levin, Rachel A; Beltran, Victor H; Hill, Ross; Kjelleberg, Staffan; McDougald, Diane; Steinberg, Peter D; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2016-09-01

    Corals rely on photosynthesis by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) to form the basis of tropical coral reefs. High sea surface temperatures driven by climate change can trigger the loss of Symbiodinium from corals (coral bleaching), leading to declines in coral health. Different putative species (genetically distinct types) as well as conspecific populations of Symbiodinium can confer differing levels of thermal tolerance to their coral host, but the genes that govern dinoflagellate thermal tolerance are unknown. Here we show physiological and transcriptional responses to heat stress by a thermo-sensitive (physiologically susceptible at 32 °C) type C1 Symbiodinium population and a thermo-tolerant (physiologically healthy at 32 °C) type C1 Symbiodinium population. After nine days at 32 °C, neither population exhibited physiological stress, but both displayed up-regulation of meiosis genes by ≥ 4-fold and enrichment of meiosis functional gene groups, which promote adaptation. After 13 days at 32 °C, the thermo-sensitive population suffered a significant decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) leakage from its cells, whereas the thermo-tolerant population showed no signs of physiological stress. Correspondingly, only the thermo-tolerant population demonstrated up-regulation of a range of ROS scavenging and molecular chaperone genes by ≥ 4-fold and enrichment of ROS scavenging and protein-folding functional gene groups. The physiological and transcriptional responses of the Symbiodinium populations to heat stress directly correlate with the bleaching susceptibilities of corals that harbored these same Symbiodinium populations. Thus, our study provides novel, foundational insights into the molecular basis of dinoflagellate thermal tolerance and coral bleaching.

  10. Sex, Scavengers, and Chaperones: Transcriptome Secrets of Divergent Symbiodinium Thermal Tolerances

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Rachel A.; Beltran, Victor H.; Hill, Ross; Kjelleberg, Staffan; McDougald, Diane; Steinberg, Peter D.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Corals rely on photosynthesis by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) to form the basis of tropical coral reefs. High sea surface temperatures driven by climate change can trigger the loss of Symbiodinium from corals (coral bleaching), leading to declines in coral health. Different putative species (genetically distinct types) as well as conspecific populations of Symbiodinium can confer differing levels of thermal tolerance to their coral host, but the genes that govern dinoflagellate thermal tolerance are unknown. Here we show physiological and transcriptional responses to heat stress by a thermo-sensitive (physiologically susceptible at 32 °C) type C1 Symbiodinium population and a thermo-tolerant (physiologically healthy at 32 °C) type C1 Symbiodinium population. After nine days at 32 °C, neither population exhibited physiological stress, but both displayed up-regulation of meiosis genes by ≥ 4-fold and enrichment of meiosis functional gene groups, which promote adaptation. After 13 days at 32 °C, the thermo-sensitive population suffered a significant decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) leakage from its cells, whereas the thermo-tolerant population showed no signs of physiological stress. Correspondingly, only the thermo-tolerant population demonstrated up-regulation of a range of ROS scavenging and molecular chaperone genes by ≥ 4-fold and enrichment of ROS scavenging and protein-folding functional gene groups. The physiological and transcriptional responses of the Symbiodinium populations to heat stress directly correlate with the bleaching susceptibilities of corals that harbored these same Symbiodinium populations. Thus, our study provides novel, foundational insights into the molecular basis of dinoflagellate thermal tolerance and coral bleaching. PMID:27301593

  11. Transcriptome response analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana to leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants have evolved a complicated resistance system and exhibit a variety of defense patterns in response to different attackers. Previous studies have shown that responses of plants to chewing insects and phloem-feeding insects are significantly different. Less is known, however, regarding molecular responses to leafminer insects. To investigate plant transcriptome response to leafminers, we selected the leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis, which has a special feeding pattern more similar to pathogen damage than that of chewing insects, as a model insect, and Arabidopsis thaliana as a response plant. Results We first investigated local and systemic responses of A. thaliana to leafminer feeding using an Affymetrix ATH1 genome array. Genes related to metabolic processes and stimulus responses were highly regulated. Most systemically-induced genes formed a subset of the local response genes. We then downloaded gene expression data from online databases and used hierarchical clustering to explore relationships among gene expression patterns in A. thaliana damaged by different attackers. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that plant response patterns are strongly coupled to damage patterns of attackers. PMID:23231622

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae): Insight into Developmental Regulation and Inter-Species Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Rui; Wang, Yujun; Cheng, Yanbin; Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Li; Fang, Jichao; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are two phylogenetically closely related agricultural pests. While pea aphid is restricted to Fabaceae, green peach aphid feeds on hundreds of plant species from more than 40 families. Transcriptome comparison could shed light on the genetic factors underlying the difference in host range between the two species. Furthermore, a large scale study contrasting gene expression between immature nymphs and fully developed adult aphids would fill a previous knowledge gap. Here, we obtained transcriptomic sequences of green peach aphid nymphs and adults, respectively, using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 2244 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the two developmental stages, many of which were associated with detoxification, hormone production, cuticle formation, metabolism, food digestion, and absorption. When searched against publically available pea aphid mRNA sequences, 13,752 unigenes were found to have no homologous counterparts. Interestingly, many of these unigenes that could be annotated in other databases were involved in the “xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism” pathway, suggesting the two aphids differ in their adaptation to secondary metabolites of host plants. Conversely, 3989 orthologous gene pairs between the two species were subjected to calculations of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions, and 148 of the genes potentially evolved in response to positive selection. Some of these genes were predicted to be associated with insect-plant interactions. Our study has revealed certain molecular events related to aphid development, and provided some insight into biological variations in two aphid species, possibly as a result of host plant adaptation. PMID:27812361

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae): Insight into Developmental Regulation and Inter-Species Divergence.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Wang, Yujun; Cheng, Yanbin; Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Li; Fang, Jichao; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are two phylogenetically closely related agricultural pests. While pea aphid is restricted to Fabaceae, green peach aphid feeds on hundreds of plant species from more than 40 families. Transcriptome comparison could shed light on the genetic factors underlying the difference in host range between the two species. Furthermore, a large scale study contrasting gene expression between immature nymphs and fully developed adult aphids would fill a previous knowledge gap. Here, we obtained transcriptomic sequences of green peach aphid nymphs and adults, respectively, using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 2244 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the two developmental stages, many of which were associated with detoxification, hormone production, cuticle formation, metabolism, food digestion, and absorption. When searched against publically available pea aphid mRNA sequences, 13,752 unigenes were found to have no homologous counterparts. Interestingly, many of these unigenes that could be annotated in other databases were involved in the "xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism" pathway, suggesting the two aphids differ in their adaptation to secondary metabolites of host plants. Conversely, 3989 orthologous gene pairs between the two species were subjected to calculations of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions, and 148 of the genes potentially evolved in response to positive selection. Some of these genes were predicted to be associated with insect-plant interactions. Our study has revealed certain molecular events related to aphid development, and provided some insight into biological variations in two aphid species, possibly as a result of host plant adaptation.

  14. Transcriptome analyses reveal genotype- and developmental stage-specific molecular responses to drought and salinity stresses in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rohini; Shankar, Rama; Thakkar, Bijal; Kudapa, Himabindu; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Mantri, Nitin; Varshney, Rajeev K; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-13

    Drought and salinity are the major factors that limit chickpea production worldwide. We performed whole transcriptome analyses of chickpea genotypes to investigate the molecular basis of drought and salinity stress response/adaptation. Phenotypic analyses confirmed the contrasting responses of the chickpea genotypes to drought or salinity stress. RNA-seq of the roots of drought and salinity related genotypes was carried out under control and stress conditions at vegetative and/or reproductive stages. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed divergent gene expression in the chickpea genotypes at different developmental stages. We identified a total of 4954 and 5545 genes exclusively regulated in drought-tolerant and salinity-tolerant genotypes, respectively. A significant fraction (~47%) of the transcription factor encoding genes showed differential expression under stress. The key enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, such as carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, generation of precursor metabolites/energy, protein modification, redox homeostasis and cell wall component biogenesis, were affected by drought and/or salinity stresses. Interestingly, transcript isoforms showed expression specificity across the chickpea genotypes and/or developmental stages as illustrated by the AP2-EREBP family members. Our findings provide insights into the transcriptome dynamics and components of regulatory network associated with drought and salinity stress responses in chickpea.

  15. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for other

  16. Diverging Responses of Tropical Andean Biomes under Future Climate Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%–17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for

  17. Transcriptomic responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to model toxicants.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Diab, Amer; Ortega, Fernando; Sabine, Victoria S; Godfrey, Rita E; Falciani, Francesco; Chipman, J Kevin; George, Stephen G

    2008-11-11

    The temporal transcriptomic responses in liver of Platichthys flesus to model environmental pollutants were studied over a 16-day time span after intraperitoneal injection with cadmium chloride (50 microg/kg in saline), 3-methylcholanthrene (25 mg/kg in olive oil), Aroclor 1254 (50 mg/kg in olive oil), tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (5 mg/kg in saline), Lindane (25mg/kg in olive oil), perfluoro-octanoic acid (100 mg/kg in olive oil) and their vehicles, olive oil (1 ml/kg) or saline (0.9%). Statistical, gene ontology and supervised analysis clearly demonstrated the progression from acute effects, biological responses to and recovery from the treatments. Key biological processes disturbed by the individual treatments were characterised by gene ontology analyses and individual toxicant-responsive genes and pathways were identified by supervised analyses. Responses to the polyaromatic and chlorinated aromatic compounds showed a degree of commonality but were distinguishable and they were clearly segregated from the responses to the pro-oxidants cadmium and the organic hydroperoxide, as well as from the peroxisomal proliferator, perfluoro-octanoic acid. This study demonstrated the utility of the microarray technique in the identification of toxicant-responsive genes and in discrimination between modes of toxicant action.

  18. Transcriptomic and virulence factors analyses of Cryptococcus neoformans hypoxia response.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingtao; Yang, Rui; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Wenquan; Du, Xue; Huang, Suyang; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Weida; Sang, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental pathogen requiring atmospheric levels of oxygen for optimal growth. Upon inhalation, C. neoformans disseminates to the brain and causes meningoencephalitis. However, the mechanisms by which the pathogen adapts to the low-oxygen environment in the brain have not been investigated. We isolated a C. neoformans strain with a small capsule from a host tissue, although this strain produces large capsules in normoxic conditions. We hypothesize that this difference in capsule size is attributed to hypoxia caused by chronic inflammatory response. This study investigated the effect of hypoxia on virulence factors (including capsule, melanin, urease, and phospholipase) of C. neoformans and conducted transcriptomic analyses of the virulence-associated genes. We found that C. neoformans grew under hypoxic condition, albeit slowly, and that hypoxia may have inhibited the capsule size, melanin production, and phospholipase and urease activities in C. neoformans.

  19. Divergence in Olfactory Host Plant Preference in D. mojavensis in Response to Cactus Host Use

    PubMed Central

    Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

  20. Divergence in olfactory host plant preference in D. mojavensis in response to cactus host use.

    PubMed

    Date, Priya; Dweck, Hany K M; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S; Rollmann, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations.

  1. The Transcriptome of the Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A.; Romero, Roberto; Tarca, Adi L.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro.; Espinoza, Jimmy; Kim, Chong Jai; Kim, Jung-Sun; Edwin, Samuel S.; Gomez, Ricardo; Draghici, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Problem The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) is considered the counterpart of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), but similarities in their regulatory mechanisms are unclear. This study characterizes the fetal mRNA transcriptome of peripheral leukocytes to identify key biological processes and pathways involved in FIRS. Method of Study Umbilical cord blood from preterm neonates with FIRS (funisitis, plasma IL-6>11 pg/ml; n=10) and neonates with no evidence of inflammation (n=10) was collected at birth. Results Microarray analysis of leukocyte RNA revealed differential expression of 541 unique genes, changes confirmed by qRT-PCR for 41 or of 44 genes tested. Similar to SIRS and sepsis, ontological and pathway analyses yielded significant enrichment of biological processes including antigen processing and presentation, immune response, and processes critical to cellular metabolism. Results are comparable with microarray studies of endotoxin challenge models and pediatric sepsis, identifying 25 genes across all studies. Conclusions This study is the first to profile genome-wide expression in FIRS, which demonstrates a substantial degree of similarity with SIRS despite differences in fetal and adult immune systems. PMID:20059468

  2. Transcriptomic Response of Drosophila Melanogaster Pupae Developed in Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Hateley, Shannon; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of Drosophila is evolutionarily adapted to Earth's gravity, and is a tightly regulated process. Deviation from 1g to microgravity or hypergravity can influence metamorphosis, and alter associated gene expression. Understanding the relationship between an altered gravity environment and developmental processes is important for NASA's space travel goals. In the present study, 20 female and 20 male synchronized (Canton S, 2 to 3day old) flies were allowed to lay eggs while being maintained in a hypergravity environment (3g). Centrifugation was briefly stopped to discard the parent flies after 24hrs of egg laying, and then immediately continued until the eggs developed into P6-staged pupae (25 - 43 hours after pupation initiation). Post hypergravity exposure, P6-staged pupae were collected, total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy mini kits. We used RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile global transcriptomic changes in early pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity. During the pupal stage, Drosophila relies upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupa under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-exposed pupae compared to controls, with 1,513 genes showing a significant (q < 0.05) difference in gene expression. Five major biological processes were affected: ion transport, redox homeostasis, immune response, proteolysis, and cuticle development. This outlines the underlying molecular changes occurring in Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity.

  3. Transcriptome Sequencing in Response to Salicylic Acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Dong, Juane; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Qi, Yuexin; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, whose quality and yield are often affected by diseases and environmental stresses during its growing season. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a significant role in plants responding to biotic and abiotic stresses, but the involved regulatory factors and their signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to identify the genes involved in SA signaling, the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy was employed to evaluate the transcriptional profiles in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures. A total of 50,778 unigenes were assembled, in which 5,316 unigenes were differentially expressed among 0-, 2-, and 8-h SA induction. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in stimulus response and multi-organism process. A core set of candidate novel genes coding SA signaling component proteins was identified. Many transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, bHLH and GRAS) and genes involved in hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed in response to SA induction. Detailed analysis revealed that genes associated with defense signaling, such as antioxidant system genes, cytochrome P450s and ATP-binding cassette transporters, were significantly overexpressed, which can be used as genetic tools to investigate disease resistance. Our transcriptome analysis will help understand SA signaling and its mechanism of defense systems in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26808150

  4. Transcriptomic responses of marine medaka's ovary to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keng Po; Li, Jing Woei; Tse, Anna Chung Kwan; Cheung, Angela; Wang, Simon; Chan, Ting Fung; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia, an endocrine disruptor, is pressing global problem affecting marine organisms in over 400 "Dead Zones" worldwide. There is growing evident demonstrated the disruptive effect of hypoxia on reproductive systems of marine fish through the impairments of steroidogenic gene expression, leading to the alteration of sex hormone production in gonads. But the detailed molecular mechanism underlying the responses of female reproductive systems to hypoxic stress remains largely unknown. In the present report, we used marine medaka Oryzias melastigma as a model, together with high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, aiming to determine the changes in transcriptional signature in the ovary of marine fish under hypoxic stress. Our result discovered over two hundred differential expressed genes in ovary in response to hypoxia. The bioinformatics analysis together with quantitative RT-PCR validation on the deregulated genes highlighted the dysregulations of a number of female reproductive functions including interruptions of ovarian follicle development, gonad development and steroid metabolic process. Additionally, we revealed that these deregulations are through the modulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). The result of this work complements previous studies and provides additional insights into the underlying molecular mechanism of hypoxia-induced impairment of female reproductive system.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of grapevine in response to copper stress

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Jia, Haifeng; Sun, Xin; Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Wang, Baoju; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop worldwide. With the industrialization and the popular application of cupric fungicides in grape industry, copper stress and copper pollution are also the factors affecting grape production and berry and wine quality. Here, 3,843 transcripts were significantly differently expressed genes in response to Cu stress by RNA-seq, which included 1,892 up-regulated and 1,951 down-regulated transcripts. During this study we found many known and novel Cu-induced and -repressed genes. Biological analysis of grape samples were indicated that exogenous Cu can influence chlorophylls metabolism and photosynthetic activities of grapevine. Most ROS detoxification systems, including antioxidant enzyme, stress-related proteins and secondary metabolites were strongly induced. Concomitantly, abscisic acid functioned as a negative regulator in Cu stress, in opposite action to ethylene, auxin, jasmonic acid, and brassinolide. This study also identified a set of Cu stress specifically activated genes coding copper transporter, P1B-type ATPase, multidrug transporters. Overall, this work was carried out to gain insights into the copper-regulated and stress-responsive mechanisms in grapevine at transcriptome level. This research can also provide some genetic information that can help us in better vinery management and breeding Cu-resistant grape cultivars. PMID:26673527

  6. Comparative transcriptome response in swine tracheobronchial lymph nodes to viral infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tracheobronchial lymph node (TBLN) transcriptome response was evaluated following viral infection using Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling (DGETP). Pigs were sham-treated or infected intranasally with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine circovirus type 2, pseudorabies...

  7. Spaceflight Transcriptomes: Unique Responses to a Novel Environment

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Zupanska, Agata K.; Ostrow, Dejerianne T.; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Li, Jian-Liang; Shanker, Savita; Farmerie, William G.; Amalfitano, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The spaceflight environment presents unique challenges to terrestrial biology, including but not limited to the direct effects of gravity. As we near the end of the Space Shuttle era, there remain fundamental questions about the response and adaptation of plants to orbital spaceflight conditions. We address a key baseline question of whether gene expression changes are induced by the orbital environment, and then we ask whether undifferentiated cells, cells presumably lacking the typical gravity response mechanisms, perceive spaceflight. Arabidopsis seedlings and undifferentiated cultured Arabidopsis cells were launched in April, 2010, as part of the BRIC-16 flight experiment on STS-131. Biologically replicated DNA microarray and averaged RNA digital transcript profiling revealed several hundred genes in seedlings and cell cultures that were significantly affected by launch and spaceflight. The response was moderate in seedlings; only a few genes were induced by more than 7-fold, and the overall intrinsic expression level for most differentially expressed genes was low. In contrast, cell cultures displayed a more dramatic response, with dozens of genes showing this level of differential expression, a list comprised primarily of heat shock–related and stress-related genes. This baseline transcriptome profiling of seedlings and cultured cells confirms the fundamental hypothesis that survival of the spaceflight environment requires adaptive changes that are both governed and displayed by alterations in gene expression. The comparison of intact plants with cultures of undifferentiated cells confirms a second hypothesis: undifferentiated cells can detect spaceflight in the absence of specialized tissue or organized developmental structures known to detect gravity. Key Words: Tissue culture—Microgravity—Low Earth orbit—Space Shuttle—Microarray. Astrobiology 12, 40–56. PMID:22221117

  8. Spaceflight transcriptomes: unique responses to a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Zupanska, Agata K; Ostrow, Dejerianne T; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Li, Jian-Liang; Shanker, Savita; Farmerie, William G; Amalfitano, Claire E; Ferl, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The spaceflight environment presents unique challenges to terrestrial biology, including but not limited to the direct effects of gravity. As we near the end of the Space Shuttle era, there remain fundamental questions about the response and adaptation of plants to orbital spaceflight conditions. We address a key baseline question of whether gene expression changes are induced by the orbital environment, and then we ask whether undifferentiated cells, cells presumably lacking the typical gravity response mechanisms, perceive spaceflight. Arabidopsis seedlings and undifferentiated cultured Arabidopsis cells were launched in April, 2010, as part of the BRIC-16 flight experiment on STS-131. Biologically replicated DNA microarray and averaged RNA digital transcript profiling revealed several hundred genes in seedlings and cell cultures that were significantly affected by launch and spaceflight. The response was moderate in seedlings; only a few genes were induced by more than 7-fold, and the overall intrinsic expression level for most differentially expressed genes was low. In contrast, cell cultures displayed a more dramatic response, with dozens of genes showing this level of differential expression, a list comprised primarily of heat shock-related and stress-related genes. This baseline transcriptome profiling of seedlings and cultured cells confirms the fundamental hypothesis that survival of the spaceflight environment requires adaptive changes that are both governed and displayed by alterations in gene expression. The comparison of intact plants with cultures of undifferentiated cells confirms a second hypothesis: undifferentiated cells can detect spaceflight in the absence of specialized tissue or organized developmental structures known to detect gravity.

  9. Transcriptomic Study on Ovine Immune Responses to Fasciola hepatica Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yan; Chryssafidis, Andreas L.; Browne, John A.; O'Sullivan, Jack; McGettigan, Paul A.; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Background Fasciola hepatica is not only responsible for major economic losses in livestock farming, but is also a major food-borne zoonotic agent, with 180 million people being at risk of infection worldwide. This parasite is sophisticated in manipulating the hosts’ immune system to benefit its own survival. A better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning this immunomodulation is crucial for the development of control strategies such as vaccines. Methodology/principal findings This in vivo study investigated the global gene expression changes of ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) response to both acute & chronic infection of F. hepatica, and revealed 6490 and 2364 differential expressed genes (DEGS), respectively. Several transcriptional regulators were predicted to be significantly inhibited (e.g. IL12 and IL18) or activated (e.g. miR155-5p) in PBMC during infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis highlighted a series of immune-associated pathways involved in the response to infection, including ‘Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) signaling’, ‘Production of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages’, ‘Toll-like Receptor (TLRs) Signaling’, ‘Death Receptor Signaling’ and ‘IL17 Signaling’. We hypothesize that activation of pathways relevant to fibrosis in ovine chronic infection, may differ from those seen in cattle. Potential mechanisms behind immunomodulation in F. hepatica infection are a discussed. Significance In conclusion, the present study performed global transcriptomic analysis of ovine PBMC, the primary innate/adaptive immune cells, in response to infection with F. hepatica, using deep-sequencing (RNAseq). This dataset provides novel information pertinent to understanding of the pathological processes in fasciolosis, as well as a base from which to further refine development of vaccines. PMID:27661612

  10. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-08-19

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement.

  11. Transcriptome Response Mediated by Cold Stress in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla, Pablo I.; Maiale, Santiago J.; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Escaray, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures. PMID:27066029

  12. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of Citrus Fruit Response to Huanglongbing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Federico; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Albrecht, Ute; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My L.; Britton, Monica; Buffalo, Vincent; Fass, Joseph; Leicht, Elizabeth; Zhao, Weixiang; Lin, Dawei; D'Souza, Raissa; Davis, Cristina E.; Bowman, Kim D.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2012-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or “citrus greening” is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. In this work, we studied host responses of citrus to infection with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) using next-generation sequencing technologies. A deep mRNA profile was obtained from peel of healthy and HLB-affected fruit. It was followed by pathway and protein-protein network analysis and quantitative real time PCR analysis of highly regulated genes. We identified differentially regulated pathways and constructed networks that provide a deep insight into the metabolism of affected fruit. Data mining revealed that HLB enhanced transcription of genes involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis and in ATP synthesis. Activation of protein degradation and misfolding processes were observed at the transcriptomic level. Transcripts for heat shock proteins were down-regulated at all disease stages, resulting in further protein misfolding. HLB strongly affected pathways involved in source-sink communication, including sucrose and starch metabolism and hormone synthesis and signaling. Transcription of several genes involved in the synthesis and signal transduction of cytokinins and gibberellins was repressed while that of genes involved in ethylene pathways was induced. CaLas infection triggered a response via both the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways and increased the transcript abundance of several members of the WRKY family of transcription factors. Findings focused on the fruit provide valuable insight to understanding the mechanisms of the HLB-induced fruit disorder and eventually developing methods based on small molecule applications to mitigate its devastating effects on fruit production. PMID:22675433

  14. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals similarities and dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains response to nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Catarina; García-Martínez, José; Pérez-Ortín, José E; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23), under low (67 mg/L) and high nitrogen (670 mg/L) regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12 h, 24 h and 96 h). Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12 h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this nutrient in the

  15. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Similarities and Dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strains Response to Nitrogen Availability

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Catarina; García-Martínez, José; Pérez-Ortín, José E.; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23), under low (67 mg/L) and high nitrogen (670 mg/L) regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12h, 24h and 96h). Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this nutrient in the grape

  16. Rapid acid treatment of Escherichia coli: transcriptomic response and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Geetha; Wilks, Jessica C; Fitzgerald, Devon M; Jones, Brian D; BonDurant, Sandra S; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2008-01-01

    Background Many E. coli genes show pH-dependent expression during logarithmic growth in acid (pH 5–6) or in base (pH 8–9). The effect of rapid pH change, however, has rarely been tested. Rapid acid treatment could distinguish between genes responding to external pH, and genes responding to cytoplasmic acidification, which occurs transiently following rapid external acidification. It could reveal previously unknown acid-stress genes whose effects are transient, as well as show which acid-stress genes have a delayed response. Results Microarray hybridization was employed to observe the global gene expression of E. coli K-12 W3110 following rapid acidification of the external medium, from pH 7.6 to pH 5.5. Fluorimetric observation of pH-dependent tetR-YFP showed that rapid external acidification led to a half-unit drop in cytoplasmic pH (from pH 7.6 to pH 6.4) which began to recover within 20 s. Following acid treatment, 630 genes were up-regulated and 586 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes included amino-acid decarboxylases (cadA, adiY, gadA), succinate dehydrogenase (sdhABCD), biofilm-associated genes (bdm, gatAB, and ymgABC), and the Gad, Fur and Rcs regulons. Genes with response patterns consistent with cytoplasmic acid stress were revealed by addition of benzoate, a membrane-permeant acid that permanently depresses cytoplasmic pH without affecting external pH. Several genes (yagU, ygiN, yjeI, and yneI) were up-regulated specifically by external acidification, while other genes (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA) presented a benzoate response consistent with cytoplasmic pH stress. Other genes (the nuo operon for NADH dehydrogenase I, and the HslUV protease) showed delayed up-regulation by acid, with expression rising by 10 min following the acid shift. Conclusion Transcriptomic profiling of E. coli K-12 distinguished three different classes of change in gene expression following rapid acid treatment: up-regulation with or without recovery, and

  17. Saccular Transcriptome Profiles of the Seasonal Breeding Plainfin Midshipman Fish (Porichthys notatus), a Teleost with Divergent Sexual Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua; Samanta, Manoj P.; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A.; Manning, Dustin; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Coffin, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic communication is essential for the reproductive success of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). During the breeding season, type I males use acoustic cues to advertise nest location to potential mates, creating an audible signal that attracts reproductive females. Type II (sneaker) males also likely use this social acoustic signal to find breeding pairs from which to steal fertilizations. Estrogen-induced changes in the auditory system of breeding females are thought to enhance neural encoding of the advertisement call, and recent anatomical data suggest the saccule (the main auditory end organ) as one possible target for this seasonal modulation. Here we describe saccular transcriptomes from all three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) collected during the breeding season as a first step in understanding the mechanisms underlying sexual phenotype-specific and seasonal differences in auditory function. We used RNA-Seq on the Ion Torrent platform to create a combined transcriptome dataset containing over 79,000 assembled transcripts representing almost 9,000 unique annotated genes. These identified genes include several with known inner ear function and multiple steroid hormone receptors. Transcripts most closely matched to published genomes of nile tilapia and large yellow croaker, inconsistent with the phylogenetic relationship between these species but consistent with the importance of acoustic communication in their life-history strategies. We then compared the RNA-Seq results from the saccules of reproductive females with a separate transcriptome from the non-reproductive female phenotype and found over 700 differentially expressed transcripts, including members of the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways that mediate cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the inner ear. These data constitute a valuable resource for furthering our understanding of the molecular basis for peripheral auditory function as well as a range of

  18. Saccular Transcriptome Profiles of the Seasonal Breeding Plainfin Midshipman Fish (Porichthys notatus), a Teleost with Divergent Sexual Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua; Samanta, Manoj P; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Manning, Dustin; Sisneros, Joseph A; Coffin, Allison B

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic communication is essential for the reproductive success of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). During the breeding season, type I males use acoustic cues to advertise nest location to potential mates, creating an audible signal that attracts reproductive females. Type II (sneaker) males also likely use this social acoustic signal to find breeding pairs from which to steal fertilizations. Estrogen-induced changes in the auditory system of breeding females are thought to enhance neural encoding of the advertisement call, and recent anatomical data suggest the saccule (the main auditory end organ) as one possible target for this seasonal modulation. Here we describe saccular transcriptomes from all three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) collected during the breeding season as a first step in understanding the mechanisms underlying sexual phenotype-specific and seasonal differences in auditory function. We used RNA-Seq on the Ion Torrent platform to create a combined transcriptome dataset containing over 79,000 assembled transcripts representing almost 9,000 unique annotated genes. These identified genes include several with known inner ear function and multiple steroid hormone receptors. Transcripts most closely matched to published genomes of nile tilapia and large yellow croaker, inconsistent with the phylogenetic relationship between these species but consistent with the importance of acoustic communication in their life-history strategies. We then compared the RNA-Seq results from the saccules of reproductive females with a separate transcriptome from the non-reproductive female phenotype and found over 700 differentially expressed transcripts, including members of the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways that mediate cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the inner ear. These data constitute a valuable resource for furthering our understanding of the molecular basis for peripheral auditory function as well as a range of

  19. Differences in rheotactic responses contribute to divergent habitat use between parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuexin; Torrance, Louisa; Peichel, Catherine L; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2015-09-01

    Migration among populations is widely thought to undermine adaptive divergence, assuming gene flow arises from random movement of individuals. If individuals instead differ in dispersal behavior, phenotype-dependent dispersal can reduce the effective rate of gene flow or even facilitate divergence. For example, parapatric populations of lake and stream stickleback tend to actively avoid dispersing into the adjoining habitat. However, the behavioral basis of this nonrandom dispersal was previously unknown. Here, we show that lake and stream stickleback exhibit divergent rheotactic responses (behavioral response to currents). During the breeding season, wild-caught inlet stream stickleback were better than lake fish at maintaining position in currents, faced upstream more, and spent more time in low-current areas. As a result, stream fish expended significantly less energy in currents than did lake fish. These divergent rheotactic responses likely contribute to divergent habitat use by lake and stream stickleback. Although rheotactic differences were absent in nonbreeding fish, divergent behavior of breeding-season fish may suffice for assortative mating by breeding location. The resulting reproductive isolation between lake and stream fish may explain the fine-scale evolutionary differentiation in parapatric stickleback populations.

  20. Global transcriptome response in Lactobacillus sakei during growth on ribose

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus sakei is valuable in the fermentation of meat products and exhibits properties that allow for better preservation of meat and fish. On these substrates, glucose and ribose are the main carbon sources available for growth. We used a whole-genome microarray based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose. Results The function of the common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Decreased transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the L-lactate dehydrogenase was observed, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. Especially transcription of genes directly involved in ribose catabolism, the phosphoketolase pathway, and in alternative fates of pyruvate increased. Interestingly, the methylglyoxal synthase gene, which encodes an enzyme unique for L. sakei among lactobacilli, was up-regulated. Ribose catabolism seems closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. The deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator gene was strongly up-regulated, as well as two gene clusters involved in nucleoside catabolism. One of the clusters included a ribokinase gene. Moreover, hprK encoding the HPr kinase/phosphatase, which plays a major role in the regulation of carbon metabolism and sugar transport, was up-regulated, as were genes encoding the general PTS enzyme I and the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman). Putative catabolite-responsive element (cre) sites were found in proximity to the promoter of several genes and operons affected by the change of carbon source. This could indicate regulation by a catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanism, possibly with the EIIman being indirectly involved. Conclusions Our data shows that the ribose uptake and catabolic machinery in

  1. Head Transcriptomes of Two Closely Related Species of Fruit Flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus Group Reveals Divergent Genes in Species with Extensive Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Victor Borges; Congrains, Carlos; Lima, André Luís A.; Campanini, Emeline Boni; Nakamura, Aline Minali; de Oliveira, Janaína Lima; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Junior, Iderval Sobrinho; Alves de Brito, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species: A. obliqua and A. fraterculus, aiming to identify fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and highly differentiated transcripts, which, considering that these species still experience some level of gene flow, could indicate potential candidate genes involved in their differentiation process. We generated multiple libraries from head tissues of these two species, at different reproductive stages, for both sexes. Our analyses indicate that the de novo transcriptome assemblies are fairly complete. We also produced a hybrid assembly to map each species’ reads, and identified 67,470 SNPs in A. fraterculus, 39,252 in A. obliqua, and 6386 that were common to both species. We identified 164 highly differentiated unigenes that had a mean interspecific index (D¯) of at least 0.94. We selected unigenes that had Ka/Ks higher than 0.5, or had at least three or more highly differentiated SNPs as potential candidate genes for species differentiation. Among these candidates, we identified proteases, regulators of redox homeostasis, and an odorant-binding protein (Obp99c), among other genes. The head transcriptomes described here enabled the identification of thousands of genes hitherto unavailable for these species, and generated a set of candidate genes that are potentially important to genetically identify species and understand the speciation process in the presence of gene flow of A. obliqua and A. fraterculus. PMID:27558666

  2. RuBisCO in Non-Photosynthetic Alga Euglena longa: Divergent Features, Transcriptomic Analysis and Regulation of Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Záhonová, Kristína; Füssy, Zoltán; Oborník, Miroslav; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Euglena longa, a close relative of the photosynthetic model alga Euglena gracilis, possesses an enigmatic non-photosynthetic plastid. Its genome has retained a gene for the large subunit of the enzyme RuBisCO (rbcL). Here we provide new data illuminating the putative role of RuBisCO in E. longa. We demonstrated that the E. longa RBCL protein sequence is extremely divergent compared to its homologs from the photosynthetic relatives, suggesting a possible functional shift upon the loss of photosynthesis. Similarly to E. gracilis, E. longa harbors a nuclear gene encoding the small subunit of RuBisCO (RBCS) as a precursor polyprotein comprising multiple RBCS repeats, but one of them is highly divergent. Both RBCL and the RBCS proteins are synthesized in E. longa, but their abundance is very low compared to E. gracilis. No RBCS monomers could be detected in E. longa, suggesting that processing of the precursor polyprotein is inefficient in this species. The abundance of RBCS is regulated post-transcriptionally. Indeed, blocking the cytoplasmic translation by cycloheximide has no immediate effect on the RBCS stability in photosynthetically grown E. gracilis, but in E. longa, the protein is rapidly degraded. Altogether, our results revealed signatures of evolutionary degradation (becoming defunct) of RuBisCO in E. longa and suggest that its biological role in this species may be rather unorthodox, if any. PMID:27391690

  3. Comparative transcriptomics of stickleback immune gene responses upon infection by two helminth parasites, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum and Schistocephalus solidus.

    PubMed

    Haase, David; Rieger, Jenny K; Witten, Anika; Stoll, Monika; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kalbe, Martin; Schmidt-Drewello, Alexander; Scharsack, Jörn P; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-08-01

    Immune systems of vertebrates are much more diverse than previously thought, in particular at the base of the vertebrate clade. RNA-seq was used to describe in detail the transcriptomic response of stickleback hosts to infection by two helminth parasites, the trematode Diplostomum pseudospathaceum (2 genotypes plus a genotype mix) and the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Based on a global transcription profiling, we present immune genes that are active during chronic or multiple repeated infection. We found that the transcription profiles of D. pseudospathaceum genotypes were as divergent as those of the two parasite species. When comparing the host immune response, only 5 immune genes were consistently upregulated upon infection by both species. These genes indicated a role for enhanced toll like receptor (TLR) activity (CTSK, CYP27B1) and an associated positive regulation of macrophages (CYP27B1, THBS1) for general helminth defense. We interpret the largely differentiated gene expression response among parasite species as general redundancy of the vertebrate immune system, which was also visible in genotype-specific responses among the different D. pseudospathaceum infections. The present study provides the first evidence that IL4-mediated activation of T-helper lymphocyte cells is also important in anti-helminthic immune responses of teleost fish.

  4. Divergent Responses of Coastal and Oceanic Synechococcus to Iron Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.; McIlvin, M.; Post, A.; Saito, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Marine Synechococcus are some of the most diverse and ubiquitous phytoplankton in the ocean, and are major contributors to global primary productivity. Iron (Fe) is a micronutrient required for maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus that limits productivity in many parts of the ocean. To investigate how marine Synechococcus strains adapt and acclimate to Fe availability, we compared the growth, photophysiology, and protein abundance in two Synechococcus strains over a range of Fe concentrations. Synechococcus strain WH8102, from the permanently stratified southern Sargasso Sea in a region that receives significant dust deposition, had few acclimation strategies under low Fe and showed impaired growth rates and photophysiology as Fe declined. Coastal isolate WH8020, from the dynamic, seasonally variable North Atlantic Ocean, displayed a range of acclimation responses, including changes in Fe acquisition, storage, and photosynthetic electron transport proteins, substitution of flavodoxin for ferredoxin, and modified photophysiology. Each of these acclimation responses occurred at different Fe threshold concentrations over which growth rate remained remarkably stable. This study demonstrates that genomic streamlining in waters with low nitrogen and phosphorus may favor the loss of Fe acclimation genes when the Fe supply is consistent over time, and expands the regions where Fe stress is thought to occur to most coastal environments.

  5. Ancient Duplications and Expression Divergence in the Globin Gene Superfamily of Vertebrates: Insights from the Elephant Shark Genome and Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Juan C.; Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Burmester, Thorsten; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Storz, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of vertebrate genomes continue to uncover a surprising diversity of genes in the globin gene superfamily, some of which have very restricted phyletic distributions despite their antiquity. Genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) should be especially informative about the duplicative origins and ancestral functions of vertebrate globins, as divergence between Chondrichthyes and bony vertebrates represents the most basal split within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the vertebrate globin gene family that includes the complete globin gene repertoire of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Using genomic sequence data from representatives of all major vertebrate classes, integrated analyses of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships revealed that the last common ancestor of vertebrates possessed a repertoire of at least seven globin genes: single copies of androglobin and neuroglobin, four paralogous copies of globin X, and the single-copy progenitor of the entire set of vertebrate-specific globins. Combined with expression data, the genomic inventory of elephant shark globins yielded four especially surprising findings: 1) there is no trace of the neuroglobin gene (a highly conserved gene that is present in all other jawed vertebrates that have been examined to date), 2) myoglobin is highly expressed in heart, but not in skeletal muscle (reflecting a possible ancestral condition in vertebrates with single-circuit circulatory systems), 3) elephant shark possesses two highly divergent globin X paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in gonads, and 4) elephant shark possesses two structurally distinct α-globin paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in the brain. Expression profiles of elephant shark globin genes reveal distinct specializations of function relative to orthologs in bony vertebrates and suggest hypotheses about

  6. Ancient Duplications and Expression Divergence in the Globin Gene Superfamily of Vertebrates: Insights from the Elephant Shark Genome and Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Juan C; Lee, Alison P; Hoffmann, Federico G; Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Burmester, Thorsten; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Storz, Jay F

    2015-07-01

    Comparative analyses of vertebrate genomes continue to uncover a surprising diversity of genes in the globin gene superfamily, some of which have very restricted phyletic distributions despite their antiquity. Genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) should be especially informative about the duplicative origins and ancestral functions of vertebrate globins, as divergence between Chondrichthyes and bony vertebrates represents the most basal split within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the vertebrate globin gene family that includes the complete globin gene repertoire of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Using genomic sequence data from representatives of all major vertebrate classes, integrated analyses of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships revealed that the last common ancestor of vertebrates possessed a repertoire of at least seven globin genes: single copies of androglobin and neuroglobin, four paralogous copies of globin X, and the single-copy progenitor of the entire set of vertebrate-specific globins. Combined with expression data, the genomic inventory of elephant shark globins yielded four especially surprising findings: 1) there is no trace of the neuroglobin gene (a highly conserved gene that is present in all other jawed vertebrates that have been examined to date), 2) myoglobin is highly expressed in heart, but not in skeletal muscle (reflecting a possible ancestral condition in vertebrates with single-circuit circulatory systems), 3) elephant shark possesses two highly divergent globin X paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in gonads, and 4) elephant shark possesses two structurally distinct α-globin paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in the brain. Expression profiles of elephant shark globin genes reveal distinct specializations of function relative to orthologs in bony vertebrates and suggest hypotheses about

  7. Response to divergent selection for nesting behavior in Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C B

    1980-11-01

    Replicated bidirectional selection (with control lines) for nest-building behavior in Mus musculus, where nesting scores consisted of the total weight of cotton pulled through the cage lid during four days of testing, yielded an eight-fold difference between high and low lines after 15 generations of selection. The overall realized heritability pooled across lines and replicates was 0.18 +/- 0.02 (0.15 +/- 0.03 for high nesting scores and 0.23 +/- 0.04 for low nesting scores), or 0.28 +/- 0.05 when adjusted for within-family selection. Across the 15 generations and the entire experiment, average body weight and number of infertile matings increased, while average litter size decreased, although these changes were not consistent across lines. Inbreeding could account for average decreases in the fertility traits, but there was also a correlated response to selection, since both high lines showed increased litter size and decreased infertile matings.

  8. Divergence in mating signals correlates with genetic distance and behavioural responses to playback.

    PubMed

    Sosa-López, J R; Martínez Gómez, J E; Mennill, D J

    2016-02-01

    Animals use acoustic signals to defend resources against rivals and attract breeding partners. As with many biological traits, acoustic signals may reflect ancestry; closely related species often produce more similar signals than do distantly related species. Whether this similarity in acoustic signals is biologically relevant to animals is poorly understood. We conducted a playback experiment to measure the physical and vocal responses of male songbirds to the songs of both conspecific and allopatric-congeneric animals that varied in their acoustic and genetic similarity. Our subjects were territorial males of four species of neotropical Troglodytes wrens: Brown-throated Wrens (Troglodytes brunneicollis), Cozumel Wrens (T. beani), Clarion Wrens (T. tanneri) and Socorro Wrens (T. sissonii). Our results indicate that birds respond to playback of both conspecific and allopatric-congeneric animals; that acoustic differences increase with genetic distance; and that genetic divergence predicts the strength of behavioural responses to playback, after removing the effects of acoustic similarity between subjects' songs and playback stimuli. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the most distantly related species have the most divergent songs; that male wrens perceive divergence in fine structural characteristics of songs; and that perceptual differences between species reflect evolutionary history. This study offers novel insight into the importance of acoustic divergence of learned signals and receiver responses in species recognition.

  9. Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Stresses in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Simon; Barah, Pankaj; Suarez-Rodriguez, Maria Cristina; Bressendorff, Simon; Friis, Pia; Costantino, Paolo; Bones, Atle M.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Mundy, John

    2013-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses limit agricultural yields, and plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple stresses. Combinations of stresses such as heat and drought or cold and high light intensity have profound effects on crop performance and yields. Thus, delineation of the regulatory networks and metabolic pathways responding to single and multiple concurrent stresses is required for breeding and engineering crop stress tolerance. Many studies have described transcriptome changes in response to single stresses. However, exposure of plants to a combination of stress factors may require agonistic or antagonistic responses or responses potentially unrelated to responses to the corresponding single stresses. To analyze such responses, we initially compared transcriptome changes in 10 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotypes using cold, heat, high-light, salt, and flagellin treatments as single stress factors as well as their double combinations. This revealed that some 61% of the transcriptome changes in response to double stresses were not predic from the responses to single stress treatments. It also showed that plants prioritized between potentially antagonistic responses for only 5% to 10% of the responding transcripts. This indicates that plants have evolved to cope with combinations of stresses and, therefore, may be bred to endure them. In addition, using a subset of this data from the Columbia and Landsberg erecta ecotypes, we have delineated coexpression network modules responding to single and combined stresses. PMID:23447525

  10. Copper response regulator1-dependent and -independent responses of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii transcriptome to dark anoxia.

    PubMed

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Casero, David; Liu, Bensheng; Benning, Christoph; Pellegrini, Matteo; Happe, Thomas; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobiosis is a stress condition for aerobic organisms and requires extensive acclimation responses. We used RNA-Seq for a whole-genome view of the acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to anoxic conditions imposed simultaneously with transfer to the dark. Nearly 1.4 × 10(3) genes were affected by hypoxia. Comparing transcript profiles from early (hypoxic) with those from late (anoxic) time points indicated that cells activate oxidative energy generation pathways before employing fermentation. Probable substrates include amino acids and fatty acids (FAs). Lipid profiling of the C. reinhardtii cells revealed that they degraded FAs but also accumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs). In contrast with N-deprived cells, the TAGs in hypoxic cells were enriched in desaturated FAs, suggesting a distinct pathway for TAG accumulation. To distinguish transcriptional responses dependent on copper response regulator1 (CRR1), which is also involved in hypoxic gene regulation, we compared the transcriptomes of crr1 mutants and complemented strains. In crr1 mutants, ~40 genes were aberrantly regulated, reaffirming the importance of CRR1 for the hypoxic response, but indicating also the contribution of additional signaling strategies to account for the remaining differentially regulated transcripts. Based on transcript patterns and previous results, we conclude that nitric oxide-dependent signaling cascades operate in anoxic C. reinhardtii cells.

  11. Nutrient reduction induced stringent responses promote bacterial quorum-sensing divergence for population fitness

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kelei; Zhou, Xikun; Li, Wujiao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria use a cell-cell communication system termed quorum-sensing (QS) to adjust population size by coordinating the costly but beneficial cooperative behaviors. It has long been suggested that bacterial social conflict for expensive extracellular products may drive QS divergence and cause the “tragedy of the commons”. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of social divergence and its evolutionary consequences for the bacterial ecology still remain largely unknown. By using the model bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, here we show that nutrient reduction can promote QS divergence for population fitness during evolution but requiring adequate cell density. Mechanically, decreased nutrient supplies can induce RpoS-directed stringent response and enhance the selection pressure on lasR gene, and lasR mutants are evolved in association with the DNA mismatch repair “switch-off”. The lasR mutants have higher relative fitness than QS-intact individuals due to their energy-saving characteristic under nutrient decreased condition. Furthermore an optimal incorporation of lasR mutants is capable of maximizing the fitness of entire population during in vitro culture and the colonization in mouse lung. Consequently, rather than worsen the population health, QS-coordinated social divergence is an elaborate evolutionary strategy that renders the entire bacterial population more fit in tough times. PMID:27713502

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence.

    PubMed

    Neave, Matthew J; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A

    2017-02-02

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence

    PubMed Central

    Neave, Matthew J.; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection. PMID:28148967

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of cyclic AMP response in bovine cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, D R; Guillemette, C; Sirard, M A; Richard, F J

    2015-09-01

    Acquisition of oocyte developmental competence needs to be understood to improve clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction. The stimulation of cumulus cell concentration of cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) by pharmacological agents during in vitro maturation (IVM) participates in improvement of oocyte quality. However, precise coordination and downstream targets of cAMP signaling in cumulus cells are largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated better embryo development after cAMP stimulation for first 6 h during IVM. Using this model, we investigated cAMP signaling in cumulus cells through in vitro culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in the presence of cAMP raising agents: forskolin, IBMX, and dipyridamole (here called FID treatment). Transcriptomic analysis of cumulus cells indicated that FID-induced differentially expressed transcripts were implicated in cumulus expansion, steroidogenesis, cell metabolism, and oocyte competence. Functional genomic analysis revealed that protein kinase-A (PKA), extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and calcium (Ca(2+)) pathways as key regulators of FID signaling. Inhibition of PKA (H89) in FID-supplemented COCs or substitution of FID with calcium ionophore (A23187) demonstrated that FID activated primarily the PKA pathway which inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and was upstream of calcium signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by FID supported a regulation by dual specific phosphatase (DUSP1) via PKA. Our findings imply that cAMP (FID) regulates cell metabolism, steroidogenesis, intracellular signaling and cumulus expansion through PKA which modulates these functions through optimization of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and coordination of calcium signaling. These findings have implications for development of new strategies for improving oocyte in vitro maturation leading to better developmental competence.

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of Watermelon Root in Response to Short-Term Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongchao; Mo, Yanling; Yang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Yongqi; Li, Hao; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Osmotic stress adversely affects the growth, fruit quality and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). Increasing the tolerance of watermelon to osmotic stress caused by factors such as high salt and water deficit is an effective way to improve crop survival in osmotic stress environments. Roots are important organs in water absorption and are involved in the initial response to osmosis stress; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanism of tolerance to osmotic stress in watermelon roots. For better understanding of this mechanism, the inbred watermelon accession M08, which exhibits relatively high tolerance to water deficits, was treated with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The root samples were harvested at 6 h after PEG treatment and untreated samples were used as controls. Transcriptome analyses were carried out by Illumina RNA sequencing. A total of 5246 differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene ontology enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses of these 5246 genes showed that short-term osmotic stress affected osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, hormone responses, cell division, cell cycle and ribosome, and M08 may repress root growth to adapt osmotic stress. The results of this study describe the watermelon root transcriptome under osmotic stress and propose new insight into watermelon root responses to osmotic stress at the transcriptome level. Accordingly, these results allow us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of watermelon in response to drought stress and will facilitate watermelon breeding projects to improve drought tolerance. PMID:27861528

  16. Different atmospheric moisture divergence responses to extreme and moderate El Niños

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangzhi; Osborn, Timothy J.; Matthews, Adrian J.; Joshi, Manoj M.

    2016-07-01

    On seasonal and inter-annual time scales, vertically integrated moisture divergence provides a useful measure of the tropical atmospheric hydrological cycle. It reflects the combined dynamical and thermodynamical effects, and is not subject to the limitations that afflict observations of evaporation minus precipitation. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the tropical Pacific moisture divergence fields calculated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis reveals the dominant effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on inter-annual time scales. Two EOFs are necessary to capture the ENSO signature, and regression relationships between their Principal Components and indices of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) demonstrate that the transition from strong La Niña through to extreme El Niño events is not a linear one. The largest deviation from linearity is for the strongest El Niños, and we interpret that this arises at least partly because the EOF analysis cannot easily separate different patterns of responses that are not orthogonal to each other. To overcome the orthogonality constraints, a self-organizing map (SOM) analysis of the same moisture divergence fields was performed. The SOM analysis captures the range of responses to ENSO, including the distinction between the moderate and strong El Niños identified by the EOF analysis. The work demonstrates the potential for the application of SOM to large scale climatic analysis, by virtue of its easier interpretation, relaxation of orthogonality constraints and its versatility for serving as an alternative classification method. Both the EOF and SOM analyses suggest a classification of "moderate" and "extreme" El Niños by their differences in the magnitudes of the hydrological cycle responses, spatial patterns and evolutionary paths. Classification from the moisture divergence point of view shows consistency with results based on other physical variables such as SST.

  17. Transcriptome analyses of Bactericera cockerelli adults in response to "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" infection.

    PubMed

    Nachappa, Punya; Levy, Julien; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia

    2012-10-01

    The potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) is an economically important crop pest that not only causes damage through its feeding but also transmits the bacterium, "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (CLs), which causes zebra chip disease in potato. There is some information about the phenotypic effects of phytopathogenic bacteria on their insect vectors; however, there are no published reports of the molecular mechanisms underlying phytopathogenic bacteria-insect vector interaction. In order to investigate the effects of CLs infection on B. cockerelli, transcriptomic analyses of CLs-infected and uninfected adult psyllids that were reared on potato were performed. De novo assembly of cDNA sequences generated 136,518 and 109,983 contigs for infected and uninfected insect libraries with an average contig length of 514 bp. BlastX analysis against the NCBI-nr database revealed that 33.33 % had significant matches. Gene ontology data illustrated that the majority of the expressed psyllid genes are involved in metabolic process, biological regulation, binding and catalytic activity. The psyllid transcriptome had an abundance of genes such as vitellogenin, heat shock protein, ejaculatory bulb-specific protein, ferritin, and cytochrome oxidase. Notably absent in the psyllid transcriptome were innate immunity genes induced in response to Gram-negative bacteria (IMD pathway). Several functionally diverse contigs related to symbiotic bacteria including the primary endosymbiont Carsonella ruddii, Wolbachia, and CLs in the psyllid transcriptome were identified. A total of 247 contigs showed differential expression in response to CLs infection including immune and stress-related genes and vitellogenins. Expression analyses of selected psyllid genes were performed on psyllids that were exclusively reared on potato (host of the insects used for RNAseq) and psyllids exclusively reared on tomato (alternative host of psyllids). These genes showed similar expression

  18. Differential transcriptomic responses of ancient and modern Daphnia genotypes to phosphorus supply.

    PubMed

    Roy Chowdhury, Priyanka; Frisch, Dagmar; Becker, Dörthe; Lopez, Jacqueline A; Weider, Lawrence J; Colbourne, John K; Jeyasingh, Punidan D

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the role of transcriptomic changes in driving phenotypic evolution in natural populations, particularly in response to anthropogenic environmental change. Previous analyses of Daphnia genotypes separated by centuries of evolution in a lake using methods in resurrection ecology revealed striking genetic and phenotypic shifts that were highly correlated with anthropogenic environmental change, specifically phosphorus (P)-driven nutrient enrichment (i.e. eutrophication). Here, we compared the transcriptomes of two ancient (~700-year-old) and two modern (~10-year-old) genotypes in historic (low P) and contemporary (high P) environmental conditions using microarrays. We found considerable transcriptomic variation between 'ancient' and 'modern' genotypes in both treatments, with stressful (low P) conditions eliciting differential expression (DE) of a larger number of genes. Further, more genes were DE between 'ancient' and 'modern' genotypes than within these groups. Expression patterns of individual genes differed greatly among genotypes, suggesting that different transcriptomic responses can result in similar phenotypes. While this confounded patterns between 'ancient' and 'modern' genotypes at the gene level, patterns were discernible at the functional level: annotation of DE genes revealed particular enrichment of genes involved in metabolic pathways in response to P-treatments. Analyses of gene families suggested significant DE in pathways already known to be important in dealing with P-limitation in Daphnia as well as in other organisms. Such observations on genotypes of a single natural population, separated by hundreds of years of evolution in contrasting environmental conditions before and during anthropogenic environmental changes, highlight the important role of transcriptional mechanisms in the evolutionary responses of populations.

  19. Transcriptomic Immune Response of Tenebrio molitor Pupae to Parasitization by Scleroderma guani

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yang, Pu; Zhang, Zhong; Wu, Guo-Xing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26%) showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. Conclusions/Significance obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular understanding of the host

  20. Transcriptome response to temperature stress in the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Wang, Liang; Cao, Yingshuai; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-20

    The wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata is a dominant predator in paddy ecosystem and an important biological control agent of rice pests. Temperature represents a primary factor influencing its biology and behavior, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. To understand the response of P. pseudoannulata to temperature stress, we performed comparative transcriptome analyses of spider adults exposed to 10°C and 40°C for 12 h. We obtained 67,725 assembled unigenes, 21,765 of which were annotated in P. pseudoannulata transcriptome libraries, and identified 905 and 834 genes significantly up- or down-regulated by temperature stress. Functional categorization revealed the differential regulation of transcription, signal transduction, and metabolism processes. Calcium signaling pathway and metabolic pathway involving respiratory chain components played important roles in adapting to low temperature, whereas at high temperature, oxidative phosphorylation and amino acid metabolism were critical. Differentially expressed ribosomal protein genes contributed to temperature stress adaptation, and heat shock genes were significantly up-regulated. This study represents the first report of transcriptome identification related to the Araneae species in response to temperature stress. These results will greatly facilitate our understanding of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of spiders in response to temperature stress.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of molecular mechanisms responsible for light-stress response in Mythimna separata (Walker).

    PubMed

    Duan, Yun; Gong, ZhongJun; Wu, RenHai; Miao, Jin; Jiang, YueLi; Li, Tong; Wu, XiaoBo; Wu, YuQing

    2017-03-27

    Light is an important environmental signal for most insects. The Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata, is a serious pest of cereal crops worldwide, and is highly sensitive to light signals during its developmental and reproductive stages. However, molecular biological studies of its response to light stress are scarce, and related genomic information is not available. In this study, we sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptomes of M. separata exposed to four different light conditions: dark, white light (WL), UV light (UVL) and yellow light (YL). A total of 46,327 unigenes with an average size of 571 base pairs (bp) were obtained, among which 24,344 (52.55%) matched to public databases. The numbers of genes differentially expressed between dark vs WL, dark vs UVL, dark vs YL, and UVL vs YL were 12,012, 12,950, 14,855, and 13,504, respectively. These results suggest that light exposure altered gene expression patterns in M. separata. Putative genes involved in phototransduction-fly, phototransduction, circadian rhythm-fly, olfactory transduction, and taste transduction were identified. This study thus identified a series of candidate genes and pathways potentially related to light stress in M. separata.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of molecular mechanisms responsible for light-stress response in Mythimna separata (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yun; Gong, ZhongJun; Wu, RenHai; Miao, Jin; Jiang, YueLi; Li, Tong; Wu, XiaoBo; Wu, YuQing

    2017-01-01

    Light is an important environmental signal for most insects. The Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata, is a serious pest of cereal crops worldwide, and is highly sensitive to light signals during its developmental and reproductive stages. However, molecular biological studies of its response to light stress are scarce, and related genomic information is not available. In this study, we sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptomes of M. separata exposed to four different light conditions: dark, white light (WL), UV light (UVL) and yellow light (YL). A total of 46,327 unigenes with an average size of 571 base pairs (bp) were obtained, among which 24,344 (52.55%) matched to public databases. The numbers of genes differentially expressed between dark vs WL, dark vs UVL, dark vs YL, and UVL vs YL were 12,012, 12,950, 14,855, and 13,504, respectively. These results suggest that light exposure altered gene expression patterns in M. separata. Putative genes involved in phototransduction-fly, phototransduction, circadian rhythm-fly, olfactory transduction, and taste transduction were identified. This study thus identified a series of candidate genes and pathways potentially related to light stress in M. separata. PMID:28345615

  3. Cellular responses to HSV-1 infection are linked to specific types of alterations in the host transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Benxia; Li, Xin; Huo, Yongxia; Yu, Yafen; Zhang, Qiuping; Chen, Guijun; Zhang, Yaping; Fraser, Nigel W.; Wu, Dongdong; Zhou, Jumin

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen invasion triggers a number of cellular responses and alters the host transcriptome. Here we report that the type of changes to cellular transcriptome is related to the type of cellular functions affected by lytic infection of Herpes Simplex Virus type I in Human primary fibroblasts. Specifically, genes involved in stress responses and nuclear transport exhibited mostly changes in alternative polyadenylation (APA), cell cycle genes showed mostly alternative splicing (AS) changes, while genes in neurogenesis, rarely underwent these changes. Transcriptome wide, the infection resulted in 1,032 cases of AS, 161 incidences of APA, 1,827 events of isoform changes, and up regulation of 596 genes and down regulations of 61 genes compared to uninfected cells. Thus, these findings provided important and specific links between cellular responses to HSV-1 infection and the type of alterations to the host transcriptome, highlighting important roles of RNA processing in virus-host interactions. PMID:27354008

  4. Transcriptomic response of Drosophila melanogaster pupae developed in hypergravity.

    PubMed

    Hateley, Shannon; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-10-01

    Altered gravity can perturb normal development and induce corresponding changes in gene expression. Understanding this relationship between the physical environment and a biological response is important for NASA's space travel goals. We use RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile changes in early Drosophila melanogaster pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity (3g, or three times Earth's gravity). During the pupal stage, D. melanogaster rely upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupae under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity-dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-treated pupae compared to controls, with 1513 genes showing a significant (q<0.05) difference in gene expression. Five major biological processes were affected: ion transport, redox homeostasis, immune response, proteolysis, and cuticle development. This outlines the underlying molecular and biological changes occurring in Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity; gravity is important for many biological processes on Earth.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Cadmium Stress Response in the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), as well as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≧2.0) and down-regulated (Fold Change ≦0.5) by chronic Cd treatment in S. alfredii Hance (HE) at q-value cutoff of 0.005, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was employed to compare gene expression patterns between S. alfredii Hance (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. PMID:23755133

  6. Transcriptome landscape of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 for nitrogen starvation responses using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Young; Park, Byeonghyeok; Choi, In-Geol; Sim, Sang Jun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-throughput technology using RNA-seq has allowed understanding of cellular mechanisms and regulations of bacterial transcription. In addition, transcriptome analysis with RNA-seq has been used to accelerate strain improvement through systems metabolic engineering. Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a photosynthetic bacterium, has remarkable potential for biochemical and biofuel production due to photoautotrophic cell growth and direct CO2 conversion. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis of S. elongatus PCC 7942 using RNA-seq to understand the changes of cellular metabolism and regulation for nitrogen starvation responses. As a result, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and functionally categorized. With mapping onto metabolic pathways, we probed transcriptional perturbation and regulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolisms relating to nitrogen starvation responses. Experimental evidence such as chlorophyll a and phycobilisome content and the measurement of CO2 uptake rate validated the transcriptome analysis. The analysis suggests that S. elongatus PCC 7942 reacts to nitrogen starvation by not only rearranging the cellular transport capacity involved in carbon and nitrogen assimilation pathways but also by reducing protein synthesis and photosynthesis activities. PMID:27488818

  7. Behavioral, transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to social challenge in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Shpigler, Hagai Y; Saul, Michael C; Murdoch, Emma E; Cash-Ahmed, Amy C; Seward, Christopher H; Sloofman, Laura; Chandrasekaran, Sriram; Sinha, Saurabh; Stubbs, Lisa J; Robinson, Gene E

    2017-03-22

    Understanding how social experiences are represented in the brain and shape future responses is a major challenge in the study of behavior. We addressed this problem by studying behavioral, transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to intrusion in honey bees. Previous research showed that initial exposure to an intruder provokes an immediate attack; we now show that this also leads to longer-term changes in behavior in the response to a second intruder, with increases in the probability of responding aggressively and the intensity of aggression lasting two and one hours, respectively. Previous research also documented the whole-brain transcriptomic response; we now show that in the mushroom bodies (MB) there are two waves of gene expression, the first highlighted by genes related to cytoskeleton remodeling, and the second highlighted by genes related to hormones, stress response and transcription factors (TFs). Overall, 16 out of 37 (43%) of the TFs whose cis-motifs were enriched in the promoters of the differentially expressed genes were also predicted from transcriptional regulatory network analysis to regulate the MB transcriptional response, highlighting the strong role played by a relatively small subset of TFs in the MB's transcriptomic response to social challenge. Whole brain histone profiling revealed few changes in chromatin accessibility in response to social challenge; most differentially expressed genes were "ready" to be activated. These results demonstrate how biological embedding of a social challenge involves temporally dynamic changes in the neurogenomic state of a prominent region of the insect brain that are likely to influence future behavior.

  8. Investigation of the Strawberry Acute Cold Response through Transcriptome Sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) is a valuable perennial crop, yet in most growing regions cold temperature stress can dramatically impinge on fresh fruit production. In the interest of long-term crop improvement it is important to understand the molecular response of strawberry to cold, a...

  9. Transcriptomic Responses in the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis Induced during Exposure to Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Harke, Matthew J.; Jankowiak, Jennifer G.; Morrell, Brooke K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bloom-forming, toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis synthesizes multiple secondary metabolites and has been shown to deter zooplankton grazing. However, the biochemical and/or molecular basis by which Microcystis deters zooplankton remains unclear. This global transcriptomic study explored the response of Microcystis to direct and indirect exposures to multiple densities of two cladoceran grazers, Daphnia pulex and D. magna. Higher densities of both daphnids significantly reduced Microcystis cell densities and elicited a stronger transcriptional response in Microcystis. While many putative grazer deterrence genes (encoding microcystin, aeruginosin, cyanopeptolin, and microviridin) were largely unaffected by zooplankton, transcripts for heat shock proteins (hsp) increased in abundance. Beyond metabolites and hsp, large increases in the abundances of transcripts from photosynthetic processes were observed, evidencing energy acquisition pathways were stimulated by grazing. In addition, transcripts of genes associated with the production of extracellular polysaccharides and gas vesicles significantly increased in abundance. These genes have been associated with colony formation and may have been invoked to deter grazers. Collectively, this study demonstrates that daphnid grazers induce a significant transcriptomic response in Microcystis, suggesting this cyanobacterium upregulates specific biochemical pathways to adapt to predation. IMPORTANCE This work explores the transcriptomic responses of Microcystis aeruginosa following exposure to grazing by two cladocerans, Daphnia magna and D. pulex. Contrary to previous hypotheses, Microcystis did not employ putative grazing deterrent secondary metabolites in response to the cladocerans, suggesting they may have other roles within the cell, such as oxidative stress protection. The transcriptional metabolic signature during intense grazing was largely reflective of a growth and stress response, although increasing

  10. A Rapid Transcriptome Response Is Associated with Desiccation Resistance in Aerially-Exposed Killifish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5–1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical “stress” proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  11. A rapid transcriptome response is associated with desiccation resistance in aerially-exposed killifish embryos.

    PubMed

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5-1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical "stress" proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  12. Transcriptomics and proteomics of drought tolerance in peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two peanut mini-core accessions exhibiting divergent responses to water-deficit stress were identified from a suite of physiological screening assays. In the present study we employed a combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach to study both the primary transcriptional networks and functional...

  13. Global transcriptome analysis of the heat shock response ofshewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Sarah; Liu, Xueduan; Yan, Tinfeng; Wu, Liyou; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam P.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2004-04-30

    Shewanella oneidensis is an important model organism for bioremediation studies because of its diverse respiratory capabilities. However, the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of S. oneidensis to survive and adapt to various environmentally relevant stresses is poorly understood. To define this organism's molecular response to elevated growth temperatures, temporal gene expression profiles were examined in cells subjected to heat stress using whole-genome DNA microarrays for S. oneidensis MR-1. Approximately 15 percent (711) of the predicted S. oneidensis genes represented on the microarray were significantly up- or down-regulated (P < 0.05) over a 25-min period following shift to the heat shock temperature (42 C). As expected, the majority of S. oneidensis genes exhibiting homology to known chaperones and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were highly and transiently induced. In addition, a number of predicted genes encoding enzymes in glycolys is and the pentose cycle, [NiFe] dehydrogenase, serine proteases, transcriptional regulators (MerR, LysR, and TetR families), histidine kinases, and hypothetical proteins were induced in response to heat stress. Genes encoding membrane proteins were differentially expressed, suggesting that cells possibly alter their membrane composition or structure in response to variations in growth temperature. A substantial number of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins displayed down-regulated co-expression patterns in response to heat stress, as did genes encoding prophage and flagellar proteins. Finally, based on computational comparative analysis of the upstream promoter regions of S.oneidensis heat-inducible genes, a putative regulatory motif, showing high conservation to the Escherichia coli sigma 32-binding consensus sequence, was identified.

  14. Transcriptomic and metabolomic shifts in rice roots in response to Cr (VI) stress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Widespread use of chromium (Cr) contaminated fields due to careless and inappropriate management practices of effluent discharge, mostly from industries related to metallurgy, electroplating, production of paints and pigments, tanning, and wood preservation elevates its concentration in surface soil and eventually into rice plants and grains. In spite of many previous studies having been conducted on the effects of chromium stress, the precise molecular mechanisms related to both the effects of chromium phytotoxicity, the defense reactions of plants against chromium exposure as well as translocation and accumulation in rice remain poorly understood. Results Detailed analysis of genome-wide transcriptome profiling in rice root is reported here, following Cr-plant interaction. Such studies are important for the identification of genes responsible for tolerance, accumulation and defense response in plants with respect to Cr stress. Rice root metabolome analysis was also carried out to relate differential transcriptome data to biological processes affected by Cr (VI) stress in rice. To check whether the Cr-specific motifs were indeed significantly over represented in the promoter regions of Cr-responsive genes, occurrence of these motifs in whole genome sequence was carried out. In the background of whole genome, the lift value for these 14 and 13 motifs was significantly high in the test dataset. Though no functional role has been assigned to any of the motifs, but all of these are present as promoter motifs in the Database of orthologus promoters. Conclusion These findings clearly suggest that a complex network of regulatory pathways modulates Cr-response of rice. The integrated matrix of both transcriptome and metabolome data after suitable normalization and initial calculations provided us a visual picture of the correlations between components. Predominance of different motifs in the subsets of genes suggests the involvement of motif

  15. Global Transcriptomic and Proteomic Responses of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes Strain 195 to Fixed Nitrogen Limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Patrick K. H.; Dill, Brian; Louie, Tiffany S.; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Andersen, Gary L.; Zinder, Stephen H.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Dehalococcoides play an important role in the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. A systems level approach was taken in this study to examine the global transcriptomic and proteomic responses of exponentially growing D. ethenogenes strain 195 to fixed nitrogen limitation (FNL) as dechlorination activity and cell yield both decrease during FNL. As expected, the nitrogen-fixing (nif) genes were differentially up-regulated in the transcriptome and proteome of strain 195 during FNL. Aside from the nif operon, a putative methylglyoxal synthase-encoding gene (DET1576), the product of which is predicted to catalyze the formation of the toxic electrophile methylglyoxal and implicated in the uncoupling of anabolism from catabolism in bacteria, was strongly up-regulated in the transcriptome and could potentially play a role in the observed growth inhibition during FNL. Carbon catabolism genes were generally down regulated in response to FNL and a number of transporters were differentially regulated in response to nitrogen limitation, with some playing apparent roles in nitrogen acquisition while others were associated with general stress responses. A number of genes related to the functions of nucleotide synthesis, replication, transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications were also differentially expressed. One gene coding for a putative reductive dehalogenase (DET1545) and a number coding for oxidoreductases, which have implications in energy generation and redox reactions, were also differentially regulated. Interestingly, most of the genes within the multiple integrated elements were not differentially expressed. Overall, this study elucidates the molecular responses of strain 195 to FNL and identifies differentially expressed genes that are potential biomarkers to evaluate environmental cellular nitrogen status.

  16. Differential transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) to bacteria and metazoan parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea, Platyhelminthes)

    PubMed Central

    Adema, Coen M; Hanington, Patrick C.; Lun, Cheng-Man; Rosenberg, George H.; Aragon, Anthony D; Stout, Barbara A; Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Gross, Paul S.; Loker, Eric S

    2009-01-01

    A 70-mer oligonucleotide-based microarray (1152 features) that emphasizes stress and immune responses factors was constructed to study transcriptomic responses of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to different immune challenges. In addition to sequences with relevant putative ID and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the array features non-immune factors and unknown B. glabrata ESTs for functional gene discovery. The transcription profiles of B. glabrata (3 biological replicates, each a pool of 5 snails) were recorded at 12 hours post wounding, exposure to Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus, respectively), or infection with compatible trematode parasites (S. mansoni or E. paraensei, 20 miracidia/snail), relative to controls, using universal reference RNA. The data were subjected to Significance Analysis for Microarrays (SAM), with a false positive rate (FPR) ≤10%. Wounding yielded a modest differential expression profile (27 up/21 down) with affected features mostly dissimilar from other treatments. Partially overlapping, yet distinct expression profiles were recorded from snails challenged with E. coli (83 up/20 down) or M. luteus (120 up/42 down), mostly showing up-regulation of defense and stress-related features. Significantly altered expression of selected immune features indicates that B. glabrata detects and responds differently to compatible trematodes. Echinostoma paraensei infection was associated mostly with down regulation of many (immune-) transcripts (42 up/68 down), whereas S. mansoni exposure yielded a preponderance of up-regulated features (140 up/23 down), with only few known immune genes affected. These observations may reflect the divergent strategies developed by trematodes during their evolution as specialized pathogens of snails to negate host defense responses. Clearly, the immune defenses of B. glabrata distinguish and respond differently to various immune challenges. PMID:19962194

  17. Transcriptome Changes in Hirschfeldia incana in Response to Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Smouni, Abdelaziz; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Béna, Gilles; Doumas, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb). The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a Pb tolerant plant (H. incana) enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall, and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies. PMID:26793211

  18. Transcriptomic responses of Perna viridis embryo to Benzo(a)pyrene exposure elucidated by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiu; Qiu, Liguo; Zhao, Hongwei; Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-11-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis is an ideal biomonitor to evaluate marine environmental pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which is well known for the mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. However, the toxicological effects of BaP on Perna viridis embryo are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the embryo transcriptomic profile of Perna viridis treated with BaP via digital gene expression analysis. A total of 92,362,742 reads were produced from two groups (control and BaP exposure) by whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were used on all genes to determine the biological functions and processes. Genes involved in various molecular pathways of toxicological effects were enriched further. The differential expression genes (DEGs) were related to stress response, infectious disease and innate immunity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) measured expressional levels of six genes confirmed through the DGE analysis. This study reveals that RNA-seq for transcriptome profiling of P. viridis embryo can better understand the embryo toxic effects of BaP. Furthermore, it also suggests that RNA-seq is a superior tool for generating novel and valuable information for revealing the toxic effects caused by BaP at transcriptional level.

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Laribacter hongkongensis Reveals Adaptive Response Coupled with Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hoi-Kuan; Law, Hon-Wai; Liu, Xuan; Law, Carmen O. K.; Pan, Qing; Gao, Lin; Xiong, Lifeng; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Terrence chi kong

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial adaptation to different hosts requires transcriptomic alteration in response to the environmental conditions. Laribacter hongkongensis is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, urease-positive bacillus caused infections in liver cirrhosis patients and community-acquired gastroenteritis. It was also found in intestine from commonly consumed freshwater fishes and drinking water reservoirs. Since L. hongkongensis could survive as either fish or human pathogens, their survival mechanisms in two different habitats should be temperature-regulated and highly complex. Therefore, we performed transcriptomic analysis of L. hongkongensis at body temperatures of fish and human in order to elucidate the versatile adaptation mechanisms coupled with the temperatures. We identified numerous novel temperature-induced pathways involved in host pathogenesis, in addition to the shift of metabolic equilibriums and overexpression of stress-related proteins. Moreover, these pathways form a network that can be activated at a particular temperature, and change the physiology of the bacteria to adapt to the environments. In summary, the dynamic of transcriptomes in L. hongkongensis provides versatile strategies for the bacterial survival at different habitats and this alteration prepares the bacterium for the challenge of host immunity. PMID:28085929

  20. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tiedke, Jessica; Borner, Janus; Beeck, Hendrik; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schmidt, Hanno; Thiel, Ralf; Fabrizius, Andrej; Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h) on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus). First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain) from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8%) were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold). In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3%) proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp). 20,860 contigs (26.93%) had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp). 20,127 contigs (40.87%) had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26273839

  1. Global transcriptomic responses of Escherichia coli K-12 to volatile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Pui Yi; Grasso, Letizia Lo; Mohidin, Abeed Fatima; Acerbi, Enzo; Hinks, Jamie; Seviour, Thomas; Marsili, Enrico; Lauro, Federico M.

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly used as solvents in various industrial settings. Many of them present a challenge to receiving environments, due to their toxicity and low bioavailability for degradation. Microorganisms are capable of sensing and responding to their surroundings and this makes them ideal detectors for toxic compounds. This study investigates the global transcriptomic responses of Escherichia coli K-12 to selected VOCs at sub-toxic levels. Cells grown in the presence of VOCs were harvested during exponential growth, followed by whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNAseq). The analysis of the data revealed both shared and unique genetic responses compared to cells without exposure to VOCs. Results suggest that various functional gene categories, for example, those relating to Fe/S cluster biogenesis, oxidative stress responses and transport proteins, are responsive to selected VOCs in E. coli. The differential expression (DE) of genes was validated using GFP-promoter fusion assays. A variety of genes were differentially expressed even at non-inhibitory concentrations and when the cells are at their balanced-growth. Some of these genes belong to generic stress response and others could be specific to VOCs. Such candidate genes and their regulatory elements could be used as the basis for designing biosensors for selected VOCs. PMID:26818886

  2. Stem transcriptome reveals mechanisms to reduce the energetic cost of shade-avoidance responses in tomato.

    PubMed

    Cagnola, Juan Ignacio; Ploschuk, Edmundo; Benech-Arnold, Tomás; Finlayson, Scott A; Casal, Jorge José

    2012-10-01

    While the most conspicuous response to low red/far-red ratios (R:FR) of shade light perceived by phytochrome is the promotion of stem growth, additional, less obvious effects may be discovered by studying changes in the stem transcriptome. Here, we report rapid and reversible stem transcriptome responses to R:FR in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). As expected, low R:FR promoted the expression of growth-related genes, including those involved in the metabolism of cell wall carbohydrates and in auxin responses. In addition, genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, isoprenoid metabolism, and photosynthesis (dark reactions) were overrepresented in clusters showing reduced expression in the stem of low R:FR-treated plants. Consistent with these responses, low R:FR decreased the levels of flavonoids (anthocyanin, quercetin, kaempferol) and selected isoprenoid derivatives (chlorophyll, carotenoids) in the stem and severely reduced the photosynthetic capacity of this organ. However, lignin contents were unaffected. Low R:FR reduced the stem levels of jasmonate, which is a known inducer of flavonoid synthesis. The rate of stem respiration was also reduced in low R:FR-treated plants, indicating that by downsizing the stem photosynthetic apparatus and the levels of photoprotective pigments under low R:FR, tomato plants reduce the energetic cost of shade-avoidance responses.

  3. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates

    PubMed Central

    Giovannetti, Marco; Mari, Alfredo; Novero, Mara; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) germinated spore exudates (GSEs), responsible for activating nuclear Ca2+ spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (COs; acknowledged AM fungal signals) and long COs (as activators of pathogenic responses). This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 h and a subsequent down-regulation after 48 h. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be up-regulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long COs activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs. PMID:26175746

  4. Whole Blood Transcriptomics Is Relevant to Identify Molecular Changes in Response to Genetic Selection for Feed Efficiency and Nutritional Status in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Jégou, Maëva; Gondret, Florence; Vincent, Annie; Tréfeu, Christine; Gilbert, Hélène; Louveau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying feed efficiency need to be better understood to improve animal efficiency, a research priority to support a competitive and sustainable livestock production. This study was undertaken to determine whether pig blood transcriptome was affected by differences in feed efficiency and by ingested nutrients. Growing pigs from two lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) and fed isoproteic and isocaloric diets contrasted in energy source and nutrients were considered. Between 74 and 132 days of age, pigs (n = 12 by diet and by line) received a regular diet rich in cereals and low in fat (LF) or a diet where cereals where partially substituted by lipids and fibers (HF). At the end of the feeding trial, the total number of white blood cells was not affected by the line or by the diet, whereas the red blood cell number was higher (P<0.001) in low RFI than in high RFI pigs. Analysis of the whole blood transcriptome using a porcine microarray reveals a higher number of probes differentially expressed (DE) between RFI lines than between diets (2,154 versus 92 probes DE, P<0.01). This corresponds to 528 overexpressed genes and 477 underexpressed genes in low RFI pigs compared with high RFI pigs, respectively. Overexpressed genes were predominantly associated with translational elongation. Underexpressed genes were mainly involved in the immune response, regulation of inflammatory response, anti-apoptosis process, and cell organization. These findings suggest that selection for RFI has affected the immune status and defense mechanisms of pigs. Genes DE between diets were mainly related to the immune system and lipid metabolism. Altogether, this study demonstrates the usefulness of the blood transcriptome to identify the main biological processes affected by genetic selection and feeding strategies. PMID:26752050

  5. Generation of a reference transcriptome for evaluating rainbow trout responses to various stressors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fish under intensive culture conditions are exposed to a variety of acute and chronic stressors, including high rearing densities, sub-optimal water quality, and severe thermal fluctuations. Such stressors are inherent in aquaculture production and can induce physiological responses with adverse effects on traits important to producers and consumers, including those associated with growth, nutrition, reproduction, immune response, and fillet quality. Understanding and monitoring the biological mechanisms underlying stress responses will facilitate alleviating their negative effects through selective breeding and changes in management practices, resulting in improved animal welfare and production efficiency. Results Physiological responses to five treatments associated with stress were characterized by measuring plasma lysozyme activity, glucose, lactate, chloride, and cortisol concentrations, in addition to stress-associated transcripts by quantitative PCR. Results indicate that the fish had significant stressor-specific changes in their physiological conditions. Sequencing of a pooled normalized transcriptome library created from gill, brain, liver, spleen, kidney and muscle RNA of control and stressed fish produced 3,160,306 expressed sequence tags which were assembled and annotated. SNP discovery resulted in identification of ~58,000 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms including 24,479 which were predicted to fall within exons. Of these, 4907 were predicted to occupy the first position of a codon and 4110 the second, increasing the probability to impact amino acid sequence variation and potentially gene function. Conclusion We have generated and characterized a reference transcriptome for rainbow trout that represents multiple tissues responding to multiple stressors common to aquaculture production environments. This resource compliments existing public transcriptome data and will facilitate approaches aiming to evaluate gene expression

  6. Early Transcriptomic Response to LDL and oxLDL in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damián-Zamacona, Salvador; Toledo-Ibelles, Paola; Ibarra-Abundis, Mabel Z.; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Macedo-Alcibia, Karla Paola; Delgado–Coello, Blanca; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Although nowadays it is well known that the human transcriptome can importantly vary according to external or environmental condition, the reflection of this concept when studying oxidative stress and its direct relationship with gene expression profiling during the process of atherogenesis has not been thoroughly achieved. Objective The ability to analyze genome-wide gene expression through transcriptomics has shown that the genome responds dynamically to diverse stimuli. Here, we describe the transcriptome of human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC) stimulated by native and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (nLDL and oxLDL respectively), with the aim of assessing the early molecular changes that induce a response in this cell type resulting in a transcriptomic transformation. This expression has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques in vivo and in vitro, particularly in the light of the oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis. Approach and Results Total RNA was isolated with TRIzol reagent (Life Technologies) and quality estimated using an Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer. The transcriptome of hVSMC under different experimental conditions (1,5 and 24 hours for nLDL and oxLDL) was obtained using the GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST (Affymetrix) designed to measure gene expression of 28,869 well-annotated genes. A fixed fold-change cut-off corresponding to ± 2 was used to identify genes exhibiting the most significant variation and statistical significance (P< 0.05), and 8 genes validated by qPCR using Taqman probes. Conclusions 10 molecular processes were significantly affected in hVSMC: Apoptosis and cell cycle, extracellular matrix remodeling, DNA repair, cholesterol efflux, cGMP biosynthesis, endocytic mechanisms, calcium homeostasis, redox balance, membrane trafficking and finally, the immune response to inflammation. The evidence we present supporting the hypothesis for the involvement of oxidative modification of several processes and

  7. Rapid genetic divergence in response to 15 years of simulated climate change.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Catherine H; Whitlock, Raj; Fridley, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity may play an important role in allowing individual species to resist climate change, by permitting evolutionary responses. Our understanding of the potential for such responses to climate change remains limited, and very few experimental tests have been carried out within intact ecosystems. Here, we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data to assess genetic divergence and test for signatures of evolutionary change driven by long-term simulated climate change applied to natural grassland at Buxton Climate Change Impacts Laboratory (BCCIL). Experimental climate treatments were applied to grassland plots for 15 years using a replicated and spatially blocked design and included warming, drought and precipitation treatments. We detected significant genetic differentiation between climate change treatments and control plots in two coexisting perennial plant study species (Festuca ovina and Plantago lanceolata). Outlier analyses revealed a consistent signature of selection associated with experimental climate treatments at individual AFLP loci in P. lanceolata, but not in F. ovina. Average background differentiation at putatively neutral AFLP loci was close to zero, and genomewide genetic structure was associated neither with species abundance changes (demography) nor with plant community-level responses to long-term climate treatments. Our results demonstrate genetic divergence in response to a suite of climatic environments in reproductively mature populations of two perennial plant species and are consistent with an evolutionary response to climatic selection in P. lanceolata. These genetic changes have occurred in parallel with impacts on plant community structure and may have contributed to the persistence of individual species through 15 years of simulated climate change at BCCIL.

  8. Thymus transcriptome reveals novel pathways in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, H.; Liu, P.; Nolan, L. K.; Lamont, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause significant morbidity in chickens. The thymus provides the essential environment for T cell development; however, the thymus transcriptome has not been examined for gene expression in response to APEC infection. An improved understanding of the host genomic response to APEC infection could inform future breeding programs for disease resistance and APEC control. We therefore analyzed the transcriptome of the thymus of birds challenged with APEC, contrasting susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Thousands of genes were differentially expressed in birds of the 5-day post infection (dpi) challenged-susceptible group vs. 5 dpi non-challenged, in 5 dpi challenged-susceptible vs. 5 dpi challenged-resistant birds, as well as in 5 dpi vs. one dpi challenged-susceptible birds. The Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was the major innate immune response for birds to respond to APEC infection. Moreover, lysosome and cell adhesion molecules pathways were common mechanisms for chicken response to APEC infection. The T-cell receptor signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathways were significantly activated in resistant birds to resist APEC infection. These results provide a comprehensive assessment of global gene networks and biological functionalities of differentially expressed genes in the thymus under APEC infection. These findings provide novel insights into key molecular genetic mechanisms that differentiate host resistance from susceptibility in this primary lymphoid tissue, the thymus. PMID:27466434

  9. Seasonal and latitudinal acclimatization of cardiac transcriptome responses to thermal stress in porcelain crabs, Petrolisthes cinctipes.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Tagmount, Abderrahmane

    2009-10-01

    Central predictions of climate warming models include increased climate variability and increased severity of heat waves. Physiological acclimatization in populations across large-scale ecological gradients in habitat temperature fluctuation is an important factor to consider in detecting responses to climate change related increases in thermal fluctuation. We measured in vivo cardiac thermal maxima and used microarrays to profile transcriptome heat and cold stress responses in cardiac tissue of intertidal zone porcelain crabs across biogeographic and seasonal gradients in habitat temperature fluctuation. We observed acclimatization dependent induction of heat shock proteins, as well as unknown genes with heat shock protein-like expression profiles. Thermal acclimatization had the largest effect on heat stress responses of extensin-like, beta tubulin, and unknown genes. For these genes, crabs acclimatized to thermally variable sites had higher constitutive expression than specimens from low variability sites, but heat stress dramatically induced expression in specimens from low variability sites and repressed expression in specimens from highly variable sites. Our application of ecological transcriptomics has yielded new biomarkers that may represent sensitive indicators of acclimatization to habitat temperature fluctuation. Our study also has identified novel genes whose further description may yield novel understanding of cellular responses to thermal acclimatization or thermal stress.

  10. Acid and base stress and transcriptomic responses in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Jessica C; Kitko, Ryan D; Cleeton, Sarah H; Lee, Grace E; Ugwu, Chinagozi S; Jones, Brian D; BonDurant, Sandra S; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2009-02-01

    Acid and base environmental stress responses were investigated in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis AG174 cultures in buffered potassium-modified Luria broth were switched from pH 8.5 to pH 6.0 and recovered growth rapidly, whereas cultures switched from pH 6.0 to pH 8.5 showed a long lag time. Log-phase cultures at pH 6.0 survived 60 to 100% at pH 4.5, whereas cells grown at pH 7.0 survived <15%. Cells grown at pH 9.0 survived 40 to 100% at pH 10, whereas cells grown at pH 7.0 survived <5%. Thus, growth in a moderate acid or base induced adaptation to a more extreme acid or base, respectively. Expression indices from Affymetrix chip hybridization were obtained for 4,095 protein-encoding open reading frames of B. subtilis grown at external pH 6, pH 7, and pH 9. Growth at pH 6 upregulated acetoin production (alsDS), dehydrogenases (adhA, ald, fdhD, and gabD), and decarboxylases (psd and speA). Acid upregulated malate metabolism (maeN), metal export (czcDO and cadA), oxidative stress (catalase katA; OYE family namA), and the SigX extracytoplasmic stress regulon. Growth at pH 9 upregulated arginine catabolism (roc), which generates organic acids, glutamate synthase (gltAB), polyamine acetylation and transport (blt), the K(+)/H(+) antiporter (yhaTU), and cytochrome oxidoreductases (cyd, ctaACE, and qcrC). The SigH, SigL, and SigW regulons were upregulated at high pH. Overall, greater genetic adaptation was seen at pH 9 than at pH 6, which may explain the lag time required for growth shift to high pH. Low external pH favored dehydrogenases and decarboxylases that may consume acids and generate basic amines, whereas high external pH favored catabolism-generating acids.

  11. Geographic divergence and colour change in response to visual backgrounds and illumination intensity in bearded dragons.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Viviana; Smith, Kathleen R; Endler, John A; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2017-03-15

    Animals may improve camouflage by both dynamic colour change and local evolutionary adaptation of colour but we have little understanding of their relative importance in colour-changing species. We tested for differences in colour change in response to background colour and light intensity in two populations of central bearded dragon lizards (Pogona vitticeps) representing the extremes in body coloration and geographical range. We found that bearded dragons change colour in response to various backgrounds and that colour change is affected by illumination intensity. Within-individual colour change was similar in magnitude in the two populations but varied between backgrounds. However, at the endpoints of colour change, each population showed greater similarity to backgrounds that were representative of the local habitat compared with the other population, indicating local adaptation to visual backgrounds. Our results suggest that even in species that change colour, both phenotypic plasticity and geographic divergence of coloration may contribute to improved camouflage.

  12. Divergent Transcriptional Responses to Physiological and Xenobiotic Stress in Giardia duodenalis

    PubMed Central

    McConville, Malcolm J.; Baker, Louise; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Emery, Samantha J.; Svärd, Staffan G.; Gasser, Robin B.; Jex, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how parasites respond to stress can help to identify essential biological processes. Giardia duodenalis is a parasitic protist that infects the human gastrointestinal tract and causes 200 to 300 million cases of diarrhea annually. Metronidazole, a major antigiardial drug, is thought to cause oxidative damage within the infective trophozoite form. However, treatment efficacy is suboptimal, due partly to metronidazole-resistant infections. To elucidate conserved and stress-specific responses, we calibrated sublethal metronidazole, hydrogen peroxide, and thermal stresses to exert approximately equal pressure on trophozoite growth and compared transcriptional responses after 24 h of exposure. We identified 252 genes that were differentially transcribed in response to all three stressors, including glycolytic and DNA repair enzymes, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, high-cysteine membrane proteins, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetase, and histone modification enzymes. Transcriptional responses appeared to diverge according to physiological or xenobiotic stress. Downregulation of the antioxidant system and α-giardins was observed only under metronidazole-induced stress, whereas upregulation of GARP-like transcription factors and their subordinate genes was observed in response to hydrogen peroxide and thermal stressors. Limited evidence was found in support of stress-specific response elements upstream of differentially transcribed genes; however, antisense derepression and differential regulation of RNA interference machinery suggest multiple epigenetic mechanisms of transcriptional control. PMID:27458219

  13. The salt-responsive transcriptome of chickpea roots and nodules via deepSuperSAGE

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The combination of high-throughput transcript profiling and next-generation sequencing technologies is a prerequisite for genome-wide comprehensive transcriptome analysis. Our recent innovation of deepSuperSAGE is based on an advanced SuperSAGE protocol and its combination with massively parallel pyrosequencing on Roche's 454 sequencing platform. As a demonstration of the power of this combination, we have chosen the salt stress transcriptomes of roots and nodules of the third most important legume crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). While our report is more technology-oriented, it nevertheless addresses a major world-wide problem for crops generally: high salinity. Together with low temperatures and water stress, high salinity is responsible for crop losses of millions of tons of various legume (and other) crops. Continuously deteriorating environmental conditions will combine with salinity stress to further compromise crop yields. As a good example for such stress-exposed crop plants, we started to characterize salt stress responses of chickpeas on the transcriptome level. Results We used deepSuperSAGE to detect early global transcriptome changes in salt-stressed chickpea. The salt stress responses of 86,919 transcripts representing 17,918 unique 26 bp deepSuperSAGE tags (UniTags) from roots of the salt-tolerant variety INRAT-93 two hours after treatment with 25 mM NaCl were characterized. Additionally, the expression of 57,281 transcripts representing 13,115 UniTags was monitored in nodules of the same plants. From a total of 144,200 analyzed 26 bp tags in roots and nodules together, 21,401 unique transcripts were identified. Of these, only 363 and 106 specific transcripts, respectively, were commonly up- or down-regulated (>3.0-fold) under salt stress in both organs, witnessing a differential organ-specific response to stress. Profiting from recent pioneer works on massive cDNA sequencing in chickpea, more than 9,400 UniTags were able to be linked to

  14. 454 Pyrosequencing of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Transcriptome in Response to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Sarropoulou, Elena; Spano, Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region. The expansion of cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water has negative effects on growth and productivity however the investigation of the molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive trees has been only recently initiated. To this end, we investigated the molecular response of cultivar Kalamon to salinity stress using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the transcriptome profile of olive leaves and roots and identify differentially expressed genes that are related to salt tolerance response. Out of 291,958 obtained trimmed reads, 28,270 unique transcripts were identified of which 35% are annotated, a percentage that is comparable to similar reports on non-model plants. Among the 1,624 clusters in roots that comprise more than one read, 24 were differentially expressed comprising 9 down- and 15 up-regulated genes. Respectively, inleaves, among the 2,642 clusters, 70 were identified as differentially expressed, with 14 down- and 56 up-regulated genes. Using next-generation sequencing technology we were able to identify salt-response-related transcripts. Furthermore we provide an annotated transcriptome of olive as well as expression data, which are both significant tools for further molecular studies in olive. PMID:26576008

  15. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of Oenococcus oeni PSU-1 response to ethanol shock.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Nair; Champomier-Vergès, Marie; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; Cordero-Otero, Ricardo; Bordons, Albert; Zagorec, Monique; Reguant, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    The correct development of malolactic fermentation depends on the capacity of Oenococcus oeni to survive under harsh wine conditions. The presence of ethanol is one of the most stressful factors affecting O. oeni performance. In this study, the effect of ethanol addition (12% vol/vol) on O. oeni PSU-1 has been evaluated using a transcriptomic and proteomic approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the main functional categories of the genes affected by ethanol were metabolite transport and cell wall and membrane biogenesis. It was also observed that some genes were over-expressed in response to ethanol stress (for example, the heat shock protein Hsp20 and a dipeptidase). Proteomic analysis showed that several proteins are affected by the presence of ethanol. Functions related to protein synthesis and stability are the main target of ethanol damage. In some cases the decrease in protein concentration could be due to the relocation of cytosolic proteins in the membrane, as a protective mechanism. The omic approach used to study the response of O. oeni to ethanol highlights the importance of the cell membrane in the global stress response and opens the door to future studies on this issue.

  16. 454 Pyrosequencing of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Transcriptome in Response to Salinity.

    PubMed

    Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E; Sarropoulou, Elena; Spano, Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region. The expansion of cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water has negative effects on growth and productivity however the investigation of the molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive trees has been only recently initiated. To this end, we investigated the molecular response of cultivar Kalamon to salinity stress using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the transcriptome profile of olive leaves and roots and identify differentially expressed genes that are related to salt tolerance response. Out of 291,958 obtained trimmed reads, 28,270 unique transcripts were identified of which 35% are annotated, a percentage that is comparable to similar reports on non-model plants. Among the 1,624 clusters in roots that comprise more than one read, 24 were differentially expressed comprising 9 down- and 15 up-regulated genes. Respectively, inleaves, among the 2,642 clusters, 70 were identified as differentially expressed, with 14 down- and 56 up-regulated genes. Using next-generation sequencing technology we were able to identify salt-response-related transcripts. Furthermore we provide an annotated transcriptome of olive as well as expression data, which are both significant tools for further molecular studies in olive.

  17. Divergent androgen regulation of unfolded protein response pathways drives prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xia; Arnoldussen, Yke Jildouw; Storm, Margrethe; Tesikova, Martina; Nenseth, Hatice Zeynep; Zhao, Sen; Fazli, Ladan; Rennie, Paul; Risberg, Bjørn; Wæhre, Håkon; Danielsen, Håvard; Mills, Ian G; Jin, Yang; Hotamisligil, Gökhan; Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic mechanism to maintain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function. The UPR is activated by various physiological conditions as well as in disease states, such as cancer. As androgens regulate secretion and development of the normal prostate and drive prostate cancer (PCa) growth, they may affect UPR pathways. Here, we show that the canonical UPR pathways are directly and divergently regulated by androgens in PCa cells, through the androgen receptor (AR), which is critical for PCa survival. AR bound to gene regulatory sites and activated the IRE1α branch, but simultaneously inhibited PERK signaling. Inhibition of the IRE1α arm profoundly reduced PCa cell growth in vitro as well as tumor formation in preclinical models of PCa in vivo. Consistently, AR and UPR gene expression were correlated in human PCa, and spliced XBP-1 expression was significantly upregulated in cancer compared with normal prostate. These data establish a genetic switch orchestrated by AR that divergently regulates the UPR pathways and suggest that targeting IRE1α signaling may have therapeutic utility in PCa. PMID:25864123

  18. Bayesian Network Inference Enables Unbiased Phenotypic Anchoring of Transcriptomic Responses to Cigarette Smoke in Humans.

    PubMed

    Jennen, Danyel G J; van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Hendrickx, Diana M; Gottschalk, Ralph W H; van Delft, Joost H M; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2015-10-19

    Microarray-based transcriptomic analysis has been demonstrated to hold the opportunity to study the effects of human exposure to, e.g., chemical carcinogens at the whole genome level, thus yielding broad-ranging molecular information on possible carcinogenic effects. Since genes do not operate individually but rather through concerted interactions, analyzing and visualizing networks of genes should provide important mechanistic information, especially upon connecting them to functional parameters, such as those derived from measurements of biomarkers for exposure and carcinogenic risk. Conventional methods such as hierarchical clustering and correlation analyses are frequently used to address these complex interactions but are limited as they do not provide directional causal dependence relationships. Therefore, our aim was to apply Bayesian network inference with the purpose of phenotypic anchoring of modified gene expressions. We investigated a use case on transcriptomic responses to cigarette smoking in humans, in association with plasma cotinine levels as biomarkers of exposure and aromatic DNA-adducts in blood cells as biomarkers of carcinogenic risk. Many of the genes that appear in the Bayesian networks surrounding plasma cotinine, and to a lesser extent around aromatic DNA-adducts, hold biologically relevant functions in inducing severe adverse effects of smoking. In conclusion, this study shows that Bayesian network inference enables unbiased phenotypic anchoring of transcriptomics responses. Furthermore, in all inferred Bayesian networks several dependencies are found which point to known but also to new relationships between the expression of specific genes, cigarette smoke exposure, DNA damaging-effects, and smoking-related diseases, in particular associated with apoptosis, DNA repair, and tumor suppression, as well as with autoimmunity.

  19. Physiological and Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Elevated CO2 and Magnesium in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yaofang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Tang, Caixian; Guo, Longbiao; Yu, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration and injudicious fertilization or heterogeneous distribution of Mg in the soil warrant further research to understand the synergistic and holistic mechanisms involved in the plant growth regulation. This study investigated the influence of elevated CO2 (800 μL L−1) on physiological and transcriptomic profiles in Arabidopsis cultured in hydroponic media treated with 1 μM (low), 1000 μM (normal) and 10000 μM (high) Mg2+. Following 7-d treatment, elevated CO2 increased the shoot growth and chlorophyll content under both low and normal Mg supply, whereas root growth was improved exclusively under normal Mg nutrition. Notably, the effect of elevated CO2 on mineral homeostasis in both shoots and roots was less than that of Mg supply. Irrespective of CO2 treatment, high Mg increased number of young leaf but decreased root growth and absorption of P, K, Ca, Fe and Mn whereas low Mg increased the concentration of P, K, Ca and Fe in leaves. Transcriptomics results showed that elevated CO2 decreased the expression of genes related to cell redox homeostasis, cadmium response, and lipid localization, but enhanced signal transduction, protein phosphorylation, NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins and subsequently programmed cell death in low-Mg shoots. By comparison, elevated CO2 enhanced the response of lipid localization (mainly LTP transfer protein/protease inhibitor), endomembrane system, heme binding and cell wall modification in high-Mg roots. Some of these transcriptomic results are substantially in accordance with our physiological and/or biochemical analysis. The present findings broaden our current understanding on the interactive effect of elevated CO2 and Mg levels in the Arabidopsis, which may help to design the novel metabolic engineering strategies to cope with Mg deficiency/excess in crops under elevated CO2. PMID:26881808

  20. Comparative tissue transcriptomics reveal prompt inter-organ communication in response to local bacterial kidney infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mucosal infections elicit inflammatory responses via regulated signaling pathways. Infection outcome depends strongly on early events occurring immediately when bacteria start interacting with cells in the mucosal membrane. Hitherto reported transcription profiles on host-pathogen interactions are strongly biased towards in vitro studies. To detail the local in vivo genetic response to infection, we here profiled host gene expression in a recent experimental model that assures high spatial and temporal control of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection within the kidney of a live rat. Results Transcriptional profiling of tissue biopsies from UPEC-infected kidney tissue revealed 59 differentially expressed genes 8 h post-infection. Their relevance for the infection process was supported by a Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Early differential expression at 3 h and 5 h post-infection was of low statistical significance, which correlated to the low degree of infection. Comparative transcriptomics analysis of the 8 h data set and online available studies of early local infection and inflammation defined a core of 80 genes constituting a "General tissue response to early local bacterial infections". Among these, 25% were annotated as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulated. Subsequent experimental analyses confirmed a systemic increase of IFN-γ in rats with an ongoing local kidney infection, correlating to splenic, rather than renal Ifng induction and suggested this inter-organ communication to be mediated by interleukin (IL)-23. The use of comparative transcriptomics allowed expansion of the statistical data handling, whereby relevant data could also be extracted from the 5 h data set. Out of the 31 differentially expressed core genes, some represented specific 5 h responses, illustrating the value of comparative transcriptomics when studying the dynamic nature of gene regulation in response to infections. Conclusion Our hypothesis-free approach identified

  1. Divergent responses of exposed and naive Pacific tree frog tadpoles to invasive predatory crayfish.

    PubMed

    Pease, Katherine M; Wayne, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Invasive predators can devastate native species and ecosystems. However, native species may be able to coexist with invasive predators through a variety of mechanisms, such as changes in morphology or behavior due to a plastic response or selection on fixed anti-predator traits. We examined whether exposed and naive populations of Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Pseudacris regilla) display divergent morphological and behavioral traits in response to the invasive predatory red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Tadpoles were collected from three study streams with and three without crayfish, in the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California. We analyzed tadpole morphology and tested anti-predator behavior and survival in the laboratory. Tadpoles from streams with crayfish had shallower, narrower tails than tadpoles from streams without crayfish. Tadpoles from streams with and without crayfish were less active after exposure to crayfish chemical cues. The divergent morphology of naive and exposed tadpoles is consistent with tadpoles exhibiting a plastic response to crayfish or undergoing selection from crayfish predation. In laboratory predation experiments, we found no difference in survival between tadpoles from streams with and without crayfish but tadpoles that survived predation had deeper tail muscles than those that were killed or injured. Our results suggest that deeper tails are advantageous in the presence of crayfish, yet tadpoles from crayfish streams had shallower tails than those from crayfish-free streams. Shallower tails may have an alternative unmeasured advantage or there may be a physiological constraint to developing deeper tails in the wild. These results highlight the ability of a native frog to respond to an invasive predatory crayfish, potentially allowing for coexistence.

  2. Transcriptomic Changes Drive Physiological Responses to Progressive Drought Stress and Rehydration in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Iovieno, Paolo; Punzo, Paola; Guida, Gianpiero; Mistretta, Carmela; Van Oosten, Michael J.; Nurcato, Roberta; Bostan, Hamed; Colantuono, Chiara; Costa, Antonello; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Chiusano, Maria L.; Albrizio, Rossella; Giorio, Pasquale; Batelli, Giorgia; Grillo, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a major crop in the Mediterranean basin, where the cultivation in the open field is often vulnerable to drought. In order to adapt and survive to naturally occurring cycles of drought stress and recovery, plants employ a coordinated array of physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses. Transcriptomic studies on tomato responses to drought and subsequent recovery are few in number. As the search for novel traits to improve the genetic tolerance to drought increases, a better understanding of these responses is required. To address this need we designed a study in which we induced two cycles of prolonged drought stress and a single recovery by rewatering in tomato. In order to dissect the complexity of plant responses to drought, we analyzed the physiological responses (stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation, and chlorophyll fluorescence), abscisic acid (ABA), and proline contents. In addition to the physiological and metabolite assays, we generated transcriptomes for multiple points during the stress and recovery cycles. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the conditions has revealed potential novel components in stress response. The observed reduction in leaf gas exchanges and efficiency of the photosystem PSII was concomitant with a general down-regulation of genes belonging to the photosynthesis, light harvesting, and photosystem I and II category induced by drought stress. Gene ontology (GO) categories such as cell proliferation and cell cycle were also significantly enriched in the down-regulated fraction of genes upon drought stress, which may contribute to explain the observed growth reduction. Several histone variants were also repressed during drought stress, indicating that chromatin associated processes are also affected by drought. As expected, ABA accumulated after prolonged water deficit, driving the observed enrichment of stress related GOs in the up-regulated gene fractions, which included transcripts

  3. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Currie, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout. We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response but provided insight into stress-coping styles and environmental stress. HR fish also had a significantly greater and faster heat shock response and less oxidative protein damage than LR fish. Despite these clear differences in the physiological and cellular responses to heat shock, there were no differences in the thermal tolerance of HR and LR fish. Our results support the hypothesis that responsiveness to environmental change underpins the physiological differences in stress-coping styles. Here, we demonstrate that the heat shock response is a distinguishing feature of the HR and LR lines and suggest that it may have been coselected with the hormonal responses to stress.

  4. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed organelle specific responses to temperature variations in algae

    PubMed Central

    Shin, HyeonSeok; Hong, Seong-Joo; Yoo, Chan; Han, Mi-Ae; Lee, Hookeun; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Cho, Suhyung; Lee, Choul-Gyun; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is a critical environmental factor that affects microalgal growth. However, microalgal coping mechanisms for temperature variations are unclear. Here, we determined changes in transcriptome, total carbohydrate, total fatty acid methyl ester, and fatty acid composition of Tetraselmis sp. KCTC12432BP, a strain with a broad temperature tolerance range, to elucidate the tolerance mechanisms in response to large temperature variations. Owing to unavailability of genome sequence information, de novo transcriptome assembly coupled with BLAST analysis was performed using strand specific RNA-seq data. This resulted in 26,245 protein-coding transcripts, of which 83.7% could be annotated to putative functions. We identified more than 681 genes differentially expressed, suggesting an organelle-specific response to temperature variation. Among these, the genes related to the photosynthetic electron transfer chain, which are localized in the plastid thylakoid membrane, were upregulated at low temperature. However, the transcripts related to the electron transport chain and biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine localized in mitochondria were upregulated at high temperature. These results show that the low energy uptake by repressed photosynthesis under low and high temperature conditions is compensated by different mechanisms, including photosystem I and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. This study illustrates that microalgae tolerate different temperature conditions through organelle specific mechanisms. PMID:27883062

  5. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Lactococcus garvieae Strains in Response to Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Aguado-Urda, Mónica; Gibello, Alicia; Blanco, M. del Mar; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F.; López-Alonso, Victoria; López-Campos, Guillermo H.

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus garvieae is an important fish and an opportunistic human pathogen. The genomic sequences of several L. garvieae strains have been recently published, opening the possibility of global studies on the biology of this pathogen. In this study, a whole genome DNA microarray of two strains of L. garvieae was designed and validated. This DNA microarray was used to investigate the effects of growth temperature (18°C and 37°C) on the transcriptome of two clinical strains of L. garvieae that were isolated from fish (Lg8831) and from a human case of septicemia (Lg21881). The transcriptome profiles evidenced a strain-specific response to temperature, which was more evident at 18°C. Among the most significant findings, Lg8831 was found to up-regulate at 18°C several genes encoding different cold-shock and cold-induced proteins involved in an efficient adaptive response of this strain to low-temperature conditions. Another relevant result was the description, for the first time, of respiratory metabolism in L. garvieae, whose gene expression regulation was temperature-dependent in Lg21881. This study provides new insights about how environmental factors such as temperature can affect L. garvieae gene expression. These data could improve our understanding of the regulatory networks and adaptive biology of this important pathogen. PMID:24223997

  6. Suboptimal evolutionary novel environments promote singular altered gravity responses of transcriptome during Drosophila metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous experiments have shown that the reduced gravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene expression. These changes were shown to be intimately linked to environmental space-flight related constraints. Results Here, we use an array of different techniques for ground-based simulation of microgravity effects to assess the effect of suboptimal environmental conditions on the gene expression of Drosophila in reduced gravity. A global and integrative analysis, using “gene expression dynamics inspector” (GEDI) self-organizing maps, reveals different degrees in the responses of the transcriptome when using different environmental conditions or microgravity/hypergravity simulation devices. Although the genes that are affected are different in each simulation technique, we find that the same gene ontology groups, including at least one large multigene family related with behavior, stress response or organogenesis, are over represented in each case. Conclusions These results suggest that the transcriptome as a whole can be finely tuned to gravity force. In optimum environmental conditions, the alteration of gravity has only mild effects on gene expression but when environmental conditions are far from optimal, the gene expression must be tuned greatly and effects become more robust, probably linked to the lack of experience of organisms exposed to evolutionary novel environments such as a gravitational free one. PMID:23806134

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud in response to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier attacks

    PubMed Central

    Giovino, Antonio; Bertolini, Edoardo; Fileccia, Veronica; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Labra, Massimo; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) threatens most palm species worldwide. Until now, no studies have analyzed the gene regulatory networks of Phoenix canariensis (Chabaud) in response to RPW attacks. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Providing this basic knowledge is very important to improve its management. Results: A deep transcriptome analysis was performed on fully expanded leaves of healthy non-infested trees and attacked trees at two symptom stages (middle and late infestation). A total of 54 genes were significantly regulated during middle stage. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that phenylpropanoid-related pathways were induced at this stage. More than 3300 genes were affected during late stage of attacks. Higher transcript abundances were observed for lipid fatty acid metabolism (fatty acid and glycerolipids), tryptophan metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism. Key RPW-modulated genes involved in innate response mediated by hormone crosstalk were observed belonging to auxin, jasmonate and salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Among transcription factors, some WRKYs were clearly induced. qRT-PCR validation confirmed the upregulation of key genes chosen as validation of transcriptomic analysis. Conclusion: A subset of these genes may be further analyzed in future studies to confirm their specificity to be induced by RPW infestations. PMID:26528297

  8. Midgut transcriptome response to a Cry toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lei, Yanyuan; Zhu, Xun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Guo, Zhaojiang; Xu, Baoyun; Li, Xianchun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the response of Plutella xylostella transcriptome in defending against a Bt toxin, high-throughput RNA-sequencing was carried out to examine Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant strains. The comparative analysis indentified over 2900 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) between these two strains. Gene Ontology analysis placed these unigenes primarily into cell, cell part, organelle, binding, catalytic, cellular process, metabolic process, and response to stimulus categories. Based on pathway analyses, DEUs were enriched in oxidoreductase activity and membrane lipid metabolic processes, and they were also significantly enriched in pathways related to the metabolic and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Most of the unigenes involved in the metabolic pathway were up-regulated in resistant strains. Within the ABC transporter pathway, majority of the down-regulated unigenes belong to ABCC2 and ABCC10, respectively, while up-regulated unigenes were mainly categorized as ABCG2. Furthermore, two aminopeptidases, and four cadherins encoding genes were significantly elevated as well. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional characterization of genes involved in the Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, P. xylostella.

  9. In vivo gut transcriptome responses to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus in neonatal gnotobiotic piglets

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Liu, Zhe; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics facilitate mucosal repair and maintain gut homeostasis. They are often used in adjunct with rehydration or antibiotic therapy in enteric infections. Lactobacillus spp have been tested in infants for the prevention or treatment of various enteric conditions. However, to aid in rational strain selection for specific treatments, comprehensive studies are required to delineate and compare the specific molecules and pathways involved in a less complex but biologically relevant model (gnotobiotic pigs). Here we elucidated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) and L. acidophilus (LA) specific effects on gut transcriptome responses in a neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model to simulate responses in newly colonized infants. Whole genome microarray, followed by biological pathway reconstruction, was used to investigate the host-microbe interactions in duodenum and ileum at early (day 1) and later stages (day 7) of colonization. Both LA and LGG modulated common responses related to host metabolism, gut integrity, and immunity, as well as responses unique to each strain in Gn pigs. Our data indicated that probiotic establishment and beneficial effects in the host are guided by: (1) down-regulation or upregulation of immune function-related genes in the early and later stages of colonization, respectively, and (2) alternations in metabolism of small molecules (vitamins and/or minerals) and macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Pathways related to immune modulation and carbohydrate metabolism were more affected by LGG, whereas energy and lipid metabolism-related transcriptome responses were prominently modulated by LA. These findings imply that identification of probiotic strain-specific gut responses could facilitate the rational design of probiotic-based interventions to moderate specific enteric conditions. PMID:24637605

  10. A Transcriptomic Network Underlies Microstructural and Physiological Responses to Cadmium in Populus × canescens1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiali; Li, Hong; Luo, Jie; Ma, Chaofeng; Li, Shaojun; Qu, Long; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea; Tyree, Melvin; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Bark tissue of Populus × canescens can hyperaccumulate cadmium, but microstructural, transcriptomic, and physiological response mechanisms are poorly understood. Histochemical assays, transmission electron microscopic observations, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis, and transcriptomic and physiological analyses have been performed to enhance our understanding of cadmium accumulation and detoxification in P. × canescens. Cadmium was allocated to the phloem of the bark, and subcellular cadmium compartmentalization occurred mainly in vacuoles of phloem cells. Transcripts involved in microstructural alteration, changes in nutrition and primary metabolism, and stimulation of stress responses showed significantly differential expression in the bark of P. × canescens exposed to cadmium. About 48% of the differentially regulated transcripts formed a coregulation network in which 43 hub genes played a central role both in cross talk among distinct biological processes and in coordinating the transcriptomic regulation in the bark of P. × canescens in response to cadmium. The cadmium transcriptome in the bark of P. × canescens was mirrored by physiological readouts. Cadmium accumulation led to decreased total nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium and increased sulfur in the bark. Cadmium inhibited photosynthesis, resulting in decreased carbohydrate levels. Cadmium induced oxidative stress and antioxidants, including free proline, soluble phenolics, ascorbate, and thiol compounds. These results suggest that orchestrated microstructural, transcriptomic, and physiological regulation may sustain cadmium hyperaccumulation in P. × canescens bark and provide new insights into engineering woody plants for phytoremediation. PMID:23530184

  11. GABAergic signaling induces divergent neuronal Ca2+ responses in the suprachiasmatic nucleus network

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular communication between γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons facilitates light-induced phase changes and synchronization of individual neural oscillators within the SCN network. We used ratiometric Ca2+ imaging techniques to record changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) to study the role of GABA in interneuronal communication and the response of the SCN neuronal network to optic nerve stimulations that mimic entraining light signals. Stimulation of the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) evoked divergent Ca2+ responses in neurons that varied regionally within the SCN with a pattern that correlated with those evoked by pharmacological GABA applications. GABAA and GABAB receptor agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate components of the GABA-induced changes in [Ca2+]i. Application of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine induced changes in baseline [Ca2+]i in a direction opposite to that evoked by GABA, and similarly altered the RHT stimulation-induced Ca2+ response. GABA application induced Ca2+ responses varied in time and region within the SCN network. The NKCC1 cotransporter blocker, bumetanide, and L-type calcium channel blocker, nimodipine, attenuated the GABA-induced rise of [Ca2+]i. These results suggest that physiological GABA induces opposing effects on [Ca2+]i based on the chloride equilibrium potential, and may play an important role in neuronal Ca2+ balance, synchronization and modulation of light input signaling in the SCN network. PMID:19821838

  12. Generally detected genes in comparative transcriptomics in bivalves: toward the identification of molecular markers of cellular stress response.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jingjing; Chi, Luping; Pan, Luqing; Song, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The specificity and representativeness of protein-coding genes identified by transcriptomics as biomarkers for environmental toxicological stress is crucial. We extracted the differential gene expression profile data from 49 published comparative transcriptomic studies of bivalves from January 2004 till November 2014 performed in 15 different bivalve species. Among the studies, 77 protein-coding genes were frequently detected when we use threefold of the average detection frequency as cut-off. Cellular organization and communication, protein and energy metabolism, stress response are the main functional classes of these proteins. We consider if these protein-coding genes represent common cellular stress responses of bivalves.

  13. Transcriptomic response of maize primary roots to low temperatures at seedling emergence

    PubMed Central

    Di Fenza, Mauro; Hogg, Bridget; Grant, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Background Maize (Zea mays) is a C4 tropical cereal and its adaptation to temperate climates can be problematic due to low soil temperatures at early stages of establishment. Methods In the current study we have firstly investigated the physiological response of twelve maize varieties, from a chilling condition adapted gene pool, to sub-optimal growth temperature during seedling emergence. To identify transcriptomic markers of cold tolerance in already adapted maize genotypes, temperature conditions were set below the optimal growth range in both control and low temperature groups. The conditions were as follows; control (18 °C for 16 h and 12 °C for 8 h) and low temperature (12 °C for 16 h and 6 °C for 8 h). Four genotypes were identified from the condition adapted gene pool with significant contrasting chilling tolerance. Results Picker and PR39B29 were the more cold-tolerant lines and Fergus and Codisco were the less cold-tolerant lines. These four varieties were subjected to microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes under chilling conditions. Exposure to low temperature during establishment in the maize varieties Picker, PR39B29, Fergus and Codisco, was reflected at the transcriptomic level in the varieties Picker and PR39B29. No significant changes in expression were observed in Fergus and Codisco following chilling stress. A total number of 64 genes were differentially expressed in the two chilling tolerant varieties. These two varieties exhibited contrasting transcriptomic profiles, in which only four genes overlapped. Discussion We observed that maize varieties possessing an enhanced root growth ratio under low temperature were more tolerant, which could be an early and inexpensive measure for germplasm screening under controlled conditions. We have identified novel cold inducible genes in an already adapted maize breeding gene pool. This illustrates that further varietal selection for enhanced chilling tolerance is possible in

  14. Insights into Vibrio parahaemolyticus CHN25 Response to Artificial Gastric Fluid Stress by Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuejiao; Liu, Taigang; Peng, Xu; Chen, Lanming

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the causative agent of food-borne gastroenteritis disease. Once consumed, human acid gastric fluid is perhaps one of the most important environmental stresses imposed on the bacterium. Herein, for the first time, we investigated Vibrio parahaemolyticus CHN25 response to artificial gastric fluid (AGF) stress by transcriptomic analysis. The bacterium at logarithmic growth phase (LGP) displayed lower survival rates than that at stationary growth phase (SGP) under a sub-lethal acid condition (pH 4.9). Transcriptome data revealed that 11.6% of the expressed genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus CHN25 was up-regulated in LGP cells after exposed to AGF (pH 4.9) for 30 min, including those involved in sugar transport, nitrogen metabolism, energy production and protein biosynthesis, whereas 14.0% of the genes was down-regulated, such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and flagellar biosynthesis genes. In contrast, the AGF stress only elicited 3.4% of the genes from SGP cells, the majority of which were attenuated in expression. Moreover, the number of expressed regulator genes was also substantially reduced in SGP cells. Comparison of transcriptome profiles further revealed forty-one growth-phase independent genes in the AGF stress, however, half of which displayed distinct expression features between the two growth phases. Vibrio parahaemolyticus seemed to have evolved a number of molecular strategies for coping with the acid stress. The data here will facilitate future studies for environmental stresses and pathogenicity of the leading seafood-borne pathogen worldwide. PMID:25490137

  15. The response of Isidorella newcombi to copper exposure: Using an integrated biological framework to interpret transcriptomic responses from RNA-seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Ubrihien, Rodney P; Ezaz, Tariq; Taylor, Anne M; Stevens, Mark M; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon; Maher, William A

    2017-04-01

    This study describes the transcriptomic response of the Australian endemic freshwater gastropod Isidorella newcombi exposed to 80±1μg/L of copper for 3days. Analysis of copper tissue concentration, lysosomal membrane destabilisation and RNA-seq were conducted. Copper tissue concentrations confirmed that copper was bioaccumulated by the snails. Increased lysosomal membrane destabilisation in the copper-exposed snails indicated that the snails were stressed as a result of the exposure. Both copper tissue concentrations and lysosomal destabilisation were significantly greater in snails exposed to copper. In order to interpret the RNA-seq data from an ecotoxicological perspective an integrated biological response model was developed that grouped transcriptomic responses into those associated with copper transport and storage, survival mechanisms and cell death. A conceptual model of expected transcriptomic changes resulting from the copper exposure was developed as a basis to assess transcriptomic responses. Transcriptomic changes were evident at all the three levels of the integrated biological response model. Despite lacking statistical significance, increased expression of the gene encoding copper transporting ATPase provided an indication of increased internal transport of copper. Increased expression of genes associated with endocytosis are associated with increased transport of copper to the lysosome for storage in a detoxified form. Survival mechanisms included metabolic depression and processes associated with cellular repair and recycling. There was transcriptomic evidence of increased cell death by apoptosis in the copper-exposed organisms. Increased apoptosis is supported by the increase in lysosomal membrane destabilisation in the copper-exposed snails. Transcriptomic changes relating to apoptosis, phagocytosis, protein degradation and the lysosome were evident and these processes can be linked to the degradation of post-apoptotic debris. The study

  16. Transcriptomes of Eight Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions Reveal Core Conserved, Genotype- and Organ-Specific Responses to Flooding Stress.

    PubMed

    van Veen, Hans; Vashisht, Divya; Akman, Melis; Girke, Thomas; Mustroph, Angelika; Reinen, Emilie; Hartman, Sjon; Kooiker, Maarten; van Tienderen, Peter; Schranz, M Eric; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2016-10-01

    Climate change has increased the frequency and severity of flooding events, with significant negative impact on agricultural productivity. These events often submerge plant aerial organs and roots, limiting growth and survival due to a severe reduction in light reactions and gas exchange necessary for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. To distinguish molecular responses to the compound stress imposed by submergence, we investigated transcriptomic adjustments to darkness in air and under submerged conditions using eight Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions differing significantly in sensitivity to submergence. Evaluation of root and rosette transcriptomes revealed an early transcriptional and posttranscriptional response signature that was conserved primarily across genotypes, although flooding susceptibility-associated and genotype-specific responses also were uncovered. Posttranscriptional regulation encompassed darkness- and submergence-induced alternative splicing of transcripts from pathways involved in the alternative mobilization of energy reserves. The organ-specific transcriptome adjustments reflected the distinct physiological status of roots and shoots. Root-specific transcriptome changes included marked up-regulation of chloroplast-encoded photosynthesis and redox-related genes, whereas those of the rosette were related to the regulation of development and growth processes. We identified a novel set of tolerance genes, recognized mainly by quantitative differences. These included a transcriptome signature of more pronounced gluconeogenesis in tolerant accessions, a response that included stress-induced alternative splicing. This study provides organ-specific molecular resolution of genetic variation in submergence responses involving interactions between darkness and low-oxygen constraints of flooding stress and demonstrates that early transcriptome plasticity, including alternative splicing, is associated with the ability to cope

  17. Transcriptomes of Eight Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions Reveal Core Conserved, Genotype- and Organ-Specific Responses to Flooding Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Veen, Hans; Vashisht, Divya; Akman, Melis; Girke, Thomas; Mustroph, Angelika; Reinen, Emilie; Kooiker, Maarten; van Tienderen, Peter; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has increased the frequency and severity of flooding events, with significant negative impact on agricultural productivity. These events often submerge plant aerial organs and roots, limiting growth and survival due to a severe reduction in light reactions and gas exchange necessary for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. To distinguish molecular responses to the compound stress imposed by submergence, we investigated transcriptomic adjustments to darkness in air and under submerged conditions using eight Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions differing significantly in sensitivity to submergence. Evaluation of root and rosette transcriptomes revealed an early transcriptional and posttranscriptional response signature that was conserved primarily across genotypes, although flooding susceptibility-associated and genotype-specific responses also were uncovered. Posttranscriptional regulation encompassed darkness- and submergence-induced alternative splicing of transcripts from pathways involved in the alternative mobilization of energy reserves. The organ-specific transcriptome adjustments reflected the distinct physiological status of roots and shoots. Root-specific transcriptome changes included marked up-regulation of chloroplast-encoded photosynthesis and redox-related genes, whereas those of the rosette were related to the regulation of development and growth processes. We identified a novel set of tolerance genes, recognized mainly by quantitative differences. These included a transcriptome signature of more pronounced gluconeogenesis in tolerant accessions, a response that included stress-induced alternative splicing. This study provides organ-specific molecular resolution of genetic variation in submergence responses involving interactions between darkness and low-oxygen constraints of flooding stress and demonstrates that early transcriptome plasticity, including alternative splicing, is associated with the ability to cope

  18. Transcriptome analysis of a bacterially induced basal and hypersensitive response of Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Bozsó, Zoltán; Maunoury, Nicolas; Szatmari, Agnes; Mergaert, Peter; Ott, Péter G; Zsíros, László R; Szabó, Erika; Kondorosi, Eva; Klement, Zoltán

    2009-08-01

    Research using the well-studied model legume Medicago truncatula has largely focused on rhizobium symbiosis, while little information is currently available for this species on pathogen-induced transcriptome changes. We have performed a transcriptome analysis of this species with the objective of studying the basal (BR, no visible symptoms) and hypersensitive response (HR, plant cell death) in its leaves at 6 and at 24 h after infection by HR-negative (hrcC mutant) and HR-inducing Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains, respectively. Although there were no visible symptoms at the BR, the alterations in gene expression were comparable to those found with the HR. Both responses resulted in the transcriptional alteration of hundreds of plant genes; however, the responses in the HR were usually more intense. The reactions to HR-inducing and HR-negative bacterial strains were significantly overlapping. Parallel up- or down-regulation of genes with the same function occurred frequently. However, some plant processes were regulated in one direction; for example, most of the protein synthesis-related genes were activated and all of the photosynthetic/chloroplast genes were suppressed during BR. The possible roles of several functional classes (e.g., cell rescue, signaling, defense, cell death, etc.) of transcriptionally altered genes are discussed. The results of the comparison with available mycorrhizal and nodule expression data show that there is a significant overlap between nodulation and the leaf defense response and that during the early stage of the nodulation in roots, Sinorhizobium meliloti induces a fluctuation in the transcription of BR- and HR-responsive genes.

  19. Transcriptome profiling of the UV-B stress response in the desert shrub Lycium ruthenicum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haikui; Feng, Yang; Wang, Lina; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Crabbe, M James C; Zhang, Xiu; Zhong, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is a natural component of the solar radiation. Due to its high energy, low dosages of UV-B can bring huge potential damage effect to organisms. Despite much research that has analyzed the gene expression changes of plants that under UV-B radiation, the transcriptome response of Lycium ruthenicum under the UV-B induction is still un-available. The aim of our study was to identify UV-B responsive genes and gain an insight into the underlying genetic basis of the pathobiology of UV-B related damage. We collected leaf samples from L. ruthenicum with and without UV-B exposure, and then performed a transcriptome profiling to comprehensively investigate their expression signatures. By employing the high throughput RNA-sequencing analysis of samples with and without UV-B exposure, we identified 1,913 up-regulated and 536 down-regulated genes at least by twofold changes. The activity of antioxidant enzyme related genes, including the superoxide dismutase, was decreased, genes related to the synthesis of secondary metabolites and defense responses, such as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, chalcone-flavanone isomerase and dihydroflavonol reductase were also downregulated. The expression patterns of 14 randomly selected genes resulted from quantitative real-time PCR were basically consistent with their transcript abundance changes identified by RNA-sequencing. We found that several biological pathways related to biotic and abiotic stresses, including cell defense, photosynthesis processes, energy metabolism, were involved in the process of UV-B stress response. A genome-wide screening of gene deregulation under UV-B induction would provide an insight into the understanding of the molecular bases and pathogenesis of UV-B responses.

  20. Integrating Transcriptomic and Proteomic Data Using Predictive Regulatory Network Models of Host Response to Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chasman, Deborah; Walters, Kevin B; Lopes, Tiago J S; Eisfeld, Amie J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Roy, Sushmita

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian host response to pathogenic infections is controlled by a complex regulatory network connecting regulatory proteins such as transcription factors and signaling proteins to target genes. An important challenge in infectious disease research is to understand molecular similarities and differences in mammalian host response to diverse sets of pathogens. Recently, systems biology studies have produced rich collections of omic profiles measuring host response to infectious agents such as influenza viruses at multiple levels. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory network driving host response to multiple infectious agents, we integrated host transcriptomes and proteomes using a network-based approach. Our approach combines expression-based regulatory network inference, structured-sparsity based regression, and network information flow to infer putative physical regulatory programs for expression modules. We applied our approach to identify regulatory networks, modules and subnetworks that drive host response to multiple influenza infections. The inferred regulatory network and modules are significantly enriched for known pathways of immune response and implicate apoptosis, splicing, and interferon signaling processes in the differential response of viral infections of different pathogenicities. We used the learned network to prioritize regulators and study virus and time-point specific networks. RNAi-based knockdown of predicted regulators had significant impact on viral replication and include several previously unknown regulators. Taken together, our integrated analysis identified novel module level patterns that capture strain and pathogenicity-specific patterns of expression and helped identify important regulators of host response to influenza infection.

  1. Integrating Transcriptomic and Proteomic Data Using Predictive Regulatory Network Models of Host Response to Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chasman, Deborah; Walters, Kevin B.; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Roy, Sushmita

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian host response to pathogenic infections is controlled by a complex regulatory network connecting regulatory proteins such as transcription factors and signaling proteins to target genes. An important challenge in infectious disease research is to understand molecular similarities and differences in mammalian host response to diverse sets of pathogens. Recently, systems biology studies have produced rich collections of omic profiles measuring host response to infectious agents such as influenza viruses at multiple levels. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory network driving host response to multiple infectious agents, we integrated host transcriptomes and proteomes using a network-based approach. Our approach combines expression-based regulatory network inference, structured-sparsity based regression, and network information flow to infer putative physical regulatory programs for expression modules. We applied our approach to identify regulatory networks, modules and subnetworks that drive host response to multiple influenza infections. The inferred regulatory network and modules are significantly enriched for known pathways of immune response and implicate apoptosis, splicing, and interferon signaling processes in the differential response of viral infections of different pathogenicities. We used the learned network to prioritize regulators and study virus and time-point specific networks. RNAi-based knockdown of predicted regulators had significant impact on viral replication and include several previously unknown regulators. Taken together, our integrated analysis identified novel module level patterns that capture strain and pathogenicity-specific patterns of expression and helped identify important regulators of host response to influenza infection. PMID:27403523

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of the Green Alga Spirogyra pratensis (Charophyta) Suggests an Ancestral Role for Ethylene in Cell Wall Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Abiotic Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that ethylene regulates a diverse set of developmental and stress-related processes in angiosperms, yet its roles in early-diverging embryophytes and algae are poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that ethylene functions as a hormone in the charophyte green alga Spirogyra pratensis. Since land plants evolved from charophytes, this implies conservation of ethylene as a hormone in green plants for at least 450 million years. However, the physiological role of ethylene in charophyte algae has remained unknown. To gain insight into ethylene responses in Spirogyra, we used mRNA sequencing to measure changes in gene expression over time in Spirogyra filaments in response to an ethylene treatment. Our analyses show that at the transcriptional level, ethylene predominantly regulates three processes in Spirogyra: (1) modification of the cell wall matrix by expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases, (2) down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis, and (3) activation of abiotic stress responses. We confirmed that the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content were reduced by an ethylene treatment and that several abiotic stress conditions could stimulate cell elongation in an ethylene-dependent manner. We also found that the Spirogyra transcriptome harbors only 10 ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) homologs, several of which are regulated by ethylene. These results provide an initial understanding of the hormonal responses induced by ethylene in Spirogyra and help to reconstruct the role of ethylene in ancestral charophytes prior to the origin of land plants. PMID:27489312

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of the Green Alga Spirogyra pratensis (Charophyta) Suggests an Ancestral Role for Ethylene in Cell Wall Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Van de Poel, Bram; Cooper, Endymion D; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Chang, Caren; Delwiche, Charles F

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that ethylene regulates a diverse set of developmental and stress-related processes in angiosperms, yet its roles in early-diverging embryophytes and algae are poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that ethylene functions as a hormone in the charophyte green alga Spirogyra pratensis Since land plants evolved from charophytes, this implies conservation of ethylene as a hormone in green plants for at least 450 million years. However, the physiological role of ethylene in charophyte algae has remained unknown. To gain insight into ethylene responses in Spirogyra, we used mRNA sequencing to measure changes in gene expression over time in Spirogyra filaments in response to an ethylene treatment. Our analyses show that at the transcriptional level, ethylene predominantly regulates three processes in Spirogyra: (1) modification of the cell wall matrix by expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases, (2) down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis, and (3) activation of abiotic stress responses. We confirmed that the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content were reduced by an ethylene treatment and that several abiotic stress conditions could stimulate cell elongation in an ethylene-dependent manner. We also found that the Spirogyra transcriptome harbors only 10 ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) homologs, several of which are regulated by ethylene. These results provide an initial understanding of the hormonal responses induced by ethylene in Spirogyra and help to reconstruct the role of ethylene in ancestral charophytes prior to the origin of land plants.

  4. Transcriptomic response of Enterococcus faecalis V583 to low hydrogen peroxide levels.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Verneuil, Nicolas; Gilmore, Michael S; Artigaud, Sébastien; Auffray, Yanick; Pichereau, Vianney

    2015-02-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of human and other mammals, but is also increasingly recognized as an opportunistic human pathogen. Oxidative stress is one of the major challenges encountered by enterococci, both in their natural environment and during infection. In this paper, we evaluated the transcriptomic response of E. faecalis to oxidative stress, and showed that transcript abundance was reduced for 93 genes and increased for 39 genes during growth in medium containing 1.75 mM H2O2. The presence of hydrogen peroxide affected several metabolic pathways, including a large decrease in ethanolamine utilization and methylglyoxal metabolism, and an increase in transcript abundance for several transport systems. In particular, four operons encoding iron transporters appeared highly induced. By contrast, in our experimental conditions, the expression of most of the genes known to be involved in the enterococcal response to oxidative stress, did not appear significantly altered.

  5. Shared Selective Pressures on Fungal and Human Metabolic Pathways Lead to Divergent yet Analogous Genetic Responses.

    PubMed

    Eidem, Haley R; McGary, Kriston L; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-06-01

    Reduced metabolic efficiency, toxic intermediate accumulation, and deficits of molecular building blocks, which all stem from disruptions of flux through metabolic pathways, reduce organismal fitness. Although these represent shared selection pressures across organisms, the genetic signatures of the responses to them may differ. In fungi, a frequently observed signature is the physical linkage of genes from the same metabolic pathway. In contrast, human metabolic genes are rarely tightly linked; rather, they tend to show tissue-specific coexpression. We hypothesized that the physical linkage of fungal metabolic genes and the tissue-specific coexpression of human metabolic genes are divergent yet analogous responses to the range of selective pressures imposed by disruptions of flux. To test this, we examined the degree to which the human homologs of physically linked metabolic genes in fungi (fungal linked homologs or FLOs) are coexpressed across six human tissues. We found that FLOs are significantly more correlated in their expression profiles across human tissues than other metabolic genes. We obtained similar results in analyses of the same six tissues from chimps, gorillas, orangutans, and macaques. We suggest that when selective pressures remain stable across large evolutionary distances, evidence of selection in a given evolutionary lineage can become a highly reliable predictor of the signature of selection in another, even though the specific adaptive response in each lineage is markedly different.

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum L. in response to sap sucking insects: aphid and whitefly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major fiber crop that is grown worldwide; it faces extensive damage from sap-sucking insects, including aphids and whiteflies. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular details of interaction between Gossypium hirsutum L. and sap-sucking pests, namely Aphis gossypii (Aphid) and Bemisia tabacci (Whiteflies). Roche’s GS-Titanium was used to sequence transcriptomes of cotton infested with aphids and whiteflies for 2 h and 24 h. Results A total of 100935 contigs were produced with an average length of 529 bp after an assembly in all five selected conditions. The Blastn of the non-redundant (nr) cotton EST database resulted in the identification of 580 novel contigs in the cotton plant. It should be noted that in spite of minimal physical damage caused by the sap-sucking insects, they can change the gene expression of plants in 2 h of infestation; further change in gene expression due to whiteflies is quicker than due to aphids. The impact of the whitefly 24 h after infestation was more or less similar to that of the aphid 2 h after infestation. Aphids and whiteflies affect many genes that are regulated by various phytohormones and in response to microbial infection, indicating the involvement of complex crosstalk between these pathways. The KOBAS analysis of differentially regulated transcripts in response to aphids and whiteflies indicated that both the insects induce the metabolism of amino acids biosynthesis specially in case of whiteflies infestation at later phase. Further we also observed that expression of transcript related to photosynthesis specially carbon fixation were significantly influenced by infestation of Aphids and Whiteflies. Conclusions A comparison of different transcriptomes leads to the identification of differentially and temporally regulated transcripts in response to infestation by aphids and whiteflies. Most of these differentially expressed contigs were

  7. Transcriptome analysis reveals strong and complex antiviral response in a mollusc.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Jouaux, Aude; Ford, Susan E; Lelong, Christophe; Sourdaine, Pascal; Mathieu, Michel; Guo, Ximing

    2015-09-01

    Viruses are highly abundant in the oceans, and how filter-feeding molluscs without adaptive immunity defend themselves against viruses is not well understood. We studied the response of a mollusc Crassostrea gigas to Ostreid herpesvirus 1 µVar (OsHV-1μVar) infections using transcriptome sequencing. OsHV-1μVar can replicate extremely rapidly after challenge of C. gigas as evidenced by explosive viral transcription and DNA synthesis, which peaked at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation, respectively, accompanied by heavy oyster mortalities. At 120 h post-injection, however, viral gene transcription and DNA load, and oyster mortality, were greatly reduced indicating an end of active infections and effective control of viral replication in surviving oysters. Transcriptome analysis of the host revealed strong and complex responses involving the activation of all major innate immune pathways that are equipped with expanded and often novel receptors and adaptors. Novel Toll-like receptor (TLR) and MyD88-like genes lacking essential domains were highly up-regulated in the oyster, possibly interfering with TLR signal transduction. RIG-1/MDA5 receptors for viral RNA, interferon-regulatory factors, tissue necrosis factors and interleukin-17 were highly activated and likely central to the oyster's antiviral response. Genes related to anti-apoptosis, oxidation, RNA and protein destruction were also highly up-regulated, while genes related to anti-oxidation were down-regulated. The oxidative burst induced by the up-regulation of oxidases and severe down-regulation of anti-oxidant genes may be important for the destruction of viral components, but may also exacerbate oyster mortality. This study provides unprecedented insights into antiviral response in a mollusc. The mobilization and complex regulation of expanded innate immune-gene families highlights the oyster genome's adaptation to a virus-rich marine environment.

  8. Transcriptomic Responses to Salinity Stress in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuelin; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Li, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Background Low salinity is one of the main factors limiting the distribution and survival of marine species. As a euryhaline species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is considered to be tolerant to relative low salinity. The genes that regulate C. gigas responses to osmotic stress were monitored using the next-generation sequencing of whole transcriptome with samples taken from gills. By RNAseq technology, transcript catalogs of up- and down-regulated genes were generated from the oysters exposed to low and optimal salinity seawater. Methodology/Principal Findings Through Illumina sequencing, we reported 1665 up-regulated transcripts and 1815 down-regulated transcripts. A total of 45771 protein-coding contigs were identified from two groups based on sequence similarities with known proteins. As determined by GO annotation and KEGG pathway mapping, functional annotation of the genes recovered diverse biological functions and processes. The genes that changed expression significantly were highly represented in cellular process and regulation of biological process, intracellular and cell, binding and protein binding according to GO annotation. The results highlighted genes related to osmoregulation, signaling and interactions of osmotic stress response, anti-apoptotic reactions as well as immune response, cell adhesion and communication, cytoskeleton and cell cycle. Conclusions/Significance Through more than 1.5 million sequence reads and the expression data of the two libraries, the study provided some useful insights into signal transduction pathways in oysters and offered a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to hypoosmotic stress for oysters. In addition, the characterization of C. gigas transcriptome will not only provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms about the response to osmotic stress of the oysters, but also facilitate research into biological processes to find underlying physiological adaptations to

  9. Comprehensive Transcriptome Meta-analysis to Characterize Host Immune Responses in Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangyan; Stevenson, Mary M.; Geary, Timothy G.; Xia, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections affect more than a third of the world’s population. Despite very broad phylogenetic differences among helminth parasite species, a systemic Th2 host immune response is typically associated with long-term helminth infections, also known as the “helminth effect”. Many investigations have been carried out to study host gene expression profiles during helminth infections. The objective of this study is to determine if there is a common transcriptomic signature characteristic of the helminth effect across multiple helminth species and tissue types. To this end, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets. After data processing and adjusting for study-specific effects, we identified ~700 differentially expressed genes that are changed consistently during helminth infections. Functional enrichment analyses indicate that upregulated genes are predominantly involved in various immune functions, including immunomodulation, immune signaling, inflammation, pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. Down-regulated genes are mainly involved in metabolic process, with only a few of them are involved in immune regulation. This common immune gene signature confirms previous observations and indicates that the helminth effect is robust across different parasite species as well as host tissue types. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive meta-analysis of host transcriptome profiles during helminth infections. PMID:27058578

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 in response to epinephrine and norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fuzhou; Wu, Cun; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guolin; Zeng, Ximin; Yang, Bing; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Upon colonization in the host gastrointestinal tract, the enteric bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is exposed to a variety of signaling molecules including the catecholamine hormones epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE). NE has been observed to stimulate the growth and potentially enhance the pathogenicity of C. jejuni. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. In this study, both Epi and NE were also observed to promote C. jejuni growth in MEMα-based iron-restricted medium. Adhesion and invasion of Caco-2 cells by C. jejuni were also enhanced upon exposure to Epi or NE. To further examine the effect of Epi or NE on the pathobiology of C. jejuni, transcriptomic profiles were conducted for C. jejuni NCTC 11168 that was cultured in iron-restricted medium supplemented with Epi or NE. Compared to the genes expressed in the absence of the catecholamine hormones, 183 and 156 genes were differentially expressed in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 that was grown in the presence of Epi and NE, respectively. Of these differentially expressed genes, 102 genes were common for both Epi and NE treatments. The genes differentially expressed by Epi or NE are involved in diverse cellular functions including iron uptake, motility, virulence, oxidative stress response, nitrosative stress tolerance, enzyme metabolism, DNA repair and metabolism and ribosomal protein biosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis indicated that Epi and NE have similar effects on the gene expression of C. jejuni, and provided insights into the delicate interaction between C. jejuni and intestinal stress hormones in the host. PMID:26042101

  11. Transcriptome profiling of the salt-stress response in Triticum aestivum cv. Kharchia Local

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Etika; Amit, Singh K.; Singh, Ravi S.; Mahato, Ajay K.; Chand, Suresh; Kanika, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Kharchia Local wheat variety is an Indian salt tolerant land race known for its tolerance to salinity. However, there is a lack of detailed information regarding molecular mechanism imparting tolerance to high salinity in this bread wheat. In the present study, differential root transcriptome analysis identifying salt stress responsive gene networks and functional annotation under salt stress in Kharchia Local was performed. A total of 453,882 reads were obtained after quality filtering, using Roche 454-GS FLX Titanium sequencing technology. From these reads 22,241 ESTs were generated out of which, 17,911 unigenes were obtained. A total of 14,898 unigenes were annotated against nr protein database. Seventy seven transcription factors families in 826 unigenes and 11,002 SSRs in 6,939 unigenes were identified. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 310 metabolic pathways. The expression pattern of few selected genes was compared during the time course of salt stress treatment between salt-tolerant (Kharchia Local) and susceptible (HD2687). The transcriptome data is the first report, which offers an insight into the mechanisms and genes involved in salt tolerance. This information can be used to improve salt tolerance in elite wheat cultivars and to develop tolerant germplasm for other cereal crops. PMID:27293111

  12. Genomic and Transcriptomic Features of Response to Anti-PD-1 Therapy in Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Willy; Zaretsky, Jesse M; Sun, Lu; Song, Chunying; Moreno, Blanca Homet; Hu-Lieskovan, Siwen; Berent-Maoz, Beata; Pang, Jia; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Cherry, Grace; Seja, Elizabeth; Lomeli, Shirley; Kong, Xiangju; Kelley, Mark C; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Johnson, Douglas B; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S

    2016-03-24

    PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade provides significant clinical benefits for melanoma patients. We analyzed the somatic mutanomes and transcriptomes of pretreatment melanoma biopsies to identify factors that may influence innate sensitivity or resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. We find that overall high mutational loads associate with improved survival, and tumors from responding patients are enriched for mutations in the DNA repair gene BRCA2. Innately resistant tumors display a transcriptional signature (referred to as the IPRES, or innate anti-PD-1 resistance), indicating concurrent up-expression of genes involved in the regulation of mesenchymal transition, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Notably, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-targeted therapy (MAPK inhibitor) induces similar signatures in melanoma, suggesting that a non-genomic form of MAPK inhibitor resistance mediates cross-resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. Validation of the IPRES in other independent tumor cohorts defines a transcriptomic subset across distinct types of advanced cancer. These findings suggest that attenuating the biological processes that underlie IPRES may improve anti-PD-1 response in melanoma and other cancer types.

  13. Extensive Differences in Antifungal Immune Response in Two Drosophila Species Revealed by Comparative Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system of Drosophila is activated by ingestion of microorganisms. D. melanogaster breeds on fruits fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas D. virilis breeds on slime flux and decaying bark of tree housing a variety of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. In this study, it is shown that D. virilis has a higher resistance to oral infection of a species of filamentous fungi belonging to the genus Penicillium compared to D. melanogaster. In response to the fungal infection, a transcriptome profile of immune-related genes was considerably different between D. melanogaster and D. virilis: the genes encoding antifungal peptides, Drosomycin and Metchnikowin, were highly expressed in D. melanogaster whereas, the genes encoding Diptericin and Defensin were highly expressed in D. virilis. On the other hand, the immune-induced molecule (IM) genes showed contrary expression patterns between the two species: they were induced by the fungal infection in D. melanogaster but tended to be suppressed in D. virilis. Our transcriptome analysis also showed newly predicted immune-related genes in D. virilis. These results suggest that the innate immune system has been extensively differentiated during the evolution of these Drosophila species. PMID:24151578

  14. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses in Mice (Mus musculus) Exposed to the Nafion Membrane and Its Combustion Products

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Habteselassie, Mussie; Wu, Jun; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Ping; Huang, Qingguo; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-01-01

    Nafion 117 membrane (N117), an important polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), has been widely used for numerous chemical technologies. Despite its increasing production and use, the toxicity data for N117 and its combustion products remain lacking. Toxicity studies are necessary to avoid problems related to waste disposal in landfills and incineration that may arise. In this study, we investigated the histopathological alterations, oxidative stress biomarker responses, and transcriptome profiles in the liver of male mice exposed to N117 and its combustion products for 24 days. An ion-chromatography system and liquid chromatography system coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to analyze the chemical compositions of these combustion products. The transcriptomics analysis identified several significantly altered molecular pathways, including the metabolism of xenobiotics, carbohydrates and lipids; signal transduction; cellular processes; immune system; and signaling molecules and interaction. These studies provide preliminary data for the potential toxicity of N117 and its combustion products on living organisms and may fill the information gaps in the toxicity databases for the currently used PEMs. PMID:26057616

  15. Thermal stress and predation risk trigger distinct transcriptomic responses in the intertidal snail Nucella lapillus.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nathaniel D; Miller, Luke P; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Trussell, Geoffrey C; Vollmer, Steven V

    2014-12-01

    Thermal stress and predation risk have profound effects on rocky shore organisms, triggering changes in their feeding behaviour, morphology and metabolism. Studies of thermal stress have shown that underpinning such changes in several intertidal species are specific shifts in gene and protein expression (e.g. upregulation of heat-shock proteins). But relatively few studies have examined genetic responses to predation risk. Here, we use next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to examine the transcriptomic (mRNA) response of the snail Nucella lapillus to thermal stress and predation risk. We found that like other intertidal species, N. lapillus displays a pronounced genetic response to thermal stress by upregulating many heat-shock proteins and other molecular chaperones. In contrast, the presence of a crab predator (Carcinus maenas) triggered few significant changes in gene expression in our experiment, and this response showed no significant overlap with the snail's response to thermal stress. These different gene expression profiles suggest that thermal stress and predation risk could pose distinct and potentially additive challenges for N. lapillus and that genetic responses to biotic stresses such as predation risk might be more complex and less uniform across species than genetic responses to abiotic stresses such as thermal stress.

  16. Divergent selection on intramuscular fat in rabbits: Responses to selection and genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvaro, M; Hernández, P; Blasco, A

    2016-12-01

    A divergent selection experiment on intramuscular fat (IMF) was performed in rabbits. The aim of this study is to estimate the response to selection, the correlated responses in carcass and meat quality traits, and their genetic parameters. Selection criterion was the averaged phenotypic value of IMF measured at 9 wk of age in 2 full-sibs of the candidate. Traits considered were IMF, BW, chilled carcass weight, reference carcass weight, scapular and perirenal fat weights, carcass and meat color, pH, protein and fatty acid composition of meat. Total direct response to selection for IMF was 2.6 phenotypic SD of the trait, around 5% of the mean (1.09 g/100 g) per generation, with both lines following a symmetrical trend. Heritability of IMF was high (0.54), and in general, all traits related to carcass fat depots and IMF fatty acid composition showed high heritabilities (dissectible fat of the carcass, 0.70; MUFA percentage, 0.61; PUFA percentage, 0.45; and PUFA:SFA ratio, 0.42), except SFA percentage (0.09). The other carcass and meat quality traits showed moderate to low heritabilities. Intramuscular fat and dissectible fat percentage showed a low genetic correlation (0.34). Intramuscular fat was positively correlated with MUFA percentage (0.95) and negatively correlated with PUFA percentage (-0.89) and PUFA:SFA ratio (-0.98), corroborated with high correlated responses to selection. The rest of the traits did not show any substantial correlated response except protein content, which was greater in the high-IMF line than in the low-IMF line.

  17. Repeatability of cortisol stress response in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and transcription differences between individuals with divergent responses

    PubMed Central

    Samaras, A.; Dimitroglou, A.; Sarropoulou, E.; Papaharisis, L.; Kottaras, L.; Pavlidis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the stress responses of organisms is of importance in the performance and welfare of farmed animals, including fish. Especially fish in aquaculture commonly face stressors, and better knowledge of their responses may assist in proper husbandry and selection of breeding stocks. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a species with high cortisol concentrations, is of major importance in this respect. The main objectives of the present study were to assess the repeatability and consistency of cortisol stress response and to identify differences in liver transcription profiles of European sea bass individuals, showing a consistent low (LR) or high (HR) cortisol response. The progeny of six full sib families was used, and sampled for plasma cortisol after an acute stress challenge once per month, for four consecutive months. Results suggest that cortisol responsiveness was a repeatable trait with LR and HR fish showing low or high resting, free and post-stress cortisol concentrations respectively. Finally, the liver transcription profiles of LR and HR fish showed some important differences, indicating differential hepatic regulation between these divergent phenotypes. These transcription differences were related to various metabolic and immunological processes, with 169 transcripts being transcribed exclusively in LR fish and 161 exclusively in HR fish. PMID:27703277

  18. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nuno F; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding.

  19. Transcriptomic response of Manduca sexta immune tissues to parasitization by the bracovirus associated wasp Cotesia congregata.

    PubMed

    Chevignon, Germain; Cambier, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Drezen, Jean-Michel; Huguet, Elisabeth; Moreau, Sébastien J M

    2015-07-01

    During oviposition, Cotesia congregata parasitoid wasps inject into their host, Manduca sexta, some biological factors such as venom, ovarian fluid and a symbiotic polydnavirus (PDV) named Cotesia congregata bracovirus (CcBV). During parasitism, complex interactions occur between wasp-derived factors and host targets that lead to important modifications in host physiology. In particular, the immune response leading to wasp egg encapsulation is inhibited allowing wasp survival. To date, the regulation of host genes during the interaction had only been studied for a limited number of genes. In this study, we analysed the global impact of parasitism on host gene regulation 24 h post oviposition by high throughput 454 transcriptomic analyses of two tissues known to be involved in the host immune response (hemocytes and fat body). To identify specific effects of parasitism on host transcription at this time point, transcriptomes were obtained from non-treated and parasitized larvae, and also from larvae injected with heat-killed bacteria and double stimulated larvae that were parasitized prior to bacterial challenge. Results showed that, immune challenge by bacteria leads to induction of certain antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes in M. sexta larvae whether they were parasitized or not prior to bacterial challenge. These results show that at 24 h post oviposition pathways leading to expression of AMP genes are not all inactivated suggesting wasps are in an antiseptic environment. In contrast, at this time point genes involved in phenoloxidase activation and cellular immune responses were globally down-regulated after parasitism in accordance with the observed inhibition of wasp egg encapsulation.

  20. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Nuno F.; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding. PMID:25852725

  1. Muscle transcriptome response to ACTH administration in a free-ranging marine mammal

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Cory D.; Preeyanon, Likit; Ortiz, Rudy M.; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    While much of our understanding of stress physiology is derived from biomedical studies, little is known about the downstream molecular consequences of adaptive stress responses in free-living animals. We examined molecular effectors of the stress hormones cortisol and aldosterone in the northern elephant seal, a free-ranging study system in which extreme physiological challenges and cortisol fluctuations are a routine part of life history. We stimulated the neuroendocrine stress axis by administering exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and examined the resultant effects by measuring corticosteroid hormones, metabolites, and gene expression before, during, and following administration. ACTH induced an elevation in cortisol, aldosterone, glucose, and fatty acids within 2 h, with complete recovery observed within 24 h of administration. The global transcriptional response of elephant seal muscle tissue to ACTH was evaluated by transcriptomics and involved upregulation of a highly coordinated network of conserved glucocorticoid (GC) target genes predicted to promote metabolic substrate availability without causing deleterious effects seen in laboratory animals. Transcriptional recovery from ACTH was characterized by downregulation of GC target genes and restoration of cell proliferation, metabolism, and tissue maintenance pathways within 24 h. Differentially expressed genes included several adipokines not previously described in muscle, reflecting unique metabolic physiology in fasting-adapted animals. This study represents one of the first transcriptome analyses of cellular responses to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation in a free-living marine mammal and suggests that compensatory, tissue-sparing mechanisms may enable marine mammals to maintain cortisol and aldosterone sensitivity while avoiding deleterious long-term consequences of stress. PMID:26038394

  2. Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome response to salinity stress in the halophytic turf grass Sporobolus virginicus

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Takano, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ishige, Taichiro; Terashima, Shin; Endo, Chisato; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Yajima, Shunsuke; Yano, Kentaro; Tada, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    The turf grass Sporobolus virginicus is halophyte and has high salinity tolerance. To investigate the molecular basis of its remarkable tolerance, we performed Illumina high-throughput RNA sequencing on roots and shoots of a S. virginicus genotype under normal and saline conditions. The 130 million short reads were assembled into 444,242 unigenes. A comparative analysis of the transcriptome with rice and Arabidopsis transcriptome revealed six turf grass-specific unigenes encoding transcription factors. Interestingly, all of them showed root specific expression and five of them encode bZIP type transcription factors. Another remarkable transcriptional feature of S. virginicus was activation of specific pathways under salinity stress. Pathway enrichment analysis suggested transcriptional activation of amino acid, pyruvate, and phospholipid metabolism. Up-regulation of several unigenes, previously shown to respond to salt stress in other halophytes was also observed. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that unigenes assigned as proteins in response to water stress, such as dehydrin and aquaporin, and transporters such as cation, amino acid, and citrate transporters, and H+-ATPase, were up-regulated in both shoots and roots under salinity. A correspondence analysis of the enriched pathways in turf grass cells, but not in rice cells, revealed two groups of unigenes similarly up-regulated in the turf grass in response to salt stress; one of the groups, showing excessive up-regulation under salinity, included unigenes homologos to salinity responsive genes in other halophytes. Thus, the present study identified candidate genes involved in salt tolerance of S. virginicus. This genetic resource should be valuable for understanding the mechanisms underlying high salt tolerance in S. virginicus. This information can also provide insight into salt tolerance in other halophytes. PMID:25954282

  3. Overlapping Yet Response-Specific Transcriptome Alterations Characterize the Nature of Tobacco–Pseudomonas syringae Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bozsó, Zoltán; Ott, Péter G.; Kámán-Tóth, Evelin; Bognár, Gábor F.; Pogány, Miklós; Szatmári, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    In this study transcriptomic alterations of bacterially induced pattern triggered immunity (PTI) were compared with other types of tobacco–Pseudomonas interactions. In addition, using pharmacological agents we blocked some signal transduction pathways (Ca2+ influx, kinases, phospholipases, proteasomic protein degradation) to find out how they contribute to gene expression during PTI. PTI is the first defense response of plant cells to microbes, elicited by their widely conserved molecular patterns. Tobacco is an important model of Solanaceae to study resistance responses, including defense mechanisms against bacteria. In spite of these facts the transcription regulation of tobacco genes during different types of plant bacterial interactions is not well-described. In this paper we compared the tobacco transcriptomic alterations in microarray experiments induced by (i) PTI inducer Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae type III secretion mutant (hrcC) at earlier (6 h post inoculation) and later (48 hpi) stages of defense, (ii) wild type P. syringae (6 hpi) that causes effector triggered immunity (ETI) and cell death (HR), and (iii) disease-causing P. syringae pv. tabaci (6 hpi). Among the different treatments the highest overlap was between the PTI and ETI at 6 hpi, however, there were groups of genes with specifically altered activity for either type of defenses. Instead of quantitative effects of the virulent P. tabaci on PTI-related genes it influenced transcription qualitatively and blocked the expression changes of a special set of genes including ones involved in signal transduction and transcription regulation. P. tabaci specifically activated or repressed other groups of genes seemingly not related to either PTI or ETI. Kinase and phospholipase A inhibitors had highest impacts on the PTI response and effects of these signal inhibitors on transcription greatly overlapped. Remarkable interactions of phospholipase C-related pathways with the proteasomal system were

  4. Enhancer turnover is associated with a divergent transcriptional response to glucocorticoid in mouse and human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hume, David A; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences between individuals and species are controlled in part through differences in expression of a relatively conserved set of genes. Genes expressed in the immune system are subject to especially powerful selection. We have investigated the evolution of both gene expression and candidate enhancers in human and mouse macrophages exposed to glucocorticoid (GC), a regulator of innate immunity and an important therapeutic agent. Our analyses revealed a very limited overlap in the repertoire of genes responsive to GC in human and mouse macrophages. Peaks of inducible binding of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) detected by ChIP-Seq correlated with induction, but not repression, of target genes in both species, occured at distal regulatory sites not promoters, and were strongly enriched for the consensus GR binding motif. Turnover of GR binding between mouse and human was associated with gain and loss of the motif. There was no detectable signal of positive selection at species-specific GR binding sites, but clear evidence of purifying selection at the small number of conserved sites. We conclude that enhancer divergence underlies the difference in transcriptional activation after GC treatment between mouse and human macrophages. Only the shared inducible loci show evidence of selection and therefore these loci may be important for the subset of responses to GC that is shared between species. PMID:26663721

  5. Divergent forms of endoplasmic reticulum stress trigger a robust unfolded protein response in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Brittany A; Hooks, Katarzyna B; McKinstry, Mia; Snow, Jonathan W

    2016-03-01

    Honey bee colonies in the United States have suffered from an increased rate of die-off in recent years, stemming from a complex set of interacting stresses that remain poorly described. While we have some understanding of the physiological stress responses in the honey bee, our molecular understanding of honey bee cellular stress responses is incomplete. Thus, we sought to identify and began functional characterization of the components of the UPR in honey bees. The IRE1-dependent splicing of the mRNA for the transcription factor Xbp1, leading to translation of an isoform with more transactivation potential, represents the most conserved of the UPR pathways. Honey bees and other Apoidea possess unique features in the Xbp1 mRNA splice site, which we reasoned could have functional consequences for the IRE1 pathway. However, we find robust induction of target genes upon UPR stimulation. In addition, the IRE1 pathway activation, as assessed by splicing of Xbp1 mRNA upon UPR, is conserved. By providing foundational knowledge about the UPR in the honey bee and the relative sensitivity of this species to divergent stresses, this work stands to improve our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of honey bee health and disease.

  6. Enhancer Turnover Is Associated with a Divergent Transcriptional Response to Glucocorticoid in Mouse and Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Alasdair W; Young, Robert S; Hume, David A; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2016-01-15

    Phenotypic differences between individuals and species are controlled in part through differences in expression of a relatively conserved set of genes. Genes expressed in the immune system are subject to especially powerful selection. We have investigated the evolution of both gene expression and candidate enhancers in human and mouse macrophages exposed to glucocorticoid (GC), a regulator of innate immunity and an important therapeutic agent. Our analyses revealed a very limited overlap in the repertoire of genes responsive to GC in human and mouse macrophages. Peaks of inducible binding of the GC receptor (GR) detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq correlated with induction, but not repression, of target genes in both species, occurred at distal regulatory sites not promoters, and were strongly enriched for the consensus GR-binding motif. Turnover of GR binding between mice and humans was associated with gain and loss of the motif. There was no detectable signal of positive selection at species-specific GR binding sites, but clear evidence of purifying selection at the small number of conserved sites. We conclude that enhancer divergence underlies the difference in transcriptional activation after GC treatment between mouse and human macrophages. Only the shared inducible loci show evidence of selection, and therefore these loci may be important for the subset of responses to GC that is shared between species.

  7. Population transcriptomes reveal synergistic responses of DNA polymorphism and RNA expression to extreme environments on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in a predatory bird.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shengkai; Zhang, Tongzuo; Rong, Zhengqin; Hu, Li; Gu, Zhongru; Wu, Qi; Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Qiong; Lin, Zhenzhen; Deutschova, Lucia; Li, Xinhai; Dixon, Andrew; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2017-03-09

    Low oxygen and temperature pose key physiological challenges for endotherms living on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Molecular adaptations to high-altitude living have been detected in the genomes of Tibetans, their domesticated animals and a few wild species, but the contribution of transcriptional variation to altitudinal adaptation remains to be determined. Here we studied a top QTP predator, the saker falcon, and analysed how the transcriptome has become modified to cope with the stresses of hypoxia and hypothermia. Using a hierarchical design to study saker populations inhabiting grassland, steppe/desert and highland across Eurasia, we found that the QTP population is already distinct despite having colonized the Plateau <2000 years ago. Selection signals are limited at the cDNA level, but of only seventeen genes identified, three function in hypoxia and four in immune response. Our results show a significant role for RNA transcription: 50% of upregulated transcription factors were related to hypoxia responses, differentiated modules were significantly enriched for oxygen transport, and importantly, divergent EPAS1 functional variants with a refined co-expression network were identified. Conservative gene expression and relaxed immune gene variation may further reflect adaptation to hypothermia. Our results exemplify synergistic responses between DNA polymorphism and RNA expression diversity in coping with common stresses, underpinning the successful rapid colonization of a top predator onto the QTP. Importantly, molecular mechanisms underpinning highland adaptation involve relatively few genes, but are nonetheless more complex than previously thought and involve fine-tuned transcriptional responses and genomic adaptation.

  8. Genetic Architecture of Ethanol-Responsive Transcriptome Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Broman, Aimee T.; Will, Jessica; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation in gene expression is pervasive within and between species, and it likely explains a significant fraction of phenotypic variation between individuals. Phenotypic variation in acute systemic responses can also be leveraged to reveal physiological differences in how individuals perceive and respond to environmental perturbations. We previously found extensive variation in the transcriptomic response to acute ethanol exposure in two wild isolates and a common laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many expression differences persisted across several modules of coregulated genes, implicating trans-acting systemic differences in ethanol sensing and/or response. Here, we conducted expression QTL mapping of the ethanol response in two strain crosses to identify the genetic basis for these differences. To understand systemic differences, we focused on “hotspot” loci that affect many transcripts in trans. Candidate causal regulators contained within hotspots implicate upstream regulators as well as downstream effectors of the ethanol response. Overlap in hotspot targets revealed additive genetic effects of trans-acting loci as well as “epi-hotspots,” in which epistatic interactions between two loci affected the same suites of downstream targets. One epi-hotspot implicated interactions between Mkt1p and proteins linked to translational regulation, prompting us to show that Mkt1p localizes to P bodies upon ethanol stress in a strain-specific manner. Our results provide a glimpse into the genetic architecture underlying natural variation in a stress response and present new details on how yeast respond to ethanol stress. PMID:24970865

  9. Transcriptome-wide identification of reference genes for expression analysis of soybean responses to drought stress along the day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean transcriptome displays strong variation along the day in optimal growth conditions and also in response to adverse circumstances, like drought stress. However, no study conducted to date has presented suitable reference genes, with stable expression along the day, for relative gene expre...

  10. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Deyholos, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars [Crop Development Center (CDC) Bethune and Lutea], showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune) was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time course at 2, 4, 8, and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI). While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signaling, activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these, several key genes that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113, and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3); the flavonoid

  11. Transcriptome analysis of soiny mullet (Liza haematocheila) spleen in response to Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhitao; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Qihuan; Wei, Youchuan; Wang, Zisheng; Qiu, Ming; Shao, Rong; Li, Yao; Gao, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Soiny mullet (Liza haematocheila) is becoming an economically important aquaculture mugilid species in China and other Asian countries. However, increasing incidences of bacterial pathogenic diseases has greatly hampered the production of the soiny mullet. Deeper understanding of the soiny mullet immune system and its related genes in response to bacterial infections are necessary for disease control in this species. In this study, the transcriptomic profile of spleen from soiny mullet challenged with Streptococcus dysgalactiae was analyzed by Illumina-based paired-end sequencing method. After assembly, 86,884 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 991 bp. Approximately 41,795 (48.1%) unigenes were annotated in the nr NCBI database and 57.9% of the unigenes were similar to that of the Nile tilapia. A total of 24,299 unigenes were categorized into three Gene Ontology (GO) categories (molecular function, cellular component and biological process), 13,570 unigenes into 25 functional Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) categories, and 30,547 unigenes were grouped into 258 known pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Following S. dysgalactiae infection, 11,461 differentially expressed unigenes were identified including 4658 up-regulated unigenes and 6803 down-regulated unigenes. Significant enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed unigenes identified major immune related pathways, including the Toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, T cell receptor signaling pathway and B cell receptor signaling pathway. In addition, 24,813 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 127,503 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from the mullet spleen transcriptome. To this date, this study has globally analyzed the transcriptome profile from the spleen of L. haematocheila after S. dysgalactiae infection. Therefore, the results of our study

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum

    PubMed Central

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M. K.; McGrath, Desmond J.; Persley, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusion/Significance DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and

  13. Transcriptome of the Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica and its response to pollutant exposure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seunghyun; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Gondogeneia antarctica is widely distributed off the western Antarctic Peninsula and is a key species in the Antarctic food web. In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing to produce a total of 4,599,079,601 (4.6Gb) nucleotides and a comprehensive transcript dataset for G. antarctica. Over 46 million total reads were assembled into 20,749 contigs, and 12,461 annotated genes were predicted by Blastx. The RNA-seq results after exposure to three pollutants showed that 658, 169 and 367 genes that were potential biomarkers of responses to pollutants for this species were specifically upregulated after exposure to PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls), PFOS (Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) and PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic acid), respectively. These data represent the first transcriptome resource for the Antarctic amphipod G. antarctica and provide a useful resource for studying Antarctic marine species.

  14. Organ-specific remodeling of the Arabidopsis transcriptome in response to spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spaceflight presents a novel environment that is outside the evolutionary experience of terrestrial organisms. Full activation of the International Space Station as a science platform complete with sophisticated plant growth chambers, laboratory benches, and procedures for effective sample return, has enabled a new level of research capability and hypothesis testing in this unique environment. The opportunity to examine the strategies of environmental sensing in spaceflight, which includes the absence of unit gravity, provides a unique insight into the balance of influence among abiotic cues directing plant growth and development: including gravity, light, and touch. The data presented here correlate morphological and transcriptome data from replicated spaceflight experiments. Results The transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated organ-specific changes in response to spaceflight, with 480 genes showing significant changes in expression in spaceflight plants compared with ground controls by at least 1.9-fold, and 58 by more than 7-fold. Leaves, hypocotyls, and roots each displayed unique patterns of response, yet many gene functions within the responses are related. Particularly represented across the dataset were genes associated with cell architecture and growth hormone signaling; processes that would not be anticipated to be altered in microgravity yet may correlate with morphological changes observed in spaceflight plants. As examples, differential expression of genes involved with touch, cell wall remodeling, root hairs, and cell expansion may correlate with spaceflight-associated root skewing, while differential expression of auxin-related and other gravity-signaling genes seemingly correlates with the microgravity of spaceflight. Although functionally related genes were differentially represented in leaves, hypocotyls, and roots, the expression of individual genes varied substantially across organ types, indicating that there is no single

  15. Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the

  16. Root transcriptome of two contrasting indica rice cultivars uncovers regulators of root development and physiological responses

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alka; Kumar, Pramod; Gautam, Vibhav; Rengasamy, Balakrishnan; Adhikari, Bijan; Udayakumar, Makarla; Sarkar, Ananda K.

    2016-01-01

    The huge variation in root system architecture (RSA) among different rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars is conferred by their genetic makeup and different growth or climatic conditions. Unlike model plant Arabidopsis, the molecular basis of such variation in RSA is very poorly understood in rice. Cultivars with stable variation are valuable resources for identification of genes involved in RSA and related physiological traits. We have screened for RSA and identified two such indica rice cultivars, IR-64 (OsAS83) and IET-16348 (OsAS84), with stable contrasting RSA. OsAS84 produces robust RSA with more crown roots, lateral roots and root hairs than OsAS83. Using comparative root transcriptome analysis of these cultivars, we identified genes related to root development and different physiological responses like abiotic stress responses, hormone signaling, and nutrient acquisition or transport. The two cultivars differ in their response to salinity/dehydration stresses, phosphate/nitrogen deficiency, and different phytohormones. Differential expression of genes involved in salinity or dehydration response, nitrogen (N) transport, phosphate (Pi) starvation signaling, hormone signaling and root development underlies more resistance of OsAS84 towards abiotic stresses, Pi or N deficiency and its robust RSA. Thus our study uncovers gene-network involved in root development and abiotic stress responses in rice. PMID:28000793

  17. Transcriptome analysis of silkworm, Bombyx mori, during early response to Beauveria bassiana challenges.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chengxiang; Qin, Guangxing; Liu, Ting; Geng, Tao; Gao, Kun; Pan, Zhonghua; Qian, Heying; Guo, Xijie

    2014-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are complex processes and it is a central challenge to reveal these interactions. Fungal infection of silkworm, Bombyx mori, may induce a variety of responsive reaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of silkworm immune response against the fungal infection. To obtain an overview of the interaction between silkworm and an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, Digital Gene Expression profiling, a tag based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, was employed to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs, FDR ≤ 0.001, ∣log2ratio∣ ≥ 1) of silkworm larvae during early response against B. bassiana infection. Total 1430 DEGs including 960 up-regulated and 470 down-regulated ones were identified, of which 627 DEGs can be classified into GO categories by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. KEGG pathways analysis of these DEGs suggested that many biological processes, such as defense and response, signal transduction, phagocytosis, regulation of gene expression, RNA splicing, biosynthesis and metabolism, protein transport etc. were involved in the interaction between the silkworm and B. bassiana. A number of differentially expressed fungal genes were also identified by mapping the sequencing tags to B. bassiana genome. These results provided new insights to the molecular mechanism of silkworm immune response to B. bassiana infection.

  18. Changes in the transcriptomic profiles of maize roots in response to iron-deficiency stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Nian; Zhao, Fengtao; Song, Xuejiao; Yin, Zhaohua; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Chunqing

    2014-07-01

    Plants are often subjected to iron (Fe)-deficiency stress because of its low solubility. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies to solubilize and transport Fe to acclimate to this abiotic stress condition. Transcriptomic profiling analysis was performed using Illumina digital gene expression to understand the mechanism underlying resistance responses of roots to Fe starvation in maize, an important Strategy II plant. A total of 3,427, 4,069, 4,881, and 2,610 genes had significantly changed expression levels after Fe-deficiency treatments of 1, 2, 4 or 7 days, respectively. Genes involved in 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) synthesis, secretion, and Fe(III)-DMA uptake were significantly induced. Many genes related to plant hormones, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases responded to Fe-deficiency stress, suggesting their regulatory roles in response to the Fe-deficiency stress. Functional annotation clustering analysis, using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, revealed maize root responses to Fe starvation. This resulted in 38 functional annotation clusters: 25 for up-regulated genes, and 13 for down-regulated ones. These included genes encoding enzymes involved in the metabolism of carboxylic acids, isoprenoids and aromatic compounds, transporters, and stress response proteins. Our work provides integrated information for understanding maize response to Fe-deficiency stress.

  19. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses reveal a response mechanism to cold stress in Santalum album L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Niu, Meiyun; Li, Mingzhi; He, Chunmei; Zhao, Jinhui; Zeng, Songjun; Duan, Jun; Ma, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    Santalum album L. (Indian sandalwood) is an economically important plant species because of its ability to produce highly valued perfume oils. Little is known about the mechanisms by which S. album adapts to low temperatures. In this study, we obtained 100,445,724 raw reads by paired-end sequencing from S. album leaves. Physiological and transcriptomic changes in sandalwood seedlings exposed to 4 °C for 0–48 h were characterized. Cold stress induced the accumulation of malondialdehyde, proline and soluble carbohydrates, and increased the levels of antioxidants. A total of 4,424 differentially expressed genes were responsive to cold, including 3,075 cold-induced and 1,349 cold-repressed genes. When cold stress was prolonged, there was an increase in the expression of cold-responsive genes coding for transporters, responses to stimuli and stress, regulation of defense response, as well as genes related to signal transduction of all phytohormones. Candidate genes in the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway were identified, eight of which were significantly involved in the cold stress response. Gene expression analyses using qRT-PCR showed a peak in the accumulation of SaCBF2 to 4, 50-fold more than control leaves and roots following 12 h and 24 h of cold stress, respectively. The CBF-dependent pathway may play a crucial role in increasing cold tolerance. PMID:28169358

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Silkworm, Bombyx mori, during Early Response to Beauveria bassiana Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chengxiang; Qin, Guangxing; Liu, Ting; Geng, Tao; Gao, Kun; Pan, Zhonghua; Qian, Heying; Guo, Xijie

    2014-01-01

    Host–pathogen interactions are complex processes and it is a central challenge to reveal these interactions. Fungal infection of silkworm, Bombyx mori, may induce a variety of responsive reaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of silkworm immune response against the fungal infection. To obtain an overview of the interaction between silkworm and an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, Digital Gene Expression profiling, a tag based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, was employed to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs, FDR≤0.001, ∣log2ratio∣≥1) of silkworm larvae during early response against B. bassiana infection. Total 1430 DEGs including 960 up-regulated and 470 down-regulated ones were identified, of which 627 DEGs can be classified into GO categories by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. KEGG pathways analysis of these DEGs suggested that many biological processes, such as defense and response, signal transduction, phagocytosis, regulation of gene expression, RNA splicing, biosynthesis and metabolism, protein transport etc. were involved in the interaction between the silkworm and B. bassiana. A number of differentially expressed fungal genes were also identified by mapping the sequencing tags to B. bassiana genome. These results provided new insights to the molecular mechanism of silkworm immune response to B. bassiana infection. PMID:24618587

  1. Transcriptomic response to low salinity stress in gills of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongxu; Pan, Luqing; Zhao, Qun; Ren, Qin

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei), is one of the most farmed species. Salinity is an important environmental factor that affects its growth and distribution. However, the molecular mechanism of the shrimp in response to salinity stress remains largely unclear. High-throughput sequencing is a helpful tool to analyze the molecular response to salinity challenge in shrimp. In the present study, the transcriptomic responses of the gills in L. vannamei under low salinity stress were detected by Illumina's digital gene expression system. A total of 10,725,789 and 10,827,411 reads were generated from the non-changed and low salinity changed groups, respectively. 64,590 Unigenes with an average length of 764 bp were generated. Compared with the control, 585 genes were differentially expressed under low salinity. GO functional analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated some vital genes in response to the challenge. Ten genes related to osmoregulation and ambient salinity adaption were selected to validate the DGE results by RT-qPCR. This work provides valuable information to study the mechanism of salinity adaption in L. vannamei. Genes and pathways from the results will be beneficial to reveal the molecular basis of osmoregulation. It also gives an insight into the response to the salinity challenge in L. vannamei.

  2. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera)

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Gabriel; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-01-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera) is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana) enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1) develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2) assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3) describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome), binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S–transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees. PMID:27082755

  3. The carbon starvation response of Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation: Insights from the transcriptome and secretome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi are confronted with changes and limitations of their carbon source during growth in their natural habitats and during industrial applications. To survive life-threatening starvation conditions, carbon from endogenous resources becomes mobilized to fuel maintenance and self-propagation. Key to understand the underlying cellular processes is the system-wide analysis of fungal starvation responses in a temporal and spatial resolution. The knowledge deduced is important for the development of optimized industrial production processes. Results This study describes the physiological, morphological and genome-wide transcriptional changes caused by prolonged carbon starvation during submerged batch cultivation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. Bioreactor cultivation supported highly reproducible growth conditions and monitoring of physiological parameters. Changes in hyphal growth and morphology were analyzed at distinct cultivation phases using automated image analysis. The Affymetrix GeneChip platform was used to establish genome-wide transcriptional profiles for three selected time points during prolonged carbon starvation. Compared to the exponential growth transcriptome, about 50% (7,292) of all genes displayed differential gene expression during at least one of the starvation time points. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology, Pfam domain and KEGG pathway annotations uncovered autophagy and asexual reproduction as major global transcriptional trends. Induced transcription of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes was accompanied by increased secretion of hydrolases including chitinases, glucanases, proteases and phospholipases as identified by mass spectrometry. Conclusions This study is the first system-wide analysis of the carbon starvation response in a filamentous fungus. Morphological, transcriptomic and secretomic analyses identified key events important for fungal survival and their chronology. The dataset obtained forms a

  4. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera).

    PubMed

    Theriault, Gabriel; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-01-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera) is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana) enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1) develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2) assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3) describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome), binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees.

  5. Midgut Transcriptome of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana and Its Microbiota: Digestion, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yixi; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Meiling; Liu, Zewen

    2016-01-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is an obnoxious and notorious pest of the world, with a strong ability to adapt to a variety of complex environments. However, the molecular mechanism of this adaptability is mostly unknown. In this study, the genes and microbiota composition associated with the adaptation mechanism were studied by analyzing the transcriptome and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of the P. americana midgut, respectively. Midgut transcriptome analysis identified 82,905 unigenes, among which 64 genes putatively involved in digestion (11 genes), detoxification (37 genes) and oxidative stress response (16 genes) were found. Evaluation of gene expression following treatment with cycloxaprid further revealed that the selected genes (CYP6J1, CYP4C1, CYP6K1, Delta GST, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase) were upregulated at least 2.0-fold at the transcriptional level, and four genes were upregulated more than 10.0-fold. An interesting finding was that three digestive enzymes positively responded to cycloxaprid application. Tissue expression profiles further showed that most of the selected genes were midgut-biased, with the exception of CYP6K1. The midgut microbiota composition was obtained via 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was found to be mainly dominated by organisms from the Firmicutes phylum, among which Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Burkholderiales were the main orders which might assist the host in the food digestion or detoxification of noxious compounds. The preponderant species, Clostridium cellulovorans, was previously reported to degrade lignocellulose efficiently in insects. The abundance of genes involved in digestion, detoxification and response to oxidative stress, and the diversity of microbiota in the midgut might provide P. americana high capacity to adapt to complex environments. PMID:27153200

  6. Transcriptome profiles of the clam Meretrix petechialis hepatopancreas in response to Vibrio infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fengjuan; Yue, Xin; Wang, Hongxia; Liu, Baozhong

    2017-03-01

    Microbial diseases have received much attention due to their enormous destruction of aquaculture, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the main pathogens that cause bacterial disease in the clam Meretrix petechialis. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of the immune response to Vibrio in M. petechialis, RNA-Seq was applied to explore global expression changes of hepatopancreas from this clam after Vibrio challenge. There were 199,318,966 clean reads obtained by Illumina sequencing, which were further assembled into 214,577 transcripts, and then 147,255 unigenes with an N50 of 1393 bp were identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 21 biological process subcategories, 15 cellular component subcategories and 12 molecular function subcategories. A total of 8358 unigenes were mapped onto 267 biological signaling pathways by KEGG, among which there were 16 pathways related to the immune system. In total, 206 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 113 up-regulated unigenes and 93 down-regulated unigenes. In these DEGs, 96 DEGs were annotated in at least one database, accounting for 46.60% of all significant DEGs. To validate the transcriptome dataset, 15 DEGs were selected for real-time qPCR confirmation and the results showed that expression patterns of 13 genes (86.7%) agreed well with the RNA-Seq analysis. Fourteen of the 206 DEGs were annotated to be immune-related genes, and we examined the expression patterns of four immune-related DEGs using clams post immersion challenge. This study enriched the M. petechialis transcriptome database and provided insight into the immune response of M. petechialis against Vibrio infection.

  7. Midgut Transcriptome of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana and Its Microbiota: Digestion, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yixi; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Meiling; Liu, Zewen

    2016-01-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is an obnoxious and notorious pest of the world, with a strong ability to adapt to a variety of complex environments. However, the molecular mechanism of this adaptability is mostly unknown. In this study, the genes and microbiota composition associated with the adaptation mechanism were studied by analyzing the transcriptome and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of the P. americana midgut, respectively. Midgut transcriptome analysis identified 82,905 unigenes, among which 64 genes putatively involved in digestion (11 genes), detoxification (37 genes) and oxidative stress response (16 genes) were found. Evaluation of gene expression following treatment with cycloxaprid further revealed that the selected genes (CYP6J1, CYP4C1, CYP6K1, Delta GST, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase) were upregulated at least 2.0-fold at the transcriptional level, and four genes were upregulated more than 10.0-fold. An interesting finding was that three digestive enzymes positively responded to cycloxaprid application. Tissue expression profiles further showed that most of the selected genes were midgut-biased, with the exception of CYP6K1. The midgut microbiota composition was obtained via 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was found to be mainly dominated by organisms from the Firmicutes phylum, among which Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Burkholderiales were the main orders which might assist the host in the food digestion or detoxification of noxious compounds. The preponderant species, Clostridium cellulovorans, was previously reported to degrade lignocellulose efficiently in insects. The abundance of genes involved in digestion, detoxification and response to oxidative stress, and the diversity of microbiota in the midgut might provide P. americana high capacity to adapt to complex environments.

  8. Feminizing Wolbachia: a transcriptomics approach with insights on the immune response genes in Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are vertically transmitted bacteria known to be the most widespread endosymbiont in arthropods. They induce various alterations of the reproduction of their host, including feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans. In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the presence of Wolbachia is also associated with detrimental effects on host fertility and lifespan. Deleterious effects have been demonstrated on hemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and natural hemolymph septicemia, suggesting that infected individuals could have defective immune capacities. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, we developed a transcriptomics strategy and compared A. vulgare gene expression between Wolbachia-infected animals (i.e., “symbiotic” animals) and uninfected ones (i.e., “asymbiotic” animals) as well as between animals challenged or not challenged by a pathogenic bacteria. Results Since very little genetic data is available on A. vulgare, we produced several EST libraries and generated a total of 28 606 ESTs. Analyses of these ESTs revealed that immune processes were over-represented in most experimental conditions (responses to a symbiont and to a pathogen). Considering canonical crustacean immune pathways, these genes encode antimicrobial peptides or are involved in pathogen recognition, detoxification, and autophagy. By RT-qPCR, we demonstrated a general trend towards gene under-expression in symbiotic whole animals and ovaries whereas the same gene set tends to be over-expressed in symbiotic immune tissues. Conclusion This study allowed us to generate the first reference transcriptome ever obtained in the Isopoda group and to identify genes involved in the major known crustacean immune pathways encompassing cellular and humoral responses. Expression of immune-related genes revealed a modulation of host immunity when females are

  9. The Proteomic Response of Arabidopsis thaliana to Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dots, and Its Correlation with the Transcriptomic Response

    PubMed Central

    Marmiroli, Marta; Imperiale, Davide; Pagano, Luca; Villani, Marco; Zappettini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    A fuller understanding of the interaction between plants and engineered nanomaterials is of topical relevance because the latter are beginning to find applications in agriculture and the food industry. There is a growing need to establish objective safety criteria for their use. The recognition of two independent Arabidopsis thaliana mutants displaying a greater level of tolerance than the wild type plant to exposure to cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) has offered the opportunity to characterize the tolerance response at the physiological, transcriptomic, and proteomic levels. Here, a proteomics-based comparison confirmed the conclusions drawn from an earlier transcriptomic analysis that the two mutants responded to CdS QD exposure differently both to the wild type and to each other. Just over half of the proteomic changes mirrored documented changes at the level of gene transcription, but a substantial number of transcript/gene product pairs were altered in the opposite direction. An interpretation of the discrepancies is given, along with some considerations regarding the use and significance of -omics when monitoring the potential toxicity of ENMs for health and environment. PMID:26732871

  10. Evolutionary responses of tree phenology to the combined effects of assortative mating, gene flow and divergent selection

    PubMed Central

    Soularue, J-P; Kremer, A

    2014-01-01

    The timing of bud burst (TBB) in temperate trees is a key adaptive trait, the expression of which is triggered by temperature gradients across the landscape. TBB is strongly correlated with flowering time and is therefore probably mediated by assortative mating. We derived theoretical predictions and realized numerical simulations of evolutionary changes in TBB in response to divergent selection and gene flow in a metapopulation. We showed that the combination of the environmental gradient of TBB and assortative mating creates contrasting genetic clines, depending on the direction of divergent selection. If divergent selection acts in the same direction as the environmental gradient (cogradient settings), genetic clines are established and inflated by assortative mating. Conversely, under divergent selection of the same strength but acting in the opposite direction (countergradient selection), genetic clines are slightly constrained. We explored the consequences of these dynamics for population maladaptation, by monitoring pollen swamping. Depending on the direction of divergent selection with respect to the environmental gradient, pollen filtering owing to assortative mating either facilitates or impedes adaptation in peripheral populations. PMID:24924591

  11. Evolutionary responses of tree phenology to the combined effects of assortative mating, gene flow and divergent selection.

    PubMed

    Soularue, J-P; Kremer, A

    2014-12-01

    The timing of bud burst (TBB) in temperate trees is a key adaptive trait, the expression of which is triggered by temperature gradients across the landscape. TBB is strongly correlated with flowering time and is therefore probably mediated by assortative mating. We derived theoretical predictions and realized numerical simulations of evolutionary changes in TBB in response to divergent selection and gene flow in a metapopulation. We showed that the combination of the environmental gradient of TBB and assortative mating creates contrasting genetic clines, depending on the direction of divergent selection. If divergent selection acts in the same direction as the environmental gradient (cogradient settings), genetic clines are established and inflated by assortative mating. Conversely, under divergent selection of the same strength but acting in the opposite direction (countergradient selection), genetic clines are slightly constrained. We explored the consequences of these dynamics for population maladaptation, by monitoring pollen swamping. Depending on the direction of divergent selection with respect to the environmental gradient, pollen filtering owing to assortative mating either facilitates or impedes adaptation in peripheral populations.

  12. Whole-transcriptome response to water stress in a California endemic oak, Quercus lobata.

    PubMed

    Gugger, Paul F; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Wright, Jessica W; Sork, Victoria L

    2016-12-21

    Reduced water availability during drought can create major stress for many plant species. Within a species, populations with a history of seasonal drought may have evolved the ability to tolerate drought more than those in areas of high precipitation and low seasonality. In this study, we assessed response to water stress in a California oak species, Quercus lobata Née, by measuring changes in gene expression profiles before and after a simulated drought stress treatment through water deprivation of seedlings in a greenhouse setting. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing from nine samples from three collection localities, we identified which genes are involved in response to drought stress and tested the hypothesis that seedlings sampled from climatically different regions of the species range respond to water stress differently. We observed a surprisingly massive transcriptional response to drought: 35,347 of 68,434 contigs (52%) were differentially expressed before versus after drought treatment, of which 18,111 were down-regulated and 17,236 were up-regulated. Genes functionally associated with abiotic stresses and death were enriched among the up-regulated genes, whereas metabolic and cell part-related genes were enriched among the down-regulated. We found 56 contigs that exhibited significantly different expression responses to the drought treatment among the three populations (treatment × population interaction), suggesting that those genes may be involved in local adaptation to drought stress. These genes have stress response (e.g., WRKY DNA-binding protein 51 and HSP20-like chaperones superfamily protein), metabolic (e.g., phosphoglycerate kinase and protein kinase superfamily protein), transport/transfer (e.g., cationic amino acid transporter 7 and K(+) transporter) and regulatory functions (e.g., WRKY51 and Homeodomain-like transcriptional regulator). Baseline expression levels of 1310 unique contigs also differed among pairs of populations, and they

  13. Understanding policy research in liminal spaces: Think tank responses to diverging principles of legitimacy.

    PubMed

    McLevey, John

    2015-04-01

    Research on scientific, social scientific, and technical knowledge is increasingly focused on changes in institutionalized fields, such as the commercialization of university-based knowledge. Much less is known about how organizations produce and promote knowledge in the 'thick boundaries' between fields. In this article, I draw on 53 semi-structured interviews with Canadian think-tank executives, researchers, research fellows, and communication officers to understand how think-tank knowledge work is linked to the liminal spaces between institutionalized fields. First, although think-tank knowledge work has a broadly utilitarian epistemic culture, there are important differences between organizations that see intellectual simplicity and political consistency as the most important marker of credibility, versus those that emphasize inconsistency. A second major difference is between think tanks that argue for the separation of research and communication strategies and those that conflate them from beginning to end, arguably subordinating research to demands from more powerful fields. Finally, think tanks display different degrees of instrumentalism toward the public sphere, with some seeking publicity as an end in itself and others using it as a means to influence elite or public opinion. Together, we can see these differences as responses to diverging principles of legitimacy.

  14. Divergence in a master variator generates distinct phenotypes and transcriptional responses

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.G.; Zheng, Wei; Rong, Xiaoqing; Miranda, Noraliz; Lin, Zhixiang; Dunn, Barbara; Zhao, Hongyu; Snyder, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic basis of phenotypic differences in individuals is an important area in biology and personalized medicine. Analysis of divergent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains grown under different conditions revealed extensive variation in response to both drugs (e.g., 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide [4NQO]) and different carbon sources. Differences in 4NQO resistance were due to amino acid variation in the transcription factor Yrr1. Yrr1YJM789 conferred 4NQO resistance but caused slower growth on glycerol, and vice versa with Yrr1S96, indicating that alleles of Yrr1 confer distinct phenotypes. The binding targets of Yrr1 alleles from diverse yeast strains varied considerably among different strains grown under the same conditions as well as for the same strain under different conditions, indicating that distinct molecular programs are conferred by the different Yrr1 alleles. Our results demonstrate that genetic variations in one important control gene (YRR1), lead to distinct regulatory programs and phenotypes in individuals. We term these polymorphic control genes “master variators.” PMID:24532717

  15. Physiological and Transcriptomic Analyses to Characterize the Function of Fur and Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P; Luo, Feng; Wu, Liyou; Parsons, Andrea; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-01-01

    Maintaining iron homeostasis is a key metabolic challenge for most organisms. In many bacterial species, regulation of iron homeostasis is carried out by the global transcriptional regulator Fur. Physiological examination showed that Shewanella oneidensis harboring a fur deletion mutation had deficiencies in both growth and acid tolerance response. However, the fur mutant better tolerated iron-limited environments than the wild-type strain MR-1. Transcriptomic studies comparing the fur mutant and MR-1 confirmed previous findings that iron acquisition systems were highly induced by Fur inactivation. In addition, the temporal gene expression profiling of the fur mutant in response to iron depletion and repletion suggested that a number of genes involved in energy transport were iron-responsive but Fur-independent. Further identification of Fur-independent genes was obtained by generating a gene co-expression network from temporal gene expression profiles. A group of genes is involved in heat shock and has an rpoH-binding site at their promoters, and genes related to anaerobic energy transport has a highly conserved Crp binding site at the promoters. Together, this work provides useful information for the characterization of the function of Fur and the iron response in S. oneidensis.

  16. Integrated Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of the Global Response of Synechococcus to High Light Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qian; Feng, Jie; Li, Si-ting; Zhang, Gui-ying; Qiao, Zhi-xian; Chen, Zhuo; Wu, Ying; Lin, Yan; Li, Tao; Ge, Feng; Zhao, Jin-dong

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient light is essential for the growth and physiological functions of photosynthetic organisms, but prolonged exposure to high light (HL) stress can cause cellular damage and ultimately result in the death of these organisms. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 (hereafter Synechococcus 7002) is a unicellular cyanobacterium with exceptional tolerance to HL intensities. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in HL response by Synechococcus 7002 are not well understood. Here, an integrated RNA sequencing transcriptomic and quantitative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the cellular response to HL in Synechococcus 7002. A total of 526 transcripts and 233 proteins were identified to be differentially regulated under HL stress. Data analysis revealed major changes in mRNAs and proteins involved in the photosynthesis pathways, resistance to light-induced damage, DNA replication and repair, and energy metabolism. A set of differentially expressed mRNAs and proteins were validated by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Twelve genes differentially regulated under HL stress were selected for knockout generation and growth analysis of these mutants led to the identification of key genes involved in the response of HL in Synechococcus 7002. Taken altogether, this study established a model for global response mechanisms to HL in Synechococcus 7002 and may be valuable for further studies addressing HL resistance in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:25681118

  17. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Al Stress Response in Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenxian; Xiong, Conghui; Yan, Longfeng; Zhang, Zhengshe; Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Yajie; Liu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is the most extensively cultivated forage legume, yet most alfalfa cultivars are not aluminum tolerant, and the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to understand how alfalfa responds to Al stress by identifying and analyzing Al-stress-responsive genes in alfalfa roots at the whole-genome scale. The transcriptome changes in alfalfa roots under Al stress for 4, 8, or 24 h were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing platforms. A total of 2464 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and most were up-regulated at early (4 h) and/or late (24 h) Al exposure time points rather than at the middle exposure time point (8 h). Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the DEGs involved in ribosome, protein biosynthesis, and process, the citrate cycle, membrane transport, and hormonal regulation were preferentially enriched and regulated. Biosynthesis inhibition and signal transduction downstream of auxin- and ethylene-mediated signals occur during alfalfa responses to root growth inhibition. The internal Al detoxification mechanisms play important roles in alfalfa roots under Al stress. These findings provide valuable information for identifying and characterizing important components in the Al signaling network in alfalfa and enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress. PMID:28217130

  18. Transcriptomic responses to low temperature stress in the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongtao; Jiang, Liwen; Huo, Zhongming; Liu, Lianhui; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2016-08-01

    The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is an economically important shellfish in marine aquaculture, with a broad thermal tolerance. The ability to cope with cold stress is quite important for the survival of aquatic species under natural conditions. A cold-tolerant clam that can survive the winter at temperatures below 0 °C might extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of the Manila clam to cold stress (-1 °C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. The transcriptomes of a cold-treatment (O) group of clams, which survived under cold stress, and the control group (OC2), which was not subjected to cold stress, were sequenced with the Illumina HiSeq platform. In all, 148,593 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 1760 unigenes were up regulated and 2147 unigenes were down regulated in the O group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, mitochondrial metabolism, cellular component organization or biogenesis, and energy production processes were the most highly enriched pathways among the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following biological functions in the cold-tolerant Manila clam: signal response to cold stress, antioxidant response, cell proliferation, and energy production.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I) Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Elias; Isokallio, Marita; Somervuo, Panu; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties “GHA” and “XK,” respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  2. Noncoding and coding transcriptome responses of a marine diatom to phosphate fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Cruz de Carvalho, Maria Helena; Sun, Hai-Xi; Bowler, Chris; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element to all living cells, yet fluctuations in P concentrations are recurrent in the marine environment. Diatoms are amongst the most successful phytoplankton groups, adapting to and surviving periods of suboptimal conditions and resuming growth as soon as nutrient concentrations permit. A knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of diatom ecological success is, however, still very incomplete. By strand-specific RNA sequencing, we analyzed the global transcriptome changes of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in response to P fluctuations over a course of 8 d, defining five distinct physiological states. This study reports previously unidentified genes highly responsive to P stress in P. tricornutum. Our data also uncover the complexity of the P. tricornutum P-responsive sensory and signaling system that combines bacterial two-component systems with more complex pathways reminiscent of metazoans. Finally, we identify a multitude of novel long intergenic nonprotein coding RNAs (lincRNAs) specifically responsive to P depletion, suggesting putative regulatory roles in the regulation of P homeostasis. Our work provides additional molecular insights into the resilience of diatoms and their ecological success, and opens up novel routes to address and explore the function and regulatory roles of P. tricornutum lincRNAs in the context of nutrient stress.

  3. Transcriptome signatures in common carp spleen in response to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanliang; Feng, Shuaisheng; Zhang, Songhao; Liu, Hong; Feng, Jianxin; Mu, Xidong; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is worldwide distributed. Nowadays, intensive rearing in aquaculture increases the susceptibility of fish to various pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, which has caused severe damage to carp production. However, systematic analysis on the host response of common carp against A. hydrophila is less studied. In order to better understand the common carp immune response process against bacteria at the global gene expression level, we examined transcriptional profiles of the common carp spleen at three timepoints following experimental infection with A. hydrophila. A total of 545 million 125-bp paired end reads were generated, and all trimmed clean reads were mapped onto the common carp whole genome sequence. Comparison of the transcriptomes between the treatment and control group fish revealed 2900 unigenes with significantly differential expression, including 732, 936, 928 genes up-regulated, and 248, 475, 700 genes down-regulated at 4 h, 12 h, 24 h post infection respectively. The captured significantly differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in the pathways including junction/adhesion, pathogen recognition, cell surface receptor signaling, and immune system process/defense response. Our study will provide fundamental information on molecular mechanism underlying the immune response of teleost against bacterial infection and might suggest strategies for selection of resistant strains of common carp in aquaculture.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Heat-Shock Responses in Desulfovibrio vulgaris by Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Hogan, Mike; Vitiritti, Luigi; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-05-30

    Abstract Sulfate-reducing bacteria, like Desulfovibrio vulgaris have developed a set of reactions allowing them to survive in environments. To obtain further knowledge of the protecting mechanisms employed in D. vulgaris against the oxidative stress and heat shock, we performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis to determine the cellular responses to both stimuli. The results showed that 130 genes were responsive to oxidative stress, while 427 genes responsive to heat-shock, respectively. Functional analyses suggested that the genes regulated were involved in a variety of cellular functions. Metabolic analysis showed that amino acid biosynthetic pathways were induced by both oxidative stress and heat shock treatments, while fatty acid metabolism, purine and cofactor biosynthesis were induced by heat shock only. Rubrerythrin gene (rbR) were upregulated by the oxidative stress, suggesting its important role in the oxidative resistance, whereas the expression of rubredoxin oxidoreductase (rbO), superoxide ismutase (sodB) and catalase (katA) genes were not subjected to regulation by oxidative stress in D. vulgaris. In addition, the results showed that thioredoxin reductase (trxB) was responsive to oxidative stress, suggesting the thiol-specific redox system might be involved in oxidative protection in D. vulgaris. Comparison of cellular responses to oxidative stress and heat-shock allowed the identification of 66 genes that showed a similar drastic response to both environmental stimuli, implying that they might be part of the general stress response (GSR) network in D. vulgaris, which was further supported by the finding of a conserved motif upstream these common-responsive genes.

  5. Mongolian Almond (Prunus mongolica Maxim): The Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Transcriptomic Response to Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jǖgang; Zheng, Rong; Bai, Shulan; Gao, Xiaomin; Liu, Min; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prunus mongolica Maxim, which is widely established in the Gobi Desert, shows extreme tolerance to drought. However, there is a lack of available transcriptomic resources for this species related to its response to water deficiency. To investigate the mechanisms that allow P. mongolica to maintain growth in extremely arid environments, the response of P. mongolica seedlings to drought stress was analyzed using morphological, physiological, biochemical and high-throughput sequencing approaches. We generated 28,713,735 and 26,650,133 raw reads from no-stress control and drought-stressed P. mongolica seedlings, respectively. In total, we obtained 67,352 transcripts with an average length of 874.44 bp. Compared with the no-stress control, 3,365 transcripts were differentially expressed in the drought-stressed seedlings, including 55.75% (1,876 transcripts) up-regulated and 44.25% (1,489 transcripts) down-regulated transcripts. The photosynthesis response showed a decreasing tendency under drought stress, but the changes in the levels of hormones (auxins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) resulted in the closing of stomata and decreased cell enlargement and division; these changes were effective for promoting P. mongolica survival in Gobi Desert. Next, we analyzed the aquaporin and superoxide dismutase gene families due to their importance in plant resistance to drought stress. We found that all of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein transcripts were down-regulated in the drought-stressed treatment, whereas drought did not affect the expression of nodulin intrinsic protein or small basic intrinsic protein transcripts in P. mongolica seedlings. In addition, activation of iron superoxide dismutase transcription and enhanced transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase were observed in P. mongolica to promote tolerance of drought stress. This study identified drought response genes in P. mongolica seedlings. Our results provide a significant contribution to the

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Primary Roots of Alhagi sparsifolia in Response to Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xinwu; Zhang, Chao; Jia, Shirong; Li, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Background Alhagi sparsifolia is a typical desert phreatophyte and has evolved to withstand extreme dry, cold and hot weather. While A. sparsifolia represents an ideal model to study the molecular mechanism of plant adaption to abiotic stress, no research has been done in this aspect to date. Here we took advantage of Illumina platform to survey transcriptome in primary roots of A. sparsifolia under water stress conditions in aim to facilitate the exploration of its genetic basis for drought tolerance. Methodology and Principal Findings We sequenced four primary roots samples individually collected at 0, 6, 24 and 30h from the A. sparsifolia seedlings in the course of 24h of water stress following 6h of rehydration. The resulting 38,763,230, 67,511,150, 49,259,804 and 54,744,906 clean reads were pooled and assembled into 33,255 unigenes with an average length of 1,057 bp. All-unigenes were subjected to functional annotation by searching against the public databases. Based on the established transcriptome database, we further evaluated the gene expression profiles in the four different primary roots samples, and identified numbers of differently expressed genes (DEGs) reflecting the early response to water stress (6h vs. 0h), the late response to water stress (24h vs. 0h) and the response to post water stress rehydration (30h vs. 24h). Moreover, the DEGs specifically regulated at 6, 24 and 30h were captured in order to depict the dynamic changes of gene expression during water stress and subsequent rehydration. Functional categorization of the DEGs indicated the activation of oxidoreductase system, and particularly emphasized the significance of the ‘Glutathione metabolism pathway’ in response to water stress. Conclusions This is the first description of the genetic makeup of A. sparsifolia, thus providing a substantial contribution to the sequence resources for this species. The identified DEGs offer a deep insight into the molecular mechanism of A. sparsifolia

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Taxillusi chinensis (DC.) Danser Seeds in Response to Water Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shugen; Ma, Xiaojun; Pan, Limei; Miao, Jianhua; Fu, Jine; Bai, Longhua; Zhang, Zhonglian; Guan, Yanhong; Mo, Changming; Huang, Hao; Chen, Maoshan

    2017-01-01

    Background Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser, the official species of parasitic loranthus that grows by parasitizing other plants, is used in various traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways are two major pathways in response to drought stress for plants and some genes have been reported to play a key role during the dehydration including dehydration-responsive protein RD22, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and various transcription factors (TFs) like MYB and WRKY. However, genes responding to dehydration are still unknown in loranthus. Methods and Results Initially, loranthus seeds were characterized as recalcitrant seeds. Then, biological replicates of fresh loranthus seeds (CK), and seeds after being dehydrated for 16 hours (Tac-16) and 36 hours (Tac-36) were sequenced by RNA-Seq, generating 386,542,846 high quality reads. A total of 164,546 transcripts corresponding to 114,971 genes were assembled by Trinity and annotated by mapping them to NCBI non-redundant (NR), UniProt, GO, KEGG pathway and COG databases. Transcriptome profiling identified 60,695, 56,027 and 66,389 transcripts (>1 FPKM) in CK, Tac-16 and Tac-36, respectively. Compared to CK, we obtained 2,102 up-regulated and 1,344 down-regulated transcripts in Tac-16 and 1,649 up-regulated and 2,135 down-regulated transcripts in Tac-36 by using edgeR. Among them some have been reported to function in dehydration process, such as RD22, heat shock proteins (HSP) and various TFs (MYB, WRKY and ethylene-responsive transcription factors). Interestingly, transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins peaked in Tac-16. It is indicated that HSPs and ribosomal proteins may function in early response to drought stress. Raw sequencing data can be accessed in NCBI SRA platform under the accession number SRA309567. Conclusions This is the first time to profile transcriptome globally in loranthus seeds. Our findings provide insights into the gene regulations of loranthus

  8. Mongolian Almond (Prunus mongolica Maxim): The Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Transcriptomic Response to Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shulan; Gao, Xiaomin; Liu, Min; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prunus mongolica Maxim, which is widely established in the Gobi Desert, shows extreme tolerance to drought. However, there is a lack of available transcriptomic resources for this species related to its response to water deficiency. To investigate the mechanisms that allow P. mongolica to maintain growth in extremely arid environments, the response of P. mongolica seedlings to drought stress was analyzed using morphological, physiological, biochemical and high-throughput sequencing approaches. We generated 28,713,735 and 26,650,133 raw reads from no-stress control and drought-stressed P. mongolica seedlings, respectively. In total, we obtained 67,352 transcripts with an average length of 874.44 bp. Compared with the no-stress control, 3,365 transcripts were differentially expressed in the drought-stressed seedlings, including 55.75% (1,876 transcripts) up-regulated and 44.25% (1,489 transcripts) down-regulated transcripts. The photosynthesis response showed a decreasing tendency under drought stress, but the changes in the levels of hormones (auxins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) resulted in the closing of stomata and decreased cell enlargement and division; these changes were effective for promoting P. mongolica survival in Gobi Desert. Next, we analyzed the aquaporin and superoxide dismutase gene families due to their importance in plant resistance to drought stress. We found that all of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein transcripts were down-regulated in the drought-stressed treatment, whereas drought did not affect the expression of nodulin intrinsic protein or small basic intrinsic protein transcripts in P. mongolica seedlings. In addition, activation of iron superoxide dismutase transcription and enhanced transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase were observed in P. mongolica to promote tolerance of drought stress. This study identified drought response genes in P. mongolica seedlings. Our results provide a significant contribution to the

  9. Diverging Plant and Ecosystem Strategies in Response to Climate Change in the High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Welker, J. M.; Czimczik, C. I.; Lupascu, M.; Lett, C.; Seibt, U. H.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing summer precipitation means Arctic growing seasons are becoming wetter as well as warmer, but the effect of these coupled changes on tundra ecosystem functioning remains largely unknown. We have determined how warmer and wetter summers affect coupled carbon-water cycling in a High Arctic polar semi-desert ecosystem in NW Greenland. Measurements of ecosystem CO2 and water fluxes throughout the growing season and leaf ecophysiological traits (gas exchange, morphology, leaf chemistry) were made at a long-term climate change experiment. After 9 years of exposure to warmer (+ 4°C) and / or wetter (+ 50% precipitation) treatments, we found diverging plant strategies between the responses to warming with or without an increase in summer precipitation. Warming alone resulted in an increase in leaf nitrogen, mesophyll conductance and leaf-mass per area and higher rates of leaf-level photosynthesis, but with warming and wetting combined leaf traits remain largely unchanged. However, total leaf area increased with warming plus wetting but was unchanged with warming alone. The combined effect of these leaf trait and canopy adjustments is a decrease in ecosystem water-use efficiency (the ratio of net productivity to evapotranspiration) with warming only, but a substantial increase with combined warming and wetting. We conclude that increasing summer precipitation will alter tundra ecohydrological responses to warming; that leaf-level changes in ecophysiological traits have an upward cascading consequence for ecosystem and land surface-climate interactions; and the current relative resistance of High Arctic ecosystems to warming may mask biochemical and carbon cycling changes already underway.

  10. De Novo Transcriptome and Small RNA Analysis of Two Chinese Willow Cultivars Reveals Stress Response Genes in Salix matsudana

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yanfei; He, Caiyun; Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar ‘Tortuosa’). De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs) and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix. PMID:25275458

  11. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.

    PubMed

    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai; Zeng, Yanfei; He, Caiyun; Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'). De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs) and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  12. The development dynamics of the maize root transcriptome responsive to heavy metal Pb pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Zhang, Yongzhong; Lu, Chaolong; Peng, Hua; Luo, Mao; Li, Gaoke; Shen, Yaou; Ding, Haiping; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang; Lin, Haijian

    2015-03-06

    Lead (Pb), as a heavy metal element, has become the most important metal pollutant of the environment. With allocating a relatively higher proportion of its biomass in roots, maize could be a potential important model to study the phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soil. Here we analyzed the maize root transcriptome of inbred lines 9782 under heavy metal lead (Pb) pollution, which was identified as a non-hyperaccumulator for Pb in roots. In the present study, more than 98 millions reads were mapped to define gene structure and detect polymorphism, thereby to qualify transcript abundance along roots development under Pb treatment. A total of 17,707, 17,440, 16,998 and 16,586 genes were identified in maize roots at four developmental stages (0, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h) respectively and 2,825, 2,626, 2161 and 2260 stage-specifically expressed genes were also identified respectively. In addition, based on our RNA-Seq data, transcriptomic changes during maize root development responsive to Pb were investigated. A total of 384 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (log2Ratio ≥ 1, FDR ≤ 0.001) were identified, of which, 36 genes with significant alteration in expression were detected in four developmental stages; 12 DEGs were randomly selected and successful validated by qRT-PCR. Additionally, many transcription factor families might act as the important regulators at different developmental stages, such as bZIP, ERF and GARP et al. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in maize root development and provide a foundation for future study on root development in maize under heavy metal pollution and other cereal crops.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of hexaploid hulless oat in response to salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Hu, Yani; Huo, Pengjie; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Zongwen

    2017-01-01

    Background Oat is a cereal crop of global importance used for food, feed, and forage. Understanding salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in plants is an important step towards generating crop varieties that can cope with environmental stresses. To date, little is known about the salt tolerance of oat at the molecular level. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in oat, we investigated the transcriptomes of control and salt-treated oat using RNA-Seq. Results Using Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform, we generated 72,291,032 and 356,891,432 reads from non-stressed control and salt-stressed oat, respectively. Assembly of 64 Gb raw sequence data yielded 128,414 putative unique transcripts with an average length of 1,189 bp. Analysis of the assembled unigenes from the salt stressed and control libraries indicated that about 65,000 unigenes were differentially expressed at different stages. Functional annotation showed that ABC transporters, plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and other secondary metabolite pathways were enriched under salt stress. Based on the RPKM values of assembled unigenes, 24 differentially expressed genes under salt stress were selected for quantitative RT-PCR validation, which successfully confirmed the results of RNA-Seq. Furthermore, we identified 18,039 simple sequence repeats, which may help further elucidate salt tolerance mechanisms in oat. Conclusions Our global survey of transcriptome profiles of oat plants in response to salt stress provides useful insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in this crop. These findings also represent a rich resource for further analysis of salt tolerance and for breeding oat with improved salt tolerance through the use of salt-related genes. PMID:28192458

  14. Pre-exposure of Arabidopsis to the abiotic or biotic environmental stimuli “chilling” or “insect eggs” exhibits different transcriptomic responses to herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Firtzlaff, Vivien; Oberländer, Jana; Geiselhardt, Sven; Hilker, Monika; Kunze, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Plants can retain information about environmental stress and thus, prepare themselves for impending stress. In nature, it happens that environmental stimuli like ‘cold’ and ‘insect egg deposition’ precede insect herbivory. Both these stimuli are known to elicit transcriptomic changes in Arabidposis thaliana. It is unknown, however, whether they affect the plant’s anti-herbivore defence and feeding-induced transcriptome when they end prior to herbivory. Here we investigated the transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis to feeding by Pieris brassicae larvae after prior exposure to cold or oviposition. The transcriptome of plants that experienced a five-day-chilling period (4 °C) was not fully reset to the pre-chilling state after deacclimation (20 °C) for one day and responded differently to herbivory than that of chilling-inexperienced plants. In contrast, when after a five-day-lasting oviposition period the eggs were removed, one day later the transcriptome and, consistently, also its response to herbivory resembled that of egg-free plants. Larval performance was unaffected by previous exposure of plants to cold and to eggs, thus indicating P. brassicae tolerance to cold-mediated plant transcriptomic changes. Our results show strong differences in the persistence of the plant’s transcriptomic state after removal of different environmental cues, and consequently differential effects on the transcriptomic response to later herbivory. PMID:27329974

  15. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus)

    PubMed Central

    He, XuLing

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, “protein localization” and “protein transport” were the most highly represented biological processes. “Circadian rhythm,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” “endocytosis,” “insulin signaling pathway,” and “lysosome” were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of the Cf-12-Mediated Resistance Response to Cladosporium fulvum in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Dong-Qi; Chen, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Hong; Chai, Xin-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Bin; Xu, Xiang-Yang; Li, Jing-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Cf-12 is an effective gene for resisting tomato leaf mold disease caused by Cladosporium fulvum (C. fulvum). Unlike many other Cf genes such as Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5, and Cf-9, no physiological races of C. fulvum that are virulent to Cf-12 carrying plant lines have been identified. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism of Cf-12 gene resistance response, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the transcriptome changes at three different stages of C. fulvum infection (0, 4, and 8 days post infection [dpi]). A total of 9100 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 4 and 0 dpi, 8643 DEGs between 8 and 0 dpi and 2547 DEGs between 8 and 4 dpi were identified. In addition, we found that 736 DEGs shared among the above three groups, suggesting the presence of a common core of DEGs in response to C. fulvum infection. These DEGs were significantly enriched in defense-signaling pathways such as the calcium dependent protein kinases pathway and the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Additionally, we found that many transcription factor genes were among the DEGs, indicating that transcription factors play an important role in C. fulvum defense response. Our study provides new insight on the molecular mechanism of Cf resistance to C. fulvum, especially the unique features of Cf-12 in responding to C. fulvum infection. PMID:28105042

  17. Metabolomics integrated with transcriptomics: assessing systems response to sulfur-deficiency stress.

    PubMed

    Hoefgen, Rainer; Nikiforova, Victoria J

    2008-02-01

    Sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine synthesized in plants are essential for human and animal nutrition. That is why understanding of how inorganic sulfur is taken up by plants and built into the organic molecules in the process of sulfur assimilation is important. As complex biological systems, plants subsist as integrated molecular, organelle, cell, tissue and organ entities, being in permanent synergistic coordination. The process of sulfur uptake and assimilation is an integral part of this dense network of influences, its reconstruction may help in manipulating the bioproduction of organic sulfur-containing compounds. New high-throughput technologies allow the systems' view on the coordination of complex processes in living organisms. Among them, transcriptomics and metabolomics studies were applied to Arabidopsis plants subjected to sulfur-deficiency stress. From the integrated analysis of the obtained data, the mosaic picture of distinct sulfur stress response events and processes are starting to be assembled into the whole systems' network of sulfur assimilation. At the time trajectory of sulfur stress response, two system states can be distinguished. The first state of short-term responses is characterized by the development of enhanced lateral roots exploring the space in search for the lacking nutrient. When this physiological reaction cannot be accomplished by bringing the system back to the initial state of sulfur sufficiency, a new program is toggled aiming at saving the organismal resources for vital seed production. Here, we describe the biological reasoning in these two system states and the process of state transition between them.

  18. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Melissa S.; Cardona, Carol J.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Salt Stress Responsiveness in the Seedlings of Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping; Cui, Fenglei; Zhang, Fantao; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), and is well known for its superior level of tolerance against cold, drought and diseases. To date, however, little is known about the salt-tolerant character of Dongxiang wild rice. To elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of salt-stress tolerance in Dongxiang wild rice, the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of the leaves and roots at the seedling stage under salt stress compared with those under normal conditions. The analysis results for the sequencing data showed that 6,867 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (2,216 up-regulated and 4,651 down-regulated) and 4,988 transcripts in the roots (3,105 up-regulated and 1,883 down-regulated). Among these differentially expressed genes, the detection of many transcription factor genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in salt stress tolerance. In addition, the differentially expressed genes were compared with the previous RNA-Seq analysis of salt-stress responses in cultivated rice Nipponbare, indicating the possible specific molecular mechanisms of salt-stress responses for Dongxiang wild rice. A large number of the salt-inducible genes identified in this study were co-localized onto fine-mapped salt-tolerance-related quantitative trait loci, providing candidates for gene cloning and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in rice.

  20. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Discrete Survival Responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to Sapienic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Josephine C.; Alorabi, Jamal A.; Horsburgh, Malcolm J.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcal colonization of human skin is ubiquitous, with particular species more frequent at different body sites. Whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis can be isolated from the skin of every individual tested, Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from <5% of healthy individuals. The factors that drive staphylococcal speciation and niche selection on skin are incompletely defined. Here we show that S. aureus is inhibited to a greater extent than S. epidermidis by the sebaceous lipid sapienic acid, supporting a role for this skin antimicrobial in selection of skin staphylococci. We used RNA-Seq and comparative transcriptomics to identify the sapienic acid survival responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Consistent with the membrane depolarization mode of action of sapienic acid, both species shared a common transcriptional response to counteract disruption of metabolism and transport. The species differed in their regulation of SaeRS and VraRS regulons. While S. aureus upregulated urease operon transcription, S. epidermidis upregulated arginine deiminase, the oxygen-responsive NreABC nitrogen regulation system and the nitrate and nitrite reduction pathways. The role of S. aureus ACME and chromosomal arginine deiminase pathways in sapienic acid resistance was determined through mutational studies. We speculate that ammonia production could contribute to sapienic acid resistance in staphylococci. PMID:28179897

  1. De Novo Assembled Wheat Transcriptomes Delineate Differentially Expressed Host Genes in Response to Leaf Rust Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Jyoti; Kumari, Supriya; Kumar, Manish; Poddar, Raju; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Gupta, Puspendra Kumar; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens like Puccinia triticina, the causal organism for leaf rust, extensively damages wheat production. The interaction at molecular level between wheat and the pathogen is complex and less explored. The pathogen induced response was characterized using mock- or pathogen inoculated near-isogenic wheat lines (with or without seedling leaf rust resistance gene Lr28). Four Serial Analysis of Gene Expression libraries were prepared from mock- and pathogen inoculated plants and were subjected to Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection, which generated a total of 165,767,777 reads, each 35 bases long. The reads were processed and multiple k-mers were attempted for de novo transcript assembly; 22 k-mers showed the best results. Altogether 21,345 contigs were generated and functionally characterized by gene ontology annotation, mining for transcription factors and resistance genes. Expression analysis among the four libraries showed extensive alterations in the transcriptome in response to pathogen infection, reflecting reorganizations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. Role of auxin in determining pathogenesis in susceptible and resistant lines were imperative. The qPCR expression study of four LRR-RLK (Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinases) genes showed higher expression at 24 hrs after inoculation with pathogen. In summary, the conceptual model of induced resistance in wheat contributes insights on defense responses and imparts knowledge of Puccinia triticina-induced defense transcripts in wheat plants. PMID:26840746

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Bark in Response to Armoured Scale Insect (Hemiberlesia lataniae) Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M. Garry; Wurms, Kirstin V.; Davy, Marcus W.; Gould, Elaine; Allan, Andrew; Mauchline, Nicola A.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ah Chee, Annette; Stannard, Kate; Storey, Roy D.; Rikkerink, Erik H.

    2015-01-01

    The kiwifruit cultivar Actinidia chinensis ‘Hort16A’ is resistant to the polyphagous armoured scale insect pest Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). A cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes selected from over 132,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was used to measure the transcriptomic profile of the A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ canes in response to a controlled infestation of H. lataniae. After 2 days, 272 transcripts were differentially expressed. After 7 days, 5,284 (30%) transcripts were differentially expressed. The transcripts were grouped into 22 major functional categories using MapMan software. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis (photosystem II) were significantly down-regulated, while those associated with secondary metabolism were significantly up-regulated. A total of 643 transcripts associated with response to stress were differentially expressed. This included biotic stress-related transcripts orthologous with pathogenesis related proteins, the phenylpropanoid pathway, NBS-LRR (R) genes, and receptor-like kinase–leucine rich repeat signalling proteins. While transcriptional studies are not conclusive in their own right, results were suggestive of a defence response involving both ETI and PTI, with predominance of the SA signalling pathway. Exogenous application of an SA-mimic decreased H. lataniae growth on A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ plants in two laboratory experiments. PMID:26571404

  3. Transcriptomic profiling of microglia reveals signatures of cell activation and immune response, during experimental cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Capuccini, Barbara; Lin, Jingwen; Talavera-López, Carlos; Khan, Shahid M.; Sodenkamp, Jan; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Langhorne, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is a pathology involving inflammation in the brain. There are many immune cell types activated during this process, but there is little information on the response of microglia, in this severe complication. We examined microglia by genome wide transcriptomic analysis in a model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), in which C57BL/6 mice are infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Thousands of transcripts were differentially expressed in microglia at two different time points during infection. Proliferation of microglia was a dominant feature before the onset of ECM, and supporting this, we observed an increase in numbers of these cells in the brain. When cerebral malaria symptoms were manifest, genes involved in immune responses and chemokine production were upregulated, which were possibly driven by Type I Interferon. Consistent with this hypothesis, in vitro culture of a microglial cell line with Interferon-β, but not infected red blood cells, resulted in production of several of the chemokines shown to be upregulated in the gene expression analysis. It appears that these responses are associated with ECM, as microglia from mice infected with a mutant P. berghei parasite (ΔDPAP3), which does not cause ECM, did not show the same level of activation or proliferation. PMID:27991544

  4. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. “Ion and acid-base regulation” related genes and “amino acid metabolism” pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, “anti-oxidation”-related genes and “Toll-like receptor signaling”, “arachidonic acid metabolism”, “lysosome” and “other glycan degradation” pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  6. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. “Ion and acid-base regulation” related genes and “amino acid metabolism” pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, “anti-oxidation”-related genes and “Toll-like receptor signaling”, “arachidonic acid metabolism”, “lysosome” and “other glycan degradation” pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture. PMID:26732540

  7. Transcriptome analyses give insights into selenium-stress responses and selenium tolerance mechanisms in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Van Hoewyk, Doug; Takahashi, Hideki; Inoue, Eri; Hess, Ann; Tamaoki, Masanori; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2008-02-01

    Selenate is chemically similar to sulfate and can be taken up and assimilated by plants via the same transporters and enzymes. In contrast to many other organisms, selenium (Se) has not been shown to be essential for higher plants. In excess, Se is toxic and restricts development. Both Se deficiency and toxicity pose problems worldwide. To obtain better insights into the effects of Se on plant metabolism and into plant mechanisms involved in Se tolerance, the transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants grown with or without selenate was studied and Se-responsive genes identified. Roots and shoots exhibited different Se-related changes in gene regulation and metabolism. Many genes involved in sulfur (S) uptake and assimilation were upregulated. Accordingly, Se treatment enhanced sulfate levels in plants, but the quantity of organic S metabolites decreased. Transcripts regulating the synthesis and signaling of ethylene and jasmonic acid were also upregulated by Se. Arabidopsis mutants defective in ethylene or jasmonate response pathways exhibited reduced tolerance to Se, suggesting an important role for these two stress hormones in Se tolerance. Selenate upregulated a variety of transcripts that were also reportedly induced by salt and osmotic stress. Selenate appeared to repress plant development, as suggested by the downregulation of genes involved in cell wall synthesis and auxin-regulated proteins. The Se-responsive genes discovered in this study may help create plants that can better tolerate and accumulate Se, which may enhance the effectiveness of Se phytoremediation or serve as Se-fortified food.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiming; Kwon, Soon Jae; Wu, Jingni; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Tamogami, Shigeru; Rakwal, Randeep; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Jung, Ki-Hong; Kang, Kyu Young; Kim, Sang Gon; Kim, Sun Tae

    2014-01-01

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10) by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A) with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05) in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack. PMID:25506299

  9. Distinct Signaling Pathways and Transcriptome Response Signatures Differentiate Ammonium- and Nitrate-supplied Plants

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Kurt; Cakmak, Turgay; Cooper, Andrew; Lager, Ida; Rasmusson, Allan G.; Escobar, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen is the only macronutrient that is commonly available to plants in both oxidized and reduced forms, mainly nitrate and ammonium. The physiological and molecular effects of nitrate supply have been well studied, but comparatively little is known about ammonium nutrition and its differential effects on cell function and gene expression. We have used a physiologically realistic hydroponic growth system to compare the transcriptomes and redox status of the roots of ammonium- and nitrate-supplied Arabidopsis thaliana plants. While ~60% of nitrogen-regulated genes displayed common responses to both ammonium and nitrate, significant “nitrate-specific” and “ammonium-specific” gene sets were identified. Pathways involved in cytokinin response and reductant generation/distribution were specifically altered by nitrate, while a complex biotic stress response and changes in nodulin gene expression were characteristic of ammonium-supplied plants. Nitrate supply was associated with a rapid decrease in H2O2 production, potentially due to an increased export of reductant from the mitochondrial matrix. The underlying basis of the nitrate- and ammonium-specific patterns of gene expression appears to be different signals elaborated from each nitrogen source, including alterations in extracellular pH that are associated with ammonium uptake, downstream metabolites in the ammonium assimilation pathway, and the presence or absence of the nitrate ion. PMID:20444219

  10. SAGE Analysis of Transcriptome Responses in Arabidopsis Roots Exposed to 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene1

    PubMed Central

    Ekman, Drew R.; Lorenz, W. Walter; Przybyla, Alan E.; Wolfe, N. Lee; Dean, Jeffrey F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression was used to profile transcript levels in Arabidopsis roots and assess their responses to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. SAGE libraries representing control and TNT-exposed seedling root transcripts were constructed, and each was sequenced to a depth of roughly 32,000 tags. More than 19,000 unique tags were identified overall. The second most highly induced tag (27-fold increase) represented a glutathione S-transferase. Cytochrome P450 enzymes, as well as an ABC transporter and a probable nitroreductase, were highly induced by TNT exposure. Analyses also revealed an oxidative stress response upon TNT exposure. Although some increases were anticipated in light of current models for xenobiotic metabolism in plants, evidence for unsuspected conjugation pathways was also noted. Identifying transcriptome-level responses to TNT exposure will better define the metabolic pathways plants use to detoxify this xenobiotic compound, which should help improve phytoremediation strategies directed at TNT and other nitroaromatic compounds. PMID:14551330

  11. Dynamic changes in the transcriptome of Populus hopeiensis in response to abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Ji, Lexiang; Wang, Jia; Jin, Jinpu; Yang, Xiaoyu; Rao, Pian; Gao, Kai; Liao, Weihua; Ye, Meixia; An, Xinmin

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a fundamental role in plant response and adaptation to abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity and low temperature. Populus hopeiensis exhibits exceptional tolerance to water-deficit environments and is therefore an excellent choice for studying drought tolerance in trees. This study provides a global view of transcriptome dynamics in P. hopeiensis in response to exogenous ABA using Illumina RNA-sequencing. Endogenous ABA content increased and reached a peak at 8 h after ABA treatment and then significantly decreased at latter time points. Differential expression analysis and Gene ontology enrichment revealed that the number of transcripts exhibited significant increase during the first 8 hours after ABA treatment, which then significantly decreased at 12 and 24 h. Transcription factors (TFs) analysis showed that six different patterns were observed based on the expression of the six TFs families (AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, MYB-related, bZIP and WRKY) and the majority of differentially expressed TFs increased rapidly after ABA treatment. This study provides a robust resource for investigating the functions of genes induced by ABA and will help to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism in response to drought in poplar. PMID:28198429

  12. Global transcriptome analysis of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in response to silver nitrate stress.

    PubMed

    Babu, Malli Mohan Ganesh; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2011-11-10

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Bacillus cereus strains. Earlier, we had synthesized monodispersive crystalline silver nanoparticles using B. cereus PGN1 and ATCC14579 strains. These strains have showed high level of resistance to silver nitrate (1 mM) but their global transcriptomic response has not been studied earlier. In this study, we investigated the cellular and metabolic response of B. cereus ATCC14579 treated with 1 mM silver nitrate for 30 & 60 min. Global expression profiling using genomic DNA microarray indicated that 10% (n = 524) of the total genes (n = 5234) represented on the microarray were up-regulated in the cells treated with silver nitrate. The majority of genes encoding for chaperones (GroEL), nutrient transporters, DNA replication, membrane proteins, etc. were up-regulated. A substantial number of the genes encoding chemotaxis and flagellar proteins were observed to be down-regulated. Motility assay of the silver nitrate treated cells revealed reduction in their chemotactic activity compared to the control cells. In addition, 14 distinct transcripts overexpressed from the 'empty' intergenic regions were also identified and proposed as stress-responsive non-coding small RNAs.

  13. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of the Response to Cold Acclimation in Eucalyptus dunnii

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiqing; Jiang, Yusong; Lan, Jianbin; Zou, Yong; Gao, Junping

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus dunnii is an important macrophanerophyte with high economic value. However, low temperature stress limits its productivity and distribution. To study the cold response mechanisms of E. dunnii, 5 cDNA libraries were constructed from mRNA extracted from leaves exposed to cold stress for varying lengths of time and were evaluated by RNA-Seq analysis. The assembly of the Illumina datasets was optimized using various assembly programs and parameters. The final optimized assembly generated 205,325 transcripts with an average length of 1,701 bp and N50 of 2,627 bp, representing 349.38 Mb of the E. dunnii transcriptome. Among these transcripts, 134,358 transcripts (65.4%) were annotated in the Nr database. According to the differential analysis results, most transcripts were up-regulated as the cold stress prolonging, suggesting that these transcripts may be involved in the response to cold stress. In addition, the cold-relevant GO categories, such as ‘response to stress’ and ‘translational initiation’, were the markedly enriched GO terms. The assembly of the E. dunnii gene index and the GO classification performed in this study will serve as useful genomic resources for the genetic improvement of E. dunnii and also provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation in E. dunnii. PMID:25412179

  14. Transcriptome analysis of quantitative resistance-specific response upon Ralstonia solanacearum infection in tomato.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Takeaki; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Takahashi, Hideki; Nakaho, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wilt, caused by the soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, is a lethal disease of tomato, but the molecular mechanisms of the host resistance responses to R. solanacearum remain unclear. In this study, we report the first work describing the transcriptome of cultivar resistance and susceptible tomato cultivar after inoculation with R. solanacearum. To elucidate the characteristics of resistance early in the interaction, we analyzed microarrays for resistant cultivar LS-89 and susceptible cultivar Ponderosa 1 day after stem inoculation. No change in gene expression was detected for Ponderosa, but expression levels of over 140 genes, including pathogenesis-related, hormone signaling and lignin biosynthesis genes, increased in LS-89. Expression of β-1,3-glucanase genes increased substantially. In an immunohistochemical study, glucanase in LS-89 accumulated in the xylem and pith tissues surrounding xylem vessels filled with R. solanacearum. The expression of these genes also increased in four other resistant cultivars, but changed little in four susceptible cultivars in response to R. solanacearum, suggesting that similar reactions occur in other cultivars. These gene expression profiles will serve as fundamental information to elucidate the molecular mechanisms in the resistance response to R. solanacearum in tomato.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of a wild bird reveals physiological responses to the urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah; Videvall, Elin; Andersson, Martin N.; Isaksson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the molecular basis of environmentally induced phenotypic variation presents exciting opportunities for furthering our understanding of how ecological processes and the environment can shape the phenotype. Urban and rural environments present free-living organisms with different challenges and opportunities, which have marked consequences for the phenotype, yet little is known about responses at the molecular level. We characterised transcriptomes from an urban and a rural population of great tits Parus major, demonstrating striking differences in gene expression profiles in both blood and liver tissues. Differentially expressed genes had functions related to immune and inflammatory responses, detoxification, protection against oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Many genes linked to stress responses were expressed at higher levels in the urban birds, in accordance with our prediction that urban animals are exposed to greater environmental stress. This is one of the first studies to reveal transcriptional differences between urban- and rural-dwelling animals and suggests an important role for epigenetics in mediating environmentally induced physiological variation. The study provides valuable resources for developing further in-depth studies of the mechanisms driving phenotypic variation in the urban context at larger spatial and temporal scales. PMID:28290496

  16. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Discrete Survival Responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to Sapienic Acid.

    PubMed

    Moran, Josephine C; Alorabi, Jamal A; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcal colonization of human skin is ubiquitous, with particular species more frequent at different body sites. Whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis can be isolated from the skin of every individual tested, Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from <5% of healthy individuals. The factors that drive staphylococcal speciation and niche selection on skin are incompletely defined. Here we show that S. aureus is inhibited to a greater extent than S. epidermidis by the sebaceous lipid sapienic acid, supporting a role for this skin antimicrobial in selection of skin staphylococci. We used RNA-Seq and comparative transcriptomics to identify the sapienic acid survival responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Consistent with the membrane depolarization mode of action of sapienic acid, both species shared a common transcriptional response to counteract disruption of metabolism and transport. The species differed in their regulation of SaeRS and VraRS regulons. While S. aureus upregulated urease operon transcription, S. epidermidis upregulated arginine deiminase, the oxygen-responsive NreABC nitrogen regulation system and the nitrate and nitrite reduction pathways. The role of S. aureus ACME and chromosomal arginine deiminase pathways in sapienic acid resistance was determined through mutational studies. We speculate that ammonia production could contribute to sapienic acid resistance in staphylococci.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiming; Kwon, Soon Jae; Wu, Jingni; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Tamogami, Shigeru; Rakwal, Randeep; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Jung, Ki-Hong; Kang, Kyu Young; Kim, Sang Gon; Kim, Sun Tae

    2014-12-01

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10) by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A) with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05) in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Bark in Response to Armoured Scale Insect (Hemiberlesia lataniae) Feeding.

    PubMed

    Hill, M Garry; Wurms, Kirstin V; Davy, Marcus W; Gould, Elaine; Allan, Andrew; Mauchline, Nicola A; Luo, Zhiwei; Ah Chee, Annette; Stannard, Kate; Storey, Roy D; Rikkerink, Erik H

    2015-01-01

    The kiwifruit cultivar Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A' is resistant to the polyphagous armoured scale insect pest Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). A cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes selected from over 132,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was used to measure the transcriptomic profile of the A. chinensis 'Hort16A' canes in response to a controlled infestation of H. lataniae. After 2 days, 272 transcripts were differentially expressed. After 7 days, 5,284 (30%) transcripts were differentially expressed. The transcripts were grouped into 22 major functional categories using MapMan software. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis (photosystem II) were significantly down-regulated, while those associated with secondary metabolism were significantly up-regulated. A total of 643 transcripts associated with response to stress were differentially expressed. This included biotic stress-related transcripts orthologous with pathogenesis related proteins, the phenylpropanoid pathway, NBS-LRR (R) genes, and receptor-like kinase-leucine rich repeat signalling proteins. While transcriptional studies are not conclusive in their own right, results were suggestive of a defence response involving both ETI and PTI, with predominance of the SA signalling pathway. Exogenous application of an SA-mimic decreased H. lataniae growth on A. chinensis 'Hort16A' plants in two laboratory experiments.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of a wild bird reveals physiological responses to the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hannah; Videvall, Elin; Andersson, Martin N; Isaksson, Caroline

    2017-03-14

    Identifying the molecular basis of environmentally induced phenotypic variation presents exciting opportunities for furthering our understanding of how ecological processes and the environment can shape the phenotype. Urban and rural environments present free-living organisms with different challenges and opportunities, which have marked consequences for the phenotype, yet little is known about responses at the molecular level. We characterised transcriptomes from an urban and a rural population of great tits Parus major, demonstrating striking differences in gene expression profiles in both blood and liver tissues. Differentially expressed genes had functions related to immune and inflammatory responses, detoxification, protection against oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Many genes linked to stress responses were expressed at higher levels in the urban birds, in accordance with our prediction that urban animals are exposed to greater environmental stress. This is one of the first studies to reveal transcriptional differences between urban- and rural-dwelling animals and suggests an important role for epigenetics in mediating environmentally induced physiological variation. The study provides valuable resources for developing further in-depth studies of the mechanisms driving phenotypic variation in the urban context at larger spatial and temporal scales.

  20. Transcriptomic profiling of microglia reveals signatures of cell activation and immune response, during experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Capuccini, Barbara; Lin, Jingwen; Talavera-López, Carlos; Khan, Shahid M; Sodenkamp, Jan; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Langhorne, Jean

    2016-12-19

    Cerebral malaria is a pathology involving inflammation in the brain. There are many immune cell types activated during this process, but there is little information on the response of microglia, in this severe complication. We examined microglia by genome wide transcriptomic analysis in a model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), in which C57BL/6 mice are infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Thousands of transcripts were differentially expressed in microglia at two different time points during infection. Proliferation of microglia was a dominant feature before the onset of ECM, and supporting this, we observed an increase in numbers of these cells in the brain. When cerebral malaria symptoms were manifest, genes involved in immune responses and chemokine production were upregulated, which were possibly driven by Type I Interferon. Consistent with this hypothesis, in vitro culture of a microglial cell line with Interferon-β, but not infected red blood cells, resulted in production of several of the chemokines shown to be upregulated in the gene expression analysis. It appears that these responses are associated with ECM, as microglia from mice infected with a mutant P. berghei parasite (ΔDPAP3), which does not cause ECM, did not show the same level of activation or proliferation.

  1. De Novo Assembled Wheat Transcriptomes Delineate Differentially Expressed Host Genes in Response to Leaf Rust Infection.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Saket; Singh, Dharmendra; Pathak, Jyoti; Kumari, Supriya; Kumar, Manish; Poddar, Raju; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Gupta, Puspendra Kumar; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens like Puccinia triticina, the causal organism for leaf rust, extensively damages wheat production. The interaction at molecular level between wheat and the pathogen is complex and less explored. The pathogen induced response was characterized using mock- or pathogen inoculated near-isogenic wheat lines (with or without seedling leaf rust resistance gene Lr28). Four Serial Analysis of Gene Expression libraries were prepared from mock- and pathogen inoculated plants and were subjected to Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection, which generated a total of 165,767,777 reads, each 35 bases long. The reads were processed and multiple k-mers were attempted for de novo transcript assembly; 22 k-mers showed the best results. Altogether 21,345 contigs were generated and functionally characterized by gene ontology annotation, mining for transcription factors and resistance genes. Expression analysis among the four libraries showed extensive alterations in the transcriptome in response to pathogen infection, reflecting reorganizations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. Role of auxin in determining pathogenesis in susceptible and resistant lines were imperative. The qPCR expression study of four LRR-RLK (Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinases) genes showed higher expression at 24 hrs after inoculation with pathogen. In summary, the conceptual model of induced resistance in wheat contributes insights on defense responses and imparts knowledge of Puccinia triticina-induced defense transcripts in wheat plants.

  2. Unique transcriptome, pathways, and networks in the human endometrial fibroblast response to progesterone in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Aghajanova, L; Tatsumi, K; Horcajadas, J A; Zamah, A M; Esteban, F J; Herndon, C N; Conti, M; Giudice, L C

    2011-04-01

    Eutopic endometrium in endometriosis has molecular evidence of resistance to progesterone (P(4)) and activation of the PKA pathway in the stromal compartment. To investigate global and temporal responses of eutopic endometrium to P(4), we compared early (6-h), intermediate (48-h), and late (14-Day) transcriptomes, signaling pathways, and networks of human endometrial stromal fibroblasts (hESF) from women with endometriosis (hESF(endo)) with hESF from women without endometriosis (hESF(nonendo)). Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained from subjects with and without mild peritoneal endometriosis (n = 4 per group), and hESF were isolated and treated with P(4) (1 μM) plus estradiol (E(2)) (10 nM), E(2) alone (10 nM), or vehicle for up to 14 days. Total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis using a Gene 1.0 ST (Affymetrix) platform and analyzed by using bioinformatic algorithms, and data were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. Results revealed unique kinetic expression of specific genes and unique pathways, distinct biological and molecular processes, and signaling pathways and networks during the early, intermediate, and late responses to P(4) in both hESF(nonendo) and hESF(endo), although a blunted response to P(4) was observed in the latter. The normal response of hESF to P(4) involves a tightly regulated kinetic cascade involving key components in the P(4) receptor and MAPK signaling pathways that results in inhibition of E(2)-mediated proliferation and eventual differentiation to the decidual phenotype, but this was not established in the hESF(endo) early response to P(4). The abnormal response of this cell type to P(4) may contribute to compromised embryonic implantation and infertility in women with endometriosis.

  3. Transcriptome response and developmental implications of RNAi-mediated ODC knockdown in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Choubey, Ami; Rajam, M V

    2016-12-24

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitously present polycationic compounds that play a critical role in various growth and developmental processes including stress responses in plants. Yet, their specific functions and mode of action remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have targeted tobacco ornithine decarboxylase gene (ODC) by RNA interference to modulate cellular PA levels and study the effects at different developmental time points. Down-regulation of ODC resulted in significant physiological and morphological anomalies including reduced leaf size, reduced chlorophyll and carotene content, decreased abiotic stress tolerance, early onset of senescence, delayed flowering, partial male and female sterility, reduced seed setting, delayed seed germination, reduced seed viability, and poor in vitro regeneration response from leaf explants. Also, for the first time, microarray analysis has been attempted to study genome-wide gene expression changes in response to lowered PA titers in an ODC knockdown line. A number of transcription factors, auxin- and ethylene-responsive genes, stress-induced genes, lignin-biosynthesis genes, photosynthesis-related genes, senescence-associated genes, membrane proteins, and protein kinases were found to be affected, suggesting a probable list of PA-responsive genes. Transcriptome analysis has also indicated many genes, which could directly or indirectly be responsible for regulating the PA metabolic pathway. Various phenotypic changes observed upon ODC knockdown along with the identification of a number of gene targets means it is a step forward in envisaging possible mechanisms of PA action and for assigning them with specific roles in various developmental processes they are known to be a part of.

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Responses to Imbalanced Carbon: Nitrogen Availabilities in Rice Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Aobo; Sang, Yuying; Sun, Wenfeng; Fu, Ying; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The internal C:N balance must be tightly controlled for the normal growth and development of plants. However, the underlying mechanisms, by which plants sense and balance the intracellular C:N status correspondingly to exogenous C:N availabilities remain elusive. In this study, we use comparative gene expression analysis to identify genes that are responsive to imbalanced C:N treatments in the aerial parts of rice seedlings. Transcripts of rice seedlings treated with four C:N availabilities (1:1, 1:60, 60:1 and 60:60) were compared and two groups of genes were classified: high C:low N responsive genes and low C:high N responsive genes. Our analysis identified several functional correlated genes including chalcone synthase (CHS), chlorophyll a-b binding protein (CAB) and other genes that are implicated in C:N balancing mechanism, such as alternative oxidase 1B (OsAOX1B), malate dehydrogenase (OsMDH) and lysine and histidine specific transporter 1 (OsLHT1). Additionally, six jasmonate synthetic genes and key regulatory genes involved in abiotic and biotic stresses, such as OsMYB4, autoinhibited calcium ATPase 3 (OsACA3) and pleiotropic drug resistance 9 (OsPDR9), were differentially expressed under high C:low N treatment. Gene ontology analysis showed that high C:low N up-regulated genes were primarily enriched in fatty acid biosynthesis and defense responses. Coexpression network analysis of these genes identified eight jasmonate ZIM domain protein (OsJAZ) genes and several defense response related regulators, suggesting that high C:low N status may act as a stress condition, which induces defense responses mediated by jasmonate signaling pathway. Our transcriptome analysis shed new light on the C:N balancing mechanisms and revealed several important regulators of C:N status in rice seedlings. PMID:27820840

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Responses to Imbalanced Carbon: Nitrogen Availabilities in Rice Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aobo; Sang, Yuying; Sun, Wenfeng; Fu, Ying; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The internal C:N balance must be tightly controlled for the normal growth and development of plants. However, the underlying mechanisms, by which plants sense and balance the intracellular C:N status correspondingly to exogenous C:N availabilities remain elusive. In this study, we use comparative gene expression analysis to identify genes that are responsive to imbalanced C:N treatments in the aerial parts of rice seedlings. Transcripts of rice seedlings treated with four C:N availabilities (1:1, 1:60, 60:1 and 60:60) were compared and two groups of genes were classified: high C:low N responsive genes and low C:high N responsive genes. Our analysis identified several functional correlated genes including chalcone synthase (CHS), chlorophyll a-b binding protein (CAB) and other genes that are implicated in C:N balancing mechanism, such as alternative oxidase 1B (OsAOX1B), malate dehydrogenase (OsMDH) and lysine and histidine specific transporter 1 (OsLHT1). Additionally, six jasmonate synthetic genes and key regulatory genes involved in abiotic and biotic stresses, such as OsMYB4, autoinhibited calcium ATPase 3 (OsACA3) and pleiotropic drug resistance 9 (OsPDR9), were differentially expressed under high C:low N treatment. Gene ontology analysis showed that high C:low N up-regulated genes were primarily enriched in fatty acid biosynthesis and defense responses. Coexpression network analysis of these genes identified eight jasmonate ZIM domain protein (OsJAZ) genes and several defense response related regulators, suggesting that high C:low N status may act as a stress condition, which induces defense responses mediated by jasmonate signaling pathway. Our transcriptome analysis shed new light on the C:N balancing mechanisms and revealed several important regulators of C:N status in rice seedlings.

  6. A new RNASeq-based reference transcriptome for sugar beet and its application in transcriptome-scale analysis of vernalization and gibberellin responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris) crops account for about 30% of world sugar. Sugar yield is compromised by reproductive growth hence crops must remain vegetative until harvest. Prolonged exposure to cold temperature (vernalization) in the range 6°C to 12°C induces reproductive growth, leading to bolting (rapid elongation of the main stem) and flowering. Spring cultivation of crops in cool temperate climates makes them vulnerable to vernalization and hence bolting, which is initiated in the apical shoot meristem in processes involving interaction between gibberellin (GA) hormones and vernalization. The underlying mechanisms are unknown and genome scale next generation sequencing approaches now offer comprehensive strategies to investigate them; enabling the identification of novel targets for bolting control in sugar beet crops. In this study, we demonstrate the application of an mRNA-Seq based strategy for this purpose. Results There is no sugar beet reference genome, or public expression array platforms. We therefore used RNA-Seq to generate the first reference transcriptome. We next performed digital gene expression profiling using shoot apex mRNA from two sugar beet cultivars with and without applied GA, and also a vernalized cultivar with and without applied GA. Subsequent bioinformatics analyses identified transcriptional changes associated with genotypic difference and experimental treatments. Analysis of expression profiles in response to vernalization and GA treatment suggested previously unsuspected roles for a RAV1-like AP2/B3 domain protein in vernalization and efflux transporters in the GA response. Conclusions Next generation RNA-Seq enabled the generation of the first reference transcriptome for sugar beet and the study of global transcriptional responses in the shoot apex to vernalization and GA treatment, without the need for a reference genome or established array platforms. Comprehensive bioinformatic analysis identified

  7. Transcriptome and Proteome Dynamics of the Cellular Response of Shewanella oneidensis to Chromium Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.K.

    2005-04-18

    The overall goal of this DOE NABIR project is to characterize the molecular basis and regulation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] stress response and reduction by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. Temporal genomic profiling and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis were employed to characterize the dynamic molecular response of S. oneidensis MR-1 to both acute and chronic Cr(VI) exposure. The acute stress response of aerobic, mid-exponential phase cells shocked to a final concentration of 1 mM potassium chromate (K2CrO4) was examined at post-exposure time intervals of 5, 30, 60, and 90 min relative to untreated cells. The transcriptome of mid-exponential cultures was also analyzed 30 min after shock doses of 0.3, 0.5, or 1 mM K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}. The tonB1-exbB1-exbD1 genes comprising the TonB1 iron transport system were some of the most highly induced coding sequences (CDSs) after 90 min (up to {approx}240 fold), followed by other genes involved in heme transport, sulfate transport, and sulfur assimilation pathways. In addition, transcript levels for CDSs with annotated functions in DNA repair (dinP, recX, recA, recN) and detoxification processes (so3585, so3586) were substantially increased in Cr(VI)-exposed cells compared to untreated cells. By contrast, genes predicted to encode hydrogenases (HydA, HydB), oxidoreductases (SO0902-03-04, SO1911), iron-sulfur cluster binding proteins (SO4404), decaheme cytochrome c proteins (MtrA, OmcA, OmcB), and a number of LysR or TetR family transcriptional regulators were some of the most highly repressed CDSs following the 90-min shock period. Transcriptome profiles generated from MR-1 cells adapted to 0.3 mM Cr(VI) differed significantly from those characterizing cells exposed to acute Cr(VI) stress without adaptation. Parallel proteomic characterization of soluble protein and membrane protein fractions extracted from Cr(VI)-shocked and Cr(VI)-adapted MR-1 cells was performed using multidimensional HPLC-ESI-MS/MS (both

  8. SuperSAGE: the drought stress-responsive transcriptome of chickpea roots

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Carlos; Rotter, Björn; Horres, Ralf; Udupa, Sripada M; Besser, Bert; Bellarmino, Luis; Baum, Michael; Matsumura, Hideo; Terauchi, Ryohei; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Drought is the major constraint to increase yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Improving drought tolerance is therefore of outmost importance for breeding. However, the complexity of the trait allowed only marginal progress. A solution to the current stagnation is expected from innovative molecular tools such as transcriptome analyses providing insight into stress-related gene activity, which combined with molecular markers and expression (e)QTL mapping, may accelerate knowledge-based breeding. SuperSAGE, an improved version of the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique, generating genome-wide, high-quality transcription profiles from any eukaryote, has been employed in the present study. The method produces 26 bp long fragments (26 bp tags) from defined positions in cDNAs, providing sufficient sequence information to unambiguously characterize the mRNAs. Further, SuperSAGE tags may be immediately used to produce microarrays and probes for real-time-PCR, thereby overcoming the lack of genomic tools in non-model organisms. Results We applied SuperSAGE to the analysis of gene expression in chickpea roots in response to drought. To this end, we sequenced 80,238 26 bp tags representing 17,493 unique transcripts (UniTags) from drought-stressed and non-stressed control roots. A total of 7,532 (43%) UniTags were more than 2.7-fold differentially expressed, and 880 (5.0%) were regulated more than 8-fold upon stress. Their large size enabled the unambiguous annotation of 3,858 (22%) UniTags to genes or proteins in public data bases and thus to stress-response processes. We designed a microarray carrying 3,000 of these 26 bp tags. The chip data confirmed 79% of the tag-based results, whereas RT-PCR confirmed the SuperSAGE data in all cases. Conclusion This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of the drought-response transcriptome of chickpea available to date. It demonstrates that – inter alias – signal transduction, transcription

  9. Concurrent Drought Stress and Vascular Pathogen Infection Induce Common and Distinct Transcriptomic Responses in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Ranjita; Gupta, Aarti; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum); the second largest legume grown worldwide is prone to drought and various pathogen infections. These drought and pathogen stresses often occur concurrently in the field conditions. However, the molecular events in response to that are largely unknown. The present study examines the transcriptome dynamics in chickpea plants exposed to a combination of water-deficit stress and Ralstonia solanacearum infection. R. solanacearum is a potential wilt disease causing pathogen in chickpea. Drought stressed chickpea plants were infected with this pathogen and the plants were allowed to experience progressive drought with 2 and 4 days of R. solanacearum infection called short duration stress (SD stresses) and long duration stress (LD stresses), respectively. Our study showed that R. solanacearum multiplication decreased under SD-combined stress compared to SD-pathogen but there was no significant change in LD-combined stress compared to LD-pathogen. The microarray analysis during these conditions showed that 821 and 1039 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were unique to SD- and LD-combined stresses, respectively, when compared with individual stress conditions. Three and fifteen genes were common among all the SD-stress treatments and LD-stress treatments, respectively. Genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, alkaloid biosynthesis, defense related proteins, and osmo-protectants were up-regulated during combined stress. The expression of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis were specifically up-regulated in SD-combined, LD-combined, and LD-pathogen stress. A close transcriptomic association of LD-pathogen stress with SD-combined stress was observed in this study which indicates that R. solanacearum infection also exerts drought stress along with pathogen stress thus mimics combined stress effect. Furthermore the expression profiling of candidate genes using real-time quantitative PCR validated the microarray data. The

  10. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  11. Markedly Divergent Tree Assemblage Responses to Tropical Forest Loss and Fragmentation across a Strong Seasonality Gradient.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Rodrigo L L; Peres, Carlos A; Mendes, Gabriel; Jarenkow, João A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the structure and composition of tree assemblages within three seasonal and aseasonal forest types of southern Brazil, including evergreen, Araucaria, and deciduous forests. We sampled three southernmost Atlantic Forest landscapes, including the largest continuous forest protected areas within each forest type. Tree assemblages in each forest type were sampled within 10 plots of 0.1 ha in both continuous forests and 10 adjacent forest fragments. All trees within each plot were assigned to trait categories describing their regeneration strategy, vertical stratification, seed-dispersal mode, seed size, and wood density. We detected differences among both forest types and landscape contexts in terms of overall tree species richness, and the density and species richness of different functional groups in terms of regeneration strategy, seed dispersal mode and woody density. Overall, evergreen forest fragments exhibited the largest deviations from continuous forest plots in assemblage structure. Evergreen, Araucaria and deciduous forests diverge in the functional composition of tree floras, particularly in relation to regeneration strategy and stress tolerance. By supporting a more diversified light-demanding and stress-tolerant flora with reduced richness and abundance of shade-tolerant, old-growth species, both deciduous and Araucaria forest tree assemblages are more intrinsically resilient to contemporary human-disturbances, including fragmentation-induced edge effects, in terms of species erosion and functional shifts. We suggest that these intrinsic differences in the direction and magnitude of responses to changes in landscape structure between forest types should guide a wide range of conservation strategies in restoring fragmented tropical forest landscapes worldwide.

  12. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Profiling to Evaluate the Sheep Mammary Gland Transcriptome in Response to Experimental Mycoplasma agalactiae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Korb, Melanie; Brunthaler, René; Ertl, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M. agalactiae type strain PG2 in comparison with uninfected control animals using Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in the infected udders and RT-qPCR analyses of selected DEGs showed their expression profiles to be in agreement with results from RNA-Seq. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed majority of the DEGs to be associated with mycoplasma defense responses that are directly or indirectly involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses. Similar RNA-Seq analyses were also performed with spleen cells of the same sheep to know the specific systemic transcriptome responses. Spleen cells exhibited a comparatively lower number of DEGs suggesting a less prominent host response in this organ. To our knowledge this is the first study that describes host transcriptomics of M. agalactiae infection and the related immune-inflammatory responses. The data provides useful information to further dissect the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying mycoplasma mastitis, which is a prerequisite for designing effective intervention strategies. PMID:28081235

  13. Evolution of divergent female mating preference in response to experimental sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Debelle, Allan; Ritchie, Michael G; Snook, Rhonda R

    2014-09-01

    Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence among populations. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection (low vs. high) in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previous studies on these experimental populations have shown that sexual selection manipulation resulted in the divergence between sexual selection treatments of several courtship song parameters, including interpulse interval (IPI) which markedly influences male mating success. Here, we measure female preference for IPI using a playback design to test for preference divergence between the sexual selection treatments after 130 generations of experimental sexual selection. The results suggest that female preference has coevolved with male signal, in opposite directions between the sexual selection treatments, providing direct evidence of the ability of sexual selection to drive the divergent coevolution of mating traits between populations. We discuss the implications in the context sexual selection and speciation.

  14. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta) in Response to Agarolytic Enzyme and Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leen; Siow, Rouh-San; Abdul Rahim, Raha; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Many bacterial epiphytes of agar-producing seaweeds secrete agarase that degrade algal cell wall matrix into oligoagars which elicit defense-related responses in the hosts. The molecular defense responses of red seaweeds are largely unknown. In this study, we surveyed the defense-related transcripts of an agarophyte, Gracilaria changii, treated with β-agarase through next generation sequencing (NGS). We also compared the defense responses of seaweed elicited by agarase with those elicited by an agarolytic bacterium isolated from seaweed, by profiling the expression of defense-related genes using quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). NGS detected a total of 391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a higher abundance (>2-fold change with a p value <0.001) in the agarase-treated transcriptome compared to that of the non-treated G. changii. Among these DEGs were genes related to signaling, bromoperoxidation, heme peroxidation, production of aromatic amino acids, chorismate, and jasmonic acid. On the other hand, the genes encoding a superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase and related to photosynthesis were downregulated. The expression of these DEGs was further corroborated by qRT-PCR results which showed more than 90 % accuracy. A comprehensive analysis of their gene expression profiles between 1 and 24 h post treatments (hpt) revealed that most of the genes analyzed were consistently upregulated or downregulated by both agarase and agarolytic bacterial treatments, indicating that the defense responses induced by both treatments are highly similar except for genes encoding vanadium bromoperoxidase and animal heme peroxidase. Our study has provided the first glimpse of the molecular defense responses of G. changii to agarase and agarolytic bacterial treatments.

  15. Distinct genotype-dependent differences in transcriptome responses in humans exposed to environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Espín-Pérez, Almudena; de Kok, Theo M C M; Jennen, Danyel G J; Hendrickx, Diana M; De Coster, Sam; Schoeters, Greet; Baeyens, Willy; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2015-10-01

    Considering genetic variability in population studies focusing on the health risk assessment of exposure to environmental carcinogens may provide improved insights in individual environmental cancer risks. Therefore, the current study aims to determine the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the relationship between exposure and gene expression, by identifying exposure-dependently coregulated genes and genetic pathways. Statistical analysis based on mixed models, was performed to relate gene expression data from 134 subjects to exposure measurements of multiple carcinogens, 28 polymorphisms, age, sex and biomarkers of cancer risk. We evaluated the combined exposure to cadmium, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene and 1-OH-pyrene, and the outcome was biologically interpreted by using ConsensusPathDB, thereby focusing on carcinogenesis-related pathways. We found generic and carcinogenesis-related pathways deregulated in both sexes, but males showed a stronger transcriptome response than females. We highlighted NOTCH1, CBR1, ITGB3, ITGA4, ADI1, HES1, NCOA2 and SMARCA2 in view of their direct link with cancer development. Two of these, NOTCH1 and ITGB3, are also known to respond to PCBs and cadmium chloride exposure in rodents and to lead in humans. Subjects carrying a high number of risk alleles appear more responsive to combined carcinogen exposure with respect to the induced expression of some of these cancer-related genes, which may be indicative of increased cancer risk as a consequence of environmental factors.

  16. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays. These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  17. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    PubMed

    Santa Brigida, Ailton B; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; de Armas, Elvismary M; Entenza, Júlio O P; Thiebaut, Flávia; Lima, Marcelo de F; Farrinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Lifschitz, Sérgio; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

  18. Quantitative transcriptome, proteome, and sulfur metabolite profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to arsenite.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Michael; Lagniel, Gilles; Kristiansson, Erik; Junot, Christophe; Nerman, Olle; Labarre, Jean; Tamás, Markus J

    2007-06-19

    Arsenic is ubiquitously present in nature, and various mechanisms have evolved enabling cells to evade toxicity and acquire tolerance. Herein, we explored how Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) respond to trivalent arsenic (arsenite) by quantitative transcriptome, proteome, and sulfur metabolite profiling. Arsenite exposure affected transcription of genes encoding functions related to protein biosynthesis, arsenic detoxification, oxidative stress defense, redox maintenance, and proteolytic activity. Importantly, we observed that nearly all components of the sulfate assimilation and glutathione biosynthesis pathways were induced at both gene and protein levels. Kinetic metabolic profiling evidenced a significant increase in the pools of sulfur metabolites as well as elevated cellular glutathione levels. Moreover, the flux in the sulfur assimilation pathway as well as the glutathione synthesis rate strongly increased with a concomitant reduction of sulfur incorporation into proteins. By combining comparative genomics and molecular analyses, we pinpointed transcription factors that mediate the core of the transcriptional response to arsenite. Taken together, our data reveal that arsenite-exposed cells channel a large part of assimilated sulfur into glutathione biosynthesis, and we provide evidence that the transcriptional regulators Yap1p and Met4p control this response in concert.

  19. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae

    PubMed Central

    Grativol, Clícia; de Armas, Elvismary M.; Entenza, Júlio O. P.; Thiebaut, Flávia; Lima, Marcelo de F.; Farrinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S.; Lifschitz, Sérgio; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs. PMID:27936012

  20. Transcriptomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its adaptation to sulphuric acid-induced stress.

    PubMed

    de Lucena, Rodrigo Mendonça; Elsztein, Carolina; de Barros Pita, Will; de Souza, Rafael Barros; de Sá Leitão Paiva Júnior, Sérgio; de Morais Junior, Marcos Antonio

    2015-11-01

    In bioethanol production plants, yeast cells are generally recycled between fermentation batches by using a treatment with sulphuric acid at a pH ranging from 2.0 to 2.5. We have previously shown that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to sulphuric acid treatment induce the general stress response pathway, fail to activate the protein kinase A signalling cascade and requires the mechanisms of cell wall integrity and high osmolarity glycerol pathways in order to survive in this stressful condition. In the present work, we used transcriptome-wide analysis as well as physiological assays to identify the transient metabolic responses of S. cerevisiae under sulphuric acid treatment. The results presented herein indicate that survival depends on a metabolic reprogramming of the yeast cells in order to assure the yeast cell viability by preventing cell growth under this harmful condition. It involves the differential expression of a subset of genes related to cell wall composition and integrity, oxidation-reduction processes, carbohydrate metabolism, ATP synthesis and iron uptake. These results open prospects for application of this knowledge in the improvement of industrial processes based on metabolic engineering to select yeasts resistant to acid treatment.

  1. Global transcriptomic response of Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 to aluminum exposure.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jia Chun; Thevarajoo, Suganthi; Selvaratnam, Chitra; Goh, Kian Mau; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Chong, Chun Shiong

    2017-02-01

    Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium and a member of family Bacillaceae. We had previously reported that the strain is an aluminum resistant thermophilic bacterium. This is the first report to provide a detailed analysis of the global transcriptional response of Anoxybacillus when the cells were exposed to 600 mg L(-1) of aluminum. The transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq sequencer. Total of 708 genes were differentially expressed (fold change >2.00) with 316 genes were up-regulated while 347 genes were down-regulated, in comparing to control with no aluminum added in the culture. Based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, the majority of genes encoding for cell metabolism such as glycolysis, sulfur metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism were up-regulated; while most of the gene associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and valine, leucine and isoleucine metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, a significant number of the genes encoding ABC transporters, metal ions transporters, and some stress response proteins were also differentially expressed following aluminum exposure. The findings provide further insight and help us to understand on the resistance of Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 toward aluminium.

  2. Distinct transcriptomic responses of Caenorhabditis elegans to pristine and sulfidized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Starnes, Daniel L; Lichtenberg, Stuart S; Unrine, Jason M; Starnes, Catherine P; Oostveen, Emily K; Lowry, Gregory V; Bertsch, Paul M; Tsyusko, Olga V

    2016-06-01

    Manufactured nanoparticles (MNP) rapidly undergo aging processes once released from products. Silver sulfide (Ag2S) is the major transformation product formed during the wastewater treatment process for Ag-MNP. We examined toxicogenomic responses of pristine Ag-MNP, sulfidized Ag-MNP (sAg-MNP), and AgNO3 to a model soil organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. Transcriptomic profiling of nematodes which were exposed at the EC30 for reproduction for AgNO3, Ag-MNP, and sAg-MNP resulted in 571 differentially expressed genes. We independently verified expression of 4 genes (numr-1, rol-8, col-158, and grl-20) using qRT-PCR. Only 11% of differentially expressed genes were common among the three treatments. Gene ontology enrichment analysis also revealed that Ag-MNP and sAg-MNP had distinct toxicity mechanisms and did not share any of the biological processes. The processes most affected by Ag-MNP relate to metabolism, while those processes most affected by sAg-MNP relate to molting and the cuticle, and the most impacted processes for AgNO3 exposed nematodes was stress related. Additionally, as observed from qRT-PCR and mutant experiments, the responses to sAg-MNP were distinct from AgNO3 while some of the effects of pristine MNP were similar to AgNO3, suggesting that effects from Ag-MNP is partially due to dissolved silver ions.

  3. Comparison of Fusarium graminearum Transcriptomes on Living or Dead Wheat Differentiates Substrate-Responsive and Defense-Responsive Genes

    PubMed Central

    Boedi, Stefan; Berger, Harald; Sieber, Christian; Münsterkötter, Martin; Maloku, Imer; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Güldener, Ulrich; Strauss, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is an opportunistic pathogen of cereals where it causes severe yield losses and concomitant mycotoxin contamination of the grains. The pathogen has mixed biotrophic and necrotrophic (saprophytic) growth phases during infection and the regulatory networks associated with these phases have so far always been analyzed together. In this study we compared the transcriptomes of fungal cells infecting a living, actively defending plant representing the mixed live style (pathogenic growth on living flowering wheat heads) to the response of the fungus infecting identical, but dead plant tissues (cold-killed flowering wheat heads) representing strictly saprophytic conditions. We found that the living plant actively suppressed fungal growth and promoted much higher toxin production in comparison to the identical plant tissue without metabolism suggesting that molecules signaling secondary metabolite induction are not pre-existing or not stable in the plant in sufficient amounts before infection. Differential gene expression analysis was used to define gene sets responding to the active or the passive plant as main impact factor and driver for gene expression. We correlated our results to the published F. graminearum transcriptomes, proteomes, and secretomes and found that only a limited number of in planta- expressed genes require the living plant for induction but the majority uses simply the plant tissue as signal. Many secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters show a heterogeneous expression pattern within the cluster indicating that different genetic or epigenetic signals govern the expression of individual genes within a physically linked cluster. Our bioinformatic approach also identified fungal genes which were actively repressed by signals derived from the active plant and may thus represent direct targets of the plant defense against the invading pathogen. PMID:27507961

  4. Transcriptomic profiling of the salt stress response in excised leaves of the halophyte Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima.

    PubMed

    Skorupa, Monika; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Domagalski, Krzysztof; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Abu Nahia, Karim; Złoch, Michał; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    2016-02-01

    Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima is a halophytic relative of cultivated beets. In the present work a transcriptome response to acute salt stress imposed to excised leaves of sea beet was investigated. Salt treatments consisted of adding NaCl directly to the transpiration stream by immersing the petioles of excised leaves into the salt solutions. Sequencing libraries were generated from leaves subjected to either moderate or strong salt stress. Control libraries were constructed from untreated leaves. Sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We obtained 32970 unigenes by assembling the pooled reads from all the libraries with Trinity software. Screening the nr database returned 18,362 sequences with functional annotation. Using the reference transcriptome we identified 1,246 genes that were differentially expressed after 48 h of NaCl stress. Genes related to several cellular functions such as membrane transport, osmoprotection, molecular chaperoning, redox metabolism or protein synthesis were differentially expressed in response to salt stress. The response of sea beet leaves to salt treatments was marked out by transcriptomic up-regulation of genes related to photosynthetic carbon fixation, ribosome biogenesis, cell wall-building and cell wall expansion. Furthermore, several novel and undescribed transcripts were responsive to salinity in leaves of sea beet.

  5. Deficiency in plastidic glutamine synthetase alters proline metabolism and transcriptomic response in Lotus japonicus under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Betti, Marco; Sánchez, Diego H; Udvardi, Michael K; Monza, Jorge; Márquez, Antonio J

    2010-12-01

    The role of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in proline biosynthesis and drought stress responses in Lotus japonicus was investigated using the GS2 mutant, Ljgln2-2. Wild-type (WT) and mutant plants were submitted to different lengths of time of water and nutrient solution deprivation. Several biochemical markers were measured and the transcriptional response to drought was determined by both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and transcriptomics. The Ljgln2-2 mutant exhibited normal sensitivity to mild water deprivation, but physiological, biochemical and massive transcriptional differences were detected in the mutant, which compromised recovery (rehydration) following re-watering after severe drought stress. Proline accumulation during drought was substantially lower in mutant than in WT plants, and significant differences in the pattern of expression of the genes involved in proline metabolism were observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that about three times as many genes were regulated in response to drought in Ljgln2-2 plants compared with WT. The transcriptomic and accompanying biochemical data indicate that the Ljgln2-2 mutant is subject to more intense cellular stress than WT during drought. The results presented here implicate plastidic GS2 in proline production during stress and provide interesting insights into the function of proline in response to drought.

  6. Nucleotide divergence vs. gene expression differentiation: comparative transcriptome sequencing in natural isolates from the carrion crow and its hybrid zone with the hooded crow.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jochen B W; Bayer, Till; Haubold, Bernhard; Schilhabel, Markus; Rosenstiel, Philip; Tautz, Diethard

    2010-03-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology promise to provide new strategies for studying population differentiation and speciation phenomena in their earliest phases. We focus here on the black carrion crow (Corvus [corone] corone), which forms a zone of hybridization and overlap with the grey coated hooded crow (Corvus [corone] cornix). However, although these semispecies are taxonomically distinct, previous analyses based on several types of genetic markers did not reveal significant molecular differentiation between them. We here corroborate this result with sequence data obtained from a set of 25 nuclear intronic loci. Thus, the system represents a case of a very early phase of species divergence that requires new molecular approaches for its description. We have therefore generated RNAseq expression profiles using barcoded massively parallel pyrosequencing of brain mRNA from six individuals of the carrion crow and five individuals from a hybrid zone with the hooded crow. We obtained 856 675 reads from two runs, with average read length of 270 nt and coverage of 8.44. Reads were assembled de novo into 19 552 contigs, 70% of which could be assigned to annotated genes in chicken and zebra finch. This resulted in a total of 7637 orthologous genes and a core set of 1301 genes that could be compared across all individuals. We find a clear clustering of expression profiles for the pure carrion crow animals and disperse profiles for the animals from the hybrid zone. These results suggest that gene expression differences may indeed be a sensitive indicator of initial species divergence.

  7. Parallel epigenomic and transcriptomic responses to viral infection in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Galbraith, David A; Yang, Xingyu; Niño, Elina Lastro; Yi, Soojin; Grozinger, Christina

    2015-03-01

    Populations of honey bees are declining throughout the world, with US beekeepers losing 30% of their colonies each winter. Though multiple factors are driving these colony losses, it is increasingly clear that viruses play a major role. However, information about the molecular mechanisms mediating antiviral immunity in honey bees is surprisingly limited. Here, we examined the transcriptional and epigenetic (DNA methylation) responses to viral infection in honey bee workers. One-day old worker honey bees were fed solutions containing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), a virus which causes muscle paralysis and death and has previously been associated with colony loss. Uninfected control and infected, symptomatic bees were collected within 20-24 hours after infection. Worker fat bodies, the primary tissue involved in metabolism, detoxification and immune responses, were collected for analysis. We performed transcriptome- and bisulfite-sequencing of the worker fat bodies to identify genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation patterns associated with viral infection. There were 753 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05) in infected versus control bees, including several genes involved in epigenetic and antiviral pathways. DNA methylation status of 156 genes (FDR<0.1) changed significantly as a result of the infection, including those involved in antiviral responses in humans. There was no significant overlap between the significantly differentially expressed and significantly differentially methylated genes, and indeed, the genomic characteristics of these sets of genes were quite distinct. Our results indicate that honey bees have two distinct molecular pathways, mediated by transcription and methylation, that modulate protein levels and/or function in response to viral infections.

  8. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR) dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF) or a high fat-high glucose (HFG) diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  9. Parallel Epigenomic and Transcriptomic Responses to Viral Infection in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Niño, Elina Lastro; Yi, Soojin; Grozinger, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Populations of honey bees are declining throughout the world, with US beekeepers losing 30% of their colonies each winter. Though multiple factors are driving these colony losses, it is increasingly clear that viruses play a major role. However, information about the molecular mechanisms mediating antiviral immunity in honey bees is surprisingly limited. Here, we examined the transcriptional and epigenetic (DNA methylation) responses to viral infection in honey bee workers. One-day old worker honey bees were fed solutions containing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), a virus which causes muscle paralysis and death and has previously been associated with colony loss. Uninfected control and infected, symptomatic bees were collected within 20–24 hours after infection. Worker fat bodies, the primary tissue involved in metabolism, detoxification and immune responses, were collected for analysis. We performed transcriptome- and bisulfite-sequencing of the worker fat bodies to identify genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation patterns associated with viral infection. There were 753 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05) in infected versus control bees, including several genes involved in epigenetic and antiviral pathways. DNA methylation status of 156 genes (FDR<0.1) changed significantly as a result of the infection, including those involved in antiviral responses in humans. There was no significant overlap between the significantly differentially expressed and significantly differentially methylated genes, and indeed, the genomic characteristics of these sets of genes were quite distinct. Our results indicate that honey bees have two distinct molecular pathways, mediated by transcription and methylation, that modulate protein levels and/or function in response to viral infections. PMID:25811620

  10. Transcriptomic responses to heat stress and nickel in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Banni; Hajer, Attig; Susanna, Sforzini; Caterina, Oliveri; Flavio, Mignone; Hamadi, Boussetta; Aldo, Viarengo

    2014-03-01

    The exposure of marine organisms to stressing agents may affect the level and pattern of gene expression. Although many studies have examined the ecological effects of heat stress on mussels, little is known about the physiological mechanisms that maybe affected by co-exposure to heat stress and environmental contaminants such as nickel (Ni). In the present work, we investigated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and Ni supply on lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA) in the digestive gland (DG) of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.). To elucidate how the molecular response to environmental stressors is modulated, we employed a cDNA microarray with 1673 sequences to measure relative transcript abundances in the DG of mussels exposed to Ni along with a temperature increase. A two-way ANOVA revealed that temperature and Ni rendered additive effects on LMS and MDA accumulation, increasing the toxic effects of metal cations. Ni loads in the DG were also affected by co-exposure to 26°C. In animals exposed only to heat stress, functional genomics analysis of the microarray data (171 differentially expressed genes (DEGs)) highlighted seven biological processes, largely dominated by the up-regulation of folding protein-related genes and the down-regulation of genes involved in cell migration and cellular component assembly. Exposure to Ni at 18°C and 26°C yielded 188 and 262 DEGs, respectively, exhibiting distinct patterns in terms of biological processes. In particular, the response of mussels exposed to Ni at 26°C was characterized by the up-regulation of proteolysis, ribosome biogenesis, response to unfolded proteins, and catabolic-related genes, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding cellular metabolic processes. Our data provide new insights into the transcriptomic response in mussels experiencing temperature increases and Ni exposure; these data should be carefully considered in view of the

  11. Data for transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic analysis of Anguilla japonica gills in response to osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tse, William Ka Fai; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Lai, Keng Po; Gu, Jie; Sheung Law, Alice Yu; Yee Yeung, Bonnie Ho; Ching Chow, Sheung; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Wong, Chris Kong Chu

    2015-01-01

    This article contains data related to the two research articles titled Transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic approaches reveal novel short-term hyperosmotic stress responsive proteins in the gill of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [1]) and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals acute hypo-osmotic responsive proteins in the gills of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [2]). The two research articles show the usefulness of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to provide molecular insights of osmoregulation mechanism in a non-model organism, the Japanese eel. The information presented here combines the raw data from the two studies and provides an overview on the physiological functions of fish gills. PMID:26217731

  12. Data for transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic analysis of Anguilla japonica gills in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Tse, William Ka Fai; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Lai, Keng Po; Gu, Jie; Sheung Law, Alice Yu; Yee Yeung, Bonnie Ho; Ching Chow, Sheung; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Wong, Chris Kong Chu

    2015-06-01

    This article contains data related to the two research articles titled Transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic approaches reveal novel short-term hyperosmotic stress responsive proteins in the gill of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [1]) and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals acute hypo-osmotic responsive proteins in the gills of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [2]). The two research articles show the usefulness of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to provide molecular insights of osmoregulation mechanism in a non-model organism, the Japanese eel. The information presented here combines the raw data from the two studies and provides an overview on the physiological functions of fish gills.

  13. Transcriptomics Modeling of the Late-Gestation Fetal Pituitary Response to Transient Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Charles E.; Chang, Eileen I.; Richards, Elaine M.; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    consistent with cellular oxygen and ATP starvation. In this early time point, we see a vigorous gene response. But, like the hypothalamus, the transcriptomic response is not consistent with mediation by HIF-1. If HIF-1 is a significant controller of gene expression in the fetal pituitary after hypoxia, it must be at a later time. PMID:26859870

  14. Dermal Wound Transcriptomic Responses to Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa versus Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Rabbit Ear Wound Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-02

    harvested on POD4 for microarray and transcriptome analysis. Other wounds received topical antibiotic after infection for 24 hours to promote biofilm ...cell toxicity in response to a more damaging P.a. inflammatory milieu. The POD6 wounds were colonized with biofilm but expressed magnitudes fewer...infection for 24 hours to promote biofilm development, and were harvested on POD6 or POD12. Results: Wounds infected for 24 hours, relative to uninfected

  15. Carbon Isotopes and the Diverging Growth Response of Treeline Trees to Changing Climate in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, V. A.; Wilmking, M.; Juday, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    One of the underlying assumptions in dendroclimatology is that trees respond to climate today the same way they have responded in the past (uniformitarian principle). Recent studies at northern high latitudes treeline show this assumption may no longer be valid or may be flawed, as tree ring width based temperature reconstructions underestimate recent warming. This "divergence effect" might be due to false assumptions about 1) climate data (e.g. which climate parameter can be modeled most effectively), 2) tree ring data (e.g. shift in climate sensitivity of tree growth) or 3) a truly new and unprecedented phenomenon (e.g. rapid climate warming exceeding the adaptive capacity of trees). A recent survey of treeline trees in a longitudinal transect across the Alaska and Brooks Ranges in central and northern Alaska (maritime conditions in the west to more arid conditions in the east), has identified 3 responses of tree ring width to warming temperatures at discrete sites; positive (increased growth), negative (decreased growth) and no significant response. We hypothesize that the trees with decreased growth have shifted from temperature to moisture sensitivity as temperatures have increased without a concurrent increase in precipitation or change in snowpack. But there has been no definitive study confirming this. Contrasting this, white spruce growth on productive sites at low elevation sites in central Alaska is best modeled by mean May through August temperature. On such sites there is no threshold change in the prediction efficiency of radial growth across the range of temperatures (residuals are scale-independent) in the 104-yr Fairbanks record. This suggests that low elevation trees consistently have been limited by temperature-induced moisture stress, whereas treeline trees may have been high-temperature limited irregularly in the past, and are now increasingly so in recent decades. For this study, tree cores were collected from 12 white spruce (Picea glauca

  16. Physiological responses to divergent selection for phytate phosphorus bioavailability in a randombred chicken population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An investigation was conducted to study insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGFII, insulin, glucagon, recombinant human leptin, triidothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels in a randombred chicken population divergently selected for phosphorus bioavailability (PBA). There were also differences in ...

  17. Divergent selection for fiber length and bundle strength and correlated responses in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton breeders must develop cultivars to meet the demand for longer, stronger, and more uniform fibers. In the current study, two cycles of divergent selection for fiber upper-half mean length (UHML) and bundle strength (Str) were conducted within five diverse parental combinations selected based o...

  18. Understanding the immune system architecture and transcriptome responses to southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in Sogatella furcifera

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Tang, Nan; Gao, Xinlei; Guo, Dongyang; Chang, Zhaoxia; Fu, Yating; Akinyemi, Ibukun A.; Wu, Qingfa

    2016-01-01

    Sogatella furcifera, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), has become one of the most destructive pests in rice production owing to its plant sap-sucking behavior and efficient transmission of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) in a circulative, propagative and persistent manner. The dynamic and complex SRBSDV-WBPH-rice plant interaction is still poorly understood. In this study, based on a homology-based genome-wide analysis, 348 immune-related genes belonging to 28 families were identified in WBPH. A transcriptome analysis of non-viruliferous (NVF) and viruliferous groups with high viral titers (HVT) and median viral titers (MVT) revealed that feeding on SRBSDV-infected rice plants has a significant impact on gene expression, regardless of viral titers in insects. We identified 278 up-regulated and 406 down-regulated genes shared among the NVF, MVT, and HVT groups and detected significant down-regulation of primary metabolism-related genes and oxidoreductase. In viruliferous WBPH with viral titer-specific transcriptome changes, 1,906 and 1,467 genes exhibited strict monotonically increasing and decreasing expression, respectively. The RNAi pathway was the major antiviral response to increasing viral titers among diverse immune responses. These results clarify the responses of immune genes and the transcriptome of WBPH to SRBSDV and improve our knowledge of the functional relationship between pathogen, vector, and host. PMID:27805032

  19. Dynamic transcriptome analysis and volatile profiling of Gossypium hirsutum in response to the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-Zheng; Chen, Jie-Yin; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Xiao, Yu-Tao; Wu, Juan; Wu, Jun-Xiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    In response to insect herbivory, plants emit elevated levels of volatile organic compounds for direct and indirect resistance. However, little is known about the molecular and genomic basis of defense response that insect herbivory trigger in cotton plants and how defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Here we monitored the transcriptome changes and volatile characteristics of cotton plants in response to cotton bollworm (CBW; Helicoverpa armigera) larvae infestation. Analysis of samples revealed that 1,969 transcripts were differentially expressed (log2|Ratio| ≥ 2; q ≤ 0.05) after CBW infestation. Cluster analysis identified several distinct temporal patterns of transcriptome changes. Among CBW-induced genes, those associated with indirect defense and jasmonic acid pathway were clearly over-represented, indicating that these genes play important roles in CBW-induced defenses. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that CBW infestation could induce cotton plants to release volatile compounds comprised lipoxygenase-derived green leaf volatiles and a number of terpenoid volatiles. Responding to CBW larvae infestation, cotton plants undergo drastic reprogramming of the transcriptome and the volatile profile. The present results increase our knowledge about insect herbivory-induced metabolic and biochemical processes in plants, which may help improve future studies on genes governing processes.

  20. Transcriptome Analyses of the Honeybee Response to Nosema ceranae and Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Aufauvre, Julie; Misme-Aucouturier, Barbara; Viguès, Bernard; Texier, Catherine; Delbac, Frédéric; Blot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are constantly exposed to a wide variety of environmental stressors such as parasites and pesticides. Among them, Nosema ceranae and neurotoxic insecticides might act in combination and lead to a higher honeybee mortality. We investigated the molecular response of honeybees exposed to N. ceranae, to insecticides (fipronil or imidacloprid), and to a combination of both stressors. Midgut transcriptional changes induced by these stressors were measured in two independent experiments combining a global RNA-Seq transcriptomic approach with the screening of the expression of selected genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Although N. ceranae-insecticide combinations induced a significant increase in honeybee mortality, we observed that they did not lead to a synergistic effect. According to gene expression profiles, chronic exposure to insecticides had no significant impact on detoxifying genes but repressed the expression of immunity-related genes. Honeybees treated with N. ceranae, alone or in combination with an insecticide, showed a strong alteration of midgut immunity together with modifications affecting cuticle coatings and trehalose metabolism. An increasing impact of treatments on gene expression profiles with time was identified suggesting an absence of stress recovery which could be linked to the higher mortality rates observed. PMID:24646894

  1. Transcriptomic profile of tobacco in response to Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata infections

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shengchang; Ma, Xiao; Chen, Wei; Wan, Wenting; He, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaoqin; Ma, Yujin; Long, Ni; Tan, Yuntao; Wang, Yangzi; Hou, Yujie; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco brown spot caused by Alternaria fungal species is one of the most damaging diseases, and results in significant yield losses. However, little is known about the systematic response of tobacco to this fungal infection. To fill this knowledge gap, de novo assemblies of tobacco leaf transcriptomes were obtained in cultivars V2 and NC89 after the inoculation of either Alternaria longipes (AL) or Alternaria alternata (AA) at three different time points. We studied the gene expression profile of each cultivar-pathogen combination, and identified eight differentially expressed genes shared among all combinations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed key components during the fungal infection, which included regulation of gene expression (GO:0010468), regulation of RNA metabolic process (GO:0051252), tetrapyrrole binding (GO:0046906), and external encapsulating structure (GO:0030312). Further analyses of the continuously upregulated/downregulated genes and the resistance genes demonstrated that the gene expression profile upon fungal infection was contingent on the specific cultivar and pathogen. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction, and is of great importance for disease prevention and molecular breeding. PMID:27157477

  2. Machine learning-based differential network analysis: a study of stress-responsive transcriptomes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuang; Xin, Mingming; Feldmann, Kenneth A; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2014-02-01

    Machine learning (ML) is an intelligent data mining technique that builds a prediction model based on the learning of prior knowledge to recognize patterns in large-scale data sets. We present an ML-based methodology for transcriptome analysis via comparison of gene coexpression networks, implemented as an R package called machine learning-based differential network analysis (mlDNA) and apply this method to reanalyze a set of abiotic stress expression data in Arabidopsis thaliana. The mlDNA first used a ML-based filtering process to remove nonexpressed, constitutively expressed, or non-stress-responsive "noninformative" genes prior to network construction, through learning the patterns of 32 expression characteristics of known stress-related genes. The retained "informative" genes were subsequently analyzed by ML-based network comparison to predict candidate stress-related genes showing expression and network differences between control and stress networks, based on 33 network topological characteristics. Comparative evaluation of the network-centric and gene-centric analytic methods showed that mlDNA substantially outperformed traditional statistical testing-based differential expression analysis at identifying stress-related genes, with markedly improved prediction accuracy. To experimentally validate the mlDNA predictions, we selected 89 candidates out of the 1784 predicted salt stress-related genes with available SALK T-DNA mutagenesis lines for phenotypic screening and identified two previously unreported genes, mutants of which showed salt-sensitive phenotypes.

  3. Transcriptome profiling of the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa in response to different carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue; Shen, Jia; Bai, Fengwei; Xu, Nianjun

    2016-10-01

    To enrich our knowledge of carbon dioxide (CO2)-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in eukaryotic algae, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the transcriptome profiling of the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Chlorophyta) response to different CO2 levels. Altogether, 53.86 million (M) and 62.10M clean short reads of 100 nucleotides (nt) were generated from this microalga cultured at 4-fold air CO2 (control) and air CO2 concentrations by Illumina sequencing. A total of 32,662 unigenes were assembled from the two pooled samples. With an E-value cut-off of 1e-5, 9590, 6782, 5954, and 9092 unigenes were annotated in NR, Gene Ontology (GO), Eukaryotic Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, respectively. After screening, 51 differentially expressed unigenes were up-regulated and 8 were down-regulated in the air CO2 group, relative to the control. The transcript levels of eight differentially expressed unigenes were validated by real-time quantitative PCR, which manifested that thioredoxin-like protein, laminin subunit beta-1, and chlorophyll a/b binding protein might be associated with the utilization of inorganic carbon at low CO2 levels.

  4. RNA-Seq-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Response to Water Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Guo, Zhenni; Zhong, Hong; Wang, Sen; Yang, Weiqiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Shihua

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important producers of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops, and the effect of water activity (aw) on growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus has been previously studied. Here we found the strains under 0.93 aw exhibited decreased conidiation and aflatoxin biosynthesis compared to that under 0.99 aw. When RNA-Seq was used to delineate gene expression profile under different water activities, 23,320 non-redundant unigenes, with an average length of 1297 bp, were yielded. By database comparisons, 19,838 unigenes were matched well (e-value < 10−5) with known gene sequences, and another 6767 novel unigenes were obtained by comparison to the current genome annotation of A. flavus. Based on the RPKM equation, 5362 differentially expressed unigenes (with |log2Ratio| ≥ 1) were identified between 0.99 aw and 0.93 aw treatments, including 3156 up-regulated and 2206 down-regulated unigenes, suggesting that A. flavus underwent an extensive transcriptome response during water activity variation. Furthermore, we found that the expression of 16 aflatoxin producing-related genes decreased obviously when water activity decreased, and the expression of 11 development-related genes increased after 0.99 aw treatment. Our data corroborate a model where water activity affects aflatoxin biosynthesis through increasing the expression of aflatoxin producing-related genes and regulating development-related genes. PMID:25421810

  5. Transcriptomic Responses of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) to Environmental Enrichment during Juvenile Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Melissa L.; Hori, Tiago S.; Rise, Matthew L.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Captive rearing programs (hatcheries) are often used in conservation and management efforts for at-risk salmonid fish populations. However, hatcheries typically rear juveniles in environments that contrast starkly with natural conditions, which may lead to phenotypic and/or genetic changes that adversely affect the performance of juveniles upon their release to the wild. Environmental enrichment has been proposed as a mechanism to improve the efficacy of population restoration efforts from captive-rearing programs; in this study, we examine the influence of environmental enrichment during embryo and yolk-sac larval rearing on the transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Full siblings were reared in either a hatchery environment devoid of structure or an environment enriched with gravel substrate. At the end of endogenous feeding by juveniles, we examined patterns of gene transcript abundance in head tissues using the cGRASP-designed Agilent 4×44K microarray. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) indicated that 808 genes were differentially transcribed between the rearing environments and a total of 184 gene ontological (GO) terms were over- or under-represented in this gene list, several associated with mitosis/cell cycle and muscle and heart development. There were also pronounced differences among families in the degree of transcriptional response to rearing environment enrichment, suggesting that gene-by-environment effects, possibly related to parental origin, could influence the efficacy of enrichment interventions. PMID:25742646

  6. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Manoj K; Dusek, Jeffery A; Chang, Bei-Hung; Joseph, Marie G; Denninger, John W; Fricchione, Gregory L; Benson, Herbert; Libermann, Towia A

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation response (RR) is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal) genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS) as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs) and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress.

  7. Analysis of the alfalfa root transcriptome in response to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Postnikova, Olga A; Shao, Jonathan; Nemchinov, Lev G

    2013-07-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic factors affecting alfalfa productivity. Identifying genes that control this complex trait will provide critical insights for alfalfa breeding programs. To date, no studies have been published on a deep sequencing-based profiling of the alfalfa transcriptome in response to salinity stress. Observations gathered through research on reference genomes may not always be applicable to alfalfa. In this work, Illumina RNA-sequencing was performed in two alfalfa genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance, in order to estimate a broad spectrum of genes affected by salt stress. A total of 367,619,586 short reads were generated from cDNA libraries originated from roots of both lines. More than 60,000 tentative consensus sequences (TCs) were obtained and, among them, 74.5% had a significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI database. Mining of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from all TCs revealed 6,496 SSRs belonging to 3,183 annotated unigenes. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the expression of 1,165 genes, including 86 transcription factors (TFs), was significantly altered under salt stress. About 40% of differentially expressed genes were assigned to known gene ontology (GO) categories using Arabidopsis GO. A random check of differentially expressed genes by quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the bioinformatic analysis of the RNA-seq data. A number of salt-responsive genes in both tested genotypes were identified and assigned to functional classes, and gene candidates with roles in the adaptation to salinity were proposed. Alfalfa-specific data on salt-responsive genes obtained in this work will be useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms of salinity tolerance in alfalfa.

  8. Transcriptome analysis reveals crosstalk of responsive genes to multiple abiotic stresses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya-Na; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Ruan, Meng-Bin; Zhang, Li-Li; Meng, Zhao-Hong; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stress is a major environmental factor that limits cotton growth and yield, moreover, this problem has become more and more serious recently, as multiple stresses often occur simultaneously due to the global climate change and environmental pollution. In this study, we sought to identify genes involved in diverse stresses including abscisic acid (ABA), cold, drought, salinity and alkalinity by comparative microarray analysis. Our result showed that 5790, 3067, 5608, 778 and 6148 transcripts, were differentially expressed in cotton seedlings under treatment of ABA (1 μM ABA), cold (4°C), drought (200 mM mannitol), salinity (200 mM NaCl) and alkalinity (pH=11) respectively. Among the induced or suppressed genes, 126 transcripts were shared by all of the five kinds of abiotic stresses, with 64 up-regulated and 62 down-regulated. These common members are grouped as stress signal transduction, transcription factors (TFs), stress response/defense proteins, metabolism, transport facilitation, as well as cell wall/structure, according to the function annotation. We also noticed that large proportion of significant differentially expressed genes specifically regulated in response to different stress. Nine of the common transcripts of multiple stresses were selected for further validation with quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, several well characterized TF families, for example, WRKY, MYB, NAC, AP2/ERF and zinc finger were shown to be involved in different stresses. As an original report using comparative microarray to analyze transcriptome of cotton under five abiotic stresses, valuable information about functional genes and related pathways of anti-stress, and/or stress tolerance in cotton seedlings was unveiled in our result. Besides this, some important common factors were focused for detailed identification and characterization. According to our analysis, it suggested that there was crosstalk of responsive genes or pathways to multiple

  9. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

    PubMed

    Hurtado Páez, Uriel Alonso; García Romero, Ibonne Aydee; Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  10. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens. PMID:26287380

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of Prunus domestica Undergoing Hypersensitive Response to Plum Pox Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named ‘Jojo’, develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected ‘Jojo’ trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization. PMID:24959894

  12. Relaxation Response Induces Temporal Transcriptome Changes in Energy Metabolism, Insulin Secretion and Inflammatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Marie G.; Denninger, John W.; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Benson, Herbert; Libermann, Towia A.

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation response (RR) is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal) genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS) as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs) and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress. PMID:23650531

  13. Transcriptome analysis of bagging-treated red Chinese sand pear peels reveals light-responsive pathway functions in anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Sun, Yongwang; Qian, Minjie; Yang, Fengxia; Ni, Junbei; Tao, Ruiyan; Li, Lin; Shu, Qun; Zhang, Dong; Teng, Yuanwen

    2017-12-01

    Bagging is an efficient method to improve fruit colour development. This work reported a transcriptome analysis using bagging-treated red Chinese sand pear peels. In total, 8,870 differentially expressed genes were further analysed by a weighted gene co-expression network analysis and early-, middle- and late light-responsive genes were identified. An annotation analysis revealed several pathways involved in the different responsive stages. The presence of LONG HYPOCOTLY 5, CRY-DASH and a CONSTANS-like transcription factors among the early light-responsive genes indicated the pivotal role of light, especially blue light, in the biological changes that occurred after bag removal. Other light-responsive transcription factors were also identified from the three light-responsive stages. In addition, the light-responsive pattern of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes differed among the biosynthetic steps. Although yeast-one hybrid assay showed that most of the structural genes were regulated by PpMYB10, their different temporal expressive pattern suggested that besides PpMYB10, other light-responsive transcriptional factors were also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. In summary, our transcriptome analysis provides knowledge of the transcriptional regulatory network operating during light responses, which results in anthocyanin accumulation and other significant physiological changes in red Chinese sand pear peels after bag removal.

  14. Reprogramming of Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Root Transcriptome in Response to Phytophthora cactorum

    PubMed Central

    Blande, Daniel; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Kokko, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum) causes significant economic losses in strawberry production. The best control strategy would be to use resistant cultivars, but polygenically inherited resistance makes the breeding of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) challenging. The diploid wild strawberry Fragaria vesca Hawaii 4 genotype was shown previously to have resistance against crown rot. To explore the resistance mechanisms, we inoculated the roots of Hawaii 4 with P. cactorum in a novel in vitro hydroponic system to minimize interference caused by other microbes. Major reprogramming of the root transcriptome occurred, involving 30% of the genes. The surveillance system of the plant shifted from the development mode to the defense mode. Furthermore, the immune responses as well as many genes involved in the biosynthesis of the defense hormones jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid were up-regulated. Several major allergen-like genes encoding PR-10 proteins were highly expressed in the inoculated plants, suggesting that they also have a crucial role in the defense responses against P. cactorum. Additionally, flavonoids and terpenoids may be of vital importance, as several genes involved in their biosynthesis were up-regulated. The cell wall biosynthesis and developmental processes were down-regulated, possibly as a result of the down-regulation of the key genes involved in the biosynthesis of growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids and auxin. Of particular interest was the expression of potential resistance genes in the recently identified P. cactorum resistance locus RPc-1. These new findings help to target the breeding efforts aiming at more resistant strawberry cultivars. PMID:27518577

  15. Organ-specific transcriptome response of the small brown planthopper toward rice stripe virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wan; Lu, Lixia; Yang, Pengcheng; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes rice stripe disease and is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The alimentary canal and salivary gland of SBPH play important roles in viral replication and transmission. However, little is known about the underlying molecular functions of these two organs in the interaction between RSV and SBPH. In this study, organ-specific transcriptomes of the alimentary canal and salivary gland were analyzed in viruliferous and naïve SBPH. The number of differentially expressed unigenes in the alimentary canal was considerably greater than that in the salivary gland after RSV infection, and only 23 unigenes were co-regulated in the two organs. In the alimentary canal, genes involved in lysosome, digestion and detoxification were activated upon RSV infection, whereas the genes related to DNA replication and repair were suppressed. RSV activated RNA transport and repressed the MAPK, mTOR, Wnt, and TGF-beta signaling pathways in the salivary gland. The overall immune reaction toward RSV was much stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal. RSV activated the pattern recognition molecules and Toll pathway in the salivary gland but inhibited these two reactions in the alimentary canal. The responses from reactive oxygen and the immune-responsive effectors were stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal after RSV infection. These findings provide clues on the roles of the two organs in confronting RSV infection and aid in the understanding of the interaction between RSV and SBPHs.

  16. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays. These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize. PMID:28223998

  17. Transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyun; Deng, Kaiping; Zaremba, Sam; Deng, Xiangyu; Lin, Chiahui; Wang, Qian; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2009-10-01

    Chlorinated water is commonly used in industrial operations to wash and sanitize fresh-cut, minimally processed produce. Here we compared 42 human outbreak strains that represented nine distinct Escherichia coli O157:H7 genetic lineages (or clades) for their relative resistance to chlorine treatment. A quantitative measurement of resistance was made by comparing the extension of the lag phase during growth of each strain under exposure to sublethal concentrations of sodium hypochlorite in Luria-Bertani or brain heart infusion broth. Strains in clade 8 showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher resistance to chlorine than strains from other clades of E. coli O157:H7. To further explore how E. coli O157:H7 responds to oxidative stress at transcriptional levels, we analyzed the global gene expression profiles of two strains, TW14359 (clade 8; associated with the 2006 spinach outbreak) and Sakai (clade 1; associated with the 1996 radish sprout outbreak), under sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide treatment. We found over 380 genes were differentially expressed (more than twofold; P < 0.05) after exposure to low levels of chlorine or hydrogen peroxide. Significantly upregulated genes included several regulatory genes responsive to oxidative stress, genes encoding putative oxidoreductases, and genes associated with cysteine biosynthesis, iron-sulfur cluster assembly, and antibiotic resistance. Identification of E. coli O157:H7 strains with enhanced resistance to chlorine decontamination and analysis of their transcriptomic response to oxidative stress may improve our basic understanding of the survival strategy of this human enteric pathogen on fresh produce during minimal processing.

  18. Spleen Transcriptome Profile of Muscovy Ducklings in Response to Infection With Muscovy Duck Reovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanxi; Wu, Yijian; Cai, Yilong; Zhuang, Yubin; Xu, Lihui; Wu, Baocheng; Zhang, Yanding

    2015-06-01

    Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes high morbidity and mortality in ducklings. However, the molecular basis for pathogenesis of this virus remains poorly understood, and the complete genome sequence of Muscovy duck is lacking. Here we report the transcriptome profile of Muscovy ducks in response to MDRV infection. RNA sequencing technology was employed to obtain a representative complement of transcripts from the spleen of ducklings, and then differential gene expression was analyzed between MDRV-YB strain infected ducks and noninfected ducks. This analysis generated 65,536 unigenes. Of these, 6458 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the infected and noninfected groups. The symptom and pathology of ducks infected with MDRV-YB was correlated with the greater proportion of decreased expression genes (4906) than increased expression (1552) level. Gene ontology analysis assigned differentially expressed genes to the categories: "biological processes," "cellular functions," and "molecular functions." Differentially expressed genes involved in the innate immune system were analyzed further, and 128 of these genes showed decreased expression and 86 showed increased expression between the infected and noninfected groups. These genes represented the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway, and the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways and included interferon (IFN) α, IFNγ, interleukin 6, RIG-I, and TLR4. The data were verified by SYBR fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SYBR-qPCR). Our findings offer new insight into the host immune response to MDRV infection.

  19. Reprogramming of Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Root Transcriptome in Response to Phytophthora cactorum.

    PubMed

    Toljamo, Anna; Blande, Daniel; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Kokko, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum) causes significant economic losses in strawberry production. The best control strategy would be to use resistant cultivars, but polygenically inherited resistance makes the breeding of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) challenging. The diploid wild strawberry Fragaria vesca Hawaii 4 genotype was shown previously to have resistance against crown rot. To explore the resistance mechanisms, we inoculated the roots of Hawaii 4 with P. cactorum in a novel in vitro hydroponic system to minimize interference caused by other microbes. Major reprogramming of the root transcriptome occurred, involving 30% of the genes. The surveillance system of the plant shifted from the development mode to the defense mode. Furthermore, the immune responses as well as many genes involved in the biosynthesis of the defense hormones jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid were up-regulated. Several major allergen-like genes encoding PR-10 proteins were highly expressed in the inoculated plants, suggesting that they also have a crucial role in the defense responses against P. cactorum. Additionally, flavonoids and terpenoids may be of vital importance, as several genes involved in their biosynthesis were up-regulated. The cell wall biosynthesis and developmental processes were down-regulated, possibly as a result of the down-regulation of the key genes involved in the biosynthesis of growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids and auxin. Of particular interest was the expression of potential resistance genes in the recently identified P. cactorum resistance locus RPc-1. These new findings help to target the breeding efforts aiming at more resistant strawberry cultivars.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of rainbow trout in response to non-virion (NV) protein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV).

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Blanca; Encinas, Paloma; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio M; Gomez-Casado, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The non-virion (NV) protein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), an economically important fish novirhabdovirus, has been implicated in the interference of some host innate mechanisms (i.e. apoptosis) in vitro. This work aimed to characterise the immune-related transcriptome changes in rainbow trout induced by NV protein that have not yet been established in vivo. For that purpose, immune-targeted microarrays were used to analyse the transcriptomes from head kidney and spleen of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after injection of recombinant NV (rNV). Results showed the extensive downregulation (and in some cases upregulation) of many innate and adaptive immune response genes not related previously to VHSV infection. The newly identified genes belonged to VHSV-induced genes (vigs), tumour necrosis factors, Toll-like receptors, antigen processing and presentation, immune co-stimulatory molecules, interleukins, macrophage chemotaxis, transcription factors, etc. Classification of differentially downregulated genes into rainbow trout immune pathways identified stat1 and jun/atf1 transcription factor genes as the most representative of the multipath gene targets of rNV. Altogether, these results contribute to define the role and effects of NV in trout by orchestrating an immunosuppression of the innate immune responses for favouring viral replication upon VHSV infection. Finally, these transcriptome results open up the possibility to find out new strategies against VHSV and better understand the interrelationships between some immune pathways in trout.

  1. Host transcriptomic responses to pneumonic plague reveal that Yersinia pestis inhibits both the initial adaptive and innate immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiying; Wang, Tong; Tian, Guang; Zhang, Qingwen; Wu, Xiaohong; Xin, Youqian; Yan, Yanfeng; Tan, Yafang; Cao, Shiyang; Liu, Wanbing; Cui, Yujun; Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonic plague is the most deadly form of infection caused by Yersinia pestis and can progress extremely fast. However, our understanding on the host transcriptomic response to pneumonic plague is insufficient. Here, we used RNA-sequencing technology to analyze transcriptomic responses in mice infected with fully virulent strain 201 or EV76, a live attenuated vaccine strain lacking the pigmentation locus. Approximately 600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in lungs from both 201- and EV76-infected mice at 12h post-infection (hpi). DEGs in lungs of 201-infected mice exceeded 2000 at 48hpi, accompanied by sustained large numbers of DEGs in the liver and spleen; however, limited numbers of DEGs were detected in those organs of EV-infected mice. Remarkably, DEGs in lungs were significantly enriched in critical immune responses pathways in EV76-infected but not 201-infected mice, including antigen processing and presentation, T cell receptor signaling among others. Pathological and bacterial load analyses confirmed the rapid systemic dissemination of 201-infection and the confined EV76-infection in lungs. Our results suggest that fully virulent Y. pestis inhibits both the innate and adaptive immune responses that are substantially stimulated in a self-limited infection, which update our holistic views on the transcriptomic response to pneumonic plague.

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Genes Commonly Responsive to Varied Nitrate Stress in Leaves of Tibetan Hulless Barley

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zexiu; Zeng, Xingquan; Qin, Cheng; Wang, Yulin; Bai, Lijun; Xu, Qijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Tang, Yawei; Nyima, Tashi

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deprivation or excess can lead to dramatic phenotype change, disrupt important biological processes, and ultimately limit plant productivity. To explore genes in Tibetan hulless barley responsive to varied N stress, we utilized a comparative transcriptomics method to investigate gene expression patterns under three nitrate treatments. The transcriptome of the control (optimal-nitrate, ON) sample was compared with that of free-nitrate (FN), low-nitrate (LN), and high-nitrate (HN) treatment samples, identifying 2428, 1274, and 1861 genes, respectively, that exhibited significant differences in transcript abundance. Among these, 9 genes encoding ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases exhibited up-regulated expression under varied N stress. We further compared FN vs. ON and LN vs. ON to investigate the impact of stress degree on gene expression. With the aggravation of stress, more genes were differentially expressed and thus possibly involved in the response to nitrogen deficiency. Cluster and functional enrichment analysis indicated that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in FN were highly enriched in response to stress, defense response, and gene expression regulation. Comprehensive comparison analysis further suggested that Tibetan hulless barley could respond to varied N stress by regulating multiple common biological processes and pathways such as nitrogen metabolism, carbon metabolism, and photosynthesis. A large number of specific DEGs involved in diverse biological processes were also detected, implying differences in the potential regulatory patterns of low- and high-N stress response. Notably, we also identified some NIN-like proteins and other transcription factors significantly modulated by these stresses, suggesting the involvement of these transcription factors in N stress response. To our knowledge, this study is the first investigation of the Tibetan hulless barley transcriptome under N stress. The identified N-stress-related genes may

  3. Transcriptome response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenjing; Zhang, Shijun; Ke, Yunling; Hou, Yahui

    2016-01-01

    Background Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. Methods To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40%) treatments. Results (1) Based on a high throughput sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 20 GB of clean data and revealed 189,421 unigenes, with a mean length and an N50 length of 629 bp and 974 bp, respectively. (2) The transcriptomic response of C. formosanus to elevated CO2 levels presented discontinuous changes. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed 2,936 genes regulated among 0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40% CO2 concentration treatments, 909 genes derived from termites and 2,027 from gut symbionts. Genes derived from termites appears selectively activated under 4% CO2 level. In 40% CO2 level, most of the down-regulated genes were derived from symbionts. (3) Through similarity searches to data from other species, a number of protein sequences putatively involved in chemosensory reception were identified and characterized in C. formosanus, including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, ionotropic receptors, odorant binding proteins, and chemosensory proteins. Discussion We found that most genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and genetic information processing were regulated under different CO2 concentrations. Results suggested that

  4. Transcriptomic responses to seawater acidification among sea urchin populations inhabiting a natural pH mosaic.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler G; Pespeni, Melissa H; Hofmann, Gretchen E; Palumbi, Stephen R; Sanford, Eric

    2017-01-31

    Increasing awareness of spatial and temporal variation in ocean pH suggests some marine populations may be adapted to local pH regimes and will therefore respond differently to present-day pH variation and to long-term ocean acidification. In the Northeast Pacific Ocean, differences in the strength of coastal upwelling cause latitudinal variation in prevailing pH regimes that are hypothesized to promote local adaptation and unequal pH tolerance among resident populations. In this study, responses to experimental seawater acidification were compared among six populations of purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) inhabiting areas that differ in their frequency of low pH exposure and that prior research suggests are locally adapted to seawater pH. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate urchin populations most frequently exposed to low pH seawater responded to experimental acidification by expressing genes within major ATP producing pathways at greater levels than populations encountering low pH less often. Multiple genes within the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport chain, and fatty acid beta oxidation pathways were up-regulated in urchin populations experiencing low pH conditions most frequently. These same metabolic pathways were significantly over-represented among genes both expressed in a population-specific manner and putatively under selection to enhance low pH tolerance. Collectively, these data suggest natural selection is acting on metabolic gene networks in order to redirect ATP toward acid-base regulatory processes and enhance tolerance of seawater acidification. As a trade-off, marine populations more tolerant of low pH may have less energy to put toward other aspects of fitness and to respond to additional ocean change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Network Analysis Reveals Similar Transcriptomic Responses to Intrinsic Properties of Carbon Nanomaterials in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kinaret, Pia; Marwah, Veer; Fortino, Vittorio; Ilves, Marit; Wolff, Henrik; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Auvinen, Petri; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri; Greco, Dario

    2017-04-11

    Understanding the complex molecular alterations related to engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure is essential for carrying out toxicity assessment. Current experimental paradigms rely on both in vitro and in vivo exposure setups that often are difficult to compare, resulting in questioning the real efficacy of cell models to mimic more complex exposure scenarios at the organism level. Here, we have systematically investigated transcriptomic responses of the THP-1 macrophage cell line and lung tissues of mice, after exposure to several carbon nanomaterials (CNMs). Under the assumption that the CNM exposure related molecular alterations are mixtures of signals related to their intrinsic properties, we inferred networks of responding genes, whose expression levels are coordinately altered in response to specific CNM intrinsic properties. We observed only a minute overlap between the sets of intrinsic property-correlated genes at different exposure scenarios, suggesting specific transcriptional programs working in different exposure scenarios. However, when the effects of the CNM were investigated at the level of significantly altered molecular functions, a broader picture of substantial commonality emerged. Our results imply that in vitro exposures can efficiently recapitulate the complex molecular functions altered in vivo. In this study, altered molecular pathways in response to specific CNM intrinsic properties have been systematically characterized from transcriptomic data generated from multiple exposure setups. Our computational approach to the analysis of network response modules further revealed similarities between in vitro and in vivo exposures that could not be detected by traditional analysis of transcriptomics data. Our analytical strategy also opens a possibility to look for pathways of toxicity and understanding the molecular and cellular responses identified across predefined biological themes.

  6. Transcriptomic response to prolonged ethanol production in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The production of biofuels in photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria is a promising alternative to the generation of fuels from fossil resources. To be economically competitive, producer strains need to be established that synthesize the targeted product at high yield and over a long time. Engineering cyanobacteria into forced fuel producers should considerably interfere with overall cell homeostasis, which in turn might counteract productivity and sustainability of the process. Therefore, in-depth characterization of the cellular response upon long-term production is of high interest for the targeted improvement of a desired strain. Results The transcriptome-wide response to continuous ethanol production was examined in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 using high resolution microarrays. In two independent experiments, ethanol production rates of 0.0338% (v/v) ethanol d-1 and 0.0303% (v/v) ethanol d-1 were obtained over 18 consecutive days, measuring two sets of biological triplicates in fully automated photobioreactors. Ethanol production caused a significant (~40%) delay in biomass accumulation, the development of a bleaching phenotype and a down-regulation of light harvesting capacity. However, microarray analyses performed at day 4, 7, 11 and 18 of the experiment revealed only three mRNAs with a strongly modified accumulation level throughout the course of the experiment. In addition to the overexpressed adhA (slr1192) gene, this was an approximately 4 fold reduction in cpcB (sll1577) and 3 to 6 fold increase in rps8 (sll1809) mRNA levels. Much weaker modifications of expression level or modifications restricted to day 18 of the experiment were observed for genes involved in carbon assimilation (Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and Glutamate decarboxylase). Molecular analysis of the reduced cpcB levels revealed a post-transcriptional processing of the cpcBA operon mRNA leaving a truncated mRNA cpcA* likely not competent for translation. Moreover

  7. Physiological analysis and transcriptome comparison of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, L M; Zhang, L D; Chen, J B; Huang, D F; Zhang, Y D

    2016-09-19

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important vegetable crop that ranks second in salt tolerance among the Cucurbitaceae. Previous studies on the two muskmelon cultivars 'Bing XueCui' (BXC) and 'Yu Lu' (YL) revealed that they had different characteristics under salt stress, but the molecular basis underlying their different physiological responses is unclear. Here, we combined a physiological study with a genome-wide transcriptome analysis to understand the molecular basis of genetic variation that responds to salt stress in the melon. BXC performed better under salt stress than YL in terms of biomass and photosynthetic characteristics, because it exhibited less reduction in transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate, and stomatal conductance under 150-mM NaCl stress than YL. A transcriptome comparison of the leaves of the cultivars revealed that 1171 genes responded to salt stress in BXC while 1487 genes were identified as salt-stress-responsive in YL. A real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of 12 of the responsive genes revealed that there was a strong, positive correlation with RNA sequencing data. The genes were involved in several pathways, including photosynthesis, the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction, and their expression levels differed between the two cultivars in response to salt stress. This study provides a molecular perspective of two melon cultivars in response to salt stress, and its results could be used to investigate the complex molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in the melon.

  8. De novo sequencing of root transcriptome reveals complex cadmium-responsive regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Yu, Rugang; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metallic trace element that poses potential chronic toxicity to living organisms. To date, little is known about the Cd-responsive regulatory network in root vegetable crops including radish. In this study, 31,015 unigenes representing 66,552 assembled unique transcripts were isolated from radish root under Cd stress based on de novo transcriptome assembly. In all, 1496 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) consisted of 3579 transcripts were identified from Cd-free (CK) and Cd-treated (Cd200) libraries. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the up- and down-regulated DEGs were predominately involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis as well as cysteine and methionine-related pathways, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in consistent with results from RNA-Seq analysis. Several candidate genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH), zinc iron permease (ZIPs) and ABC transporter were responsible for Cd uptake, accumulation, translocation and detoxification in radish. The schematic model of DEGs and microRNAs-involved in Cd-responsive regulatory network was proposed. This study represents a first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of Cd-responsive DEGs in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into complex Cd-responsive regulatory networks and facilitate further genetic manipulation of Cd accumulation in root vegetable crops.

  9. Evidence of adaptive divergence in plasticity: density- and site-dependent selection on shade-avoidance responses in Impatiens capensis.

    PubMed

    Donohue, K; Messiqua, D; Pyle, E H; Heschel, M S; Schmitt, J

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the conditions under which plastic responses to density are adaptive in natural populations of Impatiens capensis and determined whether plasticity has evolved differently in different selective environments. Previous studies showed that a population that evolved in a sunny site exhibited greater plasticity in response to density than did a population that evolved in a woodland site. Using replicate inbred lines in a reciprocal transplant that included a density manipulation, we asked whether such population differentiation was consistent with the hypothesis of adaptive divergence. We hypothesized that plasticity would be more strongly favored in the sunny site than in the woodland site; consequently, we predicted that selection would be more strongly density dependent in the sunny site, favoring the phenotype that was expressed at each density. Selection on internode length and flowering date was consistent with the hypothesis of adaptive divergence in plasticity. Few costs or benefits of plasticity were detected independently from the expressed phenotype, so plasticity was selected primarily through selection on the phenotype. Correlations between phenotypes and their plasticity varied with the environment and would cause indirect selection on plasticity to be environment dependent. We showed that an appropriate plastic response even to a rare environment can greatly increase genotypic fitness when that environment is favorable. Selection on the measured characters contributed to local adaptation and fully accounted for fitness differences between populations in all treatments except the woodland site at natural density.

  10. Divergent neuroactive steroid responses to stress and ethanol in rat and mouse strains: Relevance for human studies

    PubMed Central

    Porcu, Patrizia; Morrow, A. Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neuroactive steroids are endogenous or synthetic steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability via membrane receptors, primarily GABAA receptors. Neuroactive steroids regulate many physiological processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, ovarian cycle, pregnancy, aging, and reward. Moreover, alterations in neuroactive steroid synthesis are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Objectives This review will summarize the pharmacological properties and physiological regulation of neuroactive steroids, with a particular focus on divergent neuroactive steroid responses to stress and ethanol in rats, mice and humans. Results GABAergic neuroactive steroids exert a homeostatic regulation of the HPA axis in rats and humans, whereby the increase in neuroactive steroid levels following acute stress counteracts HPA axis hyperactivity and restores homeostasis. In contrast, in C57BL/6J mice, acute stress decreases neurosteroidogenesis and neuroactive steroids exert paradoxical excitatory effects upon the HPA axis. Rats, mice and humans also differ in the neuroactive steroid responses to ethanol. Genetic variation in neurosteroidogenesis may explain the different neuroactive steroid responses to stress or ethanol. Conclusions Rats and mouse strains show divergent effects of stress and ethanol on neuroactive steroids in both plasma and brain. The study of genetic variation in the various processes that determine neuroactive steroids levels as well as their effects on cell signaling may underlie these differences and may play a relevant role for the potential therapeutic benefits of neuroactive steroids. PMID:24770626

  11. Transcriptomic differences of genes in the avian target of rapamycin (avTOR) pathway in a divergent line of meat-type chickens selected for feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Aggrey, S E

    2016-06-30

    Avian target of rapamycin (avTOR) is a highly conserved serine-threonine kinase that serves as an intracellular energy and nutrient sensor and regulates cell division, growth, and apoptosis. The role of avTOR in mediating feed intake and growth in poultry is unknown. We studied avTOR signaling activities in duodenum and liver tissues at days 35 and 42 in chickens divergently selected for low (LRFI) or high (HRFI) residual feed intake. The differential expression of genes involved in the avTOR pathway was assayed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the duodenum, avTOR was up-regulated in the LRFI chickens at both time points as compared with the HRFI chickens. Other genes found to be differentially expressed at day 35 included v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1, 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70 kDa, polypeptide 1 (RPS6KP1), avTOR associated protein, LST8 homolog, ghrelin, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), forkhead box O1, and p53 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (MDM2). At day 42, there was no change in the expression of the avTOR target RPS6KP1 or MDM2. In the liver, changes in the expression of components of the avTOR pathway primarily occurred at day 42, and differential gene expression suggests that avTOR complex 1 (avTORC1) affects feed efficiency at day 42. avTORC1 may be activated in the duodenum of feed-efficient birds to increase nutrient mobilization to other peripheral tissues. Furthermore, activation of avTOR in relation to feed efficiency may be tissue specific and may depend on the tissue's need for growth and nutrient transport. Genetic markers in key genes involved in the avTOR/PI3K pathway could be developed to improve feed efficiency in meat-type chickens.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of the antiviral immune response in Atlantic cod macrophages.

    PubMed

    Eslamloo, Khalil; Xue, Xi; Booman, Marije; Smith, Nicole C; Rise, Matthew L

    2016-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the transcriptome response of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) macrophages to the viral mimic, polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC), using a 20K Atlantic cod microarray platform and qPCR. We identified 285 significantly up-regulated and 161 significantly down-regulated probes in cod macrophages 24 h after pIC stimulation. A subset of 26 microarray-identified transcripts was subjected to qPCR validation using samples treated with pIC or phosphate-buffered saline (control) over time (3, 6, 12, 24, 48 h), and 77% of them showed a significant response to pIC. The microarray and qPCR analyses in this study showed that pIC induced the expression of cod macrophage transcripts involved in RLR- and TLR-dependent pathogen recognition (e.g. tlr3, tlr7, mda5 and lgp2), as well as signal transducers (e.g. stat1 and nfkbia) and transcription activators (e.g. irf7 and irf10) in the MyD88-independent and dependent signalling pathways. Several immune effectors (e.g. isg15s, viperin, herc4, mip2 and ccl13) were significantly up-regulated in pIC-stimulated cod macrophages. The expression of some transcripts (e.g. irf7, irf10, viperin) was significantly up-regulated by pIC as early as 12 h. All pIC-induced transcripts had peak expression at either 24 h (e.g. tlr7, irf7, mip2) or 48 h (e.g. tlr3, lgp2, stat1). This study suggests possible roles of both vertebrate-conserved (e.g. tlr3 as an up-regulated gene) and fish-specific (tlr22g as a down-regulated gene) receptors in dsRNA recognition, and the importance of conserved and potentially fish-specific interferon stimulated genes in cod macrophages.

  13. Unbiased high-throughput characterization of mussel transcriptomic responses to sublethal concentrations of the biotoxin okadaic acid

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Fernandez-Tajes, Juan; Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Prego-Faraldo, M. Veronica; Florez-Barros, Fernanda; Sexto-Iglesias, Alexia; Mendez, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Background. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) responsible for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) represent a major threat for human consumers of shellfish. The biotoxin Okadaic Acid (OA), a well-known phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter, is the primary cause of acute DSP intoxications. Although several studies have described the molecular effects of high OA concentrations on sentinel organisms (e.g., bivalve molluscs), the effect of prolonged exposures to low (sublethal) OA concentrations is still unknown. In order to fill this gap, this work combines Next-Generation sequencing and custom-made microarray technologies to develop an unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic response of mussels during early stages of a DSP bloom. Methods. Mussel specimens were exposed to a HAB episode simulating an early stage DSP bloom (200 cells/L of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima for 24 h). The unbiased characterization of the transcriptomic responses triggered by OA was carried out using two complementary methods of cDNA library preparation: normalized and Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). Libraries were sequenced and read datasets were mapped to Gene Ontology and KEGG databases. A custom-made oligonucleotide microarray was developed based on these data, completing the expression analysis of digestive gland and gill tissues. Results. Our findings show that exposure to sublethal concentrations of OA is enough to induce gene expression modifications in the mussel Mytilus. Transcriptomic analyses revealed an increase in proteasomal activity, molecular transport, cell cycle regulation, energy production and immune activity in mussels. Oppositely, a number of transcripts hypothesized to be responsive to OA (notably the Serine/Threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A) failed to show substantial modifications. Both digestive gland and gill tissues responded similarly to OA, although expression modifications were more dramatic in the former, supporting the choice of

  14. Comparative transcriptomes between viviparous1 and wildtype maize developing endosperms in response to water deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize kernel development is particularly sensitive to water stress at the early post-pollination phase. Endosperm plays an essential role in support of embryo development. In the present study, we compared transcriptomes of developing maize endosperms between an ABA-insensitive mutant, viviparous1 (...

  15. Genomic, transcriptomic and phenomic variation reveals the complex adaptation to stress response of modern maize breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early maize adaptation to different agricultural environments was an important process associated with the creation of a stable food supply that allowed the evolution of human civilization in the Americas. To explore the mechanisms of maize adaptation, genomic, transcriptomic and phenomic data were ...

  16. Depth, ice thickness, and ice-out timing cause divergent hydrologic responses among Arctic lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Welker, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are prevalent in the Arctic and thus play a key role in regional hydrology. Since many Arctic lakes are shallow and ice grows thick (historically 2-m or greater), seasonal ice commonly freezes to the lake bed (bedfast ice) by winter's end. Bedfast ice fundamentally alters lake energy balance and melt-out processes compared to deeper lakes that exceed the maximum ice thickness (floating ice) and maintain perennial liquid water below floating ice. Our analysis of lakes in northern Alaska indicated that ice-out of bedfast ice lakes occurred on average 17 days earlier (22-June) than ice-out on adjacent floating ice lakes (9-July). Earlier ice-free conditions in bedfast ice lakes caused higher open-water evaporation, 28% on average, relative to floating ice lakes and this divergence increased in lakes closer to the coast and in cooler summers. Water isotopes (18O and 2H) indicated similar differences in evaporation between these lake types. Our analysis suggests that ice regimes created by the combination of lake depth relative to ice thickness and associated ice-out timing currently cause a strong hydrologic divergence among Arctic lakes. Thus understanding the distribution and dynamics of lakes by ice regime is essential for predicting regional hydrology. An observed regime shift in lakes to floating ice conditions due to thinner ice growth may initially offset lake drying because of lower evaporative loss from this lake type. This potential negative feedback caused by winter processes occurs in spite of an overall projected increase in evapotranspiration as the Arctic climate warms.

  17. Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (vitis vinifera) fruit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Global climate change will noticeably affect plant vegetative and reproductive development. The recent increase in temperatures has already impacted yields and composition of berries in many grapevine-growing regions. Physiological processes underlying temperature response and tolerance of the grapevine fruit have not been extensively investigated. To date, all studies investigating the molecular regulation of fleshly fruit response to abiotic stress were only conducted during the day, overlooking possible critical night-specific variations. The present study explores the night and day transcriptomic response of grapevine fruit to heat stress at several developmental stages. Short heat stresses (2 h) were applied at day and night to vines bearing clusters sequentially ordered according to the developmental stages along their vertical axes. The recently proposed microvine model (DRCF-Dwarf Rapid Cycling and Continuous Flowering) was grown in climatic chambers in order to circumvent common constraints and biases inevitable in field experiments with perennial macrovines. Post-véraison berry heterogeneity within clusters was avoided by constituting homogenous batches following organic acids and sugars measurements of individual berries. A whole genome transcriptomic approach was subsequently conducted using NimbleGen 090818 Vitis 12X (30 K) microarrays. Results Present work reveals significant differences in heat stress responsive pathways according to day or night treatment, in particular regarding genes associated with acidity and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Precise distinction of ripening stages led to stage-specific detection of malic acid and anthocyanin-related transcripts modulated by heat stress. Important changes in cell wall modification related processes as well as indications for heat-induced delay of ripening and sugar accumulation were observed at véraison, an effect that was reversed at later stages. Conclusions This first day - night

  18. Genome-wide expression profiling of the transcriptomes of four Paulownia tomentosa accessions in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanpeng; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Xu, Enkai; Zhao, Zhenli

    2014-10-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is an important foundation forest tree species in semiarid areas. The lack of genetic information hinders research into the mechanisms involved in its response to abiotic stresses. Here, short-read sequencing technology (Illumina) was used to de novo assemble the transcriptome on P. tomentosa. A total of 99,218 unigenes with a mean length of 949 nucleotides were assembled. 68,295 unigenes were selected and the functions of their products were predicted using Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Afterwards, hundreds of genes involved in drought response were identified. Twelve putative drought response genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. This study provides a dataset of genes and inherent biochemical pathways, which will help in understanding the mechanisms of the water-deficit response in P. tomentosa. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight the genetic makeup of P. tomentosa.

  19. Divergent transcriptional responses to low temperature among populations of alpine and lowland species of New Zealand stick insects (Micrarchus).

    PubMed

    Dunning, Luke T; Dennis, Alice B; Sinclair, Brent J; Newcomb, Richard D; Buckley, Thomas R

    2014-06-01

    In widespread and genetically structured populations, temperature variation may lead to among-population differentiation of thermal biology. The New Zealand stick insect genus Micrarchus contains four species that inhabit different thermal environments, two of which are geographically widespread. RNA-Seq and quantitative PCR were used to investigate the transcriptional responses to cold shock among lowland and alpine species to identify cold-responsive transcripts that differ between the species and to determine whether there is intraspecific geographical variation in gene expression. We also used mitochondrial DNA, nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA and transcriptome-wide SNPs to determine phylogeographic structure and the potential for differences in genetic backgrounds to contribute to variation in gene expression. RNA-Seq identified 2160 unigenes that were differentially expressed as a result of low-temperature exposure across three populations from two species (M. hystriculeus and M. nov. sp. 2), with a majority (68% ± 20%) being population specific. This extensive geographical variation is consistent across years and is likely a result of background genetic differences among populations caused by genetic drift and possibly local adaptation. Responses to cold shock shared among alpine M. nov. sp. 2 populations included the enrichment of cuticular structure-associated transcripts, suggesting that cuticle modification may have accompanied colonization of low-temperature alpine environments and the development of a more cold-hardy phenotype.

  20. Distinct Antigen Delivery Systems Induce Dendritic Cells' Divergent Transcriptional Response: New Insights from a Comparative and Reproducible Computational Analysis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Valerio; Righelli, Dario; Russo, Francesco; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe; Angelini, Claudia; D'Apice, Luciana

    2017-02-25

    Vaccination is the most successful and cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases. However, many vaccine antigens have poor in vivo immunogenic potential and need adjuvants to enhance immune response. The application of systems biology to immunity and vaccinology has yielded crucial insights about how vaccines and adjuvants work. We have previously characterized two safe and powerful delivery systems derived from non-pathogenic prokaryotic organisms: E2 and fd filamentous bacteriophage systems. They elicit an in vivo immune response inducing CD8+ T-cell responses, even in absence of adjuvants or stimuli for dendritic cells' maturation. Nonetheless, a systematic and comparative analysis of the complex gene expression network underlying such activation is missing. Therefore, we compared the transcriptomes of ex vivo isolated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to these antigen delivery systems. Significant differences emerged, especially for genes involved in innate immunity, co-stimulation, and cytokine production. Results indicate that E2 drives polarization toward the Th2 phenotype, mainly mediated by Irf4, Ccl17, and Ccr4 over-expression. Conversely, fd-scαDEC-205 triggers Th1 T cells' polarization through the induction of Il12b, Il12rb, Il6, and other molecules involved in its signal transduction. The data analysis was performed using RNASeqGUI, hence, addressing the increasing need of transparency and reproducibility of computational analysis.

  1. Distinct Antigen Delivery Systems Induce Dendritic Cells’ Divergent Transcriptional Response: New Insights from a Comparative and Reproducible Computational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Valerio; Righelli, Dario; Russo, Francesco; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe; Angelini, Claudia; D’Apice, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the most successful and cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases. However, many vaccine antigens have poor in vivo immunogenic potential and need adjuvants to enhance immune response. The application of systems biology to immunity and vaccinology has yielded crucial insights about how vaccines and adjuvants work. We have previously characterized two safe and powerful delivery systems derived from non-pathogenic prokaryotic organisms: E2 and fd filamentous bacteriophage systems. They elicit an in vivo immune response inducing CD8+ T-cell responses, even in absence of adjuvants or stimuli for dendritic cells’ maturation. Nonetheless, a systematic and comparative analysis of the complex gene expression network underlying such activation is missing. Therefore, we compared the transcriptomes of ex vivo isolated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to these antigen delivery systems. Significant differences emerged, especially for genes involved in innate immunity, co-stimulation, and cytokine production. Results indicate that E2 drives polarization toward the Th2 phenotype, mainly mediated by Irf4, Ccl17, and Ccr4 over-expression. Conversely, fd-scαDEC-205 triggers Th1 T cells’ polarization through the induction of Il12b, Il12rb, Il6, and other molecules involved in its signal transduction. The data analysis was performed using RNASeqGUI, hence, addressing the increasing need of transparency and reproducibility of computational analysis. PMID:28245601

  2. Transcriptome assembly and expression profiling of molecular responses to cadmium toxicity in hepatopancreas of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Min; Ting Li, Yi; Liu, Yang; Chin Lee, Shao; Wang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious global problem, which causes irreversible toxic effects on animals. Freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense, is a useful environmental indicator since it is widely distributed in benthic habitats whereby it tends to accumulate Cd and other toxicants. However, its molecular responses to Cd toxicity remain unclear. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analyses of its hepatopancreas with and without Cd treatments. A total of 7.78 G clean reads were obtained from the pooled samples, and 68,648 unigenes with an average size of 622 bp were assembled, in which 5,436 were metabolism-associated and 2,728 were stimulus response-associated that include 380 immunity-related unigenes. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that most genes involved in macromolecular metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, detoxification and anti-oxidant defense were up-regulated by Cd exposure, whereas immunity-related genes were down-regulated, except the genes involved in phagocytosis were up-regulated. The current data indicate that Cd exposure alters gene expressions in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, our results provide the first comprehensive S.henanense transcriptome dataset, which is useful for biological and ecotoxicological studies on this crab and its related species at molecular level, and some key Cd-responsive genes may provide candidate biomarkers for monitoring aquatic pollution by heavy metals.

  3. Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 deficiency regulates gut microbiome and transcriptome response against diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jhen-Wei; Statt, Sarah; Huang, Chih-Ting; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Chan, Hong-Lin; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Tan, Tse-Hua; Kao, Cheng-Yuan

    2016-11-28

    The gut microbiota plays profound roles in host metabolism and the inflammatory response associated with the development of obesity. Dusp6-deficient mice have been shown to be resistant to diet-induced obesity, but the mechanism behind this remains unclear. 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis demonstrated that dusp6-deficient mice harbour unique gut microbiota with resistance to diet-induced-obesity-mediated alteration of the gut microbiome. Using a germ-free mouse model, we found that faecal/gut microbiota derived from dusp6-deficient mice significantly increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain in recipient wild-type mice fed on a high-fat diet. On analysis of the intestinal transcriptome of dusp6-deficient mice, we found that dusp6 deficiency mainly induced biological processes involved in metabolism and the extracellular matrix, particularly the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ) pathway and tight-junction genes. Furthermore, dusp6-deficient mice have a high-fat-diet-specific transcriptomic response to reverse the expression of genes associated with intestinal barrier functions and mucosal immunity involved in microbiome homeostasis. This study demonstrates that dusp6 deficiency is a strong genetic factor shaping gut microbiota, and that it confers obesity protection by ameliorating the gut microbiota response to diet-mediated stress.

  4. A comparison of physiological and transcriptome responses to water deprivation and salt loading in the rat supraoptic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Michael P.; Mecawi, Andre S.; Hoe, See Ziau; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Johnson, Kory R.; Al-Mahmoud, Ghada A.; Elias, Lucila L. K.; Paton, Julian F. R.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Gainer, Harold; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    Salt loading (SL) and water deprivation (WD) are experimental challenges that are often used to study the osmotic circuitry of the brain. Central to this circuit is the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the hormones, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), and their transport to terminals that reside in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. On osmotic challenge evoked by a change in blood volume or osmolality, the SON undergoes a function-related plasticity that creates an environment that allows for an appropriate hormone response. Here, we have described the impact of SL and WD compared with euhydrated (EU) controls in terms of drinking and eating behavior, body weight, and recorded physiological data including circulating hormone data and plasma and urine osmolality. We have also used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the SON following SL and remined data from the SON that describes the transcriptome response to WD. From a list of 2,783 commonly regulated transcripts, we selected 20 genes for validation by qPCR. All of the 9 genes that have already been described as expressed or regulated in the SON by osmotic stimuli were confirmed in our models. Of the 11 novel genes, 5 were successfully validated while 6 were false discoveries. PMID:25632023

  5. A comparison of physiological and transcriptome responses to water deprivation and salt loading in the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael P; Mecawi, Andre S; Hoe, See Ziau; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Johnson, Kory R; Al-Mahmoud, Ghada A; Elias, Lucila L K; Paton, Julian F R; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Gainer, Harold; Murphy, David; Hindmarch, Charles C T

    2015-04-01

    Salt loading (SL) and water deprivation (WD) are experimental challenges that are often used to study the osmotic circuitry of the brain. Central to this circuit is the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the hormones, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), and their transport to terminals that reside in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. On osmotic challenge evoked by a change in blood volume or osmolality, the SON undergoes a function-related plasticity that creates an environment that allows for an appropriate hormone response. Here, we have described the impact of SL and WD compared with euhydrated (EU) controls in terms of drinking and eating behavior, body weight, and recorded physiological data including circulating hormone data and plasma and urine osmolality. We have also used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the SON following SL and remined data from the SON that describes the transcriptome response to WD. From a list of 2,783 commonly regulated transcripts, we selected 20 genes for validation by qPCR. All of the 9 genes that have already been described as expressed or regulated in the SON by osmotic stimuli were confirmed in our models. Of the 11 novel genes, 5 were successfully validated while 6 were false discoveries.

  6. Transcriptome assembly and expression profiling of molecular responses to cadmium toxicity in hepatopancreas of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Min; Ting Li, Yi; Liu, Yang; Chin Lee, Shao; Wang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious global problem, which causes irreversible toxic effects on animals. Freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense, is a useful environmental indicator since it is widely distributed in benthic habitats whereby it tends to accumulate Cd and other toxicants. However, its molecular responses to Cd toxicity remain unclear. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analyses of its hepatopancreas with and without Cd treatments. A total of 7.78 G clean reads were obtained from the pooled samples, and 68,648 unigenes with an average size of 622 bp were assembled, in which 5,436 were metabolism-associated and 2,728 were stimulus response-associated that include 380 immunity-related unigenes. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that most genes involved in macromolecular metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, detoxification and anti-oxidant defense were up-regulated by Cd exposure, whereas immunity-related genes were down-regulated, except the genes involved in phagocytosis were up-regulated. The current data indicate that Cd exposure alters gene expressions in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, our results provide the first comprehensive S.henanense transcriptome dataset, which is useful for biological and ecotoxicological studies on this crab and its related species at molecular level, and some key Cd-responsive genes may provide candidate biomarkers for monitoring aquatic pollution by heavy metals. PMID:26786678

  7. Transcriptome profiling of patient-specific human iPSC-cardiomyocytes predicts individual drug safety and efficacy responses in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Matsa, Elena; Burridge, Paul W.; Yu, Kun-Hsing; Ahrens, John H.; Termglinchan, Vittavat; Wu, Haodi; Liu, Chun; Shukla, Praveen; Sayed, Nazish; Churko, Jared M.; Shao, Ningyi; Woo, Nicole A.; Chao, Alexander S.; Gold, Joseph D.; Karakikes, Ioannis; Snyder, Michael P.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding individual susceptibility to drug-induced cardiotoxicity is key to improving patient safety and preventing drug attrition. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) enable the study of pharmacological and toxicological responses in patient-specific cardiomyocytes (CMs), and may serve as preclinical platforms for precision medicine. Transcriptome profiling in hiPSC-CMs from seven individuals lacking known cardiovascular disease-associated mutations, and in three isogenic human heart tissue and hiPSC-CM pairs, showed greater inter-patient variation than intra-patient variation, verifying that reprogramming and differentiation preserve patient-specific gene expression, particularly in metabolic and stress-response genes. Transcriptome-based toxicology analysis predicted and risk-stratified patient-specific susceptibility to cardiotoxicity, and functional assays in hiPSC-CMs using tacrolimus and rosiglitazone, drugs targeting pathways predicted to produce cardiotoxicity, validated inter-patient differential responses. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated pathway correction prevented drug-induced cardiotoxicity. Our data suggest that hiPSC-CMs can be used in vitro to predict and validate patient-specific drug safety and efficacy, potentially enabling future clinical approaches to precision medicine. PMID:27545504

  8. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis of Soybean Responses to Drought Stress along the Day.

    PubMed

    Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Ribeiro Reis, Rafaela; Bouças Farias, Jose Renato; Harmon, Frank G; Correa Molinari, Hugo Bruno; Correa Molinari, Mayla Daiane; Nepomuceno, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The soybean transcriptome displays strong variation along the day in optimal growth conditions and also in response to adverse circumstances, like drought stress. However, no study conducted to date has presented suitable reference genes, with stable expression along the day, for relative gene expression quantification in combined studies on drought stress and diurnal oscillations. Recently, water deficit responses have been associated with circadian clock oscillations at the transcription level, revealing the existence of hitherto unknown processes and increasing the demand for studies on plant responses to drought stress and its oscillation during the day. We performed data mining from a transcriptome-wide background using microarrays and RNA-seq databases to select an unpublished set of candidate reference genes, specifically chosen for the normalization of gene expression in studies on soybean under both drought stress and diurnal oscillations. Experimental validation and stability analysis in soybean plants submitted to drought stress and sampled during a 24 h timecourse showed that four of these newer reference genes (FYVE, NUDIX, Golgin-84 and CYST) indeed exhibited greater expression stability than the conventionally used housekeeping genes (ELF1-β and β-actin) under these conditions. We also demonstrated the effect of using reference candidate genes with different stability values to normalize the relative expression data from a drought-inducible soybean gene (DREB5) evaluated in different periods of the day.

  9. Insulin-like signaling (IIS) responses to temperature, genetic background, and growth variation in garter snakes with divergent life histories.

    PubMed

    Reding, Dawn M; Addis, Elizabeth A; Palacios, Maria G; Schwartz, Tonia S; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2016-07-01

    The insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway (IIS) has been shown to mediate life history trade-offs in mammalian model organisms, but the function of this pathway in wild and non-mammalian organisms is understudied. Populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) around Eagle Lake, California, have evolved variation in growth and maturation rates, mortality senescence rates, and annual reproductive output that partition into two ecotypes: "fast-living" and "slow-living". Thus, genes associated with the IIS network are good candidates for investigating the mechanisms underlying ecological divergence in this system. We reared neonates from each ecotype for 1.5years under two thermal treatments. We then used qPCR to compare mRNA expression levels in three tissue types (brain, liver, skeletal muscle) for four genes (igf1, igf2, igf1r, igf2r), and we used radioimmunoassay to measure plasma IGF-1 and IGF-2 protein levels. Our results show that, in contrast to most mammalian model systems, igf2 mRNA and protein levels exceed those of igf1 and suggest an important role for igf2 in postnatal growth in reptiles. Thermal rearing treatment and recent growth had greater impacts on IGF levels than genetic background (i.e., ecotype), and the two ecotypes responded similarly. This suggests that observed ecotypic differences in field measures of IGFs may more strongly reflect plastic responses in different environments than evolutionary divergence. Future analyses of additional components of the IIS pathway and sequence divergence between the ecotypes will further illuminate how environmental and genetic factors influence the endocrine system and its role in mediating life history trade-offs.

  10. Hepatic transcriptome analysis and identification of differentially expressed genes response to dietary oxidized fish oil in loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Liang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Longfei; Yan, Jie; Wei, Yanxing; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group. 2,813 genes were differentially expressed between FO and HO, including 1,256 down- and 1,552 up-regulated genes in the HO group. 2,075 differentially expressed genes were found in the comparison of MO and HO, including 1,074 up- and 1,001 down-regulated genes in the MO group. Some differentially expressed genes, such as fatty acid transport protein (fatp), fatty acid binding protein (fabp), apolipoprotein (apo), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (ppar-γ), acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (alox5), were involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting these genes in the loach were responsive to dietary oxidized fish oil. Results of transcriptome profilings here were validated using quantitative real time PCR in fourteen randomly selected unigenes. The present study provides insights into hepatic transcriptome profile of the loach, which is a valuable resource for studies of loach genomics. More importantly, this study identifies some important genes responsible for dietary oxidized fish oil, which will benefit researches of lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:28212448

  11. De novo assembly of the common bean transcriptome using short reads for the discovery of drought-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Li, Long; Wang, Shumin

    2014-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important food legumes, far ahead of other legumes. The average grain yield of the common bean worldwide is much lower than its potential yields, primarily due to drought in the field. However, the gene network that mediates plant responses to drought stress remains largely unknown in this species. The major goals of our study are to identify a large scale of genes involved in drought stress using RNA-seq. First, we assembled 270 million high-quality trimmed reads into a non-redundant set of 62,828 unigenes, representing approximately 49 Mb of unique transcriptome sequences. Of these unigenes, 26,501 (42.2%) common bean unigenes had significant similarity with unigenes/predicted proteins from other legumes or sequenced plants. All unigenes were functionally annotated within the GO, COG and KEGG pathways. The strategy for de novo assembly of transcriptome data generated here will be useful in other legume plant transcriptome studies. Second, we identified 10,482 SSRs and 4,099 SNPs in transcripts. The large number of genetic markers provides a resource for gene discovery and development of functional molecular markers. Finally, we found differential expression genes (DEGs) between terminal drought and optimal irrigation treatments and between the two different genotypes Long 22-0579 (drought tolerant) and Naihua (drought sensitive). DEGs were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays, which indicated that these genes are functionally associated with the drought-stress response. These resources will be helpful for basic and applied research for genome analysis and crop drought resistance improvement in the common bean.

  12. Hepatic transcriptome analysis and identification of differentially expressed genes response to dietary oxidized fish oil in loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Liang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Longfei; Yan, Jie; Wei, Yanxing; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group. 2,813 genes were differentially expressed between FO and HO, including 1,256 down- and 1,552 up-regulated genes in the HO group. 2,075 differentially expressed genes were found in the comparison of MO and HO, including 1,074 up- and 1,001 down-regulated genes in the MO group. Some differentially expressed genes, such as fatty acid transport protein (fatp), fatty acid binding protein (fabp), apolipoprotein (apo), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (ppar-γ), acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (alox5), were involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting these genes in the loach were responsive to dietary oxidized fish oil. Results of transcriptome profilings here were validated using quantitative real time PCR in fourteen randomly selected unigenes. The present study provides insights into hepatic transcriptome profile of the loach, which is a valuable resource for studies of loach genomics. More importantly, this study identifies some important genes responsible for dietary oxidized fish oil, which will benefit researches of lipid metabolism in fish.

  13. Drought responsive gene expression regulatory divergence between upland and lowland ecotypes of a perennial C4 grass

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, John T.; Schwartz, Scott; Lowry, David B.; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Bonnette, Jason E.; Weng, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mei; Johnson, Jenifer; Sreedasyam, Avinash; Plott, Christopher; Jenkins, Jerry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Juenger, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Climatic adaptation is an example of a genotype-by-environment interaction (G×E) of fitness. Selection upon gene expression regulatory variation can contribute to adaptive phenotypic diversity; however, surprisingly few studies have examined how genome-wide patterns of gene expression G×E are manifested in response to environmental stress and other selective agents that cause climatic adaptation. Here, we characterize drought-responsive expression divergence between upland (drought-adapted) and lowland (mesic) ecotypes of the perennial C4 grass, Panicum hallii, in natural field conditions. Overall, we find that cis-regulatory elements contributed to gene expression divergence across 47% of genes, 7.2% of which exhibit drought-responsive G×E. While less well-represented, we observe 1294 genes (7.8%) with trans effects. Trans-by-environment interactions are weaker and much less common than cis G×E, occurring in only 0.7% of trans-regulated genes. Finally, gene expression heterosis is highly enriched in expression phenotypes with significant G×E. As such, modes of inheritance that drive heterosis, such as dominance or overdominance, may be common among G×E genes. Interestingly, motifs specific to drought-responsive transcription factors are highly enriched in the promoters of genes exhibiting G×E and trans regulation, indicating that expression G×E and heterosis may result from the evolution of transcription factors or their binding sites. P. hallii serves as the genomic model for its close relative and emerging biofuel crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Accordingly, the results here not only aid in the discovery of the genetic mechanisms that underlie local adaptation but also provide a foundation to improve switchgrass yield under water-limited conditions. PMID:26953271

  14. Drought responsive gene expression regulatory divergence between upland and lowland ecotypes of a perennial C4 grass.

    PubMed

    Lovell, John T; Schwartz, Scott; Lowry, David B; Shakirov, Eugene V; Bonnette, Jason E; Weng, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mei; Johnson, Jenifer; Sreedasyam, Avinash; Plott, Christopher; Jenkins, Jerry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Juenger, Thomas E

    2016-04-01

    Climatic adaptation is an example of a genotype-by-environment interaction (G×E) of fitness. Selection upon gene expression regulatory variation can contribute to adaptive phenotypic diversity; however, surprisingly few studies have examined how genome-wide patterns of gene expression G×E are manifested in response to environmental stress and other selective agents that cause climatic adaptation. Here, we characterize drought-responsive expression divergence between upland (drought-adapted) and lowland (mesic) ecotypes of the perennial C4 grass,Panicum hallii, in natural field conditions. Overall, we find that cis-regulatory elements contributed to gene expression divergence across 47% of genes, 7.2% of which exhibit drought-responsive G×E. While less well-represented, we observe 1294 genes (7.8%) with transeffects.Trans-by-environment interactions are weaker and much less common than cis G×E, occurring in only 0.7% oft rans-regulated genes. Finally, gene expression heterosis is highly enriched in expression phenotypes with significant G×E. As such, modes of inheritance that drive heterosis, such as dominance or overdominance, may be common among G×E genes. Interestingly, motifs specific to drought-responsive transcription factors are highly enriched in the promoters of genes exhibiting G×E and transregulation, indicating that expression G×E and heterosis may result from the evolution of transcription factors or their binding sites.P. hallii serves as the genomic model for its close relative and emerging biofuel crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Accordingly, the results here not only aid in the discovery of the genetic mechanisms that underlie local adaptation but also provide a foundation to improve switchgrass yield under water-limited conditions.

  15. Transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic analysis of maize responses to UV-B: comparison of greenhouse and field growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Casati, Paula; Campi, Mabel; Morrow, Darren J; Fernandes, John; Walbot, Virginia

    2011-08-01

    UV-B radiation from normal solar fluence elicits physiological and developmental changes in plants under fluctuating environmental conditions. Most UV photobiology studies in plants utilize controlled greenhouse and growth chamber environments in which few conditions vary except the brief presence of UV-B radiation. Our purpose was to compare responses to UV-B in irradiated and shielded maize organs in field (natural solar plus 2x solar supplementation for defined periods) and greenhouse (2x solar supplementation only) conditions during a 4 hour exposure. Three parameters were assessed--transcripts, proteins, and metabolites--to determine the degree of overlap in maize responses in field and greenhouse conditions. We assessed irradiated leaves, and both shielded leaves and immature ears. After comparing transcriptome, proteome and metabolome profiles, we find there are more differences than similarities between field and greenhouse responses.

  16. Consequences of biodiversity loss diverge from expectation due to post-extinction compensatory responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Matthias S.; Garcia, Clement; Bolam, Stefan G.; Parker, Ruth; Godbold, Jasmin A.; Solan, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Consensus has been reached that global biodiversity loss impairs ecosystem functioning and the sustainability of services beneficial to humanity. However, the ecosystem consequences of extinction in natural communities are moderated by compensatory species dynamics, yet these processes are rarely accounted for in impact assessments and seldom considered in conservation programmes. Here, we use marine invertebrate communities to parameterise numerical models of sediment bioturbation – a key mediator of biogeochemical cycling – to determine whether post-extinction compensatory mechanisms alter biodiversity-ecosystem function relations following non-random extinctions. We find that compensatory dynamics lead to trajectories of sediment mixing that diverge from those without compensation, and that the form, magnitude and variance of each probabilistic distribution is highly influenced by the type of compensation and the functional composition of surviving species. Our findings indicate that the generalized biodiversity-function relation curve, as derived from multiple empirical investigations of random species loss, is unlikely to yield representative predictions for ecosystem properties in natural systems because the influence of post-extinction community dynamics are under-represented. Recognition of this problem is fundamental to management and conservation efforts, and will be necessary to ensure future plans and adaptation strategies minimize the adverse impacts of the biodiversity crisis.

  17. Consequences of biodiversity loss diverge from expectation due to post-extinction compensatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Matthias S.; Garcia, Clement; Bolam, Stefan G.; Parker, Ruth; Godbold, Jasmin A.; Solan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Consensus has been reached that global biodiversity loss impairs ecosystem functioning and the sustainability of services beneficial to humanity. However, the ecosystem consequences of extinction in natural communities are moderated by compensatory species dynamics, yet these processes are rarely accounted for in impact assessments and seldom considered in conservation programmes. Here, we use marine invertebrate communities to parameterise numerical models of sediment bioturbation – a key mediator of biogeochemical cycling – to determine whether post-extinction compensatory mechanisms alter biodiversity-ecosystem function relations following non-random extinctions. We find that compensatory dynamics lead to trajectories of sediment mixing that diverge from those without compensation, and that the form, magnitude and variance of each probabilistic distribution is highly influenced by the type of compensation and the functional composition of surviving species. Our findings indicate that the generalized biodiversity-function relation curve, as derived from multiple empirical investigations of random species loss, is unlikely to yield representative predictions for ecosystem properties in natural systems because the influence of post-extinction community dynamics are under-represented. Recognition of this problem is fundamental to management and conservation efforts, and will be necessary to ensure future plans and adaptation strategies minimize the adverse impacts of the biodiversity crisis. PMID:28255165

  18. No Boundaries: Genomes, Organisms, and Ecological Interactions Responsible for Divergence and Reproductive Isolation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Revealing the genetic basis of traits that cause reproductive isolation, particularly premating or sexual isolation, usually involves the same challenges as most attempts at genotype–phenotype mapping and so requires knowledge of how these traits are expressed in different individuals, populations, and environments, particularly under natural conditions. Genetic dissection of speciation phenotypes thus requires understanding of the internal and external contexts in which underlying genetic elements are expressed. Gene expression is a product of complex interacting factors internal and external to the organism including developmental programs, the genetic background including nuclear–cytotype interactions, epistatic relationships, interactions among individuals or social effects, stochasticity, and prevailing variation in ecological conditions. Understanding of genomic divergence associated with reproductive isolation will be facilitated by functional expression analysis of annotated genomes in organisms with well-studied evolutionary histories, phylogenetic affinities, and known patterns of ecological variation throughout their life cycles. I review progress and prospects for understanding the pervasive role of host plant use on genetic and phenotypic expression of reproductive isolating mechanisms in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis and suggest how this system can be used as a model for revealing the genetic basis for species formation in organisms where speciation phenotypes are under the joint influences of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:25149252

  19. Abscisic acid mediates a divergence in the drought response of two conifers.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Timothy J; McAdam, Scott A M

    2013-07-01

    During water stress, stomatal closure occurs as water tension and levels of abscisic acid (ABA) increase in the leaf, but the interaction between these two drivers of stomatal aperture is poorly understood. We investigate the dynamics of water potential, ABA, and stomatal conductance during the imposition of water stress on two drought-tolerant conifer species with contrasting stomatal behavior. Rapid rehydration of excised shoots was used as a means of differentiating the direct influences of ABA and water potential on stomatal closure. Pinus radiata (Pinaceae) was found to exhibit ABA-driven stomatal closure during water stress, resulting in strongly isohydric regulation of water loss. By contrast, stomatal closure in Callitris rhomboidea (Cupressaceae) was initiated by elevated foliar ABA, but sustained water stress saw a marked decline in ABA levels and a shift to water potential-driven stomatal closure. The transition from ABA to water potential as the primary driver of stomatal aperture allowed C. rhomboidea to rapidly recover gas exchange after water-stressed plants were rewatered, and was associated with a strongly anisohydric regulation of water loss. These two contrasting mechanisms of stomatal regulation function in combination with xylem vulnerability to produce highly divergent strategies of water management. Species-specific ABA dynamics are proposed as a central component of drought survival and ecology.

  20. Abscisic Acid Mediates a Divergence in the Drought Response of Two Conifers1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; McAdam, Scott A.M.

    2013-01-01

    During water stress, stomatal closure occurs as water tension and levels of abscisic acid (ABA) increase in the leaf, but the interaction between these two drivers of stomatal aperture is poorly understood. We investigate the dynamics of water potential, ABA, and stomatal conductance during the imposition of water stress on two drought-tolerant conifer species with contrasting stomatal behavior. Rapid rehydration of excised shoots was used as a means of differentiating the direct influences of ABA and water potential on stomatal closure. Pinus radiata (Pinaceae) was found to exhibit ABA-driven stomatal closure during water stress, resulting in strongly isohydric regulation of water loss. By contrast, stomatal closure in Callitris rhomboidea (Cupressaceae) was initiated by elevated foliar ABA, but sustained water stress saw a marked decline in ABA levels and a shift to water potential-driven stomatal closure. The transition from ABA to water potential as the primary driver of stomatal aperture allowed C. rhomboidea to rapidly recover gas exchange after water-stressed plants were rewatered, and was associated with a strongly anisohydric regulation of water loss. These two contrasting mechanisms of stomatal regulation function in combination with xylem vulnerability to produce highly divergent strategies of water management. Species-specific ABA dynamics are proposed as a central component of drought survival and ecology. PMID:23709665

  1. Analysis of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) response to Verticillium dahliae inoculation by transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shao, B X; Zhao, Y L; Chen, W; Wang, H M; Guo, Z J; Gong, H Y; Sang, X H; Cui, Y L; Wang, C H

    2015-10-27

    Verticillium wilt is one of the main diseases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), severely reduces yield and fiber quality, and is difficult to be con-trolled effectively. At present, the molecular mechanism that confers resistance to this disease is unclear. Transcriptome sequencing is an important method to detect resistance genes, explore metabolic pathways, and study resistance mechanisms. In this study, the transcriptome of a disease-resistant inbred cot-ton line inoculated with Verticillium dahliae was sequenced. A total of 126,402 unigenes were obtained using de novo assembly and data analysis, 99,712 (78.88%) of which were annotated into the Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. The expression patterns of 16 candidate disease-resis-tance genes showed that some genes were upregulated soon after V. dahliae inoculation and others were upregulated later, which may indicate instanta-neous basal defense and lagged specific defense, respectively. We conducted a preliminary analysis of the transcriptome database, which will contribute to further research regarding the cloning of disease-resistance genes.

  2. Characterization of the Transcriptome and Gene Expression of Brain Tissue in Sevenband Grouper (Hyporthodus septemfasciatus) in Response to NNV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Jae-Ok; Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Grouper is one of the favorite sea food resources in Southeast Asia. However, the outbreaks of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease due to nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection have caused mass mortality of grouper larvae. Many aqua-farms have suffered substantial financial loss due to the occurrence of VNN. To better understand the infection mechanism of NNV, we performed the transcriptome analysis of sevenband grouper brain tissue, the main target of NNV infection. After artificial NNV challenge, transcriptome of brain tissues of sevenband grouper was subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS) using an Illumina Hi-seq 2500 system. Both mRNAs from pooled samples of mock and NNV-infected sevenband grouper brains were sequenced. Clean reads of mock and NNV-infected samples were de novo assembled and obtained 104,348 unigenes. In addition, 628 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to NNV infection were identified. This result could provide critical information not only for the identification of genes involved in NNV infection, but for the understanding of the response of sevenband groupers to NNV infection. PMID:28098800

  3. Characterization of the Transcriptome and Gene Expression of Brain Tissue in Sevenband Grouper (Hyporthodus septemfasciatus) in Response to NNV Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Jae-Ok; Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2017-01-13

    Grouper is one of the favorite sea food resources in Southeast Asia. However, the outbreaks of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease due to nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection have caused mass mortality of grouper larvae. Many aqua-farms have suffered substantial financial loss due to the occurrence of VNN. To better understand the infection mechanism of NNV, we performed the transcriptome analysis of sevenband grouper brain tissue, the main target of NNV infection. After artificial NNV challenge, transcriptome of brain tissues of sevenband grouper was subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS) using an Illumina Hi-seq 2500 system. Both mRNAs from pooled samples of mock and NNV-infected sevenband grouper brains were sequenced. Clean reads of mock and NNV-infected samples were de novo assembled and obtained 104,348 unigenes. In addition, 628 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to NNV infection were identified. This result could provide critical information not only for the identification of genes involved in NNV infection, but for the understanding of the response of sevenband groupers to NNV infection.

  4. Transcriptomic comparison between Brassica oleracea and rice (Oryza sativa) reveals diverse modulations on cell death in response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Jiaqin; Ding, Yijuan; Li, Yuehua; Tong, Chaobo; Du, Hai; Yu, Yang; Wan, Huafan; Xiong, Qing; Yu, Jingyin; Liu, Shengyi; Li, Jiana; Qian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating disease of Brassica crops, but not in rice. The leaves of a rice line, a partial resistant (R) and a susceptible (S) Brassica oleracea pool that bulked from a resistance-segregating F2 population were employed for transcriptome sequencing before and after inoculation by S. sclerotiorum for 6 and 12 h. Distinct transcriptome profiles were revealed between B. oleracea and rice in response to S. sclerotiorum. Enrichment analyses of GO and KEGG indicated an enhancement of antioxidant activity in the R B. oleracea and rice, and histochemical staining exhibited obvious lighter reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death in rice and the R B. oleracea as compared to that in the S B. oleracea. Significant enhancement of Ca2+ signalling, a positive regulator of ROS and cell death, were detected in S B. oleracea after inoculation, while it was significantly repressed in the R B. oleracea group. Obvious difference was detected between two B. oleracea groups for WRKY transcription factors, particularly for those regulating cell death. These findings suggest diverse modulations on cell death in host in response to S. sclerotiorum. Our study provides useful insight into the resistant mechanism to S. sclerotiorum. PMID:27647523

  5. Transcriptomic comparison between Brassica oleracea and rice (Oryza sativa) reveals diverse modulations on cell death in response to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jiaqin; Ding, Yijuan; Li, Yuehua; Tong, Chaobo; Du, Hai; Yu, Yang; Wan, Huafan; Xiong, Qing; Yu, Jingyin; Liu, Shengyi; Li, Jiana; Qian, Wei

    2016-09-20

    Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating disease of Brassica crops, but not in rice. The leaves of a rice line, a partial resistant (R) and a susceptible (S) Brassica oleracea pool that bulked from a resistance-segregating F2 population were employed for transcriptome sequencing before and after inoculation by S. sclerotiorum for 6 and 12 h. Distinct transcriptome profiles were revealed between B. oleracea and rice in response to S. sclerotiorum. Enrichment analyses of GO and KEGG indicated an enhancement of antioxidant activity in the R B. oleracea and rice, and histochemical staining exhibited obvious lighter reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death in rice and the R B. oleracea as compared to that in the S B. oleracea. Significant enhancement of Ca(2+) signalling, a positive regulator of ROS and cell death, were detected in S B. oleracea after inoculation, while it was significantly repressed in the R B. oleracea group. Obvious difference was detected between two B. oleracea groups for WRKY transcription factors, particularly for those regulating cell death. These findings suggest diverse modulations on cell death in host in response to S. sclerotiorum. Our study provides useful insight into the resistant mechanism to S. sclerotiorum.

  6. Transcriptome sequencing as a platform to elucidate molecular components of the diapause response in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Poelchau, Monica F; Reynolds, Julie A; Denlinger, David L; Elsik, Christine G; Armbruster, Peter A

    2013-06-01

    Diapause has long been recognized as a crucial ecological adaptation to spatio-temporal environmental variation. More recently, rapid evolution of the diapause response has been implicated in response to contemporary global warming and during the range expansion of invasive species. Although the molecular regulation of diapause remains largely unresolved, rapidly emerging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide exciting opportunities to address this longstanding question. Herein, a new assembly from life-history stages relevant to diapause in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is presented, along with unique methods for the analysis of NGS data and transcriptome assembly. A digital normalization procedure that significantly reduces computational resources required for transcriptome assembly is evaluated. Additionally, a method for protein reference-based and genomic reference-based merged assembly of 454 and Illumina reads is described. Finally, a gene ontology analysis is presented, which creates a platform to identify physiological processes associated with diapause. Taken together, these methods provide valuable tools for analyzing the transcriptional underpinnings of many complex phenotypes, including diapause, and provide a basis for determining the molecular regulation of diapause in Ae. albopictus.

  7. Reciprocal osmotic challenges reveal mechanisms of divergence in phenotypic plasticity in the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Reid S; Galvez, Fernando; Whitehead, Andrew

    2015-04-15

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is an estuarine species with broad physiological plasticity, enabling acclimation to diverse stressors. Previous work suggests that freshwater populations expanded their physiology to accommodate low salinity environments; however, it is unknown whether this compromises their tolerance to high salinity. We used a comparative approach to investigate the mechanisms of a derived freshwater phenotype and the fate of an ancestral euryhaline phenotype after invasion of a freshwater environment. We compared physiological and transcriptomic responses to high- and low-salinity stress in fresh and brackish water populations and found an enhanced plasticity to low salinity in the freshwater population coupled with a reduced ability to acclimate to high salinity. Transcriptomic data identified genes with a conserved common response, a conserved salinity-dependent response and responses associated with population divergence. Conserved common acclimation responses revealed stress responses and alterations in cell-cycle regulation as important mechanisms in the general osmotic response. Salinity-specific responses included the regulation of genes involved in ion transport, intracellular calcium, energetic processes and cellular remodeling. Genes diverged between populations were primarily those showing salinity-specific expression and included those regulating polyamine homeostasis and the cell cycle. Additionally, when populations were matched with their native salinity, expression patterns were consistent with the concept of 'transcriptomic resilience', suggesting local adaptation. These findings provide insight into the fate of a plastic phenotype after a shift in environmental salinity and help to reveal mechanisms allowing for euryhalinity.

  8. Transcriptome assembly and microarray construction for Enchytraeus crypticus, a model oligochaete to assess stress response mechanisms derived from soil conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The soil worm Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta) is an ecotoxicology model species that, until now, was without genome or transcriptome sequence information. The present research aims at studying the transcriptome of Enchytraeus crypticus, sampled from multiple test conditions, and the construction of a high-density microarray for functional genomic studies. Results Over 1.5 million cDNA sequence reads were obtained representing 645 million nucleotides. After assembly, 27,296 contigs and 87,686 singletons were obtained, from which 44% and 25% are annotated as protein-coding genes, respectively, sharing homology with other animal proteomes. Concerning assembly quality, 84% of the contig sequences contain an open reading frame with a start codon while E. crypticus homologs were identified for 92% of the core eukaryotic genes. Moreover, 65% and 77% of the singletons and contigs without known homologs, respectively, were shown to be transcribed in an independent microarray experiment. An Agilent 180 K microarray platform was designed and validated by hybridizing cDNA from 4 day zinc- exposed E. crypticus to the concentration corresponding to 50% reduction in reproduction after three weeks (EC50). Overall, 70% of all probes signaled expression above background levels (mean signal + 1x standard deviation). More specifically, the probes derived from contigs showed a wider range of average intensities when compared to probes derived from singletons. In total, 522 significantly differentially regulated transcripts were identified upon zinc exposure. Several significantly regulated genes exerted predicted functions (e.g. zinc efflux, zinc transport) associated with zinc stress. Unexpectedly, the microarray data suggest that zinc exposure alters retro transposon activity in the E. crypticus genome. Conclusion An initial investigation of the E. crypticus transcriptome including an associated microarray platform for future studies proves to be a valuable

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals molecular strategies of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in response to acute and chronic nitrite stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Chen, Ke; Ding, Zhili; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically and nutritionally important species threatened by ambient superfluous nitrite. De novo RNA-Seq was used to explore the molecular mechanism in M. nipponense exposed to the acute nitrite stress (26.05 mg/L nitrite-N) for 24 h and the chronic nitrite stress (1.38 mg/L nitrite-N) for 28 d A total of 175.13 million reads were obtained and assembled into 58,871 unigenes with an average length of 1028.7 bp and N50 of 1294 bp. Under the acute and chronic nitrite stress trials, 2824 and 2610 unigenes were significantly expressed. In GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis, 30 pathways were significantly different between the two treatments while four pathways were in common and the markedly altered pathways were divided into four sections as immunity, metabolism, cell and others. The immunity section revealing the different depth of immunity provoked by nitrite stress contained the most pathways including the important pathways as phagosome, folate biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism under the acute nitrite stress, and lysosome, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism under the chronic nitrite stress. This is the first report of responses of M. nipponense under acute and chronic nitrite stress through de novo transcriptome sequencing on the transcriptome level. The results of transcriptome analysis improve our understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms coping with nitrite stress in crustacean species.

  10. Transcriptomic changes during maize roots development responsive to Cadmium (Cd) pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Hua; He, Xiujing; Gao, Jian; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Zhiming; Shen, Yaou; Pan, Guangtang; Lin, Haijian

    2015-09-04

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd), acts as a widespread environmental contaminant, which has shown to adversely affect human health, food safety and ecosystem safety in recent years. However, research on how plant respond to various kinds of heavy metal stress is scarcely reported, especially for understanding of complex molecular regulatory mechanisms and elucidating the gene networks of plant respond to Cd stress. Here, transcriptomic changes during Mo17 and B73 seedlings development responsive to Cd pollution were investigated and comparative RNAseq-based approach in both genotypes were performed. 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) with significant alteration in expression were found co-modulated in both genotypes during the maize seedling development; of those, most of DGEs were found comprised of stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, as well as transcription factors, such as thaumatin-like protein, ZmOPR2 and ZmOPR5. More interestingly, genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found contributed to the regulatory mechanism of Cd sensitivity in both different genotypes. Moreover, 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways (M1 to M12) were identified by consensus co-expression network. These results will expand our understanding of complex molecular mechanism of response and defense to Cd exposure in maize seedling roots. - Highlights: • Transcriptomic changes responsive to Cd pollution using comparative RNAseq-based approach. • 115 differential expression genes (DEGs) were found co-modulated in both genotypes. • Most of DGEs belong to stress and defense responses proteins, transporters, transcription factors. • 12 co-expression modules associated with specific biological processes or pathways. • Genotype-specific transcriptional factors changes induced by Cd stress were found.

  11. Characterisation of transcriptional responses to dioxins and dioxin-like contaminants in roach (Rutilus rutilus) using whole transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Koglin, Sven; Eisner, Bryanna; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Thalmann, Beat; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hollert, Henner

    2016-01-15

    There is significant concern regarding the contamination of riverine sediments with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The majority of studies investigating the ecotoxicology of DLCs in fish have focused on a few standard model species. However, there is significant uncertainty as to whether these model species are representative of native river fish, particularly in Europe. In this study, the transcriptional responses following exposure to equipotent concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), PCB 156 or the dioxin-like PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), were investigated in juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus), a fish species that constitutes a large proportion of the fish biomass in freshwater bodies throughout Europe. To this end, RNA sequencing analysis was used to comprehensively characterise the molecular mechanisms and pathways of toxicity of these DLCs. Whole transcriptome analyses using ClueGO software revealed that DLCs have the potential to disrupt a number of important processes, including energy metabolism, oogenesis, the immune system, apoptosis and the response to oxidative stress. However, despite using equipotent concentrations, there was very little conservation of the transcriptional responses observed in fish exposed to different DLCs. TCDD provoked significant specific changes in the levels of transcripts related to immunotoxicity and carbohydrate metabolism, while PCB 156 caused virtually no specific effects. Exposure to BkF affected the most diverse suite of molecular functions and biological processes, including blood coagulation, oxidative stress responses, unspecific responses to organic or inorganic substances/stimuli, cellular redox homeostasis and specific receptor pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the transcriptome

  12. Dual transcriptome analysis reveals insights into the response to Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Xu, Zhennan; Duan, Canxing; Chen, Yanping; Meng, Qingchang; Wu, Jirong; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Mingshun; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Degui; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-01-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a viral infection that results in heavy yield losses in maize worldwide, particularly in the summer maize-growing regions of China. MRDD is caused by the Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). In the present study, analyses of microRNAs (miRNAs), the degradome, and transcriptome sequences were used to elucidate the RBSDV-responsive pathway(s) in maize. Genomic analysis indicated that the expression of three non-conserved and 28 conserved miRNAs, representing 17 known miRNA families and 14 novel miRNAs, were significantly altered in response to RBSDV when maize was inoculated at the V3 (third leaf) stage. A total of 99 target transcripts from 48 genes of 10 known miRNAs were found to be responsive to RBSDV infection. The annotations of these target genes include a SQUAMOSA promoter binding (SPB) protein, a P450 reductase, an oxidoreductase, and a ubiquitin-related gene, among others. Characterization of the entire transcriptome suggested that a total of 28 and 1085 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 1.5 and 3.0 d, respectively, after artificial inoculation with RBSDV. The expression patterns of cell wall- and chloroplast-related genes, and disease resistance- and stress-related genes changed significantly in response to RBSDV infection. The negatively regulated genes GRMZM2G069316 and GRMZM2G031169, which are the target genes for miR169i-p5 and miR8155, were identified as a nucleolin and a NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily protein in maize, respectively. The gene ontology term GO:0003824, including GRMZM2G031169 and other 51 DEGs, was designated as responsive to RBSDV. PMID:27493226

  13. Common and divergent physiological, hormonal and metabolic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella halophila to water and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Arbona, Vicent; Argamasilla, Rosa; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2010-11-01

    To explain the higher tolerance of Thellungiella to abiotic stress in comparison to Arabidopsis, several studies have focused on differences in ion absorption and gene expression. However, little is known about hormone regulation and metabolic responses. In this work, plants of both species were subjected to desiccation and salt stress to compare common and divergent responses. In control conditions, the number of significantly upregulated mass features as well as proline levels was higher in Tellungiella than in Arabidopsis. When subjected to desiccation, both species exhibited similar rates of water loss but proline over accumulation only occurred in Thellungiella; both species accumulated ABA and JA with a similar trend although Arabidopsis showed higher concentrations of both hormones which indicated a stronger impact of desiccation on Arabidopsis. However, Arabidopsis showed a higher number of significantly altered mass features than Thellungiella. Under salt stress, Thellungiella plants accumulated lower amounts of Cl(-) ions than Arabidopsis but exhibited a similar proline response. Under these conditions, ABA and JA levels increased in Arabidopsis whereas minimal changes in both hormone concentrations were recorded in Thellungiella. Contrastingly, the impact of salt stress on metabolite profiles was higher in Thellungiella than in Arabidopsis. Overall, data indicated that physiological responses in Arabidopsis are induced after stress imposition through hormonal regulation whereas Thellungiella has a basal metabolic configuration, better prepared to endure environmental cues.

  14. Identification of transcripts involved in digestion, detoxification and immune response from transcriptome of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs.

    PubMed

    Shao, En-Si; Lin, Gui-Fang; Liu, Sijun; Ma, Xiao-Li; Chen, Ming-Feng; Lin, Li; Wu, Song-Qing; Sha, Li; Liu, Zhao-Xia; Hu, Xiao-Hua; Guan, Xiong; Zhang, Ling-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Tea production has been significantly impacted by the false-eye leafhopper, Empoasca vitis (Göthe), around Asia. To identify the key genes which are responsible for nutrition absorption, xenobiotic metabolism and immune response, the transcriptome of either alimentary tracts or bodies minus alimentary tract of E. vitis was sequenced and analyzed. Over 31 million reads were obtained from Illumina sequencing. De novo sequence assembly resulted in 52,182 unigenes with a mean size of 848nt. The assembled unigenes were then annotated using various databases. Transcripts of at least 566 digestion-, 224 detoxification-, and 288 immune-related putative genes in E. vitis were identified. In addition, relative expression of highly abundant transcripts was verified through quantitative real-time PCR. Results from this investigation provide genomic information about E. vitis, which will be helpful in further study of E. vitis biology and in the development of novel strategies to control this devastating pest.

  15. A comparison of the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster in response to entomopathogenic fungus, ionizing radiation, starvation and cold shock

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms that determine the organism's response to a variety of doses and modalities of stress factors are not well understood. Results We studied effects of ionizing radiation (144, 360 and 864 Gy), entomopathogenic fungus (10 and 100 CFU), starvation (16 h), and cold shock (+4, 0 and -4°C) on an organism's viability indicators (survival and locomotor activity) and transcriptome changes in the Drosophila melanogaster model. All stress factors but cold shock resulted in a decrease of lifespan proportional to the dose of treatment. However, stress-factors affected locomotor activity without correlation with lifespan. Our data revealed both significant similarities and differences in differential gene expression and the activity of biological processes under the influence of stress factors. Conclusions Studied doses of stress treatments deleteriously affect the organism's viability and lead to different changes of both general and specific cellular stress response mechanisms. PMID:26694630

  16. Overlapping and unique signatures in the proteomic and transcriptomic responses of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans toward pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wentao; Dierking, Katja; Esser, Daniela; Tholey, Andreas; Leippe, Matthias; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2015-07-01

    Pathogen infection can activate multiple signaling cascades that ultimately alter the abundance of molecules in cells. This change can be measured both at the transcript and protein level. Studies analyzing the immune response at both levels are, however, rare. Here, we compare transcriptome and proteome data generated after infection of the nematode and model organism Caenorhabditis elegans with the Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. Our analysis revealed a high overlap between abundance changes of corresponding transcripts and gene products, especially for genes encoding C-type lectin domain-containing proteins, indicating their particular role in worm immunity. We additionally identified a unique signature at the proteome level, suggesting that the C. elegans response to infection is shaped by changes beyond transcription. Such effects appear to be influenced by AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPKs), which may thus represent previously unknown regulators of C. elegans immune defense.

  17. Divergent responses of Atlantic coastal and oceanic Synechococcus to iron limitation.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Katherine R M; Post, Anton F; McIlvin, Matthew R; Cutter, Gregory A; John, Seth G; Saito, Mak A

    2015-08-11

    Marine Synechococcus are some of the most diverse and ubiquitous phytoplankton, and iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient that limits productivity in many parts of the ocean. To investigate how coastal and oceanic Atlantic Synechococcus strains acclimate to Fe availability, we compared the growth, photophysiology, and quantitative proteomics of two Synechococcus strains from different Fe regimes. Synechococcus strain WH8102, from a region in the southern Sargasso Sea that receives substantial dust deposition, showed impaired growth and photophysiology as Fe declined, yet used few acclimation responses. Coastal WH8020, from the dynamic, seasonally variable New England shelf, displayed a multitiered, hierarchical cascade of acclimation responses with different Fe thresholds. The multitiered response included changes in Fe acquisition, storage, and photosynthetic proteins, substitution of flavodoxin for ferredoxin, and modified photophysiology, all while maintaining remarkably stable growth rates over a range of Fe concentrations. Modulation of two distinct ferric uptake regulator (Fur) proteins that coincided with the multitiered proteome response was found, implying the coastal strain has different regulatory threshold responses to low Fe availability. Low nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability in the open ocean may favor the loss of Fe response genes when Fe availability is consistent over time, whereas these genes are retained in dynamic environments where Fe availability fluctuates and N and P are more abundant.

  18. ROSMETER: a bioinformatic tool for the identification of transcriptomic imprints related to reactive oxygen species type and origin provides new insights into stress responses.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Shilo; Fluhr, Robert; Joshi, Janak Raj; Leviatan, Noam; Sela, Noa; Hetzroni, Amotz; Friedman, Haya

    2013-10-01

    The chemical identity of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its subcellular origin will leave a specific imprint on the transcriptome response. In order to facilitate the appreciation of ROS signaling, we developed a tool that is tuned to qualify this imprint. Transcriptome data from experiments in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) for which the ROS type and organelle origin are known were compiled into indices and made accessible by a Web-based interface called ROSMETER. The ROSMETER algorithm uses a vector-based algorithm to portray the ROS signature for a given transcriptome. The ROSMETER platform was applied to identify the ROS signatures profiles in transcriptomes of senescing plants and of those exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses. An unexpected highly significant ROS transcriptome signature of mitochondrial stress was detected during the early presymptomatic stages of leaf senescence, which was accompanied by the specific oxidation of mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein probe. The ROSMETER analysis of diverse stresses revealed both commonalties and prominent differences between various abiotic stress conditions, such as salt, cold, ultraviolet light, drought, heat, and pathogens. Interestingly, early responses to the various abiotic stresses clustered together, independent of later responses, and exhibited negative correlations to several ROS indices. In general, the ROS transcriptome signature of abiotic stresses showed limited correlation to a few indices, while biotic stresses showed broad correlation with multiple indices. The ROSMETER platform can assist in formulating hypotheses to delineate the role of ROS in plant acclimation to environmental stress conditions and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the oxidative stress response in plants.

  19. Immune response of the Caribbean sea fan, Gorgonia ventalina, exposed to an Aplanochytrium parasite as revealed by transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Colleen A.; Mouchka, Morgan E.; Harvell, C. Drew; Roberts, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef communities are undergoing marked declines due to a variety of stressors including disease. The sea fan coral, Gorgonia ventalina, is a tractable study system to investigate mechanisms of immunity to a naturally occurring pathogen. Functional studies in Gorgonia ventalina immunity indicate that several key pathways and cellular components are involved in response to natural microbial invaders, although to date the functional and regulatory pathways remain largely un-described. This study used short-read sequencing (Illumina GAIIx) to identify genes involved in the response of G. ventalina to a naturally occurring Aplanochytrium spp. parasite. De novo assembly of the G. ventalina transcriptome yielded 90,230 contigs of which 40,142 were annotated. RNA-Seq analysis revealed 210 differentially expressed genes in sea fans exposed to the Aplanochytrium parasite. Differentially expressed genes involved in immunity include pattern recognition molecules, anti-microbial peptides, and genes involved in wound repair and reactive oxygen species formation. Gene enrichment analysis indicated eight biological processes were enriched representing 36 genes, largely involved with protein translation and energy production. This is the first report using high-throughput sequencing to characterize the host response of a coral to a natural pathogen. Furthermore, we have generated the first transcriptome for a soft (octocoral or non-scleractinian) coral species. Expression analysis revealed genes important in invertebrate innate immune pathways, as well as those whose role is previously un-described in cnidarians. This resource will be valuable in characterizing G. ventalina immune response to infection and co-infection of pathogens in the context of environmental change. PMID:23898300

  20. Comparison of biofilm formation and motility processes in arsenic-resistant Thiomonas spp. strains revealed divergent response to arsenite.

    PubMed

    Farasin, Julien; Koechler, Sandrine; Varet, Hugo; Deschamps, Julien; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Proux, Caroline; Erhardt, Mathieu; Huber, Aline; Jagla, Bernd; Briandet, Romain; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence

    2017-02-07

    Bacteria of the genus Thiomonas are found ubiquitously in arsenic contaminated waters such as acid mine drainage (AMD), where they contribute to the precipitation and the natural bioremediation of arsenic. In these environments, these bacteria have developed a large range of resistance strategies among which the capacity to form particular biofilm structures. The biofilm formation is one of the most ubiquitous adaptive response observed in prokaryotes to various stresses, such as those induced in the presence of toxic compounds. This study focused on the process of biofilm formation in three Thiomonas strains (CB1, CB2 and CB3) isolated from the same AMD. The results obtained here show that these bacteria are all capable of forming biofilms, but the architecture and the kinetics of formation of these biofilms differ depending on whether arsenite is present in the environment and from one strain to another. Indeed, two strains favoured biofilm formation, whereas one favoured motility in the presence of arsenite. To identify the underlying mechanisms, the patterns of expression of some genes possibly involved in the process of biofilm formation were investigated in Thiomonas sp. CB2 in the presence and absence of arsenite, using a transcriptomic approach (RNA-seq). The findings obtained here shed interesting light on how the formation of biofilms, and the motility processes contribute to the adaptation of Thiomonas strains to extreme environments.

  1. Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in ginsenoside pathway in response to methyl jasmonate in Panax Quinquefolium adventitious root

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Jing; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we combine elicitors and transcriptomics to investigate the inducible biosynthesis of the ginsenoside from the Panax quinquefolium. Treatment of P. quinquefolium adventitious root with methyl jasmonate (MJ) results in an increase in ginsenoside content (43.66 mg/g compared to 8.32 mg/g in control group). Therefore, we sequenced the transcriptome of native and MJ treated adventitious root in order to elucidate the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Through DEG analysis, we found that 5,759 unigenes were up-regulated and 6,389 unigenes down-regulated in response to MJ treatment. Several defense-related genes (48) were identified, participating in salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), nitric oxide (NO) and abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway. Additionally, we mapped 72 unigenes to the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Four cytochrome P450s (CYP450) were likely to catalyze hydroxylation at C-16 (c15743_g1, c39772_g1, c55422_g1) and C-30 (c52011_g1) of the triterpene backbone. UDP-xylose synthases (c52571_g3) was selected as the candidate, which was likely to involve in ginsenoside Rb3 biosynthesis. PMID:27876840

  2. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Responsible for Tissue-Specific Pigmentation in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jong Hwa; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Seungill; Soh, Hye Yeon; Shin, Hosub; Jang, Hosung; Ryu, Ju Hyun; Kim, Ahyeong; Yun, Kil-Young; Kim, Shinje; Kim, Ki Sun; Choi, Doil; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) is commonly found in temperate climate regions and widely used for lawns, in part, owing to its uniform green color. However, some zoysiagrass cultivars accumulate red to purple pigments in their spike and stolon tissues, thereby decreasing the aesthetic value. Here we analyzed the anthocyanin contents of two zoysiagrass cultivars ‘Anyang-jungji’ (AJ) and ‘Greenzoa’ (GZ) that produce spikes and stolons with purple and green colors, respectively, and revealed that cyanidin and petunidin were primarily accumulated in the pigmented tissues. In parallel, we performed a de novo transcriptome assembly and identified differentially expressed genes between the two cultivars. We found that two anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) were preferentially upregulated in the purple AJ spike upon pigmentation. Both ANS and DFR genes were also highly expressed in other zoysiagrass cultivars with purple spikes and stolons, but their expression levels were significantly low in the cultivars with green tissues. We observed that recombinant ZjDFR1 and ZjANS1 proteins successfully catalyze the conversions of dihydroflavonols into leucoanthocyanidins and leucoanthocyanidins into anthocyanidins, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that upregulation of ANS and DFR is responsible for tissue-specific anthocyanin biosynthesis and differential pigmentation in zoysiagrass. The present study also demonstrates the feasibility of a de novo transcriptome analysis to identify the key genes associated with specific traits, even in the absence of reference genome information. PMID:25905914

  3. Transcriptomic and proteomic responses of Serratia marcescens to spaceflight conditions involve large-scale changes in metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yajuan; Yuan, Yanting; Liu, Jinwen; Su, Longxiang; Chang, De; Guo, Yinghua; Chen, Zhenhong; Fang, Xiangqun; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Zhou, Lisha; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Changting

    2014-04-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight expeditions has been associated with altered microbial responses. This study explores the characterization of Serratia marcescensis grown in a spaceflight environment at the phenotypic, transcriptomic and proteomic levels. From November 1, 2011 to November 17, 2011, a strain of S. marcescensis was sent into space for 398 h on the Shenzhou VIII spacecraft, and ground simulation was performed as a control (LCT-SM213). After the flight, two mutant strains (LCT-SM166 and LCT-SM262) were selected for further analysis. Although no changes in the morphology, post-culture growth kinetics, hemolysis or antibiotic sensitivity were observed, the two mutant strains exhibited significant changes in their metabolic profiles after exposure to spaceflight. Enrichment analysis of the transcriptome showed that the differentially expressed genes of the two spaceflight strains and the ground control strain mainly included those involved in metabolism and degradation. The proteome revealed that changes at the protein level were also associated with metabolic functions, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism and the degradation of valine, leucine and isoleucine. In summary S. marcescens showed alterations primarily in genes and proteins that were associated with metabolism under spaceflight conditions, which gave us valuable clues for future research.

  4. Time-based comparative transcriptomics in engineered xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies temperature-responsive genes during ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-09-01

    Agricultural residues comprising lignocellulosic materials are excellent sources of pentose sugar, which can be converted to ethanol as fuel. Ethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing requires a suitable microorganism to withstand the harsh fermentation environment of high temperature, high ethanol concentration, and exposure to inhibitors. We genetically enhanced an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, sun049, enabling it to uptake xylose as the sole carbon source at high fermentation temperature. This strain was able to produce 13.9 g/l ethanol from 50 g/l xylose at 38 °C. To better understand the xylose consumption ability during long-term, high-temperature conditions, we compared by transcriptomics two fermentation conditions: high temperature (38 °C) and control temperature (30 °C) during the first 12 h of fermentation. This is the first long-term, time-based transcriptomics approach, and it allowed us to discover the role of heat-responsive genes when xylose is the sole carbon source. The results suggest that genes related to amino acid, cell wall, and ribosomal protein synthesis are down-regulated under heat stress. To allow cell stability and continuous xylose uptake in order to produce ethanol, hexose transporter HXT5, heat shock proteins, ubiquitin proteins, and proteolysis were all induced at high temperature. We also speculate that the strong relationship between high temperature and increased xylitol accumulation represents the cell's mechanism to protect itself from heat degradation.

  5. The transcriptomics of an experimentally evolved plant-virus interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hillung, Julia; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Cuevas, José M.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2016-01-01

    Models of plant-virus interaction assume that the ability of a virus to infect a host genotype depends on the matching between virulence and resistance genes. Recently, we evolved tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) lineages on different ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, and found that some ecotypes selected for specialist viruses whereas others selected for generalists. Here we sought to evaluate the transcriptomic basis of such relationships. We have characterized the transcriptomic responses of five ecotypes infected with the ancestral and evolved viruses. Genes and functional categories differentially expressed by plants infected with local TEV isolates were identified, showing heterogeneous responses among ecotypes, although significant parallelism existed among lineages evolved in the same ecotype. Although genes involved in immune responses were altered upon infection, other functional groups were also pervasively over-represented, suggesting that plant resistance genes were not the only drivers of viral adaptation. Finally, the transcriptomic consequences of infection with the generalist and specialist lineages were compared. Whilst the generalist induced very similar perturbations in the transcriptomes of the different ecotypes, the perturbations induced by the specialist were divergent. Plant defense mechanisms were activated when the infecting virus was specialist but they were down-regulated when infecting with generalist. PMID:27113435

  6. The transcriptomics of an experimentally evolved plant-virus interaction.

    PubMed

    Hillung, Julia; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Cuevas, José M; Elena, Santiago F

    2016-04-26

    Models of plant-virus interaction assume that the ability of a virus to infect a host genotype depends on the matching between virulence and resistance genes. Recently, we evolved tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) lineages on different ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, and found that some ecotypes selected for specialist viruses whereas others selected for generalists. Here we sought to evaluate the transcriptomic basis of such relationships. We have characterized the transcriptomic responses of five ecotypes infected with the ancestral and evolved viruses. Genes and functional categories differentially expressed by plants infected with local TEV isolates were identified, showing heterogeneous responses among ecotypes, although significant parallelism existed among lineages evolved in the same ecotype. Although genes involved in immune responses were altered upon infection, other functional groups were also pervasively over-represented, suggesting that plant resistance genes were not the only drivers of viral adaptation. Finally, the transcriptomic consequences of infection with the generalist and specialist lineages were compared. Whilst the generalist induced very similar perturbations in the transcriptomes of the different ecotypes, the perturbations induced by the specialist were divergent. Plant defense mechanisms were activated when the infecting virus was specialist but they were down-regulated when infecting with generalist.

  7. Sexually divergent expression of active and passive conditioned fear responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Gruene, Tina M; Flick, Katelyn; Stefano, Alexis; Shea, Stephen D; Shansky, Rebecca M

    2015-11-14

    Traditional rodent models of Pavlovian fear conditioning assess the strength of learning by quantifying freezing responses. However, sole reliance on this measure includes the de facto assumption that any locomotor activity reflects an absence of fear. Consequently, alternative expressions of associative learning are rarely considered. Here we identify a novel, active fear response ('darting') that occurs primarily in female rats. In females, darting exhibits the characteristics of a learned fear behavior, appearing during the CS period as conditioning proceeds and disappearing from the CS period during extinction. This finding motivates a reinterpretation of rodent fear conditioning studies, particularly in females, and it suggests that conditioned fear behavior is more diverse than previously appreciated. Moreover, rats that darted during initial fear conditioning exhibited lower freezing during the second day of extinction testing, suggesting that females employ distinct and adaptive fear response strategies that improve long-term outcomes.

  8. Comparative transcriptomics of the response of Escherichia coli to the disinfectant monochloramine and to growth conditions inducing monochloramine resistance.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Holder, Diane; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2010-09-01

    Escherichia coli growth in biofilms and growth at a suboptimal temperature of 20 °C have been shown to decrease sensitivity to monochloramine (Berry, D., C. Xi, L. Raskin. 2009. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 884-889). In order to better understand why growth conditions affect sensitivity to monochloramine, a comparative transcriptomic approach was used to identify common patterns of differentially-expressed genes under these growth conditions and during monochloramine exposure. This approach revealed a set of differentially-expressed genes shared under multiple conditions (planktonic growth at 20 °C, biofilm growth, and exposure of planktonic cells to monochloramine), with nine genes shared under all three conditions. Functional gene categories enriched in the shared gene sets included: general metabolic inhibition, redox and oxidoreductase response, cell envelope integrity response, control of iron and sulfur transport metabolism and several genes of unknown function. Single gene deletion mutant analyses verified that loss of 15 of the 24 genes up-regulated during monochloramine exposure as well as during other tested conditions increased E. coli sensitivity to monochloramine up to two fold. Constitutive expression of down-regulated genes in single gene mutants yielded mixed results, indicating that the expression of some down-regulated genes actually decreases sensitivity to monochloramine. These results contribute to the understanding of the bacterial response to disinfectants by characterizing the overlap between growth condition associated stress responses and monochloramine-associated stress responses. This characterization highlights the bacterial responses responsible for decreased sensitivity to monochloramine under different growth conditions.

  9. Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Aaren S; Byers, James E

    2006-08-11

    Invasive species may precipitate evolutionary change in invaded communities. In southern New England (USA) the invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, preys on mussels (Mytlius edulis), but the crab has not yet invaded northern New England. We show that southern New England mussels express inducible shell thickening when exposed to waterborne cues from Hemigrapsus, whereas naïve northern mussel populations do not respond. Yet, both populations thicken their shells in response to a long-established crab, Carcinus maenas. Our findings are consistent with the rapid evolution of an inducible morphological response to Hemigrapsus within 15 years of its introduction.

  10. Relocation due to Climate Change: Mapping the Divergent Responses of the Governments of Tuvalu and Kiribati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, K. E.; Hemstock, S.; Smith, R.; Holland, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    have chosen very different pathways for responding to climate change and future losses to coastal public infrastructure and the potential inability to sustain coastal livelihoods and settlements in the future. For Tuvalu, relocation as a result of climate change is seen as an option of last resort with rights to land and culture the paramount discourse (McNamara and Gibson, 2009). This position is bound up in people's connection to place and what this means for identity, culture, spirituality and psychosocial well-being (Mortreux and Barnett, 2009). Willi Telavi, the Prime Minister of Tuvalu, argues that their concern about relocation is the loss of sovereignty. On the other hand, Kiribati is planning for staggered international migration 'on merit', backed by a government policy to re-train its people to migrate in the future to Fiji, New Zealand and Australia. In line with this policy, the Kiribati Government has recently purchased 5,000 acres of land in Savusavu, Fiji. Mapping these divergent strategies, through an analysis of government policies and interviews with officials, provides scope to understand the driving forces behind these positions, and importantly, debate the merits and pitfalls of both adaptation and relocation as approaches to ensure the future security and sustainability of low-lying coastal communities in the Pacific.

  11. Divergent Gene Expression Responses to Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Cole, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The “widowhood effect” (i.e., morbidity/mortality in recently bereaved spouses) may be related to changes in immune function, but little is known about the impact of bereavement on gene transcription in immune cells. This study examined how Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief responses to bereavement differentially affect leukocyte gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and bioinformatic analyses were completed on 63 older adults. Thirty-six of them had lost their spouse/partner on average 2 years ago, and 27 were nonbereaved, married controls. Twelve of the bereaved participants met criteria for Complicated Grief. Compared to nonbereaved controls, bereavement (both Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief) was associated with upregulated expression of genes involved in general immunologic activation and a selective downregulation of genes involved in B lymphocyte responses. However, Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief differed markedly in their expression of Type I interferon-related transcripts, with Non-complicated Grief subjects showing substantial upregulation relative to nonbereaved controls and Complicated Grief subjects showing substantial downregulation. Bereavement significantly modulates immune function gene expression. The magnitude of bereavement-related distress (i.e., Complicated Grief vs. Non-complicated Grief) is linked to differential patterns of transcription factor activation and gene expression involved in innate antiviral responses. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding the health effects of bereavement, as well as new insights into the particular gene modules that are most sensitive to the individual's psychological response to loss. PMID:24380850

  12. Effect of Response Distortion on the Assessment of Divergent Facets of Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, John F.

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is composed of two orthogonal factors, one representing traits such as dominance and low anxiety (PPI-I) and a second that reflects more socially deviant aspects of psychopathy (PPI-II). To assess whether response sets differentially affect these factors, the present…

  13. Divergent responses of viral and bacterial communities in the gut microbiome to dietary disturbances in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Adina; Ringus, Daina L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Choo, Zi -Ning; Greenwald, Stephanie M.; Owens, Sarah M.; Coleman, Maureen L.; Meyer, Folker; Chang, Eugene B.

    2015-10-16

    To improve our understanding of the stability of mammalian intestinal communities, we characterized the responses of both bacterial and viral communities in murine fecal samples to dietary changes between high- and low-fat (LF) diets. Targeted DNA extraction methods for bacteria, virus-like particles and induced prophages were used to generate bacterial and viral metagenomes as well as 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons. Gut microbiome communities from two cohorts of C57BL/6 mice were characterized in a 6-week diet perturbation study in response to high fiber, LF and high-refined sugar, milkfat (MF) diets. The resulting metagenomes from induced bacterial prophages and extracellular viruses showed significant overlap, supporting a largely temperate viral lifestyle within these gut microbiomes. The resistance of baseline communities to dietary disturbances was evaluated, and we observed contrasting responses of baseline LF and MF bacterial and viral communities. In contrast to baseline LF viral communities and bacterial communities in both diet treatments, baseline MF viral communities were sensitive to dietary disturbances as reflected in their non-recovery during the washout period. Finally, the contrasting responses of bacterial and viral communities suggest that these communities can respond to perturbations independently of each other and highlight the potentially unique role of viruses in gut health.

  14. Divergent responses of viral and bacterial communities in the gut microbiome to dietary disturbances in mice

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Adina; Ringus, Daina L; Williams, Ryan J; Choo, Zi-Ning; Greenwald, Stephanie M; Owens, Sarah M; Coleman, Maureen L; Meyer, Folker; Chang, Eugene B

    2016-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the stability of mammalian intestinal communities, we characterized the responses of both bacterial and viral communities in murine fecal samples to dietary changes between high- and low-fat (LF) diets. Targeted DNA extraction methods for bacteria, virus-like particles and induced prophages were used to generate bacterial and viral metagenomes as well as 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons. Gut microbiome communities from two cohorts of C57BL/6 mice were characterized in a 6-week diet perturbation study in response to high fiber, LF and high-refined sugar, milkfat (MF) diets. The resulting metagenomes from induced bacterial prophages and extracellular viruses showed significant overlap, supporting a largely temperate viral lifestyle within these gut microbiomes. The resistance of baseline communities to dietary disturbances was evaluated, and we observed contrasting responses of baseline LF and MF bacterial and viral communities. In contrast to baseline LF viral communities and bacterial communities in both diet treatments, baseline MF viral communities were sensitive to dietary disturbances as reflected in their non-recovery during the washout period. The contrasting responses of bacterial and viral communities suggest that these communities can respond to perturbations independently of each other and highlight the potentially unique role of viruses in gut health. PMID:26473721

  15. Divergent responses of viral and bacterial communities in the gut microbiome to dietary disturbances in mice

    DOE PAGES

    Howe, Adina; Ringus, Daina L.; Williams, Ryan J.; ...

    2015-10-16

    To improve our understanding of the stability of mammalian intestinal communities, we characterized the responses of both bacterial and viral communities in murine fecal samples to dietary changes between high- and low-fat (LF) diets. Targeted DNA extraction methods for bacteria, virus-like particles and induced prophages were used to generate bacterial and viral metagenomes as well as 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons. Gut microbiome communities from two cohorts of C57BL/6 mice were characterized in a 6-week diet perturbation study in response to high fiber, LF and high-refined sugar, milkfat (MF) diets. The resulting metagenomes from induced bacterial prophages and extracellular viruses showedmore » significant overlap, supporting a largely temperate viral lifestyle within these gut microbiomes. The resistance of baseline communities to dietary disturbances was evaluated, and we observed contrasting responses of baseline LF and MF bacterial and viral communities. In contrast to baseline LF viral communities and bacterial communities in both diet treatments, baseline MF viral communities were sensitive to dietary disturbances as reflected in their non-recovery during the washout period. Finally, the contrasting responses of bacterial and viral communities suggest that these communities can respond to perturbations independently of each other and highlight the potentially unique role of viruses in gut health.« less

  16. Divergence of the systemic immune response following oral infection with distinct strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Marchesan, J T; Morelli, T; Lundy, S K; Jiao, Y; Lim, S; Inohara, N; Nunez, G; Fox, D A; Giannobile, W V

    2012-12-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial oral infection characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting structures that can be linked to systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium implicated in the etiology of periodontitis, has shown variation in inducing T-cell responses among different strains. Therefore, in this study we investigated the strain-specific immune response using a murine experimental model of periodontitis. Periodontitis was induced by P. gingivalis strains A7A1-28, W83 and W50, and later confirmed by the presence of P. gingivalis in the oral microflora and by alveolar bone resorption. Splenocytes were evaluated for gene expression, cellular proteins and cytokine expression. Dendritic cells were stimulated in vitro for T helper cell-cytokine profiling. Results showed that P. gingivalis had the ability to alter the systemic immune response after bacterial exposure. Strains W50 and W83 were shown to induce alveolar bone loss, whereas the A7A1-28 strain did not significantly promote bone resorption in mice. Splenocytes derived from mice infected with strains W50 and W83 induced expression of high levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) but A7A1-28 stimulated increased IL-10. Stimulation of dendritic cells in vitro showed a similar pattern of cytokine expression of IL-12p40, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β among strains. A distinct systemic response in vivo was observed among different strains of P. gingivalis, with IL-10 associated with the least amount of alveolar bone loss. Evaluation of pathogen-driven systemic immune responses associated with periodontal disease pathogenesis may assist in defining how periodontitis may impact other diseases.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Innate Antiviral Immune Response in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Influence of Immunobiotic Lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Leonardo; Kobayashi, Hisakazu; Iida, Hikaru; Sato, Nana; Nochi, Tomonori; Aso, Hisashi; Salva, Susana; Alvarez, Susana; Kitazawa, Haruki; Villena, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 and Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506 are immunobiotic strains able to increase protection against viral intestinal infections as demonstrated in animal models and humans. To gain insight into the host-immunobiotic interaction, the transcriptomic response of porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells to the challenge with viral molecular associated pattern poly(I:C) and the changes in the transcriptomic profile induced by the immunobiotics strains CRL1505 and CRL1506 were investigated in this work. By using microarray technology and reverse transcription PCR, we obtained a global overview of the immune genes involved in the innate antiviral immune response in PIE cells. Stimulation of PIE cells with poly(I:C) significantly increased the expression of IFN-α and IFN-β, several interferon-stimulated genes, cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and genes involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis. It was also determined that lactobacilli differently modulated immune gene expression in poly(I:C)-challenged PIE cells. Most notable changes were found in antiviral factors (IFN-α, IFN-β, NPLR3, OAS1, OASL, MX2, and RNASEL) and cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, IL-6, CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL10) that were significantly increased in lactobacilli-treated PIE cells. Immunobiotics reduced the expression of IL-15 and RAE1 genes that mediate poly(I:C) inflammatory damage. In addition, lactobacilli treatments increased the expression PLA2G4A, PTGES, and PTGS2 that are involved in prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. L. rhamnosus CRL1505 and L. plantarum CRL1506 showed quantitative and qualitative differences in their capacities to modulate the innate antiviral immune response in PIE cells, which would explain the higher capacity of the CRL1505 strain when compared to CRL1506 to protect against viral infection and inflammatory damage in vivo. These results provided valuable information for the deeper understanding of the host-immunobiotic interaction and their

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Innate Antiviral Immune Response in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Influence of Immunobiotic Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Leonardo; Kobayashi, Hisakazu; Iida, Hikaru; Sato, Nana; Nochi, Tomonori; Aso, Hisashi; Salva, Susana; Alvarez, Susana; Kitazawa, Haruki; Villena, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 and Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506 are immunobiotic strains able to increase protection against viral intestinal infections as demonstrated in animal models and humans. To gain insight into the host–immunobiotic interaction, the transcriptomic response of porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells to the challenge with viral molecular associated pattern poly(I:C) and the changes in the transcriptomic profile induced by the immunobiotics strains CRL1505 and CRL1506 were investigated in this work. By using microarray technology and reverse transcription PCR, we obtained a global overview of the immune genes involved in the innate antiviral immune response in PIE cells. Stimulation of PIE cells with poly(I:C) significantly increased the expression of IFN-α and IFN-β, several interferon-stimulated genes, cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and genes involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis. It was also determined that lactobacilli differently modulated immune gene expression in poly(I:C)-challenged PIE cells. Most notable changes were found in antiviral factors (IFN-α, IFN-β, NPLR3, OAS1, OASL, MX2, and RNASEL) and cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, IL-6, CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL10) that were significantly increased in lactobacilli-treated PIE cells. Immunobiotics reduced the expression of IL-15 and RAE1 genes that mediate poly(I:C) inflammatory damage. In addition, lactobacilli treatments increased the expression PLA2G4A, PTGES, and PTGS2 that are involved in prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. L. rhamnosus CRL1505 and L. plantarum CRL1506 showed quantitative and qualitative differences in their capacities to modulate the innate antiviral immune response in PIE cells, which would explain the higher capacity of the CRL1505 strain when compared to CRL1506 to protect against viral infection and inflammatory damage in vivo. These results provided valuable information for the deeper understanding of the host–immunobiotic interaction and their

  19. Comparative analyses of genotype dependent expressed sequence tags and stress-responsive transcriptome of chickpea wilt illustrate predicted and unexpected genes and novel regulators of plant immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Nasheeman; Ghai, Deepali; Barman, Pranjan; Basu, Swaraj; Gangisetty, Nagaraju; Mandal, Mihir K; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2009-01-01

    Background The ultimate phenome of any organism is modulated by regulated transcription of many genes. Characterization of genetic makeup is thus crucial for understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity, evolution and response to intra- and extra-cellular stimuli. Chickpea is the world's third most important food legume grown in over 40 countries representing all the continents. Despite its importance in plant evolution, role in human nutrition and stress adaptation, very little ESTs and differential transcriptome data is available, let alone genotype-specific gene signatures. Present study focuses on Fusarium wilt responsive gene expression in chickpea. Results We report 6272 gene sequences of immune-response pathway that would provide genotype-dependent spatial information on the presence and relative abundance of each gene. The sequence assembly led to the identification of a CaUnigene set of 2013 transcripts comprising of 973 contigs and 1040 singletons, two-third of which represent new chickpea genes hitherto undiscovered. We identified 209 gene families and 262 genotype-specific SNPs. Further, several novel transcription regulators were identified indicating their possible role in immune response. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 649 non-cannonical genes besides many unexpected candidates with known biochemical functions, which have never been associated with pathostress-responsive transcriptome. Conclusion Our study establishes a comprehensive catalogue of the immune-responsive root transcriptome with insight into their identity and function. The development, detailed analysis of CaEST datasets and global gene expression by microarray provide new insight into the commonality and diversity of organ-specific immune-responsive transcript signatures and their regulated expression shaping the species specificity at genotype level. This is the first report on differential transcriptome of an unsequenced genome during vascular wilt. PMID:19732460

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Louisiana iris Root and Identification of Genes Involved in Lead-Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Songqing; Gu, Chunsun; Liu, Liangqin; Zhu, Xudong; Zhao, Yanhai; Huang, Suzhen

    2015-01-01

    Louisiana iris is tolerant to and accumulates the heavy metal lead (Pb). However, there is limited knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind this feature. We describe the transcriptome of Louisiana iris using Illumina sequencing technology. The root transcriptome of Louisiana iris under control and Pb-stress conditions was sequenced. Overall, 525,498 transcripts representing 313,958 unigenes were assembled using the clean raw reads. Among them, 43,015 unigenes were annotated and their functions classified using the euKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) database. They were divided into 25 molecular families. In the Gene Ontology (GO) database, 50,174 unigenes were categorized into three GO trees (molecular function, cellular component and biological process). After analysis of differentially expressed genes, some Pb-stress-related genes were selected, including biosynthesis genes of chelating compounds, metal transporters, transcription factors and antioxidant-related genes. This study not only lays a foundation for further studies on differential genes under Pb stress, but also facilitates the molecular breeding of Louisiana iris. PMID:26602925

  1. Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meiying; Jiang, Lihua; Shen, Kang-Ning; Wu, Changwen; He, Guangyuan; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2015-01-01

    The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000) to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195) were generated from HiSeq2000 sequencer and 96,403 contigs (with N50 = 1118 bp) were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 1156 unigenes are upregulated and 1681 unigenes are downregulated when challenged with copper. By KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, we found that unigenes in four KEGG pathways (aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, apoptosis, DNA replication and mismatch repair) show significant differential expressed between control and copper treated groups. We hope that the gill transcriptome in copper treated hard-shelled mussel can give useful information to understand how mussel handles with heavy metal stress at molecular level. PMID:26981394

  2. Transcriptome analysis and systemic RNAi response in the African sweetpotato weevil (Cylas puncticollis, Coleoptera, Brentidae).

    PubMed

    Prentice, Katterinne; Pertry, Ine; Christiaens, Olivier; Bauters, Lander; Bailey, Ana; Niblett, Chuck; Ghislain, Marc; Gheysen, Godelieve; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The African sweetpotato weevil (SPW) Cylas puncticollis Boheman is one of the most important constraints of sweetpotato production in Sub-Saharan Africa and yet is largely an uncharacterized insect pest. Here, we report on the transcriptome analysis of SPW generated using an Illumina platform. More than 213 million sequencing reads were obtained and assembled into 89,599 contigs. This assembly was followed by a gene ontology annotation. Subsequently, a transcriptome search showed that the necessary RNAi components relevant to the three major RNAi pathways, were found to be expressed in SPW. To address the functionality of the RNAi mechanism in this species, dsRNA was injected into second instar larvae targeting laccase2, a gene which encodes an enzyme involved in the sclerotization of insect exoskeleton. The body of treated insects showed inhibition of sclerotization, leading eventually to death. Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) confirmed this phenotype to be the result of gene silencing. Together, our results provide valuable sequence data on this important insect pest and demonstrate that a functional RNAi pathway with a strong and systemic effect is present in SPW and can further be explored as a new strategy for controlling this important pest.

  3. Divergent responses of fire to recent climate change: evidence from bio-regional patterns across south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstock, R.; Boer, M.; Penman, T.; Price, O.

    2012-04-01

    Fire activity is dependent on the growth of biomass (fuel), sufficient dryness of biomass (availability to burn), weather condition such as temperature, wind and humidity (rate of fire spread) and ignitions (natural or human caused). Differing fire regimes are predicted to emerge from differing syndromes of limitation by these fundamental drivers. These processes are in turn governed by complex relationships with vegetation and climate, as well as human populations. Fire regimes should therefore vary systematically across biophysical gradients as highlighted in recent, global analyses of fire patterns. In particular, fire in dry ecosystems may be fundamentally constrained by the growth of herbaceous biomass (fuel limitation), whereas in mesic, forested ecosystems the principal constraint on fire is predicted to be availability to burn (i.e. episodes where litter fuels derived form dominant woody plants are sufficiently dry to burn). This means fire oocurs primarily in response to rain in arid ecosystems (i.e. promotion of herbage growth) and, alternatively, to drought in mesic ecosystems (i.e. drying of fuel beds). These contrasting syndromes of fire provide scope for divergent responses to warmer and drier conditions under climate change, with fire potentially declining in arid ecosystems and increasing in mesic ecosystems as a result. We tested this prediction by examining the response of area burned from 1975 to 2009 across 32 bioregions covering south-eastern Australia, using mapped data derived from land and fire management archives. This range extends from arid grasslands through woodlands and sclerophyll forests to rainforests in the mesic, coastal fringe. Recent research has highlighted an increase in the severity of fire weather (i.e. annual sum of daily fire danger index) for the corresponding period across the part of the continent. We found that area burned tended to remain static or declined in semi-arid and arid bio-regions. By contrast in forested

  4. Uncovering the Complex Transcriptome Response of Mytilus chilensis against Saxitoxin: Implications of Harmful Algal Blooms on Mussel Populations

    PubMed Central

    Detree, Camille; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Roberts, Steven; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis. For this, RNA-seq and RT-qPCR approaches were used to evaluate the transcriptomic response of M. chilensis to a purified STX as well as in vivo Alexandrium catenella exposure. Approximately 800 million reads were assembled, generating 138,883 contigs that were blasted against the UniProt Mollusca database. Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) involved in mussel immunity, such as Toll-like receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptors, and scavenger-like receptors were found to be strongly upregulated at 8 and 16 h post-STX injection. These results suggest an involvement of PRRs in the response to STX, as well as identifying potential, novel STX-interacting receptors in this Chilean mussel. This study is the first transcriptomic overview of the STX-response in the edible species M. chilensis. However, the most significant contribution of this work is the identification of immune receptors and pathways potentially involved in the recognition and defense against STX’s toxicity and its impact of harmful algae blooms on wild and cultivated mussel populations. PMID:27764234

  5. Chronic toxicity evaluation of the flame retardant tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) using Daphnia magna transcriptomic response.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Maeva; Douville, Mélanie; Houde, Magali

    2015-08-01

    Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is an organophosphorous-containing flame retardant (OPFR) of high production volume used in a broad range of applications. The use of TBOEP containing products has resulted in its release and ubiquitous occurrence in the aquatic environment. In this study, Daphnia magna transcriptomic response was measured by microarray to evaluate sublethal effects of TBOEP as part of a multi-level biological approach including specific gene transcription measured by qRT-PCR, enzyme activity, and life-history endpoints (i.e., survival, growth and reproduction). Chronic exposure (21 d) to a range of sublethal concentrations of TBOEP (14.7-1470μgL(-1)) did not impact growth, survival or reproduction, although the number of offspring decreased between the lowest and the highest dose. Gene transcription profiling by microarray analysis revealed that 101 genes were differentially transcribed in response to TBOEP (fold change treated/control ±1, p<0.05). Most of the responding genes were involved in protein metabolism (9), biosynthesis (4) and energy metabolism (6) indicating that TBOEP could have chronic toxic effects on aquatic organisms at sublethal doses by disrupting essential biological pathways. Nine genes were found to be commonly affected by more than one dose, including a gene coding for cathepsin D and multiple isoforms of genes coding for hemoglobin, suggesting potential biomarkers of interest. Microarray results were confirmed by qRT-PCR and measurements at the protein level as cathepsin D enzymatic activity increased significantly in the highest dose treatment. Results highlight the relevance of using the transcriptomic response of D. magna as a first line of evidence to unravel the mode of action of chemicals.

  6. Fed state prior to hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma in a porcine model results in altered liver transcriptomic response.

    PubMed

    Determan, Charles; Anderson, Rebecca; Becker, Aaron; Witowski, Nancy; Lusczek, Elizabeth; Mulier, Kristine; Beilman, Greg J

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of trauma-related mortality in both civilian and military settings. Resuscitation often results in reperfusion injury and survivors are susceptible to developing multiple organ failure (MOF). The impact of fed state on the overall response to shock and resuscitation has been explored in some murine models but few clinically relevant large animal models. We have previously used metabolomics to establish that the fed state results in a different metabolic response in the porcine liver following hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. In this study, we used our clinically relevant model of hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma and the Illumina HiSeq platform to determine if the liver transcriptomic response is also altered with respect to fed state. Functional analysis of the response to shock and resuscitation confirmed several typical responses including carbohydrate metabolism, cytokine inflammation, decreased cholesterol synthesis, and apoptosis. Our findings also suggest that the fasting state, relative to a carbohydrate prefed state, displays decreased carbohydrate metabolism, increased cytoskeleton reorganization and decreased inflammation in response to hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion. Evidence suggests that this is a consequence of a shrunken, catabolic state of the liver cells which provides an anti-inflammatory condition that partially mitigates hepatocellar damage.

  7. Combinations of common chronic paediatric diseases deviate the immune response in diverging directions

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, L; Kivling, A; Jalmelid, M; Magnusson, K Fälth; Faresjö, M

    2006-01-01

    The cytokine pattern of T lymphocytes has not been characterized in children with combinations of paediatric immunological disorders. We describe cytokine secretion in children with type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease and allergy and combinations of two of these diseases after stimulation with ‘disease-specific’ antigens. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 68 children with type 1 diabetes, allergy or coeliac disease, two of these diseases in combination or none of these diseases. Using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 were analysed from fresh PBMC spontaneously and after in vitro stimulation with antigens associated with one or more of these diseases (insulin, gluten, birch and cat extract, β-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin and phytohaemagglutinin) in order to divide T helper (Th)1- from Th2-like lymphocytes. Stimulation with birch and cat extract caused increased IL-4 secretion in allergic children. A low IFN-γ response to insulin was found in type 1 diabetic children, whereas allergic children responded to insulin by increased IL-4 secretion. Children suffering from both type 1 diabetes (Th1-prone) and allergy (Th2-prone) reacted distinctly to general mitogen stimulation. Children suffering from two Th1-dominated diseases (type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease) showed hardly any response to either food or inhalation allergens. Our results indicate an important interplay between common immunological diseases in children. The combination of two Th1-deviated diseases is associated with a suppressed immune response, whereas a combination of Th1- and Th2-dominated diseases appears to increase the general immune response. PMID:17100762

  8. Seasonal divergence in the interannual responses of Northern Hemisphere vegetation activity to variations in diurnal climate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoyan; Liang, Eryuan; Beck, Pieter S A; Huang, Yongmei

    2016-01-11

    Seasonal asymmetry in the interannual variations in the daytime and nighttime climate in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is well documented, but its consequences for vegetation activity remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the interannual responses of vegetation activity to variations of seasonal mean daytime and nighttime climate in NH (>30 °N) during the past decades using remote sensing retrievals, FLUXNET and tree ring data. Despite a generally significant and positive response of vegetation activity to seasonal mean maximum temperature (Tmax) in ~22-25% of the boreal (>50 °N) NH between spring and autumn, spring-summer progressive water limitations appear to decouple vegetation activity from the mean summer Tmax, particularly in climate zones with dry summers. Drought alleviation during autumn results in vegetation recovery from the marked warming-induced drought limitations observed in spring and summer across 24-26% of the temperate NH. Vegetation activity exhibits a pervasively negative correlation with the autumn mean minimum temperature, which is in contrast to the ambiguous patterns observed in spring and summer. Our findings provide new insights into how seasonal asymmetry in the interannual variations in the mean daytime and nighttime climate interacts with water limitations to produce spatiotemporally variable responses of vegetation growth.

  9. Thermoregulatory responses during thermal acclimation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Noblet, Jean; Jaguelin-Peyraud, Yolande; Gilbert, Hélène; Mormède, Pierre; de Oliveira Donzele, Rita Flavia Miranda; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Renaudeau, David

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and thermoregulatory responses during acclimation to high ambient temperature (Ta) of pigs from two lines selected for high (RFI+) or low (RFI-) residual feed intake with the hypothesis that RFI- pigs producing less heat would better tolerate high Ta. Pigs (50 kg initial body weight; 17 per line among which 10 of them were catheterized) were individually housed in a climatic-controlled room where Ta was maintained at 24.2 ± 0.4 °C during 7 days and thereafter at 30.4 ± 0.7 °C during 14 days. Irrespective of Ta, RFI- pigs had lower feed intake (ADFI) and similar average daily gain (ADG) than RFI+ pigs. Whatever the line, ADFI, ADG, and feed efficiency decreased with increased Ta. Overall, the Ta increase resulted in an increase in rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) within the first 24-48 h and, subsequently, in a decrease followed by stabilization. The RT decrease during acclimation occurred 24 h earlier in RFI- pigs than in RFI+. Thyroid hormones and cortisol decreased at high Ta and it was similar in both lines. Based on performance and RT, ST, and RR responses, it seems that selection for low RFI tends to ameliorate pigs' tolerance to high Ta. Nevertheless, this selection does not induce significant differences between lines in endocrine and metabolite responses during thermal stress.

  10. Seasonal divergence in the interannual responses of Northern Hemisphere vegetation activity to variations in diurnal climate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoyan; Liang, Eryuan; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Huang, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal asymmetry in the interannual variations in the daytime and nighttime climate in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is well documented, but its consequences for vegetation activity remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the interannual responses of vegetation activity to variations of seasonal mean daytime and nighttime climate in NH (>30 °N) during the past decades using remote sensing retrievals, FLUXNET and tree ring data. Despite a generally significant and positive response of vegetation activity to seasonal mean maximum temperature () in ~22–25% of the boreal (>50 °N) NH between spring and autumn, spring-summer progressive water limitations appear to decouple vegetation activity from the mean summer , particularly in climate zones with dry summers. Drought alleviation during autumn results in vegetation recovery from the marked warming-induced drought limitations observed in spring and summer across 24–26% of the temperate NH. Vegetation activity exhibits a pervasively negative correlation with the autumn mean minimum temperature, which is in contrast to the ambiguous patterns observed in spring and summer. Our findings provide new insights into how seasonal asymmetry in the interannual variations in the mean daytime and nighttime climate interacts with water limitations to produce spatiotemporally variable responses of vegetation growth. PMID:26751166

  11. Adolescent and adult rat cortical protein kinase A display divergent responses to acute ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Eduardo D.; Santerre, Jessica L.; Carter, Jenna M.; Werner, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent rats display reduced sensitivity to many dysphoria-related effects of alcohol (ethanol) including motor ataxia and sedative hypnosis, but the underlying neurobiological factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, particularly the type II regulatory subunit (RII), has been implicated in ethanol-induced molecular and behavioral responses in adults. Therefore, the current study examined cerebral cortical PKA in adolescent and adult ethanol responses. With the exception of early adolescence, PKA RIIα and RIIβ subunit levels largely did not differ from adult levels in either whole cell lysate or P2 synaptosomal expression. However, following acute ethanol exposure, PKA RIIβ P2 synaptosomal expression and activity were increased in adults, but not in adolescents. Behaviorally, intracerebroventricular administration of the PKA activator Sp-cAMP and inhibitor Rp-cAMP prior to ethanol administration increased adolescent sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol compared to controls. Sp-cAMP was ineffective in adults whereas Rp-cAMP suggestively reduced loss of righting reflex (LORR) with paralleled increases in blood ethanol concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that PKA activity modulates the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and may potentially play a wider role in the differential ethanol responses observed between adolescents and adults. PMID:24874150

  12. Divergent ecosystem responses within a benthic marine community to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Martz, Todd R

    2011-08-30

    Ocean acidification is predicted to impact all areas of the oceans and affect a diversity of marine organisms. However, the diversity of responses among species prevents clear predictions about the impact of acidification at the ecosystem level. Here, we used shallow water CO(2) vents in the Mediterranean Sea as a model system to examine emergent ecosystem responses to ocean acidification in rocky reef communities. We assessed in situ benthic invertebrate communities in three distinct pH zones (ambient, low, and extreme low), which differed in both the mean and variability of seawater pH along a continuous gradient. We found fewer taxa, reduced taxonomic evenness, and lower biomass in the extreme low pH zones. However, the number of individuals did not differ among pH zones, suggesting that there is density compensation through population blooms of small acidification-tolerant taxa. Furthermore, the trophic structure of the invertebrate community shifted to fewer trophic groups and dominance by generalists in extreme low pH, suggesting that there may be a simplification of food webs with ocean acidification. Despite high variation in individual species' responses, our findings indicate that ocean acidification decreases the diversity, biomass, and trophic complexity of benthic marine communities. These results suggest that a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function is expected under extreme acidification scenarios.

  13. Adolescent and adult rat cortical protein kinase A display divergent responses to acute ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Eduardo D; Santerre, Jessica L; Carter, Jenna M; Werner, David F

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent rats display reduced sensitivity to many dysphoria-related effects of alcohol (ethanol) including motor ataxia and sedative hypnosis, but the underlying neurobiological factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, particularly the type II regulatory subunit (RII), has been implicated in ethanol-induced molecular and behavioral responses in adults. Therefore, the current study examined cerebral cortical PKA in adolescent and adult ethanol responses. With the exception of early adolescence, PKA RIIα and RIIβ subunit levels largely did not differ from adult levels in either whole cell lysate or P2 synaptosomal expression. However, following acute ethanol exposure, PKA RIIβ P2 synaptosomal expression and activity were increased in adults, but not in adolescents. Behaviorally, intracerebroventricular administration of the PKA activator Sp-cAMP and inhibitor Rp-cAMP prior to ethanol administration increased adolescent sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol compared to controls. Sp-cAMP was ineffective in adults whereas Rp-cAMP suggestively reduced loss of righting reflex (LORR) with paralleled increases in blood ethanol concentrations. Overall, these data suggest that PKA activity modulates the sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol and may potentially play a wider role in the differential ethanol responses observed between adolescents and adults.

  14. Divergent ecosystem responses within a benthic marine community to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, Kristy J.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Martz, Todd R.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to impact all areas of the oceans and affect a diversity of marine organisms. However, the diversity of responses among species prevents clear predictions about the impact of acidification at the ecosystem level. Here, we used shallow water CO2 vents in the Mediterranean Sea as a model system to examine emergent ecosystem responses to ocean acidification in rocky reef communities. We assessed in situ benthic invertebrate communities in three distinct pH zones (ambient, low, and extreme low), which differed in both the mean and variability of seawater pH along a continuous gradient. We found fewer taxa, reduced taxonomic evenness, and lower biomass in the extreme low pH zones. However, the number of individuals did not differ among pH zones, suggesting that there is density compensation through population blooms of small acidification-tolerant taxa. Furthermore, the trophic structure of the invertebrate community shifted to fewer trophic groups and dominance by generalists in extreme low pH, suggesting that there may be a simplification of food webs with ocean acidification. Despite high variation in individual species’ responses, our findings indicate that ocean acidification decreases the diversity, biomass, and trophic complexity of benthic marine communities. These results suggest that a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function is expected under extreme acidification scenarios. PMID:21844331

  15. Transcriptomes of the Extremely Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Metallosphaera sedula Exposed to Metal “Shock” Reveal Generic and Specific Metal Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wheaton, Garrett H.; Mukherjee, Arpan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula mobilizes metals by novel membrane-associated oxidase clusters and, consequently, requires metal resistance strategies. This issue was examined by “shocking” M. sedula with representative metals (Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, UO22+, Zn2+) at inhibitory and subinhibitory levels. Collectively, one-quarter of the genome (554 open reading frames [ORFs]) responded to inhibitory levels, and two-thirds (354) of the ORFs were responsive to a single metal. Cu2+ (259 ORFs, 106 Cu2+-specific ORFs) and Zn2+ (262 ORFs, 131 Zn2+-specific ORFs) triggered the largest responses, followed by UO22+ (187 ORFs, 91 UO22+-specific ORFs), Ni2+ (93 ORFs, 25 Ni2+-specific ORFs), and Co2+ (61 ORFs, 1 Co2+-specific ORF). While one-third of the metal-responsive ORFs are annotated as encoding hypothetical proteins, metal challenge also impacted ORFs responsible for identifiable processes related to the cell cycle, DNA repair, and oxidative stress. Surprisingly, there were only 30 ORFs that responded to at least four metals, and 10 of these responded to all five metals. This core transcriptome indicated induction of Fe-S cluster assembly (Msed_1656-Msed_1657), tungsten/molybdenum transport (Msed_1780-Msed_1781), and decreased central metabolism. Not surprisingly, a metal-translocating P-type ATPase (Msed_0490) associated with a copper resistance system (Cop) was upregulated in response to Cu2+ (6-fold) but also in response to UO22+ (4-fold) and Zn2+ (9-fold). Cu2+ challenge uniquely induced assimilatory sulfur metabolism for cysteine biosynthesis, suggesting a role for this amino acid in Cu2+ resistance or issues in sulfur metabolism. The results indicate that M. sedula employs a range of physiological and biochemical responses to metal challenge, many of which are specific to a single metal and involve proteins with yet unassigned or definitive functions. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which extremely thermoacidophilic archaea resist

  16. Divergent responses of fire to recent warming and drying across south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bradstock, Ross; Penman, Trent; Boer, Matthias; Price, Owen; Clarke, Hamish

    2014-05-01

    The response of fire to climate change may vary across fuel types characteristic of differing vegetation types (i.e. litter vs. grass). Models of fire under climatic change capture these differing potential responses to varying degrees. Across south-eastern Australia, an elevation in the severity of weather conditions conducive to fire has been measured in recent decades. We examined trends in area burned (1975-2009) to determine if a corresponding increase in fire had occurred across the diverse range of ecosystems found in this part of the continent. We predicted that an increase in fire, due to climatic warming and drying, was more likely to have occurred in moist, temperate forests near the coast than in arid and semiarid woodlands of the interior, due to inherent contrasts in the respective dominant fuel types (woody litter vs. herbaceous fuels). Significant warming (i.e. increased temperature and number of hot days) and drying (i.e. negative precipitation anomaly, number of days with low humidity) occurred across most of the 32 Bioregions examined. The results were mostly consistent with predictions, with an increase in area burned in seven of eight forest Bioregions, whereas area burned either declined (two) or did not change significantly (nine) in drier woodland Bioregions. In 12 woodland Bioregions, data were insufficient for analysis of temporal trends in fire. Increases in fire attributable mostly to warming or drying were confined to three Bioregions. In the remainder, such increases were mostly unrelated to warming or drying trends and therefore may be due to other climate effects not explored (e.g. lightning ignitions) or possible anthropogenic influences. Projections of future fire must therefore not only account for responses of different fuel systems to climatic change but also the wider range of ecological and human effects on interactions between fire and vegetation.

  17. Response to divergent selection for insulin-like growth factor-I concentration and correlated responses in growth traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Hines, H C; Irvin, K M; Lee, K; Davis, M E

    2011-12-01

    A divergent selection experiment for serum IGF-I concentration was established in 1989 at the Eastern Agricultural Research Station located in Belle Valley, Ohio. One hundred spring-calving (50 high line and 50 low line) and 100 fall-calving (50 high line and 50 low line) cows with unknown IGF-I concentrations were randomly assigned to the 2 divergent selection lines. Results of this study included 2,507 calves from the 1989 through 2005 calf crops. (Co)variance components were estimated for direct and maternal additive genetic effects using an animal model and multiple-trait, derivative-free, REML (MTDFREML) computer programs. Estimated breeding values were also obtained and regressed on years to estimate direct and correlated responses to divergent selection for serum IGF-I concentration. Estimates of direct heritability for growth traits from a single trait model were moderate and ranged from 0.33 ± 0.06 for birth weight to 0.42 ± 0.06 for preweaning BW gain. Heritability estimates for direct effects were 0.44 ± 0.07, 0.43 ± 0.07, 0.35 ± 0.06, and 0.48 ± 0.07 for IGF-I concentration at d 28, 42, and 56 of the 140-d postweaning period, and for mean IGF-I concentration, respectively. Maternal heritability and the proportion of phenotypic variance due to permanent environment effect of dam were ≤0.25 for growth traits and IGF-I concentrations. Cattle in the high line had significantly (P < 0.001) greater direct effects of mean IGF-I concentration than those in low line (high line: 66.92 ± 4.40 ng/mL vs. low line: -40.82 ± 5.18 ng/mL) in 2005. Direct responses per year for mean IGF were 5.18 ng/mL in the high line and -3.76 ng/mL in the low line. The regression of direct effects of preweaning BW gain on year were not significantly different from zero in either the high or low line. However, genetic trends were negative and significant for birth weight and postweaning BW gain in the high line and were positive and significant in the low line. Results

  18. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Common Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and Discovery of Drought-Response Genes in Root Tissue Based on Transcriptomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-wen; Wang, Yan-yan; Li, Wei-min; Peng, Yu-fa; Yuan, Qian-hua; Pei, Xin-wu

    2015-01-01

    Background The perennial O. rufipogon (common wild rice), which is considered to be the ancestor of Asian cultivated rice species, contains many useful genetic resources, including drought resistance genes. However, few studies have identified the drought resistance and tissue-specific genes in common wild rice. Results In this study, transcriptome sequencing libraries were constructed, including drought-treated roots (DR) and control leaves (CL) and roots (CR). Using Illumina sequencing technology, we generated 16.75 million bases of high-quality sequence data for common wild rice and conducted de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 119,332 unigenes with an average length of 715 bp. A total of 88,813 distinct sequences (74.42% of unigenes) significantly matched known genes in the NCBI NT database. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis showed that 3617 genes were up-regulated and 4171 genes were down-regulated in the CR library compared with the CL library. Among the DEGs, 535 genes were expressed in roots but not in shoots. A similar comparison between the DR and CR libraries showed that 1393 genes were up-regulated and 315 genes were down-regulated in the DR library compared with the CR library. Finally, 37 genes that were specifically expressed in roots were screened after comparing the DEGs identified in the above-described analyses. Conclusion This study provides a transcriptome sequence resource for common wild rice plants and establishes a digital gene expression profile of wild rice plants under drought conditions using the assembled transcriptome data as a reference. Several tissue-specific and drought-stress-related candidate genes were identified, representing a fully characterized transcriptome and providing a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies in plants. PMID:26134138

  19. Divergent responses of vegetation cover in Southwestern US ecosystems to dry and wet years at different elevations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Stefanie M.; Didan, Kamel; Barreto-Munoz, Armando; Crimmins, Michael A.

    2016-12-01

    In the semiarid Southwestern United States, prolonged drought conditions since the early 2000s have resulted in widespread declines of the vegetation productivity in this water-constrained ecosystem, as revealed by analyses of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the spatial pattern of the NDVI response to dry years is not uniform: a divergent response of NDVI to precipitation is observed between the low-lying desert and the high montane forests at elevations above 2,500 meter. We analyzed relationships between 15 years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI and gridded climate data (PRISM) along elevation gradients at scales from regional to local. Our elevation-explicit analysis captures the transition from water-limited to temperature-limited ecosystems, with a sign-reversal in the correlation coefficient between precipitation and NDVI observed at about 2,500-3,000m altitude. We suggest warmer temperatures and less snow cover associated with drier years as explanations for high elevation gains in vegetation productivity during dry years.

  20. From transient transcriptome responses to disturbed neurodevelopment: role of histone acetylation and methylation as epigenetic switch between reversible and irreversible drug effects.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Nina V; Klima, Stefanie; Rempel, Eugen; Ivanova, Violeta N; Kolde, Raivo; Weng, Matthias K; Meganathan, Kesavan; Henry, Margit; Sachinidis, Agapios; Berthold, Michael R; Hengstler, Jan G; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Waldmann, Tanja; Leist, Marcel

    2014-07-01

    The superordinate principles governing the transcriptome response of differentiating cells exposed to drugs are still unclear. Often, it is assumed that toxicogenomics data reflect the immediate mode of action (MoA) of drugs. Alternatively, transcriptome changes could describe altered differentiation states as indirect consequence of drug exposure. We used here the developmental toxicants valproate and trichostatin A to address this question. Neurally differentiating human embryonic stem cells were treated for 6 days. Histone acetylation (primary MoA) increased quickly and returned to baseline after 48 h. Histone H3 lysine methylation at the promoter of the neurodevelopmental regulators PAX6 or OTX2 was increasingly altered over time. Methylation changes remained persistent and correlated with neurodevelopmental defects and with effects on PAX6 gene expression, also when the drug was washed out after 3-4 days. We hypothesized that drug exposures altering only acetylation would lead to reversible transcriptome changes (indicating MoA), and challenges that altered methylation would lead to irreversible developmental disturbances. Data from pulse-chase experiments corroborated this assumption. Short drug treatment triggered reversible transcriptome changes; longer exposure disrupted neurodevelopment. The disturbed differentiation was reflected by an altered transcriptome pattern, and the observed changes were similar when the drug was washed out during the last 48 h. We conclude that transcriptome data after prolonged chemical stress of differentiating cells mainly reflect the altered developmental stage of the model system and not the drug MoA. We suggest that brief exposures, followed by immediate analysis, are more suitable for information on immediate drug responses and the toxicity MoA.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of transporters, phytohormone and lipid metabolism pathways in response to arsenic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu-jun; Luo, Ying-feng; Liao, Bin; Xie, Li-juan; Chen, Liang; Xiao, Shi; Li, Jin-tian; Hu, Song-nian; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2012-07-01

    • Arsenic (As) contamination of rice (Oryza sativa) is a worldwide concern and elucidating the molecular mechanisms of As accumulation in rice may provide promising solutions to the problem. Previous studies using microarray techniques to investigate transcriptional regulation of plant responses to As stress have identified numerous differentially expressed genes. However, little is known about the metabolic and regulatory network remodelings, or their interactions with microRNA (miRNA) in plants upon As(III) exposure. • We used Illumina sequencing to acquire global transcriptome alterations and miRNA regulation in rice under As(III) treatments of varying lengths of time and dosages. • We found that the response of roots was more distinct when the dosage was varied, whereas that of shoots was more distinct when the treatment time was varied. In particular, the genes involved in heavy metal transportation, jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis and signaling, and lipid metabolism were closely related to responses of rice under As(III) stress. Furthermore, we discovered 36 new As(III)-responsive miRNAs, 14 of which were likely involved in regulating gene expression in transportation, signaling, and metabolism. • Our findings highlight the significance of JA signaling and lipid metabolism in response to As(III) stress and their regulation by miRNA, which provides a foundation for subsequent functional research.

  2. RNA-Seq analysis of salinity stress–responsive transcriptome in the liver of spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wen, Haishen; Wang, Hailiang; Ren, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ji; Li, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most prominent abiotic factors, which greatly influence reproduction, development, growth, physiological and metabolic activities of fishes. Spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus), as a euryhaline marine teleost, has extraordinary ability to deal with a wide range of salinity changes. However, this species is devoid of genomic resources, and no study has been conducted at the transcriptomic level to determine genes responsible for salinity regulation, which impedes the understanding of the fundamental mechanism conferring tolerance to salinity fluctuations. Liver, as the major metabolic organ, is the key source supplying energy for iono- and osmoregulation in fish, however, little attention has been paid to its salinity-related functions but which should not be ignored. In this study, we perform RNA-Seq analysis to identify genes involved in salinity adaptation and osmoregulation in liver of spotted sea bass, generating from the fishes exposed to low and high salinity water (5 vs 30ppt). After de novo assembly, annotation and differential gene expression analysis, a total of 455 genes were differentially expressed, including 184 up-regulated and 271 down-regulated transcripts in low salinity-acclimated fish group compared with that in high salinity-acclimated group. A number of genes with a potential role in salinity adaptation for spotted sea bass were classified into five functional categories based on the gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis, which include genes involved in metabolites and ion transporters, energy metabolism, signal transduction, immune response and structure reorganization. The candidate genes identified in L. maculates liver provide valuable information to explore new pathways related to fish salinity and osmotic regulation. Besides, the transcriptomic sequencing data supplies significant resources for identification of novel genes and further studying biological questions in spotted sea bass. PMID:28253338

  3. RNA-Seq analysis of salinity stress-responsive transcriptome in the liver of spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wen, Haishen; Wang, Hailiang; Ren, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ji; Li, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most prominent abiotic factors, which greatly influence reproduction, development, growth, physiological and metabolic activities of fishes. Spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus), as a euryhaline marine teleost, has extraordinary ability to deal with a wide range of salinity changes. However, this species is devoid of genomic resources, and no study has been conducted at the transcriptomic level to determine genes responsible for salinity regulation, which impedes the understanding of the fundamental mechanism conferring tolerance to salinity fluctuations. Liver, as the major metabolic organ, is the key source supplying energy for iono- and osmoregulation in fish, however, little attention has been paid to its salinity-related functions but which should not be ignored. In this study, we perform RNA-Seq analysis to identify genes involved in salinity adaptation and osmoregulation in liver of spotted sea bass, generating from the fishes exposed to low and high salinity water (5 vs 30ppt). After de novo assembly, annotation and differential gene expression analysis, a total of 455 genes were differentially expressed, including 184 up-regulated and 271 down-regulated transcripts in low salinity-acclimated fish group compared with that in high salinity-acclimated group. A number of genes with a potential role in salinity adaptation for spotted sea bass were classified into five functional categories based on the gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis, which include genes involved in metabolites and ion transporters, energy metabolism, signal transduction, immune response and structure reorganization. The candidate genes identified in L. maculates liver provide valuable information to explore new pathways related to fish salinity and osmotic regulation. Besides, the transcriptomic sequencing data supplies significant resources for identification of novel genes and further studying biological questions in spotted sea bass.

  4. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Bradford, John B; Munson, Seth M; Duniway, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20-56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40-60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and predict

  5. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gremer, Jennifer; Bradford, John B.; Munson, Seth M.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20 to 56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40 to 60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and

  6. Divergent nonlinear responses of the boreal forest field layer along an experimental gradient of deer densities.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Huot, Jean; Potvin, François

    2006-11-01

    The early responses of the field layer to changes in biotic and abiotic conditions are key determinants of the future composition and structure of forests where sustained heavy browsing pressure has depauperated the shrub understory. We investigated the relationships between white-tailed deer density and field layer plant community dynamics in boreal forests managed for wildlife and timber production. We hypothesized that the growth and reproduction of field layer plants are either: (H(1)) directly proportional to deer density, or (H(2)) related to deer density through nonlinear relationships or (H(3)) through nonlinear relationships with thresholds. We tested these hypotheses using data from a controlled browsing experiment involving a gradient of deer densities (0, 7.5, 15, 27 and 56 deer km(-2)) in interaction with timber harvesting conducted on Anticosti Island, Canada. In recent clearcuts, the dominant responses of the field layer plants were exponential recovery in growth and reproduction with decreasing deer densities. The abundance of browse-tolerant species such as grasses was positively related to deer density, suggesting an apparent competitive gain. These results support the prediction from our second hypothesis, although the presence of ecological thresholds should not be ruled out. Rapid changes in the early successional stages have potentially long-term consequences on successional patterns through processes such as the modulation of germination and early establishment success of seedlings from later successional species. Quantitative data as those presented here are essential for the development of ecosystem management prescriptions. On Anticosti Island, reduction of local deer densities to levels <15-7.5 deer km(-2) in the first 3 years following timber harvesting appears to be compatible with the regeneration dynamics of this system although lower levels of deer densities may be required for the conservation of browse-sensitive plant species.

  7. Using Transcriptomics to Identify Differential Gene Expression in Response to Salinity among Australian Phragmites australis Clones

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gareth D.; Hall, Nathan E.; Gendall, Anthony R.; Boon, Paul I.; James, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Common Reed (Phragmites australis) is a frequent component of inland and coastal wetlands in temperate zones worldwide. Ongoing environmental changes have resulted in the decline of this species in many areas and invasive expansion in others. In the Gippsland Lakes coastal waterway system in south-eastern Australia, increasing salinity is thought to have contributed to the loss of fringing P. australis reed beds leading to increased shoreline erosion. A major goal of restoration in this waterway is to address the effect of salinity by planting a genetically diverse range of salt-tolerant P. australis plants. This has prompted an interest in examining the variation in salinity tolerance among clones and the underlying basis of this variation. Transcriptomics is an approach for identifying variation in genes and their expression levels associated with the exposure of plants to environmental stressors. In this paper we present initial results of the first comparative culm transcriptome