Science.gov

Sample records for diverse wildlife habitat

  1. WILDLIFE HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on non-fish vertebrate diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future scenarios w...

  2. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.

    The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…

  3. Backyard Wildlife Habitat Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Katharine D.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a curriculum designed to infuse environmental concepts and attitudes into the middle school curriculum. Developed through an educational partnership with industry, this curriculum focuses on the establishment and maintenance of backyard wildlife habitats. (DDR)

  4. A Wildlife Habitat Improvement Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, S. Elaine

    The document presents an overview of Stony Acres, a "sanctuary" for wildlife as well as a place for recreation enjoyment and education undertakings. A review of the history of wildlife habitat management at Stony Acres and the need for continued and improved wildlife habitat management for the property are discussed in Chapter I. Chapter…

  5. Wildlife guilds in Arizona desert habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes information produced from Interagency Agreement No. AA-851-IA1-27 between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), USDI, and the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), USDI. The contract was instrumental in the final development of wildlife guilds for the Hualapai-Aquarius planning area of the BLM in westcentral Arizona, reported herein. The Arizona study area was selected for the application of the guilding technology because a thorough assessment of the floral and faunal resources had recently occurred in conjunction with the development of a grazing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Thus, the association of wildlife species with habitat type was well known, which aided in the compilation of the data base necessary for the development of guilds. Some data were also available that described the vegetative structure of habitats. This was useful in the development of a model that evaluated the quality of habitat on the basis of the diversity of cover in those habitats (Short 1982).

  6. FUTURE SCENARIOS OF CHANGE IN WILDLIFE HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies in Pennsylvania, Iowa, California, and Oregon show varying losses of terrestrial wildlife habitat in scenarios based on different assumptions about future human land use patterns. Retrospective estimates of losses of habitat since Euro-American settlement in several stud...

  7. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  8. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  9. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  10. 75 FR 71325 - Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... specific impacts, and these impacts ] affect a host of non-market valued attributes ecosystem services... Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 636 RIN 0578-AA49 Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION:...

  11. Wildlife species richness in shelterbelts: test of a habitat model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.; Cable, Ted T.; Haire, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    Shelterbelts are human-made habitats consisting of rows of shrubs and trees planted either in fields or on the windward side of farmstead dwellings. Shelterbelts provide wooded habitat for a large variety of birds and other wildlife. A model to predict wildlife species richness in shelterbelts (Schroeder 1986) was published as part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model series (Schamberger et al. 1982). HSI models have been used extensively by wildlife managers and land use planners to assess habitat quality. Several HSI models have become the focus of a test program that includes analysis of field data for corroboration, refutation, or modification of model hypotheses. Previous tests of HSI models focused either on single species (e.g., Cook and Irwin 1985, Morton et al. 1989, Schroeder 1990) or examined portions of HSI models, such as the relationship between cavity abundance and tree diameter (Allen and Corn 1990). The shelterbelt model, however, assesses habitat value at the community level. The effects of habitat characteristics, area, and perimeter on diversity and abundance of bird and mammal species in shelterbelts were first studied by Yahner (1983a, b). Johnson and Beck (1988) confirmed the importance of shelterbelts to wildlife and identified area, perimeter, and diversity and complexity of vegetation as key measurements of habitat quality. The shelterbelt model incorporates both specific habitat variables and larger scale parameters, such as area and configuration, to predict wildlife species richness. This shift in perspective comes at a time of increasing interest in conservation and planning beyond the species levels (e.g., Graul and Miller 1984, Hutto et al. 1987, Schroeder 1987: 26). We report results of a 3-year study of spatial and vegetative parameters and their relationship to breeding bird species richness (BSR) in 34 Kansas shelterbelts. Our objectives were to test the hypothesis presented in the original

  12. Wildlife tradeoffs based on landscape models of habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loehle, C.; Mitchell, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the spatial structure of landscapes affects the habitat choices and abundance of wildlife. In contrast to wildlife management based on preservation of critical habitat features such as nest sites on a beach or mast trees, it has not been obvious how to incorporate spatial structure into management plans. We present techniques to accomplish this goal. We used multiscale logistic regression models developed previously for neotropical migrant bird species habitat use in South Carolina (USA) as a basis for these techniques. Based on these models we used a spatial optimization technique to generate optimal maps (probability of occurrence, P = 1.0) for each of seven species. To emulate management of a forest for maximum species diversity, we defined the objective function of the algorithm as the sum of probabilities over the seven species, resulting in a complex map that allowed all seven species to coexist. The map that allowed for coexistence is not obvious, must be computed algorithmically, and would be difficult to realize using rules of thumb for habitat management. To assess how management of a forest for a single species of interest might affect other species, we analyzed tradeoffs by gradually increasing the weighting on a single species in the objective function over a series of simulations. We found that as habitat was increasingly modified to favor that species, the probability of presence for two of the other species was driven to zero. This shows that whereas it is not possible to simultaneously maximize the likelihood of presence for multiple species with divergent habitat preferences, compromise solutions are possible at less than maximal likelihood in many cases. Our approach suggests that efficiency of habitat management for species diversity can by maximized for even small landscapes by incorporating spatial context. The methods we present are suitable for wildlife management, endangered species conservation, and

  13. Wetland habitats for wildlife of the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W.; Brenner, Fred J.

    1998-01-01

    The wetlands of Chesapeake Bay have provided the vital habitats that have sustained the impressive wildlife populations that have brought international fame to the Bay. As these wetland habitats decrease in quantity and quality we will continue to see the decline in the wildlife populations that started when European settlers first came to this continent. These declines have accelerated significantly in this century. As the human population continues to increase in the Bay watershed, one can expect that wetland habitats will continue to decline, resulting in declines in species diversity and population numbers. Although federal, state, and local governments are striving for 'no net loss' of wetlands, the results to date are not encouraging. It is unrealistic to believe that human populations and associated development can continue to increase and not adversely affect the wetland resources of the Bay. Restrictions on human population growth in the Chesapeake area is clearly the best way to protect wetland habitats and the wildlife that are dependent on these habitats. In addition, there should be more aggressive approaches to protect wetland habitats from continued perturbations from humans. More sanctuary areas should be created and there should be greater use of enhancement and management techniques that will benefit the full complement of species that potentially exist in these wetlands. The present trend in wetland loss can be expected to continue as human populations increase with resultant increases in roads, shopping malls, and housing developments. Creation of habitat for mitigation of these losses will not result in 'no net loss'. More innovative approaches should be employed to reverse the long-term trend in wetland loss by humans.

  14. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  15. Wildlife Impact Assessment: Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, and Boise Diversion Projects, Idaho. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1986-05-01

    This report presents an analysis of impacts on wildlife and their habitats as a result of construction and operation of the US Bureau of Reclamation's Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, and Boise Diversion Projects in Idaho. The objectives were to: (1) determine the probable impacts of development and operation of the Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, and Boise Diversion Projects to wildlife and their habitats; (2) determine the wildlife and habitat impacts directly attributable to hydroelectric development and operation; (3) briefly identify the current major concerns for wildlife in the vicinities of the hydroelectric projects; and (4) provide for consultation and coordination with interested agencies, tribes, and other entities expressing interest in the project.

  16. Wildlife Habitat Improvement Guide for Minnesota Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Clifton

    This publication outlines projects to increase wildlife, primarily fowl and deer, and to help rural youth better understand wildlife requirements. The publication outlines six basic steps that are involved in initiating a wildlife project. These are: (1) Determine the types of wild animals for which the land is best suited; (2) Study the life…

  17. Habitat Gardening--How Schoolyards Are Being Transformed into Wildlife Sanctuaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Niall

    2000-01-01

    Students from JFK High School and community gardening clubs in the Bronx cleaned up wetlands adjacent to the school and created various small theme gardens supporting diverse wildlife. Nationally, the schoolyard habitat movement aims to create stimulating outdoor environments where students can learn about local ecology, biodiversity, and…

  18. Teaching Animal Habitat Selection Using Wildlife Tracking Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskowski, Jessica; Gillespie, Caitlyn; Corral, Lucia; Oden, Amy; Fricke, Kent; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a hands-on outdoor activity coupled with classroom discussion to teach students about wildlife habitat selection, the process by which animals choose where to live. By selecting locations or habitats with many benefits (e.g., food, shelter, mates) and few costs (e.g., predators), animals improve their ability to survive and reproduce.…

  19. Acidic Depositions: Effects on Wildlife and Habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of 'acid rain' is not new; it was recognized in the mid-1800s in industrialized Europe. In the 1960s a synthesis of information about acidification began in Europe, along with predictions of ecological effects. In the U.S. studies of acidification began in the 1920s. By the late 1970s research efforts in the U.S. and Canada were better coordinated and in 1980 a 10-year research program was undertaken through the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Plan (NAPAP) to determine the causes and consequences of acidic depositions. Much of the bedrock in the northeastern U.S. and Canada contains total alkalinity of 20 kg/ha/yr of wet sulphate depositions and are vulnerable to acidifying processes. Acidic depositions contribute directly to acidifying processes of soil and soil water. Soils must have sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity or acidity of soil will increase. Natural soil-forming processes that lead to acidification can be accelerated by acidic depositions. Long-term effects of acidification are predicted, which will reduce soil productivity mainly through reduced availability of nutrients and mobilization of toxic metals. Severe effects may lead to major alteration of soil chemistry, soil biota, and even loss of vegetation. Several species of earthworms and several other taxa of soil-inhabiting invertebrates, which are important food of many vertebrate wildlife species, are affected by low pH in soil. Loss of canopy in declining sugar maples results in loss of insects fed on by certain neotropical migrant bird species. No definitive studies categorically link atmospheric acidic depositions with direct or indirect effects on wild mammals. Researchers have concentrated on vegetative and aquatic effects. Circumstantial evidence suggests that effects are probable for certain species of aquatic-dependent mammals (water shrew, mink, and otter) and that these species are at risk from the loss of foods or contamination of these foods by metals

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  1. Using Implementation and Program Theory to Examine Communication Strategies in National Wildlife Federation's Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Dain; Dann, Shari L.

    2004-01-01

    Our evaluative approach used implementation theory and program theory, adapted from Weiss (1998) to examine communication processes and results for a national wildlife habitat stewardship education program. Using a mail survey of 1427 participants certified in National Wildlife Federation's (NWF) Backyard Wildlife Habitat (BWH) program and a study…

  2. Wildlife Habitat Improvement Using Range Improvement Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildfires in the Intermountain West are and annual event. The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) onto millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the West has resulted in devastating wildfires. With each passing wildfire season more and more critical wildlife habi...

  3. 77 FR 40705 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista Lake Shrew... Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista Lake Shrew AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... designation of critical habitat for the Buena Vista Lake shrew (Sorex ornatus relictus) under the...

  4. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  5. A riparian wildlife habitat evaluation scheme developed using GIS.

    PubMed

    Iverson, L R; Szafoni, D L; Baum, S E; Cook, E A

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate riparian habitat for wildlife, we used a geographic information system (GIS) that prioritized individual streams (for acquisition or management) by habitat ranking. We demonstrate this methodology for the Vermilion River basin in east-central Illinois, USA. Three data sets were used to evaluate land cover encompassing 300 m on either side of the streams: (1) the US Geological Survey's land use and land cover information (LUDA), (2) land cover manually digitized from the National High Altitude Photography (NHAP) program, and (3) Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data classified into land cover. Each of 30 tributaries in the study area was ranked for habitat according to the data contained in each data set, and results were compared. Habitat ranking schemes were devised and analysis performed for three species guilds: forest, grassland, and mixed successional species. TM and NHAP each differentiated habitat scores (for forest, grassland, and mixed successional guilds) among tributaries in a similar and suitable way, while LUDA was not suitable, due to the coarse resolution of the data. Overall, it was shown that the methodology is suitable to rank streams based on riparian habitat quality. Even though more work is needed to test and verify the method, the project has shown the potential for such techniques to assist in evaluating, tracking, and improving the management of riparian wildlife resources. The method can easily be applied over large areas such as states if TM-based land cover and stream data are available.

  6. Wildlife habitat evaluation demonstration project. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgoyne, G. E., Jr.; Visser, L. G.

    1981-01-01

    To support the deer range improvement project in Michigan, the capability of LANDSAT data in assessing deer habitat in terms of areas and mixes of species and age classes of vegetation is being examined to determine whether such data could substitute for traditional cover type information sources. A second goal of the demonstration project is to determine whether LANDSAT data can be used to supplement and improve the information normally used for making deer habitat management decisions, either by providing vegetative cover for private land or by providing information about the interspersion and juxtaposition of valuable vegetative cover types. The procedure to be used for evaluating in LANDSAT data of the Lake County test site is described.

  7. Mud Mountain Wildlife Inventory and Habitat Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    length of Cascade Creek, have been extensively disrupted by dam activities. The remainder of riparian areas are undisturbed and have healthy plant...snag. A great number of snags fall early in their decay succession, especially small snags. Figure 5. Snaq succession characteristics of Douglas fir...passes through the state and stays for a time before leaving the boundaries F Fall only ABUNDANCE The relative abundance of species within habitats

  8. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued) 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  9. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued) 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  10. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued) 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  11. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued) 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  12. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued) 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  13. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued) 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  14. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued) 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  15. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. (Continued) 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  16. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  17. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  18. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  19. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  20. 50 CFR 17.95 - Critical habitat-fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat-fish and wildlife. 17.95 Section 17.95 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  1. Forestry herbicide influences on biodiversity and wildlife habitat in Southern forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karl V.; Miller, James, H.

    2004-07-01

    Abstract In the southern United States, herbicide use continues to increase for timber management in commercial pine (Pinus spp.) plantations, for modifying wildlife habitats, and for invasive plant control. Several studies have reported that single applications of forestry herbicides at stand initiation have minor and temporary impacts on plant communities and wildlife habitat conditions, with some reports of enhanced habitat conditions for both game and nongame species. Due to the high resiliency of floral communities, plant species richness and diversity rebound rapidly after single herbicide treatments, with short- and long-term compositional shifts according to the selectivity and efficacy of the herbicide used. Recently, however, a shift to the Southeast in North American timber supplies has resulted in increased forest management intensity. Current site-preparation techniques rely on herbicide combinations, often coupled with mechanical treatments and >1 years of post-planting applications to enhance the spectrum and duration of vegetation control. This near-total control of associated vegetation at establishment and more rapid pine canopy closure, coupled with shortened and repeated rotations, likely will affect plant diversity and wildlife habitat quality. Development of mitigation methods at the stand and landscape levels will be required to minimize vegetative and wildlife impacts while allowing continued improvement in pine productivity. More uncertain are long-term impacts of increasing invasive plant occupation and the projected increase in herbicide use that will be needed to reverse this worsening situation. In addition, the potential of herbicides to meet wildlife management objectives in areas where traditional techniques have high social costs (e.g., prescribed fire) should be fully explored.

  2. Forestry herbicide influences on biodiversity and wildlife habitats in Southern forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karl V.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the southern United States, herbicide use continues to increase for timber management in commercial pine (Pinus spp.) plantations, for modifying wildlife habitats, and for invasive plant control. Several studies have reported that single applications of forestry herbicides at stand initiation have minor and temporary impacts on plant communities and wildlife habitat conditions, with some reports of enhanced habitat conditions for both game and nongame species. Due to the high resiliency of floral communities, plant species richness and diversity rebound rapidly after single herbicide treatments, with short- and long-term compositional shifts according to the selectivity and efficacy of the herbicide used. Recently, however, a shift to the Southeast in North American timber supplies has resulted in increased forest management intensity. Current site-preparation techniques rely on herbicide combinations, often coupled with mechanical treatments and >1 years of post-planting applications to enhance the spectrum and duration of vegetation control. This near-total control of associated vegetation at establishment and more rapid pine canopy closure, coupled with shortened and repeated rotations, likely will affect plant diversity and wildlife habitat quality. Development of mitigation methods at the stand and landscape levels will be required to minimize vegetative and wildlife impacts while allowing continued improvement in pine productivity. More uncertain are long-term impacts of increasing invasive plant occupation and the projected increase in herbicide use that will be needed to reverse this worsening situation. In addition, the potential of herbicides to meet wildlife management objectives in areas where traditional techniques have high social costs (e.g., prescribed fire) should be fully explored.

  3. 78 FR 38897 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos franciscana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... designation of critical habitat for Arctostaphylos franciscana (Franciscan manzanita) under the Endangered... (DEA) for the proposed critical habitat designation and an amended required determinations section...

  4. Mapping of wildlife habitat in Farmington Bay, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Willie, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Mapping was accomplished through the interpretation of high-altitude color infrared photography. The feasibility of utilizing LANDSAT digital data to augment the analysis was explored; complex patterns of wildlife habitat and confusion of spectral classes resulted in the decision to make limited use of LANDSAT data in the analysis. The final product is a map which delineates wildlife habitat at a scale of 1:24,000. The map is registered to and printed on a screened U.S.G.S. quadrangle base map. Screened delineations of shoreline contours, mapped from a previous study, are also shown on the map. Intensive field checking of the map was accomplished for the Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area in August 1981; other areas on the map received only spot field checking.

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Iskuulpa Wildlife Mitigation and Watershed Project, Technical Report 1998-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Quaempts, Eric

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to evaluate lands acquired and leased in Eskuulpa Watershed, a Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation watershed and wildlife mitigation project. The project is designed to partially credit habitat losses incurred by BPA for the construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grasslands cover types were included in the evaluation. Indicator species included downy woodpecker (Picuides puhescens), black-capped chickadee (Pams atricopillus), blue grouse (Beadragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petschia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnello neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 55,500 feet of transects, 678 m2 plots, and 243 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 123.9 and f 0,794.4 acres were evaluated for each indicator species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total habitat units credited to BPA for the Iskuulpa Watershed Project and its seven indicator species is 4,567.8 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest, which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing or implementation of restoration grazing schemes, road de-commissioning, reforestation, large woody debris additions to floodplains, control of competing and unwanted vegetation, reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species

  6. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for the Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Gael; Wood, Marilyn

    1985-08-01

    This document presents a preliminary mitigation and enhancement plan for the Thompson Falls hydroelectric project. It discusses options available to provide wildlife protection, mitigation and enhancement in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501). The options focus on mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat losses attributable to the construction of the hydroelectric project. These losses were previously estimated from the best available information concerning the degree of negative and positive impacts to target wildlife species (Wood and Olsen 1984). Criteria by which the mitigation alternatives were evaluated were the same as those used to assess the impacts identified in the Phase I document (Wood and Olsen 1984). They were also evaluated according to feasibility and cost effectiveness. This document specifically focuses on mitigation for target species which were identified during Phase I (Wood and Olsen 1984). It was assumed mitigation and enhancement for the many other target wildlife species impacted by the hydroelectric developments will occur as secondary benefits. The recommended mitigation plan includes two recommended mitigation projects: (1) development of wildlife protection and enhancement plans for MPC lands and (2) strategies to protect several large islands upstream of the Thompson Falls reservoir. If implemented, these projects would provide satisfactory mitigation for wildlife losses associated with the Thompson Falls hydroelectric project. The intent of the mitigation plan is to recommend wildlife management objectives and guidelines. The specific techniques, plans, methods and agreements would be developed is part of the implementation phase.

  7. Wildlife habitat management on the northern prairie landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Haseltine, Susan D.; Cowardin, Lewis M.

    1994-01-01

    The northern prairie landscape has changed dramatically within the past century as a result of settlement by Europeans. Natural ecosystems have been disrupted and wildlife populations greatly altered. Natural resource agencies control only limited areas within the landscape, which they cannot manage independently of privately owned lands. Wildlife managers need first to set quantifiable objectives, based on the survival, reproduction, and distribution of wildlife. Second, they need to build public support and partnerships for meeting those objectives. Finally, they need to evaluate progress not only with respect to attitudes of the public and partners but, more importantly, of the wildlife response. This paper describes some useful tools for managing information at all phases of this process. We follow by discussing management options at a landscape level. Examples are given that involve agency lands as well as private lands, managed for biological resources and diversity as well as economic sustainability.

  8. 78 FR 39698 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designating Critical Habitat for Three Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AZ38 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designating Critical Habitat for Three Plant Species on Hawaii Island AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... of critical habitat for three plant species (Bidens micrantha ssp. ctenophylla...

  9. Sensitivity of wildlife habitat models to uncertainties in GIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.; Cogan, Christopher B.

    1992-01-01

    Decision makers need to know the reliability of output products from GIS analysis. For many GIS applications, it is not possible to compare these products to an independent measure of 'truth'. Sensitivity analysis offers an alternative means of estimating reliability. In this paper, we present a CIS-based statistical procedure for estimating the sensitivity of wildlife habitat models to uncertainties in input data and model assumptions. The approach is demonstrated in an analysis of habitat associations derived from a GIS database for the endangered California condor. Alternative data sets were generated to compare results over a reasonable range of assumptions about several sources of uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis indicated that condor habitat associations are relatively robust, and the results have increased our confidence in our initial findings. Uncertainties and methods described in the paper have general relevance for many GIS applications.

  10. Assessing the Wildlife Habitat Value of New England Salt Marshes: I. Model and Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed an assessment model to quantify the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes based on marsh characteristics and the presence of habitat types that influence habitat use by terrestrial wildlife. Applying the model to12 salt marshes located in Narragansett B...

  11. 78 FR 39628 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Critical Habitat Map for the Fountain Darter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...; Critical Habitat Map for the Fountain Darter AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are correcting the critical habitat... ensure regulated entities and the general public have an accurate critical habitat map for the...

  12. 76 FR 61599 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Marbled Murrelet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW84 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Marbled Murrelet AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are revising designated...

  13. Understanding the diversity of public interests in wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Teel, Tara L; Manfredo, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    North American state wildlife agencies are increasingly faced with the challenge of effectively representing a diverse public. With increasing social conflict over wildlife issues, the future of wildlife conservation hinges on preparedness of the profession to respond to this challenge. In the interest of finding ways to improve response, 19 agencies in the western U.S. joined forces to initiate an investigation that would provide a better understanding of the diversity of wildlife-related interests in the region. Specific objectives, accomplished through use of a mail survey administered in 2004, were to categorize people on the basis of their value orientations toward wildlife and explore how different groups were distributed across states and to examine differences on sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward wildlife-related topics among groups. The focus was on two orientations: domination (view of wildlife that prioritizes human well-being over wildlife and treats wildlife in utilitarian terms); and mutualism (view of wildlife as capable of relationships of trust with humans and defined by a desire for companionship with wildlife). Four types of people were identified on the basis of these orientations. Types differed in their geographic distribution and wildlife-related attitudes and behaviors, revealing how value orientations can form the foundation for conflict on wildlife issues. Our characterizations of stakeholder groups offer a framework that can be applied over time and across geographic scales to improve conservation planning efforts and inform broader thinking about the social aspects of wildlife conservation.

  14. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  15. Herpetofaunal diversity of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.; Pike, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the past century, habitat alteration and fragmentation have increased dramatically, which increases the need for improving our understanding of how species and biological communities react to these modifications. A national strategy on biological diversity has focused attention on how these habitat modifications affect species, especially herpetofauna (i.e., changes in species richness, community evenness and similarity, and dominant/rare species). As part of this strategy, we surveyed Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, a coastal, mixed second-growth forested swamp (MFS) and pocosin wetland (PW), in North Carolina for amphibians and reptiles from September 2000 to August 2001. We randomly selected three sites (3 x 3 km) in two major habitat types (MFS, PW) and completed random surveys and trapping using transects, quadrats, nighttime aural road surveys, drift fences, canal transects, coverboards, incidental captures, and evening road surveys. We also collected herpetofauna opportunistically throughout the refuge to establish an updated species list. For analysis, we used Shannon-Weiner species diversity (H'), evenness (1'), species richness and species detectability (COMDYN4), and community percent similarity index to determine herpetofaunal community differences. We estimated 39 species in MFS and 32 species in PW (P < 0.10). Species detectability was similar between habitats (0.84 to 0.86). More reptilian species (+ 31 %) inhabited MFS than PW, but estimated amphibian species richness was identical (17 spp.). H' was higher (P < 0.000 I) for PW (2.6680) than for MFS (2.1535) because of lower J' in the latter (0.6214 vs. 0.8010). Dominance of three Rana species caused lower J' and H' in MFS. Similarity between the communities was 56.6%; we estimated 22-24 species in common for each habitat (95% CI = 18 to 31 spp.). We verified 49 of the 52 herpetofaunal species on the refuge that were known to exist in the area. Restoration of natural water flows may

  16. Microbial Diversity of Impact-Generated Habitats.

    PubMed

    Pontefract, Alexandra; Osinski, Gordon R; Cockell, Charles S; Southam, Gordon; McCausland, Phil J A; Umoh, Joseph; Holdsworth, David W

    2016-10-01

    Impact-generated lithologies have recently been identified as viable and important microbial habitats, especially within cold and arid regions such as the polar deserts on Earth. These unique habitats provide protection from environmental stressors, such as freeze-thaw events, desiccation, and UV radiation, and act to trap aerially deposited detritus within the fissures and pore spaces, providing necessary nutrients for endoliths. This study provides the first culture-independent analysis of the microbial community structure within impact-generated lithologies in a Mars analog environment, involving the analysis of 44,534 16S rRNA sequences from an assemblage of 21 rock samples that comprises three shock metamorphism categories. We find that species diversity increases (H = 2.4-4.6) with exposure to higher shock pressures, which leads to the development of three distinct populations. In each population, Actinobacteria were the most abundant (41%, 65%, and 59%), and the dominant phototrophic taxa came from the Chloroflexi. Calculated porosity (a function of shock metamorphism) for these samples correlates (R(2) = 0.62) with inverse Simpson indices, accounting for overlap in populations in the higher shock levels. The results of our study show that microbial diversity is tied to the amount of porosity in the target substrate (as a function of shock metamorphism), resulting in the formation of distinct microbial populations. Key Words: Microbial diversity-Endoliths-Impact melt-rocks-Mars-Astrobiology. Astrobiology 16, 775-786.

  17. Impacts of forest herbicides on wildlife: Toxicity and habitat alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, M.L.; Meslow, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper begins with a review of both laboratory and field studies on tbe possible direct toxic effects of herbicides on terrestrial vertebrates, primarily birds and mammals. Alteration of the palatability of forage and changes in reproductive success are also discussed. Emphasis is placed on the use of herbicides in forestry; studies dealing with agricultural systems are referenced where appropriate. The indirect effects of herbicides on wildlife-habitat are then conceptualized and quantified using data from a 3-year study on effects of phenoxy and glyphosate herbicides on bird and small mammal communities in western Oregon. Data on density and habitat use are presented and compared with data available from other geographic regions.

  18. Future land-use scenarios and the loss of wildlife habitats in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Withey, John C; Pidgeon, Anna M; Plantinga, Andrew J; McKerrow, Alexa J; Williams, Steven G; Helmers, David P; Radeloff, Volker C

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change is a major cause of wildlife habitat loss. Understanding how changes in land-use policies and economic factors can impact future trends in land use and wildlife habitat loss is therefore critical for conservation efforts. Our goal here was to evaluate the consequences of future land-use changes under different conservation policies and crop market conditions on habitat loss for wildlife species in the southeastern United States. We predicted the rates of habitat loss for 336 terrestrial vertebrate species by 2051. We focused on habitat loss due to the expansion of urban, crop, and pasture. Future land-use changes following business-as-usual conditions resulted in relatively low rates of wildlife habitat loss across the entire Southeast, but some ecoregions and species groups experienced much higher habitat loss than others. Increased crop commodity prices exacerbated wildlife habitat loss in most ecoregions, while the implementation of conservation policies (reduced urban sprawl, and payments for land conservation) reduced the projected habitat loss in some regions, to a certain degree. Overall, urban and crop expansion were the main drivers of habitat loss. Reptiles and wildlife species associated with open vegetation (grasslands, open woodlands) were the species groups most vulnerable to future land-use change. Effective conservation of wildlife habitat in the Southeast should give special consideration to future land-use changes, regional variations, and the forces that could shape land-use decisions.

  19. Microbial Diversity of Impact-Generated Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontefract, Alexandra; Osinski, Gordon R.; Cockell, Charles S.; Southam, Gordon; McCausland, Phil J. A.; Umoh, Joseph; Holdsworth, David W.

    2016-10-01

    Impact-generated lithologies have recently been identified as viable and important microbial habitats, especially within cold and arid regions such as the polar deserts on Earth. These unique habitats provide protection from environmental stressors, such as freeze-thaw events, desiccation, and UV radiation, and act to trap aerially deposited detritus within the fissures and pore spaces, providing necessary nutrients for endoliths. This study provides the first culture-independent analysis of the microbial community structure within impact-generated lithologies in a Mars analog environment, involving the analysis of 44,534 16S rRNA sequences from an assemblage of 21 rock samples that comprises three shock metamorphism categories. We find that species diversity increases (H = 2.4-4.6) with exposure to higher shock pressures, which leads to the development of three distinct populations. In each population, Actinobacteria were the most abundant (41%, 65%, and 59%), and the dominant phototrophic taxa came from the Chloroflexi. Calculated porosity (a function of shock metamorphism) for these samples correlates (R2 = 0.62) with inverse Simpson indices, accounting for overlap in populations in the higher shock levels. The results of our study show that microbial diversity is tied to the amount of porosity in the target substrate (as a function of shock metamorphism), resulting in the formation of distinct microbial populations.

  20. Mine-drainage treatment wetland as habitat for herptofaunal wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Michael J.; Hummer, Joseph W.; Webster, Harold J.

    1992-07-01

    Land reclamation techniques that incorporate habitat features for herptofaunal wildlife have received little attention. We assessed the suitability of a wetland, constructed for the treatment of mine-water drainage, for supporting herptofaunal wildlife from 1988 through 1990 using diurnal and nocturnal surveys. Natural wetlands within the surrounding watershed were also monitored for comparison. The treatment wetland supported the greatest abundance and species richness of herptofauna among the sites surveyed. Abundance was a function of the frog density, particularly green frogs ( Rana clamitans) and pickerel frogs ( R. palustris), while species richness was due to the number of snake species found. The rich mix of snake species present at the treatment wetland was believed due to a combination of an abundant frog prey base and an amply supply of den sites in rock debris left behind from earlier surface-mining activities. Nocturnal surveys of breeding male frogs demonstrated highest breeding activity at the treatment wetland, particularly for spring peepers ( Hyla crucifer). Whole-body assays of green frog and bullfrog ( R. catesbeiana) tissues showed no differences among sites in uptake of iron, aluminum, and zinc; managanese levels in samples from the treatment wetland were significantly lower than those from natural wetlands. These results suggest that wetlands established for water quality improvement can provide habitat for reptiles and amphibians, with the species composition dependent on the construction design, the proximity to source populations, and the degree of acidity and heavy-metal concentrations in drainage waters.

  1. A simple solar radiation index for wildlife habitat studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keating, Kim A.; Gogan, Peter J.; Vore, John N.; Irby, Lynn R.

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a potentially important covariate in many wildlife habitat studies, but it is typically addressed only indirectly, using problematic surrogates like aspect or hillshade. We devised a simple solar radiation index (SRI) that combines readily available information about aspect, slope, and latitude. Our SRI is proportional to the amount of extraterrestrial solar radiation theoretically striking an arbitrarily oriented surface during the hour surrounding solar noon on the equinox. Because it derives from first geometric principles and is linearly distributed, SRI offers clear advantages over aspect-based surrogates. The SRI also is superior to hillshade, which we found to be sometimes imprecise and ill-behaved. To illustrate application of our SRI, we assessed niche separation among 3 ungulate species along a single environmental axis, solar radiation, on the northern Yellowstone winter range. We detected no difference between the niches occupied by bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and elk (Cervus elaphus; P = 0.104), but found that mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) tended to use areas receiving more solar radiation than either of the other species (P < 0.001). Overall, our SRI provides a useful metric that can reduce noise, improve interpretability, and increase parsimony in wildlife habitat models containing a solar radiation component.

  2. MODELING THE DYNAMICS OF WILDLIFE HABITAT AND POPULATIONS AT THE LANDSCAPE SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A forest dynamics model (FORCLIM) was linked to a spatial wildlife population model (PATCH) to assess the effects of habitat change in a landscape on selected wildlife species. The habitat changes included forest responses to harvesting, development, and climate change on a west...

  3. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation, 2000-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Wenick, Jess

    2002-02-06

    (ISRP). Program participants are responsible for creating management plans for each of the 52 subbasins. Upon approval by the Council, the management plan is then incorporated into the Program. In 1998, the Tribe submitted two land acquisition proposals for funding through Bonneville's Wildlife Mitigation Program, the Logan Valley and Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Projects. After several months of rigorous scrutiny and defense of its project presentations, the Tribe was awarded both acquisitions. In February of 2000, the Tribe and BPA entered into a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) to fund the acquisition and management of Logan Valley and the Malheur River Projects. In April and November of 2000, the Tribe acquired the Logan Valley property (Project) and the Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project, respectively. The MOA requires the Tribe to dedicate the Project to wildlife habitat protection. Project management must be consistent with the term and conditions of the MOA and a site-specific management plan (Plan) that is to be prepared by the Tribe. The Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project (Denny Jones Ranch) allows the Tribe to manage 6,385 acres of meadow, wetland, and sagebrush steppe habitats along the Malheur River. The deeded property includes seven miles of the Malheur River, the largest private landholding along this waterway between Riverside and Harper. The property came with approximately 938 acres of senior water rights and 38,377 acres of federal and state grazing allotments. The project will benefit a diverse population of fish, wildlife, and plant species. Objectives include reviving and improving critical habitat for fish and wildlife populations, controlling/ eradicating weed populations, improving water quality, maintaining Bureau of Land Management (BLM) allotments, and preserving cultural resources. Before the Tribe acquired the project site, a combination of high levels of cattle stocking rates, management strategy, and a disruption of

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Technical Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Donna

    2001-09-01

    Steigenvald Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, refuge) was established as a result of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) transferring ownership of the Stevenson tract located in the historic Steigerwald Lake site to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS, Service) for the mitigation of the fish and wildlife losses associated with the construction of a second powerhouse at the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River and relocation of the town of North Bonneville (Public Law 98-396). The construction project was completed in 1983 and resulted in the loss of approximately 577 acres of habitat on the Washington shore of the Columbia River (USFWS, 1982). The COE determined that acquisition and development of the Steigenvald Lake area, along with other on-site project management actions, would meet their legal obligation to mitigate for these impacts (USCOE, 1985). Mitigation requirements included restoration and enhancement of this property to increase overall habitat diversity and productivity. From 1994 to 1999, 317 acres of additional lands, consisting of four tracts of contiguous land, were added to the original refuge with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds provided through the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement. These tracts comprised Straub (191 acres), James (90 acres), Burlington Northern (27 acres), and Bliss (9 acres). Refer to Figure 1. Under this Agreement, BPA budgeted $2,730,000 to the Service for 'the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River or its tributaries' in the state of Washington (BPA, 1993). Lands acquired for mitigation resulting from BPA actions are evaluated using the habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the Federal Columbia River Power

  5. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for the Noxon Rapids and Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Projects, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Gael

    1985-04-01

    Mitigation projects for wildlife species impacted by the Noxon Rapids and Cabinet Gorge hydroelectric projects are recommended. First priority projects encompass the development of long-term wildlife management plans for WWP lands adjacent to the two reservoirs. General objectives for all WWP lands include alternatives designed to protect or enhance existing wildlife habitat. It is also suggested that WWP evaluate the current status of beaver and river otter populations occupying the reservoirs and implement indicated management. Second priority projects include the protection/enhancement of wildlife habitat on state owned or privately owned lands. Long-term wildlife management agreements would be developed with Montana School Trust lands and may involve reimbursement of revenues lost to the state. Third priority projects include the enhancement of big game winter ranges located on Kootenai National Forest lands. 1 ref., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  6. 75 FR 59899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone AGENCY...), propose to designate approximately 390 square kilometers of critical habitat for the endangered...

  7. 76 FR 7245 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are designating final revised critical habitat for the arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus, Bufo californicus). We are designating approximately 98,366 acres (ac) (39,807 hectares (ha)) of habitat in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego Counties, California, as critical habitat for the arroyo......

  8. 76 FR 64995 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to revise critical habitat for the tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 12,157 acres (4,920 hectares) are being proposed for designation as critical habitat. The proposed revised critical habitat is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, Sonoma,......

  9. 75 FR 12815 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate revised critical habitat for the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 1,636,609 acres (ac) (662,312 hectares (ha)) of critical habitat in 27 California counties fall within the boundaries of the final revised critical habitat...

  10. 77 FR 2254 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi Gopher Frog AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... September 27, 2011, revised proposed rule to designate critical habitat for the Mississippi gopher frog... discuss only those topics directly relevant to the revised proposed rule to designate critical habitat...

  11. 75 FR 18107 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub (Oregonichthys crameri); Correction AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), published a final rule to designate critical habitat for the Oregon chub (Oregonichthys crameri... INFORMATION: Background Our March 10, 2010, final rule (75 FR 11010) to designate critical habitat for...

  12. 77 FR 37867 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY.... ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of 6-month extension of the deadline for a final critical habitat... Register on June 2, 2011, proposing to revise critical habitat for the Hawaiian monk seal under...

  13. 75 FR 42054 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Brodiaea filifolia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...; Revised Critical Habitat for Brodiaea filifolia (Thread-leaved Brodiaea) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... revised designation of critical habitat for Brodiaea filifolia (thread-leaved brodiaea) under the... comment period on our proposed rule to revise critical habitat for Brodiaea filifolia, which we...

  14. 75 FR 77817 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi Gopher Frog AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... habitat for the Mississippi gopher frog (Rana sevosa) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended... interested parties an opportunity to comment simultaneously on the proposed critical habitat designation,...

  15. 77 FR 43222 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Tidewater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Tidewater Goby AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... habitat for the tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... revised designation of critical habitat for tidewater goby and an amended required determinations...

  16. 78 FR 51705 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ivesia webberi

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ivesia webberi (Webber's ivesia) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... habitat for Ivesia webberi. DATES: We will hold a public meeting on the proposed rule on September 10... INFORMATION: In our August 2, 2013, proposed rule to designate critical habitat for Ivesia webberi,...

  17. 78 FR 53390 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed... critical habitat for the jaguar (Panthera onca), as revised on July 1, 2013, under the Endangered Species... critical habitat. Accordingly, the final designation may differ from our proposal. If you...

  18. 78 FR 15925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status and Critical Habitat Designation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...; Endangered Status and Critical Habitat Designation for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to propose critical habitat for the Gunnison sage... the proposed rule to designate critical habitat published in the Federal Register on January 11,...

  19. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities; Willamette River Basin, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    Habitat based assessments were conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, to determine losses or gains to wildlife and/or wildlife habitat resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the facilities. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project sites were mapped based on aerial photographs. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected areas and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the projects. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each project for each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the projects. The Willamette projects extensively altered or affected 33,407 acres of land and river in the McKenzie, Middle Fork Willamette, and Santiam river drainages. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 5184 acres of old-growth conifer forest, and 2850 acres of riparian hardwood and shrub cover types. Impacts resulting from the Willamette projects included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, furbearers, spotted owls, pileated woodpeckers, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagles and ospreys were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected areas to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Willamette projects. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the lives of the projects. Cumulative or system-wide impacts of the Willamette projects were not quantitatively assessed.

  20. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery.

    PubMed

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shortridge, Ashton M; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services. We conducted an empirical and spatially explicit assessment of the conservation effectiveness of one of the world's largest PES programs through the use of a long-term empirical data set, a satellite-based habitat model, and spatial autoregressive analyses on direct measures of change in an ecosystem service (i.e., the provision of wildlife species habitat). Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat improved in Wolong Nature Reserve of China after the implementation of the Natural Forest Conservation Program. The improvement was more pronounced in areas monitored by local residents than those monitored by the local government, but only when a higher payment was provided. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of a PES program depends on who receives the payment and on whether the payment provides sufficient incentives. As engagement of local residents has not been incorporated in many conservation strategies elsewhere in China or around the world, our results also suggest that using an incentive-based strategy as a complement to command-and-control, community- and norm-based strategies may help achieve greater conservation effectiveness and provide a potential solution for the park versus people conflict.

  1. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Site : Five-Year Habitat Management Plan, 2001-2005, 2000-2001 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beilke, Susan G.

    2001-09-01

    Historically the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins were ecologically rich in both the habitat types and the species diversity they supported. This was due in part to the pattern of floods and periodic inundation of bottomlands that occurred, which was an important factor in creating and maintaining a complex system of wetland, meadow, and riparian habitats. This landscape has been greatly altered in the past 150 years, primarily due to human development and agricultural activities including cattle grazing, logging and the building of hydroelectric facilities for hydropower, navigation, flood control and irrigation in the Columbia and Willamette River Basins. The Burlington Bottoms (BB) wetlands contains some of the last remaining bottomlands in the area, supporting a diverse array of native plant and wildlife species. Located approximately twelve miles northwest of Portland and situated between the Tualatin Mountains to the west and Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island to the east, the current habitats are remnant of what was once common throughout the region. In order to preserve and enhance this important site, a five-year habitat management plan has been written that proposes a set of actions that will carry out the goals and objectives developed for the site, which includes protecting, maintaining and enhancing wildlife habitat for perpetuity.

  2. Integrating optical satellite data and airborne laser scanning in habitat classification for wildlife management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijland, W.; Coops, N. C.; Nielsen, S. E.; Stenhouse, G.

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife habitat selection is determined by a wide range of factors including food availability, shelter, security and landscape heterogeneity all of which are closely related to the more readily mapped landcover types and disturbance regimes. Regional wildlife habitat studies often used moderate resolution multispectral satellite imagery for wall to wall mapping, because it offers a favourable mix of availability, cost and resolution. However, certain habitat characteristics such as canopy structure and topographic factors are not well discriminated with these passive, optical datasets. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) provides highly accurate three dimensional data on canopy structure and the underlying terrain, thereby offers significant enhancements to wildlife habitat mapping. In this paper, we introduce an approach to integrate ALS data and multispectral images to develop a new heuristic wildlife habitat classifier for western Alberta. Our method combines ALS direct measures of canopy height, and cover with optical estimates of species (conifer vs. deciduous) composition into a decision tree classifier for habitat - or landcover types. We believe this new approach is highly versatile and transferable, because class rules can be easily adapted for other species or functional groups. We discuss the implications of increased ALS availability for habitat mapping and wildlife management and provide recommendations for integrating multispectral and ALS data into wildlife management.

  3. Linking Hydrology, Shrub Habitat, and Novel Wildlife in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, K. D.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Christie, K.

    2014-12-01

    Warming during the 20th century changed the Arctic landscape, including aspects of vegetation, permafrost, and glaciers, but effects on wildlife have been difficult to detect. We explored linkages between components of the riparian ecosystem in Arctic Alaska since the 1970s, including streamflow timing, temperature, floodplain shrub habitat, and shrub herbivore distributions. Streamflow records showed that the peak spring snowmelt discharge has occurred 3.4 days per decade earlier, and consistent fall temperatures and snow arrival dates over the same period suggest that earlier peak discharge has prolonged the ensuing period of reduced flow in the floodplain. We used empirical correlations between cumulative summer warmth and riparian shrub height to estimate that the longer and warmer growing seasons since the 1970s have stimulated a 63% increase in the height of riparian shrubs. Earlier spring discharge and the estimated increase in riparian shrub height are consistent with the observed riparian shrub expansion in the region. Our measurements showed that snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) require a mean riparian shrub height of at least 1.05 to 1.35 m, a threshold which our hindcasting indicates was met between 1977 and 2002. This generally coincides with observational evidence we present suggesting that snowshoe hares became established in 1977 or 1978. Similar relationships are shown for moose, which colonized the region in the 1940s. We also show that Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) inhabited the region in 1998, probably due in part to increasing availability of snowshoe hares. The novel appearance in the Arctic during the 20th century of terrestrial herbivores such as snowshoe hares and moose in response increased shrub habitat is a contrasting terrestrial counterpart to the decline in marine mammals reliant on decreasing sea ice.

  4. Incorporating ecologically relevant habitat and demographic data in assessment of contaminant risk to wildlife

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating population-level effects of contamination on wildlife requires specific information on habitat quality, species distribution, and contaminant concentration. Establishing broadly applicable thresholds for risk assessment involves an understanding of the applicability o...

  5. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat: 17 Case Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides brief descriptions of 17 wetland treatment systems from across the country that are providing significant water quality benefits while demonstrating additional benefits such as wildlife habitat.

  6. Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation : Montana Wildlife Habitat Protection : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and obtain information necessary to evaluate and undertake specific wildlife habitat protection/enhancement actions in northwest Montana as outlined in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Three waterfowl projects were evaluated between September 1989 and June 1990. Weaver's Slough project involved the proposed acquisition of 200 acres of irrigated farmland and a donated conservation easement on an additional 213 acres. The proposal included enhancement of the agricultural lands by conversion to upland nesting cover. This project was rated the lowest priority based on limited potential for enhancement and no further action was pursued. The Crow Creek Ranch project involved the proposed acquisition of approximately 1830 acres of grazing and dryland farming lands. The intent would be to restore drained potholes and provide adjacent upland nesting cover to increase waterfowl production. This project received the highest rating based on the immediate threat of subdivision, the opportunity to restore degraded wetlands, and the overall benefits to numerous species besides waterfowl. Ducks Unlimited was not able to participate as a cooperator on this project due to the jurisdiction concerns between State and tribal ownership. The USFWS ultimately acquired 1,550 acres of this proposed project. No mitigation funds were used. The Ashley Creek project involved acquisition of 870 acres adjacent to the Smith Lake Waterfowl Production Area. The primary goal was to create approximately 470 acres of wetland habitat with dikes and subimpoundments. This project was rated second in priority due to the lesser threat of loss. A feasibility analysis was completed by Ducks Unlimited based on a concept design. Although adequate water was available for the project, soil testing indicated that the organic soils adjacent to the creek would not support the necessary dikes. The project was determined not feasible for mitigation

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) currently manages a 15,325 acre parcel of land known as the Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area that was purchased as mitigation for losses incurred by construction of the four lower Snake River dams. The Management Area is located in northern Wallowa County, Oregon and southern Asotin County, Washington (Figure 1). It is divided into three management parcels--the Buford parcel is located on Buford Creek and straddles the WA-OR state line, and the Tamarack and Basin parcels are contiguous to each other and located between the Joseph Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages in Wallowa County, OR. The project was developed under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The acreage protected under this contract will be credited to BPA as habitat permanently dedicated to wildlife and wildlife mitigation. A modeling strategy known as Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by BPA as a habitat equivalency accounting system. Nine wildlife species models were used to evaluate distinct cover type features and provide a measure of habitat quality. Models measure a wide range of life requisite variables for each species and monitor overall trends in vegetation community health and diversity. One product of HEP is an evaluation of habitat quality expressed in Habitat Units (HUs). This HU accounting system is used to determine the amount of credit BPA receives for mitigation lands. After construction of the four lower Snake River dams, a HEP loss assessment was conducted to determine how many Habitat Units were inundated behind the dams. Twelve target species were used in that evaluation: Canada goose, mallard, river otter, downy woodpecker, song sparrow, yellow warbler, marsh wren, western meadowlark, chukar, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, and mule deer. The U.S. Army Corp of

  8. Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional wildlife habitat in Southern New England.

    PubMed

    Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance.

  9. The Wildlife Habitat Education Program: Moving from Contest Participation to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kevin; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Harper, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Do members participating in the Wildlife Habitat Education Program (WHEP) apply knowledge gained by implementing wildlife management practices at the local level? 4-H members who participated in the National WHEP Contest from 2003-2005 and 2007-2011 completed an evaluation at the end of each contest. The evaluation asked participants if they…

  10. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such as vegetation

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1997. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project provides a total of 313.91 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 16.08 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Shoreline and island habitat provide 7.36 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Wet meadow provides 117.62 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 9.78 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 140.47 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest provides 22.60 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  12. Roads and traffic: Effects on ecology and wildlife habitat use; applications for cooperative adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The land of the United States in dissected by more than 4 million miles of roads that fragment wildlife habitat on both public and private lands. Traffic on these roads causes additional effects. On secondary roads, which provide access to the most natural habitat, the levels, timing, and types of traffic are seldom known. In order to understand the effects of traffic on wildlife, USGS is conducting research cooperatively with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

  13. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Green Peter-Foster Project; Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Green Peter-Foster Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1955, 1972, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Eleven wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Green Peter-Foster Project extensively altered or affected 7873 acres of land and river in the Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1429 acres of grass-forb vegetation, 768 acres of shrubland, and 717 acres of open conifer forest cover types. Impacts resulting from the Green Peter-Foster Project included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, river otter, beaver, pileated woodpecker, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Green Peter-Foster Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  14. 75 FR 76085 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Polar Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) in the United States; Final Rule #0;#0... Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) in the United... Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations in...

  15. 77 FR 41147 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ...; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., proposed designation of revised critical habitat for the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii... Willow Flycatcher Recovery Plan (Recovery Plan) (Service 2002) and included in this proposed rule,...

  16. Assessing Wildlife Habitat Value of New England Salt Marshes: II. Model Testing and Validation

    EPA Science Inventory

    We test a previously described model to assess the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes by comparing modeled habitat values and scores with bird abundance and species richness at sixteen salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island USA. Assessment scores ranged f...

  17. 77 FR 71875 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, designate revised critical habitat for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) under the Endangered Species Act. In total, approximately 9,577,969 acres (ac) (3,876,064 hectares (ha)) in 11 units and 60 subunits in California, Oregon, and Washington fall within the boundaries of the critical habitat...

  18. 75 FR 74545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule Designating Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are designating critical habitat for Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Approximately 783 acres (317 hectares) are being designated as critical habitat for A. pumila in Riverside and San Diego counties,...

  19. A FRAMEWORK FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF WILDLIFE HABITAT VALUE OF NEW ENGLAND SALT MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource managers are frequently asked to make decisions that affect the protection and restoration of wetland habitats. The desire is often to base at least some part of this decision process on an assessment of wildlife habitat value, an acknowledged and important wetland func...

  20. Wildlife food habits and habitat use on revegetated stripmine land in Alaska. Final report. [Ph. D Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.L.; McKendrick, J.D.

    1984-05-01

    Food habits and habitat utilization of wildlife species on revegetated stripmine spoils. Current reclamation techniques were beneficial for tundra voles, short-eared owls and marsh hawks. Caribou, Dall sheep, red fox, coyote, wolf, arctic ground squirrel, waterfowl, and various raptorial birds derived partial benefit from the reclaimed areas. The seeded grasses functioned as minor items in the diets of herbivores while reclaimed sites served as hunting areas for the various carnivores and raptors. Moose, snowshoe hare, red-backed voles, willow ptarmigan and most nongame birds were adversely impacted by the reclaimed areas. Woody vegetation and its associated attributes, such as cover and food, were the essential habitat components missing from the reclaimed areas. Stripmining and reclamation procedures result in the formation of ''islands'' of grassland. The availability of undisturbed habitat adjacent to small sized, seeded areas, has made it possible for wildlife to take advantage of the reclaimed sites and still have a sufficient amount of natural food and cover available with which to meet the nutritional and habitat needs of the animal. The detrimental effects of current reclamation procedures increase as the amounts of land disturbed by mining become very large. Present reclamation procedures create grasslands on disturbed sites. As the size of the disturbed area and subsequent areas of revegetation increases, the resulting loss of native forage and habitat will be very detrimental to the local wildlife. This adverse effect could be ameliorated if reseeded areas are interspersed with trees and shrubs. If recreating wilflife habitat is the major goal of reclamation, it is recommended that the creation of a diverse vegetative structure should be considered as important as the establishment of a ground cover.

  1. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the project. Preconstruction, post-construction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Dexter Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 445 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Dexter Project included the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, red fox, mink, beaver, western gray squirrel, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, wood duck and nongame species. Bald eagle, osprey, and greater scaup were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Dexter Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  2. 75 FR 21394 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Revised Critical Habitat for Hine's Emerald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are designating critical habitat for the Hine's emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 26,531.8 acres (ac) (10,737 hectares (ha)) in 37 units fall within the boundaries of our critical habitat designation. The critical habitat units are located in Cook,......

  3. 78 FR 2539 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to designate critical habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to this species' critical habitat. The effect of this regulation is to designate critical habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse......

  4. Trophic Niche in a Raptor Species: The Relationship between Diet Diversity, Habitat Diversity and Territory Quality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reports that many populations of species showing a wide trophic niche (generalists) are made up of both generalist individuals and individuals with a narrow trophic niche (specialists), suggesting trophic specializations at an individual level. If true, foraging strategies should be associated with individual quality and fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that individuals will select the most favourable habitats for feeding. In addition, the “landscape heterogeneity hypothesis” predicts a higher number of species in more diverse landscapes. Thus, it can be predicted that individuals with a wider realized trophic niche should have foraging territories with greater habitat diversity, suggesting that foraging strategies, territory quality and habitat diversity are inter-correlated. This was tested for a population of common kestrels Falco tinnunculus. Diet diversity, territory occupancy (as a measure of territory quality) and habitat diversity of territories were measured over an 8-year period. Our results show that: 1) territory quality was quadratically correlated with habitat diversity, with the best territories being the least and most diverse; 2) diet diversity was not correlated with territory quality; and 3) diet diversity was negatively correlated with landscape heterogeneity. Our study suggests that niche generalist foraging strategies are based on an active search for different prey species within or between habitats rather than on the selection of territories with high habitat diversity. PMID:26047025

  5. Aquatic habitats of Canaan Valley, West Virginia: Diversity and environmental threats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Stout, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted surveys of aquatic habitats during the spring and summer of 1995 in Canaan Valley, WV, to describe the diversity of aquatic habitats in the valley and identify issues that may threaten the viability of aquatic species. We assessed physical habitat and water chemistry of 126 ponds and 82 stream sites, and related habitat characteristics to landscape variables such as geology and terrain. Based on our analyses, we found two issues likely to affect the viability of aquatic populations in the valley. The first issue was acid rain and the extent to which it potentially limits the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic species, particularly in headwater portions of the watershed. We estimate that nearly 46%, or 56 kilometers of stream, had pH levels that would not support survival and reproduction of Salvelinuw fontinalis (brook trout), one of the most acid-tolerant fishes in the eastern US. The second issue was the influence of Castor canadensis (beaver) activity. In the Canaan Valley State Park portion of the valley, beaver have transformed 4.7 kilometers of stream (approximately 17% of the total) to pond habitat through their dam building. This has resulted in an increase in pond habitat, a decrease in stream habitat, and a fragmented stream network (i.e., beaver ponds dispersed among stream reaches). In addition, beaver have eliminated an undetermined amount of forested riparian area through their foraging activities. Depending on the perspective, beaver-mediated changes can be viewed as positive or negative. Increases in pond habitat may increase habitat heterogeneity with consequent increases in biological diversity. In contrast, flooding associated with beaver activity may eliminate lowland wetlands and associated species, create barriers to fish dispersal, and possibly contribute to low dissolved oxygen levels in the Blackwater River. We recommend that future management strategies for the wildlife refuge be viewed in the context of these two issues

  6. Microbial diversity of extreme habitats in human homes

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Justin; Driscoll, Katherine; Fergus, Daniel J.; Grunden, Amy M.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing techniques have opened up the world of microbial diversity to scientists, and a flurry of studies in the most remote and extreme habitats on earth have begun to elucidate the key roles of microbes in ecosystems with extreme conditions. These same environmental extremes can also be found closer to humans, even in our homes. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing techniques to assess bacterial and archaeal diversity in the extreme environments inside human homes (e.g., dishwashers, hot water heaters, washing machine bleach reservoirs, etc.). We focused on habitats in the home with extreme temperature, pH, and chemical environmental conditions. We found a lower diversity of microbes in these extreme home environments compared to less extreme habitats in the home. However, we were nonetheless able to detect sequences from a relatively diverse array of bacteria and archaea. Habitats with extreme temperatures alone appeared to be able to support a greater diversity of microbes than habitats with extreme pH or extreme chemical environments alone. Microbial diversity was lowest when habitats had both extreme temperature and one of these other extremes. In habitats with both extreme temperatures and extreme pH, taxa with known associations with extreme conditions dominated. Our findings highlight the importance of examining interactive effects of multiple environmental extremes on microbial communities. Inasmuch as taxa from extreme environments can be both beneficial and harmful to humans, our findings also suggest future work to understand both the threats and opportunities posed by the life in these habitats. PMID:27672493

  7. Hardwood energy crops and wildlife diversity: Investigating potential benefits for breeding birds and small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A.; Tolbert, V.R.

    1996-08-01

    Hardwood energy crops have the potential to provide a profit to growers as well as environmental benefits (for water quality, soil stabilization, chemical runoff, and wildlife habitat). Environmental considerations are important for both sustainable development of bioenergy technologies on agricultural lands, and for public support. The Environmental Task of the US DOE`s Biofuels feedstock Development Program (BFDP) is working with industry, universities and others to determine how to plant, manage and harvest these crops to maximize environmental advantages and minimize impacts while economically meeting production needs. One research objective is to define and improve wildlife habitat value of these energy crops by exploring how breeding birds and small mammals use them. The authors have found increased diversity of birds in tree plantings compared to row crops. However, fewer bird and small mammal species use the tree plantings than use natural forest. Bird species composition on hardwood crops studied to date is a mixture of openland and forest bird species. Restricted research site availability to date has limited research to small acreage sites of several years of age, or to a few larger acreage but young (1--2 year) plantings. Through industry collaboration, research began this season on bird use of diverse hardwood plantings (different ages, acreages, tree species) in the southeast. Together with results of previous studies, this research will help define practical energy crop guidelines to integrate native wildlife benefits with productive energy crops.

  8. Pine Flat Dam Fish and Wildlife Habitat Restoration, Fresno, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    Plate 15. Multilevel Intake Structure Profiles Plate 16. Release Temperatures, 1992 Critically Dry Water Year - MLI Plate 17. Release... Dry Water Year, MLI Plate 23. Habitat Areas for Adult Trout, 1988 Dry Water Year, WTP Plate 24. Habitat Areas for Adult Trout, 1988 Dry Water Year...MLI + WTP Plate 25. Habitat Areas for Adult Trout, 1992 Critically Dry Water Year, MLI Plate 26. Habitat Areas for Adult Trout, 1992 Critically

  9. Monitoring habitat restoration projects: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Region Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and Coastal Program Protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hollar, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Pacific Region (Region 1) includes more than 158 million acres (almost 247,000 square miles) of land base in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Hawai`i, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Region 1 is ecologically diverse with landscapes that range from coral reefs, broadleaf tropical forests, and tropical savannahs in the Pacific Islands, to glacial streams and lakes, lush old-growth rainforests, inland fjords, and coastal shoreline in the Pacific Northwest, to the forested mountains, shrub-steppe desert, and native grasslands in the Inland Northwest. Similarly, the people of the different landscapes perceive, value, and manage their natural resources in ways unique to their respective regions and cultures. The Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program (Partners Program) and Coastal Program work with a variety of partners in Region 1 including individual landowners, watershed councils, land trusts, Soil and Water Conservation Districts, non-governmental organizations, Tribal governments, Native Hawaiian organizations, and local, State, and Federal agencies. The Partners Program is the FWS's vanguard for working with private landowners to voluntarily restore and conserve fish and wildlife habitat. Using non-regulatory incentives, the Partners Program engages willing partners to conserve and protect valuable fish and wildlife habitat on their property and in their communities. This is accomplished by providing the funding support and technical and planning tools needed to make on-the-ground conservation affordable, feasible, and effective. The primary goals of the Pacific Region Partners Program are to: Promote citizen and community-based stewardship efforts for fish and wildlife conservation Contribute to the recovery of at-risk species, Protect the environmental integrity of the National Wildlife

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) Report for the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-05-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP), developed in 1980 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 1980a, USFWS 1980b), uses a habitat/species based approach to assessing project impacts, and is a convenient tool to document the predicted effects of proposed management actions. The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) endorsed the use of HEP in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to evaluate wildlife benefits and impacts associated with the development and operation of the federal Columbia River Basin hydroelectric system (NPPC 1994). The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (AFIWG) used HEP in 1987 to evaluate wildlife habitat losses attributed to the Albeni Falls hydroelectric facility (Martin et al. 1988). In 1992, the AFIWG (Idaho Department of Fish and Game; Kalispel, Coeur d'Alene, and Kootenai Tribes) began implementing activities to mitigate these losses. Implementation activities include protecting, restoring and enhancing wildlife habitat. HEPs are used extensively within the NPPC's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Wildlife managers use HEP to determine habitat lost from the construction of the federal hydroelectric projects and habitat gained through NPPC mitigation program. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for each of the seven target species are used to determine habitat quality and quantity losses for representative habitat cover types for this project. Target species include Bald Eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, white-tailed deer and yellow warbler. In 2002, a HEP team determined the habitat condition of the 436-acre Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project (Figure 1). The HEP team consisted of the following members and agencies: Roy Finley, Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD); Neil Lockwood, KNRD; Brian Merson, KNRD; Sonny Finley, KNRD; Darren Holmes, KNRD; Anna, Washington Dept. of Fish and Game (WDFW); and Scott, WDFW. Baseline Habitat Units (HU) will be credited to

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) Report for the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP), developed in 1980 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 1980a, USFWS 1980b), uses a habitat/species based approach to assessing project impacts, and is a convenient tool to document the predicted effects of proposed management actions. The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) endorsed the use of HEP in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to evaluate wildlife benefits and impacts associated with the development and operation of the federal Columbia River Basin hydroelectric system (NPPC 1994). The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (AFIWG) used HEP in 1987 to evaluate wildlife habitat losses attributed to the Albeni Falls hydroelectric facility (Martin et al. 1988). In 1992, the AFIWG (Idaho Department of Fish and Game; Kalispel, Coeur d'Alene, and Kootenai Tribes) began implementing activities to mitigate these losses. Implementation activities include protecting, restoring and enhancing wildlife habitat. HEPs are used extensively within the NPPC's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Wildlife managers use HEP to determine habitat lost from the construction of the federal hydroelectric projects and habitat gained through NPPC mitigation program. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for each of the seven target species are used to determine habitat quality and quantity losses for representative habitat cover types for this project. Target species include Bald Eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, white-tailed deer and yellow warbler. In 2002, a HEP team determined the habitat condition of the 164-acre Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project (Figure 1). The HEP team consisted of the following members and agencies: Roy Finley, Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD); Neil Lockwood, KNRD; Brian Merson, KNRD; Sonny Finley, KNRD; Darren Holmes, KNRD; Anna, Washington Dept. of Fish and Game (WDFW); and Scott, WDFW. Baseline Habitat Units (HU) will be credited to

  12. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats.

    PubMed

    Free, C L; Baxter, G S; Dickman, C R; Lisle, A; Leung, L K-P

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning.

  13. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Free, C. L.; Baxter, G. S.; Dickman, C. R.; Lisle, A.; Leung, L. K.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning. PMID:26637127

  14. Improving wildlife habitat model performance: Sensitivity to the scale and detail of vegetation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lance Jay, Jr.

    Monitoring the impacts of resource use and landscape change on wildlife habitat over large areas is a daunting assignment. Forest land managers could benefit from linking the frequent decisions of resource use (timber harvesting) with a system of wildlife habitat accounting, but to date these tools are not widely available. I examined aspects of wildlife habitat modeling that: (in Chapter 2) could potentially lead to the establishment of wildlife habitat accounting within a resource decision support tool, (in Chapter 3) improve our theoretical understanding and methods to interpret the accuracy of wildlife habitat models, (in Chapter 4) explore the effects of vegetation classification systems on wildlife habitat model results, and (in Chapter 5) show that forest structural estimates from satellite imagery can improve potential habitat distribution models (GAP) for forest bird species. The majority of the analyses in this dissertation were done using a forest resource inventory developed by the State of Michigan (IFMAP). Paired with field vegetation and bird samples from sites across the lower peninsula of Michigan, we compared the relative accuracy of wildlife habitat relationship models built with plot-scale vegetation samples and stand-scale forest inventory maps. Recursive partitioning trees were used to build wildlife habitat models for 30 bird species. The habitat distribution maps from the Michigan Gap Analysis (MIGAP) were used as a baseline for comparison of model accuracy results. Both the plot and stand-scale measurements achieved high accuracy and there were few large differences between plot and stand-scale models for any individual species. Where the plot and stand-scale models were different, they tended to be species associated with mixed habitats. This may be evidence that scale of vegetation measurement has a larger influence on species associated with edges and ecotones. Habitat models that were built solely with land cover data were less accurate

  15. Assessing the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes: II. Model testing and validation.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Richard A; Charpentier, Michael A; Wigand, Cathleen

    2009-07-01

    We tested a previously described model to assess the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes by comparing modeled habitat values and scores with bird abundance and species richness at sixteen salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island USA. As a group, wildlife habitat value assessment scores for the marshes ranged from 307-509, or 31-67% of the maximum attainable score. We recorded 6 species of wading birds (Ardeidae; herons, egrets, and bitterns) at the sites during biweekly survey. Species richness (r (2)=0.24, F=4.53, p=0.05) and abundance (r (2)=0.26, F=5.00, p=0.04) of wading birds significantly increased with increasing assessment score. We optimized our assessment model for wading birds by using Akaike information criteria (AIC) to compare a series of models comprised of specific components and categories of our model that best reflect their habitat use. The model incorporating pre-classification, wading bird habitat categories, and natural land surrounding the sites was substantially supported by AIC analysis as the best model. The abundance of wading birds significantly increased with increasing assessment scores generated with the optimized model (r (2)=0.48, F=12.5, p=0.003), demonstrating that optimizing models can be helpful in improving the accuracy of the assessment for a given species or species assemblage. In addition to validating the assessment model, our results show that in spite of their urban setting our study marshes provide substantial wildlife habitat value. This suggests that even small wetlands in highly urbanized coastal settings can provide important wildlife habitat value if key habitat attributes (e.g., natural buffers, habitat heterogeneity) are present.

  16. Estimating functional connectivity of wildlife habitat and its relevance to ecological risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.R.; Allen, C.R.; Simpson, K.A.N.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat to the viability of wildlife populations and the maintenance of biodiversity. Fragmentation relates to the sub-division of habitat intq disjunct patches. Usually coincident with fragmentation per se is loss of habitat, a reduction in the size of the remnant patches, and increasing distance between patches. Natural and anthropogenic processes leading to habitat fragmentation occur at many spatial scales, and their impacts on wildlife depend on the scales at which species interact with the landscape. The concept of functional connectivity captures this organism-based view of the relative ease of movement or degree of exchange between physically disjunct habitat patches. Functional connectivity of a given habitat arrangement for a given wildlife species depends on details of the organism's life history and behavioral ecology, but, for broad categories of species, quantities such as home range size and dispersal distance scale allometrically with body mass. These relationships can be incorporated into spatial analyses of functional connectivity, which can be quantified by indices or displayed graphically in maps. We review indices and GIS-based approaches to estimating functional connectivity, presenting examples from the literature and our own work on mammalian distributions. Such analyses can be readily incorporated within an ecological risk framework. Estimates of functional connectivity may be useful in a screening-level assessment of the impact of habitat fragmentation relative to other stressors, and may be crucial in detailed population modeling and viability analysis.

  17. Wildlife Habitat Impact Assessment, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington : Project Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Douglas; Berger, Matthew

    1992-01-01

    Under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, a wildlife habitat impact assessment and identification of mitigation objectives have been developed for the US Army Corps of Engineer`s Chief Joseph Dam Project in north-central Washington. This study will form the basis for future mitigation planning and implementation.

  18. Predicting mosaics and wildlife diversity resulting from fire disturbance to a forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Meredith W.; Kessell, Stephen R.

    1980-05-01

    A model for predicting community mosaics and wildlife diversity resulting from fire disturbance to a forest ecosystem is presented. It applies an algorithm that delineates the size and shape of each patch from grid-based input data and calculates standard diversity measures for the entire mosaic of community patches and their included animal species. The user can print these diversity calculations, maps of the current community-type-age-class mosaic, and maps of habitat utilization by each animal species. Furthermore, the user can print estimates of changes in each resulting from natural disturbance. Although data and resolution level independent, the model is demonstrated and tested with data from the Lewis and Clark National Forest in Montana.

  19. Habitat restoration across large areas: Assessing wildlife responses in the Clearwater basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanvara, L.K.; Servheen, G.; Melquist, W.; Davis, D.; Scott, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past century, fire suppression and prevention have altered disturbance regimes across the Pacific Northwest, resulting in a significant divergence of historical and current conditions in forested habitats. To address this continuing trend in habitat changes and begin restoring historical patterns of disturbance, the Clearwater Basin Elk Habitat Initiative (CEI) proposes relatively extensive management actions in the Clearwater basin of north-central Idaho. We attempted to evaluate potential effects of such management actions on selected wildlife species using extant data sets and suggest ways to improve such projects with respect to a multispecies and adaptive management approach. Although there is increased interest in ecosystem management over large areas, the increased scale of analysis and implementation require a substantial increase in the level of species information beyond what currently exists. We conclude that baseline information required for an effective multispecies land-management policy in the Clearwater basin does not exist for many terrestrial wildlife species. To implement a true multispecies or ecosystem approach, wildlife and land managers should cooperate to increase existing population data and modeling efforts for wildlife species in the basin and develop a sustainable monitoring program to evaluate habitat management changes and their influence on wildlife populations within the context of adaptive management theory. Management actions to restore disturbance patterns should attempt spatial and temporal scales that are biologically relevant to the population ecology of species being affected. ?? 2004 by the Society of American Foresters.

  20. Surface flow (SF) treatment wetlands as a habitat for wildlife and humans.

    PubMed

    Knight, R L; Clarke, R A; Bastian, R K

    2001-01-01

    Water quality improvement is generally the primary objective of treatment wetlands. Creation of wildlife habitat is an inevitable outcome of these projects. However, an increasing number of treatment wetland projects have been purposely designed and operated to enhance their beneficial utility to wildlife and humans. This trend to multi-purpose treatment wetlands has broadened the basis for assessing the advantages of this natural treatment alternative. There are at least 21 treatment wetlands in the U.S. that were implemented with wildlife habitat creation and/or human use as principal goals. A number of treatment wetlands outside the U.S. also share these priorities. Hundreds of other wetlands have collected and reported quantitative data on wildlife and/or human uses. The North American Treatment Wetland Database (NADB) has been expanded to include critical wildlife habitat and human use data. This paper provides a preliminary inventory of these habitat and human use treatment wetlands, summarizes lessons learned, and identifies additional data needs.

  1. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Kaniksu Unit Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff

    1999-01-01

    Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge is proposing to acquire a 706-acre property located in Stevens County, Washington. The new acquisition would be called the Kaniksu Unit. A habitat evaluation was conducted on the property using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1980). Evaluation species were black-capped chickadee, mallard, ruffed grouse and white-tailed deer. Life requisites evaluated were food and reproduction for black-capped chickadee, food, cover, and reproduction for mallard, available winter browse for white-tailed deer and fall-to-spring cover for ruffed grouse.

  2. 75 FR 77961 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In total, approximately 9,331 acres (3,776 hectares) of habitat in the Santa Ana River in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange Counties and the San Gabriel River and Big Tujunga Creek in Los Angeles County in southern......

  3. Projected gains and losses of wildlife habitat from bioenergy-induced landscape change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, Nathan M.; Rubino, Matthew J.; Costanza, Jennifer K.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime; Abt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic and foreign renewable energy targets and financial incentives have increased demand for woody biomass and bioenergy in the southeastern United States. This demand is expected to be met through purpose-grown agricultural bioenergy crops, short-rotation tree plantations, thinning and harvest of planted and natural forests, and forest harvest residues. With results from a forest economics model, spatially explicit state-and-transition simulation models, and species–habitat models, we projected change in habitat amount for 16 wildlife species caused by meeting a renewable fuel target and expected demand for wood pellets in North Carolina, USA. We projected changes over 40 years under a baseline ‘business-as-usual’ scenario without bioenergy production and five scenarios with unique feedstock portfolios. Bioenergy demand had potential to influence trends in habitat availability for some species in our study area. We found variation in impacts among species, and no scenario was the ‘best’ or ‘worst’ across all species. Our models projected that shrub-associated species would gain habitat under some scenarios because of increases in the amount of regenerating forests on the landscape, while species restricted to mature forests would lose habitat. Some forest species could also lose habitat from the conversion of forests on marginal soils to purpose-grown feedstocks. The conversion of agricultural lands on marginal soils to purpose-grown feedstocks increased habitat losses for one species with strong associations with pasture, which is being lost to urbanization in our study region. Our results indicate that landscape-scale impacts on wildlife habitat will vary among species and depend upon the bioenergy feedstock portfolio. Therefore, decisions about bioenergy and wildlife will likely involve trade-offs among wildlife species, and the choice of focal species is likely to affect the results of landscape-scale assessments. We offer general principals

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife I Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-05-01

    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1992. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project provides a total of 936.76 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 71.92 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Shoreline and island habitat provide 12.77 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Cattail hemi-marsh provides 308.42 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Wet meadow provides 208.95 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 14.43 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 148.62 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 3.38 HUs for Canada goose. Conifer forest provides 160.44 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while

  5. Projected changes in wildlife habitats in Arctic natural areas of northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Lawler, James P.; Handel, Colleen M.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    We project the effects of transitional changes among 60 vegetation and other land cover types (“ecotypes”) in northwest Alaska over the 21st century on habitats of 162 bird and 39 mammal species known or expected to occur regularly in the region. This analysis, encompassing a broad suite of arctic and boreal wildlife species, entailed building wildlife-habitat matrices denoting levels of use of each ecotype by each species, and projecting habitat changes under historic and expected accelerated future rates of change from increasing mean annual air temperature based on the average of 5 global climate models under the A1B emissions scenario, and from potential influence of a set of 23 biophysical drivers. Under historic rates of change, we project that 52 % of the 201 species will experience an increase in medium- and high-use habitats, 3 % no change, and 45 % a decrease, and that a greater proportion of mammal species (62 %) will experience habitat declines than will bird species (50 %). Outcomes become more dire (more species showing habitat loss) under projections made from effects of biophysical drivers and especially from increasing temperature, although species generally associated with increasing shrub and tree ecotypes will likely increase in distribution. Changes in wildlife habitats likely will also affect trophic cascades, ecosystem function, and ecosystem services; of particular significance are the projected declines in habitats of most small mammals that form the prey base for mesocarnivores and raptors, and habitat declines in 25 of the 50 bird and mammal species used for subsistence hunting and trapping.

  6. INFLUENCE OF MOWING ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS ON WINTER HABITAT FOR WILDLIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the in...

  7. 78 FR 52363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Diamond...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for the diamond darter (Crystallaria cincotta), a small fish in West Virginia, under the Endangered Species Act (Act). In total, approximately 197.1 river kilometers (122.5 river miles) in Kanawha and Clay Counties, West Virginia, and Edmonson, Hart, and Green Counties, Kentucky, are being designated as critical......

  8. 77 FR 63603 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Cumberland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, designate critical habitat for the Cumberland darter (Etheostoma susanae), rush darter (Etheostoma phytophilum), yellowcheek darter (Etheostoma moorei), Chucky madtom (Noturus crypticus), and laurel dace (Chrosomus saylori) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In total, approximately 86 river kilometers (rkm) (54 river miles (rmi)) are......

  9. A Home for Pearl. A Videotape Series about Wildlife Habitat for Elementary Students. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambeth, Ellen; Westervelt, Miriam O.

    This instructional guide (accompanied by a video) teaches children from ages 6 to 12 about wildlife habitats. The instructional guide is divided into four parts and consists of supplementary activities to enhance the video. Each section of the guide provides an overview, objectives, story summary, key words in the video, discussion questions,…

  10. 76 FR 58441 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the reopening of the public comment period on the March 15, 2011, proposed threatened status for the Chiricahua leopard frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis) and proposed designation of critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are proposing to revise the primary constituent elements (PCEs) and......

  11. 77 FR 8449 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Nine Bexar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for Rhadine exilis (ground beetle, no common name), Rhadine infernalis (ground beetle, no common name), Helotes mold beetle (Batrisodes venyivi), Cokendolpher Cave harvestman (Texella cokendolpheri), Robber Baron Cave meshweaver (Cicurina baronia), Madla Cave meshweaver (Cicurina madla), Braken Bat Cave meshweaver......

  12. The Effects of the Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Program on Targeted Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kevin; Elmore, R. Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Does participation in the Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Program (WHEP) help develop life skills? 4-H members and coaches who participated in the National WHEP Contest between the years 2003-2005 and 2007-2009 were asked to complete an evaluation at the end of each contest. A portion of the evaluation asked participants and coaches to determine if…

  13. Homes for Wildlife: A Planning Guide for Habitat Enhancement on School Grounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyzga, Marilyn C.

    This guide for enhancing wildlife habitats on school grounds provides students and teachers the opportunity for direct, hands-on learning in the environment of their schoolyard. Geared towards grades K-8, all activities are developmentally appropriate to involve students on every level, resulting in student ownership of the project and a greater…

  14. 76 FR 37663 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Tumbling Creek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Tumbling Creek cavesnail is a critically imperiled aquatic snail, endemic to a single cave stream and... impacting the snail in other ways (Tom and Cathy Aley, 2001, pers. comm.; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service... species). Because the Tumbling Creek cavesnail is an obligate stream snail, nonaquatic habitats within...

  15. ASSESSING EFFECTS OF ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ON WILDLIFE HABITAT IN IOWA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A habitat-change model was used to compare past, present, and future land cover and management practices to assess potential impacts of alternative agricultural practices on wildlife in two agricultural watersheds, Walnut Creek and Buck Creek, in central Iowa, USA. This approach ...

  16. A Wildlife Habitat Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for Eight Federal Hydroelectric Facilities in the Willamette River Basin: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    The development and operation of eight federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin impacted 30,776 acres of prime wildlife habitat. This study proposes mitigative measures for the losses to wildlife and wildlife habitat resulting from these projects, under the direction of the Columbia River Basin (CRB) Fish and Wildlife Program. The CRB Fish and Wildlife Program was adopted in 1982 by the Northwest Power Planning Council, pursuant to the Northwest Power Planning Act of 1980. The proposed mitigation plan is based on the findings of loss assessments completed in 1985, that used a modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) to assess the extent of impact to wildlife and wildlife habitat, with 24 evaluation species. The vegetative structure of the impacted habitat was broken down into three components: big game winter range, riparian habitat and old-growth forest. The mitigation plan proposes implementation of the following, over a period of 20 years: (1) purchase of cut-over timber lands to mitigate, in the long-term, for big game winter range, and portions of the riparian habitat and old-growth forest (approx. 20,000 acres); (2) purchase approximately 4,400 acres of riparian habitat along the Willamette River Greenway; and (3) three options to mitigate for the outstanding old-growth forest losses. Monitoring would be required in the early stages of the 100-year plan. The timber lands would be actively managed for elk and timber revenue could provide O and M costs over the long-term.

  17. The loss of behavioral diversity as a consequence of anthropogenic habitat disturbance: the social interactions of black howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Negrín, Ariadna Rangel; Fuentes, Alejandro Coyohua; Espinosa, Domingo Canales; Dias, Pedro Américo Duarte

    2016-01-01

    To date, no study has investigated how human disturbance affects the size of the behavioral repertoire of a species. The aim of the present study is to illustrate how measurement of behavioral diversity assists in documenting biodiversity loss, demonstrating that human disturbance has a negative effect on behavioral diversity. We studied the social interaction repertoire of 41 adult black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) belonging to 10 groups living in different habitats in Campeche (Mexico), and related repertoire size to a proxy of human-induced habitat disturbance, habitat size. The social interaction repertoire of groups living in habitats with higher human-induced disturbance included lower number of behavioral types, and in particular, fewer energy-demanding behaviors. Thus, in addition to a loss in biodiversity, measured through organismal diversity, the disturbance of black howler monkeys' habitats is accompanied by a loss in behavioral diversity. We believe that the study of behavioral diversity as an element of biodiversity will become an increasingly important research topic, as it will improve our understanding of the behavioral strategies displayed by wildlife facing anthropogenic disturbance.

  18. Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect

    Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2010-06-01

    The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge. The two map products described in this report are (1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and (2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

  19. 75 FR 24545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Polar Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Polar Bear in the United States AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... proposed designation of critical habitat for the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) under the Endangered Species... habitat for the polar bear and on the DEA, and an amended required determinations section of the...

  20. 77 FR 36457 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Coquí Llanero

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Coqu Llanero AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... reopening of the public comment period on the October 12, 2011, proposed designation of critical habitat for... period on our proposed designation of critical habitat for the coqu llanero (an endemic Puerto Rican...

  1. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for Libby Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mundinger, John

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for wildlife losses attributable to the construction of the Libby hydroelectric project. Mitigation objectives and alternatives, the recommended mitigation projects, and the crediting system for each project are described by each target species. The report describes mitigation that has already taken place and 8 recommended mitigation projects designed to complete total wildlife mitigation. 8 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Charles C.; Robb, Joseph R.; McCoy, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR. PMID:25632261

  3. Biological diversity, ecological health and condition of aquatic assemblages at national wildlife refuges in southern indiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Robb, Joseph R; McCoy, William

    2015-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.

  4. Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn

    1991-04-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program identified mitigation goals for Hungry Horse and Libby dams (1987). Specific programs goals included: (1) protect and/or enhance 4565 acres of wetland habitat in the Flathead Valley; (2) protect 2462 acres of prairie habitat within the vicinity of the Tobacco Plains Columbian sharp-tailed grouse; (3) protect 8590 acres riparian habitat in northwest Montana for grizzly and black bears; and (4) protect 11,500 acres of terrestrial furbearer habitat through cooperative agreements with state and federal agencies and private landowners. The purpose of this project is to continue to develop and obtain information necessary to evaluate and implement specific wildlife habitat protection actions in northwestern Montana. This report summarizes project work completed between May 1, 1990, and December 31, 1990. There were three primary project objectives during this time: obtain specific information necessary to develop the mitigation program for Columbian sharp-tailed grouse; continue efforts necessary to develop, refine, and coordinate the mitigation programs for waterfowl/wetlands and grizzly/black bears; determine the opportunity and appropriate strategies for protecting terrestrial furbearer habitat by lease or management agreements on state, federal and private lands. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Analyze the Impact of Habitat Patches on Wildlife Road-Kill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, S.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    The ecosystem fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure causes a road-kill phenomenon. When making policies for mitigating road-kill it is important to select target-species in order to enhance its efficiency. However, many wildlife crossing structures have been questioned regarding their effectiveness due to lack of considerations such as target-species selection, site selection, management, etc. The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of habitat patches on wildlife road-kill and to suggest that spatial location of habitat patches should be considered as one of the important factors when making policies for mitigating road-kill. Habitat patches were presumed from habitat variables and a suitability index on target-species that was chosen by literature review. The road-kill hotspot was calculated using Getis-Ord Gi*. After that, we performed a correlation analysis between Gi Z-score and the distance from habitat patches to the roads. As a result, there is a low negative correlation between two variables and it increases the Gi Z-score if the habitat patches and the roads become closer.

  6. Resampling method for applying density-dependent habitat selection theory to wildlife surveys.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  7. Resampling Method for Applying Density-Dependent Habitat Selection Theory to Wildlife Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Vancouver Lowlands Shillapoo Wildlife Area, 1994-1995 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian; Anderson, Eric; Ashley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This project was conducted as part of a comprehensive planning effort for the Vancouver Lowlands project area. The study was funded by The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and carried out by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The Vancouver Lowlands is considered an area of high priority by WDFW and is being considered as a potential site for wildlife mitigation activities by BPA. The objectives of this study were to collect baseline information and determine current habitat values for the study area. A brief discussion of potential future management and a proposed listing of priorities for habitat protection are found near the end of this report. This report is a companion to a programmatic management plan being drafted for the area which will outline specific, management programs to improve habitat conditions based, in part, on this study. The following narratives, describing limiting habitat variables, carry recurring themes for each indicator species and habitat type. These recurring variables that limited habitat value include: Waterbodies that lack emergent and submerged vegetation; forest areas that lack natural shrub layers; a predominance of non-hydrophytic and less desirable non-native plants where shrubs are present; a general lack of cover for ground nesting and secure waterfowl nest sites (island type). Human disturbance was the variable that varied more than any other from site to site in the study area. One issue that the models we used do not truly deal with is the quantity and connectivity of habitat. The mallard and heron models deal with spatial relationships but for other species this may be as critical. Observation of habitat maps easily show that forested habitats are in short supply. Their continuity along Lake river and the Columbia has been broken by past development. Wetland distribution has also been affected by past development.

  9. Assessment of habitat of wildlife communities on the Snake River, Jackson, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.; Allen, Arthur W.

    1992-01-01

    The composition of the wildlife community in western riparian habitats is influenced by the horizontal and vertical distribution of vegetation, the physical complexity of the channel, and barriers to movement along the corridor. Based on information from the literature and a workshop, a model was developed to evaluate the wildlife community along the Snake River near Jackson, Wyoming. The model compares conditions of the current or future years with conditions in 1956, before constructions of levees along the river. Conditions in 1956 are assumed to approximate the desirable distribution of plant cover types and the associated wildlife community and are used as a standard of comparison in the model. The model may be applied with remotely sensed data and is compatible with a geographic information systems analysis. In addition to comparing existing or future conditions with conditions in 1956, the model evaluated floodplain and channel complexity and assesses anthropogenic disturbance and its potential effect on the quality of wildlife habitat and movements of wildlife in the riparian corridor.

  10. Northwest Montana Wildlife Habitat Enhancement: Hungry Horse Elk Mitigation Project: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-12-01

    Portions of two important elk (Cervus elaphus) winter ranges totalling 8749 acres were lost due to the construction of the Hungry Horse Dam hydroelectric facility. This habitat loss decreased the carrying capacity of the both the elk and the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). In 1985, using funds from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as authorized by the Northwest Power Act, the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) completed a wildlife mitigation plan for Hungry Horse Reservoir. This plan identified habitat enhancement of currently-occupied winter range as the most cost-efficient, easily implemented mitigation alternative available to address these large-scale losses of winter range. The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, as amended in 1987, authorized BPA to fund winter range enhancement to meet an adjusted goal of 133 additional elk. A 28-month advance design phase of the BPA-funded project was initiated in September 1987. Primary goals of this phase of the project included detailed literature review, identification of enhancement areas, baseline (elk population and habitat) data collection, and preparation of 3-year and 10-year implementation plans. This document will serve as a site-specific habitat and population monitoring plan which outlines our recommendations for evaluating the results of enhancement efforts against mitigation goals. 25 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Occurrence of Biosurfactant Producing Bacillus spp. in Diverse Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sanket J.; Suthar, Harish; Yadav, Amit Kumar; Hingurao, Krushi; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diversity among biosurfactant producing Bacillus spp. from diverse habitats was studied among 77 isolates. Cluster analysis based on phenotypic characteristics using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMAs) method was performed. Bacillus isolates possessing high surface tension activity and five reference strains were subjected to amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A correlation between the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus spp. is explored. Most of the oil reservoir isolates showing high surface activity clustered with B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, the hot water spring isolates clustered in two ingroups, while the petroleum contaminated soil isolates were randomly distributed in all the three ingroups. Present work revealed that diversity exists in distribution of Bacillus spp. from thermal and hydrocarbon containing habitats where majority of organisms belonged to B. licheniformis and B. subtilis group. Isolate B. licheniformis TT42 produced biosurfactant which reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mNm−1 to 28 mNm−1, and 0.05 mNm−1 interfacial tension against crude oil at 80°C. This isolate clustered with B. subtilis and B. licheniformis group on the basis of ARDRA. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting the Bacillus spp. from different habitats and their possible use in oil recovery. PMID:25969778

  12. Wildlife management by habitat units: A preliminary plan of action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frentress, C. D.; Frye, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures for yielding vegetation type maps were developed using LANDSAT data and a computer assisted classification analysis (LARSYS) to assist in managing populations of wildlife species by defined area units. Ground cover in Travis County, Texas was classified on two occasions using a modified version of the unsupervised approach to classification. The first classification produced a total of 17 classes. Examination revealed that further grouping was justified. A second analysis produced 10 classes which were displayed on printouts which were later color-coded. The final classification was 82 percent accurate. While the classification map appeared to satisfactorily depict the existing vegetation, two classes were determined to contain significant error. The major sources of error could have been eliminated by stratifying cluster sites more closely among previously mapped soil associations that are identified with particular plant associations and by precisely defining class nomenclature using established criteria early in the analysis.

  13. Evaluation of habitat quality for selected wildlife species associated with back channels.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James T.; Zadnik, Andrew K.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Bledsoe, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    The islands and associated back channels on the Ohio River, USA, are believed to provide critical habitat features for several wildlife species. However, few studies have quantitatively evaluated habitat quality in these areas. Our main objective was to evaluate the habitat quality of back and main channel areas for several species using habitat suitability index (HSI) models. To test the effectiveness of these models, we attempted to relate HSI scores and the variables measured for each model with measures of relative abundance for the model species. The mean belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) HSI was greater on the main than back channel. However, the model failed to predict kingfisher abundance. The mean reproduction component of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) HSI, total common muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) HSI, winter cover component of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) HSI, and brood-rearing component of the wood duck (Aix sponsa) HSI were all greater on the back than main channel, and were positively related with the relative abundance of each species. We found that island back channels provide characteristics not found elsewhere on the Ohio River and warrant conservation as important riparian wildlife habitat. The effectiveness of using HSI models to predict species abundance on the river was mixed. Modifications to several of the models are needed to improve their use on the Ohio River and, likely, other large rivers.

  14. Wildlife food habits and habitat use on revegetated strip mine land in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Food habits and habitat utilization of wildlife species on revegetated strip mine spoils in interior Alaska were studied from 1980 through 1982. Current reclamation techniques were beneficial for tundra voles, short-eared owls and marsh hawks. Caribou, Dall sheep, red fox, coyote, wolf, arctic ground squirrel, waterfoul, and various raptorial birds derived partial benefit from the reclaimed areas. The seeded grasses functioned as minor items in the diets of herbivores while reclaimed sites served as hunting areas for the various carnivores and raptors. Moose, showshoe hare, red-backed voles, willow ptarmigan and most nongame birds were adversely impacted by the reclaimed areas. Woody vegetation and its associated attributes such as cover and food were the essential habitat component missing from the reclaimed areas. Strip mining and reclamation procedures currently practiced in interior Alaska result in grassland interspersed throughout the natural habitat. The availability of undisturbed habitat adjacent to small sized, seeded areas, has made it possible for wildlife to take advantage of the reclaimed sites and still have sufficient amount of natural food and cover available with which to meet the nutritional and habitat needs of the animal. The detrimental effects of current reclamation procedures increase as the amounts of land disturbed by mining become very large.

  15. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem.

  16. Habitat fragmentation may not matter to species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Yaacobi, Gal; Ziv, Yaron; Rosenzweig, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Conservation biologists worry that fragmenting a bloc of natural habitat might reduce its species diversity. However, they also recognize the difficulty and importance of isolating the effect of fragmentation from that of simple loss of area. Using two different methods (species–area curve and Fisher's α index of diversity) to analyse the species diversities of plants, tenebrionid beetles and carabid beetles in a highly fragmented Mediterranean scrub landscape, we decoupled the effect of degree of fragmentation from that of area loss. In this system, fragmentation by itself seems not to have influenced the number of species. Our results, obtained at the scale of hectares, agree with similar results at island and continent scales. PMID:17666380

  17. 75 FR 63897 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are revising critical habitat for the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are designating a total of 31,750.8 km (19,729.0 mi) of streams (which includes 1,213.2 km (754.0 mi) of marine shoreline) and are designating a total of 197,589.2 ha (488,251.7 ac) of reservoirs and lakes. The areas......

  18. Habitat influence in the morphological diversity of coastal fish assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farré, Marc; Lombarte, Antoni; Recasens, Laura; Maynou, Francesc; Tuset, Victor M.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological diversity based on quantitative data is widely used to characterize biological communities, but recently morphological and functional traits have also been used to analyse the structure of fish assemblages. This diversity and structure is usually linked to variables such as habitat complexity and composition, depth, and spatial and temporal variations. In this study, several fish assemblages off the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) were ecologically and morphologically analysed and compared. The morphological analysis was performed from body shape of fish species using geometric morphology. Moreover, a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to analyse the effect of local environmental variables such as habitat, locality and depth on the composition and abundance of assemblages. The results revealed greater differences among assemblages in the clustering performed from morphological data, which is linked to habitat complexity, than those shown by the ecological analysis. Moreover, the CCA analysis indicated that type of substratum and the location significantly influenced the composition and structure of the fish assemblages. These results evidenced that morphology provides different and complementary information than ecological analysis because it allows to predict the ecological and functional habits of species within the community, helping to improve the understanding of the fish assemblages structure.

  19. Laying the foundation for a comprehensive program of restoration for wildlife habitat in a riparian floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Michael L.; Tennant, Tracy; Scott, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    We analyzed the past and current distribution and abundance of vegetation and wildlife to develop a wildlife habitat restoration plan for the Sweetwater Regional Park, San Diego County, California. Overall, there has been a substantial loss of native amphibians and reptiles, including four amphibians, three lizards, and 11 snake species. The small-mammal community was depauperate and dominated by the exotic house mouse ( Mus musculus) and the native western harvest mouse ( Reithrodontomys megalotis). It appeared that either house mice are exerting a negative influence on most native species or that they are responding positively to habitat degradation. There has apparently been a net loss of 13 mammal species, including nine insectivores and rodents, a rabbit, and three large mammals. Willow ( Salix) cover and density and cottonwoods ( Populus fremontii) had the highest number of positive correlations with bird abundance. There has been an overall net loss of 12 breeding bird species; this includes an absolute loss of 18 species and a gain of six species. A restoration plan is described that provides for creation and maintenance of willow riparian, riparian woodland, and coastal sage scrub vegetation types; guides for separation of human activities and wildlife habitats; and management of feral and exotic species of plants and animals.

  20. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 1: Field evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, H.; LeJeune, K.; Lipton, J.

    1995-11-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and metals in soils surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana were correlated with vegetative community structure and composition and wildlife habitat quality. Soils in the uplands surrounding the smelter were highly enriched with arsenic and metals. Concentrations of these analytes decreased with distance from the smelter and with soil depth, suggesting that the smelter is the source of the enrichment. In enriched areas, marked modifications to the native vegetation community structure and composition were observed. These included replacement of evergreen forest with bare unvegetated ground; species impoverishment and increased dominance by weed species in grasslands; and reductions in the vertical complexity of the habitat. Significant negative correlations existed between soil arsenic and metals concentrations and the extent of vegetative cover and the vertical diversity of plant communities. Loss of vegetative cover in the affected areas has been accompanied by reductions in their capacity to support indigenous wildlife populations.

  1. Relationships between human disturbance and wildlife land use in urban habitat fragments.

    PubMed

    Markovchick-Nicholls, Lisa; Regan, Helen M; Deutschman, Douglas H; Widyanata, Astrid; Martin, Barry; Noreke, Lani; Hunt, Timothy Ann

    2008-02-01

    Habitat remnants in urbanized areas typically conserve biodiversity and serve the recreation and urban open-space needs of human populations. Nevertheless, these goals can be in conflict if human activity negatively affects wildlife. Hence, when considering habitat remnants as conservation refuges it is crucial to understand how human activities and land uses affect wildlife use of those and adjacent areas. We used tracking data (animal tracks and den or bed sites) on 10 animal species and information on human activity and environmental factors associated with anthropogenic disturbance in 12 habitat fragments across San Diego County, California, to examine the relationships among habitat fragment characteristics, human activity, and wildlife presence. There were no significant correlations of species presence and abundance with percent plant cover for all species or with different land-use intensities for all species, except the opossum (Didelphis virginiana), which preferred areas with intensive development. Woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and cougars (Puma concolor) were associated significantly and positively and significantly and negatively, respectively, with the presence and prominence of utilities. Woodrats were also negatively associated with the presence of horses. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were associated significantly and negatively and significantly and positively, respectively, with plant bulk and permanence. Cougars and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were negatively associated with the presence of roads. Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) were positively associated with litter. The only species that had no significant correlations with any of the environmental variables were black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Bobcat tracks were observed more often than gray foxes in the study area and bobcats correlated significantly only with water availability, contrasting with results from

  2. Prevalence and diversity patterns of avian blood parasites in degraded African rainforest habitats.

    PubMed

    Chasar, Anthony; Loiseau, Claire; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Iezhova, Tatjana; Smith, Thomas B; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2009-10-01

    Land use changes including deforestation, road construction and agricultural encroachments have been linked to the increased prevalence of several infectious diseases. In order to better understand how deforestation affects the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases in wildlife, nine paired sites were sampled (disturbed vs. undisturbed habitats) in Southern Cameroon. We studied the diversity, prevalence and distribution of avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and other related haemosporidians (species of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) from these sites in two widespread species of African rainforest birds, the yellow-whiskered greenbul (Andropadus latirostris, Pycnonotidae) and the olive sunbird (Cyanomitra olivacea, Nectariniidae). Twenty-six mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages were identified: 20 Plasmodium lineages and 6 Haemoproteus lineages. These lineages showed no geographic specificity, nor significant differences in lineage diversity between habitat types. However, we found that the prevalence of Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus infections were significantly higher in undisturbed than in deforested habitats (Leucocytozoon spp. 50.3% vs. 35.8%, Haemoproteus spp. 16.3% vs. 10.8%). We also found higher prevalence for all haemosporidian parasites in C. olivacea than in A. latirostris species (70.2% vs. 58.2%). Interestingly, we found one morphospecies of Plasmodium in C. olivacea, as represented by a clade of related lineages, showed increased prevalence at disturbed sites, while another showed a decrease, testifying to different patterns of transmission, even among closely related lineages of avian malaria, in relation to deforestation. Our work demonstrates that anthropogenic habitat change can affect host-parasite systems and result in opposing trends in prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in wild bird populations.

  3. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for Hungry Horse Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Gael

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for wildlife losses attributable to the construction of the Hungry Horse hydroelectric project. In this report, mitigation objectives and alternatives, the recommended mitigation projects, and the crediting system for each project are described by each target species. Mitigation objectives for each species (group) were established based on the loss estimates but tailored to the recommended projects. 13 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Interfacing models of wildlife habitat and human development to predict the future distribution of puma habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdett, Christopher L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Theobald, David M.; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of human land uses on ecological systems typically differ relative to how extensively natural conditions are modified. Exurban development is intermediate-intensity residential development that often occurs in natural landscapes. Most species-habitat models do not evaluate the effects of such intermediate levels of human development and even fewer predict how future development patterns might affect the amount and configuration of habitat. We addressed these deficiencies by interfacing a habitat model with a spatially-explicit housing-density model to study the effect of human land uses on the habitat of pumas (Puma concolor) in southern California. We studied the response of pumas to natural and anthropogenic features within their home ranges and how mortality risk varied across a gradient of human development. We also used our housing-density model to estimate past and future housing densities and model the distribution of puma habitat in 1970, 2000, and 2030. The natural landscape for pumas in our study area consisted of riparian areas, oak woodlands, and open, conifer forests embedded in a chaparral matrix. Pumas rarely incorporated suburban or urban development into their home ranges, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the behavioral decisions of individuals can be collectively manifested as population-limiting factors at broader spatial scales. Pumas incorporated rural and exurban development into their home ranges, apparently perceiving these areas as modified, rather than non-habitat. Overall, pumas used exurban areas less than expected and showed a neutral response to rural areas. However, individual pumas that selected for or showed a neutral response to exurban areas had a higher risk of mortality than pumas that selected against exurban habitat. Exurban areas are likely hotspots for puma-human conflict in southern California. Approximately 10% of our study area will transform from exurban, rural, or undeveloped areas to suburban or

  5. Manifold habitat effects on the prevalence and diversity of avian blood parasites

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Ravinder N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Habitats are rapidly changing across the planet and the consequences will have major and long-lasting effects on wildlife and their parasites. Birds harbor many types of blood parasites, but because of their relatively high prevalence and ease of diagnosis, it is the haemosporidians – Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon – that are the best studied in terms of ecology and evolution. For parasite transmission to occur, environmental conditions must be permissive, and given the many constraints on the competency of parasites, vectors and hosts, it is rather remarkable that these parasites are so prevalent and successful. Over the last decade, a rapidly growing body of literature has begun to clarify how environmental factors affect birds and the insects that vector their hematozoan parasites. Moreover, several studies have modeled how anthropogenic effects such as global climate change, deforestation and urbanization will impact the dynamics of parasite transmission. This review highlights recent research that impacts our understanding of how habitat and environmental changes can affect the distribution, diversity, prevalence and parasitemia of these avian blood parasites. Given the importance of environmental factors on transmission, it remains essential that researchers studying avian hematozoa document abiotic factors such as temperature, moisture and landscape elements. Ultimately, this continued research has the potential to inform conservation policies and help avert the loss of bird species and threatened habitats. PMID:26835250

  6. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  7. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  8. Establishment of seeded grasslands for wildlife habitat in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Jacobson, E.T.; Higgins, K.F.; Podoll, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques are described for establishment of seeded grasslands on cultivated soils to provide wildlife habitat within the glaciated prairie pothole region in the north-central United States. Management of grassland habitats on a sound ecological basis is an important wildlife management activity in the region. The primary purpose of the guidelines in this publication is to help managers establish and maintain good stands of seeded cover for waterfowl nesting and use by other prairie wildlife. Several options are available for selecting a type of cover to be established. The following seeded grassland types are described: (1) introduced cool-season grasses and legumes; (2) tall, warm-season native grasses; and (3) mixed-grass prairie grasses. Major vegetative species recommended for (1) are tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), intermediate wheatgrass (A. intermedium), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and sweetclover (Melilotus spp.); for (2) are big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum); for (3) are green needlegrass (Stipa viridula), little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula). Important factors that affect the success of establishment of seeded grasslands include site adaptability, site preparation, seedbed preparation, planting equipment and methods, rates and dates of seeding, and seed sources. A management goal for seeded grasslands intended to provide optimum habitat for dabbling duck nesting should be to maintain vigorous stands of vegetation with the tallest, most dense cover form that is possible under prevailing soil and climatic conditions. Grassland management is a never-ending job and seeded grasslands require periodic rejuvenation to maintain them in an optimum condition. Prescribed burning and planned grazing systems are acceptable methods for periodically rejuvenating seeded native grasses. Stands of introduced

  9. Habitat Is Where It's At. A Coloring Book about Wildlife Habitat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernbrode, Bob

    This coloring book provides illustrations of 18 animals in their habitats. Animals presented include: beavers; bears; bats; housecats; elephants; moose; tigers; geese; chimpanzees; rabbits; butterflies; giraffes; fish; kangaroos; gnus; bugs and bees; and humans. Two additional illustrations are provided which show that the sun and air are part of…

  10. 78 FR 54478 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Conservation Plan for the Utah Prairie Dog in Iron County, Utah AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... availability of a Draft Low-effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Utah prairie dog in Iron County, Utah, for... review and comment of the Draft Low-effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Utah prairie dog in...

  11. 78 FR 62646 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Conservation Plan for the Utah Prairie Dog in Garfield County, Utah AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... availability of a Draft Low-effect Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) for the Utah prairie dog in Garfield County... availability for review and comment of the Draft Low-effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Utah prairie...

  12. Invasive lionfish use a diversity of habitats in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Akins, Lad; Gregoire-Lucente, Denise R.; Pawlitz, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    Two species of lionfish (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles) are the first marine fishes known to invade and establish self-sustaining populations along the eastern seaboard of the United States. First documented off the coast of Florida in 1985, lionfish are now found along the Atlantic coast of the United States as well as in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Although long-term effects of this invasion are not yet fully known, there is early evidence that lionfish are negatively impacting native marine life.The lionfish invasion raises questions about which types of habitat the species will occupy in its newly invaded ecosystem. In their native range, lionfish are found primarily on coral reefs but sometimes are found in other habitats such as seagrasses and mangroves. This fact sheet documents the diversity of habitat types in which invasive lionfish have been reported within Florida’s coastal waters, based on lionfish sightings recorded in the U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database (USGS-NAS).

  13. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Yakama Nation Wildlife Management Areas, Technical Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Raedeke, Kenneth; Raedeke, Dorothy

    2000-06-01

    Construction of the Dalles, Bonneville, McNary, and John Day Dams on the Columbia River by the federal government resulted in a substantial loss of riparian bottomland along the Columbia River. Impacts associated with the Mid-Columbia Projects were assessed for several wildlife species using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USDI-FWS 1980). The studies documented the loss of riparian habitat and established a baseline against which mitigation measures could be developed (USDI-FWS 1990 and USDE-BPA 1990). The impact assessments established a mitigation goal, a portion of which would be satisfied by the creation, restoration, and enhancement of riparian lands on tributaries to the Columbia River, including the Yakima Valley. The Yakama Nation (YN), the Northwest Power Planning Council, and the Bonneville Power Administration have agreed that the Yakama Nation would be funded to implement habitat restoration on lands within and adjacent to their reservation. Some of the targeted lands are owned by the Yakama Nation, some are trust lands, and some lands have been in private ownership. Since the early 1990s, the Yakama Nation has been in the process of assembling riparian lands into Wildlife Management Areas, and restoring natural hydrology and natural cover-types on these lands. The Northwest Power Planning Council, through the Bonneville Power Administration, has supported the program. HEP studies were performed by the Yakama Nation in 1990 (Bich et al. 1991) to establish baseline conditions and inventory wildlife habitat at the initiation of the restoration project. The 1990 HEP used a simplified version of the HEP to quantify baseline conditions. The present assessment is designed to evaluate the progress of the mitigation plan in meeting its stated goals. The 1999 HEP assessment has two distinct tasks: (1) Evaluation of the mitigation plan as currently implemented using the simplified YN HEP methodologies for

  14. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report Wanaket Wildlife Area, Techical Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2006-02-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Wildlife Program staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Wanaket Wildlife Management Area in June 2005. The 2005 HEP investigation generated 3,084.48 habitat units (HUs) for a net increase of 752.18 HUs above 1990/1995 baseline survey results. The HU to acre ratio also increased from 0.84:1.0 to 1.16:1.0. The largest increase in habitat units occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type (California quail and western meadowlark models), which increased from 1,544 HUs to 2,777 HUs (+43%), while agriculture cover type HUs were eliminated because agricultural lands (managed pasture) were converted to shrubsteppe/grassland. In addition to the agriculture cover type, major changes in habitat structure occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type due to the 2001 wildfire which removed the shrub component from well over 95% of its former range. The number of acres of all other cover types remained relatively stable; however, habitat quality improved in the riparian herb and riparian shrub cover types. The number and type of HEP species models used during the 2005 HEP analysis were identical to those used in the 1990/1995 baseline HEP surveys. The number of species models employed to evaluate the shrubsteppe/grassland, sand/gravel/mud/cobble, and riparian herb cover types, however, were fewer than reported in the McNary Dam Loss Assessment (Rassmussen and Wright 1989) for the same cover types.

  16. Assessing the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes: I. Model and application.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Richard A; Charpentier, Michael A; Wigand, Cathleen

    2009-07-01

    We developed an assessment model to quantify the wildlife habitat value of New England salt marshes based on marsh characteristics and the presence of habitat types that influence habitat use by terrestrial wildlife. Applying the model to 12 salt marshes located in Narragansett Bay, RI resulted in assessment scores that ranged over a factor of 1.5 from lowest to highest. Pre-classifying the results based on marsh size and morphology helped to compare assessment scores between marshes, and demonstrated that even the lower ranking marshes had substantial habitat value. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of assessment scores and model components demonstrated that salt marsh morphology, the degree of anthropogenic modification, and salt marsh vegetative heterogeneity were significant variables and accounted for 91.3% of the variability in component scores. Our results suggest that targeting these components for restoration may lead to improved assessment scores for our study marshes. We also examined the use of lower resolution remote sensing data in the assessment in order to minimize the time and effort required to complete the model. Scores obtained using smaller-scale, lower resolution data were significantly lower than those obtained using larger-scale, higher resolution data (df = 11; t = 2.2; p < 0.001). The difference was significantly positively correlated with the portion of the assessment score that could be attributed to trees, pools, and pannes and marsh size (r (2) =0.50, F = 4.6, p = 0.04), and could indicate a bias against smaller, more heterogeneous marshes. We conclude that potential differences need to be weighed against the time benefit of using this type of data, bearing in mind the marsh size and the goals of the assessment. Overall, our assessment can provide information to aid in prioritizing marshes for protection and restoration, identify marshes that may harbor significant biodiversity, or help monitor changes in habitat value over time.

  17. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  18. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, Ken J.

    2006-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth during mid-winter in dens of ice and snow. Denning polar bears subjected to human disturbances may abandon dens before their altricial young can survive the rigors of the Arctic winter. Because the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska is an area of high petroleum potential and contains existing and planned oil field developments, the distribution of polar bear dens on the plain is of interest to land managers. Therefore, as part of a study of denning habitats along the entire Arctic coast of Alaska, we examined high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 1655) of the 7994 km2 coastal plain included in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and mapped 3621 km of bank habitat suitable for denning by polar bears. Such habitats were distributed uniformly and comprised 0.29% (23.2 km2) of the coastal plain between the Canning River and the Canadian border. Ground-truth sampling suggested that we had correctly identified 91.5% of bank denning habitats on the ANWR coastal plain. Knowledge of the distribution of these habitats will help facilitate informed management of human activities and minimize disruption of polar bears in maternal dens.

  19. Information to support to monitoring and habitat restoration on Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary

    2013-01-01

    The Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge staff focuses on improving habitat for the highest incidence of endemic species for an area of its size in the continental United States. Attempts are being made to restore habitat to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition, and to provide habitat conditions to which native plant and animal species have evolved. Unfortunately, restoring the Ash Meadows’ Oases to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition is almost impossible. First, there are constraints on water manipulation because there are private holdings within the refuge boundary; second, there has been at least one species extinction—the Ash Meadows pool fish (Empetrichthys merriami). It is also quite possible that thermal endemic invertebrate species were lost before ever being described. Perhaps the primary obstacle to restoring Ash Meadows to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed conditions is the presence of invasive species. However, invasive species, such as red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarki) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), are a primary driving force in restoring Ash Meadows’ spring systems, because under certain habitat conditions they can all but replace native species. Returning Ash Meadows’ physical landscape to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition through natural processes may take decades. Meanwhile, the natural dissolution of concrete and earthen irrigation channels threatens to allow cattail marshes to flourish instead of spring-brooks immediately downstream of spring discharge. This successional stage favors non-native crayfish and mosquitofish over the native Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis). Thus, restoration is needed to control non-natives and to promote native species, and without such intervention the probability of native fish reduction or loss, is anticipated. The four studies in this report are intended to provide information for restoring native fish habitat and

  20. An appraisal of the fitness consequences of forest disturbance for wildlife using habitat selection theory.

    PubMed

    Hodson, James; Fortin, Daniel; Leblanc, Mélanie-Louise; Bélanger, Louis

    2010-09-01

    Isodar theory can help to unveil the fitness consequences of habitat disturbance for wildlife through an evaluation of adaptive habitat selection using patterns of animal abundance in adjacent habitats. By incorporating measures of disturbance intensity or variations in resource availability into fitness-density functions, we can evaluate the functional form of isodars expected under different disturbance-fitness relationships. Using this framework, we investigated how a gradient of forest harvesting disturbance and differences in resource availability influenced habitat quality for snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) using pairs of logged and uncut boreal forest. Isodars for both species had positive intercepts, indicating reductions to maximum potential fitness in logged stands. Habitat selection by hares depended on both conspecific density and differences in canopy cover between harvested and uncut stands. Fitness-density curves for hares in logged stands were predicted to shift from diverging to converging with those in uncut forest across a gradient of high to low disturbance intensity. Selection for uncut forests thus became less pronounced with increasing population size at low levels of logging disturbance. Voles responded to differences in moss cover between habitats which reflected moisture availability. Lower moss cover in harvested stands either reduced maximum potential fitness or increased the relative rate of decline in fitness with density. Differences in vole densities between harvested and uncut stands were predicted, however, to diminish as populations increased. Our findings underscore the importance of accounting for density-dependent behaviors when evaluating how changing habitat conditions influence animal distribution.

  1. Vegetation types, dominant compositions, woody plant diversity and stand structure in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Koushik; Datta, B K

    2015-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess the vegetation types, diversity and phytosociological status of woody plants in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary of Tripura, Northeast India. Vegetation data was derived by 25 line transects (10 m wide and 500 m length, each 0.5 ha size). All woody species at >10 cm gbh (Girth at Breast Height) within each plots were measured and counted. A total of six forest types were classified by cluster analysis using Importance Value Index (IVI) of 289 woody species. Species diversity, forest structure and woody community associations were evaluated and discussed. One way ANOVA revealed significant differences in all species diversity measures and stand structure along the forest types. Distribution of stem density at ten different gbh classes showed reverse J-shaped curves. Population status of woody plants was also examined through grouping of all individuals into four population age stages viz. sapling (<30 cm gbh), adult (> or = 30 - <120 cm gbh), mature (>120 - 210 cm gbh) and old (> or =210 cm). To observe dominant composition and species population trend, IVI of top ten dominant species from all forest types were tabulated. The present study suggested that Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary is an important habitat in Tripura from floristic point of view and it should be conserved on priority basis for remaining wildlife endurances and monitor for forest livelihoods products for sustainable biodiversity conservation in this region.

  2. Microbial diversity and metabolic networks in acid mine drainage habitats

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-García, Celia; Peláez, Ana I.; Mesa, Victoria; Sánchez, Jesús; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) emplacements are low-complexity natural systems. Low-pH conditions appear to be the main factor underlying the limited diversity of the microbial populations thriving in these environments, although temperature, ionic composition, total organic carbon, and dissolved oxygen are also considered to significantly influence their microbial life. This natural reduction in diversity driven by extreme conditions was reflected in several studies on the microbial populations inhabiting the various micro-environments present in such ecosystems. Early studies based on the physiology of the autochthonous microbiota and the growing success of omics-based methodologies have enabled a better understanding of microbial ecology and function in low-pH mine outflows; however, complementary omics-derived data should be included to completely describe their microbial ecology. Furthermore, recent updates on the distribution of eukaryotes and archaea recovered through sterile filtering (herein referred to as filterable fraction) in these environments demand their inclusion in the microbial characterization of AMD systems. In this review, we present a complete overview of the bacterial, archaeal (including filterable fraction), and eukaryotic diversity in these ecosystems, and include a thorough depiction of the metabolism and element cycling in AMD habitats. We also review different metabolic network structures at the organismal level, which is necessary to disentangle the role of each member of the AMD communities described thus far. PMID:26074887

  3. An evaluation of space acquired data as a tool for management to wildlife habitat in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vantries, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife ERTS experiment in Alaska attempts to yield information useful for three primary functions in the State. They are: (1) to test the feasibility of using ERTS data, in conjunction with aircraft acquired multispectral photography, to develop effective stratified sampling techniques, (2) to provide near real time assessment and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and distribution of waterfowl breeding habitat through frequent ERTS measurements of hydrologic, phenological and vegetational parameters, and (3) to provide basic mapping of vegetation and terrain in certain remote areas of the State for which little or no biological data now exist.

  4. Tamarisk control, water salvage, and wildlife habitat restoration along rivers in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    The great abundance of tamarisk along western rivers has led resource managers to seek to control it for various reasons, including a desire to (1) increase the flow of water in streams that might otherwise be lost to evapotranspiration (ET) (evapotranspiration is the combination of water lost as vapor from a soil or open water surface [evaporation] and water lost from the surface of the plant, usually from the stomata [transpiration]); (2) restore native riparian vegetation (here, “riparian” refers to the banks and flood plains of rivers, or shorelines of reservoirs or lakes); and (3) improve wildlife habitat.

  5. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge. Appendix B: Habitat analysis. Draft environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The analyses of aquatic habitat requires estimates of both historic and future effects from Jamestown Reservior operations on the Fish and Wildlife Service`s (FWS) capacity to manage water levels. The analyses are limited to in-pool conditions and are based on existing and projected hydrology for Jamestown Reservior and each of the four refuge pools. Hydrology data are converted into an estimate of the capability to manage aquatic habitat, and this estimate is subsequently used to define a mitigation requirement for the operation of Jamestown Reservior. Specific criteria have been established and used throughout the analysis. These criteria, the assumptions necessary for their implementation, model documentation, and interpretation of the analyses results are discussed.

  6. Evaluating wildlife response to coastal dune habitat restoration in san francisco, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.; Shulzitski, J.; Setty, A.

    2009-01-01

    The vast dune system that once dominated the entire western half of the San Francisco peninsula in California has been reduced to a few fragments that conserve locally threatened plant and animal species. We measured the effects of ongoing restoration efforts on wildlife abundance and diversity on one of the largest of these fragments, Fort Funston in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Efforts included removal of non-native species, active restoration of native dune vegetation, and restricted visitor use. We collected data regarding the composition and abundance of vegetation, birds, and ground-dwelling vertebrates on four treatments including an actively restored area with restricted visitor use, an unrestored area where visitor use had been restricted for ten years, an unrestored area where visitor use had been restricted for two years, and an unrestored area with unrestricted visitor use. Results indicated that the diversity and abundance of wildlife species, as well as the richness and cover of native plant species, were greater in the restored area than in all other sampled areas. Restricted visitor use alone had only modest positive effects on the abundance and diversity of wildlife and the richness and cover of native plant species.

  7. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, K.L.; Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Seventeen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Lookout Point Project extensively altered or affected 6790 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 724 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 118 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Lookout Point Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, red fox, mink, beaver, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Lookout Point Project. Loses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  8. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1964, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Hills Creek Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 2694 acres of old-growth forest and 207 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Hills Creek Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Hills Creek Project, losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  9. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana.

    PubMed

    Winterbach, Christiaan W; Whitesell, Carolyn; Somers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife tourism can provide economic incentives for conservation. Due to the abundance of wildlife and the presence of charismatic species some areas are better suited to wildlife tourism. Our first objective was to develop criteria based on wildlife abundance and diversity to evaluate tourism potential in the Northern Conservation Zone of Botswana. Secondly we wanted to quantify and compare tourism experiences in areas with high and low tourism potential. We used aerial survey data to estimate wildlife biomass and diversity to determine tourism potential, while data from ground surveys quantified the tourist experience. Areas used for High Paying Low Volume tourism had significantly higher mean wildlife biomass and wildlife diversity than the areas avoided for this type of tourism. Only 22% of the Northern Conservation Zone has intermediate to high tourism potential. The areas with high tourism potential, as determined from the aerial survey data, provided tourists with significantly better wildlife sightings (ground surveys) than the low tourism potential areas. Even Low Paying tourism may not be economically viable in concessions that lack areas with intermediate to high tourism potential. The largest part of the Northern Conservation Zone has low tourism potential, but low tourism potential is not equal to low conservation value. Alternative conservation strategies should be developed to complement the economic incentive provided by wildlife-based tourism in Botswana.

  10. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Winterbach, Christiaan W.; Whitesell, Carolyn; Somers, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife tourism can provide economic incentives for conservation. Due to the abundance of wildlife and the presence of charismatic species some areas are better suited to wildlife tourism. Our first objective was to develop criteria based on wildlife abundance and diversity to evaluate tourism potential in the Northern Conservation Zone of Botswana. Secondly we wanted to quantify and compare tourism experiences in areas with high and low tourism potential. We used aerial survey data to estimate wildlife biomass and diversity to determine tourism potential, while data from ground surveys quantified the tourist experience. Areas used for High Paying Low Volume tourism had significantly higher mean wildlife biomass and wildlife diversity than the areas avoided for this type of tourism. Only 22% of the Northern Conservation Zone has intermediate to high tourism potential. The areas with high tourism potential, as determined from the aerial survey data, provided tourists with significantly better wildlife sightings (ground surveys) than the low tourism potential areas. Even Low Paying tourism may not be economically viable in concessions that lack areas with intermediate to high tourism potential. The largest part of the Northern Conservation Zone has low tourism potential, but low tourism potential is not equal to low conservation value. Alternative conservation strategies should be developed to complement the economic incentive provided by wildlife-based tourism in Botswana. PMID:26308859

  11. Mercury bioaccumulation in estuarine wetland fishes: evaluating habitats and risk to coastal wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are globally important areas for methylmercury bioaccumulation because of high methylmercury production rates and use by fish and wildlife. We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in ten fish species from 32 wetland and open bay sites in San Francisco Bay Estuary (2005–2008). Fish THg concentrations (μg/g dry weight ± standard error) differed by up to 7.4× among estuary habitats. Concentrations were lowest in open bay (0.17 ± 0.02) and tidal wetlands (0.42 ± 0.02), and highest in managed seasonal saline wetlands (1.27 ± 0.05) and decommissioned high salinity salt ponds (1.14 ± 0.07). Mercury also differed among fishes, with Mississippi silversides (0.87 ± 0.03) having the highest and longjaw mudsuckers (0.37 ± 0.01) the lowest concentrations. Overall, 26% and 12% of fish exceeded toxicity benchmarks for fish (0.20 μg/g wet weight) and piscivorous bird (0.30 μg/g wet weight) health, respectively. Our results suggest that despite managed wetlands' limited abundance within estuaries, they may be disproportionately important habitats of Hg risk to coastal wildlife.

  12. 40 CFR 230.32 - Other wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... communities. In some aquatic environments lowering plant and animal species diversity may disrupt the normal... Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.32 Other wildlife. (a) Wildlife associated with aquatic ecosystems... associated with the aquatic ecosystem. These adverse impacts upon wildlife habitat may result from changes...

  13. Habitat diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality-The importance of direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Alsterberg, Christian; Roger, Fabian; Sundbäck, Kristina; Juhanson, Jaanis; Hulth, Stefan; Hallin, Sara; Gamfeldt, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are facing habitat homogenization due to human activities. Although it is commonly proposed that such habitat homogenization can have negative repercussions for ecosystem functioning, this question has yet to receive explicit scientific attention. We expand on the framework for evaluating the functional consequences of biodiversity loss by scaling up from the level of species to the level of the entire habitats. Just as species diversity generally fosters ecosystem functioning through positive interspecies interactions, we hypothesize that different habitats within ecosystems can facilitate each other through structural complementarity and through exchange of material and energy across habitats. We show that experimental ecosystems comprised of a diversity of habitats show higher levels of multiple ecosystem functions than ecosystems with low habitat diversity. Our results demonstrate that the effect of habitat diversity on multifunctionality varies with season; it has direct effects on ecosystem functioning in summer and indirect effects, via changes in species diversity, in autumn, but no effect in spring. We propose that joint consideration of habitat diversity and species diversity will prove valuable for both environmental management and basic research.

  14. Habitat diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality—The importance of direct and indirect effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsterberg, Christian; Roger, Fabian; Sundbäck, Kristina; Juhanson, Jaanis; Hulth, Stefan; Hallin, Sara; Gamfeldt, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are facing habitat homogenization due to human activities. Although it is commonly proposed that such habitat homogenization can have negative repercussions for ecosystem functioning, this question has yet to receive explicit scientific attention. We expand on the framework for evaluating the functional consequences of biodiversity loss by scaling up from the level of species to the level of the entire habitats. Just as species diversity generally fosters ecosystem functioning through positive interspecies interactions, we hypothesize that different habitats within ecosystems can facilitate each other through structural complementarity and through exchange of material and energy across habitats. We show that experimental ecosystems comprised of a diversity of habitats show higher levels of multiple ecosystem functions than ecosystems with low habitat diversity. Our results demonstrate that the effect of habitat diversity on multifunctionality varies with season; it has direct effects on ecosystem functioning in summer and indirect effects, via changes in species diversity, in autumn, but no effect in spring. We propose that joint consideration of habitat diversity and species diversity will prove valuable for both environmental management and basic research. PMID:28246634

  15. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps six years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  16. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on

  17. Spatio-temporal change in the relationship between habitat heterogeneity and species diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Megías, Adela; Gómez, José María; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Beta diversity plays an important role in mediating species diversity and therefore improves our understanding of species-diversity patterns. One principal theoretical framework exists for such patterns, the "habitat-heterogeneity hypothesis (HHH)", which postulates a positive relationship between species diversity and habitat heterogeneity. Although HHH is widely accepted, spatial and temporal variability has been found in the relationship between diversity and heterogeneity. Species turnover has been proposed as the main factor explaining spatial variation in the relationship between species diversity and habitat heterogeneity. In this study, we tested the role of species turnover in explaining spatial and temporal variability on diversity-heterogeneity relationship in a Mediterranean ecosystem, using beetles as the study organisms. A hierarchical design including different habitats and years was used to test our hypothesis. Using different multivariate analyses, we tested for spatial and temporal variability in beta diversity, and in the beetle diversity-heterogeneity relationship using two diversity indices. Our study showed that beetle composition changed spatially and temporally, although temporal change was evident only between sampling periods but not between years. Notably, there was spatial and temporal change in the relationship between habitat descriptors and beetle diversity. Nevertheless, there was no correlation between the changes in beetle composition with the changes in the habitat-heterogeneity relationships. In this Mediterranean system, spatial and temporal changes in the diversity-heterogeneity relationships cannot be predicted by species turnover, and other mechanisms need to be explored to satisfactorily explain this variability.

  18. Forest structure of oak plantations after silvicultural treatment to enhance habitat for wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Phillip, Cherrie-Lee P.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Wilson, R. Randy; Schweitzer, Callie Jo; Clatterbuck, Wayne K.; Oswalt, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, thousands of hectares of oak-dominated bottomland hardwood plantations have been planted on agricultural fields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Many of these plantations now have closed canopies and sparse understories. Silvicultural treatments could create a more heterogeneous forest structure, with canopy gaps and increased understory vegetation for wildlife. Lack of volume sufficient for commercial harvest in hardwood plantations has impeded treatments, but demand for woody biomass for energy production may provide a viable means to introduce disturbance beneficial for wildlife. We assessed forest structure in response to prescribed pre-commercial perturbations in hardwood plantations resulting from silvicultural treatments: 1) row thinning by felling every fourth planted row; 2) multiple patch cuts with canopy gaps of <1 0.25 – 2 ha; and 3) tree removal on intersecting corridors diagonal to planted rows. These 3 treatments, and an untreated control, were applied to oak plantations (20 - 30 years post-planting) on three National Wildlife Refuges (Cache River, AR; Grand Cote, LA; and Yazoo, MS) during summer 2010. We sampled habitat using fixed-radius plots in 2009 (pre-treatment) and in 2012 (post-treatment) at random locations. Retained basal area was least in diagonal corridor treatments but had greater variance in patch-cut treatments. All treatments increased canopy openness and the volume of coarse woody debris. Occurrence of birds using early successional habitats was greater on sites treated with patch cuts and diagonal intersections. Canopy openings on row-thinned stands are being filled by lateral crown growth of retained trees whereas patch cut and diagonal intersection gaps appear likely to be filled by regenerating saplings.

  19. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project, South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project on the South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1953, 1965, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Cougar Project extensively altered or affected 3096 acres of land and river in the McKenzie River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1587 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 195 acres of riparian hardwoods. Impacts resulting from the Cougar Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the effected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Cougar Project. Loses or grains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  20. Incorporating remotely sensed tree canopy cover data into broad scale assessments of wildlife habitat distribution and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Vierling, Lee A.; Gould, William A.; Vierling, Kerri T.; Hudak, Andrew T.

    2009-12-01

    Remote sensing provides critical information for broad scale assessments of wildlife habitat distribution and conservation. However, such efforts have been typically unable to incorporate information about vegetation structure, a variable important for explaining the distribution of many wildlife species. We evaluated the consequences of incorporating remotely sensed information about horizontal vegetation structure into current assessments of wildlife habitat distribution and conservation. For this, we integrated the new NLCD tree canopy cover product into the US GAP Analysis database, using avian species and the finished Idaho GAP Analysis as a case study. We found: (1) a 15-68% decrease in the extent of the predicted habitat for avian species associated with specific tree canopy conditions, (2) a marked decrease in the species richness values predicted at the Landsat pixel scale, but not at coarser scales, (3) a modified distribution of biodiversity hotspots, and (4) surprising results in conservation assessment: despite the strong changes in the species predicted habitats, their distribution in relation to the reserves network remained the same. This study highlights the value of area wide vegetation structure data for refined biodiversity and conservation analyses. We discuss further opportunities and limitations for the use of the NLCD data in wildlife habitat studies.

  1. Habitat selection of a large carnivore along human-wildlife boundaries in a highly modified landscape.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Chihiro; Nielsen, Scott Eric; Takii, Akiko; Izumiyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF). Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores.

  2. Habitat Selection of a Large Carnivore along Human-Wildlife Boundaries in a Highly Modified Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Takahata, Chihiro; Nielsen, Scott Eric; Takii, Akiko; Izumiyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are now threatened by high rates of mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce the frequency of human-bear encounters if bear populations are to be conserved. To this end, we estimated the habitats that relate to human-bear interactions by sex and season using resource selection functions (RSF). Significant seasonal differences in selection for and avoidance of areas by bears were estimated by distance-effect models with interaction terms of land cover and sex. Human-bear boundaries were delineated on the basis of defined bear-habitat edges in order to identify areas that are in most need of proactive management strategies. Asiatic black bears selected habitats in close proximity to forest edges, forest roads, rivers, and red pine and riparian forests during the peak conflict season and this was correctly predicted in our human-bear boundary maps. Our findings demonstrated that bears selected abandoned forests and agricultural lands, indicating that it should be possible to reduce animal use near human lands by restoring season-specific habitat in relatively remote areas. Habitat-based conflict mitigation may therefore provide a practical means of creating adequate separation between humans and these large carnivores. PMID:24465947

  3. Characterizing Wildlife Habitat With LiDAR Data: Distribution Mapping Of Snags And Understory Shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinuzzi, S.; Vierling, L.; Gould, W.; Falkowski, M.; Evans, J.; Hudak, A.; Vierling, K.

    2008-12-01

    Spatial data about the distribution of snags and understory shrubs is a major need for managing wildlife habitat in forests. We are evaluating the use of discrete return LiDAR data for predicting the distribution (presence/absence) of understory shrubs and different classes (i.e. diameters) of snags, in a managed, mixed-conifer forest in Northern Idaho, US. We are using a variety of ground and vegetation metrics derived from LiDAR data and the Random Forest algorithm to build our distribution models, and have obtained overall accuracies >80%. These preliminary results indicate that LiDAR data are valuable for predicting the distribution of understory shrubs and common snag diameter classes in the study area. In particular, LiDAR-derived metrics allow us to 1) quantify a variety of ecological factors (e.g. canopy structure, topography) that are known to influence the distribution and abundance of understory vegetation and snags in temperate, mountainous forests, and 2) quantify structural characteristics that are known to directly or indirectly indicate the presence of our classes of interest, such as the percent of vegetation returns in the lower strata of the canopy (for the shrubs), and the structural heterogeneity of the forest canopy (for the snags). Finally, and in order to further evaluate the use of LiDAR data for characterizing wildlife habitat, we integrate our maps of snags and shrubs distribution into models of habitat suitability, using four avian species (i.e. three woodpeckers and a flycatcher) as a case study.

  4. Extracting temporal and spatial information from remotely sensed data for mapping wildlife habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Cynthia S. A.

    The research accomplished in this dissertation used both mathematical and statistical techniques to extract and evaluate measures of landscape temporal dynamics and spatial structure from remotely sensed data for the purpose of mapping wildlife habitat. By coupling the landscape measures gleaned from the remotely sensed data with various sets of animal sightings and population data, effective models of habitat preference were created. Measures of temporal dynamics of vegetation greenness as measured by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite were used to effectively characterize and map season specific habitat of the Sonoran pronghorn antelope, as well as produce preliminary models of potential yellow-billed cuckoo habitat in Arizona. Various measures that capture different aspects of the temporal dynamics of the landscape were derived from AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composite data using three main classes of calculations: basic statistics, standardized principal components analysis, and Fourier analysis. Pronghorn habitat models based on the AVHRR measures correspond visually and statistically to GIS-based models produced using data that represent detailed knowledge of ground-condition. Measures of temporal dynamics also revealed statistically significant correlations with annual estimates of elk population in selected Arizona Game Management Units, suggesting elk respond to regional environmental changes that can be measured using satellite data. Such relationships, once verified and established, can be used to help indirectly monitor the population. Measures of landscape spatial structure derived from IKONOS high spatial resolution (1-m) satellite data using geostatistics effectively map details of Sonoran pronghorn antelope habitat. Local estimates of the nugget, sill, and range variogram parameters calculated within 25 x 25-meter image windows describe the spatial

  5. Extracting temporal and spatial information from remotely sensed data for mapping wildlife habitat: Tucson

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Advised by Marsh, Stuart E.

    2002-01-01

    The research accomplished in this dissertation used both mathematical and statistical techniques to extract and evaluate measures of landscape temporal dynamics and spatial structure from remotely sensed data for the purpose of mapping wildlife habitat. By coupling the landscape measures gleaned from the remotely sensed data with various sets of animal sightings and population data, effective models of habitat preference were created.Measures of temporal dynamics of vegetation greenness as measured by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite were used to effectively characterize and map season specific habitat of the Sonoran pronghorn antelope, as well as produce preliminary models of potential yellow-billed cuckoo habitat in Arizona. Various measures that capture different aspects of the temporal dynamics of the landscape were derived from AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composite data using three main classes of calculations: basic statistics, standardized principal components analysis, and Fourier analysis. Pronghorn habitat models based on the AVHRR measures correspond visually and statistically to GIS-based models produced using data that represent detailed knowledge of ground-condition.Measures of temporal dynamics also revealed statistically significant correlations with annual estimates of elk population in selected Arizona Game Management Units, suggesting elk respond to regional environmental changes that can be measured using satellite data. Such relationships, once verified and established, can be used to help indirectly monitor the population.Measures of landscape spatial structure derived from IKONOS high spatial resolution (1-m) satellite data using geostatistics effectively map details of Sonoran pronghorn antelope habitat. Local estimates of the nugget, sill, and range variogram parameters calculated within 25 x 25-meter image windows describe the spatial

  6. Factors affecting stem borer parasitoid species diversity and parasitism in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Calatayud, Paul-André; Dupas, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on stem borer parasitoid diversity, abundance, and parasitism were studied in cultivated and natural habitats in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Comparing habitat types, we found partial support for the "natural enemy" hypothesis, whereby, across all localities, parasitoid diversity was higher in more diverse host plant communities in natural habitats, whereas parasitoid abundance was higher in cultivated habitats. For both habitats, parasitoid richness was mainly influenced by stem borer density and/or its interaction with stem borer richness, whereas parasitoid abundance was mainly affected by stem borer abundance. Parasitoid richness was higher in localities (with bimodal rainfall distribution) with increased spatial and temporal availability of host plants that harbored the borers. Across seasons, parasitoid richness was lower in both cultivated and natural habitats in the driest locality, Mtito Andei. Overall, parasitoid diversity was low in Suam and Mtito Andei, where maize cultivation was practiced on a commercial scale and intense grazing activities persist across seasons, respectively. Across localities, habitats, and seasons, stem borer parasitism was positively correlated with parasitoid richness and abundance. Furthermore, the interaction of rainfall and altitude influenced the presence and absence of parasitoids, and consequently, stem borer parasitism. Parasitism was positively and negatively correlated with temperature in cultivated and natural habitats, respectively. Overall, natural habitats seem to serve as important refugia for sustaining parasitoid diversity, which in turn can affect stem borer parasitism in the cereal cropping system.

  7. 77 FR 14061 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) proposes to revise the designated critical habitat for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Consistent with the best scientific data available, the standards of the Act, our regulations, and agency practice, we have initially identified, for public comment, approximately......

  8. Vegetated Riprap Installation Techniques for Steambank Protection, Fish and Wildlife Habitat Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Vegetated riprap is a cost effective alternative to conventional riprap erosion protection. Terra Erosion Control has experimented with the vegetation of riprap over the past ten years. As a result we have adapted a technique that can successfully establish vegetation during the installation of riprap structures. This presentation will demonstrate innovative ways of installing vegetated riprap for the protection of access roads on industrial sites and urban infrastructure such as storm water outfalls, bridge approaches and pedestrian pathways within public areas. This vegetation will provide additional bank protection, soften the rock appearance and enhance fish, wildlife and urban habitat along the shoreline. Vegetated riprap incorporates a combination of rock and native vegetation in the form of live cuttings. These are planted in conjunction with the placement of rock used to armour the banks of watercourses. Establishment of native vegetation will improve fish habitat by creating shade, cover and an input of small organic debris to stream banks. In most cases it will negate the need for the regulator (Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans) to require habitat alteration compensation. It will also provide added bank protection through the development of root mass. Adding vegetation to riprap provides a softer, more natural appearance to the installed rocks. This presentation will detail the processes involved in the installation of vegetated riprap such as the harvesting and soaking of live material, site preparation of the stream bank, placement of riprap in conjunction with live material and the use of burlap/coir fabric and soil amendments. It will also discuss the innovative method of using wooden boards to protect live cuttings during construction and to direct precipitation and/or irrigation water to the root zone during the establishment phase of the vegetation. These boards will eventually biodegrade within the rock. This approach was applied over

  9. Evaluation of wildlife-habitat relationships data base for predicting bird community composition in central California chaparral and blue oak woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, M.L.; van Riper, Charles

    1990-01-01

    The California Wildlife-Habitat Relationships (WHR) database can be used to assist resource managers to evaluate effects of habitat manipulations on wildlife. The accuracy of predictions from WHR was evaluated using data from bird surveys conducted during winter and spring 1984 and 1985 in chamise (Adenostema fasciculata) chaparral, mixed chaparral and blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodland. Considerable variability between habitat types was found for errors both of commission and of omission.

  10. Diversity and Habitat Niche Modeling of Candidate Archaeal Phylum Aigarchaeota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, T. W.; Goertz, G.; Williams, A. J.; Cole, J. K.; Murugapiran, S. K.; Dodsworth, J. A.; Hedlund, B. P.

    2013-12-01

    ';Aigarchaeota' (formerly known as pSL4 and Hot Water Crenarchaeotic Group I (HWCGI)) is a candidate phylum of Archaea known only by 16S rRNA gene fragments from cultivation-independent microbial surveys and a single composite genome from Candidatus ';Caldiarchaeum subterraneum', an inhabitant of a subterranean gold mine in Japan. Sequences reported in various publications are found exclusively in geothermal settings, but a comprehensive assessment has not yet been performed. We mined public databases for 16S rRNA gene sequences related to known ';Aigarchaeota' and used a combination of approaches to rigorously define the phylogenetic boundaries of the phylum. The analyses supported the proposed relationship between ';Aigarchaeota', Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Korarchaeota in the so-called 'TACK superphylum' and identified ~200 16S rRNA genes and gene fragments belonging to ';Aigarchaeota', including those recovered from terrestrial geothermal systems on several continents (North America, Asia, Africa, Europe, and Oceania) and marine geothermal and subsurface samples in both the Atlantic and Pacific. ';Aigarchaeota' belonged to at least three family- to order-level groups and at least seven genus-level groups. All genus-level groups were recovered from geographically distant locations, suggesting a global distribution within amenable habitats. ';Aigarchaeota'-specific primers for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA genes were designed using SP-Designer and reviewed using the Ribosomal Database Project Probe Match tool. The primers will be used to determine the presence and abundance of ';Aigarchaeota' in a wide variety of samples from terrestrial geothermal systems in the western U.S. and Asia. These phylogenetic data, along with a large geochemical database, will be analyzed using multivariate statistics to develop biogeographic and habitat niche models for ';Aigarchaeota'. This study offers the first coherent view of the

  11. Facing the Future: Sharing Habitats with Wildlife; A Civic Engagement Partnership between St. Mary's College and Lindsay Wildlife Museum through SENCER-ISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, A. M.; Bachofer, S.; Pan, W.

    2014-12-01

    The phrase "Enter to Learn, Leave to Serve " is at the heart of St Mary's College of California's education philosophy. The community engagement requirement of the core curriculum requires that students leave the classroom and engage with the world "to apply their intellectual experiences to communities beyond [the campus]". St. Mary's College actively participates with SENCER-ISE (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities-Informal Science Education), a National Science Foundation program developed to inspire more community engagement science projects in higher education to make science more real, accessible and civically important. Through this program, St. Mary's College and Lindsay Wildlife Museum have developed the project "Facing the Future: Sharing Habitats with Wildlife", which explores issues of urban habitats - their ephemerality, and the need for citizens to share responsibility and promote their success. The institutions are (1) studying a San Francisco Bay Area watershed habitat; (2) designing data collection methods, (GIS mapping and mobile app creation) intended to educate children and adults on urban habitats and the need to protect them; and (3) preparing interpretive materials to raise awareness of habitat issues. Here we report on the impact of this work, which is in the first year of a three-year grant and how a durable partnership can be established.

  12. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Peters, Martin; Guenther, Sebastian; Lazaris, Alexandros; Loncaric, Igor; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Shore, Anna C.; Walter, Birgit; Coleman, David C.; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963), some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963) were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6). mecC-MRSA (n = 8) were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation. PMID:27992523

  13. Tests of wildlife habitat models to evaluate oak-mast production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.L.; Vangilder, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    We measured oak-mast production and forest structure and composition in the Ozark Mountains of Missouri and tested the accuracy of oak-mast prediction variables from 5 Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) species models. Acorn production was positively associated with several measures of abundance and canopy cover of oak trees, and with an index of mast production for all 5 HSI models. We developed 2 modified oak-mast models, based on inputs related to either oak tree density or oak canopy cover and diversity of oak tree species. The revised models accounted for 22-32% of the variance associated with acorn abundance. Future tests of HSI models should consider: (1) the concept of upper limits imposed by habitat and the effects of nonhabitat factors; (2) the benefits of a top-down approach to model development; and (3) testing models across broad geographic regions.

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oleson Tracts of the Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Donna; Smith, maureen; Schmidt, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Located in the northern Willamette River basin, Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1992 with an approved acquisition boundary to accommodate willing sellers with potentially restorable holdings within the Tualatin River floodplain. The Refuge's floodplain of seasonal and emergent wetlands, Oregon ash riparian hardwood, riparian shrub, coniferous forest, and Garry oak communities are representative of remnant plant communities historically common in the Willamette River valley and offer an opportunity to compensate for wildlife habitat losses associated with the Willamette River basin federal hydroelectric projects. The purchase of the Oleson Units as additions to the Refuge using Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds will partially mitigate for wildlife habitat and target species losses incurred as a result of construction and inundation activities at Dexter and Detroit Dams. Lands acquired for mitigation of Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) impacts to wildlife are evaluated using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the FCRPS Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (NWPCC, 1994 and 2000). There are two basic management scenarios to consider for this evaluation: (1) Habitats can be managed without restoration activities to benefit wildlife populations, or (2) Habitats can be restored using a number of techniques to improve habitat values more quickly. Without restoration, upland and wetland areas may be periodically mowed and disced to prevent invasion of exotic vegetation, volunteer trees and shrubs may grow to expand forested areas, and cooperative farming may be employed to provide forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl. Abandoned cropland would comprise

  15. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants.

    PubMed

    Ossola, Alessandro; Nash, Michael A; Christie, Fiona J; Hahs, Amy K; Livesley, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i) ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii) ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii) ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size.

  16. Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Michael A.; Christie, Fiona J.; Hahs, Amy K.; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat complexity is a major determinant of structure and diversity of ant assemblages. Following the size-grain hypothesis, smaller ant species are likely to be advantaged in more complex habitats compared to larger species. Habitat complexity can act as an environmental filter based on species size and morphological traits, therefore affecting the overall structure and diversity of ant assemblages. In natural and semi-natural ecosystems, habitat complexity is principally regulated by ecological successions or disturbance such as fire and grazing. Urban ecosystems provide an opportunity to test relationships between habitat, ant assemblage structure and ant traits using novel combinations of habitat complexity generated and sustained by human management. We sampled ant assemblages in low-complexity and high-complexity parks, and high-complexity woodland remnants, hypothesizing that (i) ant abundance and species richness would be higher in high-complexity urban habitats, (ii) ant assemblages would differ between low- and high-complexity habitats and (iii) ants living in high-complexity habitats would be smaller than those living in low-complexity habitats. Contrary to our hypothesis, ant species richness was higher in low-complexity habitats compared to high-complexity habitats. Overall, ant assemblages were significantly different among the habitat complexity types investigated, although ant size and morphology remained the same. Habitat complexity appears to affect the structure of ant assemblages in urban ecosystems as previously observed in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the habitat complexity filter does not seem to be linked to ant morphological traits related to body size. PMID:26528416

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Nine Cyanobacterial Strains from Diverse Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tao; Hou, Shengwei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the annotated draft genome sequences of nine different cyanobacteria, which were originally collected from different habitats, including hot springs, terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments, and cover four of the five morphological subsections of cyanobacteria. PMID:28254973

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Nine Cyanobacterial Strains from Diverse Habitats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Hou, Shengwei; Lu, Xuefeng; Hess, Wolfgang R

    2017-03-02

    Here, we report the annotated draft genome sequences of nine different cyanobacteria, which were originally collected from different habitats, including hot springs, terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments, and cover four of the five morphological subsections of cyanobacteria.

  19. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area, 2004-2006 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul; Wagoner, Sara

    2006-05-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Ladd Marsh Wildlife Management Area (LMWA) in May 2005. The 2005 HEP assessment resulted in a total of 647.44 HUs, or 0.76 HUs/acre. This is an increase of 420.34 HUs (0.49 HUs/acre) over 2001 HEP survey results. The most significant increase in HUs occurred on the Wallender and Simonis parcels which increased by 214.30 HUs and 177.49 HUs respectively. Transects were established at or near 2001 HEP analysis transect locations whenever possible. ODFW staff biologists assisted the RHT re-establish transect locations and/or suggested areas for new surveys. Since 2001, significant changes in cover type acreage and/or structural conditions have occurred due to conversion of agriculture cover types to emergent wetland and grassland cover types. Agricultural lands were seeded to reestablish grasslands and wetlands were restored through active management and manipulation of extant water sources including natural stream hydrology/flood regimes and available irrigation. Grasslands increased on the Wallender parcel by 21% (65 acres), 23% (71 acres) at the Simonis site, and 39% (62 acres) at Conley Lake. The emergent wetland cover type also changed significantly increasing 60% (184 acres) at Wallender and 59% (184 acres) on the Simonis tract. Today, agriculture lands (crop and grazed pasture) have been nearly eliminated from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation project lands located on the LMWA.

  20. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  1. Habitat Suitability analysis of Koklass (Pucrasia macrolopha) Pheasant in Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary of Himachal Pradesh, India using Geospatial Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliza, K.; Sarma, K.

    2014-12-01

    Pheasants are at the brink of destruction due to degradation of forests, environmental pollution, climatic changes and extensive hunting of wild floras and faunas.The problem is more acute in the developing countries where wildlife and biodiversity conservation are often less prioritized due to more pressing demands of food security and poverty alleviation. Koklass Pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha) species is distributed from Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east along the Himalayas to southeastern Tibet, western China and southeastern Mongolia.This species is grouped under endangered species in Red Data Book of Zoological Survey of India and also classified as least concern species according to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Conservation biologists and managers need a range of both classical analyses and specific modern tools to face the increasing threats to biodiversity. Among these tools, habitat-suitability modeling has recently emerged as a relevant technique to assess global impacts to define wide conservation priorities.The present study is carried out using remote sensing satellite imagery and GIS modeling technique for assessing habitat suitability of Koklass Pheasants and finding out the habitat factors influencing the Koklass distribution in Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Effective management and conservation of wildlife populations and their habitats largely depend on our ability to understand and predict species-habitat interactions. Different thematic maps viz., land use/cover, forest types, drainage buffer, multiple ring buffers of sighting locations and multiple ring buffers of roads have been prepared to support the objective of the study. The Weighted Overlay Analysis model is used for identifying different potential areas of habitat for this endangered species. The most suitable area for Koklass Pheasant within the Wildlife Sanctuary is found to be about 23.8 percent of the total area which is due to favourable habitat conditions for the

  2. Larval habitat dynamics and diversity of Culex mosquitoes in rice agro-ecosystem in Mwea, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat I; Gu, Weidong; Jacob, Benjamin G; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of irrigation projects in developing nations has often been blamed for aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases by creating ideal larval habitats for vector mosquitoes. However, whereas several studies have demonstrated the relationship between malaria vectors and irrigation, little work has been done on culicine mosquitoes despite their potential in transmission of filariasis and arboviruses and their significant biting nuisance in these areas. This study examined the diversity of Culex mosquito fauna and their larval habitats at two sites (Murinduko and Kiamachiri) in Mwea, Kenya over a 12-month period. The habitat types present at each site within a 200-meter radius around the study village, including randomly selected paddies and canals, were sampled every two weeks to examine the relationship between vegetation cover, water depth, turbidity, and Culex larval counts. Ten culicine species belonging to four genera were identified, with 73.1% of the total collection comprising of Culex duttoni and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Other species collected included Cx. annulioris, Cx. poicilipes, Cx. cinereus, Cx. tigripes, Cx. trifilatus, Aedes spp., Coquilettidia fuscopennata, and Ficalbia splendens. Murinduko was more diverse than Kiamachiri in terms of species richness (10 versus 7 species) and larval habitat diversity (11 versus 8 habitat types). Paddies, canals, and rain pools were the most diverse habitats in terms of species richness, and ditches, rock pools, and tree holes were the least diverse. Principal component and correlation analyses showed a strong association between three Culex species and the measured habitat characteristics. Culex poicilipes was strongly associated with floating vegetation, Cx. annulioris with clean water containing emergent vegetation, and Cx. quinquefasciatus was associated with turbid water. Seasonal changes in larval counts in water reservoirs and pool and ditch habitats were closely associated with rainfall

  3. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region.

  4. Endangered and potentially endangered wildlife on John F. Kennedy Space Center and faunal integrity as a goal for maintaining biological diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Barkaszi, Mary JO; Smith, Rebecca B.; Oddy, Donna M.; Provancha, Jane A.

    1994-01-01

    Buffer zones for space operations provide for a wildlife diversity unsurpassed among most federal facilities in the continental U.S. demonstrating the coexistence possible with one of man's greatest technological achievements. This document ranks 119 resident or migratory wildlife species that are endangered or declining. The ranking system herein was based on species' vulnerability to extinction and the relevance of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for maintaining populations in the U.S. and Florida. One amphibian, 19 reptiles, 80 birds, and 19 mammals were considered endangered or declining. KSC is an integral area for regional species diversity being the focus of the Merritt Island/Cape Canaveral/Turnbull Ecosystem which is part of the Indian River Lagoon watershed, an estuary of national significance. Many species that use this system also use the nearby St. Johns River Basin ecosystem. These two ecosystems are biological corridors between temperate Carolinian and tropical/subtropical Caribbean biotic provinces. Threats to biological diversity on KSC were also reviewed. Traditional environmental assessments, resulting from environmental regulation guidelines, focus on environmental contaminants and habitat lost due to construction. However, this review suggested that small population sizes, isolation of populations, ecosystem and habitat fragmentation, road mortality, and other edge effects may represent more critical threats to biological diversity than the traditional topics.

  5. Evaluation of methods for collecting blood-engorged mosquitoes from habitats within a wildlife refuge.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Kristina M; Johnson, Gregory D

    2013-06-01

    Mortality of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks attributed to West Nile virus (WNV) prompted field studies on the bionomics of mosquitoes on a wildlife refuge in northern Montana. One component of these studies was to identify blood meal sources for Culex tarsalis, the primary vector of WNV in the region, and the potential bridge vectors Aedes vexans and Culiseta inornata. To accomplish this, 3 methods were evaluated to collect bloodfed mosquitoes: a gasoline powered aspirator, CO2-baited light traps, and fiber pots in shelterbelts consisting of stands of deciduous trees and shrubs and marshes along the lake edge. Fiber pots were also deployed in open fields of prairie grasses. Overall, fiber pots were the most efficient method for collecting engorged Cx. tarsalis and Cs. inornata, largely due to shorter sampling and processing times. Aedes vexans was not collected in fiber pots but was more abundant in aspiration samples than the other 2 species. The optimal location for collecting Cx. tarsalis was dependent on trapping method. Aspirations and fiber pot placements collected more Cx. tarsalis in shelterbelts, while CO2-baited light traps collected more Cx. tarsalis in the marsh habitat. Sixteen avian and 4 mammalian hosts were identified from bloodfed Cx. tarsalis with 46 blood meals derived from birds and 49 from mammals. Aedes vexans and Cs. inornata fed predominantly on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus), respectively. Humans were identified as hosts in 33% of engorged Cx. tarsalis, 4% of engorged Ae. vexans, and 18% of engorged Cs. inornata.

  6. 77 FR 18157 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis polyantha (Pagosa skyrocket), Penstemon debilis (Parachute... of critical habitat for Ipomopsis polyantha (Pagosa skyrocket), Penstemon debilis (Parachute... habitat unit boundaries for Ipomopsis polyantha units 2 and 4, and for Phacelia submutica units 6, 7,...

  7. Road to the Future: Strategies for Wildlife Crossings and Youth Empowerment to Improve Wildlife Habitat in Roaded Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Dawn Renee

    2010-01-01

    As the footprint of human society expands upon the earth, habitat loss and landscape fragmentation is an increasing global problem. That problem includes loss of native habitats as these areas are harvested, converted to agricultural crops, and occupied by human settlement. Roads increase human access to previously inaccessible areas, encourage…

  8. 76 FR 40927 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Course on Kauai, HI AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; receipt... and Wildlife Service, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 3-122, Honolulu, HI 96850. You may also...

  9. Heterogeneity in predator micro-habitat use and the maintenance of Müllerian mimetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Gompert, Zachariah; Willmott, Keith; Elias, Marianne

    2011-07-21

    Müllerian mimicry, where groups of chemically defended species display a common warning color pattern and thereby share the cost of educating predators, is one of the most striking examples of ecological adaptation. Classic models of Müllerian mimicry predict that all unpalatable species of a similar size and form within a community should converge on a single mimetic pattern, but instead communities of unpalatable species often display a remarkable diversity of mimetic patterns (e.g. neotropical ithomiine butterflies). It has been suggested that this apparent paradox may be explained if different suites of predators and species belonging to different mimicry groups utilize different micro-habitats within the community. We developed a stochastic individual-based model for a community of unpalatable mimetic prey species and their predators to evaluate this hypothesis and to examine the effect of predator heterogeneity on prey micro-habitat use. We found that community-level mimetic diversity was higher in simulations with heterogeneous predator micro-habitat use than in simulations with homogeneous predator micro-habitat use. Regardless of the form of predation, mimicry pattern-based assortative mating caused community-level mimetic diversity to persist. Heterogeneity in predator micro-habitat use led to an increased association between mimicry pattern and prey micro-habitat use relative to homogeneous predator micro-habitat use. This increased association was driven, at least in part, by evolutionary convergence of prey micro-habitat use when predators displayed heterogeneous micro-habitat use. These findings provide a theoretical explanation for an important question in evolutionary biology: how is community-level Müllerian mimetic diversity maintained in the face of selection against rare phenotypes?

  10. The impacts of Cenozoic climate and habitat changes on small mammal diversity of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Joshua X.; Hopkins, Samantha S. B.

    2017-02-01

    Through the Cenozoic, paleoclimate records show general trends of global cooling and increased aridity, and environments in North America shifted from predominantly forests to more open habitats. Paleobotanical records indicate grasses were present on the continent in the Eocene; however, paleosol and phytolith studies indicate that open habitats did not arise until the late Eocene or even later in the Oligocene. Studies of large mammalian herbivores have documented changes in ecomorphology and community structure through time, revealing that shifts in mammalian morphology occurred millions of years after the environmental changes thought to have triggered them. Smaller mammals, like rodents and lagomorphs, should more closely track climate and habitat changes due to their shorter generation times and smaller ranges, but these animals have received much less study. To examine changes in smaller mammals through time, we have assembled and analyzed an ecomorphological database of all North American rodent and lagomorph species. Analyses of these data found that rodent and lagomorph community structure changed dramatically through the Cenozoic, and shifts in diversity and ecology correspond closely with the timing of habitat changes. Cenozoic rodent and lagomorph species diversity is strongly biased by sampling of localities, but sampling-corrected diversity reveals diversity dynamics that, after an initial density-dependent diversification in the Eocene, track habitat changes and the appearance of new ecological adaptations. As habitats became more open and arid through time, rodent and lagomorph crown heights increased while burrowing, jumping, and cursorial adaptations became more prevalent. Through time, open-habitat specialists were added during periods of diversification, while closed-habitat taxa were disproportionately lost in subsequent diversity declines. While shifts among rodents and lagomorphs parallel changes in ungulate communities, they started

  11. Developing landscape-scaled habitat selection functions for forest wildlife from Landsat data: Judging black bear habitat quality in Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert Owen

    2003-10-01

    Understanding habitat needs of animal populations is critical for their effective management. In recent years, technological advances have increased the range of methods available to examine habitat selection patterns. However, available habitat data are often either limited to small geographic areas or are of coarse resolution, resulting in a gap in data to model habitat selection at landscape scales. I explored a method of processing Landsat data, the at-satellite reflectance tasseled cap, to address this data gap using black bears in south central Louisiana as a case study. As I showed, this case was particularly instructive because these bears occupy two very different habitat matrices. I examined the information content of resource measures derived from tasseled caps and determined that they contain substantially more information than is represented in coarse habitat maps such as available from the USGS GAP program. Additionally, this process could be applied over large areas and time frames, during different times of the year, and across sensors to produce consistent results that avoid the need to categorize land cover/habitats. I used logistic regression and the information theoretic approach to examine: the spatial scale at which habitat measures were derived, model complexity, and the relative value of groups of derived habitat measures. I grouped derived habitat measures to examine the information content in: images captured in two seasons, measures based on mean and standard deviation filters, and combinations of tasseled cap functions. My work suggests that researchers should consider multiple summary statistics derived over a range of scales, use multi-temporal data, and use all three tasseled cap functions to derive habitat measures. I calculated resource selection functions (RSF) for black bears in south central Louisiana and examined model calibration and discrimination. Mahalanobis distance has been proposed as an alternative to RSF because it does

  12. Habitat influences on diversity of bacteria found on German cockroach in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xue; Ye, Lefu; Ge, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Cockroaches are worldwide indoor pests carrying microorganisms of medical importance. German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) were sampled in five habitats (hospital, restaurant, office home, and market) in Beijing, and the bacteria were isolated from their external surface and alimentary tract and identified using a Biolog identification system. Cockroach densities significantly differed among habitats (market > home > office > restaurant > hospital). However, no significant differences in bacterial abundance carried by individual German cockroaches (of either sex) were found among habitats. The bacterial abundance in the gut was significantly higher than that on the surface. There were no significant differences in bacterial species richness observed among habitats, sex, carrying position or their interaction. Cluster analysis showed that cockroach densities and bacterial abundance found in the market differed significantly from the other four habitats. The bacterial diversity was not significantly reduced in sensitive facilities such as hospital and restaurant, even though pesticide and bactericide were more frequently applied there. The implications of these findings were discussed in this article.

  13. Accuracy of gap analysis habitat models in predicting physical features for wildlife-habitat associations in the southwest U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boykin, K.G.; Thompson, B.C.; Propeck-Gray, S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite widespread and long-standing efforts to model wildlife-habitat associations using remotely sensed and other spatially explicit data, there are relatively few evaluations of the performance of variables included in predictive models relative to actual features on the landscape. As part of the National Gap Analysis Program, we specifically examined physical site features at randomly selected sample locations in the Southwestern U.S. to assess degree of concordance with predicted features used in modeling vertebrate habitat distribution. Our analysis considered hypotheses about relative accuracy with respect to 30 vertebrate species selected to represent the spectrum of habitat generalist to specialist and categorization of site by relative degree of conservation emphasis accorded to the site. Overall comparison of 19 variables observed at 382 sample sites indicated ???60% concordance for 12 variables. Directly measured or observed variables (slope, soil composition, rock outcrop) generally displayed high concordance, while variables that required judgments regarding descriptive categories (aspect, ecological system, landform) were less concordant. There were no differences detected in concordance among taxa groups, degree of specialization or generalization of selected taxa, or land conservation categorization of sample sites with respect to all sites. We found no support for the hypothesis that accuracy of habitat models is inversely related to degree of taxa specialization when model features for a habitat specialist could be more difficult to represent spatially. Likewise, we did not find support for the hypothesis that physical features will be predicted with higher accuracy on lands with greater dedication to biodiversity conservation than on other lands because of relative differences regarding available information. Accuracy generally was similar (>60%) to that observed for land cover mapping at the ecological system level. These patterns demonstrate

  14. Mosquitoes of field and forest: the scale of habitat segregation in a diverse mosquito assemblage.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, M H; Griffin, R H; Janairo, M S; Hopperstad, K A

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of arthropod vectors across a landscape is important in determining the risk for vector-borne disease. This has been well explored for ticks, but not for mosquitoes, despite their importance in the transmission of a variety of pathogens. This study examined the importance of habitat, habitat edges, and the scale at which mosquito abundance and diversity vary in a rural landscape by trapping along transects from grassland areas into forest patches. Significant patterns of vector diversity and distinct mosquito assemblages across habitats were found. The scale of individual species' responses to habitat edges was often dramatic, with several species rarely straying even 10 m from the edge. The present results suggest blood-seeking mosquito species are faithful to certain habitats, which has consequences for patterns of vector diversity and risk for pathogen transmission. This implies that analysts of risk for pathogen transmission and foci of control, and developers of land management strategies should assess habitat at a finer scale than previously considered.

  15. Habitat fragmentation is associated to gut microbiota diversity of an endangered primate: implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Barelli, Claudia; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Pindo, Massimo; Dallago, Chiara; Rovero, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Michael Tuohy, Kieran; Christine Hauffe, Heidi; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of agriculture is shrinking pristine forest areas worldwide, jeopardizing the persistence of their wild inhabitants. The Udzungwa red colobus monkey (Procolobus gordonorum) is among the most threatened primate species in Africa. Primarily arboreal and highly sensitive to hunting and habitat destruction, they provide a critical model to understanding whether anthropogenic disturbance impacts gut microbiota diversity. We sampled seven social groups inhabiting two forests (disturbed vs. undisturbed) in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. While Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae dominated in all individuals, reflecting their role in extracting energy from folivorous diets, analysis of genus composition showed a marked diversification across habitats, with gut microbiota α-diversity significantly higher in the undisturbed forest. Functional analysis suggests that such variation may be associated with food plant diversity in natural versus human-modified habitats, requiring metabolic pathways to digest xenobiotics. Thus, the effects of changes in gut microbiota should not be ignored to conserve endangered populations. PMID:26445280

  16. Habitat fragmentation is associated to gut microbiota diversity of an endangered primate: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Barelli, Claudia; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Pindo, Massimo; Dallago, Chiara; Rovero, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Tuohy, Kieran Michael; Hauffe, Heidi Christine; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2015-10-07

    The expansion of agriculture is shrinking pristine forest areas worldwide, jeopardizing the persistence of their wild inhabitants. The Udzungwa red colobus monkey (Procolobus gordonorum) is among the most threatened primate species in Africa. Primarily arboreal and highly sensitive to hunting and habitat destruction, they provide a critical model to understanding whether anthropogenic disturbance impacts gut microbiota diversity. We sampled seven social groups inhabiting two forests (disturbed vs. undisturbed) in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. While Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae dominated in all individuals, reflecting their role in extracting energy from folivorous diets, analysis of genus composition showed a marked diversification across habitats, with gut microbiota α-diversity significantly higher in the undisturbed forest. Functional analysis suggests that such variation may be associated with food plant diversity in natural versus human-modified habitats, requiring metabolic pathways to digest xenobiotics. Thus, the effects of changes in gut microbiota should not be ignored to conserve endangered populations.

  17. Habitat-based adaptive management at Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Fager, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The 22,743-hectare Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area was purchased in 1976, in part for moose (Alces alces) winter range. Observed moose populations climbed from a low of 7 in 1976 to a high of 56 in 2000. A 4-step management program was initiated in 2000 consisting of definition of management objective, monitoring to determine if the objective was attained, developing a management strategy, and implementing the strategy. The management objective for browse was defined to be: browsing will not preventyoung plants from attaining their potential stature, their growth being primarily limited by local environmental conditions. Asurvey of Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana) in critical moose habitat indicated that browse plants were 100% intensely browsed, suggesting that browsing could prevent willowheightgrowth. Beginning in 2000, willow trend was monitored annually at 4 sites using an index based on the height of the tallest live stem and the height of the tallest, dead intensely browsed stem (LD Index). Low LD Index values indicated that browsing did prevent height growth. In 2000 moose harvest quotas were increased by 40%; in 2002 harvest quotas were increased an additional 7%. From 2000 to 2002, willow growth increased at all 4 locations. From 2002 to 2004, growth indicators changed relatively little at Sullivan Creek, Deep Creek, and French Creek; at these sites willow condition in 2004 had improved compared to willow condition in 2000. From 2002 to 2004, growth indicators declined markedly at American Creek; in 2004, growth indicators at American Creek were lower compared to measurements made in 2000. The improvement of willow condition at 3 sites was likely due to a combination of reduced moose numbers (due to an increase in harvest) and increased dispersal (due to low snow-cover conditions). Over the study period, the sporting public complained of reduced moose sightability; harvest quotas were lowered substantially in 2003.

  18. A Diverse Dozen: Habitats for Healthy School Grounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Paul E., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Since only a few of the original landforms, streams, natural ecosystems, wild plants or animals still exist in our cities and suburbs, schools can help to fill this void by creating diverse learning environments around school buildings. Among the suggestions are a wet area, tall or short grass prairies, a boulder field, vegetable garden plots,…

  19. Effects of Human-Nature Interactions on Wildlife Habitat Dynamics: The Case of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vina, A.; Tuanmu, M.; Yang, W.; Liu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Human activities continue to induce the degradation of natural ecosystems, thus threatening not only the long-term survival of many wildlife species around the world, but also the resilience of natural ecosystems to global environmental changes. In response, many conservation efforts are emerging as adaptive strategies for coping with the degradation of natural ecosystems. Among them, the establishment of nature reserves is considered to be the most effective. However the effectiveness of nature reserves depends on the type and intensity of human activities occurring within their boundaries. But many of these activities constitute important livelihood systems for local human populations. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness of conservation actions without significantly affecting local livelihood systems, it is essential to understand the complexity of human-nature interactions and their effects on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the relation between giant panda habitat dynamics, conservation efforts and human activities in Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas, Sichuan Province, China. This reserve supports ca. 10% of the entire wild giant panda population but is also home to ca. 4,900 local residents. The spatio-temporal dynamics of giant panda habitat over the last four decades were analyzed using a time series of remotely sensed imagery acquired by different satellite sensor systems, including the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner, the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Our assessment suggests that when local residents were actively involved in conservation efforts (through a payment for ecosystem services scheme established since around 2000) panda habitat started to recover, thus enhancing the resilience capacity of natural ecosystems in the Reserve. This reversed a long-term (> 30 years) trend of panda habitat degradation. The study not only has direct

  20. A multivariate assessment of changes in wetland habitat for waterbirds at Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hierl, L.A.; Loftin, C.S.; Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Urban, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed changes in vegetative structure of 49 impoundments at Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR), Maine, USA, between the periods 1984-1985 to 2002 with a multivariate, adaptive approach that may be useful in a variety of wetland and other habitat management situations. We used Mahalanobis Distance (MD) analysis to classify the refuge?s wetlands as poor or good waterbird habitat based on five variables: percent emergent vegetation, percent shrub, percent open water, relative richness of vegetative types, and an interspersion juxtaposition index that measures adjacency of vegetation patches. Mahalanobis Distance is a multivariate statistic that examines whether a particular data point is an outlier or a member of a data cluster while accounting for correlations among inputs. For each wetland, we used MD analysis to quantify a distance from a reference condition defined a priori by habitat conditions measured in MNWR wetlands used by waterbirds. Twenty-five wetlands declined in quality between the two periods, whereas 23 wetlands improved. We identified specific wetland characteristics that may be modified to improve habitat conditions for waterbirds. The MD analysis seems ideal for instituting an adaptive wetland management approach because metrics can be easily added or removed, ranges of target habitat conditions can be defined by field-collected data, and the analysis can identify priorities for single or multiple management objectives.

  1. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  2. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: a ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline.

    PubMed

    Anteau, Michael J; Sherfy, Mark H; Wiltermuth, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m(2)) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  3. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: A ground-nesting bird (Charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006–2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  4. Selection indicates preference in diverse habitats: A Ground-Nesting bird (charadrius melodus) using reservoir shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Sherfy, M.H.; Wiltermuth, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006-2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m 2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies.

  5. Selection Indicates Preference in Diverse Habitats: A Ground-Nesting Bird (Charadrius melodus) Using Reservoir Shoreline

    PubMed Central

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection at fine scales (1, 3, and 10 m) during summers 2006–2009 by comparing characteristics at 351 nests to those of 668 random sites within nesting territories. Plovers selected sites (1 m2) that were lower than unused random sites, increasing the risk of nest inundation. Plovers selected nest sites that were flat, had little silt, and at least 1 cobble; they also selected for 3-m radius nest areas that were relatively flat and devoid of vegetation and litter. Ninety percent of nests had <38% coverage of silt and <10% slope at the site, and <15% coverage of vegetation or litter and <31% slope within the 3-m radius. Gravel was selected for at nest sites (11% median), but against in the area 10-m from the nest, suggesting plovers select for patches or strips of gravel. Although elevation is rarely evaluated in studies of ground-nesting birds, our results underscore its importance in habitat-selection studies. Relative to where plovers historically nested, habitat at SAK has more diverse topography, substrate composition, vegetation communities, and greater water-level fluctuations. Accordingly, our results provide an example of how habitat-selection results can be interpreted as habitat preferences because they are not influenced by desired habitats being scarce or absent. Further, our results will be useful for directing habitat conservation for plovers and interpreting other habitat-selection studies. PMID:22299037

  6. Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations.

  7. 78 FR 61505 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Taylor's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... butterflies. In addition to the relative quality of habitat, there needs to be an avenue for movement, including movement between areas that may not provide high-quality habitat features. Access roads and...

  8. 77 FR 23007 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for Allium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... designated that is considered to be critical habitat. Section 4(b)(2) of the Endangered Species Act states...) The amount and distribution of Allium munzii and Atriplex coronata var. notatior habitat, (b) Which... critical habitat should be considered for exclusion under section 4(b)(2) of the Act and for those...

  9. 75 FR 13715 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull Trout in the Coterminous United States AGENCY: Fish and... of critical habitat for the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) ] under the Endangered Species Act of... January 14, 2010, we published our proposed revised designation of critical habitat for bull trout in...

  10. Parasite load and MHC diversity in undisturbed and agriculturally modified habitats of the ornate dragon lizard.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Jacek; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Levy, Esther; LeBas, Natasha; Babik, Wiesław

    2014-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene polymorphism is thought to be driven by host-parasite co-evolution, but the evidence for an association between the selective pressure from parasites and the number of MHC alleles segregating in a population is scarce and inconsistent. Here, we characterized MHC class I polymorphism in a lizard whose habitat preferences (rock outcrops) lead to the formation of well-defined and stable populations. We investigated the association between the load of ticks, which were used as a proxy for the load of pathogens they transmit, and MHC class I polymorphism across populations in two types of habitat: undisturbed reserves and agricultural land. We hypothesized that the association would be positive across undisturbed reserve populations, but across fragmented agricultural land populations, the relationship would be distorted by the loss of MHC variation due to drift. After controlling for habitat, MHC diversity was not associated with tick number, and the habitats did not differ in this respect. Neither did we detect a difference between habitats in the relationship between MHC and neutral diversity, which was positive across all populations. However, there was extensive variation in the number of MHC alleles per individual, and we found that tick number was positively associated with the average number of alleles carried by lizards across reserve populations, but not across populations from disturbed agricultural land. Our results thus indicate that local differences in selection from parasites may contribute to MHC copy number variation within species, but habitat degradation can distort this relationship.

  11. Prevalence and Lineage Diversity of Avian Haemosporidians from Three Distinct Cerrado Habitats in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Belo, Nayara O.; Pinheiro, Renato T.; Reis, Elivânia S.; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Braga, Érika M.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat alteration can disrupt host–parasite interactions and lead to the emergence of new diseases in wild populations. The cerrado habitat of Brazil is being fragmented and degraded rapidly by agriculture and urbanization. We screened 676 wild birds from three habitats (intact cerrado, disturbed cerrado and transition area Amazonian rainforest-cerrado) for the presence of haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) to determine whether different habitats were associated with differences in the prevalence and diversity of infectious diseases in natural populations. Twenty one mitochondrial lineages, including 11 from Plasmodium and 10 from Haemoproteus were identified. Neither prevalence nor diversity of infections by Plasmodium spp. or Haemoproteus spp. differed significantly among the three habitats. However, 15 of the parasite lineages had not been previously described and might be restricted to these habitats or to the region. Six haemosporidian lineages previously known from other regions, particularly the Caribbean Basin, comprised 50–80% of the infections in each of the samples, indicating a regional relationship between parasite distribution and abundance. PMID:21408114

  12. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lauria, V; Gristina, M; Attrill, M J; Fiorentino, F; Garofalo, G

    2015-08-14

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world's sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400-800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauria, V.; Gristina, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Fiorentino, F.; Garofalo, G.

    2015-08-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world’s sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400-800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lauria, V.; Gristina, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Fiorentino, F.; Garofalo, G.

    2015-01-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world’s sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400–800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26272502

  15. Wildlife and habitat damage assessment from Hurricane Charley: recommendations for recovery of the J. N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J. Michael; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Smith, Thomas J.; Pednault-Willett, Kendra

    2006-01-01

    • On 13 August 2004, the first of four hurricanes to strike Florida in <6 weeks came ashore near J. N. “Ding” Darling National Wildlife Refuge (JNDDNWR) Complex, Sanibel Island, Florida. The eye of Category 4 Hurricane Charley passed just north of Sanibel Island with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (123 knots) and a storm surge of 0.3-2.7 m (1-9 ft). Three USGS-BRD scientists (coastal ecologist and research wildlife biologists) and a USFWS wildlife biologist surveyed the storm damage to JNDDNWR Complex on the ground from 20-24 September 2004. • At the request of United States Fish and Wildlife Service refuge staff, the USGS team concentrated on assessing damage to wetlands and habitat for selected bird populations (especially mangrove forests, Mangrove Cuckoos [Coccyzus minor], and Black-whiskered Vireo [Vireo altiloquus]), waterbird rookeries (mangrove islands), impoundments (waterbirds and waterfowl), sea grass beds (manatees), and upland hardwood hammocks and ridges (threatened eastern indigo snake [Drymarchon couperi]). • The refuge complex sustained moderate to catastrophic damage to vegetation, especially mangrove forests and waterbird nesting or roosting islands. Lumpkin Island, Hemp Island, and Bird Key waterbird nesting areas had >50% and sometimes 90% of their vegetation severely damaged (dead, broken tree stems, and tipped trees). The Shell Mound Trail area of JNDDNWR sustained catastrophic damage to its old growth mangrove forests. Direct storm mortality and injury to manatees in the area of the JNDDNWR Complex was probably slight as manatees may have several strategies to reduce storm mortality. Damage to seagrass beds, an important habitat for manatees, fishes and invertebrates, is believed to be limited to the breach at North Captiva Island. At this breach, refuge staff documented inundation of beds by sand and scarring by trees dragged by winds. • Because seagrass beads and manatee habitat extend beyond refuge boundaries (see p. 28

  16. When does diversity matter? Species functional diversity and ecosystem functioning across habitats and seasons in a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Frainer, André; McKie, Brendan G; Malmqvist, Björn

    2014-03-01

    Despite ample experimental evidence indicating that biodiversity might be an important driver of ecosystem processes, its role in the functioning of real ecosystems remains unclear. In particular, the understanding of which aspects of biodiversity are most important for ecosystem functioning, their importance relative to other biotic and abiotic drivers, and the circumstances under which biodiversity is most likely to influence functioning in nature, is limited. We conducted a field study that focussed on a guild of insect detritivores in streams, in which we quantified variation in the process of leaf decomposition across two habitats (riffles and pools) and two seasons (autumn and spring). The study was conducted in six streams, and the same locations were sampled in the two seasons. With the aid of structural equations modelling, we assessed spatiotemporal variation in the roles of three key biotic drivers in this process: functional diversity, quantified based on a species trait matrix, consumer density and biomass. Our models also accounted for variability related to different litter resources, and other sources of biotic and abiotic variability among streams. All three of our focal biotic drivers influenced leaf decomposition, but none was important in all habitats and seasons. Functional diversity had contrasting effects on decomposition between habitats and seasons. A positive relationship was observed in pool habitats in spring, associated with high trait dispersion, whereas a negative relationship was observed in riffle habitats during autumn. Our results demonstrate that functional biodiversity can be as significant for functioning in natural ecosystems as other important biotic drivers. In particular, variation in the role of functional diversity between seasons highlights the importance of fluctuations in the relative abundances of traits for ecosystem process rates in real ecosystems.

  17. Development of tiger habitat suitability model using geospatial tools-a case study in Achankmar Wildlife Sanctuary (AMWLS), Chhattisgarh India.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Joshi, P K; Kumar, M; Dash, P P; Joshi, B D

    2009-08-01

    Geospatial tools supported by ancillary geo-database and extensive fieldwork regarding the distribution of tiger and its prey in Anchankmar Wildlife Sanctuary (AMWLS) were used to build a tiger habitat suitability model. This consists of a quantitative geographical information system (GIS) based approach using field parameters and spatial thematic information. The estimates of tiger sightings, its prey sighting and predicted distribution with the assistance of contextual environmental data including terrain, road network, settlement and drainage surfaces were used to develop the model. Eight variables in the dataset viz., forest cover type, forest cover density, slope, aspect, altitude, and distance from road, settlement and drainage were seen as suitable proxies and were used as independent variables in the analysis. Principal component analysis and binomial multiple logistic regression were used for statistical treatments of collected habitat parameters from field and independent variables respectively. The assessment showed a strong expert agreement between the predicted and observed suitable areas. A combination of the generated information and published literature was also used while building a habitat suitability map for the tiger. The modeling approach has taken the habitat preference parameters of the tiger and potential distribution of prey species into account. For assessing the potential distribution of prey species, independent suitability models were developed and validated with the ground truth. It is envisaged that inclusion of the prey distribution probability strengthens the model when a key species is under question. The results of the analysis indicate that tiger occur throughout the sanctuary. The results have been found to be an important input as baseline information for population modeling and natural resource management in the wildlife sanctuary. The development and application of similar models can help in better management of the protected

  18. Restoring habitat permeability to roaded landscapes with isometrically-scaled wildlife crossings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.; Adair, W.

    2008-01-01

    Globally, human activities impact from one-third to one-half of the earth's land surface; a major component of development involves the construction of roads. In the US and Europe, road networks fragment normal animal movement patterns, reduce landscape permeability, and increase wildlife-vehicle collisions, often with serious wildlife population and human health consequences. Critically, the placement of wildlife crossing structures to restore landscape connectivity and reduce the number of wildlife-vehicle collisions has been a hit-or-miss proposition with little ecological underpinning, however recent important developments in allometric scaling laws can be used to guide their placement. In this paper, we used cluster analysis to develop domains of scale for mammalian species groups having similar vagility and developed metrics that reflect realistic species movement dynamics. We identified six home range area domains; three quarters of 102 species clustered in the three smallest domains. We used HR0.5 to represent a daily movement metric; when individual species movements were plotted against road mile markers, 71.2% of 72 species found in North America were included at distances of ???1 mi. The placement of wildlife crossings based on the HR0.5 metric, along with appropriate auxiliary mitigation, will re-establish landscape permeability by facilitating wildlife movement across the roaded landscape and significantly improve road safety by reducing wildlife vehicle collisions.

  19. Species diversity, selectivity, and habitat associations of small mammals from coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, Gary M.

    1994-01-01

    Species diversity and habitat associations were documented for small mammals along 16 transects in a semiarid part of coastal California. Peromyscus were the most abundant, comprising 45.3% of all captures, followed by Dipodomys (21.2%), Neotoma (15.1%), and Perognathus (15.0%). Five additional genera made up the remaining captures (3.4%). Peromyscus truei and Perognathus californicus were both common and widespread, accounting for 42.1% of all captures. Both species were found on all but one transect. Neotoma lepida, the third most common species, was captured on rock transects 96% of the time. Dipodomys elephantinus was the fifth most common species, and was found exclusively in chamise chaparral. Species diversity (H') averaged 1.22 and ranged from 0.33 on a chamise chaparral transect to 1.74 on another chamise chaparral transect which crossed the edge of a burn. Nearly all transects demonstrated this same trend for diversity to vary widely both within and between habitats, indicating that local conditions were more of an influence on diversity than broad habitat types. Selectivity, averaged across the ten most common species, was only 0.06, indicating that habitat selectivity was quite low. The most geographically widespread species, Peromyscus maniculatus, was the least selective (0.03), whereas the two species with the smallest geographic ranges, D. venustus and D. elephantinus, showed the greatest habitat selectivity (0.11 and 0.20, respectively). These values are much lower than those reported from short-term studies and suggest that, like species diversity, brief studies may not accurately reflect community-level interactions.

  20. Remotely sensed indicators of habitat heterogeneity and biological diversity: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc; Sisk, Thomas; Milne, Anthony; Morgan, Garth; Orr, Tony

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between habitat area, spatial dynamics of the landscape, and species diversity is an important theme in population and conservation biology. Of particular interest is how populations of various species are affected by increasing habitat edges due to fragmentation. Over the last decade, assumptions regarding the effects of habitat edges on biodiversity have fluctuated wildly, from the belief that they have a positive effect to the belief that they have a clearly negative effect. This change in viewpoint has been brought about by an increasing recognition of the importance of geographic scale and a reinterpretation of natural history observations. In this preliminary report from an ongoing project, we explore the use of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to further our understanding of how species diversity and population density are affected by habitat heterogeneity and landscape composition. A primary feature of this study is the investigation of SAR for making more rigorous investigations of habitat structure by exploiting the interaction between radar backscatter and vegetation structure and biomass. A major emphasis will be on the use of SAR data to define relative structural types based on measures of structural consolidation using the vegetation surface area to volume ratio (SA/V). Past research has shown that SAR may be sensitive to this form of structural expression which may affect biodiversity.

  1. Fine-scale habitat structure complexity determines insectivorous bird diversity in a tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño-Villa, Gabriel J.; Ramos-Valencia, Santiago A.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.

    2014-11-01

    Habitat complexity in reforested stands has been acknowledged as a key factor that influences habitat use by birds, being especially critical for habitat disturbance-sensitive species such as tropical understory insectivorous birds. Most studies regarding the relationship between forest structure and species diversity were conducted at the landscape scale, but different diversity patterns may emerge at a finer scale (i.e., within a habitat patch). We examined a tropical reforested area (State of Caldas, Colombia), hypothesizing that insectivorous bird richness, abundance, and foraging guild abundance would increase as intra-habitat complexity increases. We established 40 monitoring plots within a reforested area, measured their structural features, and determined their relationships with species richness, total abundance, and foraging guild abundance, using Generalized Additive Models. We found that the increasing variation in basal area, stem diameter, and number of stems was positively correlated with species richness, total abundance, and foraging guild abundance. Relationships between richness or abundance and structural features were not lineal, but showing curvilinear responses and thresholds. Our results show that heterogeneity on basal area, stem diameter, and the number of stems was more correlated to insectivorous bird richness and abundance than the average of those structural features. Promoting structural variation on reforested areas by planting species with different growth rates may contribute to increase the richness and abundance of a tropical vulnerable group of species such as the understory insectivorous birds.

  2. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A.

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  3. Grazer diversity interacts with biogenic habitat heterogeneity to accelerate intertidal algal succession.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Matthew A; Aquilino, Kristin M; Stachowicz, John J

    2016-08-01

    Environmental heterogeneity contributes to coexistence by allowing species with different traits to persist when different species perform best at different times or places. This interaction between niche differences and environmental variability may also help explain relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but few data are available to rigorously evaluate this hypothesis. We assessed how a biologically relevant aspect of environmental heterogeneity interacts with species diversity to determine ecosystem processes in a natural rocky intertidal community. We used field removals to factorially manipulate biogenic habitat heterogeneity (barnacles, bare rock, and plots that were 50/50 mixes of the two habitat types) and gastropod grazer species richness and then tracked algal community succession and recovery over the course of 1 yr. We found that herbivore diversity, substrate heterogeneity, and their interaction played unique roles in the peak abundance and timing of occurrence of different algal functional groups. Early successional microalgae were most heavily grazed in diverse herbivore assemblages and those with barnacles present, which was likely due to complementary feeding strategies among all three grazers. In contrast, late successional macroalgae were strongly influenced by the presence of a habitat generalist limpet. In this herbivore's absence, heterogeneous habitats (i.e., mixtures of bare rock and barnacles) experienced the greatest algal accumulation, which was partly a result of complementary habitat use by the remaining herbivores. The complex way habitat identity and heterogeneity altered grazer-algal interactions in our study suggests species' differences and environmental heterogeneity both separately and interactively contribute to the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functions.

  4. Effects of Surface-Water Diversions on Habitat Availability for Native Macrofauna, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Wolff, Reuben H.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of surface-water diversions on habitat availability for native stream fauna (fish, shrimp, and snails) are described for 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. Five streams (Waikamoi, Honomanu, Wailuanui, Kopiliula, and Hanawi Streams) were chosen as representative streams for intensive study. On each of the five streams, three representative reaches were selected: (1) immediately upstream of major surface-water diversions, (2) midway to the coast, and (3) near the coast. This study focused on five amphidromous native aquatic species (alamoo, nopili, nakea, opae, and hihiwai) that are abundant in the study area. The Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) System, which incorporates hydrology, stream morphology and microhabitat preferences to explore relations between streamflow and habitat availability, was used to simulate habitat/discharge relations for various species and life stages, and to provide quantitative habitat comparisons at different streamflows of interest. Hydrologic data, collected over a range of low-flow discharges, were used to calibrate hydraulic models of selected transects across the streams. The models were then used to predict water depth and velocity (expressed as a Froude number) over a range of discharges up to estimates of natural median streamflow. The biological importance of the stream hydraulic attributes was then assessed with the statistically derived suitability criteria for each native species and life stage that were developed as part of this study to produce a relation between discharge and habitat availability. The final output was expressed as a weighted habitat area of streambed for a representative stream reach. PHABSIM model results are presented to show the area of estimated usable bed habitat over a range of streamflows relative to natural conditions. In general, the models show a continuous decrease in habitat for all modeled species as streamflow is decreased from natural conditions. The PHABSIM modeling results

  5. Meta-analysis of susceptibility of woody plants to loss of genetic diversity through habitat fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Vranckx, Guy; Jacquemyn, Hans; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    Shrubs and trees are assumed less likely to lose genetic variation in response to habitat fragmentation because they have certain life-history characteristics such as long lifespans and extensive pollen flow. To test this assumption, we conducted a meta-analysis with data on 97 woody plant species derived from 98 studies of habitat fragmentation. We measured the weighted response of four different measures of population-level genetic diversity to habitat fragmentation with Hedge's d and Spearman rank correlation. We tested whether the genetic response to habitat fragmentation was mediated by life-history traits (longevity, pollination mode, and seed dispersal vector) and study characteristics (genetic marker and plant material used). For both tests of effect size habitat fragmentation was associated with a substantial decrease in expected heterozygosity, number of alleles, and percentage of polymorphic loci, whereas the population inbreeding coefficient was not associated with these measures. The largest proportion of variation among effect sizes was explained by pollination mechanism and by the age of the tissue (progeny or adult) that was genotyped. Our primary finding was that wind-pollinated trees and shrubs appeared to be as likely to lose genetic variation as insect-pollinated species, indicating that severe habitat fragmentation may lead to pollen limitation and limited gene flow. In comparison with results of previous meta-analyses on mainly herbaceous species, we found trees and shrubs were as likely to have negative genetic responses to habitat fragmentation as herbaceous species. We also found that the genetic variation in offspring was generally less than that of adult trees, which is evidence of a genetic extinction debt and probably reflects the genetic diversity of the historical, less-fragmented landscape.

  6. Unexpected diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in wildlife in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gesy, Karen M.; Schurer, Janna M.; Massolo, Alessandro; Liccioli, Stefano; Elkin, Brett T.; Alisauskas, Ray; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic cestode with a distribution encompassing the northern hemisphere that causes alveolar hydatid disease in people and other aberrant hosts. E.multilocularis is not genetically uniform across its distribution, which may have implications for zoonotic transmission and pathogenicity. Recent findings of a European-type haplotype of E. multilocularis in wildlife in one location in western Canada motivated a broader survey of the diversity of this parasite in wildlife from northern and western Canada. We obtained intact adult cestodes of E. multilocularis from the intestines of 41 wild canids (wolf – Canis lupus, coyote – Canis latrans, and red fox – Vulpes vulpes), taeniid eggs from 28 fecal samples from Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), and alveolar hydatid cysts from 39 potential rodent intermediate hosts. Upon sequencing a 370-nucelotide region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) mitochondrial locus, 17 new haplotypes were identified. This constitutes a much higher diversity than expected, as only two genotypes (European and an Asian/North American) had previously been identified using this locus. The European-type strain, recently introduced, may be widespread in wildlife within western Canada, possibly related to the large home ranges and wide dispersal range of wild canids. This study increased understanding of the biogeographic distribution, prevalence and genetic differences of a globally important pathogenic cestode in northern and western Canada. PMID:25161905

  7. Iskuulpa Watershed Management Plan : A Five-Year Plan for Protecting and Enhancing Fish and Wildlife Habitats in the Iskuulpa Watershed.

    SciTech Connect

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2003-01-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.

  8. 76 FR 66805 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... for Black Abalone; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 208 / Thursday, October 27, 2011... Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), hereby designate critical habitat for the endangered black abalone...

  9. 78 FR 59429 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... critical habitat proposed rule also addresses issues raised by two courts in 2010. If we finalize this rule... introduction efforts in Colorado. This rule would revise the designation of critical habitat for the lynx DPS... of the DPS should be included in the designation and why; (c) Special management considerations...

  10. 78 FR 25679 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... salamander (Eurycea nana), and Texas wild-rice (Zizania texana). Comal Springs has critical habitat... affecting the critical habitat of the listed fountain darter, San Marcos salamander, and Texas wild- rice... in place for the fountain darter, San Marcos salamander, and Texas wild-rice. In...

  11. 75 FR 31387 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... critical habitat designation. The proposed critical habitat is located within Forrest, Harrison, Jackson... 2001, this species occurred at only one site, Glen's Pond, in the DeSoto National Forest in Harrison... potential. These sites occur on the DeSoto National Forest (Harrison, Forrest, and Perry Counties), the...

  12. 78 FR 49831 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... habitat will result in the extinction of the species. We are preparing an economic analysis of the proposed designations of critical habitat. We are preparing an analysis of the economic impacts of the... economic analysis as soon as it is completed, at which time we will seek additional public review...

  13. 77 FR 36727 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... our intent to discuss in this final rule only those topics directly relevant to the development and... line landward (Huppert et al. 2009, p. 285). In our development of this critical habitat designation... habitat and development conditions that would adversely impact plovers were they to use the sites....

  14. 76 FR 16045 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Pacific Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... trend associated with climate change (see Critical Habitat Units section). (4) Specific information on... development of our final determination, find that areas included ] in this proposal do not meet the definition... development) of offspring; and (5) Habitats that are protected from disturbance or are representative of...

  15. 78 FR 24007 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Eriogonum codium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT). Any additional tools or supporting information that we may develop for this critical... current best assessment of the areas that meet the definition of critical habitat for Umtanum desert... assessments, or other unpublished materials and expert opinion or personal knowledge. Habitat is dynamic,...

  16. 76 FR 36068 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Sonoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Sonoma County Distinct Population Segment of the California Tiger... Sonoma County Distinct Population Segment of the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense... (ac) (22,580 hectares (ha)) of land as critical habitat for the Sonoma California tiger salamander....

  17. 78 FR 77289 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... 916-414-6600; facsimile 916-414-6612. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call... we call a Federal nexus). Because critical habitat only applies to activities implemented by a... identified by SFRPD as important bird habitat, and expressed concern that designation of these locations...

  18. 78 FR 343 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Southwestern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... middle Rio Grande and upper Gila River in New Mexico, and Roosevelt Lake and the San Pedro and Gila River...) segment of the San Francisco River at Luna Lake, Arizona, which we proposed for designation, does not... have the ability to develop into flycatcher nesting habitat. The habitat surrounding Luna Lake...

  19. Relative Effects of Road Risk, Habitat Suitability, and Connectivity on Wildlife Roadkills: The Case of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sara M.; Lourenço, Rui; Mira, António; Beja, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite its importance for reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions, there is still incomplete understanding of factors responsible for high road mortality. In particular, few empirical studies examined the idea that spatial variation in roadkills is influenced by a complex interplay between road-related factors, and species-specific habitat quality and landscape connectivity. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we addressed this issue, using a 7-year dataset of tawny owl (Strix aluco) roadkills recorded along 37 km of road in southern Portugal. We used a multi-species roadkill index as a surrogate of intrinsic road risk, and we used a Maxent distribution model to estimate habitat suitability. Landscape connectivity was estimated from least-cost paths between tawny owl territories, using habitat suitability as a resistance surface. We defined 10 alternative scenarios to compute connectivity, based on variation in potential movement patterns according to territory quality and dispersal distance thresholds. Hierarchical partitioning of a regression model indicated that independent variation in tawny owl roadkills was explained primarily by the roadkill index (70.5%) and, to a much lesser extent, by landscape connectivity (26.2%), while habitat suitability had minor effects (3.3%). Analysis of connectivity scenarios suggested that owl roadkills were primarily related to short range movements (<5 km) between high quality territories. Tawny owl roadkills were spatially autocorrelated, but the introduction of spatial filters in the regression model did not change the type and relative contribution of environmental variables. Conclusions Overall, results suggest that road-related factors may have a dominant influence on roadkill patterns, particularly in areas like ours where habitat quality and landscape connectivity are globally high for the study species. Nevertheless, the study supported the view that functional connectivity should be incorporated

  20. Patterns of bacterial diversity across a range of Antarctic terrestrial habitats.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Newsham, Kevin K; Pearce, David A; Kowalchuk, George A

    2007-11-01

    Although soil-borne bacteria represent the world's greatest source of biological diversity, it is not well understood whether extreme environmental conditions, such as those found in Antarctic habitats, result in reduced soil-borne microbial diversity. To address this issue, patterns of bacterial diversity were studied in soils sampled along a > 3200 km southern polar transect spanning a gradient of increased climate severity over 27 degrees of latitude. Vegetated and fell-field plots were sampled at the Falkland (51 degrees S), South Georgia (54 degrees S), Signy (60 degrees S) and Anchorage Islands (67 degrees S), while bare frost-sorted soil polygons were examined at Fossil Bluff (71 degrees S), Mars Oasis (72 degrees S), Coal Nunatak (72 degrees S) and the Ellsworth Mountains (78 degrees S). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were recovered subsequent to direct DNA extraction from soil, polymerase chain reaction amplification and cloning. Although bacterial diversity was observed to decline with increased latitude, habitat-specific patterns appeared to also be important. Namely, a negative relationship was found between bacterial diversity and latitude for fell-field soils, but no such pattern was observed for vegetated sites. The Mars Oasis site, previously identified as a biodiversity hotspot within this region, proved exceptional within the study transect, with unusually high bacterial diversity. In independent analyses, geographical distance and vegetation cover were found to significantly influence bacterial community composition. These results provide insight into the factors shaping the composition of bacterial communities in Antarctic terrestrial habitats and support the notion that bacterial diversity declines with increased climatic severity.

  1. Diversity and activity pattern of wildlife inhabiting catchment of Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Dam, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adyla, M. N. Nurul; Ikhwan, Z.; Zuhairi, M.; Ngah, Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    A series of camera trapping surveys were conducted to study the diversity and distribution of wildlife within the catchment of Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Dam. A total of 124 camera traps were deployed at nine study sites, continuously from June 2014 until December 2015. The total effort of camera trap surveys from all the study sites during the 18-month sampling period was 29,128 night traps, from which a total of 32 species of wildlife representing nine Orders were recorded. The most common species were Eurasian Wild Pig (Sus scrofa), Barking Deer (Munticus muntjak), and Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus). Camera trap data on activity patterns show that Gallus gallus, Muntiacus muntjak and Sus scrofa are diurnal animals, whereas Tapirus indicus, Elephas maximus and Helarctos malayanus are nocturnal animals.

  2. Disentangling vegetation diversity from climate-energy and habitat heterogeneity for explaining animal geographic patterns.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytrý, Milan; Mucina, Ladislav; Grace, James B; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    Broad-scale animal diversity patterns have been traditionally explained by hypotheses focused on climate-energy and habitat heterogeneity, without considering the direct influence of vegetation structure and composition. However, integrating these factors when considering plant-animal correlates still poses a major challenge because plant communities are controlled by abiotic factors that may, at the same time, influence animal distributions. By testing whether the number and variation of plant community types in Europe explain country-level diversity in six animal groups, we propose a conceptual framework in which vegetation diversity represents a bridge between abiotic factors and animal diversity. We show that vegetation diversity explains variation in animal richness not accounted for by altitudinal range or potential evapotranspiration, being the best predictor for butterflies, beetles, and amphibians. Moreover, the dissimilarity of plant community types explains the highest proportion of variation in animal assemblages across the studied regions, an effect that outperforms the effect of climate and their shared contribution with pure spatial variation. Our results at the country level suggest that vegetation diversity, as estimated from broad-scale classifications of plant communities, may contribute to our understanding of animal richness and may be disentangled, at least to a degree, from climate-energy and abiotic habitat heterogeneity.

  3. Disentangling vegetation diversity from climate–energy and habitat heterogeneity for explaining animal geographic patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jimenez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytry, Milan; Mucina, Ladislav; Grace, James B.; Rejmanek, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Broad-scale animal diversity patterns have been traditionally explained by hypotheses focused on climate–energy and habitat heterogeneity, without considering the direct influence of vegetation structure and composition. However, integrating these factors when considering plant–animal correlates still poses a major challenge because plant communities are controlled by abiotic factors that may, at the same time, influence animal distributions. By testing whether the number and variation of plant community types in Europe explain country-level diversity in six animal groups, we propose a conceptual framework in which vegetation diversity represents a bridge between abiotic factors and animal diversity. We show that vegetation diversity explains variation in animal richness not accounted for by altitudinal range or potential evapotranspiration, being the best predictor for butterflies, beetles, and amphibians. Moreover, the dissimilarity of plant community types explains the highest proportion of variation in animal assemblages across the studied regions, an effect that outperforms the effect of climate and their shared contribution with pure spatial variation. Our results at the country level suggest that vegetation diversity, as estimated from broad-scale classifications of plant communities, may contribute to our understanding of animal richness and may be disentangled, at least to a degree, from climate–energy and abiotic habitat heterogeneity.

  4. Diversity and habitat association of small mammals in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    BANTIHUN, Getachew; BEKELE, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Here, we conducted a survey to examine the diversity, distribution and habitat association of small mammals from August 2011 to February 2012 incorporating both wet and dry seasons in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia. Using Sherman live traps and snap traps in four randomly selected trapping grids, namely, natural forest, bushland, grassland and farmland, a total of 468 individuals comprising eight species of small mammals (live traps) and 89 rodents of six species (snap traps) were trapped in 2352 and 1200 trap nights, respectively. The trapped small mammals included seven rodents and one insectivore: Lophuromys flavopuntatus (30.6%), Arvicanthis dembeensis (25.8%), Stenocephalemys albipes (20%), Mastomys natalensis (11.6%), Pelomys harringtoni (6.4%), Acomys cahirinus (4.3%), Lemniscomys zebra (0.2%) and the greater red musk shrew (Crocidura flavescens, 1.1%). Analysis showed statistically significant variations in the abundance and habitat preferences of small mammals between habitats during wet and dry seasons. PMID:25855227

  5. Diversity and habitat association of small mammals in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bantihun, Getachew; Bekele, Afework

    2015-03-18

    Here, we conducted a survey to examine the diversity, distribution and habitat association of small mammals from August 2011 to February 2012 incorporating both wet and dry seasons in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia. Using Sherman live traps and snap traps in four randomly selected trapping grids, namely, natural forest, bushland, grassland and farmland, a total of 468 individuals comprising eight species of small mammals (live traps) and 89 rodents of six species (snap traps) were trapped in 2352 and 1200 trap nights, respectively. The trapped small mammals included seven rodents and one insectivore: Lophuromys flavopuntatus (30.6%), Arvicanthis dembeensis (25.8%), Stenocephalemys albipes (20%), Mastomys natalensis (11.6%), Pelomys harringtoni (6.4%), Acomys cahirinus (4.3%), Lemniscomys zebra (0.2%) and the greater red musk shrew (Crocidura flavescens, 1.1%). Analysis showed statistically significant variations in the abundance and habitat preferences of small mammals between habitats during wet and dry seasons.

  6. Inorganic species distribution and microbial diversity within high Arctic cryptoendolithic habitats.

    PubMed

    Omelon, Christopher R; Pollard, Wayne H; Ferris, F Grant

    2007-11-01

    Cryptoendolithic habitats in the Canadian high Arctic are associated with a variety of microbial community assemblages, including cyanobacteria, algae, and fungi. These habitats were analyzed for the presence of metal ions by sequential extraction and evaluated for relationships between these and the various microorganisms found at each site using multivariate statistical methods. Cyanobacteria-dominated communities exist under higher pH conditions with elevated concentrations of calcium and magnesium, whereas communities dominated by fungi and algae are characterized by lower pH conditions and higher concentrations of iron, aluminum, and silicon in the overlying surfaces. These results suggest that the activity of the dominant microorganisms controls the pH of the surrounding environment, which in turn dictates rates of weathering or the possibility for surface crust formation, both ultimately deciding the structure of microbial diversity for each cryptoendolithic habitat.

  7. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, J. R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ostrand, Kenneth G.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donley, Erin E.; Ke, Yinghai; Buenau, Kate E.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the 2010 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project EST-P-09-1, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, and known as the 'Salmon Benefits' study. The primary goal of the study is to establish scientific methods to quantify habitat restoration benefits to listed salmon and trout in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) in three required areas: habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival (Figure ES.1). The general study approach was to first evaluate the state of the science regarding the ability to quantify benefits to listed salmon and trout from habitat restoration actions in the LCRE in the 2009 project year, and then, if feasible, in subsequent project years to develop quantitative indices of habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival. Based on the 2009 literature review, the following definitions are used in this study. Habitat connectivity is defined as a landscape descriptor concerning the ability of organisms to move among habitat patches, including the spatial arrangement of habitats (structural connectivity) and how the perception and behavior of salmon affect the potential for movement among habitats (functional connectivity). Life history is defined as the combination of traits exhibited by an organism throughout its life cycle, and for the purposes of this investigation, a life history strategy refers to the body size and temporal patterns of estuarine usage exhibited by migrating juvenile salmon. Survival is defined as the probability of fish remaining alive over a defined amount of space and/or time. The objectives of the 4-year study are as follows: (1) develop and test a quantitative index of juvenile salmon habitat connectivity in the LCRE incorporating structural, functional, and hydrologic components; (2) develop

  8. Selection of roosting habitat by forest bats in a diverse forested landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, R.W.; Thill, R.E.; Leslie, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies of roost selection by forest-dwelling bats have concentrated on microhabitat surrounding roosts without providing forest stand-level preferences of bats; thus, those studies have provided only part of the information needed by managers. We evaluated diurnal summer roost selection by the bat community at the forest-stand level in a diversely forested landscape in the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas. Over a 6-year period, we evaluated 428 roost locations for 162 individual bats of 6 species. Using Euclidean distance analysis and individual bat as the experimental unit, all 6 species were selective (P < 0.05) in their choice of roosting habitat. Five of six species preferred (P < 0.05) to roost in or near mature (???50 years old), mixed pine-hardwood forest that had undergone recent partial harvest, midstory removal, and burning; 41.3% of roosts were located in that habitat but it comprised an average of only 22.8% of available habitat. Five of six species also preferred older (???100 years old), relatively unmanaged, mixed pine-hardwood forest. Although 19.9% of roosts from all species were located in 50- to 99-year-old, second-growth forests of mixed pine-hardwood (average of 21.0% of available habitat), that habitat was preferred by no species of bat. In partially harvested stands, unharvested buffer strips (greenbelts) surrounding ephemeral streams were used at differing levels by each species; most (90%) eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus) roosts were in greenbelts whereas few (2.7%) Seminole bat (Lasiurus seminolus) roosts were in greenbelts. Older forests, thinned mature forests with reduced midstories, and greenbelts retained in harvested areas were all important roosting habitats for the bat community in the Ouachita Mountains. Our results demonstrate the importance of open forest conditions and a diversity of stand types to bat communities of the southeastern U.S.

  9. Predicted effect of landscape position on wildlife habitat value of Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program wetlands in a tile-drained agricultural region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, David L.; Crumpton, William R.; Green, David; Loan-Wilsey, Anna; Cooper, Tom; Johnson, Rex R.

    2013-01-01

    Justification for investment in restored or constructed wetland projects are often based on presumed net increases in ecosystem services. However, quantitative assessment of performance metrics is often difficult and restricted to a single objective. More comprehensive performance assessments could help inform decision-makers about trade-offs in services provided by alternative restoration program design attributes. The primary goal of the Iowa Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program is to establish wetlands that efficiently remove nitrates from tile-drained agricultural landscapes. A secondary objective is provision of wildlife habitat. We used existing wildlife habitat models to compare relative net change in potential wildlife habitat value for four alternative landscape positions of wetlands within the watershed. Predicted species richness and habitat value for birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles generally increased as the wetland position moved lower in the watershed. However, predicted average net increase between pre- and post-project value was dependent on taxonomic group. The increased average wetland area and changes in surrounding upland habitat composition among landscape positions were responsible for these differences. Net change in predicted densities of several grassland bird species at the four landscape positions was variable and species-dependent. Predicted waterfowl breeding activity was greater for lower drainage position wetlands. Although our models are simplistic and provide only a predictive index of potential habitat value, we believe such assessment exercises can provide a tool for coarse-level comparisons of alternative proposed project attributes and a basis for constructing informed hypotheses in auxiliary empirical field studies.

  10. Psychrophilic yeasts from worldwide glacial habitats: diversity, adaptation strategies and biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, Pietro; Branda, Eva; Goretti, Marta; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2012-11-01

    Glacial habitats (cryosphere) include some of the largest unexplored and extreme biospheres on Earth. These habitats harbor a wide diversity of psychrophilic prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. These highly specialized microorganisms have developed adaptation strategies to overcome the direct and indirect life-endangering influence of low temperatures. For many years Antarctica has been the geographic area preferred by microbiologists for studying the diversity of psychrophilic microorganisms (including yeasts). However, there have been an increasing number of studies on psychrophilic yeasts sharing the non-Antarctic cryosphere. The present paper provides an overview of the distribution and adaptation strategies of psychrophilic yeasts worldwide. Attention is also focused on their biotechnological potential, especially on their exploitation as a source of cold-active enzymes and for bioremediation purposes.

  11. 77 FR 35117 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Dusky Gopher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... obligations under the Act. Land in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Forrest, Harrison, Jackson, and Perry... (4,933 acres) are designated as critical habitat in Forrest, Harrison, Jackson, and Perry...

  12. 77 FR 54517 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Franciscan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... maps are generated are included in the administrative record for this critical habitat designation and... will sustain an active pollinator community and facilitate mixing of genes within and among...

  13. 76 FR 68710 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Revise Critical Habitat for Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... public comment period. SUMMARY: We, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), published a proposed rule... Branch Chief, Protected Resources Division, National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands...

  14. 76 FR 39807 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lepidium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... effects of climate change. (3) Land use designations and current or planned activities in the subject... climate change on Lepidium papilliferum and on the critical habitat areas we are proposing. (8) Whether...

  15. 78 FR 47612 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Sharpnose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... provide us (see the Information Requested section below for more information). Coordinates or plot points: The coordinates or plot points or both from which the proposed critical habitat maps are generated...

  16. 78 FR 39835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... plot points, or both, from which the maps were generated are included in the administrative record for... of the critical habitat designation. The coordinates or plot points or both on which each map...

  17. The role of habitat patches on mammalian diversity in cork oak agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosalino, Luis M.; Rosário, João do; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2009-07-01

    Habitat patches, depending on the degree of differentiation from the matrix, can add few or many elements to the species pool of a particular landscape. Their importance to biodiversity is particularly relevant in areas with complex landscapes, where natural, naturalized, or managed habitats are interspersed by small patches of habitat types with very different biophysical characteristics; e.g., fruit orchards and riparian areas. This is the case of the montado landscape, a cork oak agroforestry system that largely covers south-western Portugal. We evaluated whether the high mammalian biodiversity found in this system is, in part, the cumulative result of the species found in the non-matrix habitats. Our results indicate that in areas where there are inclusions of orchards/olive yards and riparian vegetation in the cork oak woodland, a significantly higher number of mammalian species are present. We further detected a positive effect of low human disturbance on mammal diversity. Ultimately, our results can be used by managers to augment their management options, since we show that the inclusion and maintenance of non-matrix habitat patches in cork oak agro-silvo-forestry systems can help to maximize mammal biodiversity without compromising services associated with agriculture and forestry.

  18. Rattan (Calamoideae) Diversity and Biomass Change in Different Habitat Types During Two Years.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Nadine; Mansor, Asyraf; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Rattans (subfamily Calamoideae) are an important component of the forests of the Old World. However, few studies have been conducted on the distribution of these abundant palms within different habitats, specifically in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was aimed at assessing rattan diversity, abundance and biomass change across two different habitat types, namely, dipterocarp forests and fresh-water swamps within the Segari Melintang Forest Reserve, Perak, within two years. All rattan stems within five 100 m × 100 m sized study plots (A-E) of the two habitat types were counted in 2011 and 2013, and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices were calculated. A total of 11 species from 5 genera (161 stems ha(-1)) were sampled. Rattan abundance was higher in all swamp plots; however, rattan diversity (H') was highest in the dipterocarp plot (D: H' (2011)1.79; H' (2013)1.84). Bray-Curtis indices of rattan abundance (highest similarity in swamp: plot BC(2011) 0.484, BC(2013) 0.262) and biomass were highest for study plots with the same vegetation types in both years. For rattan biomass, the most similar plot pairs changed during the years: dipterocarp plots A and D were most similar in 2011 (0.509), and swamp plots B and C were most similar in 2013 (0.282). This study helped contribute information regarding the distribution and dynamics of rattans in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia.

  19. Rattan (Calamoideae) Diversity and Biomass Change in Different Habitat Types During Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Ruppert, Nadine; Mansor, Asyraf; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Rattans (subfamily Calamoideae) are an important component of the forests of the Old World. However, few studies have been conducted on the distribution of these abundant palms within different habitats, specifically in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was aimed at assessing rattan diversity, abundance and biomass change across two different habitat types, namely, dipterocarp forests and fresh-water swamps within the Segari Melintang Forest Reserve, Perak, within two years. All rattan stems within five 100 m × 100 m sized study plots (A–E) of the two habitat types were counted in 2011 and 2013, and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H′) and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices were calculated. A total of 11 species from 5 genera (161 stems ha−1) were sampled. Rattan abundance was higher in all swamp plots; however, rattan diversity (H′) was highest in the dipterocarp plot (D: H′ (2011)1.79; H′ (2013)1.84). Bray-Curtis indices of rattan abundance (highest similarity in swamp: plot BC(2011) 0.484, BC(2013) 0.262) and biomass were highest for study plots with the same vegetation types in both years. For rattan biomass, the most similar plot pairs changed during the years: dipterocarp plots A and D were most similar in 2011 (0.509), and swamp plots B and C were most similar in 2013 (0.282). This study helped contribute information regarding the distribution and dynamics of rattans in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:28228915

  20. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  1. Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  2. Computer Cache. Wildlife on the Web: Connections to Animals, Biomes, Environments, and Habitats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    Follow the migration of monarch butterflies, explore Yellowstone National Park, find out about endangered species in the Everglades, or learn about the wildlife dependent upon a bog for existence. This article describes how students can learn these things and many more through the numerous resources available on the World Wide Web that feature…

  3. ALLOMETRIC LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS FOR BENTHIC PREY OF AQUATIC WILDLIFE IN COASTAL MARINE HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed models to estimate the soft tissue content of benthic marine invertebrates that are prey for aquatic wildlife. Allometric regression models of tissue wet weight with shell length for 10 species of benthic invertebrates had r2 values ranging from 0.29 for hermit crabs...

  4. 75 FR 29700 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Preble's Meadow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...-2009-0013; Division of Policy and Directives Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 N... the species. Draft Environmental Assessment; National Environmental Policy Act When the range of a... complete an analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.)...

  5. 78 FR 24515 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Sierra...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). Any additional tools or supporting... studies, biological assessments, other unpublished materials, or experts' opinions or personal knowledge... findings in some cases. These protections and conservation tools will continue to contribute to recovery...

  6. The use of high altitude aerial photography to inventory wildlife habitat in Kansas: An initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, J. W.; Waddell, B. H.

    1974-01-01

    The use of aerial photography as a method for determining the wildlife conditions of an area is discussed. Color infrared photography is investigated as the most effective type of remote sensor. The characteristics of the remote sensing systems are described. Examples of the remote sensing operation and the method for reducing the data are presented.

  7. Novel wildlife in the Arctic: the influence of changing riparian ecosystems and shrub habitat expansion on snowshoe hares.

    PubMed

    Tape, Ken D; Christie, Katie; Carroll, Geoff; O'Donnell, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Warming during the 20th century has changed the arctic landscape, including aspects of the hydrology, vegetation, permafrost, and glaciers, but effects on wildlife have been difficult to detect. The primary aim of this study is to examine the physical and biological processes contributing to the expanded riparian habitat and range of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in northern Alaska. We explore linkages between components of the riparian ecosystem in Arctic Alaska since the 1960s, including seasonality of stream flow, air temperature, floodplain shrub habitat, and snowshoe hare distributions. Our analyses show that the peak discharge during spring snowmelt has occurred on average 3.4 days per decade earlier over the last 30 years and has contributed to a longer growing season in floodplain ecosystems. We use empirical correlations between cumulative summer warmth and riparian shrub height to reconstruct annual changes in shrub height from the 1960s to the present. The effects of longer and warmer growing seasons are estimated to have stimulated a 78% increase in the height of riparian shrubs. Earlier spring discharge and the estimated increase in riparian shrub height are consistent with observed riparian shrub expansion in the region. Our browsing measurements show that snowshoe hares require a mean riparian shrub height of at least 1.24-1.36 m, a threshold which our hindcasting indicates was met between 1964 and 1989. This generally coincides with observational evidence we present suggesting that snowshoe hares became established in 1977 or 1978. Warming and expanded shrub habitat is the most plausible reason for recent snowshoe hare establishment in Arctic Alaska. The establishment of snowshoe hares and other shrub herbivores in the Arctic in response to increasing shrub habitat is a contrasting terrestrial counterpart to the decline in marine mammals reliant on decreasing sea ice.

  8. MODELING WILDLIFE HABITAT SUITABILITY IN THE WILLAMETTE BASIN: A COMPARISON OF PAST, PRESENT AND A RANGE OF POSSIBLE FUTURES (CA. 2050)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of three possible land use futures in the Willamette Basin are evaluated with respect to present and historic conditions of wildlife habitat. Basin wide land use/land cover maps were developed by the Pacific Northwest Ecosystem Research Consortium (PNW-ERC) in coopera...

  9. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in theSan Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington,Dennis W.

    2005-08-28

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing methods were developed to document long-term trends in wetland moist soil vegetation and soil salinity in response to management options such as delaying the initiation of seasonal wetland drainage. These environmental management tools provide wetland managers with some of the tools necessary to improve salinity conditions in the San Joaquin River and improve compliance with State mandated salinity objectives without inflicting long-term harm on the wild fowl habitat resource.

  10. Phylogenetic diversity and co-evolutionary signals among trophic levels change across a habitat edge.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Didham, Raphael K; Varsani, Arvind; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating the evolutionary history of species into community ecology enhances understanding of community composition, ecosystem functioning and responses to environmental changes. Phylogenetic history might partly explain the impact of fragmentation and land-use change on assemblages of interacting organisms and even determine potential cascading effects across trophic levels. However, it remains unclear whether phylogenetic diversity of basal resources is reflected at higher trophic levels in the food web. In particular, phylogenetic determinants of community structure have never been incorporated into habitat edge studies, even though edges are recognized as key factors affecting communities in fragmented landscapes. Here, we test whether phylogenetic diversity at different trophic levels (plants, herbivores and parasitoids) and signals of co-evolution (i.e. phylogenetic congruence) among interacting trophic levels change across an edge gradient between native and plantation forests. To ascertain whether there is a signal of co-evolution across trophic levels, we test whether related consumer species generally feed on related resource species. We found differences across trophic levels in how their phylogenetic diversity responded to the habitat edge gradient. Plant and native parasitoid phylogenetic diversity changed markedly across habitats, while phylogenetic variability of herbivores (which were predominantly native) did not change across habitats, though phylogenetic evenness declined in plantation interiors. Related herbivore species did not appear to feed disproportionately on related plant species (i.e. there was no signal of co-evolution) even when considering only native species, potentially due to the high trophic generality of herbivores. However, related native parasitoid species tended to feed on related herbivore species, suggesting the presence of a co-evolutionary signal at higher trophic levels. Moreover, this signal was stronger in

  11. Beta diversity along environmental gradients: implications of habitat specialization in tropical montane landscapes.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Jill E; Ciecka, Anna L; Meyer, Nola Y; Rabenold, Kerry N

    2009-03-01

    1. Understanding how species in a diverse regional pool are spatially distributed with respect to habitat types is a longstanding problem in ecology. Tropical species are expected to be specialists along environmental gradients, and this should result in rapid compositional change (high beta diversity) across landscapes, particularly when alpha diversity is a small fraction of regional diversity. Corollary challenges are then to identify controlling environmental variables and to ask whether species cluster into discrete community types along a gradient. 2. We investigated patterns of avian species' distributions in the Tilarán mountains of Costa Rica between 1000 m and 1700 m elevation where a strong moisture gradient exists. High beta diversity was found with both auditory counts adjusted for detectability and extensive capture data, revealing nearly complete change in community composition over a few kilometres on the Pacific slope. As predicted, this beta diversity was roughly twice as high as on temperate mountainsides. 3. Partial Mantel analyses and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that change in species composition is highly correlated with change in moisture (and correlated epiphyte cover) at different distances from the continental divide on the Pacific slope. Altitude was not a good predictor of change in species composition, as species composition varies substantially among sites at the same elevation. 4. Detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis revealed a zone of rapid transition separating a distinct cloud forest community from rainshadow forest. On the Caribbean slope, where a shallower moisture gradient was predicted to result in lower beta diversity, we found lower rates of compositional change and more continuous species turnover. 5. Results suggest that habitat specialization of birds is likely a strong ecological force generating high beta diversity in montane landscapes. Despite overall rapid rates of species turnover

  12. Host Life History Strategy, Species Diversity, and Habitat Influence Trypanosoma cruzi Vector Infection in Changing Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Carroll, C. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic land use may influence transmission of multi-host vector-borne pathogens by changing diversity, relative abundance, and community composition of reservoir hosts. These reservoir hosts may have varying competence for vector-borne pathogens depending on species-specific characteristics, such as life history strategy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how anthropogenic land use change influences blood meal species composition and the effects of changing blood meal species composition on the parasite infection rate of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in Panama. Methodology/Principal Findings R. pallescens vectors (N = 643) were collected in different habitat types across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Blood meal species in DNA extracted from these vectors was identified in 243 (40.3%) vectors by amplification and sequencing of a vertebrate-specific fragment of the 12SrRNA gene, and T. cruzi vector infection was determined by pcr. Vector infection rate was significantly greater in deforested habitats as compared to contiguous forests. Forty-two different species of blood meal were identified in R. pallescens, and species composition of blood meals varied across habitat types. Mammals (88.3%) dominated R. pallescens blood meals. Xenarthrans (sloths and tamanduas) were the most frequently identified species in blood meals across all habitat types. A regression tree analysis indicated that blood meal species diversity, host life history strategy (measured as rmax, the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase), and habitat type (forest fragments and peridomiciliary sites) were important determinants of vector infection with T. cruzi. The mean intrinsic rate of increase and the skewness and variability of rmax were positively associated with higher vector infection rate at a site. Conclusions/Significance In this study, anthropogenic landscape disturbance increased vector infection with T. cruzi, potentially

  13. Habitat loss other than fragmentation per se decreased nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity in a monoecious tree.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Shi, Miao-Miao; Shen, Dong-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Generally, effect of fragmentation per se on biodiversity has not been separated from the effect of habitat loss. In this paper, using nDNA and cpDNA SSRs, we studied genetic diversity of Castanopsis sclerophylla (Lindl. & Paxton) Schotty populations and decoupled the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation per se. We selected seven nuclear and six cpDNA microsatellite loci and genotyped 460 individuals from mainland and island populations, which were located in the impoundment created in 1959. Number of alleles per locus of populations in larger habitats was significantly higher than that in smaller habitats. There was a significant relationship between the number of alleles per locus and habitat size. Based on this relationship, the predicted genetic diversity of an imaginary population of size equaling the total area of the islands was lower than that of the global population on the islands. Re-sampling demonstrated that low genetic diversity of populations in small habitats was caused by unevenness in sample size. Fisher's α index was similar among habitat types. These results indicate that the decreased nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of populations in smaller habitats was mainly caused by habitat loss. For nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite loci, values of F(ST) were 0.066 and 0.893, respectively, and the calculated pollen/seed dispersal ratio was 162.2. When separated into pre-and post-fragmentation cohorts, pollen/seed ratios were 121.2 and 189.5, respectively. Our results suggest that habitat loss explains the early decrease in genetic diversity, while fragmentation per se may play a major role in inbreeding and differentiation among fragmented populations and later loss of genetic diversity.

  14. Executive overview of World Wildlife's conference on consequences of the greenhouse effect for biological diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.L. )

    1988-01-01

    World Wildlife Fund organized the first Conference on Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect for Biological Diversity, which was held October 4--6, 1988 at the National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. This meeting was the first to focus on how conservation of natural ecosystems would be effected by global warming. Prior to this meeting there existed no aggregated body of information about possible ecological effects, and very few scientists were doing relevant research or interpreting existing data in terms of climate change. Because effects had not been identified, biological diversity was largely overlooked in conferences and reports on global warming. Therefore, this conference had the groundbreaking role of pulling together existing information, stimulating scientists whose work could be relevant into focusing their efforts on global warming, drawing general conclusions about conservation consequences, and communicating these conclusions to the scientific, policy, funding, and management communities. 18 refs.

  15. Application of Remote Sensing Techniques for Appraising Changes in Wildlife Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. K.; Klett, A. T.; Johnston, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of airborne, multispectral, line scanner data acquisition and computer-implemented automatic recognition techniques for providing useful information about waterfowl breeding habitat in North Dakota. The spectral characteristics of the components of a landscape containing waterfowl habitat can be detected with airborne scanners. By analyzing these spectral characteristics it is possible to identify and map the landscape components through analog and digital processing methods. At the present stage of development multispectral remote sensing techniques are not ready for operational application to surveys of migratory bird habitat and other such resources. Further developments are needed to: (1) increase accuracy; (2) decrease retrieval and processing time; and (3) reduce costs.

  16. Evaluation of Habitat Provision On the Basis of Carabidae Diversity in Slovak Permanent Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jad'ud'ová, Jana; Kanianska, Radoslava; Kizeková, Miriam; Makovníková, Jarmila

    2016-10-01

    Biodiversity has an important role in creating and regulating ecosystem processes, functions, and services. Carabidae are considered to be suitable bio-indicators of environment. The aim of the study is to analyse the relationships between Carabidae and the ability of study sites to fulfil habitat provision. The research was conducted on permanent grasslands (PG) with different management at 2 study sites (Tajov - TA, Liptovska Teplicka - LT) located in different climatic and natural conditions of Slovakia. At each study site, seven plastic traps were placed in spring 2015 for one month in line with 3 m distance. The habitat provision was identified by Biotope Valuation Method (BVM). The calculated values of both study sites were same (BVM = 41.67). One of the reasons can be the same type of habitat. According to the Catalogue of habitats in Slovakia, both study sites belong to mesophilic pastures and grazed grassland. Biodiversity was evaluated by Shannon-Weaver index. The calculated values were similar (H'= 1.42 in TA, H'= 1.25 in LT). In Tajov, a total of 220 individuals of soil arthropods were captured and 169 in Liptovska Teplicka. In Tajov, three eurytopic species of Carabidae and one adaptable species (Abax Parallelepipedus) were captured. One order belongs to eudominant species: Poecilus cupreus (50%). In Liptovska Teplicka, four eurytopic species of Carabidae and two adaptable species (Carabus cancellatus, Carabus violaceus) were captured. Two species belong to eudominat species: Carabus cancellatus (40.54%) and Carabus vialaceus (13.51%). The relationship between Carabidae diversity and the ability of study site to fulfil habitat provision was not confirmed. Carabidae are not closely linked to structure of the vegetation cover, but their occurrence is influenced by habitat microclimate conditions.

  17. A Simple Approach to Collecting Useful Wildlife Data Using Remote Camera-Traps in Undergraduate Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Remote camera-traps are commonly used to estimate the abundance, diversity, behavior and habitat use of wildlife in an inexpensive and nonintrusive manner. Because of the increasing use of remote-cameras in wildlife studies, students interested in wildlife biology should be exposed to the use of remote-cameras early in their academic careers.…

  18. An assessment of Idaho's wildlife management areas for the protection of wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, J.W.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2005-01-01

    Since 1940, Idaho Department of Fish and Game has developed a network of 31 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) across the state. This program has been focused mostly on conservation of game species and their habitats. We assessed the contribution of Idaho's WMAs to conservation of all Idaho's wildlife and other aspects of ecological diversity. Predicted occurrences of species' breeding habitats and other data were used to evaluate the representation of wildlife habitat and other ecological conditions. We found 33 of 39 natural land cover types were mapped as occurring in WMAs. WMAs occurred in 10 of 15 of Bailey's ecoregion sections, absent only from two sections that occupy greater than 1% of Idaho. Percent area of WMAs by elevation followed a pattern similar to percent area of Idaho; however, mean elevation for WMAs was lower than for the state and other protected areas in Idaho. We predicted breeding habitat for 98.4% of Idaho's wildlife and all federal and state listed threatened, endangered, or candidate terrestrial vertebrates to occur in at least one WMA. We predicted habitat for 39 species to occur on five or fewer WMAs, and predicted no habitat on WMAs for five species. We found that a system of WMAs established mainly to protect game species potentially conserves many other aspects of Idaho's ecological diversity, may provide habitat for more than 98% of Idaho's wildlife, and complements other protected areas in the state.

  19. Species diversity and abundance of ticks in three habitats in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year study was conducted from March 2010 to March 2012 in a forested area in southern Italy to evaluate the species diversity and abundance of free-living ticks in 3 different habitats: (i) a meadow habitat within an enclosure inhabited by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus); (ii) a man-made trail located in a high-altitude, forested area; and (iii) a grassland near a house inhabited by 3 people. In total, 10,795 ticks were collected. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (69.0%), followed by Haemaphysalis inermis (19.1%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (6.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (3.2%), and Hyalomma marginatum (1.0%). The least frequently collected species were Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Haemaphysalis concinna, representing together less than 1% of the collections. Immature ticks predominated over adult ticks. In particular, immature stages of Ix. ricinus (i.e., 3246 larvae and 3554 nymphs) represented 63% of the total number of ticks collected. High levels of species diversity and abundance of ticks were recorded in all habitats and the daily number of ticks collected was negatively correlated with daily mean temperature, evapotranspiration, and saturation deficit. This study indicates that the southern Italian climate is suitable for different tick species, which may find a preferred 'climate niche' during a specific season, when a combination of factors (e.g., suitable meteorological and environmental conditions) associated with the presence of suitable hosts will facilitate their development and reproduction.

  20. 75 FR 11010 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... materials received, as well as supporting documentation we used in preparing this final rule, are available... assured in perpetuity. On June 17, 1999, we published a Safe Harbor Policy to encourage private and other... enhance, restore, or maintain habitat to benefit federally listed species (62 FR 32717). Safe...

  1. 75 FR 1741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination That Designation of Critical Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... shelter; sites for breeding, reproduction, rearing of offspring, germination, or seed dispersal; and... the following steps to develop a proposal of critical habitat for the jaguar: (1) Determine the... these steps, we will use the best science available, including but not limited to Boydston and...

  2. 76 FR 45077 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... conservation of these species, should be included in the designation and why; (c) Special management... the forseeable future. Threats to the species and its habitat include energy development, road... biological features. (a) Essential to the conservation of the species and (b) Which may require...

  3. 75 FR 62191 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Navarretia fossalis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... consists of soil amendments or dryland farming activities (Roberts 2009, p. 2). Subsurface Water Flow That... protection to reduce the following threats: habitat destruction and fragmentation from urban and agricultural...; fire suppression practices (including discing and plowing to remove weeds and create fire...

  4. 75 FR 37358 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... regarding current practices and any regulatory changes that likely may occur if we designate proposed... from adverse modification or destruction of critical habitat. In practice, situations with a Federal... of private land owned by the Newhall Land and Farming Company (Newhall LFC). Newhall LFC...

  5. 77 FR 16512 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southern Selkirk Mountains Population of Woodland Caribou (Rangifer...), announce the reopening of the comment period on our November 30, 2011, proposed rule to designate critical...: Written Comments: We will consider comments received or postmarked on or before May 21, 2012....

  6. 75 FR 62850 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Habitat Conservation Plan for Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... as the ``Covered Species''). The permit application includes a draft Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP... application, which includes the draft HCP, draft IA, and EA, by contacting the Service's Pacific Islands Fish... in the draft EA. We are also soliciting information regarding the adequacy of the HCP to...

  7. 78 FR 14245 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Buena...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... listing that are essential to the conservation of the species, and why. (3) Land use designations and... habitat. The changes set forth in the rule portion of this document are basically administrative and do... incremental effects analysis: (1) The actual rate of future consultation is unknown, and (2) future land...

  8. 76 FR 59773 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... located within St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Forrest, Harrison, Jackson, and Perry Counties... Forest in Harrison County, Mississippi (66 FR 62993). Mississippi gopher frog habitat includes both... sites occur on the DeSoto National Forest (Harrison, Forrest, and Perry Counties), the Ward...

  9. 76 FR 63359 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... feeding, breeding, growth, and other normal behaviors of the Cumberland darter and in promoting gene flow.... Continuity of habitat will maintain spawning, foraging, and resting sites, and allow for gene flow throughout... normal behaviors of the rush darter and in promoting gene flow within the species. Yellowcheek Darter...

  10. 75 FR 75913 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Vermilion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... well as provide gene flow throughout the population. Connectivity of habitats, as a whole, also permits... gene flow throughout the species' range. Primary Constituent Element 2. Instream flow regime with an... potential sites of occurrence. These stream reaches were then digitized using 7.5-minute topographic...

  11. 77 FR 32909 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat; 12-Month...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Petition To Revise Designated Critical Habitat for the Endangered Leatherback Sea Turtle AGENCY: National... for leatherback sea turtles pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. The... leatherback sea turtle by adding the coastline and offshore waters of the Northeast Ecological Corridor...

  12. 76 FR 74018 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... generally differentiated by the type of habitat occupied, movement patterns, and feeding behavior. Ecotypes... by their movements and feeding behavior (COSEWIC 2002, p. 13). The mountain ecotype of woodland... subspecies, mountain caribou make strong seasonal elevational movements in response to seasonal...

  13. 76 FR 76337 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lost River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... ecology, as well as the technological advancements made available since preparing the 1994 proposed rule... River sucker's and shortnose sucker's ecology, and the technological advancements made available since... of this species' habitat, ecology, and life history as described below. Additional information can...

  14. 78 FR 69569 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jemez...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ..., subterranean igneous rock in areas with high soil moisture (New Mexico Endemic Salamander Team 2000, p. 2... information regarding our understanding of the subsurface rock and soil components of salamander habitat... rule to better describe our current understanding of subsurface rock and soil components where...

  15. 75 FR 3711 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat; 12-month...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Designated Critical Habitat for Elkhorn and Staghorn Corals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... staghorn (A. cervicornis) corals pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(D)(ii) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. Elkhorn and staghorn corals are listed as threatened throughout their ranges and...

  16. 78 FR 37327 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... habitat; (b) What may constitute ``physical or biological features essential to the conservation of the... contain features essential to the conservation of the species, should be included in the designation and why; and (f) What areas not occupied at the time of listing are essential for the conservation of...

  17. 78 FR 64446 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... monkeyflower and its habitat; (b) What may constitute ``physical or biological features essential to the... essential to the conservation of the species that should be included in the designation and why; and (f) What areas not occupied at the time of listing are essential for the conservation of the species...

  18. 76 FR 74072 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... bats incidental to operation of the KWPI wind farm. The amendment would reduce the permitted level of... for the Hawaiian goose and the Hawaiian hoary bat. The KWPI wind farm project is located on the island... Application; Habitat Conservation Plan and Associated Documents; Kaheawa Pastures Wind Energy...

  19. 78 FR 63100 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Comal Springs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... of the species and (2) which may require special management considerations or protection. In addition... its critical habitat. In this way, these important areas receive some protections to allow for their... analysis of Federal regulations direct agencies to measure the costs of a regulatory action against...

  20. 77 FR 71041 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... behavior, and migration patterns (Hatter 2000, p. 631; Mountain Caribou Science Team 2005, p. 1). The... utilization patterns; (6) estimate seasonal caribou food habitat preferences; and (7) attempt to achieve a... movement patterns of radio-collared caribou from 1988 to 2006, and found that caribou typically make...

  1. 78 FR 41549 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Arizona Ecological Services Field Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). Any additional tools or... assessments, other unpublished materials, or experts' opinions or personal knowledge. Habitat is dynamic, and... conservation tools will continue to contribute to recovery of this species. Similarly, critical...

  2. 78 FR 46862 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ivesia webberi

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... tools or supporting information that we may develop for this critical habitat designation will also be... and counties, scientific status surveys and studies, biological assessments, other unpublished... cases. These protections and conservation tools will continue to contribute to recovery of this...

  3. 75 FR 35751 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Tumbling Creek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... snail, endemic to a single cave stream and associated springs in Taney County, southwestern Missouri... eliminating the species' habitat, covering egg masses, or adversely impacting the snail in other ways (Tom and... are unknown, but given that 15,118 snails were estimated in a 1,016 square meter area of...

  4. 76 FR 2863 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Sonoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Sonoma County Distinct Population Segment of the California Tiger... Sonoma County Distinct Population Segment of the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense... Population Segment of the California tiger salamander that was published in the Federal Register on August...

  5. 78 FR 5351 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Northern Hemisphere indicate warmer air temperatures, more intense precipitation events, and increased... provided by the overhanging vegetation curtails water temperature fluctuations in small, headwater streams... deeper water and faster flowing habitat as they age (Childs et al. 1998, p. 624). Water temperatures...

  6. 78 FR 53537 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... in or near a perennial body of water, such as a spring, pond, lake, sluggish stream, irrigation canal... habitat, such as lakes or rivers/creeks without refugia from predators. Therefore, based on the... water (such as, but not limited to springs, ponds, lakes, and sluggish streams) or other water...

  7. 75 FR 67676 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Astragalus jaegerianus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... desert tortoise, we do not anticipate any land use changes that will result in future consultations. The...) Land-use designations and current or planned activities in the subject areas and their possible effects...) Information on the potential effects of climate change on Astragalus jaegerianus and its habitat. (9)...

  8. 78 FR 42921 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Northwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... time of listing are essential to the conservation of the species and why. (3) Land use designations and... potential effects of climate change. (10) Information on the projected and reasonably likely impacts of climate change on the loggerhead sea turtle and proposed terrestrial critical habitat. (11) Whether any...

  9. 78 FR 26581 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... species and why. (7) Land use designations and current or planned activities in the areas occupied by the... climate change on the grotto sculpin and proposed critical habitat. (9) Any foreseeable economic, national... practice, situations with a Federal nexus exist primarily on Federal lands or for projects undertaken...

  10. Past and predicted future effects of housing growth on open space conservation opportunity areas and habitat connectivity around National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Baumann, Matthias; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Helmers, David P.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2016-01-01

    ContextHousing growth can alter suitability of matrix habitats around protected areas, strongly affecting movements of organisms and, consequently, threatening connectivity of protected area networks.ObjectivesOur goal was to quantify distribution and growth of housing around the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System. This is important information for conservation planning, particularly given promotion of habitat connectivity as a climate change adaptation measure.MethodsWe quantified housing growth from 1940 to 2000 and projected future growth to 2030 within three distances from refuges, identifying very low housing density open space, “opportunity areas” (contiguous areas with <6.17 houses/km2), both nationally and by USFWS administrative region. Additionally, we quantified number and area of habitat corridors within these opportunity areas in 2000.ResultsOur results indicated that the number and area of open space opportunity areas generally decreased with increasing distance from refuges and with the passage of time. Furthermore, total area in habitat corridors was much lower than in opportunity areas. In addition, the number of corridors sometimes exceeded number of opportunity areas as a result of habitat fragmentation, indicating corridors are likely vulnerable to land use change. Finally, regional differences were strong and indicated some refuges may have experienced so much housing growth already that they are effectively too isolated to adapt to climate change, while others may require extensive habitat restoration work.ConclusionsWildlife refuges are increasingly isolated by residential housing development, potentially constraining the movement of wildlife and, therefore, their ability to adapt to a changing climate.

  11. Carbon isotope ratios in logged and unlogged boreal forests: Examination of the potential for determining wildlife habitat use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Robert

    1996-03-01

    Due to assimilation of recycled CO2 from litter decomposition and photosynthetic changes in carbon fractionation at low light levels, the foliage at the base of a forest is often more depleted in13C compared to that exposed to the atmosphere in either the canopy or in open clearings. This is referred to as the canopy effect. African research has indicated that these habitat differences in foliar δ13C can be substantial enough to affect the carbon isotope ratios of resident fauna. Previous work documenting a 30-year chronology on moose teeth from Isle Royale National Park indicated a progressive depletion in13C and suggested that this could be due to forest regrowth following extensive burning. The present study examined the assumption implicit in this hypothesis that foliar δ13C varies between open and closed boreal forest sites. I found a marginal canopy effect of 2‰ δ13C difference between upper canopy and ground flora for a forest in northwestern Ontario and an average difference of 1.2‰ in under- and mid-story vegetation between closed forests and open clear-cuts. Because of these small differences, the utility of carbon isotope analysis in quantifying temporally integrated exploitation of deforested habitats will be low for northern boreal locations. In denser forests, such as those in the tropics or western North American where the canopy effect can be expected to be much greater, δ13C analysis may still offer some promise for determining selection by wildlife of disturbed habitats.

  12. 77 FR 57577 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  13. 78 FR 48460 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  14. 78 FR 25463 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources;...

  15. 78 FR 73205 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources;...

  16. Prevalence and diversity of human pathogenic rickettsiae in urban versus rural habitats, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szekeres, Sándor; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Rigó, Krisztina; Jablonszky, Mónika; Majoros, Gábor; Sprong, Hein; Földvári, Gábor

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses belong to the important emerging infectious diseases worldwide. We investigated the potential human exposure to rickettsiae by determining their presence in questing ticks collected in an urban park of Budapest and a popular hunting and recreational forest area in southern Hungary. Differences were found in the infectious risk between the two habitats. Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica were identified with sequencing in questing Ixodes ricinus, the only ticks species collected in the city park. Female I. ricinus had a particularly high prevalence of R. helvetica (45%). Tick community was more diverse in the rural habitat with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks having especially high percentage (58%) of Rickettsia raoultii infection. We conclude that despite the distinct eco-epidemiological traits, the risk (hazard and exposure) of acquiring human pathogenic rickettsial infections in both the urban and the rural study sites exists.

  17. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brittingham, Margaret C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  18. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats.

    PubMed

    Brittingham, Margaret C; Maloney, Kelly O; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Bowen, Zachary H

    2014-10-07

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  19. Regeneration of kaolin mined lands to maximize loblolly pine growth and wildlife habitat

    SciTech Connect

    McEvoy, K.E.; Morris, L.A.; Hendrick, R.L.; Ogden, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    Compliance with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 and Georgia Surface Mining Act of 1968 requires that land equal in area to each year's disturbance by reclaimed and a vegetative cover established. Approximately 60% of kaolin mined areas are reclaimed to pine forest. Current methods of reclamation after grading involve fertilization, seeding with a cover crop of grass and legumes, followed by planting of tree seedlings. Restrictive soil physical conditions, a lack of organic matter and nutrients, and competition by cover crop species can reduce survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings. Also, current cover crop species have only marginal value for wildlife. In this research, the authors evaluated alternative methods of reforestation that (1) control erosion while providing greater benefits for wildlife and reduced competition with loblolly pine seedlings, (2) ameliorate adverse soil physical conditions through deeper tillage (subsoiling vs. disk harrowing), and (3) improve spoil fertility and structure by application of a composted paper mill by-product. Results from field trials indicate control of erosion by wildlife grasses is comparable to seed mixtures currently used in the industry. Subsoiling and disking both had ameliorative effects on soil physical properties with seedling survival at 92% and 88% respectively, compared to 45% of the surrounding area. Composted paper mill by-product served as an additional source of organic matter, nutrients, and protective mulch, thereby enhancing seedling growth as well as ameliorating pine seedlings mulched with the paper mill compost was greater than twice the size of seedlings grown under current reclamation practices.

  20. Sunken woods on the ocean floor provide diverse specialized habitats for microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fagervold, Sonja K; Galand, Pierre E; Zbinden, Magali; Gaill, Françoise; Lebaron, Philippe; Palacios, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    Marine waterlogged woods on the ocean floor provide the foundation for an ecosystem resulting in high biomass and potentially high macrofaunal diversity, similarly to other large organic falls. However, the microorganisms forming the base of wood fall ecosystems remain poorly known. To study the microbial diversity and community structure of sunken woods, we analyzed over 2800 cloned archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from samples with different geographic locations, depths, and immersion times. The microbial communities from different wood falls were diverse, suggesting that sunken woods provide wide-ranging niches for microorganisms. Microorganisms dwelling at sunken woods change with time of immersion most likely due to a change in chemistry of the wood. We demonstrate, for the first time in sunken woods, the co-occurrence of free-living sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens and the presence of sulfide oxidizers. These microorganisms were similar to those of other anaerobic chemoautotrophic environments suggesting that large organic falls can provide similar reduced habitats. Furthermore, quantification of phylogenetic patterns of microbial community assembly indicated that environmental forces (habitat filtering) determined sunken wood microbial community structure at all degradation phases of marine woodfalls. We also include a detailed discussion on novel archaeal and bacterial phylotypes in this newly explored biohabitat.

  1. Use of LANDSAT imagery for wildlife habitat mapping in northeast and east central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lent, P. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two scenes were analyzed by applying an iterative cluster analysis to a 2% random data sample and then using the resulting clusters as a training set basis for maximum likelihood classification. Twenty-six and twenty-seven categorical classes, respectively resulted from this process. The majority of classes in each case were quite specific vegetation types; each of these types has specific value as moose habitat.

  2. Habitat and species identity, not diversity, predict the extent of refuse consumption by urban arthropods.

    PubMed

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Henderson, Ryanna C; Savage, Amy M; Ernst, Andrew F; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Urban green spaces provide ecosystem services to city residents, but their management is hindered by a poor understanding of their ecology. We examined a novel ecosystem service relevant to urban public health and esthetics: the consumption of littered food waste by arthropods. Theory and data from natural systems suggest that the magnitude and resilience of this service should increase with biological diversity. We measured food removal by presenting known quantities of cookies, potato chips, and hot dogs in street medians (24 sites) and parks (21 sites) in New York City, USA. At the same sites, we assessed ground-arthropod diversity and abiotic conditions, including history of flooding during Hurricane Sandy 7 months prior to the study. Arthropod diversity was greater in parks (on average 11 hexapod families and 4.7 ant species per site), than in medians (nine hexapod families and 2.7 ant species per site). However, counter to our diversity-based prediction, arthropods in medians removed 2-3 times more food per day than did those in parks. We detected no effect of flooding (at 19 sites) on this service. Instead, greater food removal was associated with the presence of the introduced pavement ant (Tetramorium sp. E) and with hotter, drier conditions that may have increased arthropod metabolism. When vertebrates also had access to food, more was removed, indicating that arthropods and vertebrates compete for littered food. We estimate that arthropods alone could remove 4-6.5 kg of food per year in a single street median, reducing its availability to less desirable fauna such as rats. Our results suggest that species identity and habitat may be more relevant than diversity for predicting urban ecosystem services. Even small green spaces such as street medians provide ecosystem services that may complement those of larger habitat patches across the urban landscape.

  3. Diversity patterns of selected Andean plant groups correspond to topography and habitat dynamics, not orogeny

    PubMed Central

    Mutke, Jens; Jacobs, Rana; Meyers, Katharina; Henning, Tilo; Weigend, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    The tropical Andes are a hotspot of biodiversity, but detailed altitudinal and latitudinal distribution patterns of species are poorly understood. We compare the distribution and diversity patterns of four Andean plant groups on the basis of georeferenced specimen data: the genus Nasa (Loasaceae), the two South American sections of Ribes (sect. Parilla and sect. Andina, Grossulariaceae), and the American clade of Urtica (Urticaceae). In the tropical Andes, these often grow together, especially in (naturally or anthropogenically) disturbed or secondary vegetation at middle to upper elevations. The climatic niches of the tropical groups studied here are relatively similar in temperature and temperature seasonality, but do differ in moisture seasonality. The Amotape–Huancabamba Zone (AHZ) between 3 and 8° S shows a clear diversity peak of overall species richness as well as for narrowly endemic species across the groups studied. For Nasa, we also show a particular diversity of growth forms in the AHZ. This can be interpreted as proxy for a high diversity of ecological niches based on high spatial habitat heterogeneity in this zone. Latitudinal ranges are generally larger toward the margins of overall range of the group. Species number and number of endemic species of our taxa peak at elevations of 2,500–3,500 m in the tropical Andes. Altitudinal diversity patterns correspond well with the altitudinal distribution of slope inclination. We hypothesize that the likelihood and frequency of landslides at steeper slopes translate into temporal habitat heterogeneity. The frequency of landslides may be causally connected to diversification especially for the numerous early colonizing taxa, such as Urtica and annual species of Nasa. In contrast to earlier hypotheses, uplift history is not reflected in the pattern here retrieved, since the AHZ is the area of the most recent Andean uplift. Similarly, a barrier effect of the low-lying Huancabamba depression is not retrieved

  4. 75 FR 61690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat for the Endangered North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...: On October 1, 2009, we received a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD), Defenders... whale (CBD et al., 2009). On October 27, 2009, we sent a letter to the petitioners acknowledging...

  5. 78 FR 56505 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Georgia Rockcress

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... deciduous trees with a rich diversity of grasses and forbs characterizing the herb layer (Schotz 2010, p.... 2000, p. 21). Aspect is an important factor in determining how forest microclimate and vegetation...

  6. Selecting habitat management strategies on refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.; King, Wayne J.; Cornely, John E.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a joint effort of the Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to provide National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) managers guidance on the selection and evaluation of habitat management strategies to meet stated objectives. The FWS recently completed a handbook on writing refuge management goals and objectives (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996a). the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires that National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands be managed according to approved Comprehensive Conservation Plans to guide management decisions and devise strategies for achieving refuge unit purposes and meeting the NWRS mission. It is expected that over the next several years most refuges will develop new or revised refuge goals and objectives for directing their habitat management strategies. This paper outlines the steps we recommend in selecting and evaluating habitat management strategies to meet specific refuge habitat objectives. We selected two examples to illustrate the process. Although each refuge is unique and will require specific information and solutions, these two examples can be used as guidance when selecting and evaluating habitat management strategies for other refuge resources: Example 1. Management of floodplain woods habitat for forest interior birds. The biological recourse of concern is the quality and quantity of floodplain woods habitat for eastern forest interior birds in the Cypress Creek NWR (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996b). Example 2. Management of habitat for biodiversity: Historical landscape proportions. The biological resource of concern is the change in diversity associated with man-induced changes in the distribution and abundance of habitat types at the Minnesota Valley NWR (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996c).

  7. MASSACHUSETTS DIVISION OF FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE ADAPTATION PLANNING USING AN EXPERT PANEL BASED HABITAT VULNERABLITY ASSESSMENT John O'Leary, MA Div. of Fisheries and Wildlife and Hector Galbraith, Ph d. Climate Change Initiative, Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, J. A.; Galbraith, H.

    2010-12-01

    We are using the results from a recently completed Habitat Vulnerability Assessment (HVA) for adaptation planning within the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. We used Regional Downscale Climate Projections to provide exposure information for the assessment and an Expert Panel of biologists to provide information on the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of the habitat types we assessed. We estimated the vulnerability of 22 key habitat types which were identified in the State Wildlife Action Plan (SWAP). Results of the expert panel based HVA include a relative ranking of vulnerability to climate change for these habitats within Massachusetts, a confidence score for the estimated vulnerability for each habitat type evaluated and a narrative identifying the factors which influence the vulnerability of the habitat. We also evaluated the vulnerability of the Species in Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) from the SWAP to climate change conditions. The SGCN are linked to their primary habitat types. The HVA results along with recommendations from the National Academies Report: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change will inform “climate smart” adaptation strategies for agency management, acquisition, and research and monitoring programs that build on and do not replace existing implementation strategies. We believe that the adaptation planning process that we outline in this presentation could serve as a model for resource agencies and others who are in the process of developing their response to anticipated impacts from climate change conditions. We are also engaged in a collaborative effort to conduct a Regional Habitat Vulnerability Assessment (RHVA). Results form the RHVA will provide the MDFW with the ability to assess adaptation strategies based on regional need.

  8. The Influence of Channel Regulating Structures on Fish and Wildlife Habitat (GREAT-III).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, New York. 508 pp. Margalef, R . 1957. La Teoria de la Informacions en Ecologia. Mem. Real. Acad. Ciencias y...D-Ai412i 687 THE INFLUENCE OF CHANNEL REGULA AND HILDLIFE HABITAT (GREAT-III)(U) MISSOURI UNIV-ROLLA INST OF RIVER STUDIES R H SMITH ET AL. AUG...Roger H. Smith and Glendon T. Stevens, Jr. ’,cunent has been op-oved AND " r public release and sale; its daT:b i n isUliied The Missouri Department of

  9. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design Appendices G, H, I, J : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn A.; Manley, Tim

    1993-10-01

    This research project was initiated in January 1989. Field work was completed by late summer. The purpose of this project was to identify reasons for the decline of the grouse population and determine the feasibility of maintaining grouse on the Tobacco Plains. Specific objectives of the project were: (1) To determine the existing and historic availability of sharp-tailed grouse habitat. (2) To document current and past grouse populations. (3) To determine the success or failure of past augmentation efforts. (4) To develop a list of potential sites to be included in a protection plan.

  10. High genetic diversity in a potentially vulnerable tropical tree species despite extreme habitat loss.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Annika M E; Webb, Edward L

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 150 years, Singapore's primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining species may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter), 193 saplings (>1 yr), and 1,822 seedlings (<1 yr) of the canopy tree Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae). We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1) that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2) K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He = 0.843-0.854), high allelic richness (R = 16.7-19.5), low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS = 0.013-0.076), and a large proportion (30.1%) of rare alleles (i.e. frequency <1%). However, spatial genetic structure (SGS) analyses showed significant differences between the adults and the recruits. We detected significantly greater SGS intensity, as well as higher relatedness in the 0-10 m distance class, for seedlings and saplings compared to the adults. Demographic factors for this population (i.e. <200 adult trees) are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm = 0.961), calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee species in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss.

  11. Consequences of extensive habitat fragmentation in landscape-level patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the Mediterranean esparto grasshopper

    PubMed Central

    Ortego, Joaquín; Aguirre, María P; Noguerales, Víctor; Cordero, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation has altered the distribution and population sizes in many organisms worldwide. For this reason, understanding the demographic and genetic consequences of this process is necessary to predict the fate of populations and establish management practices aimed to ensure their viability. In this study, we analyse whether the spatial configuration of remnant semi-natural habitat patches within a chronically fragmented landscape has shaped the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the habitat-specialist esparto grasshopper (Ramburiella hispanica). In particular, we predict that agricultural lands constitute barriers to gene flow and hypothesize that fragmentation has restricted interpopulation dispersal and reduced local levels of genetic diversity. Our results confirmed the expectation that isolation and habitat fragmentation have reduced the genetic diversity of local populations. Landscape genetic analyses based on circuit theory showed that agricultural land offers ∽1000 times more resistance to gene flow than semi-natural habitats, indicating that patterns of dispersal are constrained by the spatial configuration of remnant patches of suitable habitat. Overall, this study shows that semi-natural habitat patches act as corridors for interpopulation gene flow and should be preserved due to the disproportionately large ecological function that they provide considering their insignificant area within these human-modified landscapes. PMID:26136826

  12. Size matters at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: different diversity and habitat fidelity patterns of meio- and macrofauna.

    PubMed

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Fisher, Charles R; Bright, Monika

    2015-02-03

    Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50' N) and neighboring basalt habitats. Both meio- and macrofaunal species richnesses were lowest in the high-stress vent habitat, but macrofaunal richness was highest among intermediate-stress vent habitats. Meiofaunal species richness was negatively correlated with stress, and highest on the basalt. In these deep-sea basalt habitats surrounding hydrothermal vents, meiofaunal species richness was consistently higher than that of macrofauna. Consideration of the physiological capabilities and life history traits of different-sized animals suggests that different patterns of diversity may be caused by different capabilities to deal with environmental stress in the 2 size classes. In contrast to meiofauna, adaptations of macrofauna may have evolved to allow them to maintain their physiological homeostasis in a variety of hydrothermal vent habitats and exploit this food-rich deep-sea environment in high abundances. The habitat fidelity patterns also differed: macrofaunal species occurred primarily at vents and were generally restricted to this habitat, but meiofaunal species were distributed more evenly across proximate and distant basalt habitats and were thus not restricted to vent habitats. Over evolutionary time scales these contrasting patterns are likely driven by distinct reproduction strategies and food demands inherent to fauna of different sizes.

  13. Size matters at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: different diversity and habitat fidelity patterns of meio- and macrofauna

    PubMed Central

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Fisher, Charles R.; Bright, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50′ N) and neighboring basalt habitats. Both meio- and macrofaunal species richnesses were lowest in the high-stress vent habitat, but macrofaunal richness was highest among intermediate-stress vent habitats. Meiofaunal species richness was negatively correlated with stress, and highest on the basalt. In these deep-sea basalt habitats surrounding hydrothermal vents, meiofaunal species richness was consistently higher than that of macrofauna. Consideration of the physiological capabilities and life history traits of different-sized animals suggests that different patterns of diversity may be caused by different capabilities to deal with environmental stress in the 2 size classes. In contrast to meiofauna, adaptations of macrofauna may have evolved to allow them to maintain their physiological homeostasis in a variety of hydrothermal vent habitats and exploit this food-rich deep-sea environment in high abundances. The habitat fidelity patterns also differed: macrofaunal species occurred primarily at vents and were generally restricted to this habitat, but meiofaunal species were distributed more evenly across proximate and distant basalt habitats and were thus not restricted to vent habitats. Over evolutionary time scales these contrasting patterns are likely driven by distinct reproduction strategies and food demands inherent to fauna of different sizes. PMID:26166922

  14. Diversity of sponges (Porifera) from cryptic habitats on the Belize barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay.

    PubMed

    Rützler, Klaus; Piantoni, Carla; Van Soest, Rob W M; Díaz, M Cristina

    2014-05-29

    The Caribbean barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has been a focus of Smithsonian Institution (Washington) reef and mangrove investigations since the early 1970s. Systematics and biology of sponges (Porifera) were addressed by several researchers but none of the studies dealt with cryptic habitats, such as the shaded undersides of coral rubble, reef crevices, and caves, although a high species diversity was recognized and samples were taken for future reference and study. This paper is the result of processing samples taken between 1972 and 2012. In all, 122 species were identified, 14 of them new (including one new genus). The new species are Tetralophophora (new genus) mesoamericana, Geodia cribrata, Placospongia caribica, Prosuberites carriebowensis, Timea diplasterina, Timea oxyasterina, Rhaphidhistia belizensis, Wigginsia curlewensis, Phorbas aurantiacus, Myrmekioderma laminatum, Niphates arenata, Siphonodictyon occultum, Xestospongia purpurea, and Aplysina sciophila. We determined that about 75 of the 122 cryptic sponge species studied (61%) are exclusive members of the sciophilic community, 47 (39 %) occur in both, light-exposed and shaded or dark habitats. Since we estimate the previously known sponge population of Carrie Bow reefs and mangroves at about 200 species, the cryptic fauna makes up 38 % of total diversity.

  15. Prokaryotic taxonomic and metabolic diversity of an intermediate salinity hypersaline habitat assessed by metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ana B; Ghai, Rohit; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    A metagenome was obtained by pyrosequencing the total prokaryotic DNA from the water of a pond with intermediate salinity (13% salts) from a saltern located in Santa Pola, Spain. We analyzed and compared the phylogenomic and metabolic diversity of this saltern pond with respect to other two metagenomes obtained previously from the same saltern (ponds with 19% and 37% salts, respectively) and two reference metagenomes from marine and coastal lagoon habitats. A large microbial diversity, representing seven major higher taxa (Euryarchaeota, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Betaproteobacteria), was found. However, most sequences (57%) were not assigned to any previously described genus. Principal component analysis of tetranucleotide frequencies of assembled contigs showed the presence of new groups of Euryarchaeota, different from those previously described but related to Haloquadratum walsbyi and other members of the Halobacteriaceae. Besides, some new Gammaproteobacteria, several closely related to the recently isolated bacterium 'Spiribacter salinus' were observed. Metabolically, the nitrogen and carbon cycles appear to be very simplified in this extreme habitat. Light is extensively used as energy source by bacteriorhodopsins and other rhodopsins. Microorganisms known to use the 'salt-in' strategy are probably able to combine the accumulation of potassium ions and of compatible solutes.

  16. Distribution, abundance, diversity and habitat associations of fishes across a bioregion experiencing rapid coastal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Dianne L.; Langlois, Tim J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Holmes, Thomas H.; Birt, Matthew J.; Bornt, Katrina R.; Bond, Todd; Collins, Danielle L.; Evans, Scott N.; Travers, Michael J.; Wakefield, Corey B.; Babcock, Russ C.; Fisher, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the factors that influence spatial patterns in fish abundance, distribution and diversity are essential for informing fisheries and conservation management. The present study was conducted in the nearshore Pilbara bioregion of north-western Australia where the dynamic marine environment is characterised by large embayments, numerous islands and islets, coexisting with globally significant petrochemical and mineral industries. Within Western Australia, this nearshore bioregion has high biodiversity and is considered to play an essential role in the recruitment of species of commercial importance. To better inform future investigations into both ecological processes and planning scenarios for management, a rapid assessment of the distribution, abundance and associations with nearshore habitats of fishes across the region was conducted. Baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVs) were used to simultaneously sample the fish assemblage and habitat composition. Generalised additive mixed models (GAMMs) were used to determine whether the abundance of fishes were related to habitat and a range of environmental variables (visibility, depth, distance to 30 m and 200 m depth isobars, boat ramps and the nearest large embayment (Exmouth Gulf). A diverse fish assemblage comprising 343 species from 58 families was recorded. The abundance and distribution patterns of fishery-target species and of the five most common and abundant species and families were linked positively with areas of high relief, hard coral cover, reef and macroalgae and negatively with the distance to the nearest oceanic waters (200 m depth isobar). This study provides information that can contribute to future marine spatial planning scenarios for management of the Pilbara using a unique, analytical approach that has broad application in biogeography.

  17. Predicting the effects of climate change on ecosystems and wildlife habitat in northwest Alaska: results from the WildCast project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Lawler, James; Jorgenson, Torre; Winfree, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We used a modeling framework and a recent ecological land classification and land cover map to predict how ecosystems and wildlife habitat in northwest Alaska might change in response to increasing temperature. Our results suggest modest increases in forest and tall shrub ecotypes in Northwest Alaska by the end of this century thereby increasing habitat for forest-dwelling and shrub-using birds and mammals. Conversely, we predict declines in several more open low shrub, tussock, and meadow ecotypes favored by many waterbird, shorebird, and small mammal species.

  18. Genetic diversity of free-living Symbiodinium in the Caribbean: the importance of habitats and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Neigel, Joseph; Leberg, Paul; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    Although reef corals are dependent of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, the large majority of corals spawn gametes that do not contain their vital symbiont. This suggests the existence of a pool of Symbiodinium in the environment, of which surprisingly little is known. Reefs around Curaçao (Caribbean) were sampled for free-living Symbiodinium at three time periods (summer 2009, summer 2010, and winter 2010) to characterize different habitats (water column, coral rubble, sediment, the macroalgae Halimeda spp., Dictyota spp., and Lobophora variegata, and the seagrass Thalassia testudinum) that could serve as environmental sources of symbionts for corals. We detected the common clades of Symbiodinium that engage in symbiosis with Caribbean coral hosts A, B, and C using Symbiodinium-specific primers of the hypervariable region of the chloroplast 23S ribosomal DNA gene. We also discovered clade G and, for the first time in the Caribbean, the presence of free-living Symbiodinium clades F and H. Additionally, this study expands the habitat range of free-living Symbiodinium as environmental Symbiodinium was detected in T. testudinum seagrass beds. The patterns of association between free-living Symbiodinium types and habitats were shown to be complex. An interesting, strong association was seen between some clade A sequence types and sediment, suggesting that sediment could be a niche where clade A radiated from a free-living ancestor. Other interesting relationships were seen between sequence types of Symbiodinium clade C with Halimeda spp. and clades B and F with T. testudinium. These relationships highlight the importance of some macroalgae and seagrasses in hosting free-living Symbiodinium. Finally, studies spanning beyond a 1-yr cycle are needed to further expand on our results in order to better understand the variation of Symbiodinium in the environment through time. All together, results presented here showed that the great diversity of free-living Symbiodinium has

  19. A Habitat-based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region

    SciTech Connect

    Forcey, Greg, M.

    2012-08-28

    Most previous studies on collision impacts at wind facilities have taken place at the site-specific level and have only examined small-scale influences on mortality. In this study, we examine landscape-level influences using a hierarchical spatial model combined with existing datasets and life history knowledge for: Horned Lark, Red-eyed Vireo, Mallard, American Avocet, Golden Eagle, Whooping Crane, red bat, silver-haired bat, and hoary bat. These species were modeled in the central United States within Bird Conservation Regions 11, 17, 18, and 19. For the bird species, we modeled bird abundance from existing datasets as a function of habitat variables known to be preferred by each species to develop a relative abundance prediction for each species. For bats, there are no existing abundance datasets so we identified preferred habitat in the landscape for each species and assumed that greater amounts of preferred habitat would equate to greater abundance of bats. The abundance predictions for bird and bats were modeled with additional exposure factors known to influence collisions such as visibility, wind, temperature, precipitation, topography, and behavior to form a final mapped output of predicted collision risk within the study region. We reviewed published mortality studies from wind farms in our study region and collected data on reported mortality of our focal species to compare to our modeled predictions. We performed a sensitivity analysis evaluating model performance of 6 different scenarios where habitat and exposure factors were weighted differently. We compared the model performance in each scenario by evaluating observed data vs. our model predictions using spearmans rank correlations. Horned Lark collision risk was predicted to be highest in the northwestern and west-central portions of the study region with lower risk predicted elsewhere. Red-eyed Vireo collision risk was predicted to be the highest in the eastern portions of the study region and in

  20. Habitat connectivity and local conditions shape taxonomic and functional diversity of arthropods on green roofs.

    PubMed

    Braaker, Sonja; Obrist, Martin Karl; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Moretti, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Increasing development of urban environments creates high pressure on green spaces with potential negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. There is growing evidence that green roofs - rooftops covered with vegetation - can contribute mitigate the loss of urban green spaces by providing new habitats for numerous arthropod species. Whether green roofs can contribute to enhance taxonomic and functional diversity and increase connectivity across urbanized areas remains, however, largely unknown. Furthermore, only limited information is available on how environmental conditions shape green roof arthropod communities. We investigated the community composition of arthropods (Apidae, Curculionidae, Araneae and Carabidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 green sites at ground level in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. We assessed how the site's environmental variables (such as area, height, vegetation, substrate and connectivity among sites) affect species richness and functional diversity using generalized linear models. We used an extension of co-inertia analysis (RLQ) and fourth-corner analysis to highlight the mechanism underlying community assemblages across taxonomic groups on green roof and ground communities. Species richness was higher at ground-level sites, while no difference in functional diversity was found between green roofs and ground sites. Green roof arthropod diversity increased with higher connectivity and plant species richness, irrespective of substrate depth, height and area of green roofs. The species trait analysis reviewed the mechanisms related to the environmental predictors that shape the species assemblages of the different taxa at ground and roof sites. Our study shows the important contribution of green roofs in maintaining high functional diversity of arthropod communities across different taxonomic groups, despite their lower species richness compared with ground sites. Species communities on green roofs revealed to be characterized

  1. Key Fish and Wildlife Species and Habitats in the Columbia River Basin Potentially Affected in a Cumulative Manner by Hydroelectric Development, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1985-09-30

    This final report summarizes the results of Task 1, which was the development of a list of key fish and wildlife species and habitat types that could potentially be impacted by hydroelectric development in a cumulative manner. Information developed in Task 1 is to be utilized in other tasks to identify specific pathways of cumulative effects, to assess current cumulative impact assessment methodologies, and to recommend alternative approaches for use in the Columbia River Basin. 58 refs., 17 tabs.

  2. Loss and self-restoration of macrobenthic diversity in reclamation habitats of estuarine islands in Yangtze Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Weiwei; Liu, Zhiquan; Yang, Yang; Huang, Youhui; Fan, Bin; Jiang, Qichen; Zhao, Yunlong

    2016-02-15

    In this study, macrobenthic diversity data were collected from intertidal habitats of island wetlands in Yangtze Estuary before and after reclamation. Three survey regions based on habitat features were investigated: protected region, normal region, and self-restored region. The pattern of diversity variation showed a sharp decrease in reclamation sites and an obvious increase in vegetated sites of the self-restored region before and after reclamation. A declining trend in habitat health was observed in reclamation sites, but the degree of perturbation was relatively weaker in protected region than in normal region. The vegetated site showed a better self-restoration of biodiversity than the bald site. These results suggest that reclamation may have a negative influence on biodiversity and habitat health status in the intertidal wetland. Also, there is a possibility of self-restoration in tidal flats disturbed by reclamation and the resistance effect in nature reserve may reduce the disturbances resulting from reclamation.

  3. Bacterial diversity in three distinct sub-habitats within the pitchers of the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Joseph R; Kourtev, Peter S

    2012-03-01

    Pitcher plants have been widely used in ecological studies of food webs; however, their bacterial communities are poorly characterized. Pitchers of Sarracenia purpurea contain several distinct sub-habitats, namely the bottom sediment, the liquid, and the internal pitcher wall. We hypothesized that those three sub-habitats within pitcher plants are inhabited by distinct bacterial populations. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize bacterial populations in pitchers from three bogs. DGGE and sequencing revealed that in any given pitcher, the three sub-habitats contain significantly different bacterial populations. However, there was significant variability between bacterial populations inhabiting the same type of habitat in different pitchers, even at the same site. Therefore, no consistent set of bacterial populations was enriched in any of the three sub-habitats. All sub-habitats appeared to be dominated by alpha- and betaproteobacteria in differing proportions. In addition, sequences from the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were obtained from all three sub-habitats. We conclude that container aquatic habitats such as the pitchers of S. purpurea possess a very high bacterial diversity, with many unique bacterial populations enriched in individual pitchers. Within an individual pitcher, populations of certain bacterial families may be enriched in one of the three studied sub-habitats.

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Weig [Weir] Property Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge, Technical Report 1997-1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Maureen

    1998-02-01

    A habitat evaluation of the Weir property, an approximately 200-acre in holding of private property within the Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), was conducted using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology. The Weir property consists of two separate parcels, an upper unit of 40 acres and a 160-acre lower unit. Evaluation species were ruffed grouse and white-tailed deer. Life requisites evaluated were available browse for white-tailed deer and winter food and fall-to-spring cover for ruffed grouse. Field data were collected on October 16, 17, and 21, 1997. Approximately 37 acres of the lower 160-acre unit are currently grasslands with no shrub or tree cover, and therefore do not provide suitable ruffed grouse or white-tailed deer cover. They excluded this acreage from the HEP calculations for current conditions. This acreage was included in the HEP calculations for ruffed grouse after future management strategies were factored in. It was not included in projections for white-tailed deer. The entire property was stratified into 6 stands (2 in the upper unit and 4 in the lower unit) for data collection. Data were collected at 10 points, spaced 20 paces (approximately 16 m) apart along one randomly selected transect in each stand, for a total of six transects. A circular quadrat (.004 ha) was used at each sampling point. Within this quadratwe counted all deciduous, coniferous, and shrub stems {ge} 0.9 m in height and made an ocular estimate of shrub (< 1.5 m in height) canopy cover. We measured the height of the closest (to the center of the quadrat) three deciduous trees, conifer trees, deciduous shrubs, and lowest conifer branch. We estimated the distance to 20 aspen trees at three points along each transect. For a ruffed grouse a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) was calculated for each stand for each variable. Therefore, two HSIs were calculated for each stand, one for winter food and one for fall-to-spring cover. Weighted HSI scores

  5. Placing the effects of leaf litter diversity on saprotrophic microorganisms in the context of leaf type and habitat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Feinstein, Larry M; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar; Kershner, Mark W; Leff, Laura G; Blackwood, Christopher B

    2011-02-01

    Because of conflicting results in previous studies, it is unclear whether litter diversity has a predictable impact on microbial communities or ecosystem processes. We examined whether effects of litter diversity depend on factors that could confound comparisons among previous studies, including leaf type, habitat type, identity of other leaves in the mixture, and spatial covariance at two scales within habitats. We also examined how litter diversity affects the saprotrophic microbial community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to profile bacterial and fungal community composition, direct microscopy to quantify bacterial biomass, and ergosterol extraction to quantify fungal biomass. We found that leaf mixture diversity was rarely significant as a main effect (only for fungal biomass), but was often significant as an interaction with leaf type (for ash-free dry mass recovered, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, fungal biomass, and bacterial community composition). Leaf type and habitat were significant as main effects for all response variables. The majority of variance in leaf ash-free dry mass and C/N ratio was explained after accounting for treatment effects and spatial covariation at the meter (block) and centimeter (litterbag) scales. However, a substantial amount of variability in microbial communities was left unexplained and must be driven by factors at other spatial scales or more complex spatiotemporal dynamics. We conclude that litter diversity effects are primarily dependent on leaf type, rather than habitat type or identity of surrounding leaves, which can guide the search for mechanisms underlying effects of litter diversity on ecosystem processes.

  6. Relative importance of coral cover, habitat complexity and diversity in determining the structure of reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Komyakova, Valeriya; Munday, Philip L; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2013-01-01

    The structure of coral reef habitat has a pronounced influence on the diversity, composition and abundance of reef-associated fishes. However, the particular features of the habitat that are most critical are not always known. Coral habitats can vary in many characteristics, notably live coral cover, topographic complexity and coral diversity, but the relative effects of these habitat characteristics are often not distinguished. Here, we investigate the strength of the relationships between these habitat features and local fish diversity, abundance and community structure in the lagoon of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. In a spatial comparison using sixty-six 2m(2) quadrats, fish species richness, total abundance and community structure were examined in relation to a wide range of habitat variables, including topographic complexity, habitat diversity, coral diversity, coral species richness, hard coral cover, branching coral cover and the cover of corymbose corals. Fish species richness and total abundance were strongly associated with coral species richness and cover, but only weakly associated with topographic complexity. Regression tree analysis showed that coral species richness accounted for most of the variation in fish species richness (63.6%), while hard coral cover explained more variation in total fish abundance (17.4%), than any other variable. In contrast, topographic complexity accounted for little spatial variation in reef fish assemblages. In degrading coral reef environments, the potential effects of loss of coral cover and topographic complexity are often emphasized, but these findings suggest that reduced coral biodiversity may ultimately have an equal, or greater, impact on reef-associated fish communities.

  7. Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-02-01

    We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation) along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí), Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba) and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso). We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species), followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each). The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas), followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas). Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances) seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog fauna along restinga habitats was significantly nested (matrix community temperature = 26.13 degrees; p = 0.007). Our data also showed that the most hospitable restinga was Praia das Neves and indicated that this area should be protected as a conservation unit. Frog assemblage of each area seems to partially represent a nested subset of the original assemblage, although we should not ignore the importance of historical

  8. Low genetic diversity and strong population structure shaped by anthropogenic habitat fragmentation in a critically endangered primate, Trachypithecus leucocephalus.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Qiao, Y; Li, S; Pan, W; Yao, M

    2017-02-15

    Habitat fragmentation may strongly impact population genetic structure and reduce the genetic diversity and viability of small and isolated populations. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a critically endangered primate species living in a highly fragmented and human-modified habitat in southern China. We examined the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of the species and investigated the environmental and anthropogenic factors that may have shaped its population structure. We used 214 unique multi-locus genotypes from 41 social groups across the main distribution area of T. leucocephalus, and found strong genetic structure and significant genetic differentiation among local populations. Our landscape genetic analyses using a causal modelling framework suggest that a large habitat gap and geographical distance represent the primary landscape elements shaping genetic structure, yet high levels of genetic differentiation also exist between patches separated by a small habitat gap or road. This is the first comprehensive study that has evaluated the population genetic structure and diversity of T. leucocephalus using nuclear markers. Our results indicate strong negative impacts of anthropogenic land modifications and habitat fragmentation on primate genetic connectivity between forest patches. Our analyses suggest that two management units of the species could be defined, and indicate that habitat continuity should be enforced and restored to reduce genetic isolation and enhance population viability.Heredity advance online publication, 15 February 2017; doi:10.1038/hdy.2017.2.

  9. Habitats as Complex Odour Environments: How Does Plant Diversity Affect Herbivore and Parasitoid Orientation?

    PubMed Central

    Wäschke, Nicole; Hardge, Kristin; Hancock, Christine; Hilker, Monika; Obermaier, Elisabeth; Meiners, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversity is known to affect success of host location by pest insects, but its effect on olfactory orientation of non-pest insect species has hardly been addressed. First, we tested in laboratory experiments the hypothesis that non-host plants, which increase odour complexity in habitats, affect the host location ability of herbivores and parasitoids. Furthermore, we recorded field data of plant diversity in addition to herbivore and parasitoid abundance at 77 grassland sites in three different regions in Germany in order to elucidate whether our laboratory results reflect the field situation. As a model system we used the herb Plantago lanceolata, the herbivorous weevil Mecinus pascuorum, and its larval parasitoid Mesopolobus incultus. The laboratory bioassays revealed that both the herbivorous weevil and its larval parasitoid can locate their host plant and host via olfactory cues even in the presence of non-host odour. In a newly established two-circle olfactometer, the weeviĺs capability to detect host plant odour was not affected by odours from non-host plants. However, addition of non-host plant odours to host plant odour enhanced the weeviĺs foraging activity. The parasitoid was attracted by a combination of host plant and host volatiles in both the absence and presence of non-host plant volatiles in a Y-tube olfactometer. In dual choice tests the parasitoid preferred the blend of host plant and host volatiles over its combination with non-host plant volatiles. In the field, no indication was found that high plant diversity disturbs host (plant) location by the weevil and its parasitoid. In contrast, plant diversity was positively correlated with weevil abundance, whereas parasitoid abundance was independent of plant diversity. Therefore, we conclude that weevils and parasitoids showed the sensory capacity to successfully cope with complex vegetation odours when searching for hosts. PMID:24416354

  10. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  11. Remote sensing for monitoring of wildlife habitat: Lesser snow geese and sub-Arctic coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadallah, Fawziah L.

    Human environmental impact has occurred on a global scale. Effective management of problems occurring over broad regions requires monitoring and intervention over large extents of space and time. Remote sensing provides an attractive data source, particularly as satellite data have been consistently collected over both space and time and present a readily available, inexpensive archive. At best, however, remote sensing provides proxy data for the underlying variables of interest. Here remotely sensed data are used to measure habitat degradation at a lesser snow goose colony. An increase in goose numbers has led to a loss of forage vegetation in the arctic and sub-arctic marshes where the geese nest and raise their young. In particular, isostatic rebound has generated extensive coastal marshes along the west coast of Hudson Bay, and lesser snow geese colonized such a marsh at La Perouse Bay in the late 1950's. This well-studied colony is used to assess the feasibility of mapping decadal change with Landsat imagery. A baseline map is developed using satellite data, aerial photography, and a knowledge of vegetation dynamics at the site. Calibration equations, relating the quantity of above-ground vegetation and its reflectance, are developed using cross-validation and goodness-of-prediction measures for field data collected on-site. To detect changes in vegetation state, tree-classification and cross-validation were applied to ground data. Using satellite imagery, changes in vegetation quantity and type could be detected against a background of mineral soil, but not against a background of mosses. Even in this site with low topographic variability, few species and few strong driving forces (i.e. isostatic rebound and herbivory), multiple change trajectories are possible. As different trajectories have different influences on both the reflectance of the surface and the expected behaviour and functioning of the system, each must be accounted for separately. Failure to

  12. Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance in water habitats: searching the links with the human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2014-07-01

    Water is one of the most important bacterial habitats on Earth. As such, water represents also a major way of dissemination of bacteria between different environmental compartments. Human activities led to the creation of the so-called urban water cycle, comprising different sectors (waste, surface, drinking water), among which bacteria can hypothetically be exchanged. Therefore, bacteria can be mobilized between unclean water habitats (e.g. wastewater) and clean or pristine water environments (e.g. disinfected and spring drinking water) and eventually reach humans. In addition, bacteria can also transfer mobile genetic elements between different water types, other environments (e.g. soil) and humans. These processes may involve antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. In this review, the hypothesis that some bacteria may share different water compartments and be also hosted by humans is discussed based on the comparison of the bacterial diversity in different types of water and with the human-associated microbiome. The role of such bacteria as potential disseminators of antibiotic resistance and the inference that currently only a small fraction of the clinically relevant antibiotic resistome may be known is discussed.

  13. Abundance and diversity of epibenthic amphipods (Crustacea) from contrasting bathyal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Matthew A.; Hogg, Ian D.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Lörz, Anne-Nina; Nodder, Scott D.

    2012-04-01

    To investigate relationships between epibenthic macrofauna and bathyal habitat characteristics, we examined the abundance, diversity and community composition of amphipod crustaceans relative to environmental variables on two major bathymetric features of New Zealand - the Chatham Rise and Challenger Plateau. An epibenthic (Brenke) sledge was used to sample depths ranging from 200 to 1200 m. Fifteen stations were sampled on the Chatham Rise, which is an extensive submarine ridge, east of New Zealand, characterised by high productivity in surface waters, associated with the Subtropical Front. Five stations were sampled on the Challenger Plateau, west of New Zealand, a region with a similar depth range, but less topographical relief and lower pelagic productivity relative to the Chatham Rise. Over 12,500 amphipods were recovered and identified. We found high abundance (range: 44-2074 individuals 1000 m-2) and taxonomic richness (27 families) in both regions. Amphipod assemblages at all stations were largely dominated by the same families, particularly the Phoxocephalidae. Chatham Rise stations were mostly similar in family composition to one another and to the two closest Challenger Plateau stations. However, the remaining three, more distal, western Challenger Plateau stations were highly differentiated from other stations and from one another, despite being relatively similar habitats. Overall, amphipod community composition correlated most strongly with surface chlorophyll a, suggesting strong benthic-pelagic coupling and emphasising the importance of benthic-pelagic links in bathyal ecosystems.

  14. Variation in sulfide tolerance of photosystem II in phylogenetically diverse cyanobacteria from sulfidic habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Scott R.; Bebout, Brad M.

    2004-01-01

    Physiological and molecular phylogenetic approaches were used to investigate variation among 12 cyanobacterial strains in their tolerance of sulfide, an inhibitor of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria from sulfidic habitats were found to be phylogenetically diverse and exhibited an approximately 50-fold variation in photosystem II performance in the presence of sulfide. Whereas the degree of tolerance was positively correlated with sulfide levels in the environment, a strain's phenotype could not be predicted from the tolerance of its closest relatives. These observations suggest that sulfide tolerance is a dynamic trait primarily shaped by environmental variation. Despite differences in absolute tolerance, similarities among strains in the effects of sulfide on chlorophyll fluorescence induction indicated a common mode of toxicity. Based on similarities with treatments known to disrupt the oxygen-evolving complex, it was concluded that sulfide toxicity resulted from inhibition of the donor side of photosystem II.

  15. Amicoumacin antibiotic production and genetic diversity of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from different habitats.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Irina V; Bressollier, Philippe; Sorokulova, Irina B; Verneuil, Bernard; Urdaci, Maria C

    2002-06-01

    One of the most interesting groups of phenolic compounds is comprised of the low molecular weight phenylpropanol derivative substances named isocoumarins, which possess important biological activities. In this study, the isocoumarin production and genetic diversity of 51 Bacillus strains isolated from different geographical and ecological niches were studied. Using molecular identification techniques, 47 strains were identified as B. subtilis, three as B. licheniformis and one as B. pumilus. When these strains were screened for isocumarin production, 11 belonging to the species B. subtilis produced amicoumacins, antibiotics of the isocoumarin group. RAPD analysis demonstrated that these strains fell into two groups which contained only these amicoumacin producers. No association was detected between RAPD profiles and the geographic origin or habitat of the strains tested. In conclusion, production of amicoumacin antibiotics by B. subtilis is a common characteristic of individual strains that presented genetic and physiological homogeneity.

  16. Hydroacoustic mapping to define sedimentation rates and characterize lentic habitats in DeSoto Lake, DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroacoustic tools were used to map depth, elevation, and substrate on DeSoto Lake in March 2006. DeSoto Lake, located on the DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge in Iowa and Nebraska, is one of the largest oxbow lakes of the Missouri River system. It is used by over 500,000 migratory birds each fall and spring and is also an important aquatic resource for anglers. Management concerns at the lake include the effects of erosion and sedimentation, aquatic vegetation establishment, shorebird habitat availability at different lake levels, and fish habitat structure. DeSoto Lake was cut off from the Missouri River in 1960, and the current mapping updates previous lower-resolution bathymetric maps created from lake surveys in 1967 and 1979. The new maps provide managers tools to assess aquatic habitats and provide a baseline for future monitoring of lake sedimentation and erosion.

  17. Habitat diversity in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico: Selected video clips from the Gulfstream Natural Gas Pipeline digital archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; D'Anjou, Robert; Pope, Domonique K.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    This project combines underwater video with maps and descriptions to illustrate diverse seafloor habitats from Tampa Bay, Florida, to Mobile Bay, Alabama. A swath of seafloor was surveyed with underwater video to 100 meters (m) water depth in 1999 and 2000 as part of the Gulfstream Natural Gas System Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in St. Petersburg, Florida, in cooperation with Eckerd College and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), produced an archive of analog-to-digital underwater movies. Representative clips of seafloor habitats were selected from hundreds of hours of underwater footage. The locations of video clips were mapped to show the distribution of habitat and habitat transitions. The numerous benthic habitats in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico play a vital role in the region's economy, providing essential resources for tourism, natural gas, recreational water sports (fishing, boating, scuba diving), materials, fresh food, energy, a source of sand for beach renourishment, and more. These submerged natural resources are important to the economy but are often invisible to the general public. This product provides a glimpse of the seafloor with sample underwater video, maps, and habitat descriptions. It was developed to depict the range and location of seafloor habitats in the region but is limited by depth and by the survey track. It should not be viewed as comprehensive, but rather as a point of departure for inquiries and appreciation of marine resources and seafloor habitats. Further information is provided in the Resources section.

  18. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan : Executive Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon.

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Northwest Power Act directs the NPPC to develop a program to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance'' fish and wildlife of the Columbia River and its tributaries. The overarching goals include: A Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish and wildlife; Mitigation across the basin for the adverse effects to fish and wildlife caused by the development and operation of the hydrosystem; Sufficient populations of fish and wildlife for abundant opportunities for tribal trust and treaty right harvest and for non-tribal harvest; and Recovery of the fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of the hydrosystem that are listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  19. Analysis of Wading Bird use of Impounded Wetland Habitat on the Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, 1987-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolen, Eric D.; Breininger, David R.; Smith, Rebecca B.; Quincy, Charlie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the first eleven years of monthly aerial surveys of wading bird use of foraging habitats within impoundments on the Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Some impoundments were used much more heavily by wading birds than were others. Analysis suggests that an increase in interspersion of open water and vegetated habitats is preferred foraging habitat. Many wading bird species increased their use of vegetated habitat in Fall and Winter when impoundments were flooded. The mean number of wading birds per survey was greatest during the Pre-nesting and Nesting seasons, declined during Post-nesting season, and was lowest during Winter when water levels within impoundments were high. During these times, shallow habitat along the IRL shoreline provided alternative habitats for wading birds. Various measures of monthly precipitation and impoundment water level were well correlated with the numbers of wading birds observed. Numbers of nesting attempts was steady during the study period, with the exception of an unusually high number of attempts in 1990. White Ibis accounted for over half of all wading bird nests counted. The mean number of nests per colony decreased during the study period, and the number of individual colonies increased.

  20. Water-energy dynamics, habitat heterogeneity, history, and broad-scale patterns of mammal diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer-Castán, Dolores; Morales-Barbero, Jennifer; Vetaas, Ole R.

    2016-11-01

    Numerous hypotheses on diversity patterns are often presented as if they were mutually exclusive. However, because of multicollinearity, correlational analyses are not able to distinguish the causal effects of different factors on these patterns. For this reason, we examine the interrelationships among current climate, habitat heterogeneity and evolutionary history by partitioning the variation in both total and non-volant mammal species richness in the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, it is possible to determine the variation accounted for by each one of these three components that is not shared by the others, and the respective overlaps. More specifically, we hypothesize that (H1) in warm temperate zones, a small increase in the available energy has strong negative effects on mammal richness if water availability is limiting; (H2) there are functional relationships between woody plant species richness (WOOD) and the richness of mammal species; (H3) there is a signal of evolutionary history in contemporary patterns of species richness, and (H4) mammal richness and the historical variable mean root distance (MRD) respond to the same driving forces. Additionally, we also test for spatial autocorrelation. We found a sharp nonlinear decrease in mammal richness with increasing energy and a monotonic increase with increasing water availability. Moreover, an interaction term between these two climate factors appeared to be statistically significant, so H1 could not be rejected. WOOD remained significant after partialling out both current climate and MRD at the family level (MRDf), supporting H2. The relationship between mammal diversity and MRD averaged by species richness was found to be spurious, but there appeared a significant historical signal using MRDf (this supports H3). The overlaps among these factors are consistent with H4 and suggest that water-energy dynamics have probably been active drivers throughout evolutionary history with habitat heterogeneity, and biotic

  1. Limited effect of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on molecular diversity in a rain forest skink, Gnypetoscincus queenslandiae.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Joanna; Jessop, Tim; Paetkau, David; Moritz, Craig

    2004-02-01

    To examine the effects of recent habitat fragmentation, we assayed genetic diversity in a rain forest endemic lizard, the prickly forest skink (Gnypetoscincus queenslandiae), from seven forest fragments and five sites in continuous forest on the Atherton tableland of northeastern Queensland, Australia. The rain forest in this region was fragmented by logging and clearing for dairy farms in the early 1900s and most forest fragments studied have been isolated for 50-80 years or nine to 12 skink generations. We genotyped 411 individuals at nine microsatellite DNA loci and found fewer alleles per locus in prickly forest skinks from small rain forest fragments and a lower ratio of allele number to allele size range in forest fragments than in continuous forest, indicative of a decrease in effective population size. In contrast, and as expected for populations with small neighbourhood sizes, neither heterozygosity nor variance in allele size differed between fragments and sites in continuous forests. Considering measures of among population differentiation, there was no increase in FST among fragments and a significant isolation by distance pattern was identified across all 12 sites. However, the relationship between genetic (FST) and geographical distance was significantly stronger for continuous forest sites than for fragments, consistent with disruption of gene flow among the latter. The observed changes in genetic diversity within and among populations are small, but in the direction predicted by the theory of genetic erosion in recently fragmented populations. The results also illustrate the inherent difficulty in detecting genetic consequences of recent habitat fragmentation, even in genetically variable species, and especially when effective population size and dispersal rates are low.

  2. High Genetic Diversity in a Potentially Vulnerable Tropical Tree Species Despite Extreme Habitat Loss

    PubMed Central

    Noreen, Annika M. E.; Webb, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 150 years, Singapore’s primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining species may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter), 193 saplings (>1 yr), and 1,822 seedlings (<1 yr) of the canopy tree Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae). We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1) that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2) K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He = 0.843–0.854), high allelic richness (R = 16.7–19.5), low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS = 0.013–0.076), and a large proportion (30.1%) of rare alleles (i.e. frequency <1%). However, spatial genetic structure (SGS) analyses showed significant differences between the adults and the recruits. We detected significantly greater SGS intensity, as well as higher relatedness in the 0–10 m distance class, for seedlings and saplings compared to the adults. Demographic factors for this population (i.e. <200 adult trees) are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm = 0.961), calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee species in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss. PMID

  3. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  4. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish and Wildlife Program Habitat Protection Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, Angelo; Roberts, Frank; Peters, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    Throughout the last century, the cumulative effects of anthropogenic disturbances have caused drastic watershed level landscape changes throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas (Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998). Changes include stream channelization, wetland draining, forest and palouse prairie conversion for agricultural use, high road density, elimination of old growth timber stands, and denuding riparian communities. The significance of these changes is manifested in the degradation of habitats supporting native flora and fauna. Consequently, populations of native fish, wildlife, and plants, which the Tribe relies on as subsistence resources, have declined or in some instances been extirpated (Apperson et al. 1988; Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998; Lillengreen et al. 1996; Lillengreen et al. 1993; Gerry Green Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife Biologist, personal communication 2002). For example, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are not present at detectable levels in Reservation tributaries, westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) are not present in numbers commensurate with maintaining harvestable fisheries (Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996), and the Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) are not present at detectable levels on the Reservation (Gerry Green, Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife biologist, personal communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe added Fisheries and Wildlife Programs to their Natural Resources Department to address these losses and protect important cultural, and subsistence resources for future generations. The Tribal Council adopted by Resolution 89(94), the following mission statement for the Fisheries Program: 'restore, protect, expand and re-establish fish populations to sustainable levels to provide harvest opportunities'. This mission statement, focused on fisheries restoration and rehabilitation, is a response to native fish population declines throughout the Tribe's aboriginal territory, including the Coeur d'Alene Indian

  5. Urban Areas. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…

  6. 77 FR 31636 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit...

  7. 76 FR 39433 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council... February 2010, the Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that:...

  8. Modeling potential impacts of the Garrison Diversion Unit project on Sand Lake and Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuges: a feasibility analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.

    1987-01-01

    The Garrison Diversion Unit (GDU) of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin program was authorized in 1965, with the purpose of diverting Missouri River water to the James River for irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and flood control. The project was reauthorized in 1986, with the specification that comprehensive studies be conducted to address a variety of issues. One of these ongoing studies addresses potential impacts of GDU construction and operation on lands of the National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) system, including Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges (the Refuges) on the James River. A number of concerns at these Refuges have been identified; the primary concerns addressed in this report include increased winter return flows, which would limit control of rough fish; increased turbidity during project construction, which would decrease production of sago pondweed; and increased water level fluctuations in the late spring and early summer, which would destroy the nests of some over-water nesting birds. The facilitated workshop described in this report was conducted February 18-20, 1987, under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. The primary objectives of the workshop were to evaluate the feasibility of using simulation modeling techniques to estimate GDU impacts on Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges and to suggest enhancements to the James River Refuge monitoring program. The workshop was structured around the formulation of four submodels: a Hydrology and Water Quality submodel to simulate changes in Refuge pool elevations, turnover rates, and water quality parameters (e.g., total dissolved solids, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, water temperature, pesticides) due to GDU construction and operation; a Vegetation submodel to simulate concomitant changes in wetland communities (e.g., sago pondweed, wet meadows, deep

  9. Molecular diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria from two different continental margin habitats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueduan; Bagwell, Christopher E; Wu, Liyou; Devol, Allan H; Zhou, Jizhong

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the natural diversity and distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria along a natural carbon gradient extending down the shelf-slope transition zone of the eastern Pacific continental margin. Dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene sequences (dsrAB) were PCR amplified and cloned from five different sampling sites, each at a discrete depth, from two different margin systems, one off the Pacific coast of Mexico and another off the coast of Washington State. A total of 1,762 clones were recovered and evaluated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The majority of the gene sequences recovered showed site and depth restricted distributions; however, a limited number of gene sequences were widely distributed within and between the margin systems. Cluster analysis identified 175 unique RFLP patterns, and nucleotide sequences were determined for corresponding clones. Several different continental margin DsrA sequences clustered with those from formally characterized taxa belonging to the delta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria (Desulfobulbus propionicus, Desulfosarcina variabilis) and the Bacillus-Clostridium (Desulfotomaculum putei) divisions, although the majority of the recovered sequences were phylogenetically divergent relative to all of the other DsrA sequences available for comparison. This study revealed extensive new genetic diversity among sulfate-reducing bacteria in continental margin sedimentary habitats, which appears to be tightly coupled to slope depth, specifically carbon bioavailability.

  10. Genetic effects of habitat restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes: an assessment of lake sturgeon origin and genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamie Marie Marranca,; Amy Welsh,; Roseman, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have experienced significant habitat loss, resulting in reduced population sizes. Three artificial reefs were built in the Huron-Erie corridor in the Great Lakes to replace lost spawning habitat. Genetic data were collected to determine the source and numbers of adult lake sturgeon spawning on the reefs and to determine if the founder effect resulted in reduced genetic diversity. DNA was extracted from larval tail clips and 12 microsatellite loci were amplified. Larval genotypes were then compared to 22 previously studied spawning lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes to determine the source of the parental population. The effective number of breeders (Nb) was calculated for each reef cohort. The larval genotypes were then compared to the source population to determine if there were any losses in genetic diversity that are indicative of the founder effect. The St. Clair and Detroit River adult populations were found to be the source parental population for the larvae collected on all three artificial reefs. There were large numbers of contributing adults relative to the number of sampled larvae. There was no significant difference between levels of genetic diversity in the source population and larval samples from the artificial reefs; however, there is some evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the reef populations likely due to the founder effect. Habitat restoration in the Huron-Erie corridor is likely resulting in increased habitat for the large lake sturgeon population in the system and in maintenance of the population's genetic diversity.

  11. Diversity and Habitat Preferences of Cultivated and Uncultivated Aerobic Methanotrophic Bacteria Evaluated Based on pmoA as Molecular Marker

    PubMed Central

    Knief, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria are characterized by their capability to grow on methane as sole source of carbon and energy. Cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have revealed that this functional guild of bacteria comprises a substantial diversity of organisms. In particular the use of cultivation-independent methods targeting a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) as functional marker for the detection of aerobic methanotrophs has resulted in thousands of sequences representing “unknown methanotrophic bacteria.” This limits data interpretation due to restricted information about these uncultured methanotrophs. A few groups of uncultivated methanotrophs are assumed to play important roles in methane oxidation in specific habitats, while the biology behind other sequence clusters remains still largely unknown. The discovery of evolutionary related monooxygenases in non-methanotrophic bacteria and of pmoA paralogs in methanotrophs requires that sequence clusters of uncultivated organisms have to be interpreted with care. This review article describes the present diversity of cultivated and uncultivated aerobic methanotrophic bacteria based on pmoA gene sequence diversity. It summarizes current knowledge about cultivated and major clusters of uncultivated methanotrophic bacteria and evaluates habitat specificity of these bacteria at different levels of taxonomic resolution. Habitat specificity exists for diverse lineages and at different taxonomic levels. Methanotrophic genera such as Methylocystis and Methylocaldum are identified as generalists, but they harbor habitat specific methanotrophs at species level. This finding implies that future studies should consider these diverging preferences at different taxonomic levels when analyzing methanotrophic communities. PMID:26696968

  12. Diversity and Habitat Preferences of Cultivated and Uncultivated Aerobic Methanotrophic Bacteria Evaluated Based on pmoA as Molecular Marker.

    PubMed

    Knief, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria are characterized by their capability to grow on methane as sole source of carbon and energy. Cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have revealed that this functional guild of bacteria comprises a substantial diversity of organisms. In particular the use of cultivation-independent methods targeting a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) as functional marker for the detection of aerobic methanotrophs has resulted in thousands of sequences representing "unknown methanotrophic bacteria." This limits data interpretation due to restricted information about these uncultured methanotrophs. A few groups of uncultivated methanotrophs are assumed to play important roles in methane oxidation in specific habitats, while the biology behind other sequence clusters remains still largely unknown. The discovery of evolutionary related monooxygenases in non-methanotrophic bacteria and of pmoA paralogs in methanotrophs requires that sequence clusters of uncultivated organisms have to be interpreted with care. This review article describes the present diversity of cultivated and uncultivated aerobic methanotrophic bacteria based on pmoA gene sequence diversity. It summarizes current knowledge about cultivated and major clusters of uncultivated methanotrophic bacteria and evaluates habitat specificity of these bacteria at different levels of taxonomic resolution. Habitat specificity exists for diverse lineages and at different taxonomic levels. Methanotrophic genera such as Methylocystis and Methylocaldum are identified as generalists, but they harbor habitat specific methanotrophs at species level. This finding implies that future studies should consider these diverging preferences at different taxonomic levels when analyzing methanotrophic communities.

  13. The effects of tectonic deformation and sediment allocation on shelf habitats and megabenthic distribution and diversity in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Ryan D.; Parnell, P. Ed; Leichter, James L.; Driscoll, Neal W.

    2016-02-01

    Landscape and seascape structures are typically complex and manifest as patch mosaics within characteristic biomes, bordering one another in gradual or abrupt ecotones. The underlying patch structure in coastal shelf ecosystems is driven by the interaction of tectonic, sedimentary, and sea level dynamic processes. Animals and plants occupy and interact within these mosaics. Terrestrial landscape ecological studies have shown that patch structure is important for ecological processes such as foraging, connectivity, predation, and species dynamics. The importance of patch structure for marine systems is less clear because far fewer pattern-process studies have been conducted in these systems. For many coastal shelf systems, there is a paucity of information on how species occupy shelf seascapes, particularly for seascapes imbued with complex patch structure and ecotones that are common globally due to tectonic activity. Here, we present the results of a study conducted along a myriameter-scale gradient of bottom and sub-bottom geological forcing altered by tectonic deformation, sea level transgression and sediment allocation. The resulting seascape is dominated by unconsolidated sediments throughout, but also exhibits increasing density and size of outcropping patches along a habitat patch gradient forced by the erosion of a sea level transgressive surface that has been deformed and tilted by tectonic forcing. A combination of sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, and ROV surveys of the habitats and the demersal megafauna occupying the habitats indicate (1) significant beta diversity along this gradient, (2) biological diversity does not scale with habitat diversity, and (3) species occupy the patches disproportionately (non-linearly) with regard to the proportional availability of their preferred habitats. These results indicate that shelf habitat patch structure modulates species specific processes and interactions with other species. Further studies are

  14. Temporal changes in archaeal diversity and chemistry in a mid-ocean ridge subseafloor habitat.

    PubMed

    Huber, Julie A; Butterfield, David A; Baross, John A

    2002-04-01

    The temporal variation in archaeal diversity in vent fluids from a midocean ridge subseafloor habitat was examined using PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and most-probable-number (MPN) cultivation techniques targeting hyperthermophiles. To determine how variations in temperature and chemical characteristics of subseafloor fluids affect the microbial communities, we performed molecular phylogenetic and chemical analyses on diffuse-flow vent fluids from one site shortly after a volcanic eruption in 1998 and again in 1999 and 2000. The archaeal population was divided into particle-attached (>3-microm-diameter cells) and free-living fractions to test the hypothesis that subseafloor microorganisms associated with active hydrothermal systems are adapted for a lifestyle that involves attachment to solid surfaces and formation of biofilms. To delineate between entrained seawater archaea and the indigenous subseafloor microbial community, a background seawater sample was also examined and found to consist only of Group I Crenarchaeota and Group II Euryarchaeota, both of which were also present in vent fluids. The indigenous subseafloor archaeal community consisted of clones related to both mesophilic and hyperthermophilic Methanococcales, as well as many uncultured Euryarchaeota, some of which have been identified in other vent environments. The particle-attached fraction consistently showed greater diversity than the free-living fraction. The fluid and MPN counts indicate that while culturable hyperthermophiles represent less than 1% of the total microbial community, the subseafloor at new eruption sites does support a hyperthermophilic microbial community. The temperature and chemical indicators of the degree of subseafloor mixing appear to be the most important environmental parameters affecting community diversity, and it is apparent that decreasing fluid temperatures correlated with increased entrainment of seawater, decreased concentrations of

  15. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  16. Species composition, diversity and relative abundance of amphibians in forests and non-forest habitats on Langkawi Island, Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Johana, J.; Muzzneena, A. M.; Grismer, L. L.; Norhayati, A.

    2016-11-01

    Anurans on Langkawi Island, Peninsular Malaysia exhibit variation in their habits and forms, ranging from small (SVL < 25 mm) to large (SVL > 150 mm), and occupy a range of habitats, such as riverine forests, agricultural fields, peat swamps, and lowland and upland dipterocarp forests. These variations provide a platform to explore species diversity, distribution, abundance, microhabitat, and other ecological parameters to understand the distribution patterns and to facilitate conservation and management of sensitive or important species and areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and distribution of anuran species in different types of habitat on Langkawi Island. Specimens were collected based on active sampling using the Visual Encounter Survey (VES) method. We surveyed anuran species inhabiting seven types of habitat, namely agriculture (AG), coastal (CL), forest (FT), pond (PD), mangrove (MG), riparian forest (RF) and river (RV). A total of 775 individuals were sampled from all localities, representing 23 species from 12 genera and included all six families of frogs in Malaysia. FT and RF showed high values of Shannon Index, H', 2.60 and 2.38, respectively, followed by the other types of habitat, CL (1.82), RV (1.71), MG (1.56), PD (1.54), and AG (1.53). AG had the highest abundance (156 individuals) compared to other habitat types. Based on Cluster Analysis by using Jaccard coefficient (UPGMA), two groups can be clearly seen and assigned as forested species group (FT and RF) and species associating with human activity (AG, CL, PD, MG and RV). Forest species group is more diverse compared to non-forest group. Nevertheless, non-forest species are found in abundance, highlighting the relevance of these disturbed habitats in supporting the amphibians.

  17. Genetic variation of loci potentially under selection confounds species-genetic diversity correlations in a fragmented habitat.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Angeline; Gouin, Nicolas; Baumel, Alex; Gianoli, Ernesto; Serratosa, Juan; Osorio, Rodomiro; Manel, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Positive species-genetic diversity correlations (SGDCs) are often thought to result from the parallel influence of neutral processes on genetic and species diversity. Yet, confounding effects of non-neutral mechanisms have not been explored. Here, we investigate the impact of non-neutral genetic diversity on SGDCs in high Andean wetlands. We compare correlations between plant species diversity and genetic diversity (GD) calculated with and without loci potentially under selection (outlier loci). The study system includes 2188 specimens from five species (three common aquatic macroinvertebrate and two dominant plant species) that were genotyped for 396 amplified fragment length polymorphism loci. We also appraise the importance of neutral processes on SGDCs by investigating the influence of habitat fragmentation features. Significant positive SGDCs were detected for all five species (mean SGDC = 0.52 ± 0.05). While only a few outlier loci were detected in each species, they resulted in significant decreases in GD and in SGDCs. This supports the hypothesis that neutral processes drive species-genetic diversity relationships in high Andean wetlands. Unexpectedly, the effects on genetic diversity GD of the habitat fragmentation characteristics in this study increased with the presence of outlier loci in two species. Overall, our results reveal pitfalls in using habitat features to infer processes driving SGDCs and show that a few loci potentially under selection are enough to cause a significant downward bias in SGDC. Investigating confounding effects of outlier loci thus represents a useful approach to evidence the contribution of neutral processes on species-genetic diversity relationships.

  18. Diversity and Composition of the Leaf Mycobiome of Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Are Affected by Local Habitat Conditions and Leaf Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Unterseher, Martin; Siddique, Abu Bakar; Brachmann, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Comparative investigations of plant-associated fungal communities (mycobiomes) in distinct habitats and under distinct climate regimes have been rarely conducted in the past. Nowadays, high-throughput sequencing allows routine examination of mycobiome responses to environmental changes and results at an unprecedented level of detail. In the present study, we analysed Illumina-generated fungal ITS1 sequences from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) originating from natural habitats at two different altitudes in the German Alps and from a managed tree nursery in northern Germany. In general, leaf-inhabiting mycobiome diversity and composition correlated significantly with the origin of the trees. Under natural condition the mycobiome was more diverse at lower than at higher elevation, whereas fungal diversity was lowest in the artificial habitat of the tree nursery. We further identified significant correlation of leaf chlorophylls and flavonoids with both habitat parameters and mycobiome biodiversity. The present results clearly point towards a pronounced importance of local stand conditions for the structure of beech leaf mycobiomes and for a close interrelation of phyllosphere fungi and leaf physiology. PMID:27078859

  19. Insect Gut Bacterial Diversity Determined by Environmental Habitat, Diet, Developmental Stage, and Phylogeny of Host

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Roh, Seong Woon; Whon, Tae Woong; Jung, Mi-Ja; Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Doo-Sang; Yoon, Changmann; Nam, Young-Do; Kim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Jung-Hye; Kim, Joon-Yong; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Won-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Insects are the most abundant animals on Earth, and the microbiota within their guts play important roles by engaging in beneficial and pathological interactions with these hosts. In this study, we comprehensively characterized insect-associated gut bacteria of 305 individuals belonging to 218 species in 21 taxonomic orders, using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. In total, 174,374 sequence reads were obtained, identifying 9,301 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 3% distance level from all samples, with an average of 84.3 (±97.7) OTUs per sample. The insect gut microbiota were dominated by Proteobacteria (62.1% of the total reads, including 14.1% Wolbachia sequences) and Firmicutes (20.7%). Significant differences were found in the relative abundances of anaerobes in insects and were classified according to the criteria of host environmental habitat, diet, developmental stage, and phylogeny. Gut bacterial diversity was significantly higher in omnivorous insects than in stenophagous (carnivorous and herbivorous) insects. This insect-order-spanning investigation of the gut microbiota provides insights into the relationships between insects and their gut bacterial communities. PMID:24928884

  20. Insect gut bacterial diversity determined by environmental habitat, diet, developmental stage, and phylogeny of host.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Roh, Seong Woon; Whon, Tae Woong; Jung, Mi-Ja; Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Doo-Sang; Yoon, Changmann; Nam, Young-Do; Kim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Jung-Hye; Kim, Joon-Yong; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Won-Jae; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2014-09-01

    Insects are the most abundant animals on Earth, and the microbiota within their guts play important roles by engaging in beneficial and pathological interactions with these hosts. In this study, we comprehensively characterized insect-associated gut bacteria of 305 individuals belonging to 218 species in 21 taxonomic orders, using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. In total, 174,374 sequence reads were obtained, identifying 9,301 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 3% distance level from all samples, with an average of 84.3 (± 97.7) OTUs per sample. The insect gut microbiota were dominated by Proteobacteria (62.1% of the total reads, including 14.1% Wolbachia sequences) and Firmicutes (20.7%). Significant differences were found in the relative abundances of anaerobes in insects and were classified according to the criteria of host environmental habitat, diet, developmental stage, and phylogeny. Gut bacterial diversity was significantly higher in omnivorous insects than in stenophagous (carnivorous and herbivorous) insects. This insect-order-spanning investigation of the gut microbiota provides insights into the relationships between insects and their gut bacterial communities.

  1. The butterfly effect: parasite diversity, environment, and emerging disease in aquatic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Adlard, Robert D; Miller, Terrence L; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Aquatic wildlife is increasingly subjected to emerging diseases often due to perturbations of the existing dynamic balance between hosts and their parasites. Accelerating changes in environmental factors, together with anthropogenic translocation of hosts and parasites, act synergistically to produce hard-to-predict disease outcomes in freshwater and marine systems. These outcomes are further complicated by the intimate links between diseases in wildlife and diseases in humans and domestic animals. Here, we explore the interactions of parasites in aquatic wildlife in terms of their biodiversity, their response to environmental change, their emerging diseases, and the contribution of humans and domestic animals to parasitic disease outcomes. This work highlights the clear need for interdisciplinary approaches to ameliorate disease impacts in aquatic wildlife systems.

  2. Management of wetlands for wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthew J. Gray,; Heath M. Hagy,; J. Andrew Nyman,; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems that provide habitat for a diversity of wildlife species and afford various ecosystem services. Managing wetlands effectively requires an understanding of basic ecosystem processes, animal and plant life history strategies, and principles of wildlife management. Management techniques that are used differ depending on target species, coastal versus interior wetlands, and available infrastructure, resources, and management objectives. Ideally, wetlands are managed as a complex, with many successional stages and hydroperiods represented in close proximity. Managing wetland wildlife typically involves manipulating water levels and vegetation in the wetland, and providing an upland buffer. Commonly, levees and water control structures are used to manipulate wetland hydrology in combination with other management techniques (e.g., disking, burning, herbicide application) to create desired plant and wildlife responses. In the United States, several conservation programs are available to assist landowners in developing wetland management infrastructure on their property. Managing wetlands to increase habitat quality for wildlife is critical, considering this ecosystem is one of the most imperiled in the world.

  3. beta-diversity and species accumulation in antarctic coastal benthos: influence of habitat, distance and productivity on ecological connectivity.

    PubMed

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Cummings, Vonda J; Norkko, Alf; Chiantore, Mariachiara

    2010-07-30

    High Antarctic coastal marine environments are comparatively pristine with strong environmental gradients, which make them important places to investigate biodiversity relationships. Defining how different environmental features contribute to shifts in beta-diversity is especially important as these shifts reflect both spatio-temporal variations in species richness and the degree of ecological separation between local and regional species pools. We used complementary techniques (species accumulation models, multivariate variance partitioning and generalized linear models) to assess how the roles of productivity, bio-physical habitat heterogeneity and connectivity change with spatial scales from metres to 100's of km. Our results demonstrated that the relative importance of specific processes influencing species accumulation and beta-diversity changed with increasing spatial scale, and that patterns were never driven by only one factor. Bio-physical habitat heterogeneity had a strong influence on beta-diversity at scales <290 km, while the effects of productivity were low and significant only at scales >40 km. Our analysis supports the emphasis on the analysis of diversity relationships across multiple spatial scales and highlights the unequal connectivity of individual sites to the regional species pool. This has important implications for resilience to habitat loss and community homogenisation, especially for Antarctic benthic communities where rates of recovery from disturbance are slow, there is a high ratio of poor-dispersing and brooding species, and high biogenic habitat heterogeneity and spatio-temporal variability in primary production make the system vulnerable to disturbance. Consequently, large areas need to be included within marine protected areas for effective management and conservation of these special ecosystems in the face of increasing anthropogenic disturbance.

  4. Higher β-diversity observed for herbs over woody plants is driven by stronger habitat filtering in a tropical understory.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Stephen J; Salpeter, Kara; Comita, Liza S

    2016-08-01

    Herbaceous plants are a key component of tropical forests. Previous work indicates that herbs contribute substantially to the species richness of tropical plant communities. However, the processes structuring tropical herb diversity, and how they contrast with woody communities, have been underexplored. Within the understory of a 50-ha forest dynamics plot in central Panama, we compared the diversity, distribution, and abundance of vascular herbaceous plants with woody seedlings (i.e., tree and lianas <1 cm DBH and ≥20 cm tall). Beta-diversity was calculated for each community using a null model approach. We then assessed the similarity in alpha and beta-diversity among herbs, tree seedlings, and liana seedlings. Strengths of habitat associations were measured using permutational ANOVA among topographic habitat-types. Variance partitioning was then used to quantify the amount of variation in species richness and composition explained by spatial and environmental variables (i.e., topography, soils, and shade) for each growth form. Species richness and diversity were highest for tree seedlings, followed by liana seedlings and then herbs. In contrast, beta-diversity was 16-127% higher for herbs compared to woody seedlings, indicating higher spatial variation in this stratum. We observed no correlation between local richness or compositional uniqueness of herbs and woody seedlings across sites, indicating that different processes control the spatial patterns of woody and herbaceous diversity and composition. Habitat associations were strongest for herbs, as indicated by greater compositional dissimilarity among habitat types. Likewise, environmental variables explained a larger proportion of the variation in species richness and composition for herbs than for woody seedlings (richness = 25%, 14%, 12%; composition = 25%, 9%, 6%, for herbs, trees, and lianas, respectively). These differences between strata did not appear to be due to differences in lifespan alone

  5. Genetic and epigenetic diversity and structure of Phragmites australis from local habitats of the Songnen Prairie using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Qiu, T; Jiang, L L; Yang, Y F

    2016-08-19

    The genetic and epigenetic diversity and structure of naturally occurring Phragmites australis populations occupying two different habitats on a small spatial scale in the Songnen Prairie in northeastern China were investigated by assessing amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphisms (MSAPs) through fluorescent capillary detection. The two groups of P. australis were located in a seasonal waterlogged low-lying and alkalized meadow with a pH of 8-8.5 and in an alkaline patch without accumulated rainwater and with a pH greater than 10. These groups showed high levels of genetic diversity at the habitat level based on the percentage of polymorphic bands (90.32, 82.56%), Nei's gene diversity index (0.262, 0.248), and the Shannon diversity index (0.407, 0.383). Although little is known about the between-habitat genetic differentiation of P. australis on a small spatial scale, our results implied significant genetic differentiation between habitats. Extensive epigenetic diversity within habitats, along with clear differentiation, was found. Specifically, the former habitat (Habitat 1, designated H1) harbored higher levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity than the latter (Habitat 2, designated H2), and population-level diversity was also high. This study represents one of few attempts to predict habitat-based genetic differentiation of reeds on a small scale. These assessments of genetic and epigenetic variation are integral aspects of molecular ecological studies on P. australis. Possible causes for within- and between-habitat genetic and epigenetic variations are discussed.

  6. Science to support adaptive habitat management: Overton Bottoms North Unit, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri [Volumes 1-6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive efforts are underway along the Lower Missouri River to rehabilitate ecosystem functions in the channel and flood plain. Considerable uncertainty inevitably accompanies ecosystem restoration efforts, indicating the benefits of an adaptive management approach in which management actions are treated as experiments, and results provide information to feed back into the management process. The Overton Bottoms North Unit of the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge is a part of the Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Project. The dominant management action at the Overton Bottoms North Unit has been excavation of a side-channel chute to increase hydrologic connectivity and to enhance shallow, slow current-velocity habitat. The side-channel chute also promises to increase hydrologic gradients, and may serve to alter patterns of wetland inundation and vegetation community growth in undesired ways. The U.S. Geological Survey's Central Region Integrated Studies Program (CRISP) undertook interdisciplinary research at the Overton Bottoms North Unit in 2003 to address key areas of scientific uncertainty that were highly relevant to ongoing adaptive management of the site, and to the design of similar rehabilitation projects on the Lower Missouri River. This volume presents chapters documenting the surficial geologic, topographic, surface-water, and ground-water framework of the Overton Bottoms North Unit. Retrospective analysis of vegetation community trends over the last 10 years is used to evaluate vegetation responses to reconnection of the Overton Bottoms North Unit to the river channel. Quasi-experimental analysis of cottonwood growth rate variation along hydrologic gradients is used to evaluate sensitivity of terrestrial vegetation to development of aquatic habitats. The integrated, landscape-specific understanding derived from these studies illustrates the value of scientific information in design and management of rehabilitation projects.

  7. Landscape ecological planning: Integrating land use and wildlife conservation for biomass crops

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A.

    1995-12-31

    What do a mussel shoat, a zoo, and a biomass plantation have in common? Each can benefit from ecology-based landscape planning. This paper provides examples of landscape ecological planning from some diverse projects the author has worked on, and discusses how processes employed and lessons learned from these projects are being used to help answer questions about the effects of biomass plantings (hardwood tree crops and native grasses) on wildlife habitat. Biomass environmental research is being designed to assess how plantings of different acreage, composition and landscape context affect wildlife habitat value, and is addressing the cumulative effect on wildlife habitat of establishing multiple biomass plantations across the landscape. Through landscape ecological planning, answers gleaned from research can also help guide biomass planting site selection and harvest strategies to improve habitat for native wildlife species within the context of economically viable plantation management - thereby integrating the needs of people with those of the environment.

  8. Floodplain forest loss and changes in forest community composition and structure in the upper Mississippi River: a wildlife habitat at risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Klaas, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Large floodplain forests represent a threatened and endangered type of ecosystem in the United States. Estimates of cumulative losses of floodplain forest range from 57% to 95% at different locations within the continental United Stales. Floodplain forests of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) have significantly declined in extent due to agriculture, lock and dam construction, and urban development since European settlement. We collected data on shrubs, herbs, and trees from 56 floodplain forest plots in 1992 and compared our results with a previous analysis of historical tree data from the same area recorded by the General Land Office Survey in the 1840s. Acer saccharinum strongly dominates among mature trees and its relative dominance has increased over time. Salix spp. And Betula nigra have declined in relative dominance. Tree sizes are similar to those of presettlement forests, but present forests have fewer trees. The lack of early successional tree species and a trend toward an increasing monoculture of A. Saccharinum in the mature stages indicate problems with regeneration. Because floodplain forests represent a rare habitat type, losses and changes in habitat quality could pose serious problems for wildlife that depend upon these habitats, especially birds.

  9. Exploration of the Canyon-Incised Continental Margin of the Northeastern United States Reveals Dynamic Habitats and Diverse Communities

    PubMed Central

    Quattrini, Andrea M.; Nizinski, Martha S.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Roark, E. Brendan; France, Scott C.; Moore, Jon A.; Heyl, Taylor; Auster, Peter J.; Kinlan, Brian; Ruppel, Carolyn; Elliott, Kelley P.; Kennedy, Brian R.C.; Lobecker, Elizabeth; Skarke, Adam; Shank, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial exploration

  10. Exploration of the canyon-incised continental margin of the northeastern United States reveals dynamic habitats and diverse communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quattrini, Andrea; Nizinski, Martha S.; Chaytor, Jason; Demopoulos, Amanda; Roark, E. Brendan; France, Scott; Moore, Jon A.; Heyl, Taylor P.; Auster, Peter J.; Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Elliott, Kelley P.; Kennedy, Brian R.C.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.; Skarke, Adam; Shank, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichosand the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial

  11. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Szabolcs; Déri, Eszter; Magura, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD) is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR) of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary) and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals) showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale) was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none) was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve biodiversity in

  12. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Szabolcs; Déri, Eszter; Magura, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD) is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR) of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary) and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals) showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale) was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none) was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve biodiversity in

  13. Exploration of the Canyon-Incised Continental Margin of the Northeastern United States Reveals Dynamic Habitats and Diverse Communities.

    PubMed

    Quattrini, Andrea M; Nizinski, Martha S; Chaytor, Jason D; Demopoulos, Amanda W J; Roark, E Brendan; France, Scott C; Moore, Jon A; Heyl, Taylor; Auster, Peter J; Kinlan, Brian; Ruppel, Carolyn; Elliott, Kelley P; Kennedy, Brian R C; Lobecker, Elizabeth; Skarke, Adam; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-01-01

    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial exploration

  14. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Growth Habitat of Kayu Kuku (Pericopsis mooniana Thw.) In Southeast Sulawesi.

    PubMed

    Husna; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Mansur, Irdika; Kusmana, Dan Cecep

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are categorized as fungi which have symbioses with terrestrial plants and are distributed in various habitat types. The objectives of this research were to investigate the diversity of AMF in stands of kayu kuku (Pericopsis mooniana Thw.) in Southeast Sulawesi. Collection of samples of soil and root were conducted in six locations. Isolation of spores used the method of wet sieving and decanting, whereas AMF identification was conducted by observing morphology of AMF spores. Parameters of AMF diversity, namely species richness, diversity index, dominance index, evenness index and colonization were studied using method of infected root length. Research results showed that location differences affected significantly the spore density and parameters of AMF diversity, except colonization of AMF (p < 0.116). Location around the Governor office showed the highest number of spores (208.6 spores/100 g of soil). Soil chemical properties, such as C, N, P and heavy metal contributed towards AMF spore density and diversity. Soil C and N correlated negatively with spore density. In terms of location, Glomeraceae constituted the genera with the largest number of species and possessed wide distribution in all research locations. In general, natural forest has higher AMF diversity index (Shannon-Weiner diversity index-H'), evenness (E) and species richness (S) as compared with location of PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk.

  15. Invasive species and habitat degradation in Iberian streams: an analysis of their role in freshwater fish diversity loss.

    PubMed

    Hermoso, Virgilio; Clavero, Miguel; Blanco-Garrido, Francisco; Prenda, José

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean endemic freshwater fish are among the most threatened biota in the world. Distinguishing the role of different extinction drivers and their potential interactions is crucial for achieving conservation goals. While some authors argue that invasive species are a main driver of native species declines, others see their proliferation as a co-occurring process to biodiversity loss driven by habitat degradation. It is difficult to discern between the two potential causes given that few invaded ecosystems are free from habitat degradation, and that both factors may interact in different ways. Here we analyze the relative importance of habitat degradation and invasive species in the decline of native fish assemblages in the Guadiana River basin (southwestern Iberian Peninsula) using an information theoretic approach to evaluate interaction pathways between invasive species and habitat degradation (structural equation modeling, SEM). We also tested the possible changes in the functional relationships between invasive and native species, measured as the per capita effect of invasive species, using ANCOVA. We found that the abundance of invasive species was the best single predictor of natives' decline and had the highest Akaike weight among the set of predictor variables examined. Habitat degradation neither played an active role nor influenced the per capita effect of invasive species on natives. Our analyses indicated that downstream reaches and areas close to reservoirs had the most invaded fish assemblages, independently of their habitat degradation status. The proliferation of invasive species poses a strong threat to the persistence of native assemblages in highly fluctuating environments. Therefore, conservation efforts to reduce native freshwater fish diversity loss in Mediterranean rivers should focus on mitigating the effect of invasive species and preventing future invasions.

  16. Range expansion of a habitat-modifying species leads to loss of taxonomic diversity: a new and impoverished reef state.

    PubMed

    Ling, S D

    2008-07-01

    Global climate change is predicted to have major negative impacts on biodiversity, particularly if important habitat-modifying species undergo range shifts. The sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii (Diadematidae) has recently undergone poleward range expansion to relatively cool, macroalgal dominated rocky reefs of eastern Tasmania (southeast Australia). As in its historic environment, C. rodgersii in the extended range is now found in association with a simplified 'barrens' habitat grazed free of macroalgae. The new and important role of this habitat-modifier on reef structure and associated biodiversity was clearly demonstrated by completely removing C. rodgersii from incipient barrens patches at an eastern Tasmanian site and monitoring the macroalgal response relative to unmanipulated barrens patches. In barrens patches from which C. rodgersii was removed, there was a rapid proliferation of canopy-forming macroalgae (Ecklonia radiata and Phyllospora comosa), and within 24 months the algal community structure had converged with that of adjacent macroalgal beds where C. rodgersii grazing was absent. A notable scarcity of limpets on C. rodgersii barrens in eastern Tasmania (relative to the historic range) likely promotes rapid macroalgal recovery upon removal of the sea urchin. In the recovered macroalgal habitat, faunal composition redeveloped similar to that from adjacent intact macroalgal beds in terms of total numbers of taxa, total individuals and Shannon diversity. In contrast, the faunal community of the barrens habitat is overwhelmingly impoverished. Of 296 individual floral/faunal taxa recorded, only 72 were present within incipient barrens, 253 were present in the recovered patches, and 221 were present within intact macroalgal beds. Grazing activity of C. rodgersii results in an estimated minimum net loss of approximately 150 taxa typically associated with Tasmanian macroalgal beds in this region. Such a disproportionate effect by a single range

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Big Island - The McKenzie River, Technical Report 1998-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Sieglitz, Greg

    2001-03-01

    The Big Island site is located in the McKenzie River flood plain, containing remnant habitats of what was once more common in this area. A diverse array of flora and fauna, representing significant wildlife habitats, is present on the site. Stands of undisturbed forested wetlands, along with riparian shrub habitats and numerous streams and ponds, support a diversity of wildlife species, including neotropical migratory songbirds, raptors, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians (including two State-listed Sensitive Critical species). The project is located in eastern Springfield, Oregon (Figure 1). The project area encompasses 187 acres under several ownerships in Section 27 of Township 17S, Range 2W. Despite some invasion of non-native species, the site contains large areas of relatively undisturbed wildlife habitat. Over several site visits, a variety of wildlife and signs of wildlife were observed, including an active great blue heron rookery, red-Legged frog egg masses, signs of beaver, and a bald eagle, Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for the Willamette River Basin. Under this Plan, mitigation goals and objectives were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal hydroelectric facilities in the Willamette River Basin. Results of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) will be used to: (1) determine the current habitat status of the study area and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area.

  18. 77 FR 43796 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Lost River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... mainstem, including Keno, J.C. Boyle, Copco, and Iron Gate Reservoirs (Klamath County, Oregon, and Siskiyou... designation due to State or Federal laws that may apply to critical habitat. When considering the benefits...

  19. 77 FR 27010 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...: Proposed rule; extension of public comment period; announcement of public meetings and public hearing... Wildlife Service; 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, MS 2042-PDM; Arlington, VA 22203. (3) At public information meetings or the public hearing: Written comments will be accepted by Service personnel at any of the...

  20. 78 FR 40970 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Six West Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... or surface water contamination (Diamond Y Spring), maintaining the pump within Phantom Lake Spring to..., the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, the Texas Comptroller's Office, the Texas Water Development..., water quantity and quality, the effect of existing regulatory mechanisms and other potential...

  1. Diverse spore rains and limited local exchange shape fern genetic diversity in a recently created habitat colonized by long-distance dispersal

    PubMed Central

    De Groot, G. A.; During, H. J.; Ansell, S. W.; Schneider, H.; Bremer, P.; Wubs, E. R. J.; Maas, J. W.; Korpelainen, H.; Erkens, R. H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Populations established by long-distance colonization are expected to show low levels of genetic variation per population, but strong genetic differentiation among populations. Whether isolated populations indeed show this genetic signature of isolation depends on the amount and diversity of diaspores arriving by long-distance dispersal, and time since colonization. For ferns, however, reliable estimates of long-distance dispersal rates remain largely unknown, and previous studies on fern population genetics often sampled older or non-isolated populations. Young populations in recent, disjunct habitats form a useful study system to improve our understanding of the genetic impact of long-distance dispersal. Methods Microsatellite markers were used to analyse the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in young populations of four widespread calcicole ferns (Asplenium scolopendrium, diploid; Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens, tetraploid; Polystichum setiferum, diploid; and Polystichum aculeatum, tetraploid), which are rare in The Netherlands but established multiple populations in a forest (the Kuinderbos) on recently reclaimed Dutch polder land following long-distance dispersal. Reference samples from populations throughout Europe were used to assess how much of the existing variation was already present in the Kuinderbos. Key Results A large part of the Dutch and European genetic diversity in all four species was already found in the Kuinderbos. This diversity was strongly partitioned among populations. Most populations showed low genetic variation and high inbreeding coefficients, and were assigned to single, unique gene pools in cluster analyses. Evidence for interpopulational gene flow was low, except for the most abundant species. Conclusions The results show that all four species, diploids as well as polyploids, were capable of frequent long-distance colonization via single-spore establishment. This indicates that even isolated

  2. Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-06-01

    Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

  3. Diversity and abundance of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial habitats studied by 16S RNA surveys and real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Selezi, Drazenka; Quaiser, Achim; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Liza; Schleper, Christa

    2003-09-01

    Novel phylogenetic lineages of as yet uncultivated crenarchaeota have been frequently detected in low to moderate-temperature, marine and terrestrial environments. In order to gain a more comprehensive view on the distribution and diversity of Crenarchaeota in moderate habitats, we have studied 18 different terrestrial and freshwater samples by 16S rDNA-based phylogenetic surveys. In seven different soil samples of diverse geographic areas in Europe (forest, grassland, ruderal) and Asia (permafrost, ruderal) as well as in two microbial mats, we have consistently found one particular lineage of crenarchaeota. The diversity of Crenarchaeota in freshwater sediments was considerably higher with respresentative 16S rDNA sequences distributed over four different groups within the moderate crenarchaeota. Systematic analysis of a 16S rDNA universal library from a sandy ecosystem containing 800 clones exclusively revealed the presence of the soil-specific crenarchaeotal cluster. With primers specific for non-thermophilic crenarchaeota we established a rapid method to quantify archaeal 16S rDNA in real time PCR. The relative abundance of crenarchaeotal rDNA was 0.5-3% in the bulk soil sample and only 0.16% in the rhizosphere of the sandy ecosystem. A nearby agricultural setting yielded a relative abundance of 0.17% crenarchaeotal rDNA. In total our data suggest that soil crenarchaeota represent a stable and specific component of the microbiota in terrestrial habitats.

  4. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  5. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    PubMed

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  6. Diversity and ecological structure of vibrios in benthic and pelagic habitats along a latitudinal gradient in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; Silva, Bruno Sergio de O; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Valle, Cecilia; Alves, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Garcia, Gizele; Lopes, Rubens M; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the diversity and population structure of the 775 Vibrio isolates from different locations of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO), including St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Abrolhos Bank (AB) and the St. Sebastian region (SS), between 2005 and 2010. In this study, 195 novel isolates, obtained from seawater and major benthic organisms (rhodoliths and corals), were compared with a collection of 580 isolates previously characterized (available at www.taxvibrio.lncc.br). The isolates were distributed in 8 major habitat spectra according to AdaptML analysis on the basis of pyrH phylogenetic reconstruction and ecological information, such as isolation source (i.e., corals: Madracis decactis, Mussismilia braziliensis, M. hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Scolymia wellsi; zoanthids: Palythoa caribaeorum, P. variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi; fireworm: Hermodice carunculata; rhodolith; water and sediment) and sampling site regions (SPSPA, AB and SS). Ecologically distinct groups were discerned through AdaptML, which finds phylogenetic groups that are significantly different in their spectra of habitat preferences. Some habitat spectra suggested ecological specialization, with habitat spectra 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to specialization on SPSPA, AB, and SS, respectively. This match between habitat and location may reflect a minor exchange of Vibrio populations between geographically isolated benthic systems. Moreover, we found several widespread Vibrio species predominantly from water column, and different populations of a single Vibrio species from H. carunculata in ecologically distinct groups (H-1 and H-8 respectively). On the other hand, AdaptML detected phylogenetic groups that are found in both the benthos and in open water. The ecological grouping observed suggests dispersal and connectivity between the benthic and pelagic systems in AB. This study is a first attempt to characterize the biogeographic distribution of vibrios in both seawater and

  7. Geographical Structuring of Genetic Diversity Across the Whole Distribution Range of Narcissus longispathus, a Habitat-specialist, Mediterranean Narrow Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Mónica; Herrera, Carlos M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims High mountain ranges of the Mediterranean Basin harbour a large number of narrowly endemic plants. In this study an investigation is made of the levels and partitioning of genetic diversity in Narcissus longispathus, a narrow endemic of south-eastern Spanish mountains characterized by a naturally fragmented distribution due to extreme specialization on a rare habitat type. By using dense sampling of populations across the species' whole geographical range, genetic structuring at different geographical scales is also examined. Methods Using horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis, allozyme variability was screened at 19 loci for a total of 858 individuals from 27 populations. The data were analysed by means of standard statistical approaches in order to estimate gene diversity and the genetic structure of the populations. Key Results Narcissus longispathus displayed high levels of genetic diversity and extensive diversification among populations. At the species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci was 68 %, with average values of 2·1, 0·11 and 0·14 for the number of alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity, respectively. Southern and more isolated populations tended to have less genetic variability than northern and less-isolated populations. A strong spatial patterning of genetic diversity was found at the various spatial scales. Gene flow/drift equilibrium occurred over distances <4 km. Beyond that distance divergence was relatively more influenced by drift. The populations studied seem to derive from three panmictic units or ‘gene pools’, with levels of admixture being greatest in the central and south-eastern portions of the species' range. Conclusions In addition to documenting a case of high genetic diversity in a narrow endemic plant with naturally fragmented populations, the results emphasize the need for dense population sampling and examination of different geographical scales for understanding

  8. Invasion of Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) in the southern Yungas: Changes in habitat properties and decline in bird diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayup, M. M.; Montti, L.; Aragón, R.; Grau, H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Ligustrum lucidum is the major exotic tree in NW Argentina montane forests (Yungas). To assess the effects of its expanding invasion on avian communities we (1) measured different habitat properties (vertical forest structure and composition, vegetation cover, light availability, air temperature, air relative humidity and soil litter depth), (2) compared bird species composition and diversity in Ligustrum-dominated and native-dominated secondary forests and (3) analyzed seasonal patterns and changes in these variables between forest types. The study was conducted during 2010-2011 wet and dry seasons, at two altitudinal zones: 500-800 and 1100-1450 masl. Compared with native forests, Ligustrum dominated forests had a more homogeneous vertical forest structure and denser canopy cover (resulting in lower understory solar radiation), significantly lower understory cover and lower litter depth. Air temperature and relative humidity did not differ between forests in either season. Solar radiation was higher in the dry season in both forest types, but litter depth showed opposite patterns between seasons depending on forest type. We recorded 59 bird species in 21 families. Bird species abundance, richness and diversity indexes were significantly lower in Ligustrum-dominated relative to native forests of similar successional age, which had almost twice as many species as the former. Avian communities differed between altitudinal zones, but the difference was stronger between Ligustrum and native-dominated forests. Avian community composition was less variable in time and space in native forests than in Ligustrum-dominated ones. Our results suggest that L. lucidum invasion generates structurally homogeneous and simpler forests that represent a less suitable habitat for a diverse avifauna. This illustrates the wide ecological changes (from habitat properties and ecosystem functioning to vertebrate community composition) that the subtropical mountain forests of Argentina are

  9. Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, show high fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.

  10. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Brian E; Swearingin, Ryan M; Pullins, Craig K; Rice, Matthew E

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  11. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Swearingin, Ryan M.; Pullins, Craig K.; Rice, Matthew E.

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  12. Predicting Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multriple Stressors: Mercury, Habitat Alteration and Common Loon Breeding in New Hampshire, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied a generic approach to estimate and test predictions of population risks of mercury (Hg) exposure and habitat alteration on common loons (Gavia immer) breeding in New Hampshire (NH), USA. We developed a publically-accessible data system, integrating environmental data ...

  13. Habitat-Specific Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Europe, Exemplified by Data from Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Etti, Susanne; Hails, Rosie; Schäfer, Stefanie M.; De Michelis, Simona; Sewell, Henna-Sisko; Bormane, Antra; Donaghy, Michael; Kurtenbach, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from ecologically distinct habitats in Latvia was analyzed. A significant variation in the frequency of the genospecies across sites was observed, pointing to the importance of the host community in the ecology of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:12732580

  14. Diverse migration strategy between freshwater and seawater habitats in the freshwater eel genus Anguilla.

    PubMed

    Arai, T; Chino, N

    2012-07-01

    The freshwater eels of the genus Anguilla, which are catadromous, migrate between freshwater growth habitats and offshore spawning areas. A number of recent studies, however, found examples of the temperate species Anguilla anguilla, Anguilla rostrata, Anguilla japonica, Anguilla australis and Anguilla dieffenbachii that have never migrated into fresh water, spending their entire life history in the ocean. Furthermore, those studies found an intermediate type between marine and freshwater residents, which appear to frequently move between different environments during their growth phase. The discovery of marine and brackish-water residents Anguilla spp. suggests that they do not all have to be catadromous, and it calls into question the generalized classification of diadromous fishes. There has been little available information, however, concerning migration in tropical Anguilla spp. Anguilla marmorata, shows three fluctuation patterns: (1) continuous residence in fresh water, (2) continuous residence in brackish water and (3) residence in fresh water after recruitment, while returning to brackish water. Such migratory patterns were found in other tropical species, Anguilla bicolor bicolor and Anguilla bicolor pacifica. In A. b. bicolor collected in a coastal lagoon of Indonesia, two further patterns of habitat use were found: (1) constantly living in either brackish water or sea water with no freshwater life and (2) habitat shift from fresh water to brackish water or sea water. The wide range of environmental habitat use indicates that migratory behaviour of tropical Anguilla spp. is facultative among fresh, brackish and marine waters during their growth phases after recruitment to the coastal areas. Further, the migratory behaviours of tropical Anguilla spp. appear to differ in each habitat in response to inter and intra-specific competition. The results suggest that tropical Anguilla spp. have a flexible pattern of migration, with an ability to adapt to various

  15. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova.

  16. Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. Final Report to the Department of Energy EERE Wind & Water Power Technologies Office

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kathryn A.; Stenhouse, Iain J.; Johnson, Sarah M.; Connelly, Emily E.

    2015-10-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Baseline Studies Project helped address environmental barriers to offshore wind energy development in the mid-Atlantic region by providing regulators, developers, and other stakeholders with comprehensive baseline ecological data and analyses. Project funders and collaborators from a range of academic institutions, non-governmental organizations, federal agencies, foundations, and private companies came together to study bird, sea turtle, and marine mammal distributions, densities, and movements on the mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf between 2012 and 2014. Specific project activities and goals included the following: (1) Conduct standardized surveys to quantify bird, sea turtle, and marine mammal densities seasonally and annually throughout the study region and identify important habitat use or aggregation areas. (2) Develop statistical models to help understand the drivers of wildlife distribution and abundance patterns. (3) Use individual tracking data for several focal bird species to provide information on population connectivity and individual movements that is complementary to survey data. (4) Identify species that are likely to be exposed to offshore wind energy development activities in the mid-Atlantic study area. (5) Develop U.S.-based technological resources and assessment methods for future monitoring efforts, including a comparison of high resolution digital video aerial surveys to boat-based surveys. (6) Help meet data needs associated with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Marine Mammal Protection Act, and Endangered Species Act requirements, by contributing several years of data and analysis towards future Environmental Impact Statements. This report consists of six parts: Project overview (executive summary and Chapters 1-2); Examining wildlife distributions and relative abundance from a digital video aerial survey platform (Chapters 3-6); Examining wildlife distributions and abundance using boat-based surveys

  17. Diversity, host, and habitat specificity of oomycete communities in declining reed stands (Phragmites australis) of a large freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Nechwatal, Jan; Wielgoss, Anna; Mendgen, Kurt

    2008-06-01

    We studied the diversity of oomycetes in a declining reed belt (Phragmites australis) of Lake Constance, Germany, using conventional baiting with specific reed and standard oak baits, accompanied by molecular techniques. Apart from an Aphanomyces sp. and a Phytophthora sp., baiting from reed rhizosphere samples from flooded, as well as drier, littoral sites revealed only Pythium spp. A total of 67 oomycete isolates was classified according to PCR-RFLP banding patterns and ITS sequencing, and 18 different sequence types could be separated. The majority of these seemed previously unknown species, as indicated by the degree of similarity to those deposited in nucleotide databases. Species communities in both flooded and drier habitats or both reed and oak baits clearly differed from one another, and only few species occurred in both dry and flooded sites, or in both oak and reed baits. A frequently occurring group of related Pythium species appeared to be specifically associated with reed, and these were the only species that proved pathogenic towards this host in vitro. Our study proved that unexplored natural ecosystems harbour diverse communities of oomycete species with specific habitat and host preferences within close-by, but ecologically contrasting, sites. Among the species isolated, those associated with the predominating plant might accumulate and thus may be reed pathogens of considerable importance.

  18. Effects of Habitat Structure and Fragmentation on Diversity and Abundance of Primates in Tropical Deciduous Forests in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Pyritz, Lennart W; Büntge, Anna B S; Herzog, Sebastian K; Kessler, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Habitat structure and anthropogenic disturbance are known to affect primate diversity and abundance. However, researchers have focused on lowland rain forests, whereas endangered deciduous forests have been neglected. We aimed to investigate the relationships between primate diversity and abundance and habitat parameters in 10 deciduous forest fragments southeast of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. We obtained primate data via line-transect surveys and visual and acoustic observations. In addition, we assessed the vegetation structure (canopy height, understory density), size, isolation time, and surrounding forest area of the fragments. We interpreted our results in the context of the historical distribution data for primates in the area before fragmentation and interviews with local people. We detected 5 of the 8 historically observed primate species: Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae boliviensis, Callithrix melanura, Callicebus donacophilus, and Cebus libidinosus juruanus. Total species number and detection rates decreased with understory density. Detection rates also negatively correlated with forest areas in the surroundings of a fragment, which may be due to variables not assessed, i.e., fragment shape, distance to nearest town. Observations for Alouatta and Aotus were too few to conduct further statistics. Cebus and Callicebus were present in 90% and 70% of the sites, respectively, and their density did not correlate with any of the habitat variables assessed, signaling high ecological plasticity and adaptability to anthropogenic impact in these species. Detections of Callithrix were higher in areas with low forest strata. Our study provides baseline data for future fragmentation studies in Neotropical dry deciduous forests and sets a base for specific conservation measures.

  19. Effects of Habitat Structure and Fragmentation on Diversity and Abundance of Primates in Tropical Deciduous Forests in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Büntge, Anna B. S.; Herzog, Sebastian K.; Kessler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Habitat structure and anthropogenic disturbance are known to affect primate diversity and abundance. However, researchers have focused on lowland rain forests, whereas endangered deciduous forests have been neglected. We aimed to investigate the relationships between primate diversity and abundance and habitat parameters in 10 deciduous forest fragments southeast of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. We obtained primate data via line-transect surveys and visual and acoustic observations. In addition, we assessed the vegetation structure (canopy height, understory density), size, isolation time, and surrounding forest area of the fragments. We interpreted our results in the context of the historical distribution data for primates in the area before fragmentation and interviews with local people. We detected 5 of the 8 historically observed primate species: Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae boliviensis, Callithrix melanura, Callicebus donacophilus, and Cebus libidinosus juruanus. Total species number and detection rates decreased with understory density. Detection rates also negatively correlated with forest areas in the surroundings of a fragment, which may be due to variables not assessed, i.e., fragment shape, distance to nearest town. Observations for Alouatta and Aotus were too few to conduct further statistics. Cebus and Callicebus were present in 90% and 70% of the sites, respectively, and their density did not correlate with any of the habitat variables assessed, signaling high ecological plasticity and adaptability to anthropogenic impact in these species. Detections of Callithrix were higher in areas with low forest strata. Our study provides baseline data for future fragmentation studies in Neotropical dry deciduous forests and sets a base for specific conservation measures. PMID:20949116

  20. Diverse coral communities in mangrove habitats suggest a novel refuge from climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Herlan, James J.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Larson, Rebekka A.

    2014-01-01

    Over 30 species of scleractinian corals were growing in association with mangroves. Corals were thriving in low-light (more than 70% attenuation of incident PAR) from mangrove shading and at higher temperatures than nearby reef tract corals. A higher percentage of C. natans colonies were living shaded by mangroves, and no shaded colonies were bleached. Fewer D. labyrinthiformis colonies were shaded by mangroves, however more unshaded colonies were bleached. A combination of substrate and habitat heterogeneity, proximity of different habitat types, hydrographic conditions, and biological influences on seawater chemistry generate chemical conditions that buffer against ocean acidification. This previously undocumented refuge for corals provides evidence for adaptation of coastal organisms and ecosystem transition due to recent climate change. Identifying and protecting other natural, non-reef coral refuges is critical for sustaining corals and other reef species into the future.

  1. Effects of Surface-Water Diversion and Ground-Water Withdrawal on Streamflow and Habitat, Punaluu Stream, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Perreault, Jeff A.

    2006-01-01

    The surface- and ground-water resources of the Punaluu area of northeast Oahu, Hawaii, have been and continue to be important for cultural, domestic, agricultural, recreational, and aesthetic purposes. Punaluu Stream flows perennially because rain falls frequently in the area and ground water discharges to the stream. Flow in Punaluu Stream is reduced by the direct diversion of water for off-stream uses and possibly from the withdrawal of ground water near the stream. Punaluu Ditch diverts water from Punaluu Stream near an altitude of 210 feet. During the recent period 1995-2004, discharge in Punaluu Stream that was equaled or exceeded 50 percent of the time (median or Q50 discharge) and discharge that was equaled or exceeded 95 percent of the time (Q95 discharge) measured immediately upstream from the Punaluu Ditch diversion intake, respectively, were 18 and 13 cubic feet per second, whereas the Q50 and Q95 discharges measured immediately downstream from the diversion intake, respectively, were 7.0 and 1.3 cubic feet per second. Thus, near an altitude of 210 feet, diversion of surface water by the Punaluu Ditch caused the Q50 discharge in Punaluu Stream to be reduced to 39 percent of the natural Q50 discharge, and the Q95 discharge was reduced to 10 percent of the natural value. The relative effects of the Punaluu Ditch diversion on flow in Punaluu Stream decreased in a downstream direction, mainly because of the compensating effects of tributary inflows and ditch return flows. At an altitude of 10 feet, the Q50 discharge in Punaluu Stream was 82 percent of the natural Q50 discharge, and the Q95 discharge was 69 percent of the natural value. Changes in streamflow affect the quantity and quality of physical habitat used by native stream fauna. The Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) approach was used to evaluate the effects of different diversion scenarios on physical habitat for selected native species in Punaluu Stream. Habitat-suitability criteria

  2. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Eliana; Rös, Matthias; Bonilla, María Argenis; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity.

  3. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Eliana; Rös, Matthias; Bonilla, María Argenis; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity. PMID:26197473

  4. Wildlife, people and development: veterinary contributions to wildlife health and resource management in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kock, M D

    1996-02-01

    Human population pressures, habitat loss, environmental degradation and illegal hunting in Africa have resulted in the loss of biodiversity and near extinction of certain wildlife species. The dilemma for Africa is the balancing of conservation and development. If wildlife is not to become a relic of the past then it must have more than just aesthetic value. It must contribute materially to the well being of people who live close to the resource. In fact, appropriate management of biodiversity would lay the foundations for a more positive future for the rural people of Africa, with the key being the adoption of an active adaptive management philosophy. This paper reviews the issue of sustainable use of wildlife resources and how the Veterinary profession contributes positively to wildlife health management in Africa. These contributions have been through increasing veterinary inputs into wildlife management and research, disease surveillance and prevention, training and education. Wildlife and ecosystems are increasingly having to be managed in order to save and maintain biological diversity. Veterinarians have a crucial role to play towards the maintenance of wildlife health as part of a multi-disciplinary wildlife management team.

  5. Diversity and abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in an urban park: larval habitats and temporal variation.

    PubMed

    Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio R; Ceretti-Júnior, Walter; de Carvalho, Gabriela C; Nardi, Marcello S; Araujo, Alessandra B; Vendrami, Daniel P; Marrelli, Mauro T

    2015-10-01

    Urban parks are areas designated for human recreation but also serve as shelter and refuge for populations of several species of native fauna, both migratory and introduced. In Brazil, the effect of annual climate variations on Aedes aegypti and dengue epidemics in large cities like São Paulo is well known, but little is known about how such variations can affect the diversity of mosquito vectors in urban parks and the risk of disease transmission by these vectors. This study investigates the influence of larval habitats and seasonal factors on the diversity and abundance of Culicidae fauna in Anhanguera Park, one of the largest remaining green areas in the city of São Paulo. Species composition and richness and larval habitats were identified. Seasonality (cold-dry and hot-rainy periods) and year were considered as explanatory variables and the models selection approach was developed to investigate the relationship of these variables with mosquito diversity and abundance. A total of 11,036 specimens from 57 taxa distributed in 13 genera were collected. Culex nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. Bamboo internodes and artificial breeding sites showed higher abundance, while ponds and puddles showed greater richness. Significant relationships were observed between abundance and seasonality, with a notable increase in the mosquitos abundance in the warm-rainy periods. The Shannon and Berger-Parker indices were related with interaction between seasonality and year, however separately these predictors showed no relationship with ones. The increased abundance of mosquitoes in warm-rainy months and the fact that some of the species are epidemiologically important increase not only the risk of pathogen transmission to people who frequent urban parks but also the nuisance represented by insect bites. The findings of this study highlight the importance of knowledge of culicid ecology in green areas in urban environments.

  6. Impact of fencing on the conservation of wildlife habitat in a sub-mountainous open scrub forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Mansoor; Naz, Nargis; Ashraf, Muhammad; Aqeel Ahmad, M. Sajid; Nawaz, Tahira; Chaudhry, Abdul Aleem

    2012-11-01

    In Pakistan, Lehri/Jindi evergreen open scrub forest is a characteristic habitat of critically or locally endangered species including Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) and leopard (Panthera pardus), and the important game species desert hare (Lepus nigricollis), black francolin (Francolinus francolinus), grey francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus), see-see partridge (Ammoperdix griseogularis) and chukor partridge (Alectoris chukar). Four separate fenced enclosures were established to maintain captive Punjab urial population in a semi-wild state. Vegetation surveys were conducted through permanently laid quadrats to explore its impact on native flora in 1987-1992 before the fencing was installed and then 2003-2007 over a decade after the fencing was installed.

  7. Species Composition and Diversity of Malaria Vector Breeding Habitats in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Hapugoda, Menaka; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Mosquito larval ecology is important in determining larval densities and species assemblage. This in turn influences malaria transmission in an area. Therefore, understanding larval habitat ecology is important in designing malaria control programs. Method. Larval surveys were conducted in 20 localities under five sentinel sites (Padavisiripura, Gomarankadawala, Thoppur, Mollipothana, and Ichchallampaththu) in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, between June 2010 and July 2013. The relationship between seven abiotic variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), and salinity) was measured. Results. A total of 21,347 anophelines were recorded representing 15 species. Anopheles subpictus 24.72% (5,278/21,347) was the predominant species, followed by 24.67% (5,267/21,347) of An. nigerrimus and 14.56% (3,109/21,347) of An. peditaeniatus. A total of 9,430 breeding habitats under twenty-one categories were identified. An. culcicifacies was noted to be highest from built wells (20.5%) with high salinity (1102.3 ± 81.8 mg/L), followed by waste water collections (20.2%) having low DO levels (2.85 ± 0.03 mg/L) and high TDS (1,654 ± 140 mg/L). Conclusion. This study opens an avenue to explore new breeding habitats of malaria vectors in the country and reemphasizes the requirement of conducting entomological surveillance to detect potential transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka under the current malaria elimination programme. PMID:26583136

  8. Soil Fertility, Salinity and Nematode Diversity Influenced by Tamarix ramosissima in Different Habitats in an Arid Desert Oasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong-zhong, Su; Xue-fen, Wang; Rong, Yang; Xiao, Yang; Wen-jie, Liu

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the influence of tamarisk shrubs on soil fertility, salinity and nematode communities in various habitats located in an arid desert-oasis region in northwest China. Three habitats were studied: sand dune, riparian zone and saline meadow, where tamarisk shrubs have been established in recent decades in order to vegetation restoration used as desertification control and saline land rehabilitation projects and become the dominant plant community. The parameters measured include soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen, available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), pH, salt component, and nematode community characteristics. Enrichment ratios (a comparison of the soil measurements between soils under canopy and in the open interspaces) for soil nutrients and salinity were used to evaluate fertility and salinity islands underneath the tamarisk shrubs. The soil nematode community was used as a biological indicator of soil condition. SOC and available P and K were higher beneath the plant canopy than in the open interspaces outside that canopy. The enrichment ratios for SOC and nutrients were highest for the sand dune habitat and tamarisk shrubs clearly created islands of greater salinity under the canopies. Nematode abundance per 100 g dry soil varied considerably between the locations and habitats, with the highest abundance found in sand dune and the lowest in saline meadow. A significantly higher nematode abundance and a lower trophic diversity were found in soils under the canopy compared to the soils in the open interspaces. With the exception of saline meadow, the abundance of bacterivores increased and fungivores decreased under the canopy relative to the open interspaces, and bacterivores dominated under the canopies in the sand dune and riparian habitats. The enrichment ratios for salinity were higher than for fertility, suggesting that improved soil fertility can not limit the impact of salinization beneath tamarisk shrubs. The

  9. Soil fertility, salinity and nematode diversity influenced by Tamarix ramosissima in different habitats in an arid desert oasis.

    PubMed

    Yong-zhong, Su; Xue-fen, Wang; Rong, Yang; Xiao, Yang; Wen-jie, Liu

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the influence of tamarisk shrubs on soil fertility, salinity and nematode communities in various habitats located in an arid desert-oasis region in northwest China. Three habitats were studied: sand dune, riparian zone and saline meadow, where tamarisk shrubs have been established in recent decades in order to vegetation restoration used as desertification control and saline land rehabilitation projects and become the dominant plant community. The parameters measured include soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen, available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), pH, salt component, and nematode community characteristics. Enrichment ratios (a comparison of the soil measurements between soils under canopy and in the open interspaces) for soil nutrients and salinity were used to evaluate fertility and salinity islands underneath the tamarisk shrubs. The soil nematode community was used as a biological indicator of soil condition. SOC and available P and K were higher beneath the plant canopy than in the open interspaces outside that canopy. The enrichment ratios for SOC and nutrients were highest for the sand dune habitat and tamarisk shrubs clearly created islands of greater salinity under the canopies. Nematode abundance per 100 g dry soil varied considerably between the locations and habitats, with the highest abundance found in sand dune and the lowest in saline meadow. A significantly higher nematode abundance and a lower trophic diversity were found in soils under the canopy compared to the soils in the open interspaces. With the exception of saline meadow, the abundance of bacterivores increased and fungivores decreased under the canopy relative to the open interspaces, and bacterivores dominated under the canopies in the sand dune and riparian habitats. The enrichment ratios for salinity were higher than for fertility, suggesting that improved soil fertility can not limit the impact of salinization beneath tamarisk shrubs. The

  10. Carbon dioxide exchange characteristics of C4 Hawaiian Euphorbia species native to diverse habitats.

    PubMed

    Pearcy, Robert W; Osteryoung, Katherine; Randall, David

    1982-12-01

    The characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus of 11 Hawaiian Euphorbia species, all of which possess C4 photosynthesis but range from arid habitat, drought-deciduous shrubs to mesic or wet forest evergreen trees and shrubs, were investigated under uniform greenhouse conditions. Nine species exhibited CO2 response curves typical of C4 plants, but differed markedly in photosynthetic capacity. Light-saturated CO2 uptake rates ranged from 48 to 52 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in arid habitat species to 18 to 20 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in mesic and wet forest species. Two possessed unusual CO2 response curves in which photosynthesis was not saturated above intercellular CO2 pressures [p(CO2)] of 10 to 15 Pa, as typically occurs in C4 plants.Both leaf (g'1) and mesophyll (g'm) conductances to CO2 varied widely between species. At an atmospheric p(CO2) of 32 Pa, g'1 regulated intercellular p(CO2) at 12-15 Pa in most species, which supported nearly maximum CO2 uptake rates, but did not result in excessive transpiration. Intercellular p(CO2) was higher in the two species with unusual CO2 response curves. This was especially apparent in E. remyi, which is native to a bog habitat. The regulation of g'1 and intercellular p(CO2) yielded high photosynthetic water use efficiencies (P/E) in the species with typical CO2 response curves, whereas P/E was much lower in E. remyi.Photosynthetic capacity was closely related to leaf nitrogen content, whereas correlations with leaf morphological characteristics and leaf cell surface area were not significant. Thus, differences in photosynthetic capacity may be determined primarily by investment in the biochemical components of the photosynthetic apparatus rather than by differences in diffusion limitations. The lower photosynthetic capacities in the wet habitat species may reflect the lower light availability. However, other factors, such as reduced nutrient availability, may also be important.

  11. Aquatic microbial habitats within a neotropical rainforest: bromeliads and pH-associated trends in bacterial diversity and composition.

    PubMed

    Goffredi, Shana K; Kantor, Adam H; Woodside, Walter T

    2011-04-01

    Tank-forming bromeliads, suspended in the rainforest canopy, possess foliage arranged in compact rosettes capable of long-term retention of rainwater. This large and unique aquatic habitat is inhabited by microorganisms involved in the important decomposition of impounded material. Moreover, these communities are likely influenced by environmental factors such as pH, oxygen, and light. Bacterial community composition and diversity was determined for the tanks of several bromeliad species (Aechmea and Werauhia) from northern Costa Rica, which span a range of parameters, including tank morphology and pH. These were compared with a nearby forest soil sample, an artificial tank (amber bottle), and a commercially available species (Aechmea). Bacterial community diversity, as measured by 16S rRNA analysis and tRFLP, showed a significant positive correlation with tank pH. A majority of 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes found in association with acidic bromeliad tanks of pH < 5.1 were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Bacteroidetes, and were similar to those found in acidic peat bogs, yet distinct from the underlying soil community. In contrast, bromeliads with tank pH > 5.3, including the commercial bromeliad with the highest pH (6.7), were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. To empirically determine the effect of pH on bacterial community, the tank pH of a specimen of Aechmea was depressed, in the field, from 6.5 to 4.5, for 62 days. The resulting community changed predictably with decreased abundance of Betaproteobacteria and Firmicutes and a concomitant increase in Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Collectively, these results suggest that bromeliad tanks provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, distinct from the surrounding environment, which are influenced greatly by acid-base conditions. Additionally, total organic carbon (∼46%) and nitrogen (∼2%) of bromeliad

  12. Dynamics of Viral Abundance and Diversity in a Sphagnum-Dominated Peatland: Temporal Fluctuations Prevail Over Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Ballaud, Flore; Dufresne, Alexis; Francez, André-Jean; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Quaiser, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Viruses impact microbial activity and carbon cycling in various environments, but their diversity and ecological importance in Sphagnum-peatlands are unknown. Abundances of viral particles and prokaryotes were monitored bi-monthly at a fen and a bog at two different layers of the peat surface. Viral particle abundance ranged from 1.7 x 106 to 5.6 x 108 particles mL-1, and did not differ between fen and bog but showed seasonal fluctuations. These fluctuations were positively correlated with prokaryote abundance and dissolved organic carbon, and negatively correlated with water-table height and dissolved oxygen. Using shotgun metagenomics we observed a shift in viral diversity between winter/spring and summer/autumn, indicating a seasonal succession of viral communities, mainly driven by weather-related environmental changes. Based on the seasonal asynchrony between viral and microbial diversity, we hypothesize a seasonal shift in the active microbial communities associated with a shift from lysogenic to lytic lifestyles. Our results suggest that temporal variations of environmental conditions rather than current habitat differences control the dynamics of virus-host interactions in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. PMID:26779149

  13. Effects of flow diversions on water and habitat quality: Examples from California's highly manipulated Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsen, Nancy E.; Cloern, James E.; Burau, Jon R.

    2007-01-01

    We use selected monitoring data to illustrate how localized water diversions from seasonal barriers, gate operations, and export pumps alter water quality across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (California). Dynamics of water-quality variability are complex because the Delta is a mixing zone of water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, agricultural return water, and the San Francisco Estuary. Each source has distinct water-quality characteristics, and the contribution of each source varies in response to natural hydrologic variability and water diversions. We use simulations with a tidal hydrodynamic model to reveal how three diversion events, as case studies, influence water quality through their alteration of Delta-wide water circulation patterns and flushing time. Reduction of export pumping decreases the proportion of Sacramento- to San Joaquin-derived fresh water in the central Delta, leading to rapid increases in salinity. Delta Cross Channel gate operations control salinity in the western Delta and alter the freshwater source distribution in the central Delta. Removal of the head of Old River barrier, in autumn, increases the flushing time of the Stockton Ship Channel from days to weeks, contributing to a depletion of dissolved oxygen. Each shift in water quality has implications either for habitat quality or municipal drinking water, illustrating the importance of a systems view to anticipate the suite of changes induced by flow manipulations, and to minimize the conflicts inherent in allocations of scarce resources to meet multiple objectives.

  14. High diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in an urban river sediment habitat.

    PubMed

    Lu, Su-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Li; Geng, Sui-Na; Li, Tian-Yu; Ye, Zhuo-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Zou, Fei; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2010-09-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) have been surveyed widely in water bodies, but few studies have determined the diversity of ARB in sediment, which is the most taxon-abundant habitat in aquatic environments. We isolated 56 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria from a single sediment sample taken from an urban river in China. All strains were confirmed for ESBL-producing capability by both the clavulanic acid combination disc method and MIC determination. Of the isolated strains, 39 were classified as Enterobacteriaceae (consisting of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, and Aeromonas) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical analysis. The present study identifies, for the first time, ESBL-producing strains from the families Brucellaceae and Moraxellaceae. The bla(CTX-M) gene was the most dominant of the ESBL genes (45 strains), while the bla(TEM) gene was the second-most dominant (22 strains). A total of five types of bla(CTX-M) fragments were identified, with both known and novel sequences. A library of bla(CTX-M) cloned from the sediment DNA showed an even higher diversity of bla(CTX-M) sequences. The discovery of highly diverse ESBL-producing bacteria and ESBL genes, particularly bla(CTX), in urban river sediment raises alarms for potential dissemination of ARB in communities through river environments.

  15. Cryptic habitats and cryptic diversity: unexpected patterns of connectivity and phylogeographical breaks in a Mediterranean endemic marine cave mysid.

    PubMed

    Rastorgueff, Pierre-Alexandre; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Arslan, Defne; Verna, Caroline; Lejeusne, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The marine cave-dwelling mysid Hemimysis margalefi is distributed over the whole Mediterranean Sea, which contrasts with the poor dispersal capabilities of this brooding species. In addition, underwater marine caves are a highly fragmented habitat which further promotes strong genetic structuring, therefore providing highly informative data on the levels of marine population connectivity across biogeographical regions. This study investigates how habitat and geography have shaped the connectivity network of this poor disperser over the entire Mediterranean Sea through the use of several mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Five deeply divergent lineages were observed among H. margalefi populations resulting from deep phylogeographical breaks, some dating back to the Oligo-Miocene. Whether looking at the intralineage or interlineage levels, H. margalefi populations present a high genetic diversity and population structuring. This study suggests that the five distinct lineages observed in H. margalefi actually correspond to as many separate cryptic taxa. The nominal species, H. margalefi sensu stricto, corresponds to the westernmost lineage here surveyed from the Alboran Sea to southeastern Italy. Typical genetic breaks such as the Almeria-Oran Front or the Siculo-Tunisian Strait do not appear to be influential on the studied loci in H. margalefi sensu stricto. Instead, population structuring appears more complex and subtle than usually found for model species with a pelagic dispersal phase. The remaining four cryptic taxa are all found in the eastern basin, but incomplete lineage sorting is suspected and speciation might still be in process. Present-day population structure of the different H. margalefi cryptic species appears to result from past vicariance events started in the Oligo-Miocene and maintained by present-day coastal topography, water circulation and habitat fragmentation.

  16. Community Analyses Uncover High Diversity of Lichenicolous Fungi in Alpine Habitats.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, Antonia; Grube, Martin; Kopun, Theodora; Hafellner, Josef; Muggia, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    Lichens are frequently colonized by specialized, lichenicolous fungi. Symptomatic lichenicolous fungi usually display typical phenotypes and reproductive structures on the lichen hosts. The classification based on these structures revealed different host specificity patterns. Other fungi occur asymptomatically in the lichen thalli and are much less known. We aimed at studying the diversity of lichen-associated fungi in specific, lichen-rich communities on rocks in the Alps. We tested whether lichenicolous fungi developing symptomatically on their known hosts also occur asymptomatically in other thalli of the same or of different host species. We collected lichen thalli according to a uniform sampling design comprising individuals adjacent to thalli that showed symptoms of lichenicolous fungal infections. The total fungal communities in the selected lichen thalli were further studied by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprinting analyses and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) fragments. The systematic, stratified sampling strategy helped to recover 17 previously undocumented lichenicolous fungi and almost exhaustively the species diversity of symptomatic lichenicolous fungi in the studied region. The results from SSCP and the sequencing analyses did not reveal asymptomatic occurrence of normally symptomatic lichenicolous fungi in thalli of both the same and different lichen host species. The fungal diversity did not correlate with the species diversity of the symptomatic lichenicolous fungus-lichen host associations. The complex fingerprint patterns recovered here for fungal communities, in associations of well-delimited lichen thalli, suggest lichen symbiosis as suitable subjects for fungal metacommunity studies.

  17. Forecasting the effects of land-use and climate change on wildlife communities and habitats in the lower Mississippi Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Landscape patterns and processes reflect both natural ecosystem attributes and the policy and management decisions of individual Federal, State, county, and private organizations. Land-use regulation, water management, and habitat conservation and restoration efforts increasingly rely on landscape-level approaches that incorporate scientific information into the decision-making process. Since management actions are implemented to affect future conditions, decision-support models are necessary to forecast potential future conditions resulting from these decisions. Spatially explicit modeling approaches enable testing of different scenarios and help evaluate potential outcomes of management actions in conjunction with natural processes such as climate change. The ability to forecast the effects of changing land use and climate is critically important to land and resource managers since their work is inherently site specific, yet conservation strategies and practices are expressed at higher spatial and temporal scales that must be considered in the decisionmaking process.

  18. Linking food web functioning and habitat diversity for an ecosystem based management: a Mediterranean lagoon case-study.

    PubMed

    Brigolin, D; Facca, C; Franco, A; Franzoi, P; Pastres, R; Sfriso, A; Sigovini, M; Soldatini, C; Tagliapietra, D; Torricelli, P; Zucchetta, M; Pranovi, F

    2014-06-01

    We propose a modelling approach relating the functioning of a transitional ecosystem with the spatial extension of its habitats. A test case is presented for the lagoon of Venice, discussing the results in the context of the application of current EU directives. The effects on food web functioning due to changes related to manageable and unmanageable drivers were investigated. The modelling procedure involved the use of steady-state food web models and network analysis, respectively applied to estimate the fluxes of energy associated with trophic interactions, and to compute indices of food web functioning. On the long term (hundred years) temporal scale, the model indicated that the expected loss of salt marshes will produce further changes at the system level, with a lagoon showing a decrease in the energy processing efficiency. On the short term scale, simulation results indicated that fishery management accompanied by seagrass restoration measures would produce a slight transition towards a more healthy system, with higher energy cycling, and maintaining a good balance between processing efficiency and resilience. Scenarios presented suggest that the effectiveness of short term management strategies can be better evaluated when contextualized in the long term trends of evolution of a system. We also remark the need for further studying the relationship between habitat diversity and indicators of food web functioning.

  19. Species diversity and activity of insectivorous bats in three habitats in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Pineapple farms make up 45,000 ha of Costa Rican landscape and are the second most exported crop. This is economically beneficial for the Costa Ricans, but greatly affects the natural flora and fauna because it is such a low growing crop. This study examined the differences in insectivorous bat species diversity and activity in the habitat gradient between the forest in Tirimbina Biological Reserve in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica and the nearby pineapple farm called Finca Corsicana. Over a four week period in March and April 2013, ultrasonic recorders were placed at different sites to pick up the bats' calls. Then the recordings were analyzed to identify the species. There were four families present and 19 different species. There was a significant decrease in the number of bat passes (the number of times a bat passes the recorder) in the pineapple farm (x = 22.6), in comparison to the border (x = 39.9), and the forest (x = 44.2) (p = 0.0028). Agricultural environ- ments affected and lowered bat presence. Also, a greater mean number of bats recorded between 1900-1930 hrs compared to 1730-1800 hrs, coincided with the setting of the sun and beginning of bat activity. More research is need throughout the night and the year to establish clearer patterns of bat use and activity in different habitats.

  20. Diverse coral communities in mangrove habitats suggest a novel refuge from climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, K. K.; Rogers, C. S.; Herlan, J. J.; Brooks, G. R.; Smiley, N. A.; Larson, R. A.

    2014-08-01

    Risk analyses indicate that more than 90% of the world's reefs will be threatened by climate change and local anthropogenic impacts by the year 2030 under "business-as-usual" climate scenarios. Increasing temperatures and solar radiation cause coral bleaching that has resulted in extensive coral mortality. Increasing carbon dioxide reduces seawater pH, slows coral growth, and may cause loss of reef structure. Management strategies include establishment of marine protected areas with environmental conditions that promote reef resiliency. However, few resilient reefs have been identified, and resiliency factors are poorly defined. Here we characterize the first natural, non-reef coral refuge from thermal stress and ocean acidification and identify resiliency factors for mangrove-coral habitats. We measured diurnal and seasonal variations in temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and seawater chemistry; characterized substrate parameters; and examined water circulation patterns in mangrove communities where scleractinian corals are growing attached to and under mangrove prop roots in Hurricane Hole, St. John, US Virgin Islands. Additionally, we inventoried the coral species and quantified incidences of coral bleaching, mortality, and recovery for two major reef-building corals, Colpophyllia natans and Diploria labyrinthiformis, growing in mangrove-shaded and exposed (unshaded) areas. Over 30 species of scleractinian corals were growing in association with mangroves. Corals were thriving in low-light (more than 70% attenuation of incident PAR) from mangrove shading and at higher temperatures than nearby reef tract corals. A higher percentage of C. natans colonies were living shaded by mangroves, and no shaded colonies were bleached. Fewer D. labyrinthiformis colonies were shaded by mangroves, however more unshaded colonies were bleached. A combination of substrate and habitat heterogeneity, proximity of different habitat types, hydrographic

  1. [Diversity of geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats at different altitudes of Bashang Plateau, Hebei Province of China].

    PubMed

    Duan, Mei-Chun; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Chang-Liu; Axmacher, Jan C; Li, Liang-Tao; Yu, Zhen-Rong

    2012-03-01

    In order to understand the effects of landscape heterogeneity induced by habitat restoration and landform change on the biodiversity in degraded landscapes, an investigation by using light trap was conducted on the geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) diversity in the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats in three villages at different altitudes of Bashang Plateau in 2006 and 2007. There existed significant differences in the species richness and individual number of geometrid moth between cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats and in the species richness of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes, but no significant differences in the individual number of geometrid moth between the villages at different altitudes and in the standardized sparseness index and Fisher' s alpha index between the villages and between the cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats within each village. The non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) indicated that the community structure of geometrid moth in different habitats and at different altitudes differed significantly. This study indicated that the landscape heterogeneity induced by land-form change had significant effects on the community structure and diversity of geometrid moth on Bashang Plateau, and, both cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats were the important habits for geometrid moth. It was suggested that to protect the landscape mosaics containing cropland and reforested semi-natural habitats across the varied landform of Bashang Plateau would have significances in the conservation of high gamma-diversity of geometrid moth, but whether the reforestation and creation of semi-natural habitats could improve the biodiversity of geometrid moth should be monitored in long term.

  2. Diversity, geographic distribution, and habitat-specific variations of microbiota in natural populations of the chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Moro, Claire Valiente; Thioulouse, Jean; Chauve, Claude; Zenner, Lionel

    2011-07-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is considered to be the most economically significant ectoparasite to affect egg-laying poultry in Europe. This mite can also act as a vector for a number of pathogens. The array of bacteria associated with D. gallinae mites could provide insight into the biology and population dynamics of arthropods, but at the present time little information is available. To understand the intra- and interpopulation diversity of its associated microbiota, we analyzed the whole internal bacterial community of natural populations of D. gallinae originating from two types of poultry farm habitats (standard and free-range) in two regions of France (Brittany and the Rhone-Alpes). Total DNA was extracted from individual or pooled mites, and polymerase chain reaction temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA was then done to separate bacterial DNA fragments associated with the host arthropod. A large diversity of bacteria was detected, but principally firmicutes and gamma-Proteobacteria. Between-group analyses of temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis-banding patterns revealed that bacterial populations clustered into categories according to their geographic origin and the habitat specifics of the farms. Some degree of stability of bacterial populations was observed within a specific time scale. These results suggest that environmental factors either recent (e.g., poultry farming practices) or long-standing (e.g., geographic isolation) may affect the bacterial communities present in D. gallinae. Further knowledge of the microbiota associated with D. gallinae and its variation would indeed offer new perspectives for biological control methods to prevent the establishment, proliferation, and transmission of pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M. Christopher; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Schrader, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The Meramec River Basin in east-central Missouri is an important stronghold for native freshwater mussels (Order: Unionoida) in the United States. Whereas the basin supports more than 40 mussel species, previous studies indicate that the abundance and distribution of most species are declining. Therefore, resource managers have identified the need to prioritize threats to native mussel populations in the basin and to design a mussel monitoring program. The objective of this study was to identify threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the basin. Affected habitat parameters considered as the main threats to mussel conservation included excess sedimentation, altered stream geomorphology and flow, effects on riparian vegetation and condition, impoundments, and invasive non-native species. Evaluating water-quality parameters for conserving mussels was a main focus of this study. Mussel toxicity data for chemical contaminants were compared to national water quality criteria (NWQC) and Missouri water quality standards (MWQS). However, NWQC and MWQS have not been developed for many chemical contaminants and some MWQS may not be protective of native mussel populations. Toxicity data indicated that mussels are sensitive to ammonia, copper, temperature, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products; these compounds were identified as the priority water-quality parameters for mussel conservation in the basin. Measures to conserve mussel diversity in the basin include expanding the species and life stages of mussels and the list of chemical contaminants that have been assessed, establishing a long term mussel monitoring program that measures physical and chemical parameters of high priority, conducting landscape scale modeling to predict mussel distributions, determining sublethal effects of primary contaminants of concern, deriving risk-based guidance values for mussel conservation, and assessing the effects of wastewater

  4. Bacteria from diverse habitats colonize and compete in the mouse gut.

    PubMed

    Seedorf, Henning; Griffin, Nicholas W; Ridaura, Vanessa K; Reyes, Alejandro; Cheng, Jiye; Rey, Federico E; Smith, Michelle I; Simon, Gabriel M; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Woebken, Dagmar; Spormann, Alfred M; Van Treuren, William; Ursell, Luke K; Pirrung, Megan; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Cantarel, Brandi L; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2014-10-09

    To study how microbes establish themselves in a mammalian gut environment, we colonized germ-free mice with microbial communities from human, zebrafish, and termite guts, human skin and tongue, soil, and estuarine microbial mats. Bacteria from these foreign environments colonized and persisted in the mouse gut; their capacity to metabolize dietary and host carbohydrates and bile acids correlated with colonization success. Cohousing mice harboring these xenomicrobiota or a mouse cecal microbiota, along with germ-free "bystanders," revealed the success of particular bacterial taxa in invading guts with established communities and empty gut habitats. Unanticipated patterns of ecological succession were observed; for example, a soil-derived bacterium dominated even in the presence of bacteria from other gut communities (zebrafish and termite), and human-derived bacteria colonized germ-free bystander mice before mouse-derived organisms. This approach can be generalized to address a variety of mechanistic questions about succession, including succession in the context of microbiota-directed therapeutics.

  5. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...

  6. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...