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Sample records for diversion structures constructing

  1. Situating and Constructing Diversity in Semi-Structured Interviews

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Michele J.; Morse, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    Although semi-structured interviews (SSIs) are used extensively in research, scant attention is given to their diversity, underlying assumptions, construction, and broad applications to qualitative and mixed-method research. In this three-part article, we discuss the following: (a) how the SSI is situated historically including its evolution and diversification, (b) the principles of constructing SSIs, and (c) how SSIs are utilized as a stand-alone research method, and as strategy within a mixed-method design. PMID:28462313

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis to construct a core collection from a large Capsicum germplasm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hea-Young; Ro, Na-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Jo, Jinkwan; Ha, Yeaseong; Jung, Ayoung; Han, Ji-Woong; Venkatesh, Jelli; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-11-14

    Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum. To explore genetic diversity and population structure, we investigated patterns of molecular diversity using a transcriptome-based 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large germplasm collection comprising 3,821 accessions. Among the 11 species examined, Capsicum annuum showed the highest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.44, I = 0.69), whereas the wild species C. galapagoense showed the lowest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.06, I = 0.07). The Capsicum germplasm collection was divided into 10 clusters (cluster 1 to 10) based on population structure analysis, and five groups (group A to E) based on phylogenetic analysis. Capsicum accessions from the five distinct groups in an unrooted phylogenetic tree showed taxonomic distinctness and reflected their geographic origins. Most of the accessions from European countries are distributed in the A and B groups, whereas the accessions from Asian countries are mainly distributed in C and D groups. Five different sampling strategies with diverse genetic clustering methods were used to select the optimal method for constructing the core collection. Using a number of allelic variations based on 48 SNP markers and 32 different phenotypic/morphological traits, a core collection 'CC240' with a total of 240 accessions (5.2 %) was selected from within the entire Capsicum germplasm. Compared to the other core collections, CC240 displayed higher

  3. A ring-distortion strategy to construct stereochemically complex and structurally diverse compounds from natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huigens, Robert W., III; Morrison, Karen C.; Hicklin, Robert W.; Flood, Timothy A., Jr.; Richter, Michelle F.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2013-03-01

    High-throughput screening is the dominant method used to identify lead compounds in drug discovery. As such, the makeup of screening libraries largely dictates the biological targets that can be modulated and the therapeutics that can be developed. Unfortunately, most compound-screening collections consist principally of planar molecules with little structural or stereochemical complexity, compounds that do not offer the arrangement of chemical functionality necessary for the modulation of many drug targets. Here we describe a novel, general and facile strategy for the creation of diverse compounds with high structural and stereochemical complexity using readily available natural products as synthetic starting points. We show through the evaluation of chemical properties (which include fraction of sp3 carbons, ClogP and the number of stereogenic centres) that these compounds are significantly more complex and diverse than those in standard screening collections, and we give guidelines for the application of this strategy to any suitable natural product.

  4. Facile construction of structurally diverse thiazolidinedione-derived compounds via divergent stereoselective cascade organocatalysis and their biological exploratory studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Wang, Shengzheng; Wu, Shanchao; Zhu, Shiping; Dong, Guoqiang; Miao, Zhenyuan; Yao, Jianzhong; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Wang, Wei

    2013-06-10

    In this article, we present a new approach by merging two powerful synthetic tactics, divergent synthesis and cascade organocatalysis, to create a divergent cascade organocatalysis strategy for the facile construction of new "privileged" substructure-based DOS (pDOS) library. As demonstrated, notably 5 distinct molecular architectures are produced facilely from readily available simple synthons thiazolidinedione and its analogues and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in 1-3 steps with the powerful strategy. The beauty of the chemistry is highlighted by the efficient formation of structurally new and diverse products from structurally close reactants under the similar reaction conditions. Notably, structurally diverse spiro-thiazolidinediones and -rhodanines are produced from organocatalytic enantioselective 3-component Michael-Michael-aldol cascade reactions of respective thiazolidinediones and rhodanines with enals. Nevertheless, under the similar reaction conditions, reactions of isorhodanine via a Michael-cyclization cascade lead to structurally different fused thiopyranoid scaffolds. This strategy significantly minimizes time- and cost-consuming synthetic works. Furthermore, these molecules possess high structural complexity and functional, stereochemical, and skeletal diversity with similarity to natural scaffolds. In the preliminary biological studies of these molecules, compounds 4f, 8a, and 10a exhibit inhibitory activity against the human breast cancer cells, while compounds 8a, 9a, and 9b display good antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Notably, their structures are different from clinically used triazole antifungal drugs. Therefore, they could serve as good lead compounds for the development of new generation of antifungal agents.

  5. Nanoscale superstructures assembled by polymerase chain reaction (PCR): programmable construction, structural diversity, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hua; Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-11-19

    networks, (5) protein-DNA co-assembly structures, and (6) DNA block copolymers including trimers and pentamers. These results affirm that this method can produce a variety of chemical structures and in yields that are tunable. Using PCR-based preparation of DNA-bridged nanostructures, we can program the assembly of the nanoscale blocks through the adjustment of the primer intensity on the assembled units, the number of PCR cycles, or both. The resulting structures are highly complex and diverse and have interesting dynamics and collective properties. Potential applications of these materials include chirooptical materials, probe fabrication, and environmental and biomedical sensors.

  6. Constructs of Student-Centered Online Learning on Learning Satisfaction of a Diverse Online Student Body: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between constructs of web-based student-centered learning and the learning satisfaction of a diverse online student body. Hypotheses on the constructs of student-centered learning were tested using structural equation modeling. The results indicated that five key constructs of student-centered…

  7. Design and construction of diverse structures of coordination polymers: Photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu, E-mail: wuyuhlj@163.com; Institute of Functional Materials, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong 643000; Lu, Lu

    2017-01-15

    The reaction of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O/Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with 4′-(4-(3,5-dicarboxylphenoxy)phenyl)-4,2′:6′,4′′-terpyridine (H{sub 2}dbp) gave [Cu{sub 0.5}(Hdbp)]{sub n} (1) and [Ni(dbp)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (2), while the reactions of Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with H{sub 2}dbp in the presence of 4,4′-bipy and 2,2′-bpy generated [Co(dbp)(4,4′-bipy)]{sub n} (3) and ([Co(dbp)(2,2′-bipy)]{sub n}·H{sub 2}O) (4), respectively (4,4′-bipy=4.4′-pyridine and 2,2′-bipy=2,2′-bipyridine). X-Ray single-crystal analyses reveal that 1 contains a 1D double chain. 2 possesses a 3D architecture with (4.6{sup 2}0.8{sup 3}){sub 2} topology that is interpenetrated with each other to form a 2-fold network. In 3, the 2D [Co(dbp)]n sheets are pillared by 4,4′-bpy to formmore » a 3D framework with 1D open channel. Compound 4 consists of a 1D ladder-like chain. The results showed that the structural diversity of the coordination polymers resulted from the different geometries of metal ions and effect of assistant ligands. Furthermore, the photocatalytic properties of 1–4 for degradation of the methyl violet (MV) have been examined. - Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic activity and selectivity of complexes 1–4 prove that they may be good and stable photocatalysts for degradation of organic dyes.« less

  8. Genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium, population structure and construction of a core collection of Prunus avium L. landraces and bred cultivars.

    PubMed

    Campoy, José Antonio; Lerigoleur-Balsemin, Emilie; Christmann, Hélène; Beauvieux, Rémi; Girollet, Nabil; Quero-García, José; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Barreneche, Teresa

    2016-02-24

    Depiction of the genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure is essential for the efficient organization and exploitation of genetic resources. The objectives of this study were to (i) to evaluate the genetic diversity and to detect the patterns of LD, (ii) to estimate the levels of population structure and (iii) to identify a 'core collection' suitable for association genetic studies in sweet cherry. A total of 210 genotypes including modern cultivars and landraces from 16 countries were genotyped using the RosBREED cherry 6 K SNP array v1. Two groups, mainly bred cultivars and landraces, respectively, were first detected using STRUCTURE software and confirmed by Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA). Further analyses identified nine subgroups using STRUCTURE and Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC). Several sub-groups correspond to different eco-geographic regions of landraces distribution. Linkage disequilibrium was evaluated showing lower values than in peach, the reference Prunus species. A 'core collection' containing 156 accessions was selected using the maximum length sub tree method. The present study constitutes the first population genetics analysis in cultivated sweet cherry using a medium-density SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) marker array. We provided estimations of linkage disequilibrium, genetic structure and the definition of a first INRA's Sweet Cherry core collection useful for breeding programs, germplasm management and association genetics studies.

  9. Construction of a virtual combinatorial library using SMILES strings to discover potential structure-diverse PPAR modulators.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chenzhong; Liu, Bing; Shi, Leming; Zhou, Jiaju; Lu, Xian-Ping

    2005-07-01

    Based on the structural characters of PPAR modulators, a virtual combinatorial library containing 1226,625 compounds was constructed using SMILES strings. Selected ADME filters were employed to compel compounds having poor drug-like properties from this library. This library was converted to sdf and mol2 files by CONCORD 4.0, and was then docked to PPARgamma by DOCK 4.0 to identify new chemical entities that may be potential drug leads against type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. The method to construct virtual combinatorial library using SMILES strings was further visualized by Visual Basic.net that can facilitate the needs of generating other type virtual combinatorial libraries.

  10. Construction, Structural Diversity and Properties of Five Coordination Polymers Based on 5-Nitroisophthalate and Bis(imidazole) Linkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arıcı, Mürsel

    2018-06-01

    Five coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(μ3-5-nip)(μ-obix)]n (1), [Co(μ3-5-nip)(μ-obix)]n (2), [Zn(μ-5-nip)(μ-obix)]n (3 and 4) and [Cd(μ-5-nip)(μ-bisobix)]n (5) (5-nip: 5-nitroisophthalate, obix: 1,2-bis(imidazol-1ylmethyl)benzene, bisobix: 1,2-bis(2-isopropylimidazol-1ylmethyl)benzene) were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis (TG/DTA). X-ray results showed that the complexes displayed structural diversity depending on metal ions and conformations of bis(imidazole) linkers. Complexes 1 and 2 were 1D structures and obix ligand displayed cis-conformation. Complexes 3 and 4 exhibited 2D and 3D structures with same components depending on obix conformation. In complex 5, 3D+3D→3D interpenetrated structure was obtained with dia topology when bisobix having sterically hindered groups on imidazole rings was used. Moreover, thermal, photoluminescence and optical properties of the complexes were also investigated.

  11. Microbial Community Structure and Diversity in an Integrated System of Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors and a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Tannery Wastewater in Modjo, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desta, Adey Feleke; Assefa, Fassil; Leta, Seyoum; Stomeo, Francesca; Wamalwa, Mark; Njahira, Moses; Appolinaire, Djikeng

    2014-01-01

    A culture-independent approach was used to elucidate the microbial diversity and structure in the anaerobic-aerobic reactors integrated with a constructed wetland for the treatment of tannery wastewater in Modjo town, Ethiopia. The system has been running with removal efficiencies ranging from 94%–96% for COD, 91%–100% for SO42- and S2-, 92%–94% for BOD, 56%–82% for total Nitrogen and 2%–90% for NH3-N. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and microbial community assemblies were determined by analysis of a total of 801 unique clone sequences from all the sites. Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) - based analysis of the sequences revealed highly diverse communities in each of the reactors and the constructed wetland. A total of 32 phylotypes were identified with the dominant members affiliated to Clostridia (33%), Betaproteobacteria (10%), Bacteroidia (10%), Deltaproteobacteria (9%) and Gammaproteobacteria (6%). Sequences affiliated to the class Clostridia were the most abundant across all sites. The 801 sequences were assigned to 255 OTUs, of which 3 OTUs were shared among the clone libraries from all sites. The shared OTUs comprised 80 sequences belonging to Clostridiales Family XIII Incertae Sedis, Bacteroidetes and unclassified bacterial group. Significantly different communities were harbored by the anaerobic, aerobic and rhizosphere sites of the constructed wetland. Numerous representative genera of the dominant bacterial classes obtained from the different sample sites of the integrated system have been implicated in the removal of various carbon- containing pollutants of natural and synthetic origins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial community structure in tannery wastewater treatment plant from Ethiopia. PMID:25541981

  12. Constructal vascularized structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetkin, Erdal

    2015-06-01

    Smart features such as self-healing and selfcooling require bathing the entire volume with a coolant or/and healing agent. Bathing the entire volume is an example of point to area (or volume) flows. Point to area flows cover all the distributing and collecting kinds of flows, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, mining, river deltas, energy distribution, distribution of products on the landscape and so on. The flow resistances of a point to area flow can be decreased by changing the design with the guidance of the constructal law, which is the law of the design evolution in time. In this paper, how the flow resistances (heat, fluid and stress) can be decreased by using the constructal law is shown with examples. First, the validity of two assumptions is surveyed: using temperature independent Hess-Murray rule and using constant diameter ducts where the duct discharges fluid along its edge. Then, point to area types of flows are explained by illustrating the results of two examples: fluid networks and heating an area. Last, how the structures should be vascularized for cooling and mechanical strength is documented. This paper shows that flow resistances can be decreased by morphing the shape freely without any restrictions or generic algorithms.

  13. Tapered structure construction

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Eric D.; Takata, Rosalind K.; Slocum, Alexander H.

    Feeding stock used to form a tapered structure into a curving device such that each point on the stock undergoes rotational motion about a peak location of the tapered structure; and the stock meets a predecessor portion of stock along one or more adjacent edges.

  14. Object Construction Under Diverse Conditions of Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, J. McVicker

    1974-01-01

    This study examines object construction and the ages at which children developing under various environmental conditions achieve five of the landmarks in the Uzgiris-Hunt (1974) scale of object permanence. (Author)

  15. Structural load control during construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of gravitational pull, the major design considerations for large space structures are stiffness for controllability, and transient dynamic loadings (as opposed to the traditional static load associated with earth-based structures). Because of the absence of gravitational loading, space structures can be designed to be significantly lighter than their counterparts on Earth. For example, the Space Shuttle manipulator arm is capable of moving and positioning a 60,000 lb payload, yet weighs less than 1,000 lbs. A recent design for the Space Station which had a total weight of about 500,000 lbs. used a primary loadcarrying keel beam which weighed less than 10,000 lbs. For many large space structures designs it is quite common for the load-carrying structure to have a mass fraction on the order of one or two percent of the total spacecraft mass. This significant weight reduction for large space structures is commonly accompanied by very low natural frequencies. These low frequencies cause an unprecedented level of operational complexity for mission applications which require a high level of positioning and control accuracy. This control problem is currently the subject of considerable research directed towards reducing the flexibility problem. In addition, however, the small mass fraction typically results in structures which are quite unforgiving to inadvertent high loadings. In other words, the structures are 'fragile.' In order to deal with the fragility issue CSC developed a load-limiting concept for space truss structures. This concept is aimed at limiting the levels of load which can occur in a large space structure during the construction process as well as during subsequent operations. Currently, the approach for dealing with large loadings is to make the structure larger. The impact this has on construction is significant. The larger structures are more difficult to package in the launch vehicle, and in fact in some instances the concept must be

  16. Construction of noninterpenetrating and interpenetrating Co(ii) networks with halogenated carboxylate modulated by auxiliary N-donor co-ligands: structural diversity, electrochemical and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shao Yun; Hou, Suo Xia; Van Hecke, Kristof; Cui, Guang Hua

    2017-02-14

    Six Co(ii)-based coordination polymers (CPs) with characteristic frameworks and topologies-namely, [Co(L1)(DCTP)] n (1), [Co(L2)(DCTP)] n (2), [Co(L3)(DCTP)] n (3), {[Co 3 (L4) 3 (DCTP) 3 ·H 2 O]·H 2 O} n (4), [Co(L5) 1.5 (DCTP)] n (5) and [Co(L6)(DCTP)] n (6)-were successfully hydrothermally synthesized by employing the halogenated linear ligand 2,5-dichloroterephthalic acid (H 2 DCTP). The interpenetrated structures could be rationally modulated by auxiliary N-donor co-ligands containing 1,1'-(1,4-butanediyl)bis-1H-benzimidazole (L1), 1,4-bis(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazol-1-yl)-2-butylene (L2), 1,2-bis(2-methylbenzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (L3), 1,4-bis(2-methylbenzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (L4), 1,2-bis(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (L5) and 1,4-bis(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (L6). These diaphanous crystals were clearly characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. With the aid of the flexible N-donor co-ligands, CP 1 occupies a non-interpenetrated 2D sheet with the point symbol {4 4 ·6 2 } sql net topology, CP 2 possesses a 3D hexagon-shaped network with the point symbol {6 6 } three-fold interpenetrated sqc6 topology, CP 3 exhibits a 2D layer with the point symbol {4 4 ·6 2 } sql net topology, CP 4 reveals an unusual 3D framework with the point symbol {4 2 ·6 3 ·8} three-fold interpenetrated sra topology, CP 5 has a 3D hexagon-shaped network with the point symbol {6 6 } two-fold interpenetrated sqc6 topology, while CP 6 displays a 3D hexagon-shaped network with the point symbol {6 6 } three-fold interpenetrated sqc6 topology. The diverse structures of CPs 1-6 illustrate that the substitute group and position of the methyl group of the bis(benzimidazole) derivatives play a significant role in the assembly of such interpenetrated frameworks. Moreover, luminescence properties and thermal behavior, as well as the

  17. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  18. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to con...

  19. Structural diversity and photocatalytic properties of Cd(II) coordination polymers constructed by a flexible V-shaped bipyridyl benzene ligand and dicarboxylate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei-Lei; Yu, Cai-Xia; Ma, Feng-Ji; Li, Ya-Ru; Han, Jing-Jing; Lin, Lu; Ma, Lu-Fang

    2015-01-28

    Hydrothermal reactions of Cd(OAc)2·2H2O with a flexible V-shaped bipyridyl benzene ligand and five benzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives gave rise to five new coordination polymers i.e., [Cd(1,4-BDC)(bpmb)(H2O)]n (1), {[Cd(1,3-BDC)(bpmb)]·0.125H2O}n (2), [Cd2(5-Me-1,3-BDC)2(bpmb)2]n (3), [Cd(5-NO2-1,3-BDC)(bpmb)(H2O)]n (4) and [Cd(5-OH-1,3-BDC)(bpmb)(H2O)]n (5) (bpmb = 1,3-bis(pyridine-3-ylmethoxy)benzene, 1,4-H2BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,3-H2BDC = 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 5-Me-1,3-H2BDC = 5-methyl-1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 5-NO2-1,3-H2BDC = 5-nitro-1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 5-OH-1,3-H2BDC = 5-hydroxy-1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Compound 1 is a two-fold interpenetrating network showing the coexistence of polyrotaxane and polycatenane characters. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibit similar 2D (3,5)-connected (4(2)·6(7)·8)(4(2)·6) nets in which the bpmb ligands work as lockers in interlocking 1D [Cd(1,3-BDC/5-Me-1,3-BDC)]n chains. Compound 4 shows a 2D 4-connected (6(6)) sandwich-like structure with differently oriented [Cd(5-NO2-1,3-BDC)]n chains. Compound 5 is a 3D supramolecular pcu net based on a 1D ladder-shaped chain. These results suggest that the substituted positions of carboxylate groups and changes in substituted R groups in the 5-position of BDC ligands have significant effect on the final structures. These compounds exhibited relatively good photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. Moreover, solid-state photoluminescence properties of 1-5 were also investigated.

  20. Construction schedule simulation of a diversion tunnel based on the optimized ventilation time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Liu, Xuepeng; Sun, Yuefeng; An, Juan; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Hongchao

    2009-06-15

    Former studies, the methods for estimating the ventilation time are all empirical in construction schedule simulation. However, in many real cases of construction schedule, the many factors have impact on the ventilation time. Therefore, in this paper the 3D unsteady quasi-single phase models are proposed to optimize the ventilation time with different tunneling lengths. The effect of buoyancy is considered in the momentum equation of the CO transport model, while the effects of inter-phase drag, lift force, and virtual mass force are taken into account in the momentum source of the dust transport model. The prediction by the present model for airflow in a diversion tunnel is confirmed by the experimental values reported by Nakayama [Nakayama, In-situ measurement and simulation by CFD of methane gas distribution at a heading faces, Shigen-to-Sozai 114 (11) (1998) 769-775]. The construction ventilation of the diversion tunnel of XinTangfang power station in China is used as a case. The distributions of airflow, CO and dust in the diversion tunnel are analyzed. A theory method for GIS-based dynamic visual simulation for the construction processes of underground structure groups is presented that combines cyclic operation network simulation, system simulation, network plan optimization, and GIS-based construction processes' 3D visualization. Based on the ventilation time the construction schedule of the diversion tunnel is simulated by the above theory method.

  1. A Consecutive Spray Printing Strategy to Construct and Integrate Diverse Supercapacitors on Various Substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Lu, Qiongqiong; Chen, Chen; Han, Mo; Wang, Qingrong; Li, Haixia; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2017-08-30

    The rapid development of printable electronic devices with flexible and wearable characteristics requires supercapacitor devices to be printable, light, thin, integrated macro- and micro-devices with flexibility. Herein, we developed a consecutive spray printing strategy to controllably construct and integrate diverse supercapacitors on various substrates. In such a strategy, all supercapacitor components are fully printable, and their thicknesses and shapes are well controlled. As a result, supercapacitors obtained by this strategy achieve diverse structures and shapes. In addition, different nanocarbon and pseudocapacitive materials are applicable for the fabrication of these diverse supercapacitors. Furthermore, the diverse supercapacitors can be readily constructed on various objects with planar, curved, or even rough surfaces (e.g., plastic film, glass, cloth, and paper). More importantly, the consecutive spray printing process can integrate several supercapacitors together in the perpendicular and parallel directions of one substrate by designing the structure of electrodes and separators. This enlightens the construction and integration of fully printable supercapacitors with diverse configurations to be compatible with fully printable electronics on various substrates.

  2. Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samygina, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.

  3. Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Irobalieva, Rossitza N.; Fogg, Jonathan M.; Catanese, Daniel J.; Sutthibutpong, Thana; Chen, Muyuan; Barker, Anna K.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Harris, Sarah A.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    By regulating access to the genetic code, DNA supercoiling strongly affects DNA metabolism. Despite its importance, however, much about supercoiled DNA (positively supercoiled DNA, in particular) remains unknown. Here we use electron cryo-tomography together with biochemical analyses to investigate structures of individual purified DNA minicircle topoisomers with defined degrees of supercoiling. Our results reveal that each topoisomer, negative or positive, adopts a unique and surprisingly wide distribution of three-dimensional conformations. Moreover, we uncover striking differences in how the topoisomers handle torsional stress. As negative supercoiling increases, bases are increasingly exposed. Beyond a sharp supercoiling threshold, we also detect exposed bases in positively supercoiled DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations independently confirm the conformational heterogeneity and provide atomistic insight into the flexibility of supercoiled DNA. Our integrated approach reveals the three-dimensional structures of DNA that are essential for its function. PMID:26455586

  4. Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irobalieva, Rossitza N.; Fogg, Jonathan M.; Catanese, Daniel J.; Sutthibutpong, Thana; Chen, Muyuan; Barker, Anna K.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Harris, Sarah A.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    By regulating access to the genetic code, DNA supercoiling strongly affects DNA metabolism. Despite its importance, however, much about supercoiled DNA (positively supercoiled DNA, in particular) remains unknown. Here we use electron cryo-tomography together with biochemical analyses to investigate structures of individual purified DNA minicircle topoisomers with defined degrees of supercoiling. Our results reveal that each topoisomer, negative or positive, adopts a unique and surprisingly wide distribution of three-dimensional conformations. Moreover, we uncover striking differences in how the topoisomers handle torsional stress. As negative supercoiling increases, bases are increasingly exposed. Beyond a sharp supercoiling threshold, we also detect exposed bases in positively supercoiled DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations independently confirm the conformational heterogeneity and provide atomistic insight into the flexibility of supercoiled DNA. Our integrated approach reveals the three-dimensional structures of DNA that are essential for its function.

  5. Diversity in immunological synapse structure

    PubMed Central

    Thauland, Timothy J; Parker, David C

    2010-01-01

    Immunological synapses (ISs) are formed at the T cell–antigen-presenting cell (APC) interface during antigen recognition, and play a central role in T-cell activation and in the delivery of effector functions. ISs were originally described as a peripheral ring of adhesion molecules surrounding a central accumulation of T-cell receptor (TCR)–peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) interactions. Although the structure of these ‘classical’ ISs has been the subject of intense study, non-classical ISs have also been observed under a variety of conditions. Multifocal ISs, characterized by adhesion molecules dispersed among numerous small accumulations of TCR–pMHC, and motile ‘immunological kinapses’ have both been described. In this review, we discuss the conditions under which non-classical ISs are formed. Specifically, we explore the profound effect that the phenotypes of both T cells and APCs have on IS structure. We also comment on the role that IS structure may play in T-cell function. PMID:21039474

  6. Space Station truss structures and construction considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Croomes, S. D.; Schneider, W.; Bush, H. G.; Nagy, K.; Pelischek, T.; Lake, M. S.; Wesselski, C.

    1985-01-01

    Although a specific configuration has not been selected for the Space Station, a gravity gradient stabilized station as a basis upon which to compare various structural and construction concepts is considered. The Space Station primary truss support structure is described in detail. Three approaches (see sketch A) which are believed to be representative of the major techniques for constructing large structures in space are also described in detail so that salient differences can be highlighted.

  7. Evolution of structural diversity of trichothecene mycotoxins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungal secondary metabolites (SMs) are diverse in structure and biological activity. Most can be divided into families of analogs that share a core structure but vary in patterns of functional groups (substituents) attached to the core. Typically, fungal genes responsible for synthesis of the same S...

  8. Structural diversity in social contagion

    PubMed Central

    Ugander, Johan; Backstrom, Lars; Marlow, Cameron; Kleinberg, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The concept of contagion has steadily expanded from its original grounding in epidemic disease to describe a vast array of processes that spread across networks, notably social phenomena such as fads, political opinions, the adoption of new technologies, and financial decisions. Traditional models of social contagion have been based on physical analogies with biological contagion, in which the probability that an individual is affected by the contagion grows monotonically with the size of his or her “contact neighborhood”—the number of affected individuals with whom he or she is in contact. Whereas this contact neighborhood hypothesis has formed the underpinning of essentially all current models, it has been challenging to evaluate it due to the difficulty in obtaining detailed data on individual network neighborhoods during the course of a large-scale contagion process. Here we study this question by analyzing the growth of Facebook, a rare example of a social process with genuinely global adoption. We find that the probability of contagion is tightly controlled by the number of connected components in an individual's contact neighborhood, rather than by the actual size of the neighborhood. Surprisingly, once this “structural diversity” is controlled for, the size of the contact neighborhood is in fact generally a negative predictor of contagion. More broadly, our analysis shows how data at the size and resolution of the Facebook network make possible the identification of subtle structural signals that go undetected at smaller scales yet hold pivotal predictive roles for the outcomes of social processes. PMID:22474360

  9. FIADB vegetation diversity and structure indicator (VEG)

    Treesearch

    Bethany K. Schulz; Kevin Dobelbower

    2012-01-01

    The Vegetation Diversity and Structure (VEG) Indicator is a suite of measurements including an inventory of vascular plants on an extensive systematic network of forest plots across the United States. This network is a subset of the standard forest inventory plots established by the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program. The VEG indicator provides...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1708-1 - Surface structures; fireproof construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface structures; fireproof construction. 75... Surface structures; fireproof construction. Structures of fireproof construction is interpreted to mean structures with fireproof exterior surfaces. ...

  11. Archaeal Viruses: Diversity, Replication, and Structure.

    PubMed

    Dellas, Nikki; Snyder, Jamie C; Bolduc, Benjamin; Young, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    The Archaea-and their viruses-remain the most enigmatic of life's three domains. Once thought to inhabit only extreme environments, archaea are now known to inhabit diverse environments. Even though the first archaeal virus was described over 40 years ago, only 117 archaeal viruses have been discovered to date. Despite this small number, these viruses have painted a portrait of enormous morphological and genetic diversity. For example, research centered around the various steps of the archaeal virus life cycle has led to the discovery of unique mechanisms employed by archaeal viruses during replication, maturation, and virion release. In many instances, archaeal virus proteins display very low levels of sequence homology to other proteins listed in the public database, and therefore, structural characterization of these proteins has played an integral role in functional assignment. These structural studies have not only provided insights into structure-function relationships but have also identified links between viruses across all three domains of life.

  12. Cellulose microfibril structure: inspirations from plant diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A. W.

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase catalytic subunits that associate to form cellulose synthesis complexes. Variation in the organization of these complexes underlies the variation in cellulose microfibril structure among diverse organisms. However, little is known about how the catalytic subunits interact to form complexes with different morphologies. We are using an evolutionary approach to investigate the roles of different catalytic subunit isoforms in organisms that have rosette-type cellulose synthesis complexes.

  13. Event Structure and Grammatical Patterns: Resultative Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the nature of grammatical patterns through an in-depth study of resultative constructions in Mandarin and Thai. At the heart of the thesis lies the proposal that event structure templates--complex, meaning-based grammatical patterns--must be recognised as primary objects of linguistic analysis. As content-theoretic objects…

  14. Construction Cluster Volume I [Wood Structural Framing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the first of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. It focuses on wood structural framing and contains 20 units: (1) occupational information; (2) blueprint reading; (3) using leveling instruments and laying out building lines; (4)…

  15. Quasi-Hamiltonian structure and Hojman construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinena, Jose F.; Guha, Partha; Ranada, Manuel F.

    2007-08-01

    Given a smooth vector field [Gamma] and assuming the knowledge of an infinitesimal symmetry X, Hojman [S. Hojman, The construction of a Poisson structure out of a symmetry and a conservation law of a dynamical system, J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 29 (1996) 667-674] proposed a method for finding both a Poisson tensor and a function H such that [Gamma] is the corresponding Hamiltonian system. In this paper, we approach the problem from geometrical point of view. The geometrization leads to the clarification of several concepts and methods used in Hojman's paper. In particular, the relationship between the nonstandard Hamiltonian structure proposed by Hojman and the degenerate quasi-Hamiltonian structures introduced by Crampin and Sarlet [M. Crampin, W. Sarlet, Bi-quasi-Hamiltonian systems, J. Math. Phys. 43 (2002) 2505-2517] is unveiled in this paper. We also provide some applications of our construction.

  16. Structural Diversity of Human Gastric Mucin Glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunsheng; Kenny, Diarmuid T.; Skoog, Emma C.; Padra, Médea; Adamczyk, Barbara; Vitizeva, Varvara; Thorell, Anders; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Lindén, Sara K.; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2017-01-01

    The mucin O-glycosylation of 10 individuals with and without gastric disease was examined in depth in order to generate a structural map of human gastric glycosylation. In the stomach, these mucins and their O-glycosylation protect the epithelial surface from the acidic gastric juice and provide the first point of interaction for pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, reported to cause gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. The rational of the present study was to map the O-glycosylation that the pathogen may come in contact with. An enormous diversity in glycosylation was found, which varied both between individuals and within mucins from a single individual: mucin glycan chain length ranged from 2–13 residues, each individual carried 34–103 O-glycan structures and in total over 258 structures were identified. The majority of gastric O-glycans were neutral and fucosylated. Blood group I antigens, as well as terminal α1,4-GlcNAc-like and GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc-like (LacdiNAc-like), were common modifications of human gastric O-glycans. Furthemore, each individual carried 1–14 glycan structures that were unique for that individual. The diversity and alterations in gastric O-glycosylation broaden our understanding of the human gastric O-glycome and its implications for gastric cancer research and emphasize that the high individual variation makes it difficult to identify gastric cancer specific structures. However, despite the low number of individuals, we could verify a higher level of sialylation and sulfation on gastric O-glycans from cancerous tissue than from healthy stomachs. PMID:28461410

  17. Towards Constructions of Musical Childhoods: Diversity and Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The changing economic, social, cultural and technological circumstances in which children live impact significantly on the ways in which early childhood is both viewed and experienced. Understanding the implications, the potentials, the challenges that arise as a consequence of the diversity and technological changes that characterise contemporary…

  18. Magnetically-guided assembly of microfluidic fibers for ordered construction of diverse netlike modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingfu; Shi, Qing; Wang, Huaping; Sun, Tao; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a magnetically-guided assembly method is proposed to methodically construct diverse modules with a microfiber-based network for promoting nutrient circulation and waste excretion of cell culture. The microfiber is smoothly spun from the microfluidic device via precise control of the volumetric flow rate, and superparamagnetic nanoparticles within the alginate solution of the microfluidic fiber enable its magnetic response. The magnetized device is used to effectively capture the microfiber using its powerful magnetic flux density and high magnetic field gradient. Subsequently, the dot-matrix magnetic flux density is used to distribute the microfibers in an orderly fashion that depends on the array structure of the magnetized device. Furthermore, the magnetic microfluidic fibers are spatially organized into desired locations and are cross-aligned to form highly interconnected netlike modules in a liquid environment. Therefore, the experimental results herein demonstrate the structural controllability and stability of various modules and establish the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

  20. Construction of an instant structured illumination microscope

    PubMed Central

    Curd, Alistair; Cleasby, Alexa; Makowska, Katarzyna; York, Andrew; Shroff, Hari; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in biological imaging is to capture high-resolution images at fast frame rates in live cells. The “instant structured illumination microscope” (iSIM) is a system designed for this purpose. Similarly to standard structured illumination microscopy (SIM), an iSIM provides a twofold improvement over widefield microscopy, in x, y and z, but also allows much faster image acquisition, with real-time display of super-resolution images. The assembly of an iSIM is reasonably complex, involving the combination and alignment of many optical components, including three micro-optics arrays (two lenslet arrays and an array of pinholes, all with a pitch of 222 μm) and a double-sided scanning mirror. In addition, a number of electronic components must be correctly controlled. Construction of the system is therefore not trivial, but is highly desirable, particularly for live-cell imaging. We report, and provide instructions for, the construction of an iSIM, including minor modifications to a previous design in both hardware and software. The final instrument allows us to rapidly acquire fluorescence images at rates faster than 100 fps, with approximately twofold improvement in resolution in both x–y and z; sub-diffractive biological features have an apparent size (full width at half maximum) of 145 nm (lateral) and 320 nm (axial), using a 1.49 NA objective and 488 nm excitation. PMID:26210400

  1. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Erin L.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Emlen, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male–male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons. PMID:25201949

  2. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2014-10-07

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male-male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons.

  3. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called "portmanteau" sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as an

  4. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called “portmanteau” sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as

  5. Structural Impact of Construction Loads : [Technical Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized topic in many specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable during the construction phase, so it is important for...

  6. Structural Impact of Construction Loads : [Technical Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred : because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many specifications and design : manuals. Bridge girders are least stable during the : construction phase, so it is impor...

  7. Analysis of genetic diversity of rapeseed genetic resources in Japan and core collection construction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruikun; Hara, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ryo; Yoshioka, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    Diversity analysis of rapeseed accessions preserved in the Japanese Genebank can provide valuable information for breeding programs. In this study, 582 accessions were genotyped with 30 SSR markers covering all 19 rapeseed chromosomes. These markers amplified 311 alleles (10.37 alleles per marker; range, 3–39). The genetic diversity of Japanese accessions was lower than that of overseas accessions. Analysis of molecular variance indicated significant genetic differentiation between Japanese and overseas accessions. Small but significant differences were found among geographical groups in Japan, and genetic differentiation tended to increase with geographical distance. STRUCTURE analysis indicated the presence of two main genetic clusters in the NARO rapeseed collection. With the membership probabilities threshold, 227 accessions mostly originating from overseas were assigned to one subgroup, and 276 accessions mostly originating from Japan were assigned to the other subgroup. The remaining 79 accessions are assigned to admixed group. The core collection constructed comprises 96 accessions of diverse origin. It represents the whole collection well and thus it may be useful for rapeseed genetic research and breeding programs. The core collection improves the efficiency of management, evaluation, and utilization of genetic resources. PMID:28744177

  8. Lunar surface structural concepts and construction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar surface structures construction research areas; lunar crane related disciplines; shortcomings of typical mobile crane in lunar base applications; candidate crane cable suspension systems; NIST six-cable suspension crane; numerical example of natural frequency; the incorporation of two new features for improved performance of the counter-balanced actively-controlled lunar crane; lunar crane pendulum mechanics; simulation results; 1/6 scale lunar crane testbed using GE robot for global manipulation; basic deployable truss approaches; bi-pantograph elevator platform; comparison of elevator platforms; perspective of bi-pantograph beam; bi-pantograph synchronously deployable tower/beam; lunar module off-loading concept; module off-loader concept packaged; starburst deployable precision reflector; 3-ring reflector deployment scheme; cross-section of packaged starburst reflector; and focal point and thickness packaging considerations.

  9. Lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, diverse structure and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xue-Qin, E-mail: songxq@mail.lzjtu.cn; Lei, Yao-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Run

    2014-10-15

    The new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand incorporating furfurysalicylamide terminal groups, namely, 1,4-bis([(2′-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl]methyl)-2,5-bismethylbenzene (L) was synthesized and used as building blocks for constructing lanthanide coordination polymers with luminescent properties. The series of lanthanide nitrate complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The semirigid ligand L, as a bridging ligand, reacts with lanthanide nitrates forming three distinct structure types: chiral noninterpenetrated two-dimensional (2D) honeycomblike (6,3) (hcb, Schläfli symbol 6{sup 3}, vertex symbol 6 6 6) topological network as type I, 1D zigzag chain as type II and 1D trapezoid ladder-like chain as type III. The structural diversitiesmore » indicate that lanthanide contraction effect played significant roles in the structural self-assembled process. The luminescent properties of Eu{sup III}, Tb{sup III} and Dy{sup III} complexes are discussed in detail. Due to the good match between the lowest triplet state of the ligand and the resonant energy level of the lanthanide ion, the lanthanide ions in Eu{sup III}, Tb{sup III} and Dy{sup III} complexes can be efficiently sensitized by the ligand. - Graphical abstract: We present herein six lanthanide coordination polymers of a new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand which not only display diverse structures but also possess strong luminescence properties. - Highlights: • We present lanthanide coordination polymers of a new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand. • The lanthanide coordination polymers exhibit diverse structures. • The luminescent properties of Tb{sup III}, Eu{sup III} and Dy{sup III} complexes are discussed in detail.« less

  10. Presumed fair: ironic effects of organizational diversity structures.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Cheryl R; Major, Brenda; Jurcevic, Ines; Dover, Tessa L; Brady, Laura M; Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2013-03-01

    This research tests the hypothesis that the presence (vs. absence) of organizational diversity structures causes high-status group members (Whites, men) to perceive organizations with diversity structures as procedurally fairer environments for underrepresented groups (racial minorities, women), even when it is clear that underrepresented groups have been unfairly disadvantaged within these organizations. Furthermore, this illusory sense of fairness derived from the mere presence of diversity structures causes high-status group members to legitimize the status quo by becoming less sensitive to discrimination targeted at underrepresented groups and reacting more harshly toward underrepresented group members who claim discrimination. Six experiments support these hypotheses in designs using 4 types of diversity structures (diversity policies, diversity training, diversity awards, idiosyncratically generated diversity structures from participants' own organizations) among 2 high-status groups in tests involving several types of discrimination (discriminatory promotion practices, adverse impact in hiring, wage discrimination). Implications of these experiments for organizational diversity and employment discrimination law are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  12. T7 lytic phage-displayed peptide libraries: construction and diversity characterization.

    PubMed

    Krumpe, Lauren R H; Mori, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the construction of T7 bacteriophage (phage)-displayed peptide libraries and the diversity analyses of random amino acid sequences obtained from the libraries. We used commercially available reagents, Novagen's T7Select system, to construct the libraries. Using a combination of biotinylated extension primer and streptavidin-coupled magnetic beads, we were able to prepare library DNA without applying gel purification, resulting in extremely high ligation efficiencies. Further, we describe the use of bioinformatics tools to characterize library diversity. Amino acid frequency and positional amino acid diversity and hydropathy are estimated using the REceptor LIgand Contacts website http://relic.bio.anl.gov. Peptide net charge analysis and peptide hydropathy analysis are conducted using the Genetics Computer Group Wisconsin Package computational tools. A comprehensive collection of the estimated number of recombinants and titers of T7 phage-displayed peptide libraries constructed in our lab is included.

  13. Constructing Molecular Complexity and Diversity: Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Biological and Medicinal Importance

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Hale, Christopher R. H.; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules—natural and designed—of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products—the organic molecules of nature—is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature’s molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years. PMID:22743704

  14. Constructing molecular complexity and diversity: total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Hale, Christopher R H; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A

    2012-08-07

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules--natural and designed--of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products--the organic molecules of nature--is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature's molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years.

  15. Structural Analysis of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vanessa D.; Kang, Young-Shin; Thompson, George F.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the five-factor structure of the Resident Assistant Cultural Diversity (RACD) instrument, which assesses resident assistant (RA) confidence in addressing issues of cultural diversity in college and university residence halls. The instrument has five components that explore RA confidence: (1) belief in the need for cultural…

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of nine chewing cane varieties (lines) and construction of their DNA fingerprints

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to provide theoretical basis for variety identification and parental selection during sugarcane breeding process, the present study was conducted to analyze genetic diversity of nine chewing cane varieties (lines) and construct their DNA fingerprints. Combining twenty-one SSR molecular mark...

  17. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire to Study Future Teachers' Beliefs about Cultural Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López López, M. Carmen; Hinojosa Pareja, Eva F.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the construction and validation process of a questionnaire designed to study student teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity. The study, beyond highlighting the complexity involved in the study of beliefs, emphasises their relevance in implementing inclusive educational processes that guarantee the right to a good education…

  18. The structural diversity of artificial genetic polymers

    PubMed Central

    Anosova, Irina; Kowal, Ewa A.; Dunn, Matthew R.; Chaput, John C.; Van Horn, Wade D.; Egli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic genetics is a subdiscipline of synthetic biology that aims to develop artificial genetic polymers (also referred to as xeno-nucleic acids or XNAs) that can replicate in vitro and eventually in model cellular organisms. This field of science combines organic chemistry with polymerase engineering to create alternative forms of DNA that can store genetic information and evolve in response to external stimuli. Practitioners of synthetic genetics postulate that XNA could be used to safeguard synthetic biology organisms by storing genetic information in orthogonal chromosomes. XNA polymers are also under active investigation as a source of nuclease resistant affinity reagents (aptamers) and catalysts (xenozymes) with practical applications in disease diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we provide a structural perspective on known antiparallel duplex structures in which at least one strand of the Watson–Crick duplex is composed entirely of XNA. Currently, only a handful of XNA structures have been archived in the Protein Data Bank as compared to the more than 100 000 structures that are now available. Given the growing interest in xenobiology projects, we chose to compare the structural features of XNA polymers and discuss their potential to access new regions of nucleic acid fold space. PMID:26673703

  19. Concrete structure construction on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Shinji; Namba, Haruyuki; Kai, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Tetsuji

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a precast prestressed concrete structure system on the Moon and erection methods for this system. The horizontal section of the structural module is hexagonal so that various layouts of the modules are possible by connecting the adjacent modules to each other. For erection of the modules, specially designed mobile cranes are used.

  20. Ways to improve the technology of constructing concrete hydraulic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, A.D.

    1985-05-01

    The authors state that there is a need for a critical analysis of the established technology of constructing massive concrete structures and for the search for new, cheap, faster, and less labor-intensive designs when constructing concrete dams. Improvement of the technology of constructing concrete hydraulic structures is possible, they say, by introducing the following suggestions: construction of massive structures mainly from a very stiff, low-cement concrete mix compacted by the vibrating roller method; use of poured self-compacting concrete mixes when constructing reinforced-concrete structural elements of hydrostations, water intakes, tunnel linings, etc.; and by development of the technology of delivering stiffmore » concrete mixes by conveyors and their placement by rotary throwers when revetting slopes. This paper examines these elements in detail.« less

  1. Shell Structure Water Cellar’s Rapid Construct Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian Zhuang, Wen; Qing Yin, De; Chen, Shu Fa

    2018-05-01

    Tradition concrete water cellar’s problems, such as high cost, long construction term, easy to crack, are pointed out. A new construct method, and it’s matching airbag mould, of constructing concrete shell structure water cellars, are introduced. Combine with full-scale verifying cellar’s construct test, full-load water storage test, analyzed the technology in terms of construction term, cost, crack resistance, air bag pressure etc. It is believed that this new technology can successfully solve the problems that tradition technology has, and it will have a good prospect in rainfall resources utilization.

  2. Structural diversity of domain superfamilies in the CATH database.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gabrielle A; Dallman, Timothy J; Redfern, Oliver C; Akpor, Adrian; Orengo, Christine A

    2006-07-14

    The CATH database of domain structures has been used to explore the structural variation of homologous domains in 294 well populated domain structure superfamilies, each containing at least three sequence diverse relatives. Our analyses confirm some previously detected trends relating sequence divergence to structural variation but for a much larger dataset and in some superfamilies the new data reveal exceptional structural variation. Use of a new algorithm (2DSEC) to analyse variability in secondary structure compositions across a superfamily sheds new light on how structures evolve. 2DSEC detects inserted secondary structures that embellish the core of conserved secondary structures found throughout the superfamily. Analysis showed that for 56% of highly populated superfamilies (>9 sequence diverse relatives), there are twofold or more increases in the numbers of secondary structures in some relatives. In some families fivefold increases occur, sometimes modifying the fold of the domain. Manual inspection of secondary structure insertions or embellishments in 48 particularly variable superfamilies revealed that although these insertions were usually discontiguous in the sequence they were often co-located in 3D resulting in a larger structural motif that often modified the geometry of the active site or the surface conformation promoting diverse domain partnerships and protein interactions. These observations, supported by automatic analysis of all well populated CATH families, suggest that accretion of small secondary structure insertions may provide a simple mechanism for evolving new functions in diverse relatives. Some layered domain architectures (e.g. mainly-beta and alpha-beta sandwiches) that recur highly in the genomes more frequently exploit these types of embellishments to modify function. In these architectures, aggregation occurs most often at the edges, top or bottom of the beta-sheets. Information on structural variability across domain

  3. The way to uncover community structure with core and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. F.; Han, S. K.; Wang, X. D.

    2018-07-01

    Communities are ubiquitous in nature and society. Individuals that share common properties often self-organize to form communities. Avoiding the shortages of computation complexity, pre-given information and unstable results in different run, in this paper, we propose a simple and efficient method to deepen our understanding of the emergence and diversity of communities in complex systems. By introducing the rational random selection, our method reveals the hidden deterministic and normal diverse community states of community structure. To demonstrate this method, we test it with real-world systems. The results show that our method could not only detect community structure with high sensitivity and reliability, but also provide instructional information about the hidden deterministic community world and the real normal diverse community world by giving out the core-community, the real-community, the tide and the diversity. Thizs is of paramount importance in understanding, predicting, and controlling a variety of collective behaviors in complex systems.

  4. 9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2) SHOWING DIVERSION GATE TO LAKE LADORA. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) / Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES) Materials Delivery System (MDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Tamasy, G. J.; Evers, C. J.; Sibille, L. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Fiske, M. R.; Fikes, J. C.; Case, M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) project is to incorporate the Liquid Goods Delivery System (LGDS) into the Dry Goods Delivery System (DGDS) structure to create an integrated and automated Materials Delivery System (MDS) for 3D printing structures with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. ACES 3 is a prototype for 3-D printing barracks for soldiers in forward bases, here on Earth. The LGDS supports ACES 3 by storing liquid materials, mixing recipe batches of liquid materials, and working with the Dry Goods Feed System (DGFS) previously developed for ACES 2, combining the materials that are eventually extruded out of the print nozzle. Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) is a project led by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and supported by NASA. The equivalent 3D printing system for construction in space is designated Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) by NASA.

  6. Metal matrix composite structural panel construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwithey, R. R.; Royster, D. M. (Inventor); Bales, T. T.

    1983-01-01

    Lightweight capped honeycomb stiffeners for use in fabricating metal or metal/matrix exterior structural panels on aerospace type vehicles and the process for fabricating same are disclosed. The stiffener stringers are formed in sheets, cut to the desired width and length and brazed in spaced relationship to a skin with the honeycomb material serving directly as the required lightweight stiffeners and not requiring separate metal encasement for the exposed honeycomb cells.

  7. The Effect of Structured Divergent Prompts on Knowledge Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Ginger S.; Akpanudo, Usenime; Chen, Mengyi; Sutherlin, Autumn L.; James, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion forums are a widely used activity in online courses. However, knowledge construction within online discussion rarely reaches higher levels. Therefore, it is important to understand which aspects of online discussion encourage learning and increase knowledge construction. This paper investigates the effect three Structured Divergent…

  8. Structural diversity effect on hashtag adoption in Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aihua; Zheng, Mingxing; Pang, Bowen

    2018-03-01

    With online social network developing rapidly these years, user' behavior in online social network has attracted a lot of attentions to it. In this paper, we study Twitter user's behavior of hashtag adoption from the perspective of social contagion and focus on "structure diversity" effect on individual's behavior in Twitter. We achieve data through Twitter's API by crawling and build a users' network to carry on empirical research. The Girvan-Newman (G-N) algorithm is used to analyze the structural diversity of user's ego network, and Logistic regression model is adopted to examine the hypothesis. The findings of our empirical study indicate that user' behavior in online social network is indeed influenced by his friends and his decision is significantly affected by the number of groups that these friends belong to, which we call structural diversity.

  9. Modeling Forest Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Piedmont Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2014-12-01

    When the interacting stressors of climate change and land cover/land use change (LCLUC) overwhelm ecosystem resilience to environmental and climatic variability, forest ecosystems are at increased risk of regime shifts and hyperdynamism in process rates. To meet the growing range of novel biotic and environmental stressors on human-impacted ecosystems, the maintenance of taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy in metacommunities has been proposed as a risk spreading measure ensuring that species critical to landscape ecosystem functioning are available for recruitment as local systems respond to novel conditions. This research is the first in a multi-part study to establish a dynamic, predictive model of the spatio-temporal dynamics of vascular plant diversity in North Carolina Piedmont mixed forests using remotely sensed data inputs. While remote sensing technologies are optimally suited to monitor LCLUC over large areas, direct approaches to the remote measurement of plant diversity remain a challenge. This study tests the efficacy of predicting indices of vascular plant diversity using remotely derived measures of forest structural heterogeneity from aerial LiDAR and high spatial resolution broadband optical imagery in addition to derived topo-environmental variables. Diversity distribution modelling of this sort is predicated upon the idea that environmental filtering of dispersing species help define fine-scale (permeable) environmental envelopes within which biotic structural and compositional factors drive competitive interactions that, in addition to background stochasticity, determine fine-scale alpha diversity. Results reveal that over a range of Piedmont forest communities, increasing structural complexity is positively correlated with measures of plant diversity, though the nature of this relationship varies by environmental conditions and community type. The diversity distribution model is parameterized and cross-validated using three high

  10. Stand structural diversity rather than species diversity enhances aboveground carbon storage in secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chen, Han Y. H.; Chang, Scott X.; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ming-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Stand structural diversity, typically characterized by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height, plays a critical role in influencing aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, few studies have considered the multivariate relationships of aboveground C storage with stand age, stand structural diversity, and species diversity in natural forests. In this study, aboveground C storage, stand age, tree species, DBH and height diversity indices, were determined across 80 subtropical forest plots in Eastern China. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand structural diversity, species diversity, and stand age on aboveground C storage. The three final SEMs with different directions for the path between species diversity and stand structural diversity had a similar goodness of fit to the data. They accounted for 82 % of the variation in aboveground C storage, 55-59 % of the variation in stand structural diversity, and 0.1 to 9 % of the variation in species diversity. Stand age demonstrated strong positive total effects, including a positive direct effect (β = 0.41), and a positive indirect effect via stand structural diversity (β = 0.41) on aboveground C storage. Stand structural diversity had a positive direct effect on aboveground C storage (β = 0.56), whereas there was little total effect of species diversity as it had a negative direct association with, but had a positive indirect effect, via stand structural diversity, on aboveground C storage. The negligible total effect of species diversity on aboveground C storage in the forests under study may have been attributable to competitive exclusion with high aboveground biomass, or a historical logging preference for productive species. Our analyses suggested that stand structural diversity was a major determinant for variations in aboveground C storage in the secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China. Hence, maintaining tree DBH and

  11. 28. CONCRETE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON THE WEST SIDE OF D ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CONCRETE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON THE WEST SIDE OF D STREET ABOUT ONE-QUARTER MILE SOUTH OF 9TH AVNEUE (SECTION 26); THE LATERAL CONTINUES NORTHEAST WHILE A SIDE DITCH PROCEEDS NORTHWARD. THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE SHOWN IN CO-43-A-27 IS VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Sitters, Holly; York, Alan; Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Di Stefano, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD) provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion) were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated with vegetation

  13. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    York, Alan; Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Di Stefano, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD) provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion) were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated with vegetation

  14. Grazers structure the bacterial and algal diversity of aquatic metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Birtel, Julia; Matthews, Blake

    2016-12-01

    Consumers can have strong effects on the biotic and abiotic dynamics of spatially-structured ecosystems. In metacommunities, dispersing consumers can alter local assembly dynamics either directly through trophic interactions or indirectly by modifying local environmental conditions. In aquatic systems, very little is known about how key grazers, such as Daphnia, structure the microbial diversity of metacommunities and influence bacterial-mediated ecosystem functions. In an outdoor mesocosm experiment with replicate metacommunities (two 300 L mesocosms), we tested how the presence and absence of Daphnia and the initial density of the microbial community (manipulated via dilution) influenced the diversity and community structure of algae and bacteria, and several ecosystem properties (e.g., pH, dissolved substances) and functions (e.g., enzyme activity, respiration). We found that Daphnia strongly affected the local and regional diversity of both phytoplankton and bacteria, the taxonomic composition of bacterial communities, the biomass of algae, and ecosystem metabolism (i.e., respiration). Diluting the microbial inoculum (0.2-5 μm size fraction) to the metacommunities increased local phytoplankton diversity, decreased bacteria beta-diversity, and changed the relative abundance of bacterial classes. Changes in the rank abundance of different bacterial groups exhibited phylogenetic signal, implying that closely related bacteria species might share similar responses to the presence of Daphnia. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Asymmetric catalytic cascade reactions for constructing diverse scaffolds and complex molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Lu, Hong; Xu, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-21

    With the increasing concerns about chemical pollution and sustainability of resources, among the significant challenges facing synthetic chemists are the development and application of elegant and efficient methods that enable the concise synthesis of natural products, drugs, and related compounds in a step-, atom- and redox-economic manner. One of the most effective ways to reach this goal is to implement reaction cascades that allow multiple bond-forming events to occur in a single vessel. This Account documents our progress on the rational design and strategic application of asymmetric catalytic cascade reactions in constructing diverse scaffolds and synthesizing complex chiral molecules. Our research is aimed at developing robust cascade reactions for the systematic synthesis of a range of interesting molecules that contain structural motifs prevalent in natural products, pharmaceuticals, and biological probes. The strategies employed to achieve this goal can be classified into three categories: bifunctional base/Brønsted acid catalysis, covalent aminocatalysis/N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis, and asymmetric organocatalytic relay cascades. By the use of rationally designed substrates with properly reactive sites, chiral oxindole, chroman, tetrahydroquinoline, tetrahydrothiophene, and cyclohexane scaffolds were successfully assembled under bifunctional base/Brønsted acid catalysis from simple and readily available substances such as imines and nitroolefins. We found that some of these reactions are highly efficient since catalyst loadings as low as 1 mol % can promote the multistep sequences affording complex architectures with high stereoselectivities and yields. Furthermore, one of the bifunctional base/Brønsted acid-catalyzed cascade reactions for the synthesis of chiral cyclohexanes has been used as a key step in the construction of the tetracyclic core of lycorine-type alkaloids and the formal synthesis of α-lycorane. Guided by the principles of

  16. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  17. The influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity

    Treesearch

    James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Data from ~1500 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson) stands in the western United States were used to examine the potential influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity. Relative density, height and site quality were combined in a conceptually sound expression of the relationship between growth and growing stock for ponderosa pine-...

  18. Diversity and Phylogenetic Structure of Two Complex Marine Microbial Communities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Science 190 and Engineering DOCTORAL DISSERTATION Diversity and Phylogenetic Structure of Two Complex Marine Microbial Communities by Vanja Klepac-Ceraj...Two Complex Marine Microbial Communities by Vanja Klepac-Ceraj Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 and Woods Hole...Phylogenetic Structure of Two Complex Marine Microbial Communities. Ph.D. Thesis. MIT/WHOI, 2004-11. Approved for publication; distribution unlimited

  19. Structural and functional diversity of cadherin at the adherens junction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion between cells is essential to the evolution of multicellularity. Indeed, morphogenesis in animals requires firm but flexible intercellular adhesions that are mediated by subcellular structures like the adherens junction (AJ). A key component of AJs is classical cadherins, a group of transmembrane proteins that maintain dynamic cell–cell associations in many animal species. An evolutionary reconstruction of cadherin structure and function provides a comprehensive framework with which to appreciate the diversity of morphogenetic mechanisms in animals. PMID:21708975

  20. Interactive diversity promotes the evolution of cooperation in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Long

    2016-10-01

    Evolutionary games on networks traditionally assume that each individual adopts an identical strategy to interact with all its neighbors in each generation. Considering the prevalent diversity of individual interactions in the real society, here we propose the concept of interactive diversity, which allows individuals to adopt different strategies against different neighbors in each generation. We investigate the evolution of cooperation based on the edge dynamics rather than the traditional nodal dynamics in networked systems. The results show that, without invoking any other mechanisms, interactive diversity drives the frequency of cooperation to a high level for a wide range of parameters in both well-mixed and structured populations. Even in highly connected populations, cooperation still thrives. When interactive diversity and large topological heterogeneity are combined together, however, in the relaxed social dilemma, cooperation level is lower than that with just one of them, implying that the combination of many promotive factors may make a worse outcome. By an analytical approximation, we get the condition under which interactive diversity provides more advantages for cooperation than traditional evolutionary dynamics does. Numerical simulations validating the approximation are also presented. Our work provides a new line to explore the latent relation between the ubiquitous cooperation and individuals’ distinct responses in different interactions. The presented results suggest that interactive diversity should receive more attention in pursuing mechanisms fostering cooperation.

  1. Biological Diversity Comprising Microbial Structures of Antarctic Ice Covered Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of microbial membrane lipids is a rapid and non-selective method for evaluating the composition of microbial communities. To fully realise the diagnostic potential of these lipids, we must first understand their structural diversity, biological sources, physiological functions, and pathways of preservation. Particular environmental conditions likely prompt the production of different membrane lipid structures. Antarctica's McMurdo Dry Valleys host numerous ice-covered lakes with sharp chemical gradients that vary in illumination, geochemical structure, and benthic mat morphologies that are structured by nutrient availability and water chemistry. The lipid contents of these benthic mats have not received extensive study nor have the communities yet been thoroughly characterized. Accordingly, a combination of lipid biomarker and nucleic acid sequence data provides the means of assessing species diversity and environmental controls on the composition and diversity of membrane lipid assemblages. We investigated the richness and diversity of benthic microbial communities and accumulated organic matter in Lake Vanda of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. We have identified diverse glycolipids, aminolipids, and phospholipids in addition to many unknown compounds that may be specific to these particular environments. Light levels fluctuate seasonally, favoring low-light-tolerant cyanobacteria and specific lipid assemblages. Adaptations to nutrient limitations are reflected in contrasting intact polar lipid assemblages. For example, under P-limiting conditions, phospholipids are subsidiary to membrane-forming lipids that do not contain P (i.e. ornithine, betaine, and sulfolipids). The bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP) composition is dominated by bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT), a ubiquitous BHP, and 2-methylhopanoids. The relative abundance of 2-methylhopanoids is unprecedented and may reflect the unusual seasonal light regime of this polar environment. By establishing correlations

  2. Genetic diversity, population structure, and traditional culture of Camellia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tong; Huang, Weijuan; De Riek, Jan; Zhang, Shuang; Ahmed, Selena; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Long, Chunlin

    2017-11-01

    Camellia reticulata is an arbor tree that has been cultivated in southwestern China by various sociolinguistic groups for esthetic purposes as well as to derive an edible seed oil. This study examined the influence of management, socio-economic factors, and religion on the genetic diversity patterns of Camellia reticulata utilizing a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches. Semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were carried out with local communities in China's Yunnan Province. We collected plant material ( n  = 190 individuals) from five populations at study sites using single-dose AFLP markers in order to access the genetic diversity within and between populations. A total of 387 DNA fragments were produced by four AFLP primer sets. All DNA fragments were found to be polymorphic (100%). A relatively high level of genetic diversity was revealed in C. reticulata samples at both the species ( H sp  = 0.3397, I sp  = 0.5236) and population (percentage of polymorphic loci = 85.63%, H pop  = 0.2937, I pop  = 0.4421) levels. Findings further revealed a relatively high degree of genetic diversity within C. reticulata populations (Analysis of Molecular Variance = 96.31%). The higher genetic diversity within populations than among populations of C. reticulata from different geographies is likely due to the cultural and social influences associated with its long cultivation history for esthetic and culinary purposes by diverse sociolinguistic groups. This study highlights the influence of human management, socio-economic factors, and other cultural variables on the genetic and morphological diversity of C. reticulata at a regional level. Findings emphasize the important role of traditional culture on the conservation and utilization of plant genetic diversity.

  3. Structural Monitoring of Metro Infrastructure during Shield Tunneling Construction

    PubMed Central

    Ran, L.; Ye, X. W.; Ming, G.; Dong, X. B.

    2014-01-01

    Shield tunneling construction of metro infrastructure will continuously disturb the soils. The ground surface will be subjected to uplift or subsidence due to the deep excavation and the extrusion and consolidation of the soils. Implementation of the simultaneous monitoring with the shield tunnel construction will provide an effective reference in controlling the shield driving, while how to design and implement a safe, economic, and effective structural monitoring system for metro infrastructure is of great importance and necessity. This paper presents the general architecture of the shield construction of metro tunnels as well as the procedure of the artificial ground freezing construction of the metro-tunnel cross-passages. The design principles for metro infrastructure monitoring of the shield tunnel intervals in the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are introduced. The detailed monitoring items and the specified alarming indices for construction monitoring of the shield tunneling are addressed, and the measured settlement variations at different monitoring locations are also presented. PMID:25032238

  4. Construction of a scFv Library with Synthetic, Non-combinatorial CDR Diversity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuelian; Shim, Hyunbo

    2017-01-01

    Many large synthetic antibody libraries have been designed, constructed, and successfully generated high-quality antibodies suitable for various demanding applications. While synthetic antibody libraries have many advantages such as optimized framework sequences and a broader sequence landscape than natural antibodies, their sequence diversities typically are generated by random combinatorial synthetic processes which cause the incorporation of many undesired CDR sequences. Here, we describe the construction of a synthetic scFv library using oligonucleotide mixtures that contain predefined, non-combinatorially synthesized CDR sequences. Each CDR is first inserted to a master scFv framework sequence and the resulting single-CDR libraries are subjected to a round of proofread panning. The proofread CDR sequences are assembled to produce the final scFv library with six diversified CDRs.

  5. Promoting Utilization of Saccharum spp. Genetic Resources through Genetic Diversity Analysis and Core Collection Construction

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Bhuvan; Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Yang, Xiping; Todd, James; Glynn, Neil C.; Kuhn, David N.; Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert A.; Comstock, Jack C.; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and other members of Saccharum spp. are attractive biofuel feedstocks. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) is in Miami, FL. This WCSRG has 1002 accessions, presumably with valuable alleles for biomass, other important agronomic traits, and stress resistance. However, the WCSRG has not been fully exploited by breeders due to its lack of characterization and unmanageable population. In order to optimize the use of this genetic resource, we aim to 1) genotypically evaluate all the 1002 accessions to understand its genetic diversity and population structure and 2) form a core collection, which captures most of the genetic diversity in the WCSRG. We screened 36 microsatellite markers on 1002 genotypes and recorded 209 alleles. Genetic diversity of the WCSRG ranged from 0 to 0.5 with an average of 0.304. The population structure analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed three clusters with all S. spontaneum in one cluster, S. officinarum and S. hybrids in the second cluster and mostly non-Saccharum spp. in the third cluster. A core collection of 300 accessions was identified which captured the maximum genetic diversity of the entire WCSRG which can be further exploited for sugarcane and energy cane breeding. Sugarcane and energy cane breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Further, the core collection can provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate the traits of agronomic and commercial importance. PMID:25333358

  6. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversity.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutek, Tom; Savage, Patrick E; Brown, Steven

    2012-04-22

    Human cultural traits, such as languages, musics, rituals and material objects, vary widely across cultures. However, the majority of comparative analyses of human cultural diversity focus on between-culture variation without consideration for within-culture variation. In contrast, biological approaches to genetic diversity, such as the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) framework, partition genetic diversity into both within- and between-population components. We attempt here for the first time to quantify both components of cultural diversity by applying the AMOVA model to music. By employing this approach with 421 traditional songs from 16 Austronesian-speaking populations, we show that the vast majority of musical variability is due to differences within populations rather than differences between. This demonstrates a striking parallel to the structure of genetic diversity in humans. A neighbour-net analysis of pairwise population musical divergence shows a large amount of reticulation, indicating the pervasive occurrence of borrowing and/or convergent evolution of musical features across populations.

  7. The structure of cross-cultural musical diversity

    PubMed Central

    Rzeszutek, Tom; Savage, Patrick E.; Brown, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Human cultural traits, such as languages, musics, rituals and material objects, vary widely across cultures. However, the majority of comparative analyses of human cultural diversity focus on between-culture variation without consideration for within-culture variation. In contrast, biological approaches to genetic diversity, such as the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) framework, partition genetic diversity into both within- and between-population components. We attempt here for the first time to quantify both components of cultural diversity by applying the AMOVA model to music. By employing this approach with 421 traditional songs from 16 Austronesian-speaking populations, we show that the vast majority of musical variability is due to differences within populations rather than differences between. This demonstrates a striking parallel to the structure of genetic diversity in humans. A neighbour-net analysis of pairwise population musical divergence shows a large amount of reticulation, indicating the pervasive occurrence of borrowing and/or convergent evolution of musical features across populations. PMID:22072606

  8. Structural diversity promotes productivity of mixed, uneven-aged forests in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Dănescu, Adrian; Albrecht, Axel T; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    Forest diversity-productivity relationships have been intensively investigated in recent decades. However, few studies have considered the interplay between species and structural diversity in driving productivity. We analyzed these factors using data from 52 permanent plots in southwestern Germany with more than 53,000 repeated tree measurements. We used basal area increment as a proxy for productivity and hypothesized that: (1) structural diversity would increase tree and stand productivity, (2) diversity-productivity relationships would be weaker for species diversity than for structural diversity, and (3) species diversity would also indirectly impact stand productivity via changes in size structure. We measured diversity using distance-independent indices. We fitted separate linear mixed-effects models for fir, spruce and beech at the tree level, whereas at the stand level we pooled all available data. We tested our third hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Structural and species diversity acted as direct and independent drivers of stand productivity, with structural diversity being a slightly better predictor. Structural diversity, but not species diversity, had a significant, albeit asymmetric, effect on tree productivity. The functioning of structurally diverse, mixed forests is influenced by both structural and species diversity. These sources of trait diversity contribute to increased vertical stratification and crown plasticity, which in turn diminish competitive interferences and lead to more densely packed canopies per unit area. Our research highlights the positive effects of species diversity and structural diversity on forest productivity and ecosystem dynamics.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Biomedical Constructs with Biomimetic Structural Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; He, Jiankang; Zhang, Weijie; Jiang, Nan; Li, Dichen

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), sometimes called three-dimensional (3D) printing, has attracted a lot of research interest and is presenting unprecedented opportunities in biomedical fields, because this technology enables the fabrication of biomedical constructs with great freedom and in high precision. An important strategy in AM of biomedical constructs is to mimic the structural organizations of natural biological organisms. This can be done by directly depositing cells and biomaterials, depositing biomaterial structures before seeding cells, or fabricating molds before casting biomaterials and cells. This review organizes the research advances of AM-based biomimetic biomedical constructs into three major directions: 3D constructs that mimic tubular and branched networks of vasculatures; 3D constructs that contains gradient interfaces between different tissues; and 3D constructs that have different cells positioned to create multicellular systems. Other recent advances are also highlighted, regarding the applications of AM for organs-on-chips, AM-based micro/nanostructures, and functional nanomaterials. Under this theme, multiple aspects of AM including imaging/characterization, material selection, design, and printing techniques are discussed. The outlook at the end of this review points out several possible research directions for the future. PMID:28774030

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Biomedical Constructs with Biomimetic Structural Organizations.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; He, Jiankang; Zhang, Weijie; Jiang, Nan; Li, Dichen

    2016-11-09

    Additive manufacturing (AM), sometimes called three-dimensional (3D) printing, has attracted a lot of research interest and is presenting unprecedented opportunities in biomedical fields, because this technology enables the fabrication of biomedical constructs with great freedom and in high precision. An important strategy in AM of biomedical constructs is to mimic the structural organizations of natural biological organisms. This can be done by directly depositing cells and biomaterials, depositing biomaterial structures before seeding cells, or fabricating molds before casting biomaterials and cells. This review organizes the research advances of AM-based biomimetic biomedical constructs into three major directions: 3D constructs that mimic tubular and branched networks of vasculatures; 3D constructs that contains gradient interfaces between different tissues; and 3D constructs that have different cells positioned to create multicellular systems. Other recent advances are also highlighted, regarding the applications of AM for organs-on-chips, AM-based micro/nanostructures, and functional nanomaterials. Under this theme, multiple aspects of AM including imaging/characterization, material selection, design, and printing techniques are discussed. The outlook at the end of this review points out several possible research directions for the future.

  11. 25. DIVERSION STRUCTURE EAST OF FORMER BASIN F IN SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DIVERSION STRUCTURE EAST OF FORMER BASIN F IN SECTION 26. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 26. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH FORMER BASIN F IN DISTANCE (SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH FORMER BASIN F IN DISTANCE (SECTION 26). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF LARGE DIVERSION STRUCTURE ON LATERAL WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. Design, construction and operation features of high-rise structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylnik, Alexey; Mylnik, Vladimir; Zubeeva, Elena; Mukhamedzhanova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The article considers design, construction and operation features of high-rise facilities. The analysis of various situations, that come from improper designing, construction and operation of unique facilities, is carried out. The integrated approach is suggested, when the problems of choosing acceptable constructional solutions related to the functional purpose, architectural solutions, methods of manufacturing and installation, operating conditions for unique buildings and structures are being tackled. A number of main causes for the emergency destruction of objects under construction and operation is considered. A number of measures are proposed on the basis of factor classification in order to efficiently prevent the situations, when various negative options of design loads and emergency impacts occur.

  15. Origin, genetic diversity, and population structure of Chinese domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Yuan; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Sha, Tao; Xiangyu, Jinggong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2006-07-19

    To characterize the origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic sheep, we here analyzed a 531-bp fragment of mtDNA control region of 449 Chinese autochthonous sheep from 19 breeds/populations from 13 geographic regions, together with previously reported 44 sequences from Chinese indigenous sheep. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined lineages A, B, and C were found in all sampled Chinese sheep populations, except for the absence of lineage C in four populations. Network profiles revealed that the lineages B and C displayed a star-like phylogeny with the founder haplotype in the centre, and that two star-like subclades with two founder haplotypes were identified in lineage A. The pattern of genetic variation in lineage A, together with the divergence time between the two central founder haplotypes suggested that two independent domestication events have occurred in sheep lineage A. Considerable mitochondrial diversity was observed in Chinese sheep. Weak structuring was observed either among Chinese indigenous sheep populations or between Asian and European sheep and this can be attributable to long-term strong gene flow induced by historical human movements. The high levels of intra-population diversity in Chinese sheep and the weak phylogeographic structuring indicated three geographically independent domestication events have occurred and the domestication place was not only confined to the Near East, but also occurred in other regions.

  16. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2017-04-26

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery.

  17. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2017-04-01

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery.

  18. Structured Constructs Models Based on Change-Point Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyo Jeong; Wilson, Mark; Choi, In-Hee

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a structured constructs model (SCM) to examine measurement in the context of a multidimensional learning progression (LP). The LP is assumed to have features that go beyond a typical multidimentional IRT model, in that there are hypothesized to be certain cross-dimensional linkages that correspond to requirements between the…

  19. Construction variables considered in fabrication of a structural flakeboard

    Treesearch

    R.L. Geimer; E.W. Price

    1978-01-01

    Flake geometry, flake quality, flake alignment, average density, density gradients, layer thicknesses, and resin content were factors considered in determining the final construction details on structural flakeboards made from 1) western softwoods and 2) southern hardwood residues. After making compromises between board properties, a three-layer design was recommended...

  20. Structural and functional diversity in Listeria cell wall teichoic acids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Boulos, Samy; Sumrall, Eric; Gerber, Benjamin; Julian-Rodero, Alicia; Eugster, Marcel R; Fieseler, Lars; Nyström, Laura; Ebert, Marc-Olivier; Loessner, Martin J

    2017-10-27

    Wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are the most abundant glycopolymers found on the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria, whose diverse surface structures play key roles in multiple biological processes. Despite recent technological advances in glycan analysis, structural elucidation of WTAs remains challenging due to their complex nature. Here, we employed a combination of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem-MS/MS and NMR to determine the structural complexity of WTAs from Listeria species. We unveiled more than 10 different types of WTA polymers that vary in their linkage and repeating units. Disparity in GlcNAc to ribitol connectivity, as well as variable O -acetylation and glycosylation of GlcNAc contribute to the structural diversity of WTAs. Notably, SPR analysis indicated that constitution of WTA determines the recognition by bacteriophage endolysins. Collectively, these findings provide detailed insight into Listeria cell wall-associated carbohydrates, and will guide further studies on the structure-function relationship of WTAs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Genetic diversity and accession structure in European Cynara cardunculus collections

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Juan A.; Sonnante, Gabriella; Egea-Gilabert, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of genetic variations and accession structures is an important factor for managing genetic resources, but also for using proper germplasm in association map analyses and breeding programs. The globe artichoke is the fourth most important horticultural crop in Europe. Here, we report the results of a molecular analysis of a collection including globe artichoke and leafy cardoon germplasm present in the Italian, French and Spanish gene banks. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess the diversity present in European collections, (ii) determine the population structure, (iii) measure the genetic distance between accessions; (iv) cluster the accessions; (v) properly distinguish accessions present in the different national collections carrying the same name; and (vi) understand the diversity distribution in relation to the gene bank and the geographic origin of the germplasm. A total of 556 individuals grouped into 174 accessions of distinct typologies were analyzed by different types of molecular markers, i.e. dominant (ISSR and AFLP) and co-dominant (SSR). The data of the two crops (globe artichoke and leafy cardoon) were analyzed jointly and separately to compute, among other aims, the gene diversity, heterozygosity (He, Ho), fixation indexes, AMOVA, genetic distance and structure. The findings underline the huge diversity present in the analyzed material, and the existence of alleles that are able to discriminate among accessions. The accessions were clustered not only on the basis of their typology, but also on the basis of the gene bank they come from. Probably, the environmental conditions of the different field gene banks affected germplasm conservation. These outcomes will be useful in plant breeding to select accessions and to fingerprint varieties. Moreover, the results highlight the particular attention that should be paid to the method used to conserve the Cynara cardunculus germplasm and suggest to the preference of using

  2. A novel complexity-to-diversity strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis of structurally diverse and complex macrocycles from quinine.

    PubMed

    Ciardiello, J J; Stewart, H L; Sore, H F; Galloway, W R J D; Spring, D R

    2017-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a global decline in the productivity and advancement of the pharmaceutical industry. A major contributing factor to this is the downturn in drug discovery successes. This can be attributed to the lack of structural (particularly scaffold) diversity and structural complexity exhibited by current small molecule screening collections. Macrocycles have been shown to exhibit a diverse range of biological properties, with over 100 natural product-derived examples currently marketed as FDA-approved drugs. Despite this, synthetic macrocycles are widely considered to be a poorly explored structural class within drug discovery, which can be attributed to their synthetic intractability. Herein we describe a novel complexity-to-diversity strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis of novel, structurally complex and diverse macrocyclic scaffolds from natural product starting materials. This approach exploits the inherent structural (including functional) and stereochemical complexity of natural products in order to rapidly generate diversity and complexity. Readily-accessible natural product-derived intermediates serve as structural templates which can be divergently functionalized with different building blocks to generate a diverse range of acyclic precursors. Subsequent macrocyclisation then furnishes compounds that are each based around a distinct molecular scaffold. Thus, high levels of library scaffold diversity can be rapidly achieved. In this proof-of-concept study, the natural product quinine was used as the foundation for library synthesis, and six novel structurally diverse, highly complex and functionalized macrocycles were generated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R.; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B.; Erwin, Patrick M.; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J.; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W.; Thacker, Robert W.; Montoya, Jose M.; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host–microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions. PMID:27306690

  4. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0–12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1–9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9–8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5–7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60–80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2–6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (F ST>0.2). Outside Central Asia F ST values were highest (0.11–0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04–0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations. PMID:26125189

  5. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y M; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0-12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1-9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9-8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5-7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60-80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2-6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11-0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04-0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations.

  6. Molecular diversity and tools for deciphering the methanogen community structure and diversity in freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Brablcová, Lenka; Buriánková, Iva; Rulík, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Methanogenic archaeal communities existing in freshwater sediments are responsible for approximately 50 % of the total global emission of methane. This process contributes significantly to global warming and, hence, necessitates interventional control measures to limit its emission. Unfortunately, the diversity and functional interactions of methanogenic populations occurring in these habitats are yet to be fully characterized. Considering several disadvantages of conventional culture-based methodologies, in recent years, impetus is given to molecular biology approaches to determine the community structure of freshwater sedimentary methanogenic archaea. 16S rRNA and methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene-based cloning techniques are the first choice for this purpose. In addition, electrophoresis-based (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques have also found extensive applications. These techniques are highly sensitive, rapid, and reliable as compared to traditional culture-dependent approaches. Molecular diversity studies revealed the dominance of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales of methanogens in freshwater sediments. The present review discusses in detail the status of the diversity of methanogens and the molecular approaches applied in this area of research.

  7. Postcolonial constructions of HIV/AIDS: meaning, culture, and structure.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Shaunak; Dutta, Mohan J

    2011-01-01

    As a field of inquiry, postcolonial health communication seeks to apprehend processes implicated in the construction of "primitive" versus "modern" with respect to issues of health. In the case of HIV/AIDS, the sociocultural representations of the disease have a profound impact on how the disease is configured medically and symbolically in dominant cultural imagination. Postcolonial constructions of disease are mobilized around the political and economic interests of the dominant power structures in global spaces. In this article, a thematic analysis of the constructions of HIV/AIDS in India in the mainstream U.S. news media was conducted. A corpus of news articles from the Lexis-Nexis database was created with the keywords "HIV," "AIDS," and "India." Three themes emerged from the study: (a) India as a site of biomedical control; (b) the economic logics of HIV/AIDS; and (c) AIDS, development, and the "Third World." Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. 27. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH CONCRETE SIDEWALLS AND CONCRETE CHANNEL BEYOND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH CONCRETE SIDEWALLS AND CONCRETE CHANNEL BEYOND, A SHORT DISTANCE WEST OF D STREET ABOUT ONE-QUARTER MILE SOUTH OF 9TH AVENUE (SECTION 26). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. CONTINUATION OF LATERAL LEAVING THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF LOWER DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2), SHOWING MEASURING GAUGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. Structural model constructing for optical handwritten character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustov, P. A.; Spitsyn, V. G.; Maksimova, E. I.

    2017-02-01

    The article is devoted to the development of the algorithms for optical handwritten character recognition based on the structural models constructing. The main advantage of these algorithms is the low requirement regarding the number of reference images. The one-pass approach to a thinning of the binary character representation has been proposed. This approach is based on the joint use of Zhang-Suen and Wu-Tsai algorithms. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is confirmed by the results of the experiments. The article includes the detailed description of the structural model constructing algorithm’s steps. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in character processing application and has been approved on MNIST handwriting characters database. Algorithms that could be used in case of limited reference images number were used for the comparison.

  11. Polymorphs and solvatomorphs of azilsartan medoxomil: Elucidation of solvent-induced construction and conformational diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Rui; He, Sai-Fei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Jing; Li, Shan; Liu, Jin-Song; Zhang, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Two polymorphs (AM-A and AM-B) of azilsartan medoxomil (AM) and four AM solvatomorphs with toluene (AM-TOL), 1,4-dioxane (AM-DIO), chloroform (AM-TCM) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (AM-DMA) have been prepared by the hydrolysis of azilsartan medoxomil potassium in aqueous-organic solutions. In the crystal structures of two polymorphs and three solvatomorphs (AM-TOL, AM-DIO and AM-TCM), two asymmetric AM molecules form the dimeric cycle-like structures via intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds in R22 (26) ring, while AM-DMA shows intramolecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond between AM and DMA molecules. The hydrogen bonds (Csbnd H⋯O or Csbnd H⋯N) and π···π (or Csbnd H···π) interactions are helpful to stabilize the conformational diversity of AM. The solvent-induced experiment shows that solvent molecules have great influence on the solvatomorph formation and DIO can form the most steady solvatomorph than other solvents. The thermal study demonstrates that toluene molecules in three solvatomorphs (AM-TOL, AM-DIO and AM-TCM) are the most difficult to remove from the cage. Our results illustrate that the solvent plays significant role in tuning the size of the cage and producing the conformational diversity of AM molecules.

  12. Structuring of Bacterioplankton Diversity in a Large Tropical Bay

    PubMed Central

    Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Nascimento, Juliana R.; Cabral, Anderson S.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Valentin, Jean L.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    Structuring of bacterioplanktonic populations and factors that determine the structuring of specific niche partitions have been demonstrated only for a limited number of colder water environments. In order to better understand the physical chemical and biological parameters that may influence bacterioplankton diversity and abundance, we examined their productivity, abundance and diversity in the second largest Brazilian tropical bay (Guanabara Bay, GB), as well as seawater physical chemical and biological parameters of GB. The inner bay location with higher nutrient input favored higher microbial (including vibrio) growth. Metagenomic analysis revealed a predominance of Gammaproteobacteria in this location, while GB locations with lower nutrient concentration favored Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. According to the subsystems (SEED) functional analysis, GB has a distinctive metabolic signature, comprising a higher number of sequences in the metabolism of phosphorus and aromatic compounds and a lower number of sequences in the photosynthesis subsystem. The apparent phosphorus limitation appears to influence the GB metagenomic signature of the three locations. Phosphorus is also one of the main factors determining changes in the abundance of planktonic vibrios, suggesting that nutrient limitation can be observed at community (metagenomic) and population levels (total prokaryote and vibrio counts). PMID:22363639

  13. A Low Cost Structurally Optimized Design for Diverse Filter Types

    PubMed Central

    Kazmi, Majida; Aziz, Arshad; Akhtar, Pervez; Ikram, Nassar

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of image processing applications deploys two dimensional (2D)-filters for performing diversified tasks such as image enhancement, edge detection, noise suppression, multi scale decomposition and compression etc. All of these tasks require multiple type of 2D-filters simultaneously to acquire the desired results. The resource hungry conventional approach is not a viable option for implementing these computationally intensive 2D-filters especially in a resource constraint environment. Thus it calls for optimized solutions. Mostly the optimization of these filters are based on exploiting structural properties. A common shortcoming of all previously reported optimized approaches is their restricted applicability only for a specific filter type. These narrow scoped solutions completely disregard the versatility attribute of advanced image processing applications and in turn offset their effectiveness while implementing a complete application. This paper presents an efficient framework which exploits the structural properties of 2D-filters for effectually reducing its computational cost along with an added advantage of versatility for supporting diverse filter types. A composite symmetric filter structure is introduced which exploits the identities of quadrant and circular T-symmetries in two distinct filter regions simultaneously. These T-symmetries effectually reduce the number of filter coefficients and consequently its multipliers count. The proposed framework at the same time empowers this composite filter structure with additional capabilities of realizing all of its Ψ-symmetry based subtypes and also its special asymmetric filters case. The two-fold optimized framework thus reduces filter computational cost up to 75% as compared to the conventional approach as well as its versatility attribute not only supports diverse filter types but also offers further cost reduction via resource sharing for sequential implementation of diversified image

  14. Constructing Outsiders: The Discursive Framing of Access in University Diversity Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Susan V.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates how discourses circulating in diversity policies reflect and produce perceptions about diversity in higher education. This study, utilizing the method of policy discourse analysis, examines 21 diversity action plans issued at 20 U.S. land-grant universities to understand how these policy documents frame diversity.…

  15. Structure and function of polyketide biosynthetic enzymes: various strategies for production of structurally diverse polyketides.

    PubMed

    Miyanaga, Akimasa

    2017-12-01

    Polyketides constitute a large family of natural products that display various biological activities. Polyketides exhibit a high degree of structural diversity, although they are synthesized from simple acyl building blocks. Recent biochemical and structural studies provide a better understanding of the biosynthetic logic of polyketide diversity. This review highlights the biosynthetic mechanisms of structurally unique polyketides, β-amino acid-containing macrolactams, enterocin, and phenolic lipids. Functional and structural studies of macrolactam biosynthetic enzymes have revealed the unique biosynthetic machinery used for selective incorporation of a rare β-amino acid starter unit into the polyketide skeleton. Biochemical and structural studies of cyclization enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of enterocin and phenolic lipids provide mechanistic insights into how these enzymes diversify the carbon skeletons of their products.

  16. Landscape genetics, adaptive diversity and population structure in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Biagetti, Eleonora; Carboni, Andrea; Gepts, Paul; Nanni, Laura; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

    2016-03-01

    Here we studied the organization of genetic variation of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in its centres of domestication. We used 131 single nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate 417 wild common bean accessions and a representative sample of 160 domesticated genotypes, including Mesoamerican and Andean genotypes, for a total of 577 accessions. By analysing the genetic spatial patterns of the wild common bean, we documented the existence of several genetic groups and the occurrence of variable degrees of diversity in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Moreover, using a landscape genetics approach, we demonstrated that both demographic processes and selection for adaptation were responsible for the observed genetic structure. We showed that the study of correlations between markers and ecological variables at a continental scale can help in identifying local adaptation genes. We also located putative areas of common bean domestication in Mesoamerica, in the Oaxaca Valley, and the Andes, in southern Bolivia-northern Argentina. These observations are of paramount importance for the conservation and exploitation of the genetic diversity preserved within this species and other plant genetic resources. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Zhao, Zhong; Miao, Xingjun; Zhou, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 252 accessions from 21 Prunus sibirica L. populations were investigated using 10 ISSR, SSR, and SRAP markers. The results suggest that the entire population has a relatively high level of genetic diversity, with populations HR and MY showing very high diversity. A low level of inter-population genetic differentiation and a high level of intra-population genetic differentiation was found, which is supported by a moderate level of gene flow, and largely attributable to the cross-pollination and self-incompatibility reproductive system. A STRUCTURE (model-based program) analysis revealed that the 21 populations can be divided into two main groups, mainly based on geographic differences and genetic exchanges. The entire wild Siberia apricot population in China could be divided into two subgroups, including 107 accessions in subgroup (SG) 1 and 147 accessions in SG 2. A Mantel test revealed a significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distance matrices, and there was a very significant positive correlation among three marker datasets. Overall, we recommend a combination of conservation measures, with ex situ and in situ conservation that includes the construction of a core germplasm repository and the implement of in situ conservation for populations HR, MY, and ZY. PMID:24384840

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; H. Tageldin, Mohammed.; Weir, William; Al-Fahdi, Amira; Johnson, Eugene H.; Bobade, Patrick; Alqamashoui, Badar; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Thompson, Joanne; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Babiker, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Background Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle. Methods Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites) representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman. Results We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia). A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST

  19. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; H Tageldin, Mohammed; Weir, William; Al-Fahdi, Amira; Johnson, Eugene H; Bobade, Patrick; Alqamashoui, Badar; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Thompson, Joanne; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Babiker, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle. Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites) representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman. We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia). A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST' = 0.075, θ = 0.07) were

  20. A microtubule bestiary: structural diversity in tubulin polymers.

    PubMed

    Chaaban, Sami; Brouhard, Gary J

    2017-11-01

    Microtubules are long, slender polymers of αβ-tubulin found in all eukaryotic cells. Tubulins associate longitudinally to form protofilaments, and adjacent protofilaments associate laterally to form the microtubule. In the textbook view, microtubules are 1) composed of 13 protofilaments, 2) arranged in a radial array by the centrosome, and 3) built into the 9+2 axoneme. Although these canonical structures predominate in eukaryotes, microtubules with divergent protofilament numbers and higher-order microtubule assemblies have been discovered throughout the last century. Here we survey these noncanonical structures, from the 4-protofilament microtubules of Prosthecobacter to the 40-protofilament accessory microtubules of mantidfly sperm. We review the variety of protofilament numbers observed in different species, in different cells within the same species, and in different stages within the same cell. We describe the determinants of protofilament number, namely nucleation factors, tubulin isoforms, and posttranslational modifications. Finally, we speculate on the functional significance of these diverse polymers. Equipped with novel tubulin-purification tools, the field is now prepared to tackle the long-standing question of the evolutionary basis of microtubule structure. © 2017 Chaaban and Brouhard. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Community structure and elevational diversity patterns of soil Acidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Li, Guangliang; Qu, Yuanyuan; Su, Xiujiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2014-08-01

    Acidobacteria is one of the most dominant and abundant phyla in soil, and was believed to have a wide range of metabolic and genetic functions. Relatively little is known about its community structure and elevational diversity patterns. We selected four elevation gradients from 1000 to 2800 m with typical vegetation types of the northern slope of Shennongjia Mountain in central China. The vegetation types were evergreen broadleaved forest, deciduous broadleaved forest, coniferous forest and sub-alpine shrubs. We analyzed the soil acidobacterial community composition, elevational patterns and the relationship between Acidobacteria subdivisions and soil enzyme activities by using the 16S rRNA meta-sequencing technique and multivariate statistical analysis. The result found that 19 known subdivisions as well as an unclassified phylotype were presented in these forest sites, and Subdivision 6 has the highest number of detectable operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A significant single peak distribution pattern (P<0.05) between the OTU number and the elevation was observed. The Jaccard and Bray-Curtis index analysis showed that the soil Acidobacteria compositional similarity significantly decreased (P<0.01) with the increase in elevation distance. Mantel test analysis showed the most of the soil Acidobacteria subdivisions had the significant relationship (P<0.01) with different soil enzymes. Therefore, soil Acidobacteria may be involved in different ecosystem functions in global elemental cycles. Partial Mantel tests and CCA analysis showed that soil pH, soil temperature and plant diversity may be the key factors in shaping the soil Acidobacterial community structure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Structure and diversity in mammalian accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Meisami, E; Bhatnagar, K P

    1998-12-15

    The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative center for the olfactory-like vomeronasal sensory system. In this article, we first briefly present an overview of vomeronasal system organization and review the history of the discovery of mammalian AOB. Next, we briefly review the evolution of the vomeronasal system in vertebrates, in particular the reptiles. Following these introductory aspects, the structure of the rodent AOB, as typical of the well-developed mammalian AOB, is presented, detailing laminar organization and cell types as well as aspects of the homology with the main olfactory bulb. Then, the evolutionary origin and diversity of the AOB in mammalian orders and species is discussed, describing structural, phylogenetic, and species-specific variation in the AOB location, shape, and size and morphologic differentiation and development. The AOB is believed to be absent in fishes but present in terrestrial tetrapods including amphibians; among the reptiles AOB is absent in crocodiles, present in turtles, snakes, and some lizards where it may be as large or larger than the main bulb. The AOB is absent in bird and in the aquatic mammals (whales, porpoises, manatees). Among other mammals, AOB is present in the monotremes and marsupials, edentates, and in the majority of the placental mammals like carnivores, herbivores, as well as rodents and lagomorphs. Most bat species do not have an AOB and among those where one is found, it shows marked variation in size and morphologic development. Among insectivores and primates, AOB shows marked variation in occurrence, size, and morphologic development. It is small in shrews and moles, large in hedgehogs and prosimians; AOB continues to persist in New World monkeys but is not found in the adults of the higher primates such as the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. In many species where AOB is absent in the adult, it often develops in the embryo and fetus but regresses in later stages of

  3. Construction of Architectural Structures in Cultural Heritage Protection Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagroba, Marek; Gawryluk, Dorota

    2017-10-01

    The article raises issues of constructing contemporary architectural structures in cultural heritage protection zones, using the case study of a building located within the campus of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland. Questions revolving around the construction of this building arise from the need to preserve the surrounding historic heritage, and deal with landscaping, architectural and construction solutions as well as interior design. All these problems grow in importance when dealing with such unique buildings like the discussed example of a laboratory building for the Civil Engineering Department, built on a site within a conservation zone of the university campus. The specific character of the building and the specialist equipment with which it was to be furnished (a resistance testing machine, a 17-meter-long wave flume) necessitated a series of analyses. In turn, the fact that the new building was to be erected in the conservation zone meant that collaboration with the Heritage Conservation Office had to be undertaken at the stage of making the plan and continued during the construction works. The Heritage Officer’s recommendations concerning the building’s shape, divisions, dimensions, materials used, etc., created a situation where the team of designers and architects had to become engaged in the process of landscape and spatial management. The above requirements concerned the functions of the building and its siting on a land parcel that was difficult to handle, also because of the protected trees growing there. Other constraints included the small size of this site, the developed surroundings, and the pre-defined programme of functions and use of the new building. All the above circumstances made the task difficult and demanded good coordination between individual teams of engineers and architects, both at the stage of making the plan and during the construction works. Many of the heritage protection zones are spoilt with

  4. Diverse binding site structures revealed in homology models of polyreactive immunoglobulins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsland, Paul A.; Guddat, Luke W.; Edmundson, Allen B.; Raison, Robert L.

    1997-09-01

    We describe here computer-assisted homology models of the combiningsite structure of three polyreactive immunoglobulins. Template-based modelsof Fv (VL-VH) fragments were derived forthe surface IgM expressed by the malignant CD5 positive B cells from threepatients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). The conserved frameworkregions were constructed using crystal coordinates taken from highlyhomologous human variable domain structures (Pot and Hil). Complementaritydetermining regions (CDRs) were predicted by grafting loops, taken fromknown immunoglobulin structures, onto the Fv framework models. The CDRtemplates were chosen, where possible, to be of the same length and of highresidue identity or similarity. LCDR1, 2 and 3 as well as HCDR1 and 2 forthe Fv were constructed using this strategy. For HCDR3 prediction, adatabase containing the Cartesian coordinates of 30 of these loops wascompiled from unliganded antibody X-ray crystallographic structures and anHCDR3 of the same length as that of the B CLL Fv was selected as a template.In one case (Yar), the resulting HCDR3 model gave unfavourable interactionswhen incorporated into the Fv model. This HCDR3 was therefore modelled usingan alternative strategy of construction of the loop stems, using apreviously described HCDR3 conformation (Pot), followed by chain closurewith a β-turn. The template models were subjected to positionalrefinement using energy minimisation and molecular dynamics simulations(X-PLOR). An electrostatic surface description (GRASP) did not reveal acommon structural feature within the binding sites of the three polyreactiveFv. Thus, polyreactive immunoglobulins may recognise similar and multipleantigens through a diverse array of binding site structures.

  5. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity and genetic structure among subpopulations of Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Alves, M F; Barroso, P A V; Ciampi, A Y; Hoffmann, L V; Azevedo, V C R; Cavalcante, U

    2013-02-27

    Gossypium mustelinum is the only cotton species native to Brazil; it is endemic to the semi-arid region of the northeast. The populations are found near perennial and semi-perennial sources of water, such as ponds or pools in intermittent streams. Problems with in situ conservation derive from human interference in its habitat, mainly because of excessive cattle grazing and deforestation. Establishing efficient strategies for in situ conservation requires knowledge of the genetic structure of the populations. We evaluated the structure and genetic variability of populations of G. mustelinum in the Tocó and Capivara Rivers (State of Bahia). Two hundred and eighteen mature G. mustelinum plants were genotyped with SSR markers. The molecular data were used to estimate the allelic frequencies, the heterozygosity, the F statistics, and the genetic distance among the populations and among individuals. We found high genetic diversity among the populations. The FST indexes for each population were also high and strongly correlated with physical distance. The high estimated level of endogamy and the low observed heterozygosity are indicative that the populations reproduce mainly by self-fertilization and crosses between related individuals. Consequently, strategies for in situ preservation should include at least three occurrence sites of G. mustelinum from each population. For ex situ conservation, the collections should include as many sites as possible.

  7. Biosynthetic multitasking facilitates thalassospiramide structural diversity in marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ross, Avena C; Xu, Ying; Lu, Liang; Kersten, Roland D; Shao, Zongze; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Moore, Bradley S

    2013-01-23

    Thalassospiramides A and B are immunosuppressant cyclic lipopeptides first reported from the marine α-proteobacterium Thalassospira sp. CNJ-328. We describe here the discovery and characterization of an extended family of 14 new analogues from four Tistrella and Thalassospira isolates. These potent calpain 1 protease inhibitors belong to six structure classes in which the length and composition of the acylpeptide side chain varies extensively. Genomic sequence analysis of the thalassospiramide-producing microbes revealed related, genus-specific biosynthetic loci encoding hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthases consistent with thalassospiramide assembly. The bioinformatics analysis of the gene clusters suggests that structural diversity, which ranges from the 803.4 Da thalassospiramide C to the 1291.7 Da thalassospiramide F, results from a complex sequence of reactions involving amino acid substrate channeling and enzymatic multimodule skipping and iteration. Preliminary biochemical analysis of the N-terminal nonribosomal peptide synthetase module from the Thalassospira TtcA megasynthase supports a biosynthetic model in which in cis amino acid activation competes with in trans activation to increase the range of amino acid substrates incorporated at the N terminus.

  8. Biosynthetic Multitasking Facilitates Thalassospiramide Structural Diversity in Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Avena C.; Xu, Ying; Lu, Liang; Kersten, Roland D.; Shao, Zongze; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Thalassospiramides A and B are immunosuppressant cyclic lipopeptides first reported from the marine α-proteobacterium Thalassospira sp. CNJ-328. We describe here the discovery and characterization of an extended family of 14 new analogues from four Tistrella and Thalassospira isolates. These potent calpain 1 protease inhibitors belong to six structure classes in which the length and composition of the acylpeptide side chain varies extensively. Genomic sequence analysis of the thalassospiramide-producing microbes revealed related, genus-specific biosynthetic loci encoding hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthases consistent with thalassospiramide assembly. The bioinformatics analysis of the gene clusters suggests that structural diversity, which ranges from the 803.4 Da thalassospiramide C to the 1291.7 Da thalassospiramide F, results from a complex sequence of reactions involving amino acid substrate channeling and enzymatic multi-module skipping and iteration. Preliminary biochemical analysis of the N-terminal NRPS module from the Thalassospira TtcA megasynthase supports a biosynthetic model in which in cis amino acid activation competes with in trans activation to increase the range of amino acid substrates incorporated at the N-terminus. PMID:23270364

  9. Jatropha curcas L. Root Structure and Growth in Diverse Soils

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Ofelia Andrea; Sánchez-Sánchez, Odilón; Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo; Caplan, Joshua S.; Danjon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots). The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14 ± 5% (mean ± standard deviation). Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil. PMID:23844412

  10. Frameshifting in alphaviruses: a diversity of 3' stimulatory structures.

    PubMed

    Chung, Betty Y-W; Firth, Andrew E; Atkins, John F

    2010-03-26

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting allows the synthesis of alternative, N-terminally coincident, C-terminally distinct proteins from the same RNA. Many viruses utilize frameshifting to optimize the coding potential of compact genomes, to circumvent the host cell's canonical rule of one functional protein per mRNA, or to express alternative proteins in a fixed ratio. Programmed frameshifting is also used in the decoding of a small number of cellular genes. Recently, specific ribosomal -1 frameshifting was discovered at a conserved U_UUU_UUA motif within the sequence encoding the alphavirus 6K protein. In this case, frameshifting results in the synthesis of an additional protein, termed TF (TransFrame). This new case of frameshifting is unusual in that the -1 frame ORF is very short and completely embedded within the sequence encoding the overlapping polyprotein. The present work shows that there is remarkable diversity in the 3' sequences that are functionally important for efficient frameshifting at the U_UUU_UUA motif. While many alphavirus species utilize a 3' RNA structure such as a hairpin or pseudoknot, some species (such as Semliki Forest virus) apparently lack any intra-mRNA stimulatory structure, yet just 20 nt 3'-adjacent to the shift site stimulates up to 10% frameshifting. The analysis, both experimental and bioinformatic, significantly expands the known repertoire of -1 frameshifting stimulators in mammalian and insect systems.

  11. Metabolic Effects of Berries with Structurally Diverse Anthocyanins

    PubMed Central

    Overall, John; Bonney, Sierra A.; Wilson, Mickey; Beermann, Arnold; Grace, Mary H.; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2017-01-01

    Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content) on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity. Diets supplemented with blackberry (mono-glycosylated cyanidins), black raspberry (acylated mono-glycosylated cyanidins), blackcurrant (mono- and di-glycosylated cyanidins and delphinidins), maqui berry (di-glycosylated delphinidins), Concord grape (acylated mono-glycosylated delphinidins and petunidins), and blueberry (mono-glycosylated delphinidins, malvidins, and petunidins) showed a prominent discrepancy between biological activities of delphinidin/malvidin-versus cyanidin-type anthocyanins that could be explained by differences in their structure and metabolism in the gut. Consumption of berries also resulted in a strong shift in the gastrointestinal bacterial communities towards obligate anaerobes that correlated with decrease in the gastrointestinal luminal oxygen and oxidative stress. Further work is needed to understand mechanisms that lead to nearly anoxic conditions in the gut lumens, including the relative contributions of host, diet and/or microbial oxidative activity, and their implication to human health. PMID:28212306

  12. Jatropha curcas L. root structure and growth in diverse soils.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Ofelia Andrea; Sánchez-Sánchez, Odilón; Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo; Caplan, Joshua S; Danjon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots). The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14 ± 5% (mean ± standard deviation). Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil.

  13. Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

    2010-12-01

    Bioturbation is a key process in coastal sediments, influencing microbially driven cycling of nutrients as well as the physical characteristics of the sediment. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and function of the microbial communities that inhabit the burrows of infaunal macroorganisms. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to investigate variation in the structure of bacterial communities in sediment bioturbated by the burrowing shrimp Upogebia deltaura or Callianassa subterranea. Analyses of 229 sediment samples revealed significant differences between bacterial communities inhabiting shrimp burrows and those inhabiting ambient surface and subsurface sediments. Bacterial communities in burrows from both shrimp species were more similar to those in surface-ambient than subsurface-ambient sediment (R=0.258, P<0.001). The presence of shrimp was also associated with changes in bacterial community structure in surrounding surface sediment, when compared with sediments uninhabited by shrimp. Bacterial community structure varied with burrow depth, and also between individual burrows, suggesting that the shrimp's burrow construction, irrigation and maintenance behaviour affect the distribution of bacteria within shrimp burrows. Subsequent sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from surface sediments revealed differences in the relative abundance of bacterial taxa between shrimp-inhabited and uninhabited sediments; shrimp-inhabited sediment contained a higher proportion of proteobacterial sequences, including in particular a twofold increase in Gammaproteobacteria. Chao1 and ACE diversity estimates showed that taxon richness within surface bacterial communities in shrimp-inhabited sediment was at least threefold higher than that in uninhabited sediment. This study shows that bioturbation can result in significant structural and compositional changes in sediment bacterial communities, increasing

  14. Modeling the binding affinity of structurally diverse industrial chemicals to carbon using the artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Rai, Premanjali; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    Binding affinity of chemical to carbon is an important characteristic as it finds vast industrial applications. Experimental determination of the adsorption capacity of diverse chemicals onto carbon is both time and resource intensive, and development of computational approaches has widely been advocated. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI)-based ten different qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (MLPN, RBFN, PNN/GRNN, CCN, SVM, GEP, GMDH, SDT, DTF, DTB) were established for the prediction of the adsorption capacity of structurally diverse chemicals to activated carbon following the OECD guidelines. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinear dependence in the data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. The generalization and prediction abilities of the constructed models were established through rigorous internal and external validation procedures performed employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete dataset, the qualitative models rendered classification accuracies between 97.04 and 99.93%, while the quantitative models yielded correlation (R(2)) values of 0.877-0.977 between the measured and the predicted endpoint values. The quantitative prediction accuracies for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds (class 4) were relatively better than those for the low MW compounds. Both in the qualitative and quantitative models, the Polarizability was the most influential descriptor. Structural alerts responsible for the extreme adsorption behavior of the compounds were identified. Higher number of carbon and presence of higher halogens in a molecule rendered higher binding affinity. Proposed QSPR models performed well and outperformed the previous reports. A relatively better performance of the ensemble learning models (DTF, DTB) may be attributed to the strengths of the bagging and boosting algorithms which enhance the predictive accuracies. The

  15. Genetic Diversity of Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins Revealed by Structurally and Functionally Diverse Hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Remington, Nicole; Stevens, Robert D.; Wells, Randall S.; Hohn, Aleta; Dhungana, Suraj; Taboy, Celine H.; Crumbliss, Alvin L.; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Studies of structure-function relationships in the respiratory proteins of marine mammals revealed unexpected variations in the number and types of hemoglobins (Hbs) present in coastal bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. We obtained blood samples from free-ranging coastal bottlenose dolphins as a component of capture-release studies. We found that the oxygen-binding functions of bottlenose dolphin blood are poised between effector-saturated and unsaturated levels, enabling exercise-dependent shifts in oxygen transfer functions. Isolated bottlenose dolphin Hbs showed elevated pH sensitivities (Bohr effects) and appreciably lower oxygen affinities than adult human Hb in the absence of allosteric effectors. These properties may be an adaptive modification that enhance oxygen delivery during diving episodes when oxygen tensions and effector levels are low. The Hbs of individual dolphins showed similar oxygen affinities, responses to effectors, and expression of heme-heme interaction in oxygen binding, but differed in their redox potentials and rates of autoxidation. The heterogeneity suggested by these functional variations in Hbs of individual dolphins was born out by variations in the molecular weights and numbers of their α and β globin chains. Although coastal bottlenose dolphins were expected to have a single type of Hb, the mass differences observed revealed considerable genetic diversity. There were multiple Hb forms in some individuals and differences in Hb patterns among individuals within the same community. PMID:17604574

  16. Genetic diversity of coastal bottlenose dolphins revealed by structurally and functionally diverse hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Remington, Nicole; Stevens, Robert D; Wells, Randall S; Holn, Aleta; Dhungana, Suraj; Taboy, Celine H; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2007-08-15

    Studies of structure-function relationships in the respiratory proteins of marine mammals revealed unexpected variations in the number and types of hemoglobins (Hbs) present in coastal bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. We obtained blood samples from free-ranging coastal bottlenose dolphins as a component of capture-release studies. We found that the oxygen-binding functions of bottlenose dolphin blood are poised between effector-saturated and unsaturated levels, enabling exercise-dependent shifts in oxygen transfer functions. Isolated bottlenose dolphin Hbs showed elevated pH sensitivities (Bohr effects) and appreciably lower oxygen affinities than adult human Hb in the absence of allosteric effectors. These properties may be an adaptive modification that enhances oxygen delivery during diving episodes when oxygen tensions and effector levels are low. The Hbs of individual dolphins showed similar oxygen affinities, responses to effectors, and expression of heme-heme interaction in oxygen binding, but differed in their redox potentials and rates of autoxidation. The heterogeneity suggested by these functional variations in Hbs of individual dolphins was born out by variations in the molecular weights and numbers of their alpha and beta globin chains. Although coastal bottlenose dolphins were expected to have a single type of Hb, the mass differences observed revealed considerable genetic diversity. There were multiple Hb forms in some individuals and differences in Hb patterns among individuals within the same community.

  17. The influence of construction measurement and structure storey on seismic performance of masonry structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baitao; Zhao, Hexian; Yan, Peilei

    2017-08-01

    The damage of masonry structures in earthquakes is generally more severe than other structures. Through the analysis of two typical earthquake damage buildings in the Wenchuan earthquake in Xuankou middle school, we found that the number of storeys and the construction measures had great influence on the seismic performance of masonry structures. This paper takes a teachers’ dormitory in Xuankou middle school as an example, selected the structure arrangement and storey number as two independent variables to design working conditions. Finally we researched on the seismic performance difference of masonry structure under two variables by finite element analysis method.

  18. Isotopic diversity indices: how sensitive to food web structure?

    PubMed

    Brind'Amour, Anik; Dubois, Stanislas F

    2013-01-01

    Recently revisited, the concept of niche ecology has lead to the formalisation of functional and trophic niches using stable isotope ratios. Isotopic diversity indices (IDI) derived from a set of measures assessing the dispersion/distribution of points in the δ-space were recently suggested and increasingly used in the literature. However, three main critics emerge from the use of these IDI: 1) they fail to account for the isotopic sources overlap, 2) some indices are highly sensitive to the number of species and/or the presence of rare species, and 3) the lack of standardization prevents any spatial and temporal comparisons. Using simulations we investigated the ability of six commonly used IDI to discriminate among different trophic food web structures, with a focus on the first two critics. We tested the sensitivity of the IDI to five food web structures along a gradient of sources overlap, varying from two distinct food chains with differentiated sources to two superimposed food chains sharing two sources. For each of the food web structure we varied the number of species (from 10 to 100 species) and the type of species feeding behaviour (i.e. random or selective feeding). Values of IDI were generally larger in food webs with distinct basal sources and tended to decrease as the superimposition of the food chains increased. This was more pronounced when species displayed food preferences in comparison to food webs where species fed randomly on any prey. The number of species composing the food web also had strong effects on the metrics, including those that were supposedly less sensitive to small sample size. In all cases, computing IDI on food webs with low numbers of species always increases the uncertainty of the metrics. A threshold of ~20 species was detected above which several metrics can be safely used.

  19. ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTING THE HALLAM NUCLEAR POWER FACILITY REACTOR STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Mahlmeister, J E; Haberer, W V; Casey, D F

    1960-12-15

    The Hallam Nuclear Power Facility reactor structure, including the cavity liner, is described, and the design philosophy and special design requirements which were developed during the preliminary and final engineering phases of the project are explained. The structure was designed for 600 deg F inlet and 1000 deg F outlet operating sodium temperatures and fabricated of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. Support for the reactor core components and adequate containment for biological safeguards were readily provided even though quite conservative design philosophy was used. The calculated operating characteristics, including heat generation, temperature distributions and stress levels for full-power operation, aremore » summarized. Ship fabrication and field installation experiences are also briefly related. Results of this project have established that the sodium graphite reactor permits practical and economical fabrication and field erection procedures; considerably higher operating design temperatures are believed possible without radical design changes. Also, larger reactor structures can be similarly constructed for higher capacity (300 to 1000 Mwe) nuclear power plants. (auth)« less

  20. Method and apparatus for constructing an underground barrier wall structure

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Stewart, Willis E.; Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for constructing a underground barrier wall structure using a jet grout injector subassembly comprising a pair of primary nozzles and a plurality of secondary nozzles, the secondary nozzles having a smaller diameter than the primary nozzles, for injecting grout in directions other than the primary direction, which creates a barrier wall panel having a substantially uniform wall thickess. This invention addresses the problem of the weak "bow-tie" shape that is formed during conventional jet injection when using only a pair of primary nozzles. The improvement is accomplished by using at least four secondary nozzles, of smaller diameter, located on both sides of the primary nozzles. These additional secondary nozzles spray grout or permeable reactive materials in other directions optimized to fill in the thin regions of the bow-tie shape. The result is a panel with increased strength and substantially uniform wall thickness.

  1. Transtheoretical Model Constructs for Physical Activity Behavior are Invariant across Time among Ethnically Diverse Adults in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Claudio R; Motl, Robert W; Horwath, Caroline; Dishman, Rod K

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity (PA) research applying the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to examine group differences and/or change over time requires preliminary evidence of factorial validity and invariance. The current study examined the factorial validity and longitudinal invariance of TTM constructs recently revised for PA. Method Participants from an ethnically diverse sample in Hawaii (N=700) completed questionnaires capturing each TTM construct. Results Factorial validity was confirmed for each construct using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood. Longitudinal invariance was evidenced across a shorter (3-month) and longer (6-month) time period via nested model comparisons. Conclusions The questionnaires for each validated TTM construct are provided, and can now be generalized across similar subgroups and time points. Further validation of the provided measures is suggested in additional populations and across extended time points. PMID:22778669

  2. Nouns slow down speech across structurally and culturally diverse languages

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, Swintha; Hartmann, Iren; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; de Jong, Nivja H.

    2018-01-01

    By force of nature, every bit of spoken language is produced at a particular speed. However, this speed is not constant—speakers regularly speed up and slow down. Variation in speech rate is influenced by a complex combination of factors, including the frequency and predictability of words, their information status, and their position within an utterance. Here, we use speech rate as an index of word-planning effort and focus on the time window during which speakers prepare the production of words from the two major lexical classes, nouns and verbs. We show that, when naturalistic speech is sampled from languages all over the world, there is a robust cross-linguistic tendency for slower speech before nouns compared with verbs, both in terms of slower articulation and more pauses. We attribute this slowdown effect to the increased amount of planning that nouns require compared with verbs. Unlike verbs, nouns can typically only be used when they represent new or unexpected information; otherwise, they have to be replaced by pronouns or be omitted. These conditions on noun use appear to outweigh potential advantages stemming from differences in internal complexity between nouns and verbs. Our findings suggest that, beneath the staggering diversity of grammatical structures and cultural settings, there are robust universals of language processing that are intimately tied to how speakers manage referential information when they communicate with one another. PMID:29760059

  3. Structural diversity and electronic properties in potassium silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Chun-Mei; Li, Yunguo; Huang, Hong-Mei; Li, Yan-Ling

    2018-05-01

    Stable potassium silicides in the complete compositional landscape were systematically explored up to 30 GPa using the variable-composition evolutionary structure prediction method. The results show that K4Si, K3Si, K5Si2, K2Si, K3Si2, KSi, KSi2, KSi3, and K8Si46 have their stability fields in the phase diagram. The spatial dimensional diversity of polymerized silicon atoms (0D "isolated" anion, dimer, Si4 group, 1D zigzag chain, 2D layer, and 3D network) under the potassium sublattice was uncovered as silicon content increases. Especially, the 2D layered silicon presents interestingly a variety of shapes, such as the "4 + 6" ring, "4 + 8"ring, and 8-membered ring. K-Si bonding exhibits a mixed covalency and ionicity, while Si-Si bonding is always of covalent character. Semiconductivity or metallicity mainly depends on the form of sublattices and K:Si ratio, which allows us to find more semiconductors in the Si-rich side when closed-shell K cations are encompassed by polymerized Si. The semiconducting silicides present strong absorption in the infrared and visible light range. These findings open up the avenue for experimental synthesis of alkali metal-IVA compounds and potential applications as battery electrode materials or photoelectric materials.

  4. Constructions of Diversity. Research among Staff Leaders in the Learning and Skills Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the rhetoric of engagement with diversity in post-compulsory education and discovers paucity in research-informed practice to develop that engagement among staff and leaders. The paper draws upon new and established concepts to consider how and why leadership development, linked to diversity, might be elevated to first-order…

  5. Construction of Difference and Diversity within Policy and Practice in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hazel; Boyask, Ruth; Waite, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Policy and practice responses to diversity and difference in pupil populations continue to challenge education systems around the world. This paper considers how teachers' understandings of diversity and difference and their pedagogical responses at the local level are influenced by, and can be reconciled with, policy at the general level with its…

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Varieties Cultivated in Temperate Regions.

    PubMed

    Reig-Valiente, Juan L; Viruel, Juan; Sales, Ester; Marqués, Luis; Terol, Javier; Gut, Marta; Derdak, Sophia; Talón, Manuel; Domingo, Concha

    2016-12-01

    After its domestication, rice cultivation expanded from tropical regions towards northern latitudes with temperate climate in a progressive process to overcome limiting photoperiod and temperature conditions. This process has originated a wide range of diversity that can be regarded as a valuable resource for crop improvement. In general, current rice breeding programs have to deal with a lack of both germplasm accessions specifically adapted to local agro-environmental conditions and adapted donors carrying desired agronomical traits. Comprehensive maps of genome variability and population structure would facilitate genome-wide association studies of complex traits, functional gene investigations and the selection of appropriate donors for breeding purposes. A collection of 217 rice varieties mainly cultivated in temperate regions was generated. The collection encompasses modern elite and old cultivars, as well as traditional landraces covering a wide genetic diversity available for rice breeders. Whole Genome Sequencing was performed on 14 cultivars representative of the collection and the genomic profiles of all cultivars were constructed using a panel of 2697 SNPs with wide coverage throughout the rice genome, obtained from the sequencing data. The population structure and genetic relationship analyses showed a strong substructure in the temperate rice population, predominantly based on grain type and the origin of the cultivars. Dendrogram also agrees population structure results. Based on SNP markers, we have elucidated the genetic relationship and the degree of genetic diversity among a collection of 217 temperate rice varieties possessing an enormous variety of agromorphological and physiological characters. Taken together, the data indicated the occurrence of relatively high gene flow and elevated rates of admixture between cultivars grown in remote regions, probably favoured by local breeding activities. The results of this study significantly expand the

  7. Mechanical characterization and structural assessment of biocomposites for construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Sarah Jane

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether or not two particular biocomposite materials, made from hemp fabric and cellulose acetate or polyhydroxybutyrate matrices, are capable of being used for structural and/or construction purposes within in the construction and building industry. The objective of this dissertation was addressed by conducting research to meet the following three goals: (1) to measure the basic mechanical properties of hemp/cellulose acetate and hemp/PHB biocomposites and evaluate if they suitable for use in construction applications, (2) to determine how quickly moisture diffuses into the biocomposite materials and how the moisture affects the mechanical behavior, and (3) to determine how well simple models can predict behavior of structural scale laminates in tension and flexure using biocomposite ply behavior. Compression molding was used to manufacturing the biocomposites from hemp fabric and the themoplastic matrices: cellulose acetate and polyhydroxybutyrate. Four methods for determining the fiber volume fraction were evaluated, and the dissolution method, using different solvents for each matrix type, was used to determine the fiber volume fraction for each composite plate manufactured. Both types of biocomposite were tested in tension, compression, shear, and flexure and the measured properties were compared to wood and engineered wood products to assess whether the biocomposite properties are suitable for use in the construction industry. The biocomposites were conditioned in a humid environment to determine the rate of moisture diffusion into the materials. Then saturated specimens and specimens that were saturated and then dried were tested in tension to evaluate how moisture absorption affects the mechanical behavior of the biocomposites. Finally, simple models of laminate behavior based on laminate plate theory were evaluated to determine if ply level behavior could be used to predict structural scale laminate behavior

  8. Incorporating cultural constructs and demographic diversity in the research and development of a Latina breast and cervical cancer education program.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Deborah O; Johnson, Virginia A; Feliciano-Libid, Luisa; Zamora, Dulce; Jandorf, Lina

    2005-01-01

    Latino immigrants are at higher risk of death from breast and cervical cancer, necessitating effective cancer education interventions. Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained from Latinos from Arkansas and New York City through focus groups and questionnaires. Findings were analyzed using the PEN-3 model. The results demonstrate a mechanism for creating a culturally competent program, Esperanza y Vida, through progressively analyzing the findings to define the key perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, then applying this information to construct program components to address appropriate health behavior and cultural components that address the specific needs of a diverse Latino population. Finding a systematic approach to incorporating and embracing sociocultural perspectives and constructs may effectively appeal to diverse Latino immigrants in the development of a cancer education intervention.

  9. Faxing Structures to the Moon: Freeform Additive Construction System (FACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Wilcox, Brian; McQuin, Christopher; Townsend, Julie; Rieber, Richard; Barmatz, Martin; Leichty, John

    2013-01-01

    Using the highly articulated All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) robotic mobility system as a precision positioning tool, a variety of print head technologies can be used to 3D print large-scale in-situ structures on planetary surfaces such as the moon or Mars. In effect, in the same way CAD models can be printed in a 3D printer, large-scale structures such as walls, vaults, domes, berms, paving, trench walls, and other insitu derived elements can be FAXed to the planetary surface and built in advance of the arrival of crews, supplementing equipment and materials brought from earth. This paper discusses the ATHLETE system as a mobility / positioning platform, and presents several options for large-scale additive print head technologies, including tunable microwave "sinterator" approaches and in-situ concrete deposition. The paper also discusses potential applications, such as sintered-in-place habitat shells, radiation shielding, road paving, modular bricks, and prefabricated construction components.

  10. Constructing Better Classifier Ensemble Based on Weighted Accuracy and Diversity Measure

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Lidia S.

    2014-01-01

    A weighted accuracy and diversity (WAD) method is presented, a novel measure used to evaluate the quality of the classifier ensemble, assisting in the ensemble selection task. The proposed measure is motivated by a commonly accepted hypothesis; that is, a robust classifier ensemble should not only be accurate but also different from every other member. In fact, accuracy and diversity are mutual restraint factors; that is, an ensemble with high accuracy may have low diversity, and an overly diverse ensemble may negatively affect accuracy. This study proposes a method to find the balance between accuracy and diversity that enhances the predictive ability of an ensemble for unknown data. The quality assessment for an ensemble is performed such that the final score is achieved by computing the harmonic mean of accuracy and diversity, where two weight parameters are used to balance them. The measure is compared to two representative measures, Kappa-Error and GenDiv, and two threshold measures that consider only accuracy or diversity, with two heuristic search algorithms, genetic algorithm, and forward hill-climbing algorithm, in ensemble selection tasks performed on 15 UCI benchmark datasets. The empirical results demonstrate that the WAD measure is superior to others in most cases. PMID:24672402

  11. Constructing better classifier ensemble based on weighted accuracy and diversity measure.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaodong; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

    2014-01-01

    A weighted accuracy and diversity (WAD) method is presented, a novel measure used to evaluate the quality of the classifier ensemble, assisting in the ensemble selection task. The proposed measure is motivated by a commonly accepted hypothesis; that is, a robust classifier ensemble should not only be accurate but also different from every other member. In fact, accuracy and diversity are mutual restraint factors; that is, an ensemble with high accuracy may have low diversity, and an overly diverse ensemble may negatively affect accuracy. This study proposes a method to find the balance between accuracy and diversity that enhances the predictive ability of an ensemble for unknown data. The quality assessment for an ensemble is performed such that the final score is achieved by computing the harmonic mean of accuracy and diversity, where two weight parameters are used to balance them. The measure is compared to two representative measures, Kappa-Error and GenDiv, and two threshold measures that consider only accuracy or diversity, with two heuristic search algorithms, genetic algorithm, and forward hill-climbing algorithm, in ensemble selection tasks performed on 15 UCI benchmark datasets. The empirical results demonstrate that the WAD measure is superior to others in most cases.

  12. Development of maturity protocol for construction of NJDOT concrete structures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-12-01

    In-place tests can be used to estimate concrete strength during construction so that : construction operations can be performed safely or curing procedures can be terminated. : Compression tests pertaining to field cylinders do not represent the stre...

  13. Construction of protocellular structures under simulated primitive earth conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yoko; Kojima, Kiyotsugu; Ito, Masahiko

    1988-09-01

    We have developed experimental approaches for the construction of protocellular structures under simulated primitive earth conditions and studied their formation and characteristics. Three types of envelopes; protein envelopes, lipid envelopes, and lipid-protein envelopes are considered as candidates for protocellular structures. Simple protein envelopes and lipid envelopes are presumed to have originated at an early stage of chemical evolution, interaction mutually and then evolved into more complex envelopes composed of both lipids and proteins. Three kinds of protein envelopes were constructedin situ from amino acids under simulated primitive earth conditions such as a fresh water tide pool, a warm sea, and a submarine hydrothermal vent. One protein envelope was formed from a mixture of amino acid amides at 80 °C using multiple hydration-dehydration cycles. Marigranules, protein envelope structures, were produced from mixtures of glycine and acidic, basic and aromatic amino acids at 105 °C in a modified sea medium enriched with essential transition elements. Thermostable microspheres were also formed from a mixture of glycine, alanine, valine, and aspartic acid at 250 °C and above. The microspheres did not form at lower temperatures and consist of silicates and peptide-like polymers containing imide bonds and amino acid residues enriched in valine. Amphiphilic proteins with molecular weights of 2000 were necessary for the formation of the protein envelopes. Stable lipid envelopes were formed from different dialkyl phospholipids and fatty acids. Large, stable, lipid-protein envelopes were formed from egg lecithin and the solubilized marigranules. Polycations such as polylysine and polyhistidine, or basic proteins such as lysozyme and cytochromec also stabilized lipid-protein envelopes.

  14. [Genetic diversity and genetic structure of endangered wild Sinopodophyllum emodi by start codon targeted polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Chen, Da-Xia; Zhao, Ji-Feng; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Qin, Song-Yun; Zhong, Guo-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Revealed the genetic diversity level and genetic structure characteristics in Sinopodophyllum emodi, a rare and endangered species in China. We detected the genetic polymorphism within and among six wild populations (45 individuals) by the approach of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) Polymorphism. The associated genetic parameters were calculated by POP-GENE1.31 and the relationship was constructed based on UPGMA method. A total of 350 bands were scored by 27 primers and 284 bands of them were polymorphic. The average polymorphic bands of each primer were 10.52. At species level, there was a high level of genetic diversity among six populations (PPB = 79.27%, N(e) = 1.332 7, H = 0.210 9 and H(sp) = 0.328 6). At population level, the genetic diversity level was low (PPB = 10.48% (4.00% -23.71%), N(e) = 1.048 7 (1.020 7-1.103 7), H = 0.029 7 (0.012 9-0.063 1), H(pop) = 0.046 2 (0.019 9-0.098 6). The Nei's coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0.841 1, which was consistent with the Shannon's coefficient of genetic differentiation (0.849 4). Two calculated methods all showed that most of the genetic variation existed among populations. The gene flow (N(m) = 0.094 4) was less among populations, indicating that the degree of genetic differentiation was higher. Genetic similarity coefficient were changed from 0.570 8 to 0.978 7. By clustering analysis, the tested populations were divided into two classes and had a tendency that the same geographical origin or material of similar habitats clustered into one group. The genetic diversity of samples of S. emodi is high,which laid a certain foundation for effective protection and improvement of germplasm resources.

  15. APP/Aβ structural diversity and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roher, Alex E; Kokjohn, Tyler A; Clarke, Steven G; Sierks, Michael R; Maarouf, Chera L; Serrano, Geidy E; Sabbagh, Marwan S; Beach, Thomas G

    2017-11-01

    The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslational modification (PTM). We propose that amplified production of some APP/Aβ species, perhaps exacerbated by differential gene expression and reduced peptide degradation, creates a diverse spectrum of modified species which disrupt brain homeostasis and accelerate AD neurodegeneration. We surveyed the literature to catalog Aβ PTM including species with isoAsp at positions 7 and 23 which may phenocopy the Tottori and Iowa Aβ mutations that result in early onset AD. We speculate that accumulation of these alterations induce changes in secondary and tertiary structure of Aβ that favor increased toxicity, and seeding and propagation in sporadic AD. Additionally, amyloid-β peptides with a pyroglutamate modification at position 3 and oxidation of Met35 make up a substantial portion of sporadic AD amyloid deposits. The intrinsic physical properties of these species, including resistance to degradation, an enhanced aggregation rate, increased neurotoxicity, and association with behavioral deficits, suggest their emergence is linked to dementia. The generation of specific 3D-molecular conformations of Aβ impart unique biophysical properties and a capacity to seed the prion-like global transmission of amyloid through the brain. The accumulation of rogue Aβ ultimately contributes to the destruction of vascular walls, neurons and glial cells culminating in dementia. A systematic examination of Aβ PTM and the analysis of the toxicity that they induced may help create essential biomarkers to more precisely stage AD pathology, design countermeasures and gauge the impacts of interventions. Copyright © 2017

  16. Population structure and genetic diversity of the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis in Bristol, UK.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, Joseph; Levy, Max; Smale, Chloe; Cheung, Dean; Whittle, Alice; Longhurst, Denise; Muir, Peter; Gibson, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, an extremely common, but non-life-threatening, sexually-transmitted disease throughout the world. Recent population genetics studies of T. vaginalis have detected high genetic diversity and revealed a two-type population structure, associated with phenotypic differences in sensitivity to metronidazole, the drug commonly used for treatment, and presence of T. vaginalis virus. There is currently a lack of data on UK isolates; most isolates examined to date are from the US. Here we used a recently described system for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of T. vaginalis to study diversity of clinical isolates from Bristol, UK. We used MLST to characterise 23 clinical isolates of T. vaginalis collected from female patients during 2013. Seven housekeeping genes were PCR-amplified for each isolate and sequenced. The concatenated sequences were then compared with data from other MLST-characterised isolates available from http://tvaginalis.mlst.net/ to analyse the population structure and construct phylogenetic trees. Among the 23 isolates from the Bristol population of T. vaginalis, we found 23 polymorphic nucleotide sites, 25 different alleles and 19 sequence types (genotypes). Most isolates had a unique genotype, in agreement with the high levels of heterogeneity observed elsewhere in the world. A two-type population structure was evident from population genetic analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction split the isolates into two major clades. Tests for recombination in the Bristol population of T. vaginalis gave conflicting results, suggesting overall a clonal pattern of reproduction. We conclude that the Bristol population of T. vaginalis parasites conforms to the two-type population structure found in most other regions of the world. We found the MLST scheme to be an efficient genotyping method. The online MLST database provides a useful repository and resource that will prove

  17. Design and synthesis of diverse functional kinked nanowire structures for nanoelectronic bioprobes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Jiang, Zhe; Qing, Quan; Mai, Liqiang; Zhang, Qingjie; Lieber, Charles M

    2013-02-13

    Functional kinked nanowires (KNWs) represent a new class of nanowire building blocks, in which functional devices, for example, nanoscale field-effect transistors (nanoFETs), are encoded in geometrically controlled nanowire superstructures during synthesis. The bottom-up control of both structure and function of KNWs enables construction of spatially isolated point-like nanoelectronic probes that are especially useful for monitoring biological systems where finely tuned feature size and structure are highly desired. Here we present three new types of functional KNWs including (1) the zero-degree KNW structures with two parallel heavily doped arms of U-shaped structures with a nanoFET at the tip of the "U", (2) series multiplexed functional KNW integrating multi-nanoFETs along the arm and at the tips of V-shaped structures, and (3) parallel multiplexed KNWs integrating nanoFETs at the two tips of W-shaped structures. First, U-shaped KNWs were synthesized with separations as small as 650 nm between the parallel arms and used to fabricate three-dimensional nanoFET probes at least 3 times smaller than previous V-shaped designs. In addition, multiple nanoFETs were encoded during synthesis in one of the arms/tip of V-shaped and distinct arms/tips of W-shaped KNWs. These new multiplexed KNW structures were structurally verified by optical and electron microscopy of dopant-selective etched samples and electrically characterized using scanning gate microscopy and transport measurements. The facile design and bottom-up synthesis of these diverse functional KNWs provides a growing toolbox of building blocks for fabricating highly compact and multiplexed three-dimensional nanoprobes for applications in life sciences, including intracellular and deep tissue/cell recordings.

  18. Diversity, abundance, and size structure of bivalve assemblages in the Sipsey River, Alabama

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Jr. Warren

    2010-01-01

    1. Patterns of mussel diversity and assemblage structure in the Sipsey River, Alabama, are described. Qualitative data were used to describe river-wide patterns of diversity. Quantitative data were used to describe the structure of mussel assemblages at several sites based on whole-substrate sampling that ensured all size classes were detected. 2. Major human impacts...

  19. Dimensional and Componential Structure of a Hierarchical Organization of Pain-Related Anxiety Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancleef, Linda M. G.; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.; Peters, Madelon L.

    2009-01-01

    Research has identified several anxiety and fear constructs that contribute directly or indirectly to the chronic course of pain. One way to gain insight into the frequently observed interrelations between these constructs may be by conceptualizing them within a hierarchical structure. In this structure, general and specific constructs are…

  20. Food-derived carbohydrates--structural complexity and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2002-01-01

    Carbohydrates are biomolecules abundantly available in nature. They are found in bewildering types ranging from simple sugars through oligo- and polysaccharides to glycoconjugates and saccharide complexes, each exhibiting characteristic bio-physiological and/or nutritional functions both in in vivo and in vitro systems. For example, their presence or inclusion in food dictates the texture (body) and gives desirable customer appeal (satisfaction), or their inclusion in the diet offers beneficial effects of great therapeutic value. Thus, carbohydrates are integrally involved in a multitude of biological functions such as regulation of the immune system, cellular signaling (communication), cell malignancy, antiinfection responses, host-pathogen interactions, etc. If starch is considered the major energy storage carbohydrate, the gums/mucilages and other non-starch carbohydrates are of structural significance. The most investigated properties of starch are its gelatinization and melting behavior, especially during food processing. This has led to the development of the food polymer science approach, which has enabled a new interpretive and experimental frame work for the study of the plasticizing influence of simple molecules such as water, sugars, etc. on food systems that are kinetically constrained. Starch, although considered fully digestible, has been challenged, and starch is found to be partly indigestible in the GI tract of humans. This fraction of starch-resisting digestion in vivo is known as resistant starch (RS). The latter, due to its excellent fermentative capacity in the gut, especially yielding butyric acid is considered a new tool for the creation of fiber-rich foods, which are of nutraceutical importance. By a careful control of the processing conditions the content of RS, a man-made fiber, can be increased to as high as 30%. Arabinoxylans are the major endospermic cell wall polysaccharides of cereals. In wheat they are found complexed with ferulic

  1. [Community structure and diversity of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan salt lake on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuo

    2017-04-04

    I studied the community structure and diversity of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan Salt Lake. I isolated and cultured the moderate halophilic bacteria on different selective media. After the 16S rRNA gene sequences was amplified and measured, I constructed the phylogenic tree, analyzed the community structure and calculated the diversity indexes according to the 16S rRNA gene information. A total of 421 moderate halophilic bacteria were isolated from water and mud samples in Qrhan Salt Lake. The 16S rRNA gene information showed that 4 potential novel species belonged to the family Bacillaceae. Eighty-three model strains belonged to 3 phylurms 6 families 16 genus. Among them, Bacillus sp., Oceanobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. were dominant species. Diversity analysis showed that the diversity of strains isolated from water sample was higher than that from mud sample, but the dominance degree of strains isolated from mud sample was higher than that from water sample. The genetic diversity of moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan Salt Lake was abundant. Also, there were dominant and novel species of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria in this lake.

  2. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Infusing Diversity Constructs in Preservice Teacher Preparation: The Impact of a Systematic Faculty Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Susan P.; Catlett, Camille; Moore, Susan; Sanchez, Sylvia Y.; Thorp, Eva K.; Corso, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview and the results of the Crosswalks Intervention, which was developed, implemented, and evaluated to support inclusive early childhood preservice programs to be more reflective of, and responsive to, cultural and linguistic diversity. The Crosswalks Intervention, funded by the US Department of Education, was a…

  4. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Environmental Orientations in a Diverse Group of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lincoln R.; Green, Gary T.; Castleberry, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of children's environmental orientations is of critical importance as opportunities for authentic contact with nature diminish. Current instruments for measuring children's environmental attitudes are complex, and few have been tested across diverse audiences. This study employed a mixed-methods approach that included pilot tests,…

  5. Constructing and Role-Playing Student Avatars in a Simulation of Teaching Algebra for Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Tingting; Brown, Irving A.; Kulm, Gerald; Davis, Trina J.; Lewis, Chance W.; Allen, G. Donald

    2016-01-01

    From the perspectives of Graduate Research Assistants (GRAs), this study examines the design and implementation of a simulated teaching environment in "Second Life" (SL) for prospective teachers to teach algebra for diverse learners. Drawing upon the Learning-for-Use framework, the analyses provide evidence on the development of student…

  6. The Call To Pay Attention to Family Diversity: Constructing a Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallat, Cynthia; Steele, Carolyn I.

    The objective of this paper is two-fold. First, to address continued criticism of a general lack of attention to diverse aspects of family development due to continued reliance on traditional ways of assessing and conceptualizing family interaction. Second, to address recent recommendations to educate professionals who are capable of promoting…

  7. Structure Diversity, Synthesis, and Biological Activity of Cyathane Diterpenoids in Higher Fungi.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao-Yu; Yin, Xia; Zhang, Cheng-Chen; Jia, Qian; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Cyathane diterpenoids, occurring exclusively in higher basidiomycete (mushrooms), represent a structurally diverse class of natural products based on a characteristic 5-6-7 tricyclic carbon scaffold, including 105 members reported to date. These compounds show a diverse range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-MRSA, agonistic toward the kappa-opioid receptor, antiinflammatory, anti-proliferative and nerve growth factor (NGF)-like properties. The present review focuses on the structure diversity, structure elucidation and biological studies of these compounds, including mechanisms of actions and structure-activity relationships (SARs). In addition, new progress in chemical synthesis of cyathane diterpenoids is discussed.

  8. Human and ecological determinants of the spatial structure of local breed diversity.

    PubMed

    Colino-Rabanal, Victor J; Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Blanco-Villegas, María José; Peris, Salvador J; Lizana, Miguel

    2018-04-24

    Since domestication, a large number of livestock breeds adapted to local conditions have been created by natural and artificial selection, representing one of the most powerful ways in which human groups have constructed niches to meet their need. Although many authors have described local breeds as the result of culturally and environmentally mediated processes, this study, located in mainland Spain, is the first aimed at identifying and quantifying the environmental and human contributions to the spatial structure of local breed diversity, which we refer to as livestock niche. We found that the more similar two provinces were in terms of human population, ecological characteristics, historical ties, and geographic distance, the more similar the composition of local breeds in their territories. Isolation by human population distance showed the strongest effect, followed by isolation by the environment, thus supporting the view of livestock niche as a socio-cultural product adapted to the local environment, in whose construction humans make good use of their ecological and cultural inheritances. These findings provide a useful framework to understand and to envisage the effects of climate change and globalization on local breeds and their livestock niches.

  9. Evaluating genetic diversity and constructing core collections of Chinese Lentinula edodes cultivars using ISSR and SRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Zhuo-Ren; Li, Chuang; Bian, Yin-Bing; Xiao, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Genetic diversity among 89 Chinese Lentinula edodes cultivars was analyzed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. A 123 out of 126 ISSR loci (97.62%) and 108 out of 129 SRAP loci (83.73%) were polymorphic between two or more strains. A dendrogram constructed by cluster analysis based on the ISSR and SRAP markers separated the L. edodes strains into two major groups, of which group B was further divided into five subgroups. Clustering results also showed a positive correlation with the main agronomic traits of the strains, and that strains with similar traits clustered together into the same groups or subgroups in most cases. The average coefficient of pairwise genetic similarity was 0.820 (range: 0.576-0.988). Compared to the wild strains, Chinese L. edodes cultivars indicated a lower level of genetic diversity. Two preliminary core collections of L. edodes, Core1 and Core2, were established based on the ISSR and SRAP data, respectively. Core1 was constructed by the advanced M (maximization) strategy using the PowerCore version 1.0 software and contained 21 strains, whereas Core2 was created by the allele preferred sampling strategy using the cluster method and contained 18 strains. Both core collections were highly representative of the genetic diversity of the original germplasm, as confirmed by the values of Na (observed number of alleles), Ne (effective number of alleles), H (Nei's gene diversity) and I (Shannon's information index), as well as results of principal coordinate analysis. The loci retention ratio of Core1 (99.61%) was higher than that of Core2 (97.65%). Moreover, Core1 contained strains with more types of agronomic traits than those in Core2. This study builds the basis for further effective protection, management and use of L. edodes germplasm resource. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Genomic patterns in Acropora cervicornis show extensive population structure and variable genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Drury, Crawford; Schopmeyer, Stephanie; Goergen, Elizabeth; Bartels, Erich; Nedimyer, Ken; Johnson, Meaghan; Maxwell, Kerry; Galvan, Victor; Manfrino, Carrie; Lirman, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Threatened Caribbean coral communities can benefit from high-resolution genetic data used to inform management and conservation action. We use Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) to investigate genetic patterns in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis , across the Florida Reef Tract (FRT) and the western Caribbean. Results show extensive population structure at regional scales and resolve previously unknown structure within the FRT. Different regions also exhibit up to threefold differences in genetic diversity (He), suggesting targeted management based on the goals and resources of each population is needed. Patterns of genetic diversity have a strong spatial component, and our results show Broward and the Lower Keys are among the most diverse populations in Florida. The genetic diversity of Caribbean staghorn coral is concentrated within populations and within individual reefs (AMOVA), highlighting the complex mosaic of population structure. This variance structure is similar over regional and local scales, which suggests that in situ nurseries are adequately capturing natural patterns of diversity, representing a resource that can replicate the average diversity of wild assemblages, serving to increase intraspecific diversity and potentially leading to improved biodiversity and ecosystem function. Results presented here can be translated into specific goals for the recovery of A. cervicornis , including active focus on low diversity areas, protection of high diversity and connectivity, and practical thresholds for responsible restoration.

  11. Reinforced soil structures. Volume I. Design and construction guidelines

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-11-01

    This report presents comprehensive guidelines for evaluating and using soil reinforcement techniques in the construction of retaining walls, embankment slopes, and natural or cut slopes. A variety of available systems for reinforced soil including in...

  12. Reinforced soil structures. Volume I, Design and construction guidelines

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-11-01

    This report presents comprehensive guidelines for evaluating and using soil reinforcement techniques in the construction of retaining walls, embankment slopes, and natural or cut slopes. A variety of available systems for reinforced soil including in...

  13. Experience of light thin-walled structures improvement in construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolovskaia, A. V.; Deordiev, S. V.; Falk, A.; Klinduh, N. Y.; Terehova, I. I.

    2018-05-01

    The authors on the basis of practical experience have analyzed low-rise construction with the use of energy-saving technologies. Characteristic features of possible variants of frame construction are looked at and described. The relevance of the paper consists in the improvement of the building frame design solution based on the analysis and elimination of disadvantages taking into account consumers’ point of view.

  14. "Doing School" Right: How University Students from Diverse Backgrounds Construct Their Academic Literacies and Academic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor Sarver, Whitney Ann

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the academic lives of three multilingual undergraduate student writers in order to better understand how they have constructed their academic literacies and academic identities since taking the required English courses at a mid-sized state university. Within the overarching discussions of academic discourse and the idea of…

  15. Exclusion, Engagement and Identity Construction in a Socioeconomically Diverse Middle School Wind Band Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore the wind band classroom as a social context and examine its influence on middle-school students' identity constructions. The integration of sociologically based identity theory and social identity theory from social psychology suggested by Deaux and Martin as well as Stets and Burke proved…

  16. Influence of environmental variables on the structure and composition of soil bacterial communities in natural and constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Paula; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Ansola, Gemma

    2015-02-15

    Bacteria are key players in wetland ecosystems, however many essential aspects regarding the ecology of wetland bacterial communities remain unknown. The present study characterizes soil bacterial communities from natural and constructed wetlands through the pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes in order to evaluate the influence of wetland variables on bacterial community composition and structure. The results show that the composition of soil bacterial communities was significantly associated with the wetland type (natural or constructed wetland), the type of environment (lagoon, Typha or Salix) and three continuous parameters (SOM, COD and TKN). However, no clear associations were observed with soil pH. Bacterial diversity values were significantly lower in the constructed wetland with the highest inlet nutrient concentrations. The abundances of particular metabolic groups were also related to wetland characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Review of Structure Construction of Silk Fibroin Biomaterials from Single Structures to Multi-Level Structures

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yu; Wang, Hui; Wei, Kai; Yang, Ya; Zheng, Ru-Yue; Kim, Ick Soo; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2017-01-01

    The biological performance of artificial biomaterials is closely related to their structure characteristics. Cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation are all strongly affected by the different scale structures of biomaterials. Silk fibroin (SF), extracted mainly from silkworms, has become a popular biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility, exceptional mechanical properties, tunable degradation, ease of processing, and sufficient supply. As a material with excellent processability, SF can be processed into various forms with different structures, including particulate, fiber, film, and three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds. This review discusses and summarizes the various constructions of SF-based materials, from single structures to multi-level structures, and their applications. In combination with single structures, new techniques for creating special multi-level structures of SF-based materials, such as micropatterning and 3D-printing, are also briefly addressed. PMID:28273799

  18. A Review of Structure Construction of Silk Fibroin Biomaterials from Single Structures to Multi-Level Structures.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yu; Wang, Hui; Wei, Kai; Yang, Ya; Zheng, Ru-Yue; Kim, Ick Soo; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2017-03-03

    The biological performance of artificial biomaterials is closely related to their structure characteristics. Cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation are all strongly affected by the different scale structures of biomaterials. Silk fibroin (SF), extracted mainly from silkworms, has become a popular biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility, exceptional mechanical properties, tunable degradation, ease of processing, and sufficient supply. As a material with excellent processability, SF can be processed into various forms with different structures, including particulate, fiber, film, and three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds. This review discusses and summarizes the various constructions of SF-based materials, from single structures to multi-level structures, and their applications. In combination with single structures, new techniques for creating special multi-level structures of SF-based materials, such as micropatterning and 3D-printing, are also briefly addressed.

  19. Construction of nested genetic core collections to optimize the exploitation of natural diversity in Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa

    PubMed Central

    Le Cunff, Loïc; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Laucou, Valérie; Vezzulli, Silvia; Lacombe, Thierry; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; This, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Background The first high quality draft of the grape genome sequence has just been published. This is a critical step in accessing all the genes of this species and increases the chances of exploiting the natural genetic diversity through association genetics. However, our basic knowledge of the extent of allelic variation within the species is still not sufficient. Towards this goal, we constructed nested genetic core collections (G-cores) to capture the simple sequence repeat (SSR) diversity of the grape cultivated compartment (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa) from the world's largest germplasm collection (Domaine de Vassal, INRA Hérault, France), containing 2262 unique genotypes. Results Sub-samples of 12, 24, 48 and 92 varieties of V. vinifera L. were selected based on their genotypes for 20 SSR markers using the M-strategy. They represent respectively 58%, 73%, 83% and 100% of total SSR diversity. The capture of allelic diversity was analyzed by sequencing three genes scattered throughout the genome on 233 individuals: 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified using the G-92 core (one SNP for every 49 nucleotides) while only 25 were observed using a larger sample of 141 individuals selected on the basis of 50 morphological traits, thus demonstrating the reliability of the approach. Conclusion The G-12 and G-24 core-collections displayed respectively 78% and 88% of the SNPs respectively, and are therefore of great interest for SNP discovery studies. Furthermore, the nested genetic core collections satisfactorily reflected the geographic and the genetic diversity of grape, which are also of great interest for the study of gene evolution in this species. PMID:18384667

  20. WAXS studies of the structural diversity of hemoglobin in solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, L.; Bardhan, J.; Gore, D.

    2011-01-01

    Specific ligation states of hemoglobin are, when crystallized, capable of taking on multiple quaternary structures. The relationship between these structures, captured in crystal lattices, and hemoglobin structure in solution remains uncertain. Wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) is a sensitive probe of protein structure in solution that can distinguish among similar structures and has the potential to contribute to these issues. We used WAXS to assess the relationships among the structures of human and bovine hemoglobins in different liganded forms in solution. WAXS data readily distinguished among the various forms of hemoglobins. WAXS patterns confirm some of the relationships among hemoglobinmore » structures that have been defined through crystallography and NMR and extend others. For instance, methemoglobin A in solution is, as expected, nearly indistinguishable from HbCO A. Interestingly, for bovine hemoglobin, the differences between deoxy-Hb, methemoglobin and HbCO are smaller than the corresponding differences in human hemoglobin. WAXS data were also used to assess the spatial extent of structural fluctuations of various hemoglobins in solution. Dynamics has been implicated in allosteric control of hemoglobin, and increased dynamics has been associated with lowered oxygen affinity. Consistent with that notion, WAXS patterns indicate that deoxy-Hb A exhibits substantially larger structural fluctuations than HbCO A. Comparisons between the observed WAXS patterns and those predicted on the basis of atomic coordinate sets suggest that the structures of Hb in different liganded forms exhibit clear differences from known crystal structure.« less

  1. Assessing genetic structure and diversity of airborne bacterial communities by DNA fingerprinting and 16S rDNA clone library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maron, Pierre-Alain; Lejon, David P. H.; Carvalho, Esmeralda; Bizet, Karine; Lemanceau, Philippe; Ranjard, Lionel; Mougel, Christophe

    The density, genetic structure and diversity of airborne bacterial communities were assessed in the outdoor atmosphere. Two air samples were collected on the same location (north of France) at two dates (March 2003 (sample1) and May 2003 (sample 2)). Molecular culture -independent methods were used to characterise airborne bacterial communities regardless of the cell culturability. The automated-ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (A-RISA) was performed to characterise the community structure in each sample. For both sampling dates, complex A-RISA patterns were observed suggesting a highly diverse community structure, comparable to those found in soil, water or sediment environments. Furthermore, differences in the genetic structure of airborne bacterial communities were observed between samples 1 and 2 suggesting an important variability in time. A clone library of 16S rDNA directly amplified from air DNA of sample 1 was constructed and sequenced to analyse the community composition and diversity. The Proteobacteria group had the greatest representation (60%), with bacteria belonging to the different subdivisions α- (19%), β-(21%), γ-(12%) and δ-(8%). Firmicute and Actinobacteria were also well represented with 14% and 12%, respectively. Most of the identified bacteria are known to be commonly associated with soil or plant environments suggesting that the atmosphere is mainly colonised transiently by microorganisms from local sources, depending on air fluxes.

  2. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Treesearch

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic diversity of cowpea was analyzed and the population structure was estimated in a diverse set of 768 cultivated cowpea genotypes from USDA GRIN cowpea collection, originally collected from 56 countries worldwide. Genotyping by sequencing was used to discover single nucleotide polymorphism...

  4. Relationships between adaptive and neutral genetic diversity and ecological structure and functioning: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of intraspecific genetic diversity on the structure and functioning of ecological communities is a fundamentally important part of evolutionary ecology and may also have conservation relevance in identifying the situations in which genetic diversity coincides with species-level diversity.Early studies within this field documented positive relationships between genetic diversity and ecological structure, but recent studies have challenged these findings. Conceptual synthesis has been hampered because studies have used different measures of intraspecific variation (phenotypically adaptive vs. neutral) and have considered different measures of ecological structure in different ecological and spatial contexts. The aim of this study is to strengthen conceptual understanding by providing an empirical synthesis quantifying the relationship between genetic diversity and ecological structure.Here, I present a meta-analysis of the relationship between genetic diversity within plant populations and the structure and functioning of associated ecological communities (including 423 effect sizes from 70 studies). I used Bayesian meta-analyses to examine (i) the strength and direction of this relationship, (ii) the extent to which phenotypically adaptive and neutral (molecular) measures of diversity differ in their association with ecological structure and (iii) variation in outcomes among different measures of ecological structure and in different ecological contexts.Effect sizes measuring the relationship between adaptive diversity (genotypic richness) and both community- and ecosystem-level ecological responses were small, but significantly positive. These associations were supported by genetic effects on species richness and productivity, respectively.There was no overall association between neutral genetic diversity and measures of ecological structure, but a positive correlation was observed under a limited set of demographic conditions. These

  5. Microsatellite diversity and genetic structure among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces in Brazil, a secondary center of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Burle, Marília Lobo; Fonseca, Jaime Roberto; Kami, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and consumer of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is the most important source of human dietary protein in that country. This study assessed the genetic diversity and the structure of a sample of 279 geo-referenced common bean landraces from Brazil, using molecular markers. Sixty-seven microsatellite markers spread over the 11 linkage groups of the common bean genome, as well as Phaseolin, PvTFL1y, APA and four SCAR markers were used. As expected, the sample showed lower genetic diversity compared to the diversity in the primary center of diversification. Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools were both present but the latter gene pool was four times more frequent than the former. The two gene pools could be clearly distinguished; limited admixture was observed between these groups. The Mesoamerican group consisted of two sub-populations, with a high level of admixture between them leading to a large proportion of stabilized hybrids not observed in the centers of domestication. Thus, Brazil can be considered a secondary center of diversification of common bean. A high degree of genome-wide multilocus associations even among unlinked loci was observed, confirming the high level of structure in the sample and suggesting that association mapping should be conducted in separate Andean and Mesoamerican Brazilian samples. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1350-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20502861

  6. A Diversity-Oriented Library of Fluorophore-Modified Receptors Constructed from a Chemical Library of Synthetic Fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shun; Tamura, Tomoki; Das, Raj Kumar; Nakata, Eiji; Chang, Young-Tae; Morii, Takashi

    2017-11-16

    The practical application of biosensors can be determined by evaluating the sensing ability of fluorophore-modified derivatives of a receptor with appropriate recognition characteristics for target molecules. One of the key determinants for successfully obtaining a useful biosensor is wide variation in the fluorophores attached to a given receptor. Thus, using a larger fluorophore-modified receptor library provides a higher probability of obtaining a practically useful biosensor. However, no effective method has yet been developed for constructing such a diverse library of fluorophore-modified receptors. Herein, we report a method for constructing fluorophore-modified receptors by using a chemical library of synthetic fluorophores with a thiol-reactive group. This library was converted into a library of fluorophore-modified adenosine-binding ribonucleopeptide (RNP) receptors by introducing the fluorophores to the Rev peptide of the RNP complex by alkylation of the thiol group. This method enabled the construction of 263 fluorophore-modified ATP-binding RNP receptors and allowed the selection of suitable receptor-based fluorescent sensors that target ATP. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Constructing Literacy in the Kindergarten: Task Structure, Collaboration, and Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores kindergarten children’s emergent motivation to read and write, its relation to their developing concepts of reading and writing (Guice & Johnston, 1994; Johnston, 1997; Turner, 1995), and to their teachers instructional goals and classroom norms. Teachers and students together constructed legitimate literate activity in their classrooms, and this construction framed the motivation of students who were at risk for developing learning disabilities in reading and writing. Specifically, the kinds of reading and writing activity that were sanctioned in each class and the role of student–student collaboration colored students’ views of the purposes of literacy and their own ability to learn. Findings extend our understanding of how young children’s literacy motivation influences, and is influenced by, their classroom literacy culture. Implications for early literacy instruction for children with learning disabilities, and for their continuing motivation to read and write, are discussed. PMID:19727336

  8. Kdo2-lipid A: structural diversity and impact on immunopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Quinn, Peter J; Yan, Aixin

    2015-01-01

    3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid-lipid A (Kdo2-lipid A) is the essential component of lipopolysaccharide in most Gram-negative bacteria and the minimal structural component to sustain bacterial viability. It serves as the active component of lipopolysaccharide to stimulate potent host immune responses through the complex of Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation protein 2. The entire biosynthetic pathway of Escherichia coli Kdo2-lipid A has been elucidated and the nine enzymes of the pathway are shared by most Gram-negative bacteria, indicating conserved Kdo2-lipid A structure across different species. Yet many bacteria can modify the structure of their Kdo2-lipid A which serves as a strategy to modulate bacterial virulence and adapt to different growth environments as well as to avoid recognition by the mammalian innate immune systems. Key enzymes and receptors involved in Kdo2-lipid A biosynthesis, structural modification and its interaction with the TLR4 pathway represent a clear opportunity for immunopharmacological exploitation. These include the development of novel antibiotics targeting key biosynthetic enzymes and utilization of structurally modified Kdo2-lipid A or correspondingly engineered live bacteria as vaccines and adjuvants. Kdo2-lipid A/TLR4 antagonists can also be applied in anti-inflammatory interventions. This review summarizes recent knowledge on both the fundamental processes of Kdo2-lipid A biosynthesis, structural modification and immune stimulation, and applied research on pharmacological exploitations of these processes for therapeutic development. PMID:24838025

  9. Revisiting diversity: cultural variation reveals the constructed nature of emotion perception.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The extent of cultural variation in emotion perception has long been assumed to be bounded by underlying universality. A growing body of research reveals, however, that evidence of universality in emotion perception is method-bound. Without the assumption of underlying universality, new lines of inquiry become relevant. Accumulating evidence suggests that cultures vary in what cues are relevant to perceptions of emotion. Further, cultural groups vary in their spontaneous inferences; mental state inference does not appear to be the only, or even most routine, mode of perception across cultures. Finally, setting universality assumptions aside requires innovation in the theory and measurement of culture. Recent studies reveal the promise of refinements in psychological approaches to culture. Together, the available evidence is consistent with a view of emotion perceptions as actively constructed by perceivers to fit the social and physical constraints of their cultural worlds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasmids of Carotenoid-Producing Paracoccus spp. (Alphaproteobacteria) - Structure, Diversity and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Anna; Dziewit, Lukasz; Czarnecki, Jakub; Wlodarczyk, Miroslawa; Baj, Jadwiga; Skrzypczyk, Grazyna; Giersz, Dorota; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Plasmids are components of many bacterial genomes. They enable the spread of a large pool of genetic information via lateral gene transfer. Many bacterial strains contain mega-sized replicons and these are particularly common in Alphaproteobacteria. Considerably less is known about smaller alphaproteobacterial plasmids. We analyzed the genomes of 14 such plasmids residing in 4 multireplicon carotenoid-producing strains of the genus Paracoccus (Alphaproteobacteria): P. aestuarii DSM 19484, P. haeundaensis LG P-21903, P. marcusii DSM 11574 and P. marcusii OS22. Comparative analyses revealed mosaic structures of the plasmids and recombinational shuffling of diverse genetic modules involved in (i) plasmid replication, (ii) stabilization (including toxin-antitoxin systems of the relBE/parDE, tad-ata, higBA, mazEF and toxBA families) and (iii) mobilization for conjugal transfer (encoding relaxases of the MobQ, MobP or MobV families). A common feature of the majority of the plasmids is the presence of AT-rich sequence islets (located downstream of exc1-like genes) containing genes, whose homologs are conserved in the chromosomes of many bacteria (encoding e.g. RelA/SpoT, SMC-like proteins and a retron-type reverse transcriptase). The results of this study have provided insight into the diversity and plasticity of plasmids of Paracoccus spp., and of the entire Alphaproteobacteria. Some of the identified plasmids contain replication systems not described previously in this class of bacteria. The composition of the plasmid genomes revealed frequent transfer of chromosomal genes into plasmids, which significantly enriches the pool of mobile DNA that can participate in lateral transfer. Many strains of Paracoccus spp. have great biotechnological potential, and the plasmid vectors constructed in this study will facilitate genetic studies of these bacteria. PMID:24260361

  11. Structural basis for diversity in the SAM clan of riboswitches.

    PubMed

    Trausch, Jeremiah J; Xu, Zhenjiang; Edwards, Andrea L; Reyes, Francis E; Ross, Phillip E; Knight, Rob; Batey, Robert T

    2014-05-06

    In bacteria, sulfur metabolism is regulated in part by seven known families of riboswitches that bind S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). Direct binding of SAM to these mRNA regulatory elements governs a downstream secondary structural switch that communicates with the transcriptional and/or translational expression machinery. The most widely distributed SAM-binding riboswitches belong to the SAM clan, comprising three families that share a common SAM-binding core but differ radically in their peripheral architecture. Although the structure of the SAM-I member of this clan has been extensively studied, how the alternative peripheral architecture of the other families supports the common SAM-binding core remains unknown. We have therefore solved the X-ray structure of a member of the SAM-I/IV family containing the alternative "PK-2" subdomain shared with the SAM-IV family. This structure reveals that this subdomain forms extensive interactions with the helix housing the SAM-binding pocket, including a highly unusual mode of helix packing in which two helices pack in a perpendicular fashion. Biochemical and genetic analysis of this RNA reveals that SAM binding induces many of these interactions, including stabilization of a pseudoknot that is part of the regulatory switch. Despite strong structural similarity between the cores of SAM-I and SAM-I/IV members, a phylogenetic analysis of sequences does not indicate that they derive from a common ancestor.

  12. Diversity, Inequality, and a Post-Structural Politics for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youdell, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the contribution to understanding educational inequalities offered by post-structural theories of power and the subject. The paper locates this consideration in the context of the ongoing endeavour in education studies to make sense of, and identify ways of interrupting, abiding educational exclusions and inequalities. The…

  13. Convergent structural responses of tropical forests to diverse disturbance regimes.

    PubMed

    Kellner, James R; Asner, Gregory P

    2009-09-01

    Size frequency distributions of canopy gaps are a hallmark of forest dynamics. But it remains unknown whether legacies of forest disturbance are influencing vertical size structure of landscapes, or space-filling in the canopy volume. We used data from LiDAR remote sensing to quantify distributions of canopy height and sizes of 434,501 canopy gaps in five tropical rain forest landscapes in Costa Rica and Hawaii. The sites represented a wide range of variation in structure and natural disturbance history, from canopy gap dynamics in lowland Costa Rica and Hawaii, to stages and types of stand-level dieback on upland Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes. Large differences in vertical canopy structure characterized these five tropical rain forest landscapes, some of which were related to known disturbance events. Although there were quantitative differences in the values of scaling exponents within and among sites, size frequency distributions of canopy gaps followed power laws at all sites and in all canopy height classes. Scaling relationships in gap size at different heights in the canopy were qualitatively similar at all sites, revealing a remarkable similarity despite clearly defined differences in species composition and modes of prevailing disturbance. These findings indicate that power-law gap-size frequency distributions are ubiquitous features of these five tropical rain forest landscapes, and suggest that mechanisms of forest disturbance may be secondary to other processes in determining vertical and horizontal size structure in canopies.

  14. The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.

  15. Influence of substrate type on microbial community structure in vertical-flow constructed wetland treating polluted river water.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Yin, Min; He, Tao; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-10-01

    Microorganisms attached on the surfaces of substrate materials in constructed wetland play crucial roles in the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants. However, the impact of substrate material on wetland microbial community structure remains unclear. Moreover, little is known about microbial community in constructed wetland purifying polluted surface water. In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing was applied to profile the spatial variation of microbial communities in three pilot-scale surface water constructed wetlands with different substrate materials (sand, zeolite, and gravel). Bacterial community diversity and structure showed remarkable spatial variation in both sand and zeolite wetland systems, but changed slightly in gravel wetland system. Bacterial community was found to be significantly influenced by wetland substrate type. A number of bacterial groups were detected in wetland systems, including Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetae, Gemmatimonadetes, Deferribacteres, OP8, WS3, TA06, and OP3, while Proteobacteria (accounting for 29.1-62.3 %), mainly composed of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Deltaproteobacteria, showed the dominance and might contribute to the effective reduction of organic pollutants. In addition, Nitrospira-like microorganisms were abundant in surface water constructed wetlands.

  16. Structural diversity of alkaline-earth 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balendra; Ramanan, Arunachalam

    2017-03-01

    Exploration of the structural landscape of the system containing divalent alkaline-earth metal ion (Mg, Ca and Sr) with the rigid 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid (TDC) under varying solvothermal condition (DMF, DMA and DEF) yielded five new crystals: [Mg(TDC) (DEF)2(H2O)1/2] (1), [Ca(TDC) (DMA)] (2), [Ca(TDC) (DMA) (H2O)] (3), [Sr(TDC) (DMA)] (4) and [Sr(TDC) (DMA) (H2O)] (5) and two known solids. Single crystal structures of all the solids are characteristic of extended coordination interaction between metal and carboxylate ions. While the smaller magnesium ion crystallized into a 2D coordination polymer, the larger calcium and strontium compounds resulted into the growth of 3D metal organic frameworks. All the solids show blue emission arising from intra ligand charge transfer.

  17. Diverse structural approaches to haem appropriation by pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hare, Stephen A

    2017-04-01

    The critical need for iron presents a challenge for pathogenic bacteria that must survive in an environment bereft of accessible iron due to a natural low bioavailability and their host's nutritional immunity. Appropriating haem, either direct from host haemoproteins or by secreting haem-scavenging haemophores, is one way pathogenic bacteria can overcome this challenge. After capturing their target, haem appropriation systems must remove haem from a high-affinity binding site (on the host haemoprotein or bacterial haemophore) and transfer it to a binding site of lower affinity on a bacterial receptor. Structural information is now available to show how, using a combination of induced structural changes and steric clashes, bacteria are able to extract haem from haemophores, haemopexin and haemoglobin. This review focuses on structural descriptions of these bacterial haem acquisition systems, summarising how they bind haem and their target haemoproteins with particularly emphasis on the mechanism of haem extraction. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Progress in composite structure and space construction systems technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodle, J. B.; Jenkins, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The development of deployable and fabricated composite trusses for large space structures by NASA and private industry is reviewed. Composite materials technology is discussed with a view toward fabrication processes and the characteristics of finished truss beams. Advances in roll-forming open section caps from graphite-composite strip material and new ultrasonic welding techniques are outlined. Vacuum- and gravity-effect test results show that the ultrasonic welding of graphite-thermoplastic materials in space is feasible. The structural characteristics of a prototype truss segment are presented. A new deployable graphite-composite truss with high packaging density for broad application to large space platforms is described.

  19. Lattice-structures and constructs with designed thermal expansion coefficients

    DOEpatents

    Spadaccini, Christopher; Hopkins, Jonathan

    2014-10-28

    A thermal expansion-managed lattice structure having a plurality of unit cells each having flexure bearing-mounted tabs supported on a base and actuated by thermal expansion of an actuator having a thermal expansion coefficient greater than the base and arranged so that the tab is inwardly displaced into a base cavity. The flexure bearing-mounted tabs are connected to other flexure-bearing-mounted tabs of adjacent unit cells so that the adjacent unit cells are spaced from each other to accommodate thermal expansion of individual unit cells while maintaining a desired bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the lattice structure as a whole.

  20. Structural and metabolic responses of microbial community to sewage-borne chlorpyrifos in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Liping; Xu, Dong; Liu, Biyun; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-06-01

    Long-term use of chlorpyrifos poses a potential threat to the environment that cannot be ignored, yet little is known about the succession of substrate microbial communities in constructed wetlands (CWs) under chlorpyrifos stress. Six pilot-scale CW systems receiving artificial wastewater containing 1mg/L chlorpyrifos were established to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos and wetland vegetation on the microbial metabolism pattern of carbon sources and community structure, using BIOLOG and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. Based on our samples, BIOLOG showed that Shannon diversity (H') and richness (S) values distinctly increased after 30days when chlorpyrifos was added. At the same time, differences between the vegetated and the non-vegetated systems disappeared. DGGE profiles indicated that H' and S had no significant differences among four different treatments. The effect of chlorpyrifos on the microbial community was mainly reflected at the physiological level. Principal component analysis (PCA) of both BIOLOG and DGGE showed that added chlorpyrifos made a difference on test results. Meanwhile, there was no difference between the vegetation and no-vegetation treatments after addition of chlorpyrifos at the physiological level. Moreover, the vegetation had no significant effect on the microbial community at the genetic level. Comparisons were made between bacteria in this experiment and other known chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria. The potential chlorpyrifos-degrading ability of bacteria in situ may be considerable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Diverse Structures and Functions of Surfactant Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schor, Marieke; Reid, Jack L; MacPhee, Cait E; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2016-07-01

    Surface tension at liquid-air interfaces is a major barrier that needs to be surmounted by a wide range of organisms; surfactant and interfacially active proteins have evolved for this purpose. Although these proteins are essential for a variety of biological processes, our understanding of how they elicit their function has been limited. However, with the recent determination of high-resolution 3D structures of several examples, we have gained insight into the distinct shapes and mechanisms that have evolved to confer interfacial activity. It is now a matter of harnessing this information, and these systems, for biotechnological purposes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Euphorbesulins A-P, Structurally Diverse Diterpenoids from Euphorbia esula.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Wu, Yan; Dalal, Seema; Cassera, Maria B; Yue, Jian-Min

    2016-08-26

    Aqueous ethanol extracts of powdered twigs of Euphorbia esula afforded 16 new diterpenoids, named euphorbesulins A-P. These euphorbesulins included presegetane (1-3), jatrophane (4-14), paraliane (15), and isopimarane (16) diterpenoids as well as six known analogues. Compounds 1-3 represent a rare type of presegetane diterpenoid. Their structures were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by X-ray crystallography. Diterpenoid 7 showed low nanomolar antimalarial activity, while the remaining compounds showed only moderate or no antimalarial activity.

  3. Semi-Structured Interview Protocol for Constructing Logic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugiu, P. Cristian; Rodriguez-Campos, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    This paper details a semi-structured interview protocol that evaluators can use to develop a logic model of a program's services and outcomes. The protocol presents a series of questions, which evaluators can ask of specific program informants, that are designed to: (1) identify key informants basic background and contextual information, (2)…

  4. Constructing probability boxes and Dempster-Shafer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ferson, Scott; Kreinovich, Vladik; Grinzburg, Lev

    This report summarizes a variety of the most useful and commonly applied methods for obtaining Dempster-Shafer structures, and their mathematical kin probability boxes, from empirical information or theoretical knowledge. The report includes a review of the aggregation methods for handling agreement and conflict when multiple such objects are obtained from different sources.

  5. Low Hysteresis Carbon Nanotube Transistors Constructed via a General Dry-Laminating Encapsulation Method on Diverse Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Zhongwu; Xu, Zeyang; Wu, Kunjie; Yu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Xiaosong; Meng, Yancheng; Li, Hongwei; Qiu, Song; Jin, Hehua; Li, Liqiang; Li, Qingwen

    2017-04-26

    Electrical hysteresis in carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (CNTTFT) due to surface adsorption of H 2 O/O 2 is a severe obstacle for practical applications. The conventional encapsulation methods based on vacuum-deposited inorganic materials or wet-coated organic materials have some limitations. In this work, we develop a general and highly efficient dry-laminating encapsulation method to reduce the hysteresis of CNTTFTs, which may simultaneously realize the construction and encapsulation of CNTTFT. Furthermore, by virtue of dry procedure and wide compatibility of PMMA, this method is suitable for the construction of CNTTFT on diverse surface including both inorganic and organic dielectric materials. Significantly, the dry-encapsulated CNTTFT exhibits very low or even negligible hysteresis with good repeatability and air stability, which is greatly superior to the nonencapsulated and wet-encapsulated CNTTFT with spin-coated PMMA. The dry-laminating encapsulation strategy, a kind of technological innovation, resolves a significant problem of CNTTFT and therefore will be promising in facile transferring and packaging the CNT films for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  6. "Presumed fair: Ironic effects of organizational diversity structures": Correction to Kaiser et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Presumed fair: Ironic effects of organizational diversity structures" by Cheryl R. Kaiser, Brenda Major, Ines Jurcevic, Tessa L. Dover, Laura M. Brady and Jenessa R. Shapiro (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013[Mar], Vol 104[3], 504-519). In the article, a raw data merging error in one racial discrimination claim condition from Experiment 6 inadvertently resulted in data analyses on an inaccurate data set. When the error was discovered by the authors and corrected, all analyses reported in Experiment 6 for claim validity, seriousness of the claim, and support for the claimant were inaccurate and none were statistically significant. The conclusions should be altered to indicate that participants with management experience who reflected on their own workplace diversity policies did not show the predicted effects. The literature review, remaining five studies, and remaining conclusions in the article are unaffected by this error. Experiment 6 should also report that 26.4% (not 26.4.7%) of participants had a graduate degree and eight participants (not 8%) did not provide educational data. Experiment 5 should have referred to the claim validity measure as a six-item measure ( .92) rather than a five-item measure; analyses on claim validity are accurate in text. Table 2's note should have said standard errors, not standard deviations. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-31077-001.) This research tests the hypothesis that the presence (vs. absence) of organizational diversity structures causes high-status group members (Whites, men) to perceive organizations with diversity structures as procedurally fairer environments for underrepresented groups (racial minorities, women), even when it is clear that underrepresented groups have been unfairly disadvantaged within these organizations. Furthermore, this illusory sense of fairness derived from the mere presence of diversity structures causes high

  7. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation in cultivate walnut (Juglans regia L.)

    Treesearch

    M. Aradhya; K. Woeste; D. Velasco

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) using 15 microsatellite loci revealed a considerable amount of genetic variation with a mild genetic structure indicating five genetic groups corresponding to the centers of diversity within the home range of walnut in Eurasia. Despite the narrow genetic...

  8. Continental-scale assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    Treesearch

    Colin M. Callahan; Carol A. Rowe; Ronald J. Ryel; John D. Shaw; Michael D. Madritch; Karen E. Mock

    2013-01-01

    Aspen populations in the south-western portion of the range are consistent with expectations for a historically stable edge, with low within-population diversity, significant geographical population structuring, and little evidence of northward expansion. Structuring within the southwestern cluster may result from distinct gene pools separated during the Pleistocene...

  9. Genetic structure, diversity, and inbreeding of eastern white pine under different management conditions

    Treesearch

    Paula E. Marquardt; Craig S. Echt; Bryan K. Epperson; Dan M. Pubanz

    2007-01-01

    Resource sustainability requires a thorough understanding of the influence of forest management programs on the conservation of genetic diversity in tree populations. To observe how differences in forest structure affect the genetic structure of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), we evaluated six eastern white pine sites across the 234000 acre (1...

  10. Structural basis for selectivity and diversity in angiotensin II receptors

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Haitao; Han, Gye Won; Batyuk, Alexander; ...

    2017-04-20

    The angiotensin II receptors AT 1R and AT 2R serve as key components of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. AT 1R has a central role in the regulation of blood pressure, but the function of AT 2R is unclear and it has a variety of reported effects. To identify the mechanisms that underlie the differences in function and ligand selectivity between these receptors, here we report crystal structures of human AT 2R bound to an AT 2R-selective ligand and to an AT 1R/AT 2R dual ligand, capturing the receptor in an active-like conformation. Unexpectedly, helix VIII was found in a non-canonical position,more » stabilizing the active-like state, but at the same time preventing the recruitment of G proteins or β-arrestins, in agreement with the lack of signalling responses in standard cellular assays. Structure–activity relationship, docking and mutagenesis studies revealed the crucial interactions for ligand binding and selectivity. Finally, our results thus provide insights into the structural basis of the distinct functions of the angiotensin receptors, and may guide the design of new selective ligands.« less

  11. Structural basis for selectivity and diversity in angiotensin II receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haitao; Han, Gye Won; Batyuk, Alexander

    The angiotensin II receptors AT 1R and AT 2R serve as key components of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. AT 1R has a central role in the regulation of blood pressure, but the function of AT 2R is unclear and it has a variety of reported effects. To identify the mechanisms that underlie the differences in function and ligand selectivity between these receptors, here we report crystal structures of human AT 2R bound to an AT 2R-selective ligand and to an AT 1R/AT 2R dual ligand, capturing the receptor in an active-like conformation. Unexpectedly, helix VIII was found in a non-canonical position,more » stabilizing the active-like state, but at the same time preventing the recruitment of G proteins or β-arrestins, in agreement with the lack of signalling responses in standard cellular assays. Structure–activity relationship, docking and mutagenesis studies revealed the crucial interactions for ligand binding and selectivity. Finally, our results thus provide insights into the structural basis of the distinct functions of the angiotensin receptors, and may guide the design of new selective ligands.« less

  12. Human LDL Structural Diversity Studied by IR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Higuero, José A.; Salvador, Ana M.; Martín, Cesar; Milicua, José Carlos G.; Arrondo, José L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoproteins are responsible for cholesterol traffic in humans. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) delivers cholesterol from liver to peripheral tissues. A misleading delivery can lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. LDL has a single protein, apoB-100, that binds to a specific receptor. It is known that the failure associated with a deficient protein-receptor binding leads to plaque formation. ApoB-100 is a large single lipid-associated polypeptide difficulting the study of its structure. IR spectroscopy is a technique suitable to follow the different conformational changes produced in apoB-100 because it is not affected by the size of the protein or the turbidity of the sample. We have analyzed LDL spectra of different individuals and shown that, even if there are not big structural changes, a different pattern in the intensity of the band located around 1617 cm−1 related with strands embedded in the lipid monolayer, can be associated with a different conformational rearrangement that could affect to a protein interacting region with the receptor. PMID:24642788

  13. Effects of Diverse Forms of Family Structure on Female and Male Homicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing 2000 data on 1,618 counties and seemingly unrelated regression, I assess whether family structure effects on homicide vary across family structure measures and gender. There is evidence of robust, multidimensional family structure effects across constructs reflecting the presence of two-parent families: mother/father absence, shortages…

  14. Genome-wide characterization of genetic diversity and population structure in Secale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous rye accessions are stored in ex situ genebanks worldwide. Little is known about the extent of genetic diversity contained in any of them and its relation to contemporary varieties, since to date rye genetic diversity studies had a very limited scope, analyzing few loci and/ or few accessions. Development of high throughput genotyping methods for rye opened the possibility for genome wide characterizations of large accessions sets. In this study we used 1054 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers with defined chromosomal location to characterize genetic diversity and population structure in a collection of 379 rye accessions including wild species, landraces, cultivated materials, historical and contemporary rye varieties. Results Average genetic similarity (GS) coefficients and average polymorphic information content (PIC) values varied among chromosomes. Comparison of chromosome specific average GS within and between germplasm sub-groups indicated regions of chromosomes 1R and 4R as being targeted by selection in current breeding programs. Bayesian clustering, principal coordinate analysis and Neighbor Joining clustering demonstrated that source and improvement status contributed significantly to the structure observed in the analyzed set of Secale germplasm. We revealed a relatively limited diversity in improved rye accessions, both historical and contemporary, as well as lack of correlation between clustering of improved accessions and geographic origin, suggesting common genetic background of rye accessions from diverse geographic regions and extensive germplasm exchange. Moreover, contemporary varieties were distinct from the remaining accessions. Conclusions Our results point to an influence of reproduction methods on the observed diversity patterns and indicate potential of ex situ collections for broadening the genetic diversity in rye breeding programs. Obtained data show that DArT markers provide a realistic picture of the genetic

  15. Construction of Matryoshka-type structures from supercharged protein nanocages.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tobias; Tetter, Stephan; Künzle, Matthias; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-01-12

    Designing nanoscaled hierarchical structures with increasing levels of complexity is challenging. Here we show that electrostatic interactions between two complementarily supercharged protein nanocages can be effectively utilized to create nested Matryoshka-type structures. Cage-within-cage complexes containing spatially ordered iron oxide nanoparticles spontaneously self-assemble upon mixing positively supercharged ferritin compartments with AaLS-13, a larger shell-forming protein with a negatively supercharged lumen. Exploiting engineered Coulombic interactions and protein dynamics in this way opens up new avenues for creating hierarchically organized supramolecular assemblies for application as delivery vehicles, reaction chambers, and artificial organelles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Constructing Black Titania with Unique Nanocage Structure for Solar Desalination.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guilian; Xu, Jijian; Zhao, Wenli; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-11-23

    Solar desalination driven by solar radiation as heat source is freely available, however, hindered by low efficiency. Herein, we first design and synthesize black titania with a unique nanocage structure simultaneously with light trapping effect to enhance light harvesting, well-crystallized interconnected nanograins to accelerate the heat transfer from titania to water and with opening mesopores (4-10 nm) to facilitate the permeation of water vapor. Furthermore, the coated self-floating black titania nanocages film localizes the temperature increase at the water-air interface rather than uniformly heating the bulk of the water, which ultimately results in a solar-thermal conversion efficiency as high as 70.9% under a simulated solar light with an intensity of 1 kW m -2 (1 sun). This finding should inspire new black materials with rationally designed structure for superior solar desalination performance.

  17. Relationship between diversity and the vertical structure of the upper ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhurst, Alan R.

    1985-12-01

    The sources of diversity in the plankton ecosystem of the upper 250 m in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean are explored in the data from LHPR plankton profiles. Though there is good evidence for resource partitioning among feeding guilds of congeners, and for specialization in predation—both known to create diversity in simple aquatic ecosystems—the existence of a stable vertical structure, including a thermocline, may be one of the more important causes of variation in regional plankton diversity in the euphotic zone.

  18. Structural-functional diversity of the natural oligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Zamyatnin, Alexander A

    2018-03-01

    Natural oligopeptides may regulate nearly all vital processes. To date, the chemical structures of many oligopeptides have been identified from >2000 organisms representing all the biological kingdoms. We have considered a number of mathematical (sequence length), chemical, physical, and biological features of an array of natural oligopeptides on the basis of the oligopeptide EROP-Moscow database (http://erop.inbi.ras.ru, 15,351 entries) data. There is the substantial difference of these substances from polypeptide molecules of proteins according to their physicochemical characteristics. These characteristics may be critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the action of oligopeptides that lead to the development of physiological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global mammal beta diversity shows parallel assemblage structure in similar but isolated environments

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Catherine H.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Rondinini, Carlo; Hedges, S. Blair; Davidson, Ana D.; Costa, Gabriel C.

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic, phylogenetic and trait dimensions of beta diversity each provide us unique insights into the importance of historical isolation and environmental conditions in shaping global diversity. These three dimensions should, in general, be positively correlated. However, if similar environmental conditions filter species with similar trait values, then assemblages located in similar environmental conditions, but separated by large dispersal barriers, may show high taxonomic, high phylogenetic, but low trait beta diversity. Conversely, we expect lower phylogenetic diversity, but higher trait biodiversity among assemblages that are connected but are in differing environmental conditions. We calculated all pairwise comparisons of approximately 110 × 110 km grid cells across the globe for more than 5000 mammal species (approx. 70 million comparisons). We considered realms as units representing geographical distance and historical isolation and biomes as units with similar environmental conditions. While beta diversity dimensions were generally correlated, we highlight geographical regions of decoupling among beta diversity dimensions. Our analysis shows that assemblages from tropical forests in different realms had low trait dissimilarity while phylogenetic beta diversity was significantly higher than expected, suggesting potential convergent evolution. Low trait beta diversity was surprisingly not found between isolated deserts, despite harsh environmental conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence for parallel assemblage structure of mammal assemblages driven by environmental conditions at a global scale. PMID:27559061

  20. Experimental warming effects on the bacterial community structure and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Han, S.; Adams, J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the responses of soil bacterial community to future temperature increase by conducting open-field warming experiment. We conducted an open-field experimental warming system using infra-red heater in 2011 and regulated the temperature of warmed plots by 3oC higher than that of control plots constantly. The seeds of Pinus densiflora, Abies holophylla, Abies koreana, Betula costata, Quercus variabilis, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, and Zelkova serrata were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. We collected soil samples from the rhizosphere of 7 tree species. DNA was extracted and PCR-amplified for the bacterial 16S gene targeting V1-V3 region. The paired-end sequencing was performed at Beijing Genome Institute (BGI, Hong Kong, China) using 2× 100 bp Hiseq2000 (Illumina). This study aimed to answer the following prediction/hypothesis: 1) Experimental warming will change the structure of soil bacterial community, 2) There will be distinct 'indicator group' which response to warming treatment relatively more sensitive than other groups. 3) Warming treatment will enhance the microbial activity in terms of soil respiration. 4) The rhizoplane bacterial communities for each of 7 tree species will show different response pattern to warming treatment. Since the sequence data does not arrive before the submission deadline, therefore, we would like to present the results and discussions on December 2014, AGU Fall Meeting.

  1. Direct AFM observation of an opening event of a DNA cuboid constructed via a prism structure.

    PubMed

    Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-04-07

    A cuboid structure was constructed using a DNA origami design based on a square prism structure. The structure was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering. The real-time opening event of the cuboid was directly observed by high-speed AFM.

  2. The Wh-Adverbial & Which-NP Construction Asymmetry within Island Structures in Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakir, Sinan

    2017-01-01

    The present study is a follow-up study of Çakir (2016b) which focused on the wh-adverbial & which NP constructions asymmetry within island structures in Turkish. The characteristics of wh-adverbial nasil "how" is compared with the which-NP constructions "hangisekilde" "in what way" and "hangihalde"…

  3. Improved fatigue performance for wood-based structural panels using slot and tab construction

    Treesearch

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents static and fatigue bending behavior for a wood-based structural panel having a slot and tab (S/T) construction technique. Comparisons were made with similarly fabricated panels without the S/T construction technique. Experimental results showed that both types of panels had similar bending properties in the static tests. However, the panels with S/T...

  4. Structural diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei lipopolysaccharides affects innate immune signaling

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Michael H.; Schweizer, Herbert P.

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) causes the disease melioidosis. The main cause of mortality in this disease is septic shock triggered by the host responding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) components of the Gram-negative outer membrane. Bp LPS is thought to be a weak inducer of the host immune system. LPS from several strains of Bp were purified and their ability to induce the inflammatory mediators TNF-α and iNOS in murine macrophages at low concentrations was investigated. Innate and adaptive immunity qPCR arrays were used to profile expression patterns of 84 gene targets in response to the different LPS types. Additional qPCR validation confirmed large differences in macrophage response. LPS from a high-virulence serotype B strain 576a and a virulent rough central nervous system tropic strain MSHR435 greatly induced the innate immune response indicating that the immunopathogenesis of these strains is different than in infections with strains similar to the prototype strain 1026b. The accumulation of autophagic vesicles was also increased in macrophages challenged with highly immunogenic Bp LPS. Gene induction and concomitant cytokine secretion profiles of human PBMCs in response to the various LPS were also investigated. MALDI-TOF/TOF was used to probe the lipid A portions of the LPS, indicating substantial structural differences that likely play a role in host response to LPS. These findings add to the evolving knowledge of host-response to bacterial LPS, which can be used to better understand septic shock in melioidosis patients and in the rational design of vaccines. PMID:28453531

  5. Role of stochastic processes in maintaining discrete strain structure in antigenically diverse pathogen populations.

    PubMed

    Buckee, Caroline O; Recker, Mario; Watkins, Eleanor R; Gupta, Sunetra

    2011-09-13

    Many highly diverse pathogen populations appear to exist stably as discrete antigenic types despite evidence of genetic exchange. It has been shown that this may arise as a consequence of immune selection on pathogen populations, causing them to segregate permanently into discrete nonoverlapping subsets of antigenic variants to minimize competition for available hosts. However, discrete antigenic strain structure tends to break down under conditions where there are unequal numbers of allelic variants at each locus. Here, we show that the inclusion of stochastic processes can lead to the stable recovery of discrete strain structure through loss of certain alleles. This explains how pathogen populations may continue to behave as independently transmitted strains despite inevitable asymmetries in allelic diversity of major antigens. We present evidence for this type of structuring across global meningococcal isolates in three diverse antigens that are currently being developed as vaccine components.

  6. A Multidimensional Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis Strategy for Structurally Diverse and Complex Macrocycles

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Feilin; Kunciw, Dominique L.; Wilcke, David; Stokes, Jamie E.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Bartlett, Sean; Sore, Hannah F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Synthetic macrocycles are an attractive area in drug discovery. However, their use has been hindered by a lack of versatile platforms for the generation of structurally (and thus shape) diverse macrocycle libraries. Herein, we describe a new concept in library synthesis, termed multidimensional diversity‐oriented synthesis, and its application towards macrocycles. This enabled the step‐efficient generation of a library of 45 novel, structurally diverse, and highly‐functionalized macrocycles based around a broad range of scaffolds and incorporating a wide variety of biologically relevant structural motifs. The synthesis strategy exploited the diverse reactivity of aza‐ylides and imines, and featured eight different macrocyclization methods, two of which were novel. Computational analyses reveal a broad coverage of molecular shape space by the library and provides insight into how the various diversity‐generating steps of the synthesis strategy impact on molecular shape. PMID:27484830

  7. Feasibility evaluation of utilizing high-strength concrete in design and construction of highway bridge structures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the feasibility of using high-strength concrete in the design and construction of highway bridge structures. A literature search was conducted; a survey of five regional fabrication plants was perfo...

  8. Comparative analyses of structural features and scaffold diversity for purchasable compound libraries.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jun; Sun, Huiyong; Liu, Hui; Chen, Fu; Tian, Sheng; Pan, Peichen; Li, Dan; Kong, Dexin; Hou, Tingjun

    2017-04-21

    Large purchasable screening libraries of small molecules afforded by commercial vendors are indispensable sources for virtual screening (VS). Selecting an optimal screening library for a specific VS campaign is quite important to improve the success rates and avoid wasting resources in later experimental phases. Analysis of the structural features and molecular diversity for different screening libraries can provide valuable information to the decision making process when selecting screening libraries for VS. In this study, the structural features and scaffold diversity of eleven purchasable screening libraries and Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Database (TCMCD) were analyzed and compared. Their scaffold diversity represented by the Murcko frameworks and Level 1 scaffolds was characterized by the scaffold counts and cumulative scaffold frequency plots, and visualized by Tree Maps and SAR Maps. The analysis demonstrates that, based on the standardized subsets with similar molecular weight distributions, Chembridge, ChemicalBlock, Mucle, TCMCD and VitasM are more structurally diverse than the others. Compared with all purchasable screening libraries, TCMCD has the highest structural complexity indeed but more conservative molecular scaffolds. Moreover, we found that some representative scaffolds were important components of drug candidates against different drug targets, such as kinases and guanosine-binding protein coupled receptors, and therefore the molecules containing pharmacologically important scaffolds found in screening libraries might be potential inhibitors against the relevant targets. This study may provide valuable perspective on which purchasable compound libraries are better for you to screen. Graphical abstract Selecting diverse compound libraries with scaffold analyses.

  9. Teacher collaboration and curriculum construction: Political, cultural, and structural contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterle, Rochelle Eda Penn

    This longitudinal case study is the story of one high school's efforts to implement curriculum reform and the profound effect of local circumstances on reform ideologies. What began as a study of inter- and intradisciplinary collaborative science curriculum integration became the study of a systemic failure to modify cultural practices. Poritical, economic, and structural measures initiated to facilitate reform ultimately represent inherent conflicts of interest which undermine the reform effort. This research exposes obstacles that are deeply embedded within the school's governance, the beliefs and knowledge of teachers, and the culture of schools. The study site is both a new entity and a new concept: a specialized math/science high school located on a state university campus; the school recruits underrepresented students to become acclimated to university coursework and culture. To date, the school has maintained an exceptional record of college and university placements. The school is governed by a partnership representing the university, the corporate sector, and 11 surrounding K-12 school districts. Free from the regularities of a traditional high school, the school appears to be ideally situated for innovation. The principle innovations at this school relate to its organizational structure--heterogeneous student groupings, cooperative group work, curriculum integration, block scheduling, and concurrent university coursework. For teachers, grade level teams replace departments as the dominant unit for professional, curricular, and social interactions. Within teacher teams, collaboration centers around ongoing student problems and policies, subordinating academic content and significant interdisciplinary connections. Without active discipline-based departments and curricular leadership, however, this research finds an absence of academic direction and accountability.

  10. Neural correlates of RDoC reward constructs in adolescents with diverse psychiatric symptoms: A Reward Flanker Task pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Case, Julia A C; Freed, Rachel D; Stern, Emily R; Gabbay, Vilma

    2017-07-01

    There has been growing interest under the Research Domain Criteria initiative to investigate behavioral constructs and their underlying neural circuitry. Abnormalities in reward processes are salient across psychiatric conditions and may precede future psychopathology in youth. However, the neural circuitry underlying such deficits has not been well defined. Therefore, in this pilot, we studied youth with diverse psychiatric symptoms and examined the neural underpinnings of reward anticipation, attainment, and positive prediction error (PPE, unexpected reward gain). Clinically, we focused on anhedonia, known to reflect deficits in reward function. Twenty-two psychotropic medication-free youth, 16 with psychiatric symptoms, exhibiting a full range of anhedonia, were scanned during the Reward Flanker Task. Anhedonia severity was quantified using the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses were false discovery rate corrected for multiple comparisons. Anticipation activated a broad network, including the medial frontal cortex and ventral striatum, while attainment activated memory and emotion-related regions such as the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, but not the ventral striatum. PPE activated a right-dominant fronto-temporo-parietal network. Anhedonia was only correlated with activation of the right angular gyrus during anticipation and the left precuneus during PPE at an uncorrected threshold. Findings are preliminary due to the small sample size. This pilot characterized the neural circuitry underlying different aspects of reward processing in youth with diverse psychiatric symptoms. These results highlight the complexity of the neural circuitry underlying reward anticipation, attainment, and PPE. Furthermore, this study underscores the importance of RDoC research in youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scale-Dependence of Processes Structuring Dung Beetle Metacommunities Using Functional Diversity and Community Deconstruction Approaches

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  12. Response of rocky invertebrate diversity, structure and function to the vertical layering of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, María; Tajadura, Javier; Gorostiaga, José María; Saiz-Salinas, José Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Macroalgae comprise a prominent part of the rocky benthos where many invertebrates develop, and are believed to be undergoing severe declines worldwide. In order to investigate how the vegetation structure (crustose, basal and canopy layers) contributes to the diversity, structure and function of benthic invertebrates, a total of 31 subtidal transects were sampled along the northeast Atlantic coast of Spain. Significant positive relationships were found between the canopy layer and faunal abundance, taxonomic diversity and functional group diversity. Canopy forming algae were also related to epiphytic invertebrates, medium size forms, colonial strategy and suspensivores. By contrast, basal algae showed negative relationships with all variables tested except for detritivores. Multivariate multiple regression analyses (DISTLM) point to crustose as well as canopy layers as the best link between seaweeds and invertebrate assemblage structure. A close relationship was found between taxonomic and functional diversities. In general, low levels of taxonomic redundancy were detected for functional groups correlated with vegetation structure. A conceptual model based on the results is proposed, describing distinct stages of invertebrate assemblages in relation to the vertical structure of vegetation.

  13. Potential pathogens, antimicrobial patterns and genotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates in constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, A M; Murinda, Shelton E; DebRoy, Chitrita; Reddy, Gudigopura B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli populations originating from swine houses through constructed wetlands were analyzed for potential pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and genotypic diversity. Escherichia coli isolates (n = 493) were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes: stx1, stx2 and eae (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) genes and heat stable toxin STa and STb (enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), cytotoxin necrotizing factors 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2 [necrotoxigenic E. coli- NTEC]), as well as O and H antigens, and the presence of the antibiotic resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCMY-2, tet A, tet B, tet C, mph(A), aadA, StrA/B, sul1, sul2 and sul3. The commensal strains were further screened for 16 antimicrobials and characterized by BOX AIR-1 PCR for unique genotypes. The highest antibiotic resistance prevalence was for tetracycline, followed by erythromycin, ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and kanamycin. Our data showed that most of the isolates had high distribution of single or multidrug-resistant (MDR) genotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of MDR E. coli in the wetland is a matter of great concern due to possible transfer of resistance genes from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains or vice versa in the environment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Johanna; Öhman, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena

    2016-01-01

    A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV), a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1) only considering present values, (2) giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3) applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4) only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for disturbance

  15. Genetic Diversity and Spatial Genetic Structure of the Grassland Perennial Saxifraga granulata along Two River Systems

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Sascha; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Due to changes in land use, the natural habitats of an increasing number of plant species have become more and more fragmented. In landscapes that consist of patches of suitable habitat, the frequency and extent of long-distance seed dispersal can be expected to be an important factor determining local genetic diversity and regional population structure of the remaining populations. In plant species that are restricted to riparian habitats, rivers can be expected to have a strong impact on the dynamics and spatial genetic structure of populations as they may enable long-distance seed dispersal and thus maintain gene flow between fragmented populations. In this study, we used polymorphic microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic diversity and the spatial genetic structure of 28 populations of Saxifraga granulata along two rivers in central Belgium. We hypothesized that rivers might be essential for gene flow among increasingly isolated populations of this species. Genetic diversity was high (HS = 0.68), which to a certain extent can be explained by the octoploid nature of S. granulata in the study area. Populations along the Dijle and Demer rivers were also highly differentiated (G” ST = 0.269 and 0.164 and D EST = 0.190 and 0.124, respectively) and showed significant isolation-by-distance, indicating moderate levels of gene flow primarily between populations that are geographically close to each other. Along the river Demer population genetic diversity was higher upstream than downstream, suggesting that seed dispersal via the water was not the primary mode of dispersal. Overall, these results indicate that despite increasing fragmentation populations along both rivers were highly genetically diverse. The high ploidy level and longevity of S. granulata have most likely buffered negative effects of fragmentation on genetic diversity and the spatial genetic structure of populations in riparian grasslands. PMID:26079603

  16. [Age structure and genetic diversity of Homatula pycnolepis in the Nujiang River basin].

    PubMed

    Yue, Xing-Jian; Liu, Shao-Ping; Liu, Ming-Dian; Duan, Xin-Bin; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the age structure of the Loach, Homatula pycnolepis through the otolith growth rings in 204 individual specimens collected from the Xiaomengtong River of the Nujiang River (Salween River) basin in April, 2008. There were only two different age classes, 1 and 2 years of age-no 3 year olds were detected. The age structure of H. pycnolepis was simple. The complete mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences (1140) of 80 individuals from 4 populations collected in the Nujiang River drainage were sequenced and a total of 44 variable sites were found among 4 different haplotypes. The global haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (Pi) were calculated at 0.7595, 0.0151 respectively, and 0, 0 in each population, indicating a consistent lack of genetic diversity in each small population. There was obvious geographic structure in both the Nujiang River basin (NJB) group, and the Nanding River (NDR) group. The genetic distance between NJB and NDR was calculated at 0.0356, suggesting that genetic divergence resulted from long-term isolation of individual population. Such a simple age structure and a lack of genetic diversity in H. pycnolepis may potentially be due to small populations and locale fishing pressures. Accordingly, the results of this study prompt us to recommend that the NJB, NDR and Lancang River populations should be protected as three different evolutionary significant units or separated management units.

  17. Diverse Narrative Structures in Contemporary Picturebooks: Opportunities for Children's Meaning-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia; Sipe, Lawrence R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors situate their discussion of diverse narrative structures in the context of oral storytelling practices and postmodern picturebooks. They focus on three contemporary picturebooks: "Don't Read This Book!" (Lewis, 2009), "Abe Lincoln Crosses a Creek: A Tall Thin Tale" (Hopkins, 2008), and "The Stinky Cheese Man and Other…

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of sickleweed (Falcaria vulgaris; Apiaceae) in the upper Midwest USA

    Treesearch

    Sarbottam Piya; Madhav P. Nepal; Jack L. Butler; Gary E. Larson; Achal Neupane

    2014-01-01

    Sickleweed (Falcaria vulgaris), an introduced species native to Europe and Asia, grows as an aggressive weed in some areas of the upper Midwest in the United States. We are reporting genetic diversity and population structure of sickleweed populations using microsatellite markers and nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Populations showed high genetic differentiation...

  19. Different histories but similar genetic diversity and structure for black walnut in Indiana and Missouri

    Treesearch

    Erin R. Victory; Jeffrey C. Glaubitz; Jennifer A. Fike; Olin E. Rhodes; Keith E. Woeste

    2008-01-01

    Missouri and Indiana have markedly different histories of glaciation and recolonization by forest trees. These states also differ in land use patterns and degree of anthropogenic landscape change such as forest fragmentation. To determine the overall effects of these and other demographic differences on the levels of genetic diversity and structure in black walnut (...

  20. Structure of Vocational Interests for Diverse Groups on the 2005 Strong Interest Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantamneni, Neeta; Fouad, Nadya

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the structure of vocational interests in a diverse sample of individuals who completed the 2005 revision of the Strong Interest Inventory. We examined the fit of three racial/ethnic groups (African American, Caucasian, and Latino/a), both genders, and three levels of professional status (GRS participant, student,…

  1. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Resistance to Phytophthora capsici of a Worldwide Collection of Eggplant Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Naegele, Rachel P.; Boyle, Samantha; Quesada-Ocampo, Lina M.; Hausbeck, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important solanaceous crop with high phenotypic diversity and moderate genotypic diversity. Ninety-nine genotypes of eggplant germplasm (species (S. melongena, S. incanum, S. linnaeanum and S. gilo), landraces and heirloom cultivars) from 32 countries and five continents were evaluated for genetic diversity, population structure, fruit shape, and disease resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot. Fruits from each line were measured for fruit shape and evaluated for resistance to two Phytophthora capsici isolates seven days post inoculation. Only one accession (PI 413784) was completely resistant to both isolates evaluated. Partial resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot was found in accessions from all four eggplant species evaluated in this study. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed using 22 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The polymorphism information content (PIC) for the population was moderate (0.49) in the population. Genetic analyses using the program STRUCTURE indicated the existence of four genetic clusters within the eggplant collection. Population structure was detected when eggplant lines were grouped by species, continent of origin, country of origin, fruit shape and disease resistance. PMID:24819601

  2. Comparison of genetic diversity and population structure of Pacific Coast whitebark pine across multiple markers

    Treesearch

    Andrew D. Bower; Bryce A. Richardson; Valerie Hipkins; Regina Rochefort; Carol Aubry

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of "neutral" molecular markers and "adaptive" quantitative traits are common methods of assessing genetic diversity and population structure. Molecular markers typically reflect the effects of demographic and stochastic processes but are generally assumed to not reflect natural selection. Conversely, quantitative (or "adaptive")...

  3. Sampling and estimation procedures for the vegetation diversity and structure indicator

    Treesearch

    Bethany K. Schulz; William A. Bechtold; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2009-01-01

    The Vegetation Diversity and Structure Indicator (VEG) is an extensive inventory of vascular plants in the forests of the United States. The VEG indicator provides baseline data to assess trends in forest vascular plant species richness and composition, and the relative abundance and spatial distribution of those species, including invasive and introduced species. The...

  4. Interracial Friendship and Structural Diversity: Trends for Greek, Religious, and Ethnic Student Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Kim, Young K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how peer interactions in college organizations (Greek, ethnic, and religious) affect interracial friendships, including whether peer interaction in student organizations mediates the relationship between structural diversity and interracial friendship. Involvement in ethnic student organizations was non-significant;…

  5. The structure of genetic diversity in Engelmann spruce and a comparison with blue spruce

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig; Paul D. Hodgskiss; David R. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Genetic diversity and genetic structure in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) were interpreted with respect to the effects of glacial and interglacial displacement and compared with patterns in blue spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.), which occupies a range well south of the last glacial front. On average,...

  6. Population structure and genetic diversity of Fusicladium effusum in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scab (Fusicladium effusum) is the most destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. Infection is thought to occur solely through asexually produced conidia. To explore the population structure and genetic diversity of F. effusum, populations were hierarchically sampled from 11 orchards in Alaba...

  7. The Diverse Social and Economic Structure of Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Effective rural development planning depends on facts and analysis based, not on rural averages, but on the diverse social and economic structure of rural America. Programs tailored to particular types of rural economies may be more effective than generalized programs. Because of their unique characteristics, government policies and economic…

  8. Understanding the genetic diversity and population structure of yam (Dioscorea alata L.) using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Arnau, Gemma; MN, Sheela; Chair, Hana; Lebot, Vincent; K, Abraham; Perrier, Xavier; Petro, Dalila; Penet, Laurent; Pavis, Claudie

    2017-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea sp.) are staple food crops for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Dioscorea alata, also known as greater yam, is one of the major cultivated species and most widely distributed throughout the tropics. Despite its economic and cultural importance, very little is known about its origin, diversity and genetics. As a consequence, breeding efforts for resistance to its main disease, anthracnose, have been fairly limited. The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of D. alata genetic diversity by genotyping 384 accessions from different geographical regions (South Pacific, Asia, Africa and the Caribbean), using 24 microsatellite markers. Diversity structuration was assessed via Principal Coordinate Analysis, UPGMA analysis and the Bayesian approach implemented in STRUCTURE. Our results revealed the existence of a wide genetic diversity and a significant structuring associated with geographic origin, ploidy levels and morpho-agronomic characteristics. Seventeen major groups of genetically close cultivars have been identified, including eleven groups of diploid cultivars, four groups of triploids and two groups of tetraploids. STRUCTURE revealed the existence of six populations in the diploid genetic pool and a few admixed cultivars. These results will be very useful for rationalizing D. alata genetic resources in breeding programs across different regions and for improving germplasm conservation methods. PMID:28355293

  9. Floristic diversity, stand structure, and composition 11 years after herbicide site preparation

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Robert S. Boyd; M. Boyd Edwards

    1999-01-01

    This study tested for effects of site preparation herbicides applied at high labeled rates 11 years earlier on plant species richness, diversity, and stand structure and composition. Four study sites in three physiographic provinces were established in central Georgia in 1984. Six herbicide treatments were included on each site: hexazinone liquid, hexazinone pellets,...

  10. Diverse Asian American Families and Communities: Culture, Structure, and Education (Part 1: Why They Differ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…

  11. Examining the Factor Structure and Hierarchical Nature of the Quality of Life Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Mian; Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Christina

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable debate in the area of individual quality of life research regarding the factor structure and hierarchical nature of the quality of life construct. Our purpose in this study was to test via structural equation modeling an a priori quality of life model consisting of eight first-order factors and one second-order factor. Data…

  12. The Role of Human Error in Design, Construction, and Reliability of Marine Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    The 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident was largely a result of a failure to properly sort out and recognize critically important information...determinating the goals and objectives of the program and by evaluating and interpreting the results in terms of structural design, construction, and...67 Checking Models in Structural Design ....................................... 69 Nuclear Power Plants

  13. Relations between Minuchin's Structural Family Model and Kohut's Self-Psychology Constructs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…

  14. Diversity and community structure of marine microbes around the Benham Rise underwater plateau, northeastern Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Gajigan, Andrian P.; Yñiguez, Aletta T.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; San Diego-McGlone, Maria Lourdes; Jacinto, Gil S.

    2018-01-01

    Microbes are central to the structuring and functioning of marine ecosystems. Given the remarkable diversity of the ocean microbiome, uncovering marine microbial taxa remains a fundamental challenge in microbial ecology. However, there has been little effort, thus far, to describe the diversity of marine microorganisms in the region of high marine biodiversity around the Philippines. Here, we present data on the taxonomic diversity of bacteria and archaea in Benham Rise, Philippines, Western Pacific Ocean, using 16S V4 rRNA gene sequencing. The major bacterial and archaeal phyla identified in the Benham Rise are Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Marinimicrobia, Thaumarchaeota and, Euryarchaeota. The upper mesopelagic layer exhibited greater microbial diversity and richness compared to surface waters. Vertical zonation of the microbial community is evident and may be attributed to physical stratification of the water column acting as a dispersal barrier. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) recapitulated previously known associations of taxa and physicochemical parameters in the environment, such as the association of oligotrophic clades with low nutrient surface water and deep water clades that have the capacity to oxidize ammonia or nitrite at the upper mesopelagic layer. These findings provide foundational information on the diversity of marine microbes in Philippine waters. Further studies are warranted to gain a more comprehensive picture of microbial diversity within the region. PMID:29785352

  15. Diversity and community structure of marine microbes around the Benham Rise underwater plateau, northeastern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gajigan, Andrian P; Yñiguez, Aletta T; Villanoy, Cesar L; San Diego-McGlone, Maria Lourdes; Jacinto, Gil S; Conaco, Cecilia

    2018-01-01

    Microbes are central to the structuring and functioning of marine ecosystems. Given the remarkable diversity of the ocean microbiome, uncovering marine microbial taxa remains a fundamental challenge in microbial ecology. However, there has been little effort, thus far, to describe the diversity of marine microorganisms in the region of high marine biodiversity around the Philippines. Here, we present data on the taxonomic diversity of bacteria and archaea in Benham Rise, Philippines, Western Pacific Ocean, using 16S V4 rRNA gene sequencing. The major bacterial and archaeal phyla identified in the Benham Rise are Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Marinimicrobia, Thaumarchaeota and, Euryarchaeota. The upper mesopelagic layer exhibited greater microbial diversity and richness compared to surface waters. Vertical zonation of the microbial community is evident and may be attributed to physical stratification of the water column acting as a dispersal barrier. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) recapitulated previously known associations of taxa and physicochemical parameters in the environment, such as the association of oligotrophic clades with low nutrient surface water and deep water clades that have the capacity to oxidize ammonia or nitrite at the upper mesopelagic layer. These findings provide foundational information on the diversity of marine microbes in Philippine waters. Further studies are warranted to gain a more comprehensive picture of microbial diversity within the region.

  16. Genetic diversity and structure of the threatened species Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Wang, J; Yin, D X; Yang, M; Wang, P; Han, Q S; Ma, Q Q; Liu, J J; Wang, J X

    2016-06-10

    Sinopodophyllum hexandrum is an important medicinal plant that has been listed as an endangered species, making the conservation of its genetic diversity a priority. Therefore, the genetic diversity and population structure of S. hexandrum was investigated through inter-simple sequence repeat analysis of eight natural populations. Eleven selected primers generated 141 discernible fragments. The percentage of polymorphic bands was 37.59% at the species level, and 7.66-24.32% at the population level. Genetic diversity of S. hexandrum was low within populations (average HE = 0.0366), but higher at the species level (HE = 0.0963). Clear structure and high genetic differentiation were detected between populations using unweighted pair groups mean arithmetic and principle coordinate analysis. Clustering approaches clustered the eight sampled populations into three major groups, and AMOVA confirmed there to be significant variation between populations (63.27%). Genetic differentiation may have arisen through limited gene flow (Nm = 0.3317) in this species. Isolation by distance among populations was determined by comparing genetic distance versus geographical distance using the Mantel test. The results revealed no correlation between spatial pattern and geographic location. Given the low within-population genetic diversity, high differentiation among populations, and the increasing anthropogenic pressure on this species, in situ conservation measures, in addition to sampling and ex situ preservation, are recommended to preserve S. hexandrum populations and to retain their genetic diversity.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure in the tomato-like nightshades Solanum lycopersicoides and S. sitiens

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Elena; Escobar, Miguel; Chetelat, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Two closely related, wild tomato-like nightshade species, Solanum lycopersicoides and Solanum sitiens, inhabit a small area within the Atacama Desert region of Peru and Chile. Each species possesses unique traits, including abiotic and biotic stress tolerances, and can be hybridized with cultivated tomato. Conservation and utilization of these tomato relatives would benefit from an understanding of genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations. Methods Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure were investigated by genotyping representative accessions of each species with a set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and allozyme markers. Key Results As expected for self-incompatible species, populations of S. lycopersicoides and S. sitiens were relatively diverse, but contained less diversity than the wild tomato Solanum chilense, a related allogamous species native to this region. Populations of S. lycopersicoides were slightly more diverse than populations of S. sitiens according to SSRs, but the opposite trend was found with allozymes. A higher coefficient of inbreeding was noted in S. sitiens. A pattern of isolation by distance was evident in both species, consistent with the highly fragmented nature of the populations in situ. The populations of each taxon showed strong geographical structure, with evidence for three major groups, corresponding to the northern, central and southern elements of their respective distributions. Conclusions This information should be useful for optimizing regeneration strategies, for sampling of the populations for genes of interest, and for guiding future in situ conservation efforts. PMID:20154348

  18. Genetic Structure and Potential Environmental Determinants of Local Genetic Diversity in Japanese Honeybees (Apis cerana japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Mika; Saito-Morooka, Fuki; Inoue, Maki N.; Nishiyama, Mio; Goka, Koichi; Sugiura, Shinji; Maeto, Kaoru; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo

    2016-01-01

    Declines in honeybee populations have been a recent concern. Although causes of the declines remain unclear, environmental factors may be responsible. We focused on the potential environmental determinants of local populations of wild honeybees, Apis cerana japonica, in Japan. This subspecies has little genetic variation in terms of its mitochondrial DNA sequences, and genetic variations at nuclear loci are as yet unknown. We estimated the genetic structure and environmental determinants of local genetic diversity in nuclear microsatellite genotypes of fathers and mothers, inferred from workers collected at 139 sites. The genotypes of fathers and mothers showed weak isolation by distance and negligible genetic structure. The local genetic diversity was high in central Japan, decreasing toward the peripheries, and depended on the climate and land use characteristics of the sites. The local genetic diversity decreased as the annual precipitation increased, and increased as the proportion of urban and paddy field areas increased. Positive effects of natural forest area, which have also been observed in terms of forager abundance in farms, were not detected with respect to the local genetic diversity. The findings suggest that A. cerana japonica forms a single population connected by gene flow in its main distributional range, and that climate and landscape properties potentially affect its local genetic diversity. PMID:27898704

  19. Ontogenetic functional diversity: size structure of a keystone predator drives functioning of a complex ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Volker H W; Rasmussen, Nick L

    2013-05-01

    A central challenge in community ecology is to understand the connection between biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. While traditional approaches have largely focused on species-level diversity, increasing evidence indicates that there exists substantial ecological diversity among individuals within species. By far, the largest source of this intraspecific diversity stems from variation among individuals in ontogenetic stage and size. Although such ontogenetic shifts are ubiquitous in natural communities, whether and how they scale up to influence the structure and functioning of complex ecosystems is largely unknown. Here we take an experimental approach to examine the consequences of ontogenetic niche shifts for the structure of communities and ecosystem processes. In particular we experimentally manipulated the stage structure in a keystone predator, larvae of the dragonfly Anax junius, in complex experimental pond communities to test whether changes in the population stage or size structure of a keystone species scale up to alter community structure and ecosystem processes, and how functional differences scale with relative differences in size among stages. We found that the functional role of A. junius was stage-specific. Altering what stages were present in a pond led to concurrent changes in community structure, primary producer biomass (periphyton and phytoplankton), and ultimately altered ecosystem processes (respiration and net primary productivity), indicating a strong, but stage-specific, trophic cascade. Interestingly, the stage-specific effects did not simply scale with size or biomass of the predator, but instead indicated clear ontogenetic niche shifts in ecological interactions. Thus, functional differences among stages within a keystone species scaled up to alter the functioning of entire ecosystems. Therefore, our results indicate that the classical approach of assuming an average functional role of a species can be misleading because

  20. Beyond Description in Interpersonal Construct Validation: Methodological Advances in the Circumplex Structural Summary Approach.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Johannes; Wright, Aidan G C

    2017-01-01

    The interpersonal circumplex is a well-established structural model that organizes interpersonal functioning within the two-dimensional space marked by dominance and affiliation. The structural summary method (SSM) was developed to evaluate the interpersonal nature of other constructs and measures outside the interpersonal circumplex. To date, this method has been primarily descriptive, providing no way to draw inferences when comparing SSM parameters across constructs or groups. We describe a newly developed resampling-based method for deriving confidence intervals, which allows for SSM parameter comparisons. In a series of five studies, we evaluated the accuracy of the approach across a wide range of possible sample sizes and parameter values, and demonstrated its utility for posing theoretical questions on the interpersonal nature of relevant constructs (e.g., personality disorders) using real-world data. As a result, the SSM is strengthened for its intended purpose of construct evaluation and theory building. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Morphological diversity and evolution of egg and clutch structure in amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Altig, Ronald; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    The first part of this synthesis summarizes the morphology of the jelly layers surrounding an amphibian ovum. We propose a standard terminology and discuss the evolution of jelly layers. The second part reviews the morphological diversity and arrangement of deposited eggs?the ovipositional mode; we recognize 5 morphological classes including 14 modes. We discuss some of the oviductal, ovipositional, and postovipositional events that contribute to these morphologies. We have incorporated data from taxa from throughout the world but recognize that other types will be discovered that may modify understanding of these modes. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary context of the diversity of clutch structure and present a first estimate of its evolution.

  2. A unified explanation for the diverse structural deviations reported for adult schizophrenics with disrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Chaika, E

    1982-06-01

    This paper attempts a unified explanation for the diverse manifestations of deviant speech considered pathognomic for schizophrenia. Examination of the structure of such speech shows that what appear to be diverse errors are really manifestations of two problems: apparently random or erroneous triggering of sounds and words coupled with inappropriate perseverations. These are shown to be different manifestations of the same problem, possibly a schizophrenic dysfunction in neurotransmitters in the brain.. Studies of hemispheric asymetry in schizophrenia, involuntary eyetracking, and the probable action of antipsychotic medication confirm the linguistic data.

  3. SSR-based genetic diversity and structure of garlic accessions from Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Camila Pinto; Resende, Francisco Vilela; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2014-10-01

    Garlic is a spice and a medicinal plant; hence, there is an increasing interest in 'developing' new varieties with different culinary properties or with high content of nutraceutical compounds. Phenotypic traits and dominant molecular markers are predominantly used to evaluate the genetic diversity of garlic clones. However, 24 SSR markers (codominant) specific for garlic are available in the literature, fostering germplasm researches. In this study, we genotyped 130 garlic accessions from Brazil and abroad using 17 polymorphic SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate a large set of accessions maintained by Brazilian institutions. A high level of redundancy was detected in the collection (50 % of the accessions represented eight haplotypes). However, non-redundant accessions presented high genetic diversity. We detected on average five alleles per locus, Shannon index of 1.2, HO of 0.5, and HE of 0.6. A core collection was set with 17 accessions, covering 100 % of the alleles with minimum redundancy. Overall FST and D values indicate a strong genetic structure within accessions. Two major groups identified by both model-based (Bayesian approach) and hierarchical clustering (UPGMA dendrogram) techniques were coherent with the classification of accessions according to maturity time (growth cycle): early-late and midseason accessions. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of garlic collections is the first step towards an efficient management and conservation of accessions in genebanks, as well as to advance future genetic studies and improvement of garlic worldwide.

  4. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    PubMed

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  5. [Species, functional, structural diversity of typical plant communities and their responses to environmental factors in Miao Archipelago, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li Ting; Su, Tian; Liu, Xiang Yu; Yin, Fang; Guo, Chao; Tuo, Bin; Yan, En Rong

    2018-02-01

    Island vegetation plays an important role in biodiversity research across the world. The study of plant diversity in island is helpful for understanding the mechanism of plant diversity maintenance under land-sea interaction. Here, four typical plant communities (Quercus acutissima community, Robinia pseudoacacia community, Pinus thunbergii community and Vitex negundo community) in Miao Archipelago were selected to examine the species, functional and structural diversities and their responses to environmental factors at the community scale by using species diversity indices, functional diversity indices, as well as structural diversity indices. The results showed that the species richness and Rao index of P. thunbergii community was higher than that of Q. acutissima community and R. pseudoacacia community, but the structural diversity was lower. The species diversity and structural diversity of V. Negundo shrub were lower than that of forest community, but the functional diversity was higher than some forest communities. The relationship between the diversity of typical plant communities in island area illustrated a significant positive correlation between species richness with Rao index and tree height diversity, however the correlation with functional evenness was significantly negative. The structural diversity and functional evenness were determined by slope with negative and positive relationships, respectively. Functional heterogeneity, functional divergence and species diversity were affected largely by soil physical and chemical properties, displaying the positive relationship with soil bulk density and soil total carbon content, and a negative relationship with soil water content. In conclusion, diversity pattern of plant community in Miao Archipelago reflected not only the characteristics in mainland vegetation but also the special nature of the sea island.

  6. Protection of Workers and Third Parties during the Construction of Linear Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlčková, Jitka; Venkrbec, Václav; Henková, Svatava; Chromý, Adam

    2017-12-01

    The minimization of risk in the workplace through a focus on occupational health and safety (OHS) is one of the primary objectives for every construction project. The most serious accidents in the construction industry occur during work on earthworks and linear structures. The character of such structures places them among those posing the greatest threat to the public (referred to as “third parties”). They can be characterized as large structures whose construction may involve the building site extending in a narrow lane alongside previously constructed objects currently in use by the public. Linear structures are often directly connected to existing objects or buildings, making it impossible to guard the whole construction site. However, many OHS problems related to linear structures can be prevented during the design stage. The aim of this article is to introduce a new methodology which has been implemented into a computer program that deals with safety measures at construction sites where work is performed on linear structures. Based on existing experience with the design of such structures and their execution and supervision by safety coordinators, the basic types of linear structures, their location in the terrain, the conditions present during their execution and other marginal conditions and influences were modelled. Basic safety information has been assigned to this elementary information, which is strictly necessary for the construction process. The safety provisions can be grouped according to type, e.g. technical, organizational and other necessary documentation, or into sets of provisions concerning areas such as construction site safety, transport safety, earthworks safety, etc. The selection of the given provisions takes place using multiple criteria. The aim of creating this program is to provide a practical tool for designers, contractors and construction companies. The model can contribute to the sufficient awareness of these participants

  7. ITS2 sequence-structure phylogeny reveals diverse endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi on poplars.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong-Hui; Gao, Qian; Sun, Xiaoming; Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Hongchang

    2018-04-01

    For matching the new fungal nomenclature to abolish pleomorphic names for a fungus, a genus Pseudocercospora s. str. was suggested to host holomorphic Pseudocercosproa fungi. But the Pseudocercosproa fungi need extra phylogenetic loci to clarify their taxonomy and diversity for their existing and coming species. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures have been promising in charactering species phylogeny in plants, animals and fungi. In present study, a conserved model of ITS2 secondary structures was confirmed on fungi in Pseudocercospora s. str. genus using RNAshape program. The model has a typical eukaryotic four-helix ITS2 secondary structure. But a single U base occurred in conserved motif of U-U mismatch in Helix 2, and a UG emerged in UGGU motif in Helix 3 to Pseudocercospora fungi. The phylogeny analyses based on the ITS2 sequence-secondary structures with compensatory base change characterizations are able to delimit more species for Pseudocercospora s. str. than phylogenic inferences of traditional multi-loci alignments do. The model was employed to explore the diversity of endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi in poplar trees. The analysis results also showed that endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi were diverse in species and evolved a specific lineage in poplar trees. This work suggested that ITS2 sequence-structures could become as additionally significant loci for species phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on Pseudocerospora fungi, and that Pseudocercospora endophytes could be important roles to Pseudocercospora fungi's evolution and function in ecology.

  8. Population structure and genetic diversity of black redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei) in a highly fragmented watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, S.M.; Wilson, C.C.; Mandrak, N.E.; Carl, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Dams have the potential to affect population size and connectivity, reduce genetic diversity, and increase genetic differences among isolated riverine fish populations. Previous research has reported adverse effects on the distribution and demographics of black redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei), a threatened fish species in Canada. However, effects on genetic diversity and population structure are unknown. We used microsatellite DNA markers to assess the number of genetic populations in the Grand River (Ontario) and to test whether dams have resulted in a loss of genetic diversity and increased genetic differentiation among populations. Three hundred and seventy-seven individuals from eight Grand River sites were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Measures of genetic diversity were moderately high and not significantly different among populations; strong evidence of recent population bottlenecks was not detected. Pairwise FST and exact tests identified weak (global FST = 0.011) but statistically significant population structure, although little population structuring was detected using either genetic distances or an individual-based clustering method. Neither geographic distance nor the number of intervening dams were correlated with pairwise differences among populations. Tests for regional equilibrium indicate that Grand River populations were either in equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift or that gene flow is more influential than drift. While studies on other species have identified strong dam-related effects on genetic diversity and population structure, this study suggests that barrier permeability, river fragment length and the ecological characteristics of affected species can counterbalance dam-related effects. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. K-shuff: A Novel Algorithm for Characterizing Structural and Compositional Diversity in Gene Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Jangid, Kamlesh; Kao, Ming-Hung; Lahamge, Aishwarya; Williams, Mark A.; Rathbun, Stephen L.; Whitman, William B.

    2016-01-01

    K-shuff is a new algorithm for comparing the similarity of gene sequence libraries, providing measures of the structural and compositional diversity as well as the significance of the differences between these measures. Inspired by Ripley’s K-function for spatial point pattern analysis, the Intra K-function or IKF measures the structural diversity, including both the richness and overall similarity of the sequences, within a library. The Cross K-function or CKF measures the compositional diversity between gene libraries, reflecting both the number of OTUs shared as well as the overall similarity in OTUs. A Monte Carlo testing procedure then enables statistical evaluation of both the structural and compositional diversity between gene libraries. For 16S rRNA gene libraries from complex bacterial communities such as those found in seawater, salt marsh sediments, and soils, K-shuff yields reproducible estimates of structural and compositional diversity with libraries greater than 50 sequences. Similarly, for pyrosequencing libraries generated from a glacial retreat chronosequence and Illumina® libraries generated from US homes, K-shuff required >300 and 100 sequences per sample, respectively. Power analyses demonstrated that K-shuff is sensitive to small differences in Sanger or Illumina® libraries. This extra sensitivity of K-shuff enabled examination of compositional differences at much deeper taxonomic levels, such as within abundant OTUs. This is especially useful when comparing communities that are compositionally very similar but functionally different. K-shuff will therefore prove beneficial for conventional microbiome analysis as well as specific hypothesis testing. PMID:27911946

  10. K-shuff: A Novel Algorithm for Characterizing Structural and Compositional Diversity in Gene Libraries.

    PubMed

    Jangid, Kamlesh; Kao, Ming-Hung; Lahamge, Aishwarya; Williams, Mark A; Rathbun, Stephen L; Whitman, William B

    2016-01-01

    K-shuff is a new algorithm for comparing the similarity of gene sequence libraries, providing measures of the structural and compositional diversity as well as the significance of the differences between these measures. Inspired by Ripley's K-function for spatial point pattern analysis, the Intra K-function or IKF measures the structural diversity, including both the richness and overall similarity of the sequences, within a library. The Cross K-function or CKF measures the compositional diversity between gene libraries, reflecting both the number of OTUs shared as well as the overall similarity in OTUs. A Monte Carlo testing procedure then enables statistical evaluation of both the structural and compositional diversity between gene libraries. For 16S rRNA gene libraries from complex bacterial communities such as those found in seawater, salt marsh sediments, and soils, K-shuff yields reproducible estimates of structural and compositional diversity with libraries greater than 50 sequences. Similarly, for pyrosequencing libraries generated from a glacial retreat chronosequence and Illumina® libraries generated from US homes, K-shuff required >300 and 100 sequences per sample, respectively. Power analyses demonstrated that K-shuff is sensitive to small differences in Sanger or Illumina® libraries. This extra sensitivity of K-shuff enabled examination of compositional differences at much deeper taxonomic levels, such as within abundant OTUs. This is especially useful when comparing communities that are compositionally very similar but functionally different. K-shuff will therefore prove beneficial for conventional microbiome analysis as well as specific hypothesis testing.

  11. SSR and morphological trait based population structure analysis of 130 diverse flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Shashi Bhushan; Sharma, Hariom Kumar; Kumar, Arroju Anil; Maruthi, Rangappa Thimmaiah; Mitra, Jiban; Chowdhury, Isholeena; Singh, Binay Kumar; Karmakar, Pran Gobinda

    2017-02-01

    A total of 130 flax accessions of diverse morphotypes and worldwide origin were assessed for genetic diversity and population structure using 11 morphological traits and microsatellite markers (15 gSSRs and 7 EST-SSRs). Analysis performed after classifying these accessions on the basis of plant height, branching pattern, seed size, Indian/foreign origin into six categories called sub-populations viz. fibre type exotic, fibre type indigenous, intermediate type exotic, intermediate type indigenous, linseed type exotic and linseed type indigenous. The study assessed different diversity indices, AMOVA, population structure and included a principal coordinate analysis based on different marker systems. The highest diversity was exhibited by gSSR markers (SI=0.46; He=0.31; P=85.11). AMOVA based on all markers explained significant difference among fibre type, intermediate type and linseed type populations of flax. In terms of variation explained by different markers, EST-SSR markers (12%) better differentiated flax populations compared to morphological (9%) and gSSR (6%) markers at P=0.01. The maximum Nei's unbiased genetic distance (D=0.11) was observed between fibre type and linseed type exotic sub-populations based on EST-SSR markers. The combined structure analysis by using all markers grouped Indian fibre type accessions (63.4%) in a separate cluster along with the Indian intermediate type (48.7%), whereas Indian accessions (82.16%) of linseed type constituted an independent cluster. These findings were supported by the results of the principal coordinate analysis. Morphological markers employed in the study found complementary with microsatellite based markers in deciphering genetic diversity and population structure of the flax germplasm. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Overstory structure and soil nutrients effect on plant diversity in unmanaged moist tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Manhas, Rajesh Kumar; Tripathi, Ashutosh Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Forests with intensive management past are kept unmanaged to restore diversity and ecosystem functioning. Before perpetuating abandonment after protracted restitution, understanding its effect on forest vegetation is desirable. We studied plant diversity and its relation with environmental variables and stand structure in northern Indian unmanaged tropical moist deciduous forest. We hypothesized that post-abandonment species richness would have increased, and the structure of contemporary forest would be heterogeneous. Vegetation structure, composition, and diversity were recorded, in forty 0.1 ha plots selected randomly in four forest ranges. Three soil samples per 0.1 ha were assessed for physicochemistry, fine sand, and clay mineralogy. Contemporary forest had less species richness than pre-abandonment reference period. Fourteen species were recorded as either seedling or sapling, suggesting reappearance or immigration. For most species, regeneration was either absent or impaired. Ordination and multiple regression results showed that exchangeable base cations and phosphorous affected maximum tree diversity and structure variables. Significant correlations between soil moisture and temperature, and shrub layer was observed, besides tree layer correspondence with shrub richness, suggesting that dense overstory resulting from abandonment through its effect on soil conditions, is responsible for dense shrub layer. Herb layer diversity was negatively associated with tree layer and shrub overgrowth (i.e. Mallotus spp.). Protracted abandonment may not reinforce species richness and heterogeneity; perhaps result in high tree and shrub density in moist deciduous forests, which can impede immigrating or reappearing plant species establishment. This can be overcome by density/basal area reduction strategies, albeit for both tree and shrub layer.

  13. Diversity, distribution and hydrocarbon biodegradation capabilities of microbial communities in oil-contaminated cyanobacterial mats from a constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Abed, Raeid M M; Al-Kharusi, Samiha; Prigent, Stephane; Headley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Various types of cyanobacterial mats were predominant in a wetland, constructed for the remediation of oil-polluted residual waters from an oil field in the desert of the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, although such mats were rarely found in other wetland systems. There is scarce information on the bacterial diversity, spatial distribution and oil-biodegradation capabilities of freshwater wetland oil-polluted mats. Microbial community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that the different mats hosted distinct microbial communities. Average numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUsARISA) were relatively lower in the mats with higher oil levels and the number of shared OTUsARISA between the mats was <60% in most cases. Multivariate analyses of fingerprinting profiles indicated that the bacterial communities in the wetland mats were influenced by oil and ammonia levels, but to a lesser extent by plant density. In addition to oil and ammonia, redundancy analysis (RDA) showed also a significant contribution of temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentration to the variations of the mats' microbial communities. Pyrosequencing yielded 282,706 reads with >90% of the sequences affiliated to Proteobacteria (41% of total sequences), Cyanobacteria (31%), Bacteriodetes (11.5%), Planctomycetes (7%) and Chloroflexi (3%). Known autotrophic (e.g. Rivularia) and heterotrophic (e.g. Azospira) nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as purple sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria were frequently encountered in all mats. On the other hand, sequences of known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) were rarely found, indicating that SRBs in the wetland mats probably belong to yet-undescribed novel species. The wetland mats were able to degrade 53-100% of C12-C30 alkanes after 6 weeks of incubation under aerobic conditions. We conclude that oil and ammonia concentrations are the major key players in determining the spatial distribution of the wetland mats' microbial

  14. Cultivating Diversity and Competency in STEM: Challenges and Remedies for Removing Virtual Barriers to Constructing Diverse Higher Education Communities of Success.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Joseph A; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2012-01-01

    The need to increase the number of college graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national issue. As the demographics of the United States' population grow increasingly more diverse, the recognition that students of color are disproportionately under-represented among those individuals successful at completing STEM degrees requires exigent and sustained intervention. Although a range of efforts and funding have been committed to increasing the success of under-represented minority (URM) students at primarily white, or majority, institutions, widespread progress has been slow. Simultaneously, Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions have demonstrated disproportionate successes in graduating URM students with STEM degrees and those that proceed to completing graduate-level degrees in the sciences. The differential successes of particular institutions with promoting the achievement of diverse individuals in obtaining academic STEM degrees suggest that with committed and strategic leadership, advancements in creating academic communities that promote the success of a diverse range of students in STEM can be achieved in part through assessing and mitigating environmental barriers that impede success at majority institutions. In this paper, we address issues related to the engagement of URM students in majority settings and describe some efforts that have shown success for promoting diversity in STEM and highlight continuing issues and factors associated with cultivating diversity in academic STEM disciplines at majority institutions. Recommended efforts include addressing academic assistance, professional and cultural socialization issues and institutional environmental factors that are associated with success or lack thereof for URMs in STEM.

  15. Synthesis of Structurally Diverse Emissive Molecular Rotors with Four-Component Ugi Stators.

    PubMed

    García-González, Ma Carmen; Aguilar-Granda, Andrés; Zamudio-Medina, Angel; Miranda, Luis D; Rodríguez-Molina, Braulio

    2018-03-02

    The use of the multicomponent Ugi reaction to rapidly prepare a library of dumbbell-like molecular rotors is highlighted here. The synthetic strategy consisted of the atom-economic access to 15 bulky and structurally diverse iodinated stators, which were cross-coupled to the 1,4-diethynylphenylene rotator. From those experiments, up to six rotors 1a-c and 1l-n were obtained, with yields ranging from 35 to 69% per coupled C-C bond. In addition to the framework diversity, five of these compounds showed aggregate-enhanced emission properties thanks to their conjugated 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene cores, a property that rises by increasing the water fraction (f w ) in their THF solutions. The results highlight the significance of the diversity-oriented synthesis of rapid access to new molecular fluorescent rotors.

  16. Performance and bacterial community structure of a 10-years old constructed mangrove wetland.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tingting; Tam, Nora F Y; Zan, Qijie; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S; Wong, Y S; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhanghe

    2017-11-30

    Constructed mangrove wetland has been used for wastewater treatment but its long-term performance has not been reported. One-year monitoring of a 10-years old horizontal subsurface-flow constructed mangrove wetland consisting of three belts, two with mangrove plants and one without, revealed that the system maintained high and stable removal percentages of organic matter and nutrients, and planted belts performed better than unplanted control. Substrates in belts planted with Aegiceras corniculatum or Kandelia obovata had higher abundance of ammonifiers, nitrifiers and denitrifiers but lower total heterotrophic bacteria than unplanted substrate. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that microbial diversity in planted substrate was significantly lower than that in unplanted one. The bacteria in substrates, irrespective to belts, were phylogenetically related to Proteobacteria (most dominant), Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria. The steady performance of this 10-year old constructed mangrove wetland was affected by the abundance and diversity of bacterial community in substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural insights into the inactivation of CRISPR-Cas systems by diverse anti-CRISPR proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuwei; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2018-03-19

    A molecular arms race is progressively being unveiled between prokaryotes and viruses. Prokaryotes utilize CRISPR-mediated adaptive immune systems to kill the invading phages and mobile genetic elements, and in turn, the viruses evolve diverse anti-CRISPR proteins to fight back. The structures of several anti-CRISPR proteins have now been reported, and here we discuss their structural features, with a particular emphasis on topology, to discover their similarities and differences. We summarize the CRISPR-Cas inhibition mechanisms of these anti-CRISPR proteins in their structural context. Considering anti-CRISPRs in this way will provide important clues for studying their origin and evolution.

  18. Embodied niche construction in the hominin lineage: semiotic structure and sustained attention in human embodied cognition

    PubMed Central

    Stutz, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Human evolution unfolded through a rather distinctive, dynamically constructed ecological niche. The human niche is not only generally terrestrial in habitat, while being flexibly and extensively heterotrophic in food-web connections. It is also defined by semiotically structured and structuring embodied cognitive interfaces, connecting the individual organism with the wider environment. The embodied dimensions of niche-population co-evolution have long involved semiotic system construction, which I hypothesize to be an evolutionarily primitive aspect of learning and higher-level cognitive integration and attention in the great apes and humans alike. A clearly pre-linguistic form of semiotic cognitive structuration is suggested to involve recursively learned and constructed object icons. Higher-level cognitive iconic representation of visually, auditorily, or haptically perceived extrasomatic objects would be learned and evoked through indexical connections to proprioceptive and affective somatic states. Thus, private cognitive signs would be defined, not only by their learned and perceived extrasomatic referents, but also by their associations to iconically represented somatic states. This evolutionary modification of animal associative learning is suggested to be adaptive in ecological niches occupied by long-lived, large-bodied ape species, facilitating memory construction and recall in highly varied foraging and social contexts, while sustaining selective attention during goal-directed behavioral sequences. The embodied niche construction (ENC) hypothesis of human evolution posits that in the early hominin lineage, natural selection further modified the ancestral ape semiotic adaptations, favoring the recursive structuration of concise iconic narratives of embodied interaction with the environment. PMID:25136323

  19. [Correlation of substrate structure and hydraulic characteristics in subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Bai, Shao-Yuan; Song, Zhi-Xin; Ding, Yan-Li; You, Shao-Hong; He, Shan

    2014-02-01

    The correlation of substrate structure and hydraulic characteristics was studied by numerical simulation combined with experimental method. The numerical simulation results showed that the permeability coefficient of matrix had a great influence on hydraulic efficiency in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. The filler with a high permeability coefficient had a worse flow field distribution in the constructed wetland with single layer structure. The layered substrate structure with the filler permeability coefficient increased from surface to bottom could avoid the short-circuited flow and dead-zones, and thus, increased the hydraulic efficiency. Two parallel pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built according to the numerical simulation results, and tracer experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results. The tracer experiment result showed that hydraulic characteristics in the layered constructed wetland were obviously better than that in the single layer system, and the substrate effective utilization rates were 0.87 and 0.49, respectively. It was appeared that numerical simulation would be favorable for substrate structure optimization in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

  20. Embodied niche construction in the hominin lineage: semiotic structure and sustained attention in human embodied cognition.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Aaron J

    2014-01-01

    Human evolution unfolded through a rather distinctive, dynamically constructed ecological niche. The human niche is not only generally terrestrial in habitat, while being flexibly and extensively heterotrophic in food-web connections. It is also defined by semiotically structured and structuring embodied cognitive interfaces, connecting the individual organism with the wider environment. The embodied dimensions of niche-population co-evolution have long involved semiotic system construction, which I hypothesize to be an evolutionarily primitive aspect of learning and higher-level cognitive integration and attention in the great apes and humans alike. A clearly pre-linguistic form of semiotic cognitive structuration is suggested to involve recursively learned and constructed object icons. Higher-level cognitive iconic representation of visually, auditorily, or haptically perceived extrasomatic objects would be learned and evoked through indexical connections to proprioceptive and affective somatic states. Thus, private cognitive signs would be defined, not only by their learned and perceived extrasomatic referents, but also by their associations to iconically represented somatic states. This evolutionary modification of animal associative learning is suggested to be adaptive in ecological niches occupied by long-lived, large-bodied ape species, facilitating memory construction and recall in highly varied foraging and social contexts, while sustaining selective attention during goal-directed behavioral sequences. The embodied niche construction (ENC) hypothesis of human evolution posits that in the early hominin lineage, natural selection further modified the ancestral ape semiotic adaptations, favoring the recursive structuration of concise iconic narratives of embodied interaction with the environment.

  1. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    PubMed

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Architectural design influences the diversity and structure of the built environment microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Kembel, Steven W; Jones, Evan; Kline, Jeff; Northcutt, Dale; Stenson, Jason; Womack, Ann M; Bohannan, Brendan JM; Brown, G Z; Green, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    Buildings are complex ecosystems that house trillions of microorganisms interacting with each other, with humans and with their environment. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine the diversity and composition of the built environment microbiome—the community of microorganisms that live indoors—is important for understanding the relationship between building design, biodiversity and human health. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to quantify relationships between building attributes and airborne bacterial communities at a health-care facility. We quantified airborne bacterial community structure and environmental conditions in patient rooms exposed to mechanical or window ventilation and in outdoor air. The phylogenetic diversity of airborne bacterial communities was lower indoors than outdoors, and mechanically ventilated rooms contained less diverse microbial communities than did window-ventilated rooms. Bacterial communities in indoor environments contained many taxa that are absent or rare outdoors, including taxa closely related to potential human pathogens. Building attributes, specifically the source of ventilation air, airflow rates, relative humidity and temperature, were correlated with the diversity and composition of indoor bacterial communities. The relative abundance of bacteria closely related to human pathogens was higher indoors than outdoors, and higher in rooms with lower airflow rates and lower relative humidity. The observed relationship between building design and airborne bacterial diversity suggests that we can manage indoor environments, altering through building design and operation the community of microbial species that potentially colonize the human microbiome during our time indoors. PMID:22278670

  4. Community structure and diversity of tropical forest mammals: data from a global camera trap network.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Jorge A; Silva, Carlos E F; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Martin, Emanuel; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; O'Brien, Tim; Rovero, Francesco; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Winarni, Nurul; Andelman, Sandy J

    2011-09-27

    Terrestrial mammals are a key component of tropical forest communities as indicators of ecosystem health and providers of important ecosystem services. However, there is little quantitative information about how they change with local, regional and global threats. In this paper, the first standardized pantropical forest terrestrial mammal community study, we examine several aspects of terrestrial mammal species and community diversity (species richness, species diversity, evenness, dominance, functional diversity and community structure) at seven sites around the globe using a single standardized camera trapping methodology approach. The sites-located in Uganda, Tanzania, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Suriname, Brazil and Costa Rica-are surrounded by different landscape configurations, from continuous forests to highly fragmented forests. We obtained more than 51 000 images and detected 105 species of mammals with a total sampling effort of 12 687 camera trap days. We find that mammal communities from highly fragmented sites have lower species richness, species diversity, functional diversity and higher dominance when compared with sites in partially fragmented and continuous forest. We emphasize the importance of standardized camera trapping approaches for obtaining baselines for monitoring forest mammal communities so as to adequately understand the effect of global, regional and local threats and appropriately inform conservation actions.

  5. Growth Factor Stimulation Improves the Structure and Properties of Scaffold-Free Engineered Auricular Cartilage Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Renata G.; Joazeiro, Paulo P.; Bianco, Juares; Kunz, Manuela; Weber, Joanna F.; Waldman, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of the external ear to correct congenital deformities or repair following trauma remains a significant challenge in reconstructive surgery. Previously, we have developed a novel approach to create scaffold-free, tissue engineering elastic cartilage constructs directly from a small population of donor cells. Although the developed constructs appeared to adopt the structural appearance of native auricular cartilage, the constructs displayed limited expression and poor localization of elastin. In the present study, the effect of growth factor supplementation (insulin, IGF-1, or TGF-β1) was investigated to stimulate elastogenesis as well as to improve overall tissue formation. Using rabbit auricular chondrocytes, bioreactor-cultivated constructs supplemented with either insulin or IGF-1 displayed increased deposition of cartilaginous ECM, improved mechanical properties, and thicknesses comparable to native auricular cartilage after 4 weeks of growth. Similarly, growth factor supplementation resulted in increased expression and improved localization of elastin, primarily restricted within the cartilaginous region of the tissue construct. Additional studies were conducted to determine whether scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs could be developed in the 3D shape of the external ear. Isolated auricular chondrocytes were grown in rapid-prototyped tissue culture molds with additional insulin or IGF-1 supplementation during bioreactor cultivation. Using this approach, the developed tissue constructs were flexible and had a 3D shape in very good agreement to the culture mold (average error <400 µm). While scaffold-free, engineered auricular cartilage constructs can be created with both the appropriate tissue structure and 3D shape of the external ear, future studies will be aimed assessing potential changes in construct shape and properties after subcutaneous implantation. PMID:25126941

  6. Effects of understory structure on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola (Arthropoda) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Troian, Vera R; Baldissera, Ronei; Hartz, Sandra M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different landscape structures on the understory Collembola community. Four different forest physiognomies were compared: Pinus spp. plantation, Eucalyptus spp. plantation, Araucaria angustifolia plantation, and a remaining native Araucaria forest. Three areas containing two sampling units (25 mx2 m each) were selected in each forest physiognomy. Understory Collembola collection was done with a 1x1 m canvas sheet held horizontally below the vegetation, which was beaten with a 1 m long stick, seasonally from September 2003 to August 2004. We evaluated the influence of forest physiognomies on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola communities. It was also verified if the habitat structure of each physiognomy was associated with the composition of the Collembola community. A total number of 4,111 individuals were collected belonging to the families Entomobrydae and Tomocerida (Entomobryomorpha), and Sminthuridae (Symphypleona), and divided in 12 morphospecies. Pinus plantation presented the highest richness, abundance and diversity of Collembola and it was associated to diverse understory vegetation. The abundance of Entomobrydae and Sminthuridae was associated to the presence of bushes, while Tomoceridae abundance was associated to the presence of trees. The habitat structure, measured through understory vegetation density and composition, plays an important role on the determination of the structure and composition of the Collembola community.

  7. Spatiotemporal diversity, structure and trophic guilds of insect assemblages in a semi-arid Sabkha ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Menasria, Taha; Neffar, Souad; Chafaa, Smail; Bradai, Lyès; Chaibi, Rachid; Mekahlia, Mohamed Nacer; Bendjoudi, Djamel; Si Bachir, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    The current study highlights some knowledge on the diversity and structure of insect communities and trophic groups living in Sabkha Djendli (semi-arid area of Northeastern Algeria). The entomofauna was monthly sampled from March to November 2006 using pitfall traps at eight sites located at the vicinity of the Sabkha. Structural and diversity parameters (species richness, Shannon index, evenness) were measured for both insect orders and trophic guilds. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was applied to determine how vegetation parameters (species richness and cover) influence spatial and seasonal fluctuations of insect assemblages. The catches totalled 434 insect individuals classified into 75 species, 62 genera, 31 families and 7 orders, of which Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the most abundant and constant over seasons and study stations. Spring and autumn presented the highest values of diversity parameters. Individual-based Chao-1 species richness estimator indicated 126 species for the total individuals captured in the Sabkha. Based on catch abundances, the structure of functional trophic groups was predators (37.3%), saprophages (26.7%), phytophages (20.5%), polyphages (10.8%), coprophages (4.6%); whereas in terms of numbers of species, they can be classified as phytophages (40%), predators (25.3%), polyphages (13.3%), saprophages (12%), coprophages (9.3%). The CCA demonstrated that phytophages and saprophages as well as Coleoptera and Orthoptera were positively correlated with the two parameters of vegetation, especially in spring and summer. While the abundance of coprophages was positively correlated with species richness of plants, polyphage density was positively associated with vegetation cover. The insect community showed high taxonomic and functional diversity that is closely related to diversity and vegetation cover in different stations of the wetland and seasons. PMID:25825682

  8. Population genetic diversity and structure of a naturally isolated plant species, Rhodiola dumulosa (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan; Lou, Anru

    2011-01-01

    Rhodiola dumulosa (Crassulaceae) is a perennial diploid species found in high-montane areas. It is distributed in fragmented populations across northern, central and northwestern China. In this study, we aimed to (i) measure the genetic diversity of this species and that of its populations; (ii) describe the genetic structure of these populations across the entire distribution range in China; and (iii) evaluate the extent of gene flow among the naturally fragmented populations. Samples from 1089 individuals within 35 populations of R. dumulosa were collected, covering as much of the entire distribution range of this species within China as possible. Population genetic diversity and structure were analyzed using AFLP molecular markers. Gene flow among populations was estimated according to the level of population differentiation. The total genetic diversity of R. dumulosa was high but decreased with increasing altitude. Population-structure analysis indicated that the most closely related populations were geographically restricted and occurred in close proximity to each other. A significant isolation-by-distance pattern, caused by the naturally fragmented population distribution, was observed. At least two distinct gene pools were found in the 35 sampled populations, one composed of populations in northern China and the other composed of populations in central and northwestern China. The calculation of Nei's gene diversity index revealed that the genetic diversity in the northern China pool (0.1972) was lower than that in the central and northwestern China pool (0.2216). The populations were significantly isolated, and gene flow was restricted throughout the entire distribution. However, gene flow among populations on the same mountain appears to be unrestricted, as indicated by the weak genetic isolation among these populations.

  9. Population Genetic Diversity and Structure of a Naturally Isolated Plant Species, Rhodiola dumulosa (Crassulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yan; Lou, Anru

    2011-01-01

    Aims Rhodiola dumulosa (Crassulaceae) is a perennial diploid species found in high-montane areas. It is distributed in fragmented populations across northern, central and northwestern China. In this study, we aimed to (i) measure the genetic diversity of this species and that of its populations; (ii) describe the genetic structure of these populations across the entire distribution range in China; and (iii) evaluate the extent of gene flow among the naturally fragmented populations. Methods Samples from 1089 individuals within 35 populations of R. dumulosa were collected, covering as much of the entire distribution range of this species within China as possible. Population genetic diversity and structure were analyzed using AFLP molecular markers. Gene flow among populations was estimated according to the level of population differentiation. Important Findings The total genetic diversity of R. dumulosa was high but decreased with increasing altitude. Population-structure analysis indicated that the most closely related populations were geographically restricted and occurred in close proximity to each other. A significant isolation-by-distance pattern, caused by the naturally fragmented population distribution, was observed. At least two distinct gene pools were found in the 35 sampled populations, one composed of populations in northern China and the other composed of populations in central and northwestern China. The calculation of Nei's gene diversity index revealed that the genetic diversity in the northern China pool (0.1972) was lower than that in the central and northwestern China pool (0.2216). The populations were significantly isolated, and gene flow was restricted throughout the entire distribution. However, gene flow among populations on the same mountain appears to be unrestricted, as indicated by the weak genetic isolation among these populations. PMID:21909437

  10. The contributions of forest structure and substrate to bryophyte diversity and abundance in mature coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Shelley A. Evans; Charles B. Halpern; Donald McKenzie

    2012-01-01

    Many aspects of forest structure are thought to contribute to the presence, abundance, and diversity of forest-floor bryophytes. To what extent easily measured characteristics of local environment (overstory structure or substrate availability) explain patterns of abundance and diversity remains unclear in most forest ecosystems. We explore these relationships in four...

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of an insular tree, Santalum austrocaledonicum in New Caledonian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Bottin, L; Verhaegen, D; Tassin, J; Olivieri, I; Vaillant, A; Bouvet, J M

    2005-06-01

    We present a study of the genetic diversity and structure of a tropical tree in an insular system. Santalum austrocaledonicum is endemic to the archipelago of New Caledonia and is exploited for oil extraction from heartwood. A total of 431 individuals over 17 populations were analysed for eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 33 and the observed heterozygosity per population ranged from 0.01 in Mare to 0.74 in Ile des Pins. The genetic diversity was lowest in the most recent islands, the Loyautes, and highest in the oldest island, Grande Terre, as well as the nearby small Ile des Pins. Significant departures from panmixia were observed for some loci-population combinations (per population FIS = 0-0.03 on Grande-Terre and Ile des Pins, and 0-0.67 on Loyautes). A strong genetic differentiation among all islands was observed (FST = 0.22), and the amount of differentiation increased with geographic distance in Iles Loyaute and in Grande Terre. At both population and island levels, island age and isolation seem to be the main factors influencing the amount of genetic diversity. In particular, populations from recent islands had large average FIS that could not be entirely explained by null alleles or a Wahlund effect. This result suggests that, at least in some populations, selfing occurred extensively. Conclusively, our results indicate a strong influence of insularity on the genetic diversity and structure of Santalum austrocaledonicum.

  12. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  13. Influence of biotic variables on invertebrate size structure and diversity in coastal wetlands of Southeastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón-Pardo, María; Armengol, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    Biomass and size-based estimations provide relevant information regarding ecosystem functioning and biotic interactions. Our aims were to study the effect of fish and macrophytes on the size structure of invertebrate assemblages (from rotifers to insects) in a set of coastal water bodies, estimating the biomass (total and main invertebrate groups), the biomass-size spectra (model of Pareto) and size diversity. In fishless ponds, cladoceran and ostracod biomass were higher, and they presented greater size diversity. In fish ponds, rotifer biomass presented greater proportion; while in fishless ponds, cladocerans were usually the most abundant taxa and the largest organisms. The biomass size spectra showed more irregularities in fishless ponds, due to the low densities of small taxa (rotifers and copepod juveniles) and big taxa (malacostraceans or insects). Differences is size structure and diversity were also observed between spring and summer, suggesting a higher recruitment of juveniles in spring, and thus, a higher predation pressure upon zooplankton at that moment. Macrophyte cover did not apparently influence those parameters, except for the biomass of ostracods, copepods, and insects. Therefore, predation by fish strongly affected invertebrate biomass, reflecting their selective feeding, and allowing high densities of small taxa. Predation pressure decreased size diversity, by limiting the abundance of vulnerable taxa of specific size. Seasonal changes were likely related to the spring recruitment of fish juveniles. The presence of small fish and invertebrate predator taxa among the macrophytes, restrict their role as refuges for prey invertebrates.

  14. Correlation analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Houttuynia cordata Thunb with regard to environment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, J; Wu, F-C; Qiu, P; Dai, L-J

    2016-08-12

    To study the levels of genetic diversity, and population structure, of Houttuynia cordata Thunb, the genetic background and relationships of populations were analyzed in terms of environmental factors. The genetic diversity and population structure of H. cordata were investigated using sequence-related amplified polymorphisms and correlation with environmental factors was analyzed using the SPSS software. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three sites were amplified from 41 pairs of primers, 1825 of which were polymorphic, and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 84.37%; the percentage of polymorphic sites was 72.14 and 67.77% at the species and population level, respectively. The observed number of alleles was 1.52 and 1.30 at species and population level, respectively. The effective number of alleles was 1.38 and 1.24 at species and population level, respectively. The Nei's diversity was 0.26 and 0.15 at species and population level, respectively. The Shannon's information index was 0.87 and 0.63 at species and population level, respectively. The genetic differentiation coefficient of populations was 0.51, and 12 populations were divided into three classes based on D = 0.20; the genetic diversities of different populations are correlated at different significance levels (P < 0.05) with environmental factors. Genetic differentiation existed among populations and the populations exhibited heteroplasmy.

  15. Discussion. How Far Does a Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure Take Us in Understanding Children's Language Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Child Language, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents the responses of 12 authors to Michael Tomasello's essay, which comments on Adele Goldberg's recent book, "Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure." Goldberg's book develops the theory of construction grammar for a set of problems associated with verb-argument structure. (SM)

  16. Secondary Structure Prediction of Protein Constructs Using Random Incremental Truncation and Vacuum-Ultraviolet CD Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pukáncsik, Mária; Orbán, Ágnes; Nagy, Kinga; Matsuo, Koichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Maurin, Damien; Hart, Darren; Kézsmárki, István; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2016-01-01

    A novel uracil-DNA degrading protein factor (termed UDE) was identified in Drosophila melanogaster with no significant structural and functional homology to other uracil-DNA binding or processing factors. Determination of the 3D structure of UDE is excepted to provide key information on the description of the molecular mechanism of action of UDE catalysis, as well as in general uracil-recognition and nuclease action. Towards this long-term aim, the random library ESPRIT technology was applied to the novel protein UDE to overcome problems in identifying soluble expressing constructs given the absence of precise information on domain content and arrangement. Nine constructs of UDE were chosen to decipher structural and functional relationships. Vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectroscopy was performed to define the secondary structure content and location within UDE and its truncated variants. The quantitative analysis demonstrated exclusive α-helical content for the full-length protein, which is preserved in the truncated constructs. Arrangement of α-helical bundles within the truncated protein segments suggested new domain boundaries which differ from the conserved motifs determined by sequence-based alignment of UDE homologues. Here we demonstrate that the combination of ESPRIT and VUVCD spectroscopy provides a new structural description of UDE and confirms that the truncated constructs are useful for further detailed functional studies. PMID:27273007

  17. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H′), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments. PMID:27311984

  18. Spontaneous formation of structurally diverse membrane channel architectures from a single antimicrobial peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yukun; Chen, Charles H.; Hu, Dan; Ulmschneider, Martin B.; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.

    2016-11-01

    Many antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) selectively target and form pores in microbial membranes. However, the mechanisms of membrane targeting, pore formation and function remain elusive. Here we report an experimentally guided unbiased simulation methodology that yields the mechanism of spontaneous pore assembly for the AMP maculatin at atomic resolution. Rather than a single pore, maculatin forms an ensemble of structurally diverse temporarily functional low-oligomeric pores, which mimic integral membrane protein channels in structure. These pores continuously form and dissociate in the membrane. Membrane permeabilization is dominated by hexa-, hepta- and octamers, which conduct water, ions and small dyes. Pores form by consecutive addition of individual helices to a transmembrane helix or helix bundle, in contrast to current poration models. The diversity of the pore architectures--formed by a single sequence--may be a key feature in preventing bacterial resistance and could explain why sequence-function relationships in AMPs remain elusive.

  19. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-06-17

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H'), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments.

  20. The effect of thermal stratification on microbial community diversity and structure in a temperate reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jiangqi; Jia, Chengxia; Zhao, Meng; Li, Wentong; Liu, Pan; Yang, Mu; Zhang, Qingjing

    2018-02-01

    Miyun reservoir is a typical temperate deep reservoir located in the northeast of Beijing, China. In order to explore the effect of thermal stratification on microbial community diversity, structure and its influencing environmental factors, stratified sampling at three sites was conducted during the summer period. Field observations indicate that the water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped to 11.9 °C and 1.57 mg/L, respectively, leading to the development of anoxia in the hypolimnetic layer. The Illumina Miseq sequencing results showed that microbial communities from different thermal stratification showed obvious differences, the highest microbial diversity and richness in the hypolimnion samples. RDA ordination analysis suggested that the microbial communities in the epilimnion and metalimnion were mainly affected by water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen, while total nitrogen was the key environmental factor which shaped the microbial structure in hypolimnion.

  1. Long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of two stands of an Atlantic Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Warley Augusto Caldas; Santos, Rubens Manoel; Gastauer, Markus; Garcia, Paulo Oswaldo; Fontes, Marco Aurélio Leite; Coelho, Polyanne Aparecida; Moreira, Aline Martins; Menino, Gisele Cristina Oliveira; Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to report the long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of the tree community in a protected semideciduous Atlantic Forest in the South of Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. The study was conducted in two stands (B and C), each with 26 and 38 10 m x 30 m plots. Censuses of stand B were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2011, and stand C in 2001, 2006 and 2011. In both stands, the most abundant and important species for biomass accumulation over the inventories were trees larger than 20 cm of diameter, which characterize advanced successional stage within the forest. New information The two surveyed stands within the studied forest presented differences in structure, diversity and species richness over the time. PMID:28848371

  2. Long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of two stands of an Atlantic Tropical Forest.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Écio Souza; Carvalho, Warley Augusto Caldas; Santos, Rubens Manoel; Gastauer, Markus; Garcia, Paulo Oswaldo; Fontes, Marco Aurélio Leite; Coelho, Polyanne Aparecida; Moreira, Aline Martins; Menino, Gisele Cristina Oliveira; Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to report the long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of the tree community in a protected semideciduous Atlantic Forest in the South of Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. The study was conducted in two stands (B and C), each with 26 and 38 10 m x 30 m plots. Censuses of stand B were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2011, and stand C in 2001, 2006 and 2011. In both stands, the most abundant and important species for biomass accumulation over the inventories were trees larger than 20 cm of diameter, which characterize advanced successional stage within the forest. The two surveyed stands within the studied forest presented differences in structure, diversity and species richness over the time.

  3. Rapid construction of mechanically- confined multi- cellular structures using dendrimeric intercellular linker.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xuejun; Li, Qiushi; Yi Lui, Lena Wai; Zheng, Baixue; Kang, Chiang Huen; Nugraha, Bramasta; Yue, Zhilian; Jia, Rui Rui; Fu, Hong Xia; Choudhury, Deepak; Arooz, Talha; Yan, Jie; Lim, Chwee Teck; Shen, Shali; Hong Tan, Choon; Yu, Hanry

    2010-10-01

    Tissue constructs that mimic the in vivo cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are especially useful for applications involving the cell- dense and matrix- poor internal organs. Rapid and precise arrangement of cells into functional tissue constructs remains a challenge in tissue engineering. We demonstrate rapid assembly of C3A cells into multi- cell structures using a dendrimeric intercellular linker. The linker is composed of oleyl- polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives conjugated to a 16 arms- polypropylenimine hexadecaamine (DAB) dendrimer. The positively charged multivalent dendrimer concentrates the linker onto the negatively charged cell surface to facilitate efficient insertion of the hydrophobic oleyl groups into the cellular membrane. Bringing linker- treated cells into close proximity to each other via mechanical means such as centrifugation and micromanipulation enables their rapid assembly into multi- cellular structures within minutes. The cells exhibit high levels of viability, proliferation, three- dimensional (3D) cell morphology and other functions in the constructs. We constructed defined multi- cellular structures such as rings, sheets or branching rods that can serve as potential tissue building blocks to be further assembled into complex 3D tissue constructs for biomedical applications. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 in Indian Construction Organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rajaprasad, Sunku Venkata Siva; Chalapathi, Pasupulati Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Background Construction activity has made considerable breakthroughs in the past two decades on the back of increases in development activities, government policies, and public demand. At the same time, occupational health and safety issues have become a major concern to construction organizations. The unsatisfactory safety performance of the construction industry has always been highlighted since the safety management system is neglected area and not implemented systematically in Indian construction organizations. Due to a lack of enforcement of the applicable legislation, most of the construction organizations are forced to opt for the implementation of Occupational Health Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 to improve safety performance. Methods In order to better understand factors influencing the implementation of OHSAS 18001, an interpretive structural modeling approach has been applied and the factors have been classified using matrice d'impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classement (MICMAC) analysis. The study proposes the underlying theoretical framework to identify factors and to help management of Indian construction organizations to understand the interaction among factors influencing in implementation of OHSAS 18001. Results Safety culture, continual improvement, morale of employees, and safety training have been identified as dependent variables. Safety performance, sustainable construction, and conducive working environment have been identified as linkage variables. Management commitment and safety policy have been identified as the driver variables. Conclusion Management commitment has the maximum driving power and the most influential factor is safety policy, which states clearly the commitment of top management towards occupational safety and health. PMID:26929828

  5. The Space Station as a Construction Base for Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Space Station as a construction site for large space structures is examined. An overview is presented of the results of a program entitled Definition of Technology Development Missions (TDM's) for Early Space Stations - Large Space Structures. The definition of LSS technology development missions must be responsive to the needs of future space missions which require large space structures. Long range plans for space were assembled by reviewing Space System Technology Models (SSTM) and other published sources. Those missions which will use large space structures were reviewed to determine the objectives which must be demonstrated by technology development missions. The three TDM's defined during this study are: (1) a construction storage/hangar facility; (2) a passive microwave radiometer; and (3) a precision optical system.

  6. Synergy of VSWIR and LiDAR for Ecosystem Structure, Biomass, and Canopy Diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Visible ShortWave InfraRed (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometer and LiDAR to study ecosystem structure, biomass and canopy diversity. It is shown that the biophysical data from LiDAR and biochemical information from hyperspectral remote sensing provides complementary data for: (1) describing spatial patterns of vegetation and biodiversity, (2) characterizing relationships between ecosystem form and function, and (3) detecting natural and human induced change that affects the biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Ethiopian Sheep Populations Revealed by High-Density SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Edea, Zewdu; Dessie, Tadelle; Dadi, Hailu; Do, Kyoung-Tag; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2017-01-01

    Sheep in Ethiopia are adapted to a wide range of environments, including extreme habitats. Elucidating their genetic diversity is critical for improving breeding strategies and mapping quantitative trait loci associated with productivity. To this end, the present study investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of five Ethiopian sheep populations exhibiting distinct phenotypes and sampled from distinct production environments, including arid lowlands and highlands. To investigate the genetic relationships in greater detail and infer population structure of Ethiopian sheep breeds at the continental and global levels, we analyzed genotypic data of selected sheep breeds from the Ovine SNP50K HapMap dataset. All Ethiopian sheep samples were genotyped with Ovine Infinium HD SNP BeadChip (600K). Mean genetic diversity ranged from 0.29 in Arsi-Bale to 0.32 in Menz sheep, while estimates of genetic differentiation among populations ranged from 0.02 to 0.07, indicating low to moderate differentiation. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that 94.62 and 5.38% of the genetic variation was attributable to differences within and among populations, respectively. Our population structure analysis revealed clustering of five Ethiopian sheep populations according to tail phenotype and geographic origin—i.e., short fat-tailed (very cool high-altitude), long fat-tailed (mid to high-altitude), and fat-rumped (arid low-altitude), with clear evidence of admixture between long fat-tailed populations. North African sheep breeds showed higher levels of within-breed diversity, but were less differentiated than breeds from Eastern and Southern Africa. When African breeds were grouped according to geographic origin (North, South, and East), statistically significant differences were detected among groups (regions). A comparison of population structure between Ethiopian and global sheep breeds showed that fat-tailed breeds from Eastern and Southern Africa clustered

  8. Micro-Masonry: Construction of 3D Structures by Mesoscale Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Javier G.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-01-01

    A general method for construction of three dimensional structures by directed assembly of microscale polymeric sub-units is presented. Shape-controlled microgels are directed to assemble into different shapes by limiting their movement onto a molded substrate. The capillary forces, resulting from the presence of a liquid polymer, assemble the microgels in close contact with the rest of the units and with the free surface, the latter imposing the final geometry of the resulting construct. The result is a freestanding structure composed of one or multiple layers of sub-units assembled in a tightly packed conformation. The applicability of the technique for the construction of scaffolds with cell-laden sub-units is demonstrated. In addition, scaffolds formed by the sequential aggregation of sub-units are produced. PMID:20440697

  9. Effects of Predation by Protists on Prokaryotic Community Function, Structure, and Diversity in Anaerobic Granular Sludge.

    PubMed

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2016-09-29

    Predation by protists is top-down pressure that regulates prokaryotic abundance, community function, structure, and diversity in natural and artificial ecosystems. Although the effects of predation by protists have been studied in aerobic ecosystems, they are poorly understood in anoxic environments. We herein studied the influence of predation by Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates-ciliates frequently found in anoxic ecosystems-on prokaryotic community function, structure, and diversity. Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates were cocultivated with prokaryotic assemblages (i.e., anaerobic granular sludge) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for 171 d. Predation by these ciliates increased the methanogenic activities of granular sludge, which constituted 155% of those found in a UASB reactor without the ciliates (i.e., control reactor). Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq revealed that the prokaryotic community in the UASB reactor with the ciliates was more diverse than that in the control reactor; 2,885-3,190 and 2,387-2,426 operational taxonomic units (>97% sequence similarities), respectively. The effects of predation by protists in anaerobic engineered systems have mostly been overlooked, and our results show that the influence of predation by protists needs to be examined and considered in the future for a better understanding of prokaryotic community structure and function.

  10. Role of the constant region domain in the structural diversity of human antibody light chains.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Emi; Taguchi, Hiroaki; Kato, Ryuichi; Uda, Taizo

    2017-04-01

    Issues regarding the structural diversity (heterogeneity) of an antibody molecule have been the subject of discussion along with the development of antibody drugs. Research on heterogeneity has been extensive in recent years, but no clear solution has been reached. Heterogeneity is also observed in catalytic antibody κ light chains (CLs). In this study, we investigated how the constant region domain of CLs concerns structural diversity because it is a simple and good example for elucidating heterogeneity. By means of cation-exchange chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and 2-dimensional electrophoresis for the CL, multimolecular forms consisting of different electrical charges and molecular sizes coexisted in the solution, resulting in the similar heterogeneity of the full length of CLs. The addition of copper ion could cause the multimolecular forms to change to monomolecular forms. Copper ion contributed greatly to the enrichment of the dimer form of CL and the homogenization of the differently charged CLs. Two molecules of the CL protein bound one copper ion. The binding affinity of the ion was 48.0 μM -1 Several divalent metal ions were examined, but only zinc showed a similar effect.-Hifumi, E., Taguchi, H., Kato, R., Uda, T. Role of the constant region domain in the structural diversity of human antibody light chains. © FASEB.

  11. Synthesis of structurally diverse major groove DNA interstrand crosslinks using three different aldehyde precursors

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shivam; Guainazzi, Angelo; Schärer, Orlando D.

    2014-01-01

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are extremely cytotoxic lesions that block essential cellular processes, such as replication and transcription. Crosslinking agents are widely used in cancer chemotherapy and form an array of structurally diverse ICLs. Despite the clinical success of these agents, resistance of tumors to crosslinking agents, for example, through repair of these lesions by the cellular machinery remains a problem. We have previously reported the synthesis of site-specific ICLs mimicking those formed by nitrogen mustards to facilitate the studies of cellular responses to ICL formation. Here we extend these efforts and report the synthesis of structurally diverse major groove ICLs that induce severe, little or no distortion in the DNA. Our approach employs the incorporation of aldehyde precursors of different lengths into complementary strands and ICL formation using a double reductive amination with a variety of amines. Our studies provide insight into the structure and reactivity parameters of ICL formation by double reductive amination and yield a set of diverse ICLs that will be invaluable for exploring structure–activity relationships in ICL repair. PMID:24782532

  12. Diversity, Antimicrobial Action and Structure-Activity Relationship of Buffalo Cathelicidins

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Karri, Satyanagalakshmi; Chopra, Meenu; Mishra, Purusottam; De, Bidhan Chandra; Kumar, Sushil; Mahanty, Sourav; Thakur, Kiran; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are an ancient class of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad spectrum bactericidal activities. In this study, we investigated the diversity and biological activity of cathelicidins of buffalo, a species known for its disease resistance. A series of new homologs of cathelicidin4 (CATHL4), which were structurally diverse in their antimicrobial domain, was identified in buffalo. AMPs of newly identified buffalo CATHL4s (buCATHL4s) displayed potent antimicrobial activity against selected Gram positive (G+) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria. These peptides were prompt to disrupt the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced specific changes such as blebing, budding, and pore like structure formation on bacterial membrane. The peptides assumed different secondary structure conformations in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Simulation studies suggested that the amphipathic design of buCATHL4 was crucial for water permeation following membrane disruption. A great diversity, broad-spectrum antimicrobial action, and ability to induce an inflammatory response indicated the pleiotropic role of cathelicidins in innate immunity of buffalo. This study suggests short buffalo cathelicidin peptides with potent bactericidal properties and low cytotoxicity have potential translational applications for the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial peptidomimetics. PMID:26675301

  13. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis of European Hexaploid Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents. PMID:24718292

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of European hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations: a mitochondrial survey.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Espona, S; Pérez-Barbería, F J; Goodall-Copestake, W P; Jiggins, C D; Gordon, I J; Pemberton, J M

    2009-02-01

    The largest population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe is found in Scotland. However, human impacts through hunting and introduction of foreign deer stock have disturbed the population's genetics to an unknown extent. In this study, we analysed mitochondrial control region sequences of 625 individuals to assess signatures of human and natural historical influence on the genetic diversity and population structure of red deer in the Scottish Highlands. Genetic diversity was high with 74 haplotypes found in our study area (115 x 87 km). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that none of the individuals had introgressed mtDNA from foreign species or subspecies of deer and only suggested a very few localized red deer translocations among British localities. A haplotype network and population analyses indicated significant genetic structure (Phi(ST)=0.3452, F(ST)=0.2478), largely concordant with the geographical location of the populations. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests indicated a significant population expansion for one of the main haplogroups found in the study area, approximately dated c. 8200 or 16 400 years ago when applying a fast or slow mutation rate, respectively. Contrary to general belief, our results strongly suggest that native Scottish red deer mtDNA haplotypes have persisted in the Scottish Highlands and that the population retains a largely natural haplotype diversity and structure in our study area.

  16. [Diversity and community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in Hulunbeier Grassland, Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Wendu, Ri-le; Li, Gang; Yang, Dian-lin; Zhang, Jing-ni; Yi, Jin

    2011-04-01

    By the methods of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis, a comparative study was conducted on the diversity and community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Filifolium sibiricum steppe, Stipa baicalensis steppe, Leymus chinensis steppe, Stipa grandis steppe, and Stipa kryrowi steppe in Hulunbeier Grassland, Inner Mongolia. A significant difference was observed in the community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria among the five steppes, with the similarity lower than 50%. The diversity of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was the highest in F. sibiricum steppe, followed by in S. baicalensis steppe, L. chinensis steppe, S. kryrowi steppe, and S. grandis steppe. In the five steppes, Nitrosospira cluster 3 was the dominant group, and the Nitrosospira cluster 1, 2, and 4 as well as Nitrosomonas were also found. The community structure of soil ammonia oxidizing bacteria in F. sibiricum steppe was most complex, while that in L. chinensis steppe and S. grandis steppe was relatively simple. Correlation analysis indicated that there existed significant positive correlations between the diversity of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and the soil moisture, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, and C/N ratio (P<0.05).

  17. Electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane drive microbial community structure and diversity in mud volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ge; Ma, Anzhou; Zhang, Yanfen; Deng, Ye; Zheng, Guodong; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Fortin, Danielle

    2018-04-06

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) emit globally significant quantities of methane into the atmosphere, however, methane cycling in such environments is not yet fully understood, as the roles of microbes and their associated biogeochemical processes have been largely overlooked. Here, we used data from high-throughput sequencing of microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons from six MVs in the Junggar Basin in northwest China to quantify patterns of diversity and characterize the community structure of archaea and bacteria. We found anaerobic methanotrophs and diverse sulfate- and iron-reducing microbes in all of the samples, and the diversity of both archaeal and bacterial communities was strongly linked to the concentrations of sulfate, iron and nitrate, which could act as electron acceptors in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The impacts of sulfate/iron/nitrate on AOM in the MVs were verified by microcosm experiments. Further, two representative MVs were selected to explore the microbial interactions based on phylogenetic molecular ecological networks. The sites showed distinct network structures, key species and microbial interactions, with more complex and numerous linkages between methane-cycling microbes and their partners being observed in the iron/sulfate-rich MV. These findings suggest that electron acceptors are important factors driving the structure of microbial communities in these methane-rich environments. © 2018 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haizheng; Shi, Ainong; Mou, Beiquan; Qin, Jun; Motes, Dennis; Lu, Weiguo; Ma, Jianbing; Weng, Yuejin; Yang, Wei; Wu, Dianxing

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of cowpea was analyzed, and the population structure was estimated in a diverse set of 768 cultivated cowpea genotypes from the USDA GRIN cowpea collection, originally collected from 56 countries. Genotyping by sequencing was used to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cowpea and the identified SNP alleles were used to estimate the level of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogenetic relationships. The aim of this study was to detect the gene pool structure of cowpea and to determine its relationship between different regions and countries. Based on the model-based ancestry analysis, the phylogenetic tree, and the principal component analysis, three well-differentiated genetic populations were postulated from 768 worldwide cowpea genotypes. According to the phylogenetic analyses between each individual, region, and country, we may trace the accession from off-original, back to the two candidate original areas (West and East of Africa) to predict the migration and domestication history during the cowpea dispersal and development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of the genetic variation and relationship between globally cultivated cowpea genotypes. The results will help curators, researchers, and breeders to understand, utilize, conserve, and manage the collection for more efficient contribution to international cowpea research.

  19. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haizheng; Shi, Ainong; Mou, Beiquan; Qin, Jun; Motes, Dennis; Lu, Weiguo; Ma, Jianbing; Weng, Yuejin; Yang, Wei; Wu, Dianxing

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of cowpea was analyzed, and the population structure was estimated in a diverse set of 768 cultivated cowpea genotypes from the USDA GRIN cowpea collection, originally collected from 56 countries. Genotyping by sequencing was used to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cowpea and the identified SNP alleles were used to estimate the level of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogenetic relationships. The aim of this study was to detect the gene pool structure of cowpea and to determine its relationship between different regions and countries. Based on the model-based ancestry analysis, the phylogenetic tree, and the principal component analysis, three well-differentiated genetic populations were postulated from 768 worldwide cowpea genotypes. According to the phylogenetic analyses between each individual, region, and country, we may trace the accession from off-original, back to the two candidate original areas (West and East of Africa) to predict the migration and domestication history during the cowpea dispersal and development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the analysis of the genetic variation and relationship between globally cultivated cowpea genotypes. The results will help curators, researchers, and breeders to understand, utilize, conserve, and manage the collection for more efficient contribution to international cowpea research. PMID:27509049

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of Vriesea reitzii (Bromeliaceae), a species from the Southern Brazilian Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Luis Eduardo; Goetze, Márcia; Zanella, Camila M.; Bered, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Southern Brazilian Highlands are composed by a mosaic of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest (MOF) and grassland formations, an interesting landscape for the study of population structure. We analyzed the genetic diversity within and among populations of the MOF-endemic bromeliad Vriesea reitzii by genotyping seven nuclear microsatellite loci in 187 individuals from six populations. We characterized levels of genetic diversity and assessed the genetic structure among populations. Vriesea reitzii populations showed high levels of genetic variation (number of alleles 28 - 43, allelic richness 3.589 - 5.531) and moderate levels of genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.123, R ST = 0.096). The high levels of genetic diversity may be explained by species life-history traits, such as habit and mating system. The moderate structure may be a product of the combination of ancient and contemporary gene flow, resulting from the expansion of the forest in the Holocene, and/or due to facilitated dispersal mediated by the MOF’s mosaic landscape. The genetic results indicated no imminent threat to this bromeliad. However, the species is highly associated with the MOF, putting landscape conservation at the center of conservation efforts for the species’ maintenance. PMID:29583153

  1. Population structure, genetic diversity and downy mildew resistance among Ocimum species germplasm.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Robert M; Honig, Josh A; Vaiciunas, Jennifer; Wyenandt, Christian A; Simon, James E

    2018-04-23

    The basil (Ocimum spp.) genus maintains a rich diversity of phenotypes and aromatic volatiles through natural and artificial outcrossing. Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity among a representative sample of this genus is severely lacking. Absence of such information has slowed breeding efforts and the development of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) with resistance to the worldwide downy mildew epidemic, caused by the obligate oomycete Peronospora belbahrii. In an effort to improve classification of relationships 20 EST-SSR markers with species-level transferability were developed and used to resolve relationships among a diverse panel of 180 Ocimum spp. accessions with varying response to downy mildew. Results obtained from nested Bayesian model-based clustering, analysis of molecular variance and unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) analyses were synergized to provide an updated phylogeny of the Ocimum genus. Three (major) and seven (sub) population (cluster) models were identified and well-supported (P < 0.001) by PhiPT (Φ PT ) values of 0.433 and 0.344, respectively. Allelic frequency among clusters supported previously developed hypotheses of allopolyploid genome structure. Evidence of cryptic population structure was demonstrated for the k1 O. basilicum cluster suggesting prevalence of gene flow. UPGMA analysis provided best resolution for the 36-accession, DM resistant k3 cluster with consistently strong bootstrap support. Although the k3 cluster is a rich source of DM resistance introgression of resistance into the commercially important k1 accessions is impeded by reproductive barriers as demonstrated by multiple sterile F1 hybrids. The k2 cluster located between k1 and k3, represents a source of transferrable tolerance evidenced by fertile backcross progeny. The 90-accession k1 cluster was largely susceptible to downy mildew with accession 'MRI' representing the only source of DM resistance. High

  2. Genetic diversity and structure of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Dongxue; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Na

    2014-01-01

    Sinopodophyllum hexandrum is an important medicinal plant whose genetic diversity must be conserved because it is endangered. The Qinling Mts. are a S. hexandrum distribution area that has unique environmental features that highly affect the evolution of the species. To provide the reference data for evolutionary and conservation studies, the genetic diversity and population structure of S. hexandrum in its overall natural distribution areas in the Qinling Mts. were investigated through inter-simple sequence repeats analysis of 32 natural populations. The 11 selected primers generated a total of 135 polymorphic bands. S. hexandrum genetic diversity was low within populations (average He = 0.0621), but higher at the species level (He = 0.1434). Clear structure and high genetic differentiation among populations were detected by using the unweighted pair group method for arithmetic averages, principle coordinate analysis and Bayesian clustering. The clustering approaches supported a division of the 32 populations into three major groups, for which analysis of molecular variance confirmed significant variation (63.27%) among populations. The genetic differentiation may have been attributed to the limited gene flow (Nm = 0.3587) in the species. Isolation by distance among populations was determined by comparing genetic distance versus geographic distance by using the Mantel test. Result was insignificant (r = 0.212, P = 0.287) at 0.05, showing that their spatial pattern and geographic locations are not correlated. Given the low within-population genetic diversity, high differentiation among populations and the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the species, in situ conservation measures were recommended to preserve S. hexandrum in Qinling Mts., and other populations must be sampled to retain as much genetic diversity of the species to achieve ex situ preservation as a supplement to in situ conservation.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying in the Qinling Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Dongxue; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Na

    2014-01-01

    Sinopodophyllum hexandrum is an important medicinal plant whose genetic diversity must be conserved because it is endangered. The Qinling Mts. are a S. hexandrum distribution area that has unique environmental features that highly affect the evolution of the species. To provide the reference data for evolutionary and conservation studies, the genetic diversity and population structure of S. hexandrum in its overall natural distribution areas in the Qinling Mts. were investigated through inter-simple sequence repeats analysis of 32 natural populations. The 11 selected primers generated a total of 135 polymorphic bands. S. hexandrum genetic diversity was low within populations (average He = 0.0621), but higher at the species level (He = 0.1434). Clear structure and high genetic differentiation among populations were detected by using the unweighted pair group method for arithmetic averages, principle coordinate analysis and Bayesian clustering. The clustering approaches supported a division of the 32 populations into three major groups, for which analysis of molecular variance confirmed significant variation (63.27%) among populations. The genetic differentiation may have been attributed to the limited gene flow (Nm = 0.3587) in the species. Isolation by distance among populations was determined by comparing genetic distance versus geographic distance by using the Mantel test. Result was insignificant (r = 0.212, P = 0.287) at 0.05, showing that their spatial pattern and geographic locations are not correlated. Given the low within-population genetic diversity, high differentiation among populations and the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the species, in situ conservation measures were recommended to preserve S. hexandrum in Qinling Mts., and other populations must be sampled to retain as much genetic diversity of the species to achieve ex situ preservation as a supplement to in situ conservation. PMID:25333788

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of an extremely endangered species: the world's largest Rhododendron.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu Qin; Shen, Shi Kang; Zhang, Xin Jun; Wang, Yue Hua; Sun, Wei Bang

    2014-12-04

    Comprehensive studies on the genetic diversity and structure of endangered species are urgently needed to promote effective conservation and management activities. The big tree rhododendron, Rhododendron protistum var. giganteum, is a highly endangered species with only two known endemic populations in a small area in the southern part of Yunnan Province in China. Unfortunately, limited information is available regarding the population genetics of this species. Therefore, we conducted amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis to characterize the genetic diversity and variation of this species within and between remaining populations. Twelve primer combinations of AFLP produced 447 unambiguous and repetitious bands. Among these bands, 298 (66.67 %) were polymorphic. We found high genetic diversity at the species level (percentage of polymorphic loci = 66.67 %, h = 0.240, I = 0.358) and low genetic differentiation (Gst = 0.110) between the two populations. Gene flow between populations (Nm) was relatively high at 4.065. Analysis of molecular variance results revealed that 22 % of the genetic variation was partitioned between populations and 78 % of the genetic variation was within populations. The presence of moderate to high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation in the two populations can be explained by life history traits, pollen dispersal and high gene flow (Nm = 4.065). Bayesian structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that 56 sampled trees were clustered into two groups. Our results suggest that some rare and endangered species are able to maintain high levels of genetic diversity even at small population sizes. These results will assist with the design of conservation and management programmes, such as in situ and ex situ conservation, seed collection for germplasm conservation and reintroduction. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  5. Population structure and genetic diversity of the amphiatlantic haploid peatmoss Sphagnum affine (Sphagnopsida).

    PubMed

    Thingsgaard, K

    2001-10-01

    Nineteen populations of Sphagnum affine were included in a study of genetic diversity and structure in fragmented and less fragmented landscapes, and differentiation at intercontinental and three regional levels. Isozyme electrophoresis of eight enzyme systems revealed 12 variable loci, which could be used for haplotype identification. A hierachical analysis of variance (AMOVA) revealed no significant intercontinental differentiation, and very limited differentiation among European regions. A trend of decreasing diversity with increasing latitude was apparent. Gametic phase disequilibria was high, suggesting nonrandom mating and regionally high incidences of inbreeding. The partitioning of genetic variation within and among populations in each region varied among regions, the northernmost populations having 86% of the total variation among populations, the southernmost in Scandinavia having 25% of the variation among populations, whereas the American populations displayed 89% of the variation within populations. Fifteen alleles at eight loci occurred in the U.S.A. which were not encountered in Europe, whereas only three European alleles at one locus in three populations were not encountered in U.S.A. The differences in diversity between North America and Europe may result from loss of genetic diversity caused by founder effects during postglacial recolonization of northern Europe. In Europe, the main mountain ranges extend E-W, posing severe barriers to northwards migration of lowland species, compared to the N-S trend of mountain ranges in North America. The decline in genetic diversity and increase in population differentiation and gametic phase disequilibria towards the north in Scandinavia may be caused by a series of founder effects during postglacial migration. These may have corresponded to minor climatic oscillations that influenced the migration front/leading edge in the suboceanic lowlands of Norway. According to this model random genetic drift will be an

  6. Diversity and population structure of a dominant deciduous tree based on morphological and genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin-di; Jia, Rui-Zhi; Meng, Chao; Ti, Chao-Wen; Wang, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic diversity and structure of tree species across their geographic ranges is essential for sustainable use and management of forest ecosystems. Acer grosseri Pax., an economically and ecologically important maple species, is mainly distributed in North China. In this study, the genetic diversity and population differentiation of 24 natural populations of this species were evaluated using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and morphological characters. The results show that highly significant differences occurred in 32 morphological traits. The coefficient of variation of 34 characters was 18.19 %. Principal component analysis indicated that 18 of 34 traits explained 60.20 % of the total variance. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient (VST) was 36.06 % for all morphological traits. The Shannon–Wiener index of 34 morphological characters was 6.09, while at the population level, it was 1.77. The percentage of polymorphic bands of all studied A. grosseri populations was 82.14 %. Nei's gene diversity (He) and Shannon's information index (I) were 0.35 and 0.50, respectively. Less genetic differentiation was detected among the natural populations (GST = 0.20, ΦST = 0.10). Twenty-four populations of A. grosseri formed two main clusters, which is consistent with morphological cluster analysis. Principal coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE analysis supported the UPGMA-cluster dendrogram. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances among populations. Both molecular and morphological data suggested that A. grosseri is rich in genetic diversity. The high level of genetic variation within populations could be affected by the biological characters, mating system and lifespan of A. grosseri, whereas the lower genetic diversity among populations could be caused by effective gene exchange, selective pressure from environmental heterogeneity and the species' geographical range. PMID:26311734

  7. Computational methods for constructing protein structure models from 3D electron microscopy maps.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke

    2013-10-01

    Protein structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (EM) has made significant progress in the past decades. Resolutions of EM maps have been improving as evidenced by recently reported structures that are solved at high resolutions close to 3Å. Computational methods play a key role in interpreting EM data. Among many computational procedures applied to an EM map to obtain protein structure information, in this article we focus on reviewing computational methods that model protein three-dimensional (3D) structures from a 3D EM density map that is constructed from two-dimensional (2D) maps. The computational methods we discuss range from de novo methods, which identify structural elements in an EM map, to structure fitting methods, where known high resolution structures are fit into a low-resolution EM map. A list of available computational tools is also provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV with a Referred Sample: Direct versus Indirect Hierarchical Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order…

  9. Secondary School Students' Understanding of Mathematical Induction: Structural Characteristics and the Process of Proof Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palla, Marina; Potari, Despina; Spyrou, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the meaning students attribute to the structure of mathematical induction (MI) and the process of proof construction using mathematical induction in the context of a geometric recursion problem. Two hundred and thirteen 17-year-old students of an upper secondary school in Greece participated in the study. Students'…

  10. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  11. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    DOEpatents

    Vohra, Arun

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  12. 29. VIEW OF THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE PICTURED IN CO43A28 FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF THE DIVERSION STRUCTURE PICTURED IN CO-43-A-28 FROM THE CHANNEL OF THE LATERAL, SHOWING THE UPSTREAM FACE OF THE STRUCTURE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand, a low transmission country.

    PubMed

    Pumpaibool, Tepanata; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Kanchanakhan, Naowarat; Siripoon, Napaporn; Suegorn, Aree; Sitthi-Amorn, Chitr; Renaud, François; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai

    2009-07-14

    The population structure of the causative agents of human malaria, Plasmodium sp., including the most serious agent Plasmodium falciparum, depends on the local epidemiological and demographic situations, such as the incidence of infected people, the vector transmission intensity and migration of inhabitants (i.e. exchange between sites). Analysing the structure of P. falciparum populations at a large scale, such as continents, or with markers that are subject to non-neutral selection, can lead to a masking and misunderstanding of the effective process of transmission. Thus, knowledge of the genetic structure and organization of P. falciparum populations in a particular area with neutral genetic markers is needed to understand which epidemiological factors should be targeted for disease control. Limited reports are available on the population genetic diversity and structure of P. falciparum in Thailand, and this is of particular concern at the Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodian borders, where there is a reported high resistance to anti-malarial drugs, for example mefloquine, with little understanding of its potential gene flow. The diversity and genetic differentiation of P. falciparum populations were analysed using 12 polymorphic apparently neutral microsatellite loci distributed on eight of the 14 different chromosomes. Samples were collected from seven provinces in the western, eastern and southern parts of Thailand. A strong difference in the nuclear genetic structure was observed between most of the assayed populations. The genetic diversity was comparable to the intermediate level observed in low P. falciparum transmission areas (average HS = 0.65 +/- 0.17), where the lowest is observed in South America and the highest in Africa. However, uniquely the Yala province, had only a single multilocus genotype present in all samples, leading to a strong geographic differentiation when compared to the other Thai populations during this study. Comparison of the genetic

  14. Polyhydrido Copper Clusters: Synthetic Advances, Structural Diversity, and Nanocluster-to-Nanoparticle Conversion.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Rajendra S; van Zyl, Werner E; Liu, C W

    2016-01-19

    Metal hydride clusters have historically been studied to unravel their aesthetically pleasing molecular structures and interesting properties, especially toward hydrogen related applications. Central to this work is the hydride ligand, H¯, the smallest closed-shell spherical anion known. Two new developments in polyhydrido nanocluster chemistry include the determination of heretofore unknown hydride coordination modes and novel structural constructs, and conversion from the molecular entities to rhombus-shaped copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). These advances, together with hydrogen evolution and catalysis, have provided both experimentalists and theorists with a rich scientific directive to further explore. The isolation of hexameric [{(Ph3P)CuH}6] (Stryker reagent) could be regarded as the springboard for the recent emergence of polyhydrido copper cluster chemistry due to its utilization in a variety of organic chemical transformations. The stability of clusters of various nuclearity was improved through phosphine, pyridine, and carbene type ligands. Our focus lies with the isolation of novel copper (poly)hydride clusters using mostly the phosphor-1,1-dithiolato type ligands. We found such chalcogen-stabilized clusters to be exceptionally air and moisture stable over a wide range of nuclearities (Cu7 to Cu32). In this Account, we (i) report on state-of-the-art copper hydride cluster chemistry, especially with regards to the diverse and novel structural types generally, and newly discovered hydride coordination modes in particular, (ii) demonstrate the indispensable power of neutron diffraction for the unambiguous assignment and location of hydride ligand(s) within a cluster, and (iii) prove unique transformations that can occur not only between well characterized high nuclearity clusters, but also how such clusters can transform to uniquely shaped nanoparticles of several nanometers in diameter through copper hydride reduction. The increase in the number of low- to

  15. Diversity and biogeochemical structuring of bacterial communities across the Porangahau ridge accretionary prism, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamdan, L.J.; Gillevet, P.M.; Pohlman, J.W.; Sikaroodi, M.; Greinert, J.; Coffin, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Sediments from the Porangahau ridge, located off the northeastern coast of New Zealand, were studied to describe bacterial community structure in conjunction with differing biogeochemical regimes across the ridge. Low diversity was observed in sediments from an eroded basin seaward of the ridge and the community was dominated by uncultured members of the Burkholderiales. Chloroflexi/GNS and Deltaproteobacteria were abundant in sediments from a methane seep located landward of the ridge. Gas-charged and organic-rich sediments further landward had the highest overall diversity. Surface sediments, with the exception of those from the basin, were dominated by Rhodobacterales sequences associated with organic matter deposition. Taxa related to the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus and the JS1 candidates were highly abundant at the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) at three sites. To determine how community structure was influenced by terrestrial, pelagic and in situ substrates, sequence data were statistically analyzed against geochemical data (e.g. sulfate, chloride, nitrogen, phosphorous, methane, bulk inorganic and organic carbon pools) using the Biota-Environmental matching procedure. Landward of the ridge, sulfate was among the most significant structuring factors. Seaward of the ridge, silica and ammonium were important structuring factors. Regardless of the transect location, methane was the principal structuring factor on SMTZ communities. FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  16. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  17. Tree Leaf Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity Differ along a Gradient of Urban Intensity.

    PubMed

    Laforest-Lapointe, Isabelle; Messier, Christian; Kembel, Steven W

    2017-01-01

    Tree leaf-associated microbiota have been studied in natural ecosystems but less so in urban settings, where anthropogenic pressures on trees could impact microbial communities and modify their interaction with their hosts. Additionally, trees act as vectors spreading bacterial cells in the air in urban environments due to the density of microbial cells on aerial plant surfaces. Characterizing tree leaf bacterial communities along an urban gradient is thus key to understand the impact of anthropogenic pressures on urban tree-bacterium interactions and on the overall urban microbiome. In this study, we aimed (i) to characterize phyllosphere bacterial communities of seven tree species in urban environments and (ii) to describe the changes in tree phyllosphere bacterial community structure and diversity along a gradient of increasing urban intensity and at two degrees of tree isolation. Our results indicate that, as anthropogenic pressures increase, urban leaf bacterial communities show a reduction in the abundance of the dominant class in the natural plant microbiome, the Alphaproteobacteria . Our work in the urban environment here reveals that the structures of leaf bacterial communities differ along the gradient of urban intensity. The diversity of phyllosphere microbial communities increases at higher urban intensity, also displaying a greater number and variety of associated indicator taxa than the low and medium urban gradient sites. In conclusion, we find that urban environments influence tree bacterial community composition, and our results suggest that feedback between human activity and plant microbiomes could shape urban microbiomes. IMPORTANCE In natural forests, tree leaf surfaces host diverse bacterial communities whose structure and composition are primarily driven by host species identity. Tree leaf bacterial diversity has also been shown to influence tree community productivity, a key function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, most urban microbiome

  18. Tree Leaf Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity Differ along a Gradient of Urban Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Christian; Kembel, Steven W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tree leaf-associated microbiota have been studied in natural ecosystems but less so in urban settings, where anthropogenic pressures on trees could impact microbial communities and modify their interaction with their hosts. Additionally, trees act as vectors spreading bacterial cells in the air in urban environments due to the density of microbial cells on aerial plant surfaces. Characterizing tree leaf bacterial communities along an urban gradient is thus key to understand the impact of anthropogenic pressures on urban tree-bacterium interactions and on the overall urban microbiome. In this study, we aimed (i) to characterize phyllosphere bacterial communities of seven tree species in urban environments and (ii) to describe the changes in tree phyllosphere bacterial community structure and diversity along a gradient of increasing urban intensity and at two degrees of tree isolation. Our results indicate that, as anthropogenic pressures increase, urban leaf bacterial communities show a reduction in the abundance of the dominant class in the natural plant microbiome, the Alphaproteobacteria. Our work in the urban environment here reveals that the structures of leaf bacterial communities differ along the gradient of urban intensity. The diversity of phyllosphere microbial communities increases at higher urban intensity, also displaying a greater number and variety of associated indicator taxa than the low and medium urban gradient sites. In conclusion, we find that urban environments influence tree bacterial community composition, and our results suggest that feedback between human activity and plant microbiomes could shape urban microbiomes. IMPORTANCE In natural forests, tree leaf surfaces host diverse bacterial communities whose structure and composition are primarily driven by host species identity. Tree leaf bacterial diversity has also been shown to influence tree community productivity, a key function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, most urban

  19. Endoperoxide antimalarials: development, structural diversity and pharmacodynamic aspects with reference to 1,2,4-trioxane-based structural scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Rudrapal, Mithun; Chetia, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Malaria disease continues to be a major health problem worldwide due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In recent days, artemisinin (ART)-based drugs and combination therapies remain the drugs of choice for resistant P. falciparum malaria. However, resistance to ART-based drugs has begun to appear in some parts of the world. Endoperoxide compounds (natural/semisynthetic/synthetic) representing a huge number of antimalarial agents possess a wide structural diversity with a desired antimalarial effectiveness against resistant P. falciparum malaria. The 1,2,4-trioxane ring system lacking the lactone ring that constitutes the most important endoperoxide structural scaffold is believed to be the key pharmacophoric moiety and is primarily responsible for the pharmacodynamic potential of endoperoxide-based antimalarials. Due to this reason, research into endoperoxide, particularly 1,2,4-trioxane-, 1,2,4-trioxolane- and 1,2,4,5-teraoxane-based scaffolds, has gained significant interest in recent years for developing antimalarial drugs against resistant malaria. In this paper, a comprehensive effort has been made to review the development of endoperoxide antimalarials from traditional antimalarial leads (natural/semisynthetic) and structural diversity of endoperoxide molecules derived from 1,2,4-trioxane-, 1,2,4-trioxolane- and 1,2,4,5-teraoxane-based structural scaffolds, including their chimeric (hybrid) molecules, which are newer and potent antimalarial agents. PMID:27843298

  20. Development of genetic diversity, differentiation and structure over 500 years in four ponderosa pine populations.

    PubMed

    Lesser, M R; Parchman, T L; Jackson, S T

    2013-05-01

    Population history plays an important role in shaping contemporary levels of genetic variation and geographic structure. This is especially true in small, isolated range-margin populations, where effects of inbreeding, genetic drift and gene flow may be more pronounced than in large continuous populations. Effects of landscape fragmentation and isolation distance may have implications for persistence of range-margin populations if they are demographic sinks. We studied four small, disjunct populations of ponderosa pine over a 500-year period. We coupled demographic data obtained through dendroecological methods with microsatellite data to discern how and when contemporary levels of allelic diversity, among and within-population levels of differentiation, and geographic structure, arose. Alleles accumulated rapidly following initial colonization, demonstrating proportionally high levels of gene flow into the populations. At population sizes of approximately 100 individuals, allele accumulation saturated. Levels of genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) and Jost's D(est)) and diversity within populations (F(IS)) remained stable through time. There was no evidence of geographic genetic structure at any time in the populations' history. Proportionally, high gene flow in the early stages of population growth resulted in rapid accumulation of alleles and quickly created relatively homogenous genetic patterns among populations. Our study demonstrates that contemporary levels of genetic diversity were formed quickly and early in population development. How contemporary genetic diversity accumulates over time is a key facet of understanding population growth and development. This is especially relevant given the extent and speed at which species ranges are predicted to shift in the coming century. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of an important wild berry crop

    PubMed Central

    Zoratti, Laura; Palmieri, Luisa; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely

    2015-01-01

    The success of plant breeding in the coming years will be associated with access to new sources of variation, which will include landraces and wild relatives of crop species. In order to access the reservoir of favourable alleles within wild germplasm, knowledge about the genetic diversity and the population structure of wild species is needed. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is one of the most important wild crops growing in the forests of Northern European countries, noted for its nutritional properties and its beneficial effects on human health. Assessment of the genetic diversity of wild bilberry germplasm is needed for efforts such as in situ conservation, on-farm management and development of plant breeding programmes. However, to date, only a few local (small-scale) genetic studies of this species have been performed. We therefore conducted a study of genetic variability within 32 individual samples collected from different locations in Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany, and analysed genetic diversity among geographic groups. Four selected inter-simple sequence repeat primers allowed the amplification of 127 polymorphic loci which, based on analysis of variance, made it possible to identify 85 % of the genetic diversity within studied bilberry populations, being in agreement with the mixed-mating system of bilberry. Significant correlations were obtained between geographic and genetic distances for the entire set of samples. The analyses also highlighted the presence of a north–south genetic gradient, which is in accordance with recent findings on phenotypic traits of bilberry. PMID:26483325

  2. Unity in diversity: structural and functional insights into the ancient partnerships between plants and fungi.

    PubMed

    Field, Katie J; Pressel, Silvia

    2018-04-26

    Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Mycorrhizal symbiosis is an ancient and widespread mutualism between plants and fungi that facilitated plant terrestrialisation > 500 million years ago, with key roles in ecosystem functioning at multiple scales. Central to the symbiosis is the bidirectional exchange of plant-fixed carbon for fungal-acquired nutrients. Within this unifying role of mycorrhizas, considerable diversity in structure and function reflects the diversity of the partners involved. Early diverging plants form mutualisms not only with arbuscular mycorrhizal Glomeromycotina fungi, but also with poorly characterised Mucoromycotina, which may also colonise the roots of 'higher' plants as fine root endophytes. Functional diversity in these symbioses depends on both fungal and plant life histories and is influenced by the environment. Recent studies have highlighted the roles of lipids/fatty acids in plant-to-fungus carbon transport and potential contributions of Glomeromycotina fungi to plant nitrogen nutrition. Together with emerging appreciation of mycorrhizal networks as multi-species resource-sharing systems, these insights are broadening our views on mycorrhizas and their roles in nutrient cycling. It is crucial that the diverse array of biotic and abiotic factors that together shape the dynamics of carbon-for-nutrient exchange between plants and fungi are integrated, in addition to embracing the unfolding and potentially key role of Mucoromycotina fungi in these processes. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Structure among Isolated Populations of the Endangered Gees Golden Langur in Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Jihosuo; Nag, Sudipta; Shil, Joydeep; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Gee’s golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an endangered colobine primate, endemic to the semi-evergreen and mixed-deciduous forests of Indo-Bhutan border. During the last few decades, extensive fragmentation has caused severe population decline and local extinction of golden langur from several fragments. However, no studies are available on the impact of habitat fragmentation and the genetic diversity of golden langur in the fragmented habitats. The present study aimed to estimate the genetic diversity in the Indian population of golden langur. We sequenced and analyzed around 500 bases of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region-I from 59 fecal samples of wild langur collected from nine forest fragments. Overall, genetic diversity was high (h = 0.934, π = 0.0244) and comparable with other colobines. Populations in smaller fragments showed lower nucleotide diversity compared to the larger forest fragments. The median-joining network of haplotypes revealed a genetic structure that corresponded with the geographical distribution. The Aie and Champabati Rivers were found to be a barrier to gene flow between golden langur populations. In addition, it also established that T. geei is monophyletic but revealed possible hybridization with capped langur, T. pileatus, in the wild. It is hoped that these findings would result in a more scientific approach towards managing the fragmented populations of this enigmatic species. PMID:27564405

  4. Population structure and genetic diversity of wild Helianthus species from Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A; Gouveia, M; Bessa, A; Ferreira, A; Magumisse, A T; Manjate, M; Faria, T

    2010-08-01

    The production of sunflower suffered a major decline in Mozambique after its independence in 1975. Civil war, human activities and environmental damage subjected the species to an ecological stress contributing to reduce the number and size of wild populations. As this reduction is often related to a loss of genetic variation we estimated the genetic diversity within and among populations of wild Helianthus from five districts of Mozambique using RAPD markers. The 44 accessions studied grouped into four major clusters exhibiting structured variability with regard to geographic origin. A high level of genetic diversity (He = 0.350 and I = 0.527) was retained at the population level. The genetic variation among populations was high (59.7%), which is consistent with low gene flow (Nm = 0.338). The proportion of total genetic diversity residing among these populations should be kept in mind to devise different conservation strategies in order to preserve these populations. Currently wild Helianthus genetic resources present in Maputo and Sofala are on the edge of extinction mainly due to excessive urbanization. Therefore, conservation of what remains of this plant genetic diversity is essential for sustainable utilization and can be useful for breeding programs.

  5. Genetic diversity and structure in the Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana, Cyclura cychlura inornata

    PubMed Central

    Aplasca, Andrea C.; Iverson, John B.; Welch, Mark E.; Colosimo, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cychlura inornata) is endemic to the Allen Cays, a tiny cluster of islands in the Bahamas. Naturally occurring populations exist on only two cays (<4 ha each). However, populations of unknown origin were recently discovered on four additional cays. To investigate patterns of genetic variation among these populations, we analyzed nuclear and mitochondrial markers for 268 individuals. Analysis of three mitochondrial gene regions (2,328 bp) and data for eight nuclear microsatellite loci indicated low genetic diversity overall. Estimates of effective population sizes based on multilocus genotypes were also extremely low. Despite low diversity, significant population structuring and variation in genetic diversity measures were detected among cays. Genetic data confirm the source population for an experimentally translocated population while raising concerns regarding other, unauthorized, translocations. Reduced heterozygosity is consistent with a documented historical population decline due to overharvest. This study provides the first range-wide genetic analysis of this subspecies. We suggest strategies to maximize genetic diversity during ongoing recovery including additional translocations to establish assurance populations and additional protective measures for the two remaining natural populations. PMID:26989628

  6. Natural diversity of glycoside hydrolase family 48 exoglucanases: insights from structure

    SciTech Connect

    Brunecky, Roman; Alahuhta, Markus; Sammond, Deanne W.

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 48 is an understudied and increasingly important exoglucanase family found in the majority of bacterial cellulase systems. Moreover, many thermophilic enzyme systems contain GH48 enzymes. Deletion of GH48 enzymes in these microorganisms results in drastic reduction in biomass deconstruction. Surprisingly, given their importance for these microorganisms, GH48s have intrinsically low cellulolytic activity but even in low ratios synergize greatly with GH9 endoglucanases. In this study, we explore the structural and enzymatic diversity of these enzymes across a wide range of temperature optima. We have crystallized one new GH48 module from Bacillus pumilus in a complex withmore » cellobiose and cellohexaose (BpumGH48). We compare this structure to other known GH48 enzymes in an attempt to understand GH48 structure/function relationships and draw general rules correlating amino acid sequences and secondary structures to thermostability in this GH family.« less

  7. Natural diversity of glycoside hydrolase family 48 exoglucanases: insights from structure

    DOE PAGES

    Brunecky, Roman; Alahuhta, Markus; Sammond, Deanne W.; ...

    2017-11-30

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 48 is an understudied and increasingly important exoglucanase family found in the majority of bacterial cellulase systems. Moreover, many thermophilic enzyme systems contain GH48 enzymes. Deletion of GH48 enzymes in these microorganisms results in drastic reduction in biomass deconstruction. Surprisingly, given their importance for these microorganisms, GH48s have intrinsically low cellulolytic activity but even in low ratios synergize greatly with GH9 endoglucanases. In this study, we explore the structural and enzymatic diversity of these enzymes across a wide range of temperature optima. We have crystallized one new GH48 module from Bacillus pumilus in a complex withmore » cellobiose and cellohexaose (BpumGH48). We compare this structure to other known GH48 enzymes in an attempt to understand GH48 structure/function relationships and draw general rules correlating amino acid sequences and secondary structures to thermostability in this GH family.« less

  8. Constructive systems, load-bearing and enclosing structures of high-rise buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatol'evna Korol', Elena; Olegovna Kustikova, Yuliya

    2018-03-01

    As the height of the building increases, loads on load-carrying structures increase dramatically, and as a result of the development of high-rise construction, several structural systems of such buildings have been developed: frame, frame-frame, cross-wall, barrel, box-type, box-to-wall ("pipe in pipe", "Trumpet in the farm"), etc. In turn, the barrel systems have their own versions: cantilever support of the ceilings on the trunk, suspension of the outer part of the overlap to the upper carrying console "hanging house" or its support by means of the walls on the lower bearing cantilever, intermediate position of the supporting cantilevers in height to the floor, from a part of floors. The object of the study are the structural solutions of high-rise buildings. The subject of the study is the layout of structural schemes of high-rise buildings, taking into account the main parameters - altitude (height), natural climatic conditions of construction, materials of structural elements and their physical and mechanical characteristics. The purpose of the study is to identify the features and systematization of structural systems of high-rise buildings and the corresponding structural elements. The results of the research make it possible, at the stage of making design decisions, to establish rational parameters for the correspondence between the structural systems of high-rise buildings and their individual elements.

  9. Parasites Affect Food Web Structure Primarily through Increased Diversity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites “dominate” food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic organization

  10. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites ‘‘dominate’’ food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites’ roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites’ feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic

  11. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Jennifer A; Lafferty, Kevin D; Dobson, Andrew P; Hechinger, Ryan F; Kuris, Armand M; Martinez, Neo D; McLaughlin, John P; Mouritsen, Kim N; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B; Thieltges, David W; Williams, Richard J; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites "dominate" food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic organization

  12. Development of Scaffold-Free Elastic Cartilaginous Constructs with Structural Similarities to Auricular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Giardini-Rosa, Renata; Joazeiro, Paulo P.; Thomas, Kathryn; Collavino, Kristina; Weber, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    External ear reconstruction with autologous cartilage still remains one of the most difficult problems in the fields of plastic and reconstructive surgery. As the absence of tissue vascularization limits the ability to stimulate new tissue growth, relatively few surgical approaches are currently available (alloplastic implants or sculpted autologous cartilage grafts) to repair or reconstruct the auricle (or pinna) as a result of traumatic loss or congenital absence (e.g., microtia). Alternatively, tissue engineering can offer the potential to grow autogenous cartilage suitable for implantation. While tissue-engineered auricle cartilage constructs can be created, a substantial number of cells are required to generate sufficient quantities of tissue for reconstruction. Similarly, as routine cell expansion can elicit negative effects on chondrocyte function, we have developed an approach to generate large-sized engineered auricle constructs (≥3 cm2) directly from a small population of donor cells (20,000–40,000 cells/construct). Using rabbit donor cells, the developed bioreactor-cultivated constructs adopted structural-like characteristics similar to native auricular cartilage, including the development of distinct cartilaginous and perichondrium-like regions. Both alterations in media composition and seeding density had profound effects on the formation of engineered elastic tissue constructs in terms of cellularity, extracellular matrix accumulation, and tissue structure. Higher seeding densities and media containing sodium bicarbonate produced tissue constructs that were closer to the native tissue in terms of structure and composition. Future studies will be aimed at improving the accumulation of specific tissue constituents and determining the clinical effectiveness of this approach using a reconstructive animal model. PMID:24124666

  13. Development of scaffold-free elastic cartilaginous constructs with structural similarities to auricular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Giardini-Rosa, Renata; Joazeiro, Paulo P; Thomas, Kathryn; Collavino, Kristina; Weber, Joanna; Waldman, Stephen D

    2014-03-01

    External ear reconstruction with autologous cartilage still remains one of the most difficult problems in the fields of plastic and reconstructive surgery. As the absence of tissue vascularization limits the ability to stimulate new tissue growth, relatively few surgical approaches are currently available (alloplastic implants or sculpted autologous cartilage grafts) to repair or reconstruct the auricle (or pinna) as a result of traumatic loss or congenital absence (e.g., microtia). Alternatively, tissue engineering can offer the potential to grow autogenous cartilage suitable for implantation. While tissue-engineered auricle cartilage constructs can be created, a substantial number of cells are required to generate sufficient quantities of tissue for reconstruction. Similarly, as routine cell expansion can elicit negative effects on chondrocyte function, we have developed an approach to generate large-sized engineered auricle constructs (≥3 cm(2)) directly from a small population of donor cells (20,000-40,000 cells/construct). Using rabbit donor cells, the developed bioreactor-cultivated constructs adopted structural-like characteristics similar to native auricular cartilage, including the development of distinct cartilaginous and perichondrium-like regions. Both alterations in media composition and seeding density had profound effects on the formation of engineered elastic tissue constructs in terms of cellularity, extracellular matrix accumulation, and tissue structure. Higher seeding densities and media containing sodium bicarbonate produced tissue constructs that were closer to the native tissue in terms of structure and composition. Future studies will be aimed at improving the accumulation of specific tissue constituents and determining the clinical effectiveness of this approach using a reconstructive animal model.

  14. Constructing Knowledge from Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Using case studies that are functionalist in orientation and computational in technique, the role of control knowledge in developing constructive thinking is illustrated. Further, the integration of related knowledge structures, emanating from diverse sensory modes and pertaining to both place value in addition and angle relationships in geometry,…

  15. Woody plant diversity and structure of shade-grown-coffee plantations in northern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pinto, L; Romero-Alvarado, Y; Caballero-Nieto, J; Segura Warnholtz, G

    2001-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee is an agricultural system that contains some forest-like characteristics. However, structure and diversity are poorly known in shade coffee systems. In 61 coffee-growers' plots of Chiapas, Mexico, structural variables of shade vegetation and coffee yields were measured, recording species and their use. Coffee stands had five vegetation strata. Seventy seven woody species mostly used as wood were found (mean density 371.4 trees per hectare). Ninety percent were native species (40% of the local flora), the remaining were introduced species, mainly fruit trees/shrubs. Diametric distribution resembles that of a secondary forest. Principal Coordinates Analysis grouped plots in four classes by the presence of Inga, however the majority of plots are diverse. There was no difference in equitability among groups or coffee yields. Coffee yield was 835 g clean coffee per shrub, or ca. 1,668 kg ha-1. There is a significant role of shade-grown coffee as diversity refuge for woody plants and presumably associated fauna as well as an opportunity for shade-coffee growers to participate in the new biodiversity-friendly-coffee market.

  16. The Sg-1 Glycosyltransferase Locus Regulates Structural Diversity of Triterpenoid Saponins of Soybean[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sayama, Takashi; Ono, Eiichiro; Takagi, Kyoko; Takada, Yoshitake; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakamoto, Yumi; Hirose, Aya; Sasama, Hiroko; Ohashi, Mihoko; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Kikuchi, Akio; Kato, Shin; Tatsuzaki, Nana; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C-22 sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control. Further genetic analyses and mapping revealed that the structural diversity of glycosylation was determined by multiple alleles of a single locus, Sg-1, and led to identification of a UDP-sugar–dependent glycosyltransferase gene (Glyma07g38460). Although their sequences are highly similar and both glycosylate the nonacetylated saponin A0-αg, the Sg-1a allele encodes the xylosyltransferase UGT73F4, whereas Sg-1b encodes the glucosyltransferase UGT73F2. Homology models and site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that Ser-138 in Sg-1a and Gly-138 in Sg-1b proteins are crucial residues for their respective sugar donor specificities. Transgenic complementation tests followed by recombinant enzyme assays in vitro demonstrated that sg-10 is a loss-of-function allele of Sg-1. Considering that the terminal sugar species in the group A saponins are responsible for the strong bitterness and astringent aftertastes of soybean seeds, our findings herein provide useful tools to improve commercial properties of soybean products. PMID:22611180

  17. Successive range expansion promotes diversity and accelerates evolution in spatially structured microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Felix; Regoes, Roland R; Johnson, David R

    2017-09-01

    Successive range expansions occur within all domains of life, where one population expands first (primary expansion) and one or more secondary populations then follow (secondary expansion). In general, genetic drift reduces diversity during range expansion. However, it is not clear whether the same effect applies during successive range expansion, mainly because the secondary population must expand into space occupied by the primary population. Here we used an experimental microbial model system to show that, in contrast to primary range expansion, successive range expansion promotes local population diversity. Because of mechanical constraints imposed by the presence of the primary population, the secondary population forms fractal-like dendritic structures. This divides the advancing secondary population into many small sub-populations and promotes intermixing between the primary and secondary populations. We further developed a mathematical model to simulate the formation of dendritic structures in the secondary population during succession. By introducing mutations in the primary or dendritic secondary populations, we found that mutations are more likely to accumulate in the dendritic secondary populations. Our results thus show that successive range expansion can promote intermixing over the short term and increase genetic diversity over the long term. Our results therefore have potentially important implications for predicting the ecological processes and evolutionary trajectories of microbial communities.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus isolated from naturally fermented dairy foods

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Guo, Chenyi; Wu, Yarong; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Menghe, Bilige; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the most widely used starter culture strains in industrial fermented dairy manufacture. It is also common in naturally fermented dairy foods made using traditional methods. The subsp. bulgaricus strains found in naturally fermented foods may be useful for improving current industrial starter cultures; however, little is known regarding its genetic diversity and population structure. Here, a collection of 298 L. delbrueckii strains from naturally fermented products in Mongolia, Russia, and West China was analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing based on eight conserved genes. The 251 confirmed subsp. bulgaricus strains produced 106 unique sequence types, the majority of which were assigned to five clonal complexes (CCs). The geographical distribution of CCs was uneven, with CC1 dominated by Mongolian and Russian isolates, and CC2–CC5 isolates exclusively from Xinjiang, China. Population structure analysis suggested six lineages, L1–L6, with various homologous recombination rates. Although L2–L5 were mainly restricted within specific regions, strains belonging to L1 and L6 were observed in diverse regions, suggesting historical transmission events. These results greatly enhance our knowledge of the population diversity of subsp. bulgaricus strains, and suggest that strains from CC1 and L4 may be useful as starter strains in industrial fermentation. PMID:26940047

  19. Genetic diversity and structure of Megabalanus azoricus in the Azores: Implications for aquaculture management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Girolamo, Mirko; Torboli, Valentina; Pallavicini, Alberto; Isidro, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Megabalanus azoricus giant barnacles are the most traditional seafood of the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). This valuable commercial species has been highly exploited in the past and it is considered one of the key species for the development of aquaculture in the region. Despite the importance for conservation and aquaculture there is still a lack of basic information about M. azoricus genetic diversity and population structure. Here we used seven microsatellites markers to analyse 300 samples collected at six out of nine islands of the Azores archipelago, including also different locations from a single island, to provide information on the scale of genetic diversity and population structure of this species. Parameters like heterozygosity, allelic richness and effective number of alleles indicated a high genetic diversity and variability among islands. Pairwise comparisons and PCoA analysis on FST and Jost's DEST showed significant and evident differentiation among sampling locations. Additionally, AMOVA allocates a small (6.02%) but statistically significant portion of the variance to the among Island level revealing also a weak resolution (1.87%) at finer scale. Additionally Monte Carlo resampling methods indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Genetic risks associated with the giant barnacle potential production scheme should be taken into account in a future management plan delimiting, as precautionary measure, this culture at a single island or at groups of islands here identified. Moreover a monitoring strategy should be implemented with the aim to evaluate possible changes in genetic parameters of native populations.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus isolated from naturally fermented dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Guo, Chenyi; Wu, Yarong; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Menghe, Bilige; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Heping

    2016-03-04

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the most widely used starter culture strains in industrial fermented dairy manufacture. It is also common in naturally fermented dairy foods made using traditional methods. The subsp. bulgaricus strains found in naturally fermented foods may be useful for improving current industrial starter cultures; however, little is known regarding its genetic diversity and population structure. Here, a collection of 298 L. delbrueckii strains from naturally fermented products in Mongolia, Russia, and West China was analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing based on eight conserved genes. The 251 confirmed subsp. bulgaricus strains produced 106 unique sequence types, the majority of which were assigned to five clonal complexes (CCs). The geographical distribution of CCs was uneven, with CC1 dominated by Mongolian and Russian isolates, and CC2-CC5 isolates exclusively from Xinjiang, China. Population structure analysis suggested six lineages, L1-L6, with various homologous recombination rates. Although L2-L5 were mainly restricted within specific regions, strains belonging to L1 and L6 were observed in diverse regions, suggesting historical transmission events. These results greatly enhance our knowledge of the population diversity of subsp. bulgaricus strains, and suggest that strains from CC1 and L4 may be useful as starter strains in industrial fermentation.

  1. Mechanisms shaping size structure and functional diversity of phytoplankton communities in the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Brandt, Gunnar; Bruggeman, Jorn; Merico, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    The factors regulating phytoplankton community composition play a crucial role in structuring aquatic food webs. However, consensus is still lacking about the mechanisms underlying the observed biogeographical differences in cell size composition of phytoplankton communities. Here we use a trait-based model to disentangle these mechanisms in two contrasting regions of the Atlantic Ocean. In our model, the phytoplankton community can self-assemble based on a trade-off emerging from relationships between cell size and (1) nutrient uptake, (2) zooplankton grazing, and (3) phytoplankton sinking. Grazing ‘pushes’ the community towards larger cell sizes, whereas nutrient uptake and sinking ‘pull’ the community towards smaller cell sizes. We find that the stable environmental conditions of the tropics strongly balance these forces leading to persistently small cell sizes and reduced size diversity. In contrast, the seasonality of the temperate region causes the community to regularly reorganize via shifts in species composition and to exhibit, on average, bigger cell sizes and higher size diversity than in the tropics. Our results raise the importance of environmental variability as a key structuring mechanism of plankton communities in the ocean and call for a reassessment of the current understanding of phytoplankton diversity patterns across latitudinal gradients. PMID:25747280

  2. Natural Allelic Diversity, Genetic Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern in Wild Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Mohar; Bansal, Kailash C.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of natural allelic diversity and understanding the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern in wild germplasm accessions by large-scale genotyping of informative microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers is requisite to facilitate chickpea genetic improvement. Large-scale validation and high-throughput genotyping of genome-wide physically mapped 478 genic and genomic microsatellite markers and 380 transcription factor gene-derived SNP markers using gel-based assay, fluorescent dye-labelled automated fragment analyser and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass array have been performed. Outcome revealed their high genotyping success rate (97.5%) and existence of a high level of natural allelic diversity among 94 wild and cultivated Cicer accessions. High intra- and inter-specific polymorphic potential and wider molecular diversity (11–94%) along with a broader genetic base (13–78%) specifically in the functional genic regions of wild accessions was assayed by mapped markers. It suggested their utility in monitoring introgression and transferring target trait-specific genomic (gene) regions from wild to cultivated gene pool for the genetic enhancement. Distinct species/gene pool-wise differentiation, admixed domestication pattern, and differential genome-wide recombination and LD estimates/decay observed in a six structured population of wild and cultivated accessions using mapped markers further signifies their usefulness in chickpea genetics, genomics and breeding. PMID:25222488

  3. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-08-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5-2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9-1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO• is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique.

  4. Fungal endophytes of aquatic macrophytes: diverse host-generalists characterized by tissue preferences and geographic structure

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Dustin C.; Battista, Lorna J.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of endophytic symbionts have focused on terrestrial plants, neglecting the ecologically and economically important plants present in aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the diversity, composition, host- and tissue affiliations, and geographic structure of fungal endophytes associated with common aquatic plants in northern Arizona, USA. Endophytes were isolated in culture from roots and photosynthetic tissues during two growing seasons. A total of 226 isolates representing 60 putative species was recovered from 9,600 plant tissue segments. Although isolation frequency was low, endophytes were phylogenetically diverse and species-rich. Comparisons among the most thoroughly sampled species and reservoirs revealed that isolation frequency and diversity did not differ significantly between collection periods, among species, among reservoirs, or as a function of depth. However, community structure differed significantly among reservoirs and tissue types. Phylogenetic analyses of a focal genus (Penicillium) corroborated estimates of species boundaries and informed community analyses, highlighting clade- and genotype-level affiliations of aquatic endophytes with both sediment- and waterborne fungi, and endophytes of proximate terrestrial plants. Together these analyses provide a first quantitative examination of endophytic associations in roots and foliage of aquatic plants and can be used to optimize survey strategies for efficiently capturing fungal biodiversity at local and regional scales. PMID:24402358

  5. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-08-26

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5-2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9-1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO(•) is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique.

  6. Genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian ginger germplasm (Zingiber officinale) revealed by AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Eleonora Zambrano; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Siqueira, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species' genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species' genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. The molecular characterization was based on 13 primers combinations, which generated an average of 113.5 polymorphic loci. The genetic diversity estimates of Nei (Hj), Shannon-Weiner index (I) and an effective number of alleles (n e ) were greater in the Colombian accessions in relation to the Brazilian accessions. The analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation occurred between the two countries while in the Brazilian populations there is no genetic structure and probably each region harbors 100 % of genetic variation found in the samples. The bayesian model-based clustering and the dendrogram using the dissimilarity's coefficient of Jaccard were congruent with each other and showed that the Brazilian accessions are highly similar between themselves, regardless of the geographic region of origin. We suggested that the exploration of the interspecific variability and the introduction of new varieties of Z.officinale are viable alternatives for generating diversity in breeding programs in Brazil. The introduction of new genetic materials will certainly contribute to a higher genetic basis of such crop.

  7. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective. PMID:26881847

  8. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective.

  9. Dissecting maize diversity in lowland South America: genetic structure and geographic distribution models.

    PubMed

    Bracco, Mariana; Cascales, Jimena; Hernández, Julián Cámara; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra M; Lia, Verónica V

    2016-08-26

    Maize landraces from South America have traditionally been assigned to two main categories: Andean and Tropical Lowland germplasm. However, the genetic structure and affiliations of the lowland gene pools have been difficult to assess due to limited sampling and the lack of comparative analysis. Here, we examined SSR and Adh2 sequence variation in a diverse sample of maize landraces from lowland middle South America, and performed a comprehensive integrative analysis of population structure and diversity including already published data of archaeological and extant specimens from the Americas. Geographic distribution models were used to explore the relationship between environmental factors and the observed genetic structure. Bayesian and multivariate analyses of population structure showed the existence of two previously overlooked lowland gene pools associated with Guaraní indigenous communities of middle South America. The singularity of this germplasm was also evidenced by the frequency distribution of microsatellite repeat motifs of the Adh2 locus and the distinct spatial pattern inferred from geographic distribution models. Our results challenge the prevailing view that lowland middle South America is just a contact zone between Andean and Tropical Lowland germplasm and highlight the occurrence of a unique, locally adapted gene pool. This information is relevant for the conservation and utilization of maize genetic resources, as well as for a better understanding of environment-genotype associations.

  10. Spatial Genetic Structure and Clonal Diversity in an Alpine Population of Salix herbacea (Salicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Reisch, Christoph; Schurm, Sophia; Poschlod, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Many alpine plant species combine clonal and sexual reproduction to minimize the risks of flowering and seed production in high mountain regions. The spatial genetic structure and diversity of these alpine species is strongly affected by different clonal strategies (phalanx or guerrilla) and the proportion of generative and vegetative reproduction. Methods The clonal structure of the alpine plant species Salix herbacea was investigated in a 3 × 3 m plot of an alpine meadow using microsatellite (simple sequence repeat; SSR) analysis. The data obtained were compared with the results of a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Key Results SSR analysis, based on three loci and 16 alleles, revealed 24 different genotypes and a proportion of distinguishable genotypes of 0·18. Six SSR clones were found consisting of at least five samples, 17 clones consisting of more than two samples and seven single genotypes. Mean clone size comprising at least five samples was 0·96 m2, and spatial autocorrelation analysis showed strong similarity of samples up to 130 cm. RAPD analysis revealed a higher level of clonal diversity but a comparable number of larger clones and a similar spatial structure. Conclusions The spatial genetic structure as well as the occurrence of single genotypes revealed in this study suggests both clonal and sexual propagation and repeated seedling recruitment in established populations of S. herbacea and is thus suggestive of a relaxed phalanx strategy. PMID:17242040

  11. Microbial diversity of bacteria, archaea, and fungi communities in a continuous flow constructed wetland for the treatment of swine waste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contaminant removal in constructed wetlands may largely be a function of many microbial processes. However, information about bacterial, archaea, and fungi communities in constructed wetlands for the removal of swine waste is limited. In this study, we used 454/GS-FLX pyrosequencing to assess bacter...

  12. Stand Structure and Substrate Diversity as Two Major Drivers for Bryophyte Distribution in a Temperate Montane Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Niu, Shuai; Li, Peikun; Jia, Hongru; Wang, Hailiang; Ye, Yongzhong; Yuan, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the major drivers of bryophyte distribution is the first step to protecting bryophyte diversity. Topography, forest, substrates (ground, tree trunks, roots, rocks, and rotten wood), and spatial factor, which factors are the major drivers of bryophyte distribution? In this study, 53 plots were set in 400 m2 along the elevation gradient in Xiaoqinling, China. All bryophytes in the plots were collected and identified. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between bryophyte and substrate diversity. We compared the patterns of overall bryophyte diversity and diversity of bryophytes found on the ground, tree, and rock along elevational gradients. Canonical correspondence analysis was applied to relate species composition to selected environmental variables. The importance of topography, forest, substrates, and spatial factors was determined by variance partitioning. A total of 1378 bryophyte specimens were collected, and 240 species were identified. Bryophyte diversity was closely related to substrate diversity. The overall bryophyte diversity significantly increased with elevation; however, the response varied among ground, tree, and rock bryophytes. Tree diversity and herb layer were considered important environmental factors in determining bryophyte distribution. Species abundance was best explained by stand structure (17%), and species diversity was best explained by stand structure (35%) and substrate (40%). Results directly indicated that substrate diversity can improve bryophyte species diversity. The effects of micro-habitat formed by stand structure and substrate diversity were higher than those of spatial processes and topography factors on bryophyte distribution. This study proved that the determinant factors influencing bryophyte diversity reflect the trends in recent forest management, providing a real opportunity to improve forest biodiversity conservation. PMID:28603535

  13. Stand Structure and Substrate Diversity as Two Major Drivers for Bryophyte Distribution in a Temperate Montane Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Niu, Shuai; Li, Peikun; Jia, Hongru; Wang, Hailiang; Ye, Yongzhong; Yuan, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the major drivers of bryophyte distribution is the first step to protecting bryophyte diversity. Topography, forest, substrates (ground, tree trunks, roots, rocks, and rotten wood), and spatial factor, which factors are the major drivers of bryophyte distribution? In this study, 53 plots were set in 400 m 2 along the elevation gradient in Xiaoqinling, China. All bryophytes in the plots were collected and identified. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between bryophyte and substrate diversity. We compared the patterns of overall bryophyte diversity and diversity of bryophytes found on the ground, tree, and rock along elevational gradients. Canonical correspondence analysis was applied to relate species composition to selected environmental variables. The importance of topography, forest, substrates, and spatial factors was determined by variance partitioning. A total of 1378 bryophyte specimens were collected, and 240 species were identified. Bryophyte diversity was closely related to substrate diversity. The overall bryophyte diversity significantly increased with elevation; however, the response varied among ground, tree, and rock bryophytes. Tree diversity and herb layer were considered important environmental factors in determining bryophyte distribution. Species abundance was best explained by stand structure (17%), and species diversity was best explained by stand structure (35%) and substrate (40%). Results directly indicated that substrate diversity can improve bryophyte species diversity. The effects of micro-habitat formed by stand structure and substrate diversity were higher than those of spatial processes and topography factors on bryophyte distribution. This study proved that the determinant factors influencing bryophyte diversity reflect the trends in recent forest management, providing a real opportunity to improve forest biodiversity conservation.

  14. Rational selection of structurally diverse natural product scaffolds with favorable ADME properties for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Samiulla, D S; Vaidyanathan, V V; Arun, P C; Balan, G; Blaze, M; Bondre, S; Chandrasekhar, G; Gadakh, A; Kumar, R; Kharvi, G; Kim, H O; Kumar, S; Malikayil, J A; Moger, M; Mone, M K; Nagarjuna, P; Ogbu, C; Pendhalkar, D; Rao, A V S Raja; Rao, G Venkateshwar; Sarma, V K; Shaik, S; Sharma, G V R; Singh, S; Sreedhar, C; Sonawane, R; Timmanna, U; Hardy, L W

    2005-01-01

    Natural product analogs are significant sources for therapeutic agents. To capitalize efficiently on the effective features of naturally occurring substances, a natural product-based library production platform has been devised at Aurigene for drug lead discovery. This approach combines the attractive biological and physicochemical properties of natural product scaffolds, provided by eons of natural selection, with the chemical diversity available from parallel synthetic methods. Virtual property analysis, using computational methods described here, guides the selection of a set of natural product scaffolds that are both structurally diverse and likely to have favorable pharmacokinetic properties. The experimental characterization of several in vitro ADME properties of twenty of these scaffolds, and of a small set of designed congeners based upon one scaffold, is also described. These data confirm that most of the scaffolds and the designed library members have properties favorable to their utilization for creating libraries of lead-like molecules.

  15. Forest Structure in Low-Diversity Tropical Forests: A Study of Hawaiian Wet and Dry Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P.; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai‘i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai‘i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5–>50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai‘i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15–1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835–5272 mm yr−1) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0–28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of

  16. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax in Central China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Central China the declining incidence of Plasmodium vivax has been interrupted by epidemic expansions and imported cases. The impact of these changes on the local parasite population, and concurrent risks of future resurgence, was assessed. Methods Plasmodium vivax isolates collected from Anhui and Jiangsu provinces, Central China between 2007 and 2010 were genotyped using capillary electrophoresis at seven polymorphic short tandem repeat markers. Spatial and temporal analyses of within-host and population diversity, population structure, and relatedness were conducted on these isolates. Results Polyclonal infections were infrequent in the 94 isolates from Anhui (4%) and 25 from Jiangsu (12%), with a trend for increasing frequency from 2008 to 2010 (2 to 19%) when combined. Population diversity was high in both provinces and across the years tested (HE = 0.8 – 0.85). Differentiation between Anhui and Jiangsu was modest (F’ ST  = 0.1). Several clusters of isolates with identical multi-locus haplotypes were observed across both Anhui and Jiangsu. Linkage disequilibrium was strong in both populations and in each year tested (IAS = 0.2 – 0.4), but declined two- to four-fold when identical haplotypes were accounted for, indicative of occasional epidemic transmission dynamics. None of five imported isolates shared identical haplotypes to any of the central Chinese isolates. Conclusions The population genetic structure of P. vivax in Central China highlights unstable transmission, with limited barriers to gene flow between the central provinces. Despite low endemicity, population diversity remained high, but the reservoirs sustaining this diversity remain unclear. The challenge of imported cases and risks of resurgence emphasize the need for continued surveillance to detect early warning signals. Although parasite genotyping has potential to inform the management of outbreaks, further studies are required to identify suitable marker panels

  18. Molecular genetic diversity and population structure of Ethiopian white lupin landraces: Implications for breeding and conservation.

    PubMed

    Atnaf, Mulugeta; Yao, Nasser; Martina, Kyalo; Dagne, Kifle; Wegary, Dagne; Tesfaye, Kassahun

    2017-01-01

    White lupin is one of the four economically important species of the Lupinus genus and is an important grain legume in the Ethiopian farming system. However, there has been limited research effort to characterize the Ethiopian white lupin landraces. Fifteen polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 212 Ethiopian white lupin (Lupinus albus) landraces and two genotypes from different species (Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus mutabilis) were used as out-group. The SSR markers revealed 108 different alleles, 98 of them from 212 landraces and 10 from out-group genotypes, with an average of 6.5 alleles per locus. The average gene diversity was 0.31. Twenty eight landraces harbored one or more private alleles from the total of 28 private alleles identified in the 212 white lupin accessions. Seventy-seven rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5% were identified and accounted for 78.6% of the total alleles detected. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 92% of allelic diversity was attributed to individual accessions within populations while only 8% was distributed among populations. At 70% similarity level, the UPGMA dendrogram resulted in the formation of 13 clusters comprised of 2 to 136 landraces, with the out-group genotypes and five landraces remaining distinct and ungrouped. Population differentiation and genetic distance were relatively high between Gondar and Ethiopian white lupin populations collected by Australians. A model-based population structure analysis divided the white lupin landraces into two populations. All Ethiopian white lupin landrace populations, except most of the landraces collected by Australians (77%) and about 44% from Awi, were grouped together with significant admixtures. The study also suggested that 34 accessions, as core collections, were sufficient to retain 100% of SSR diversity. These accessions (core G-34) represent 16% of the whole 212

  19. Structural Solutions for Low-Cost Bamboo Frames: Experimental Tests and Constructive Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Sassu, Mauro; De Falco, Anna; Giresini, Linda; Puppio, Mario Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Experimental tests and constructive assessments are presented for a simple bamboo framed structure with innovative low-cost and low technology joints, specifically conceived for small buildings in developing countries. Two full scale one-storey bamboo frames have been designed by using the simplest joints solution among three different tested typologies. The entire building process is based on low-technology and natural materials: bamboo canes, wooden cylinders, plywood plates and canapé rods. The first full scale specimen (Unit A) is a one-storey single deck truss structure subjected to monotonic collapse test; the second full scale specimen (Unit B) is a one-storey double deck truss structure used to evaluate the construction time throughout assembling tests. The first full scale specimen showed ductility in collapse and ease in strengthening; the second one showed remarkable ease and speed in assembling structural elements. Finally several constructive solutions are suggested for the design of simple one-storey buildings; they are addressed to four purposes (housing, school, chapel, health center) by the composition of the proposed full scale bamboo frames. Ease of use and maintenance with a low level of technology contribute to application in developing countries although not exclusively. PMID:28773472

  20. Defining the student burnout construct: a structural analysis from three burnout inventories.

    PubMed

    Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2012-12-01

    College student burnout has been assessed mainly with the Maslach burnout inventory (MBI). However, the construct's definition and measurement with MBI has drawn several criticisms and new inventories have been suggested for the evaluation of the syndrome. A redefinition of the construct of student burnout is proposed by means of a structural equation model, reflecting burnout as a second order factor defined by factors from the MBI-student survey (MBI-SS); the Copenhagen burnout inventory-student survey (CBI-SS) and the Oldenburg burnout inventory-student survey (OLBI-SS). Standardized regression weights from Burnout to Exhaustion and Cynicism from the MBI-SS scale, personal burnout and studies related burnout from the CBI, and exhaustion and disengagement from OLBI, show that these factors are strong manifestations of students' burnout. For college students, the burnout construct is best defined by two dimensions described as "physical and psychological exhaustion" and "cynicism and disengagement".

  1. Comparative molecular analysis of chemolithoautotrophic bacterial diversity and community structure from coastal saline soils, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soils harbour high diversity of obligate as well as facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that contribute significantly to CO2 dynamics in soil. In this study, we used culture dependent and independent methods to assess the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophs in agricultural and coastal barren saline soils (low and high salinity). We studied the composition and distribution of chemolithoautotrophs by means of functional marker gene cbbL encoding large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and a phylogenetic marker 16S rRNA gene. The cbbL form IA and IC genes associated with carbon fixation were analyzed to gain insight into metabolic potential of chemolithoautotrophs in three soil types of coastal ecosystems which had a very different salt load and sulphur content. Results In cbbL libraries, the cbbL form IA was retrieved only from high saline soil whereas form IC was found in all three soil types. The form IC cbbL was also amplified from bacterial isolates obtained from all soil types. A number of novel monophyletic lineages affiliated with form IA and IC phylogenetic trees were found. These were distantly related to the known cbbL sequences from agroecosystem, volcanic ashes and marine environments. In 16S rRNA clone libraries, the agricultural soil was dominated by chemolithoautotrophs (Betaproteobacteria) whereas photoautotrophic Chloroflexi and sulphide oxidizers dominated saline ecosystems. Environmental specificity was apparently visible at both higher taxonomic levels (phylum) and lower taxonomic levels (genus and species). The differentiation in community structure and diversity in three soil ecosystems was supported by LIBSHUFF (P = 0.001) and UniFrac. Conclusion This study may provide fundamentally new insights into the role of chemolithoautotrophic and photoautotrophic bacterial diversity in biochemical carbon cycling in barren saline soils. The bacterial communities varied greatly among the

  2. A Conserved Structural Module Regulates Transcriptional Responses to Diverse Stress Signals in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Elizabeth A.; Greenwell, Roger; Anthony, Jennifer R.; Wang, Sheng; Lim, Lionel; Das, Kalyan; Sofia, Heidi J.; Donohue, Timothy J.; Darst, Seth A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY A transcriptional response to singlet oxygen in Rhodobacter sphaeroides is controlled by the group IV σ factor σE and its cognate anti-σ ChrR. Crystal structures of the σE/ChrR complex reveal a modular, two-domain architecture for ChrR. The ChrR N-terminal anti-σ domain (ASD) binds a Zn2+ ion, contacts σE, and is sufficient to inhibit σE-dependent transcription. The ChrR C-terminal domain adopts a cupin fold, can coordinate an additional Zn2+, and is required for the transcriptional response to singlet oxygen. Structure-based sequence analyses predict that the ASD defines a common structural fold among predicted group IV antiσs. These ASDs are fused to diverse C-terminal domains that are likely involved in responding to specific environmental signals that control the activity of their cognate σ factor. PMID:17803943

  3. Reduced Fragment Diversity for Alpha and Alpha-Beta Protein Structure Prediction using Rosetta.

    PubMed

    Abbass, Jad; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Protein structure prediction is considered a main challenge in computational biology. The biannual international competition, Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP), has shown in its eleventh experiment that free modelling target predictions are still beyond reliable accuracy, therefore, much effort should be made to improve ab initio methods. Arguably, Rosetta is considered as the most competitive method when it comes to targets with no homologues. Relying on fragments of length 9 and 3 from known structures, Rosetta creates putative structures by assembling candidate fragments. Generally, the structure with the lowest energy score, also known as first model, is chosen to be the "predicted one". A thorough study has been conducted on the role and diversity of 3-mers involved in Rosetta's model "refinement" phase. Usage of the standard number of 3-mers - i.e. 200 - has been shown to degrade alpha and alpha-beta protein conformations initially achieved by assembling 9-mers. Therefore, a new prediction pipeline is proposed for Rosetta where the "refinement" phase is customised according to a target's structural class prediction. Over 8% improvement in terms of first model structure accuracy is reported for alpha and alpha-beta classes when decreasing the number of 3- mers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Fine Structure of Tibetan Kefir Grains and Their Yeast Distribution, Diversity, and Shift

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Man; Wang, Xingxing; Sun, Guowei; Qin, Bing; Xiao, Jinzhou; Yan, Shuling; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs), a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i) yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii) the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii) S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic associations between S

  5. Rules and construction effects in learning the argument structure of verbs.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Katherine; Machobane, Malillo; Moloi, Francina

    2003-11-01

    Theorists of language acquisition have long debated the means by which children learn the argument structure of verbs (e.g. Bowerman, 1974, 1990; Pinker, 1984, 1989; Tomasello, 1992). Central to this controversy has been the possible role of verb semantics, especially in learning which verbs undergo dative-shift alternation in languages like English. The learning problem is somewhat simplified in Bantu double object constructions, where all applicative verbs show the same order of postverbal objects. However, Bantu languages differ as to what that order is, some placing the benefactive argument first, and others placing the animate argument first. Learning the language-specific word-order restrictions on Bantu double object applicative constructions is therefore more akin to setting a parameter (cf. Hyams, 1986). This study examined 100 three- to eight-year-old children's knowledge of word order restrictions in Sesotho double object applicatives. Performance on forced choice elicited production tasks found that four-year-olds showed evidence of rule learning, although eight-year-olds had not yet attained adult levels of performance. Further investigation found lexical construction effects for three-year-olds. These findings suggest that learning the argument structure of verbs, even when lexical semantics is not involved, may be more sensitive to lexical construction effects than previously thought.

  6. [DNA structure from A to Z--biological implications of structural diversity of DNA].

    PubMed

    Bukowiecka-Matusiak, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Lucyna A

    2006-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a biopolymer of nucleotides, usually adopting a double-stranded helical form in cells, with complementary base pairing holding the two strands together. The most stable is B-DNA conformation, although numerous other double helical structures can occur under specific conditions (A-DNA, Z-DNA, P-DNA). The existence of multiple-stranded (triplex, tetraplex) forms in vivo and their biological function in cells are subject of intensive studies.

  7. Structure, diversity, and biophysical properties of old-growth forestsin the Klamath region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Starr, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The diverse old-growth forests in Klamath region of northern California and southern Oregon provide valuable ecosystem services (e.g., maintaining watersheds, wildlife habitat, recreation), but may be vulnerable to a wide range of stressors, including invasive species, disrupted disturbance regimes, and climatic change. Yet our understanding of how forest structure in the Klamath region relates to the current physical environment is limited. Here we provide present-day benchmarks for old-growth forest structure across a climatic gradient ranging from coastal to dry interior sites. We established 16 large (1 ha) forest plots where all stems > 5 cm in diameter were identified to species and mapped. Climate across these sites was highly variable, with estimated actual evapotranspiration correlated to several basic measures of forest structure, including plot basal area, stem size-class inequality, tree species diversity and, to a lesser extent, tree species richness. Analyses of the spatial arrangement of stems indicated a high degree of non-uniformity, with 75% of plots showing significant stem clumping at small spatial scales (0 to 10 m). Downscaled predictions of future site water balance suggest changes will be dominated by rapidly increasing climatic water deficit (D, a biologically meaningful index of drought). While these plots give a picture of current conditions, continued monitoring of these stands is needed to describe forest dynamics and to detect forest responses to ongoing and future stressors.

  8. Biomechanical Diversity of Mating Structures among Harvestmen Species Is Consistent with a Spectrum of Precopulatory Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Mercedes; Shultz, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Diversity in reproductive structures is frequently explained by selection acting at individual to generational timescales, but interspecific differences predicted by such models (e.g., female choice or sexual conflict) are often untestable in a phylogenetic framework. An alternative approach focuses on clade- or function-specific hypotheses that predict evolutionary patterns in terms neutral to specific modes of sexual selection. Here we test a hypothesis that diversity of reproductive structures in leiobunine harvestmen (daddy longlegs) of eastern North America reflects two sexually coevolved but non-overlapping precopulatory strategies, a primitive solicitous strategy (females enticed by penis-associated nuptial gifts), and a multiply derived antagonistic strategy (penis exerts mechanical force against armature of the female pregenital opening). Predictions of sexual coevolution and fidelity to precopulatory categories were tested using 10 continuously varying functional traits from 28 species. Multivariate analyses corroborated sexual coevolution but failed to partition species by precopulatory strategy, with multiple methods placing species along a spectrum of mechanical antagonistic potential. These findings suggest that precopulatory features within species reflect different co-occurring levels of solicitation and antagonism, and that gradualistic evolutionary pathways exist between extreme strategies. The ability to quantify antagonistic potential of precopulatory structures invites comparison with ecological variables that may promote evolutionary shifts in precopulatory strategies. PMID:26352413

  9. Genome-wide genetic diversity, population structure and admixture analysis in African and Asian cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Edea, Z; Bhuiyan, M S A; Dessie, T; Rothschild, M F; Dadi, H; Kim, K S

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge about genetic diversity and population structure is useful for designing effective strategies to improve the production, management and conservation of farm animal genetic resources. Here, we present a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of genetic diversity, population structure and admixture based on 244 animals sampled from 10 cattle populations in Asia and Africa and genotyped for 69,903 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mainly derived from the indicine breed. Principal component analysis, STRUCTURE and distance analysis from high-density SNP data clearly revealed that the largest genetic difference occurred between the two domestic lineages (taurine and indicine), whereas Ethiopian cattle populations represent a mosaic of the humped zebu and taurine. Estimation of the genetic influence of zebu and taurine revealed that Ethiopian cattle were characterized by considerable levels of introgression from South Asian zebu, whereas Bangladeshi populations shared very low taurine ancestry. The relationships among Ethiopian cattle populations reflect their history of origin and admixture rather than phenotype-based distinctions. The high within-individual genetic variability observed in Ethiopian cattle represents an untapped opportunity for adaptation to changing environments and for implementation of within-breed genetic improvement schemes. Our results provide a basis for future applications of genome-wide SNP data to exploit the unique genetic makeup of indigenous cattle breeds and to facilitate their improvement and conservation.

  10. A Component-Based Diffusion Model With Structural Diversity for Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Qing Bao; Cheung, William K; Yu Zhang; Jiming Liu

    2017-04-01

    Diffusion on social networks refers to the process where opinions are spread via the connected nodes. Given a set of observed information cascades, one can infer the underlying diffusion process for social network analysis. The independent cascade model (IC model) is a widely adopted diffusion model where a node is assumed to be activated independently by any one of its neighbors. In reality, how a node will be activated also depends on how its neighbors are connected and activated. For instance, the opinions from the neighbors of the same social group are often similar and thus redundant. In this paper, we extend the IC model by considering that: 1) the information coming from the connected neighbors are similar and 2) the underlying redundancy can be modeled using a dynamic structural diversity measure of the neighbors. Our proposed model assumes each node to be activated independently by different communities (or components) of its parent nodes, each weighted by its effective size. An expectation maximization algorithm is derived to infer the model parameters. We compare the performance of the proposed model with the basic IC model and its variants using both synthetic data sets and a real-world data set containing news stories and Web blogs. Our empirical results show that incorporating the community structure of neighbors and the structural diversity measure into the diffusion model significantly improves the accuracy of the model, at the expense of only a reasonable increase in run-time.

  11. Diversity in structure and function of tethering complexes: evidence for different mechanisms in vesicular transport regulation.

    PubMed

    Kümmel, D; Heinemann, U

    2008-04-01

    The term 'tethering factor' has been coined for a heterogeneous group of proteins that all are required for protein trafficking prior to vesicle docking and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. Two groups of tethering factors can be distinguished, long coiled-coil proteins and multi-subunit complexes. To date, eight such protein complexes have been identified in yeast, and they are required for different trafficking steps. Homologous complexes are found in all eukaryotic organisms, but conservation seems to be less strict than for other components of the trafficking machinery. In fact, for most proposed multi-subunit tethers their ability to actually bridge two membranes remains to be shown. Here we discuss recent progress in the structural and functional characterization of tethering complexes and present the emerging view that the different complexes are quite diverse in their structure and the molecular mechanisms underlying their function. TRAPP and the exocyst are the structurally best characterized tethering complexes. Their comparison fails to reveal any similarity on a struc nottural level. Furthermore, the interactions with regulatory Rab GTPases vary, with TRAPP acting as a nucleotide exchange factor and the exocyst being an effector. Considering these differences among the tethering complexes as well as between their yeast and mammalian orthologs which is apparent from recent studies, we suggest that tethering complexes do not mediate a strictly conserved process in vesicular transport but are diverse regulators acting after vesicle budding and prior to membrane fusion.

  12. Large-scale impacts of herbivores on the structural diversity of African savannas

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P.; Levick, Shaun R.; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E.; Emerson, Ruth; Jacobson, James; Colgan, Matthew S.; Martin, Roberta E.

    2009-01-01

    African savannas are undergoing management intensification, and decision makers are increasingly challenged to balance the needs of large herbivore populations with the maintenance of vegetation and ecosystem diversity. Ensuring the sustainability of Africa's natural protected areas requires information on the efficacy of management decisions at large spatial scales, but often neither experimental treatments nor large-scale responses are available for analysis. Using a new airborne remote sensing system, we mapped the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of vegetation at a spatial resolution of 56 cm throughout 1640 ha of savanna after 6-, 22-, 35-, and 41-year exclusions of herbivores, as well as in unprotected areas, across Kruger National Park in South Africa. Areas in which herbivores were excluded over the short term (6 years) contained 38%–80% less bare ground compared with those that were exposed to mammalian herbivory. In the longer-term (> 22 years), the 3-D structure of woody vegetation differed significantly between protected and accessible landscapes, with up to 11-fold greater woody canopy cover in the areas without herbivores. Our maps revealed 2 scales of ecosystem response to herbivore consumption, one broadly mediated by geologic substrate and the other mediated by hillslope-scale variation in soil nutrient availability and moisture conditions. Our results are the first to quantitatively illustrate the extent to which herbivores can affect the 3-D structural diversity of vegetation across large savanna landscapes. PMID:19258457

  13. Biomechanical Diversity of Mating Structures among Harvestmen Species Is Consistent with a Spectrum of Precopulatory Strategies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mercedes; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Diversity in reproductive structures is frequently explained by selection acting at individual to generational timescales, but interspecific differences predicted by such models (e.g., female choice or sexual conflict) are often untestable in a phylogenetic framework. An alternative approach focuses on clade- or function-specific hypotheses that predict evolutionary patterns in terms neutral to specific modes of sexual selection. Here we test a hypothesis that diversity of reproductive structures in leiobunine harvestmen (daddy longlegs) of eastern North America reflects two sexually coevolved but non-overlapping precopulatory strategies, a primitive solicitous strategy (females enticed by penis-associated nuptial gifts), and a multiply derived antagonistic strategy (penis exerts mechanical force against armature of the female pregenital opening). Predictions of sexual coevolution and fidelity to precopulatory categories were tested using 10 continuously varying functional traits from 28 species. Multivariate analyses corroborated sexual coevolution but failed to partition species by precopulatory strategy, with multiple methods placing species along a spectrum of mechanical antagonistic potential. These findings suggest that precopulatory features within species reflect different co-occurring levels of solicitation and antagonism, and that gradualistic evolutionary pathways exist between extreme strategies. The ability to quantify antagonistic potential of precopulatory structures invites comparison with ecological variables that may promote evolutionary shifts in precopulatory strategies.

  14. Mini Heme-Proteins: Designability of Structure and Diversity of Functions.

    PubMed

    Rai, Jagdish

    2017-08-30

    Natural heme proteins may have heme bound to poly-peptide chain as a cofactor via noncovalent forces or heme as a prosthetic group may be covalently bound to the proteins. Nature has used porphyrins in diverse functions like electron transfer, oxidation, reduction, ligand binding, photosynthesis, signaling, etc. by modulating its properties through diverse protein matrices. Synthetic chemists have tried to utilize these molecules in equally diverse industrial and medical applications due to their versatile electro-chemical and optical properties. The heme iron has catalytic activity which can be modulated and enhanced for specific applications by protein matrix around it. Heme proteins can be designed into novel enzymes for sterio specific catalysis ranging from oxidation to reduction. These designed heme-proteins can have applications in industrial catalysis and biosensing. A peptide folds around heme easily due to hydrophobic effect of the large aromatic ring of heme. The directional property of co-ordinate bonding between peptide and metal ion in heme further specifies the structure. Therefore heme proteins can be easily designed for targeted structure and catalytic activity. The central aromatic chemical entity in heme viz. porphyrin is a very ancient molecule. Its presence in the prebiotic soup and in all forms of life suggests that it has played a vital role in the origin and progressive evolution of living organisms. Porphyrin macrocycles are highly conjugated systems composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α -carbon atoms via methine (=CH-) bridges. Initial minimalist models of hemoproteins focused on effect of heme-ligand co-ordinate bonding on chemical reactivity, spectroscopy, electrochemistry and magnetic properties of heme. The great sensitivity of these spectroscopic features of heme to its surrounding makes them extremely useful in structural elucidation of designed heme-peptide complexes. Therefore heme proteins are

  15. Diverse Actions and Target-Site Selectivity of Neonicotinoids: Structural Insights

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Kanaoka, Satoshi; Akamatsu, Miki; Sattelle, David B.

    2009-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are targets for human and veterinary medicines as well as insecticides. Subtype-selectivity among the diverse nAChR family members is important for medicines targeting particular disorders, and pest-insect selectivity is essential for the development of safer, environmentally acceptable insecticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides selectively targeting insect nAChRs have important applications in crop protection and animal health. Members of this class exhibit strikingly diverse actions on their nAChR targets. Here we review the chemistry and diverse actions of neonicotinoids on insect and mammalian nAChRs. Electrophysiological studies on native nAChRs and on wild-type and mutagenized recombinant nAChRs have shown that basic residues particular to loop D of insect nAChRs are likely to interact electrostatically with the nitro group of neonicotinoids. In 2008, the crystal structures were published showing neonicotinoids docking into the acetylcholine binding site of molluscan acetylcholine binding proteins with homology to the ligand binding domain (LBD) of nAChRs. The crystal structures showed that 1) glutamine in loop D, corresponding to the basic residues of insect nAChRs, hydrogen bonds with the NO2 group of imidacloprid and 2) neonicotinoid-unique stacking and CH-π bonds at the LBD. A neonicotinoid-resistant strain obtained by laboratory-screening has been found to result from target site mutations, and possible reasons for this are also suggested by the crystal structures. The prospects of designing neonicotinoids that are safe not only for mammals but also for beneficial insects such as honey bees (Apis mellifera) are discussed in terms of interactions with non-α nAChR subunits. PMID:19321668

  16. SSR analysis of genetic diversity and structure of the germplasm of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A

    Assessing the diversity and genetic structure of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm is essential to improve the quality and yield of this economically important crop. In this study, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were utilized to evaluate the diversity and structure of 35 faba bean genotypes originating from three different geographical regions (Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, and Near East). All 15 SSR loci generated a total of 100 alleles. The allele number per locus varied from 4 to 11, with a mean of 6.67. The expected heterozygosity (H e ) of SSR loci ranged between 0.51 and 0.81, with a mean of 0.63. The PIC value also varied from 0.44 to 0.78, with an average of 0.58. The expected heterozygosity of 22 faba bean genotypes was higher than the observed one. Interestingly, AMOVA analysis showed that much of variability resided within accessions (79.2%). A highly significant difference among regions was also evidenced, and represented 5.3% of the total variation. Moreover, cluster analysis divided the 35 faba bean genotypes into two main clusters. The first main cluster comprised all faba bean genotypes originating from the Near East region, whereas the second main cluster comprised all the genotypes originating from the Northern and Eastern Africa regions, indicating that the Northern and Eastern African faba bean genotypes were more closely related to each other than to the Near East genotypes. Structure analysis also revealed that the 35 faba bean genotypes might be assigned to two populations, in complete accordance with cluster analysis data. In conclusion, this study showed high levels of diversity in the analysed genotypes of faba bean, and could be utilized in future breeding programmes to develop new cultivars of high yield. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Two Tomato Species from the Galapagos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pailles, Yveline; Ho, Shwen; Pires, Inês S.; Tester, Mark; Negrão, Sónia; Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2017-01-01

    Endemic flora of the Galapagos Islands has adapted to thrive in harsh environmental conditions. The wild tomato species from the Galapagos Islands, Solanum cheesmaniae and S. galapagense, are tolerant to various stresses, and can be crossed with cultivated tomato. However, information about genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations is necessary to use these resources efficiently in plant breeding. In this study, we analyzed 3,974 polymorphic SNP markers, obtained through the genotyping-by-sequencing technique, DArTseq, to elucidate the genetic diversity and population structure of 67 accessions of Galapagos tomatoes (compared to two S. lycopersicum varieties and one S. pimpinellifolium accession). Two clustering methods, Principal Component Analysis and STRUCTURE, showed clear distinction between the two species and a subdivision in the S. cheesmaniae group corresponding to geographical origin and age of the islands. High genetic variation among the accessions within each species was suggested by the AMOVA. High diversity in the S. cheesmaniae group and its correlation with the islands of origin were also suggested. This indicates a possible influence of the movement of the islands, from west to east, on the gene flow. Additionally, the absence of S. galapagense populations in the eastern islands points to the species divergence occurring after the eastern islands became isolated. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the population structure of the Galapagos tomatoes collection partially explains the evolutionary history of both species, knowledge that facilitates exploitation of their genetic potential for the identification of novel alleles contributing to stress tolerance. PMID:28261227

  18. Is benthic food web structure related to diversity of marine macrobenthic communities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokołowski, A.; Wołowicz, M.; Asmus, H.; Asmus, R.; Carlier, A.; Gasiunaité, Z.; Grémare, A.; Hummel, H.; Lesutiené, J.; Razinkovas, A.; Renaud, P. E.; Richard, P.; Kędra, M.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical structure and the organisation of food webs within macrozoobenthic communities has been assessed in the European waters (Svalbard, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) to address the interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Abundance and classical species diversity indices (S, H', J) of macrofaunal communities were related to principal attributes of food webs (relative trophic level and food chain length, FCL) that were determined from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values. Structure of marine macrobenthos varies substantially at a geographical scale; total abundance ranges from 63 ind. m-2 to 34,517 ind. m-2, species richness varies from 3 to 166 and the Shannon-Weaver diversity index from 0.26 to 3.26 while Pielou's evenness index is below 0.73. The major source of energy for macrobenthic communities is suspended particulate organic matter, consisting of phytoplankton and detrital particles, sediment particulate organic matter, and microphytobenthos in varying proportions. These food sources support the presence of suspension- and deposit-feeding communities, which dominate numerically on the sea floor. Benthic food webs include usually four to five trophic levels (FCL varies from 3.08 to 4.86). Most species are assigned to the second trophic level (primary consumers), fewer species are grouped in the third trophic level (secondary consumers), and benthic top predators are the least numerous. Most species cluster primarily at the lowest trophic level that is consistent with the typical organization of pyramidal food webs. Food chain length increases with biodiversity, highlighting a positive effect of more complex community structure on food web organisation. In more diverse benthic communities, energy is transferred through more trophic levels while species-poor communities sustain a shorter food chain.

  19. Structural diversity: a multi-dimensional approach to assess recreational services in urban parks.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Annette; Kabisch, Nadja; Wurster, Daniel; Haase, Dagmar; Breuste, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Urban green spaces provide important recreational services for urban residents. In general, when park visitors enjoy "the green," they are in actuality appreciating a mix of biotic, abiotic, and man-made park infrastructure elements and qualities. We argue that these three dimensions of structural diversity have an influence on how people use and value urban parks. We present a straightforward approach for assessing urban parks that combines multi-dimensional landscape mapping and questionnaire surveys. We discuss the method as well the results from its application to differently sized parks in Berlin and Salzburg.

  20. Structural Diversity of Arthropod Biophotonic Nanostructures Spans Amphiphilic Phase-Space

    SciTech Connect

    Saranathan, Vinod Kumar; Seago, Ainsley E.; Sandy, Alec

    2015-05-04

    Many organisms, especially arthropods, produce vivid interference colors using diverse mesoscopic (100-350 nm) integumentary biophotonic nanostructures that are increasingly being investigated for technological applications. Despite a century of interest, precise structural knowledge of many biophotonic nanostructures and the mechanisms controlling their development remain tentative, when such knowledge can open novel biomimetic routes to facilely self-assemble tunable, multifunctional materials. Here, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy to characterize the photonic nanostructure of 140 integumentary scales and setae from ~127 species of terrestrial arthropods in 85 genera from 5 orders. We report a rich nanostructural diversity, including triply periodicmore » bicontinuous networks, close-packed spheres, inverse columnar, perforated lamellar, and disordered spongelike morphologies, commonly observed as stable phases of amphiphilic surfactants, block copolymer, and lyotropic lipid-water systems. Diverse arthropod lineages appear to have independently evolved to utilize the self-assembly of infolding lipid-bilayer membranes to develop biophotonic nanostructures that span the phase-space of amphiphilic morphologies, but at optical length scales.« less

  1. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Meléndez, Araceli; Morrell, Peter L; Roose, Mikeal L; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2009-06-01

    The chile of Mesoamerica, Capsicum annuum, is one of five domesticated chiles in the Americas. Among the chiles, it varies the most in size, form, and color of its fruits. Together with maize, C. annuum is one of the principal elements of the neotropical diets of Mesoamerican civilizations. Despite the great economic and cultural importance of C. annuum both worldwide and in Mexico, however, very little is known about its geographic origin and number of domestications. Here we sampled a total of 80 accessions from Mexico (58 semiwild and 22 domesticated) and examined nucleotide sequence diversity at three single- or low-copy nuclear loci, Dhn, G3pdh, and Waxy. Across the three loci, we found an average reduction of ca. 10% in the diversity of domesticates relative to semiwild chiles and geographic structure within Mexican populations. The Yucatan Peninsula contained a large number of haplotypes, many of which were unique, suggesting an important region of chile domestication and center of diversity. The present sampling of loci did not conclusively resolve the number and location of domestications, but several lines of evidence suggest multiple independent domestications from widely distributed progenitor populations.

  2. Evaluation of genetic diversity and population structure of West-Central Indian cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tejas M; Patel, Jaina S; Bhong, Chandrakant D; Doiphode, Aakash; Umrikar, Uday D; Parmar, Shivnandan S; Rank, Dharamshibhai N; Solanki, Jitendra V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-08-01

    Evaluations of genetic diversity in domestic livestock populations are necessary to implement region-specific conservation measures. We determined the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among eight geographically and phenotypically diverse cattle breeds indigenous to west-central India by genotyping these animals for 22 microsatellite loci. A total of 326 alleles were detected, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.614 (Kenkatha) to 0.701 (Dangi). The mean number of alleles among the cattle breeds ranged from 7.182 (Khillar) to 9.409 (Gaolao). There were abundant genetic variations displayed within breeds, and the genetic differentiation was also high between the Indian cattle breeds, which displayed 15.9% of the total genetic differentiation among the different breeds. The genetic differentiation (pairwise FST ) among the eight Indian breeds varied from 0.0126 for the Kankrej-Malvi pair to 0.2667 for Khillar-Kenkatha pair. The phylogeny, principal components analysis, and structure analysis further supported close grouping of Kankrej, Malvi, Nimari and Gir; Gaolao and Kenkatha, whereas Dangi and Khillar remained at distance from other breeds. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

    PubMed

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors.

  4. Microbial community structure and diversity within hypersaline Keke Salt Lake environments.

    PubMed

    Han, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Jing; Long, Qifu; Chen, Laisheng; Liu, Deli; Zhu, Derui

    2017-11-01

    Keke Salt Lake is located in the Qaidamu Basin of China. It is a unique magnesium sulfate-subtype hypersaline lake that exhibits a halite domain ecosystem, yet its microbial diversity has remained unstudied. Here, the microbial community structure and diversity was investigated via high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA genes. A high diversity of operational taxonomic units was detected for Bacteria and Archaea (734 and 747, respectively), comprising 21 phyla, 43 classes, and 201 genera of Bacteria and 4 phyla, 4 classes, and 39 genera of Archaea. Salt-saturated samples were dominated by the bacterial genera Bacillus (51.52%-58.35% relative abundance), Lactococcus (9.52%-10.51%), and Oceanobacillus (8.82%-9.88%) within the Firmicutes phylum (74.81%-80.99%), contrasting with other hypersaline lakes. The dominant Archaea belonged to the Halobacteriaceae family, and in particular, the genera (with an abundance of >10% of communities) Halonotius, Halorubellus, Halapricum, Halorubrum, and Natronomonas. Additionally, we report the presence of Nanohaloarchaeota and Woesearchaeota in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau lakes, which has not been previously documented. Total salinity (especially Mg 2+ , Cl - , Na + , and K + ) mostly correlated with taxonomic distribution across samples. These results expand our understanding of microbial resource utilization within hypersaline lakes and the potential adaptations of dominant microorganisms that allow them to inhabit such environments.

  5. Drove roads: Keystone structures that promote ant diversity in Mediterranean forest landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azcárate, Francisco M.; Seoane, Javier; Castro, Sara; Peco, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    Drove roads are the traditional corridors used by pastoralists for seasonal movements of livestock (transhumance). They cover a considerable land area in Mediterranean countries and, although they are an obvious source of landscape diversity, their influence on the diversity and composition of animal assemblages has not been documented. Ant communities were studied on four active drove roads, two in forests (submediterranean and conifer) and two in open environments (croplands and rangelands). They were compared with the respective matrix communities and their contribution to local species richness was evaluated. The effects were heavily dependent on the open or closed nature of the matrix. In forest environments, drove roads increased ant species richness at the local scale, acting as clear keystone structures. Their species richness and functional diversity were highest on the fine scale, species composition was different, and a slight edge effect in the matrix was detected. In contrast, drove roads had little or even a negative effect in open environment locations. We conclude that drove roads have a high conservation value for ants in Mediterranean forest environments, in addition to their importance as reservoirs of plant biodiversity and generators of ecological goods and services.

  6. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  7. Fundamental differences in diversity and genomic population structure between Atlantic and Pacific Prochlorococcus.

    PubMed

    Kashtan, Nadav; Roggensack, Sara E; Berta-Thompson, Jessie W; Grinberg, Maor; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2017-09-01

    The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans represent different biogeochemical regimes in which the abundant marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus thrives. We have shown that Prochlorococcus populations in the Atlantic are composed of hundreds of genomically, and likely ecologically, distinct coexisting subpopulations with distinct genomic backbones. Here we ask if differences in the ecology and selection pressures between the Atlantic and Pacific are reflected in the diversity and genomic composition of their indigenous Prochlorococcus populations. We applied large-scale single-cell genomics and compared the cell-by-cell genomic composition of wild populations of co-occurring cells from samples from Station ALOHA off Hawaii, and from Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Station off Bermuda. We reveal fundamental differences in diversity and genomic structure of populations between the sites. The Pacific populations are more diverse than those in the Atlantic, composed of significantly more coexisting subpopulations and lacking dominant subpopulations. Prochlorococcus from the two sites seem to be composed of mostly non-overlapping distinct sets of subpopulations with different genomic backbones-likely reflecting different sets of ocean-specific micro-niches. Furthermore, phylogenetically closely related strains carry ocean-associated nutrient acquisition genes likely reflecting differences in major selection pressures between the oceans. This differential selection, along with geographic separation, clearly has a significant role in shaping these populations.

  8. Managing Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Beverly

    1990-01-01

    Demographic trends imply that organizations must learn to manage a diverse work force. Ways to change organizational systems, structures, and practices to eliminate subtle barriers are awareness training, attitude change, and valuing diversity. (SK)

  9. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  10. The Road to Participation: The Construction of a Literacy Practice in a Learning Community of Linguistically Diverse Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Ailing; Pearson, P. David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a year-long process in which a group of fourth- and fifth-grade students with diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds learned to participate in reading, writing, and talking about books in a literature-based instructional program. Reveals a gradual release of responsibility from the teacher to students as they developed the knowledge…

  11. Investigations of fungal diversity in wooden structures and soils at historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Arenz, Brett E; Blanchette, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of microbial diversity in Antarctic are important to begin to understand ecosystem functioning and decomposition processes. This study documents fungi at 9 historic sites on the Antarctic Peninsula collected from wooden structures, other organic materials, and soils during a joint National Science Foundation and British Antarctic Survey expedition in 2007. Many of these sites had wooden structures built by the British during the World War II Operation Tabarin, but others visited included the American "East Base" on Stonington Island and the Swedish hut on Snow Hill Island. Fungi were cultured on several different media and pure cultures were obtained and identified by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Cadophora species previously found to attack historic wooden structures on Ross Island, Antarctica, were found at all but 1 location sampled in the Peninsula region. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts and those causing mold problems inside the structures are of great concern, and conservation efforts are urgently needed to help preserve these important polar heritage structures. The results presented also expand our knowledge on the identity of fungi present throughout the Antarctic Peninsula region and provide insights into the organisms responsible for decomposition and nutrient recycling.

  12. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  13. STS-61B Astronaut Ross Works on Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo astronaut Ross, located on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) over the cargo bay, erects ACCESS. The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  14. Ross Works on the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS) During

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross works on ACCESS high above the orbiter. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mesoamerican Jaguars (Panthera onca): Implications for Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Wultsch, Claudia; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Quigley, Howard; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican jaguars (Panthera onca) have been extirpated from over 77% of their historic range, inhabiting fragmented landscapes at potentially reduced population sizes. Maintaining and restoring genetic diversity and connectivity across human-altered landscapes has become a major conservation priority; nonetheless large-scale genetic monitoring of natural populations is rare. This is the first regional conservation genetic study of jaguars to primarily use fecal samples collected in the wild across five Mesoamerican countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. We genotyped 445 jaguar fecal samples and examined patterns of genetic diversity and connectivity among 115 individual jaguars using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Overall, moderate levels of genetic variation were detected (NA = 4.50 ± 1.05, AR = 3.43 ± 0.22, HE = 0.59 ± 0.04), with Mexico having the lowest genetic diversity, followed by Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rica. Population-based gene flow measures (FST = 0.09 to 0.15, Dest = 0.09 to 0.21), principal component analysis, and Bayesian clustering applied in a hierarchical framework revealed significant genetic structure in Mesoamerican jaguars, roughly grouping individuals into four genetic clusters with varying levels of admixture. Gene flow was highest among Selva Maya jaguars (northern Guatemala and central Belize), whereas genetic differentiation among all other sampling sites was moderate. Genetic subdivision was most pronounced between Selva Maya and Honduran jaguars, suggesting limited jaguar movement between these close geographic regions and ultimately refuting the hypothesis of contemporary panmixia. To maintain a critical linkage for jaguars dispersing through the Mesoamerican landscape and ensure long-term viability of this near threatened species, we recommend continued management and maintenance of jaguar corridors. The baseline genetic data provided by this study underscores the importance of

  16. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mesoamerican Jaguars (Panthera onca): Implications for Conservation and Management.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Claudia; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Quigley, Howard; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican jaguars (Panthera onca) have been extirpated from over 77% of their historic range, inhabiting fragmented landscapes at potentially reduced population sizes. Maintaining and restoring genetic diversity and connectivity across human-altered landscapes has become a major conservation priority; nonetheless large-scale genetic monitoring of natural populations is rare. This is the first regional conservation genetic study of jaguars to primarily use fecal samples collected in the wild across five Mesoamerican countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. We genotyped 445 jaguar fecal samples and examined patterns of genetic diversity and connectivity among 115 individual jaguars using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Overall, moderate levels of genetic variation were detected (NA = 4.50 ± 1.05, AR = 3.43 ± 0.22, HE = 0.59 ± 0.04), with Mexico having the lowest genetic diversity, followed by Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rica. Population-based gene flow measures (FST = 0.09 to 0.15, Dest = 0.09 to 0.21), principal component analysis, and Bayesian clustering applied in a hierarchical framework revealed significant genetic structure in Mesoamerican jaguars, roughly grouping individuals into four genetic clusters with varying levels of admixture. Gene flow was highest among Selva Maya jaguars (northern Guatemala and central Belize), whereas genetic differentiation among all other sampling sites was moderate. Genetic subdivision was most pronounced between Selva Maya and Honduran jaguars, suggesting limited jaguar movement between these close geographic regions and ultimately refuting the hypothesis of contemporary panmixia. To maintain a critical linkage for jaguars dispersing through the Mesoamerican landscape and ensure long-term viability of this near threatened species, we recommend continued management and maintenance of jaguar corridors. The baseline genetic data provided by this study underscores the importance of

  17. Copper coordination polymers constructed from thiazole-5-carboxylic acid: Synthesis, crystal structures, and structural transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Meundaeng, Natthaya; Rujiwatra, Apinpus; Prior, Timothy J., E-mail: t.prior@hull.ac.uk

    2017-01-15

    We have successfully prepared crystals of thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (5-Htza) (L) and three new thiazole-5-carboxylate-based Cu{sup 2+} coordination polymers with different dimensionality, namely, 1D [Cu{sub 2}(5-tza){sub 2}(1,10-phenanthroline){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (1), 2D [Cu(5-tza){sub 2}(MeOH){sub 2}] (2), and 3D [Cu(5-tza){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O (3). These have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. Interestingly, the 2D network structure of 2 can directly transform into the 3D framework of 3 upon removal of methanol molecules at room temperature. 2 can also undergo structural transformation to produce the same 2D network present in the known [Cu(5-tza){sub 2}]·1.5H{sub 2}O upon heat treatment for 2more » h. This 2D network can adsorb water and convert to 3 upon exposure to air. - Highlights: • Rare examples of coordination polymers of thiazole-5-carboxylic acid were prepared. • Non-covalent interactions play a key role on the assembly of the complexes in solid state. • Structural transformation of a 2D framework to a 3D upon removal of methanol is observed.« less

  18. [Construction of chemical information database based on optical structure recognition technique].

    PubMed

    Lv, C Y; Li, M N; Zhang, L R; Liu, Z M

    2018-04-18

    To create a protocol that could be used to construct chemical information database from scientific literature quickly and automatically. Scientific literature, patents and technical reports from different chemical disciplines were collected and stored in PDF format as fundamental datasets. Chemical structures were transformed from published documents and images to machine-readable data by using the name conversion technology and optical structure recognition tool CLiDE. In the process of molecular structure information extraction, Markush structures were enumerated into well-defined monomer molecules by means of QueryTools in molecule editor ChemDraw. Document management software EndNote X8 was applied to acquire bibliographical references involving title, author, journal and year of publication. Text mining toolkit ChemDataExtractor was adopted to retrieve information that could be used to populate structured chemical database from figures, tables, and textual paragraphs. After this step, detailed manual revision and annotation were conducted in order to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the data. In addition to the literature data, computing simulation platform Pipeline Pilot 7.5 was utilized to calculate the physical and chemical properties and predict molecular attributes. Furthermore, open database ChEMBL was linked to fetch known bioactivities, such as indications and targets. After information extraction and data expansion, five separate metadata files were generated, including molecular structure data file, molecular information, bibliographical references, predictable attributes and known bioactivities. Canonical simplified molecular input line entry specification as primary key, metadata files were associated through common key nodes including molecular number and PDF number to construct an integrated chemical information database. A reasonable construction protocol of chemical information database was created successfully. A total of 174 research

  19. Functional analysis of environmental DNA-derived type II polyketide synthases reveals structurally diverse secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhiyang; Kallifidas, Dimitris; Brady, Sean F

    2011-08-02

    A single gram of soil is predicted to contain thousands of unique bacterial species. The majority of these species remain recalcitrant to standard culture methods, prohibiting their use as sources of unique bioactive small molecules. The cloning and analysis of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples (environmental DNA, eDNA) provides a means of exploring the biosynthetic capacity of natural bacterial populations. Environmental DNA libraries contain large reservoirs of bacterial genetic diversity from which new secondary metabolite gene clusters can be systematically recovered and studied. The identification and heterologous expression of type II polyketide synthase-containing eDNA clones is reported here. Functional analysis of three soil DNA-derived polyketide synthase systems in Streptomyces albus revealed diverse metabolites belonging to well-known, rare, and previously uncharacterized structural families. The first of these systems is predicted to encode the production of the known antibiotic landomycin E. The second was found to encode the production of a metabolite with a previously uncharacterized pentacyclic ring system. The third was found to encode the production of unique KB-3346-5 derivatives, which show activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. These results, together with those of other small-molecule-directed metagenomic studies, suggest that culture-independent approaches are capable of accessing biosynthetic diversity that has not yet been extensively explored using culture-based methods. The large-scale functional screening of eDNA clones should be a productive strategy for generating structurally previously uncharacterized chemical entities for use in future drug development efforts.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Geographic Population Structure of Bovine Neospora caninum Determined by Microsatellite Genotyping Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; García-Culebras, Alicia; Moore, Dadín P.; González-Warleta, Marta; Cuevas, Carmen; Schares, Gereon; Katzer, Frank; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; Mezo, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    The cyst-forming protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among N . caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (MSs). MSs may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in N . caninum , which have been poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated nine MS markers using a panel of 11 N . caninum -derived reference isolates from around the world and 96 N . caninum bovine clinical samples and one ovine clinical sample collected from four countries on two continents, including Spain, Argentina, Germany and Scotland, over a 10-year period. These markers were used as molecular tools to investigate the genetic diversity, geographic distribution and population structure of N . caninum . Multilocus microsatellite genotyping based on 7 loci demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity in the samples from all of the different countries, with 96 microsatellite multilocus genotypes (MLGs) identified from 108 N . caninum samples. Geographic sub-structuring was present in the country populations according to pairwise F ST. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Neighbor Joining tree topologies also suggested MLG segregation partially associated with geographical origin. An analysis of the MLG relationships, using eBURST, confirmed that the close genetic relationship observed between the Spanish and Argentinean populations may be the result of parasite migration (i.e., the introduction of novel MLGs from Spain to South America) due to cattle movement. The eBURST relationships also revealed genetically different clusters associated with the abortion. The presence of linkage disequilibrium, the co-existence of specific MLGs to individual farms and eBURST MLG relationships suggest a predominant clonal

  1. MtDNA genetic diversity and structure of Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto).

    PubMed

    Bagi, Zoltán; Dimopoulos, Evangelos Antonis; Loukovitis, Dimitrios; Eraud, Cyril; Kusza, Szilvia

    2018-01-01

    The Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is one of the most successful biological invaders among terrestrial vertebrates. However, little information is available on the genetic diversity of the species. A total of 134 Eurasian Collared Doves from Europe, Asia and the Caribbean (n = 20) were studied by sequencing a 658-bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Fifty-two different haplotypes and relatively high haplotype and nucleotide diversities (Hd±SD = 0.843±0.037 and π±SD = 0.026±0.013) were detected. Haplotype Ht1 was particularly dominant: it included 44.03% of the studied individuals, and contained sequences from 75% of the studied countries. Various analyses (FST, AMOVA, STRUCTURE) distinguished 2 groups on the genetic level, designated 'A' and 'B'. Two groups were also separated in the median-joining network and the maximum likelihood tree. The results of the neutrality tests were negative (Fu FS = -25.914; Tajima D = -2.606) and significantly different from zero (P≤0.001) for group A, whereas both values for group B were positive (Fu FS = 1.811; Tajima D = 0.674) and not significant (P>0.05). Statistically significant positive autocorrelation was revealed among individuals located up to 2000 km apart (r = 0.124; P = 0.001). The present results provide the first information on the genetic diversity and structure of the Eurasian Collared Dove, and can thereby serve as a factual and comparative basis for similar studies in the future.

  2. Structure and phylogenetic diversity of post-fire ectomycorrhizal communities of maritime pine.

    PubMed

    Rincón, A; Santamaría, B P; Ocaña, L; Verdú, M

    2014-02-01

    Environmental disturbances define the diversity and assemblage of species, affecting the functioning of ecosystems. Fire is a major disturbance of Mediterranean pine forests. Pines are highly dependent on the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal symbiosis, which is critical for tree recruitment under primary succession. To determine the effects of time since fire on the structure and recovery of EM fungal communities, we surveyed the young Pinus pinaster regenerate in three sites differing in the elapsed time after the last fire event. Pine roots were collected, and EM fungi characterized by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) regions of the nuclear ribosomal (nr)-DNA. The effects of the elapsed time after fire on the EM community structure (richness, presence/absence of fungi, phylogenetic diversity) and on soil properties were analysed.Fungal richness decreased with the elapsed time since the fire; although, the phylogenetic diversity of the EM community increased. Soil properties were different depending on the elapsed time after fire and particularly, the organic matter, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, nitrogen and iron significantly correlated with the assemblage of fungal species. Ascomycetes, particularly Tuberaceae and Pezizales, were significantly over-represented on saplings in the burned site. On seedlings, a significant over-representation of Rhizopogonaceae and Atheliaceae was observed in the most recently burned site, while other fungi (i.e. Cortinariaceae) were significantly under-represented. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that fire can act as a selective agent by printing a phylogenetic signal on the EM fungal communities associated with naturally regenerated pines, pointing out to some groups as potential fire-adapted fungi.

  3. Population structure and diversity of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in Hunan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cui; Yao, Run-Xian; Li, Fang; Dai, Su-Ming; Licciardello, Grazia; Catara, Antonino; Gentile, Alessandra; Deng, Zi-Niu

    2017-02-01

    Stem-pitting (SP) is the main type of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that causes severe damage to citrus trees, especially those of sweet orange, in Hunan province, China. Understanding the local CTV population structure should provide clues for effective mild strain cross-protection (MSCP) of the SP strain of CTV. In this study, markers for the p23 gene, multiple molecular markers (MMMs), and sequence analysis of the three silencing suppressor genes (p20, p23 and p25) were employed to analyze the genetic diversity and genotype composition of the CTV population based on 51 CTV-positive samples collected from 14 citrus orchards scattered around six major citrus-growing areas of Hunan. The results indicated that the CTV population structure was extremely complex and that infection was highly mixed. In total, p23 gene markers resulted in six profiles, and MMMs demonstrated 25 profiles. The severe VT and T3 types appeared to be predominantly associated with SP, while the mild T30 and RB types were related to asymptomatic samples. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of p20, p23 and p25, 19 representative CTV samples were classified into seven recently established CTV groups and a potentially novel one. A high level of genetic diversity, as well as potential recombination, was revealed among different CTV isolates. Five pure SP severe and two pure mild strains were identified by genotype composition analysis. Taken together, the results update the genetic diversity of CTV in Hunan with the detection of one possible novel strain, and this information might be applicable for the selection of appropriate mild CTV strains for controlling citrus SP disease through cross-protection.

  4. Phylogenetic and Structural Diversity in the Feline Leukemia Virus Env Gene

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinya; Kawamura, Maki; Odahara, Yuka; Anai, Yukari; Ochi, Haruyo; Nakagawa, So; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) belongs to the genus Gammaretrovirus, and causes a variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases in cats. Alteration of viral env sequences is thought to be associated with disease specificity, but the way in which genetic diversity of FeLV contributes to the generation of such variants in nature is poorly understood. We isolated FeLV env genes from naturally infected cats in Japan and analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of these genes. Phylogenetic reconstructions separated our FeLV samples into three distinct genetic clusters, termed Genotypes I, II, and III. Genotype I is a major genetic cluster and can be further classified into Clades 1–7 in Japan. Genotypes were correlated with geographical distribution; Genotypes I and II were distributed within Japan, whilst FeLV samples from outside Japan belonged to Genotype III. These results may be due to geographical isolation of FeLVs in Japan. The observed structural diversity of the FeLV env gene appears to be caused primarily by mutation, deletion, insertion and recombination, and these variants may be generated de novo in individual cats. FeLV interference assay revealed that FeLV genotypes did not correlate with known FeLV receptor subgroups. We have identified the genotypes which we consider to be reliable for evaluating phylogenetic relationships of FeLV, which embrace the high structural diversity observed in our sample. Overall, these findings extend our understanding of Gammaretrovirus evolutionary patterns in the field, and may provide a useful basis for assessing the emergence of novel strains and understanding the molecular mechanisms of FeLV transmission in cats. PMID:23593376

  5. Construction of knowledge about teaching practice and educating students from diverse cultures in an online induction program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bice, Lawrence Raymond

    2005-11-01

    Beginning teachers in both urban areas and geographically isolated rural areas often do not have access to a mentor teacher of the same content area or grade level in their school or district. This project is a study of learning in the on-line e-Mentoring for Student Success (eMSS) program, which provides induction for science and mathematics teachers in Montana and California. The study centered on a particular segment of eMSS called the Diversity Module. Two examinations were conducted: (1) Analysis of discourse by all participants in the Diversity Module, and (2) case study of five beginning teachers with diverse student populations. Analysis of learning by cases was conducted by examining discourse in the Diversity Module, private on-line discussions with their assigned mentors during a two-year period, and pre and post Diversity Module interviews and interviews of their mentors. Three frameworks were developed to aid understanding of findings: (1) discourse analysis, (2) competencies of multicultural teachers, and, (3) competencies of pedagogical and pedagogical content knowledge. Cases developed their knowledge of teaching along a continuum of needs over two years of participation in the eMSS program. Initial needs expressed by mentees were in areas such as classroom management and general methods of instruction. Cases increased their knowledge in virtually all aspects of pedagogical knowledge, changing their expressed needs to pedagogical content knowledge concerns such as adapting and differentiating instruction for particular content and individual students, and building their repertoire of instructional representations. Through on-line discussion, teachers developed or advanced awareness of student culture and learning characteristics, and adapted their practice to foster a climate of student respect. Findings provided little evidence of adapting instruction for diverse student learning. Teachers who had a strong awareness of their own and their students

  6. Highly structured genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Godreuil, S; Renaud, F; Choisy, M; Depina, J J; Garnotel, E; Morillon, M; Van de Perre, P; Bañuls, A L

    2010-07-01

    Djibouti is an East African country with a high tuberculosis incidence. This study was conducted over a 2-month period in Djibouti, during which 62 consecutive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were included. Genetic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit variable-number tandem-repeat typing and spoligotyping, was performed. The genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed only three major families (Central Asian, East African Indian and T). The high diversity and linkage disequilibrium within each family suggest a long period of clonal evolution. A Bayesian approach shows that the phylogenetic structure observed in our sample of 62 isolates is very likely to be representative of the phylogenetic structure of the M. tuberculosis population in the total number of TB cases.

  7. Ecological-network models link diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alelio, Domenico; Libralato, Simone; Wyatt, Timothy; Ribera D'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    A planktonic food-web model including sixty-three functional nodes (representing auto- mixo- and heterotrophs) was developed to integrate most trophic diversity present in the plankton. The model was implemented in two variants - which we named ‘green’ and ‘blue’ - characterized by opposite amounts of phytoplankton biomass and representing, respectively, bloom and non-bloom states of the system. Taxonomically disaggregated food-webs described herein allowed to shed light on how components of the plankton community changed their trophic behavior in the two different conditions, and modified the overall functioning of the plankton food web. The green and blue food-webs showed distinct organizations in terms of trophic roles of the nodes and carbon fluxes between them. Such re-organization stemmed from switches in selective grazing by both metazoan and protozoan consumers. Switches in food-web structure resulted in relatively small differences in the efficiency of material transfer towards higher trophic levels. For instance, from green to blue states, a seven-fold decrease in phytoplankton biomass translated into only a two-fold decrease in potential planktivorous fish biomass. By linking diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web, we discuss the role of internal mechanisms, relying on species-specific functionalities, in driving the ‘adaptive’ responses of plankton communities to perturbations.

  8. Salinity shapes microbial diversity and community structure in surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Lakes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Li'an; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang

    2016-04-26

    Investigating microbial response to environmental variables is of great importance for understanding of microbial acclimatization and evolution in natural environments. However, little is known about how microbial communities responded to environmental factors (e.g. salinity, geographic distance) in lake surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, microbial diversity and community structure in the surface sediments of nine lakes on the QTP were investigated by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique and the resulting microbial data were statistically analyzed in combination with environmental variables. The results showed total microbial community of the studied lakes was significantly correlated (r = 0.631, P < 0.001) with lake salinity instead of geographic distance. This suggests that lake salinity is more important than geographic distance in shaping the microbial diversity and community structure in the studied samples. In addition, the abundant and rare taxa (OTUs with relative abundance higher than 1% and lower than 0.01% within one sample, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated (r = 0.427 and 0.783, respectively) with salinity, suggesting rare taxa might be more sensitive to salinity than their abundant counterparts, thus cautions should be taken in future when evaluating microbial response (abundant vs. rare sub-communities) to environmental conditions.

  9. Population structure and genetic diversity in natural populations of Theobroma speciosum Willd. Ex Spreng (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Giustina, L D; Luz, L N; Vieira, F S; Rossi, F S; Soares-Lopes, C R A; Pereira, T N S; Rossi, A A B

    2014-02-14

    The genus Theobroma found in the Amazon region is composed of 22 species, including Theobroma speciosum, better known as cacauí. These species are constantly threatened by forest fragmentation caused by human activities and require conservation strategies and management aimed at preserving them in their natural environments. The main objective of this study was to analyze the population structure and genetic diversity within and between natural populations of T. speciosum by using ISSR molecular markers to understand the population structure of the species. Four natural populations belonging to the Amazon rainforest (BAC, CRO, FLA, and PNA), located in the State of Mato Grosso, were selected. Amplification reactions were performed using 15 ISSR primers. A total of 101 loci were found, of which 54.46% were polymorphic at the species level. The BAC population showed higher genetic diversity (H=0.095 and I=0.144) and higher percentage of polymorphism (28.71%). The populations showed an FST value of 0.604, indicating marked genetic differentiation. The highest genetic variation was found between populations. Gene flow was low between populations, indicating genetic isolation between populations.

  10. Population structure and genetic diversity of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla: Myrmecophagidae, Pilosa) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Clozato, Camila L; Miranda, Flávia R; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Collevatti, Rosane G; Santos, Fabrício R

    2017-01-01

    The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Pilosa, Linnaeus 1758) belongs to the mammalian order Pilosa and presents a large distribution along South America, occupying a great variety of habitats. It is listed in the IUCN Red List of threatened species as Vulnerable. Despite threatened, there is a lack of studies regarding its genetic variability. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic diversity and patterns of genetic structure within remaining populations. We analyzed 77 individuals from seven different populations distributed in four biomes across Brazil: Cerrado, Pantanal, Atlantic Forest and Amazon Forest. We sequenced two mitochondrial markers (control region and Cyt-b) and two nuclear markers (AMELY and RAG2). We found high genetic diversity within subpopulations from National Parks of Serra da Canastra and Emas, both within the Cerrado biome, with signs of population expansion. Besides, we found a notable population structure between populations from the Cerrado/Pantanal and Amazon Forest biomes. This data is a major contribution to the knowledge of the evolutionary history of the species and to future management actions concerning its conservation.

  11. Diversity and Structure of Fungal Communities in Neotropical Rainforest Soils: The Effect of Host Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Schimann, Heidy; Bach, Cyrille; Lengelle, Juliette; Louisanna, Eliane; Barantal, Sandra; Murat, Claude; Buée, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The patterns of the distribution of fungal species and their potential interactions with trees remain understudied in Neotropical rainforests, which harbor more than 16,000 tree species, mostly dominated by endomycorrhizal trees. Our hypothesis was that tree species shape the non-mycorrhizal fungal assemblages in soil and litter and that the diversity of fungal communities in these two compartments is partly dependent on the coverage of trees in the Neotropical rainforest. In French Guiana, a long-term plantation and a natural forest were selected to test this hypothesis. Fungal ITS1 regions were sequenced from soil and litter samples from within the vicinity of tree species. A broad range of fungal taxa was found, with 42 orders and 14 classes. Significant spatial heterogeneity in the fungal communities was found without strong variation in the species richness and evenness among the tree plots. However, tree species shaped the fungal assemblages in the soil and litter, explaining up to 18 % of the variation among the communities in the natural forest. These results demonstrate that vegetation cover has an important effect on the structure of fungal assemblages inhabiting the soil and litter in Amazonian forests, illustrating the relative impact of deterministic processes on fungal community structures in these highly diverse ecosystems.

  12. Medicare Accountable Care Organizations of Diverse Structures Achieve Comparable Quality and Cost Performance.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Leeann N; Shortell, Stephen M; Rodriguez, Hector P; Colla, Carrie H

    2018-01-31

    To examine whether an empirically derived taxonomy of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) is associated with quality and spending performance among patients of ACOs in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP). Three waves of the National Survey of ACOs and corresponding publicly available Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services performance data for NSACO respondents participating in the MSSP (N = 204); SK&A Office Based Physicians Database from QuintilesIMS. We compare the performance of three ACO types (physician-led, integrated, and hybrid) for three domains: quality, spending, and likelihood of achieving savings. Sources of performance variation within and between ACO types are compared for each performance measure. There is greater heterogeneity within ACO types than between ACO types. There were no consistent differences in quality by ACO type, nor were there differences in likelihood of achieving savings or overall spending per-person-year. There was evidence for higher spending on physician services for physician-led ACOs. ACOs of diverse structures perform comparably on core MSSP quality and spending measures. CMS should maintain its flexibility and continue to support participation of diverse ACOs. Future research to identify modifiable organizational factors that account for performance variation within ACO types may provide insight as to how best to improve ACO performance based on organizational structure and ownership. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Combinatorial Synthesis of Structurally Diverse Triazole-Bridged Flavonoid Dimers and Trimers.

    PubMed

    Sum, Tze Han; Sum, Tze Jing; Galloway, Warren R J D; Collins, Súil; Twigg, David G; Hollfelder, Florian; Spring, David R

    2016-09-16

    Flavonoids are a large family of compounds associated with a broad range of biologically useful properties. In recent years, synthetic compounds that contain two flavonoid units linked together have attracted attention in drug discovery and development projects. Numerous flavonoid dimer systems, incorporating a range of monomers attached via different linkers, have been reported to exhibit interesting bioactivities. From a medicinal chemistry perspective, the 1,2,3-triazole ring system has been identified as a particularly attractive linker moiety in dimeric derivatives (owing to several favourable attributes including proven biological relevance and metabolic stability) and triazole-bridged flavonoid dimers possessing anticancer and antimalarial activities have recently been reported. However, there are relatively few examples of libraries of triazole-bridged flavonoid dimers and the diversity of flavonoid subunits present within these is typically limited. Thus, this compound type arguably remains underexplored within drug discovery. Herein, we report a modular strategy for the synthesis of novel and biologically interesting triazole-bridged flavonoid heterodimers and also very rare heterotrimers from readily available starting materials. Application of this strategy has enabled step-efficient and systematic access to a library of structurally diverse compounds of this sort, with a variety of monomer units belonging to six different structural subclasses of flavonoid successfully incorporated.

  14. One-Seeded Fruits in the Core Caryophyllales: Their Origin and Structural Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sukhorukov, Alexander P.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Struwig, Madeleen; Nilova, Maya V.; Dzhalilova, Khalima Kh.; Balandin, Sergey A.; Erst, Andrey; Krinitsyna, Anastasiya A.

    2015-01-01

    The core Caryophyllales consist of approximately 30 families (12 000 species) distributed worldwide. Many members evolved one-seeded or conjoined fruits, but their origin and structural diversity have not been investigated. A comparative anatomical investigation of the one-seeded fruits within the core Caryophyllales was conducted. The origin of the one-seeded fruits and the evolutionary reconstructions of some carpological characters were traced using a tree based on rbcl and matK data in order to understand the ancestral characters and their changes. The one-seeded fruit type is inferred to be an ancestral character state in core Caryophyllales, with a subsequent increase in the seed number seen in all major clades. Most representatives of the ‘Earlier Diverging’ clade are distinguished in various carpological traits. The organization of the pericarp is diverse in many groups, although fruits with a dry, many-layered pericarp, consisting of sclerenchyma as outer layers and a thin-walled parenchyma below, with seeds occupying a vertical embryo position, are likely ancestral character states in the core Caryophyllales clade. Several carpological peculiarities in fruit and seed structure were discovered in obligate one-seeded Achatocarpaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Seguieriaceae and Sarcobataceae. The horizontal embryo evolved in only certain groups of Chenopodiaceae. The bar-thickening of endotegmen cells appears to be an additional character typical of core Caryophyllales. The syncarpy-to-lysicarpy paradigm in Caryophyllaceae needs to be reinterpreted. PMID:25710481

  15. Diversity of Algerian oases date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae): Heterozygote excess and cryptic structure suggest farmer management had a major impact on diversity.

    PubMed

    Moussouni, Souhila; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Vigouroux, Yves; Bouguedoura, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) is the mainstay of oasis agriculture in the Saharan region. It is cultivated in a large part of the Mediterranean coastal area of the Sahara and in most isolated oases in the Algerian desert. We sampled 10 oases in Algeria to understand the structure of date palm diversity from the coastal area to a very isolated desert location. We used 18 microsatellite markers and a chloroplast minisatellite to characterize 414 individual palm trees corresponding to 114 named varieties. We found a significant negative inbreeding coefficient, suggesting active farmer selection for heterozygous individuals. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified, a ubiquitous set of varieties found across the different oases, and two clusters, one of which was specific to the northern area, and the other to the drier southern area of the Algerian Sahara. The ubiquitous cluster presented very striking chloroplast diversity, signing the frequency of haplotypes found in Saudi Arabia, the most eastern part of the date palm range. Exchanges of Middle Eastern and Algerian date palms are known to have occurred and could have led to the introduction of this particular chlorotype. However, Algerian nuclear diversity was not of eastern origin. Our study strongly suggests that the peculiar chloroplastic diversity of date palm is maintained by farmers and could originate from date palms introduced from the Middle East a long time ago, which since then, hasbeen strongly introgressed. This study illustrates the complex structure of date palm diversity in Algerian oases and the role of farmers in shaping such cryptic diversity.

  16. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Population Genetic Structure of Corylus mandshurica in China Using SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Tian-Tian; Ma, Qing-Hua; Liang, Li-Song; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Corylus mandshurica, also known as pilose hazelnut, is an economically and ecologically important species in China. In this study, ten polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were applied to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of 348 C. mandshurica individuals among 12 populations in China. The SSR markers expressed a relatively high level of genetic diversity (Na = 15.3, Ne = 5.6604, I = 1.8853, Ho = 0.6668, and He = 0.7777). According to the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.1215), genetic variation within the populations (87.85%) were remarkably higher than among populations (12.15%). The average gene flow (Nm = 1.8080) significantly impacts the genetic structure of C. mandshurica populations. The relatively high gene flow (Nm = 1.8080) among wild C. mandshurica may be caused by wind-pollinated flowers, highly nutritious seeds and self-incompatible mating system. The UPGMA (unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages) dendrogram was divided into two main clusters. Moreover, the results of STRUCTURE analysis suggested that C. mandshurica populations fell into two main clusters. Comparison of the UPGMA dendrogram and the Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed general agreement between the population subdivisions and the genetic relationships among populations of C. mandshurica. Group I accessions were located in Northeast China, while Group II accessions were in North China. It is worth noting that a number of genetically similar populations were located in the same geographic region. The results further showed that there was obvious genetic differentiation among populations from Northeast China to North China. Results from the Mantel test showed a weak but still significant positive correlation between Nei's genetic distance and geographic distance (km) among populations (r = 0.419, P = 0.005), suggesting that genetic differentiation in the 12 C. mandshurica populations might be related to geographic distance. These

  17. Structural insight into mechanism and diverse substrate selection strategy of L-ribulokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal R.; Swaminathan S.; Burley, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The araBAD operon encodes three different enzymes required for catabolism of L-arabinose, which is one of the most abundant monosaccharides in nature. L-ribulokinase, encoded by the araB gene, catalyzes conversion of L-ribulose to L-ribulose-5-phosphate, the second step in the catabolic pathway. Unlike other kinases, ribulokinase exhibits diversity in substrate selectivity and catalyzes phosphorylation of all four 2-ketopentose sugars with comparable k{sub cat} values. To understand ribulokinase recognition and phosphorylation of a diverse set of substrates, we have determined the X-ray structure of ribulokinase from Bacillus halodurans bound to L-ribulose and investigated its substrate and ATP co-factor binding properties. The polypeptidemore » chain is folded into two domains, one small and the other large, with a deep cleft in between. By analogy with related sugar kinases, we identified {sup 447}{und GG}LPQ{und K}{sup 452} as the ATP-binding motif within the smaller domain. L-ribulose binds in the cleft between the two domains via hydrogen bonds with the side chains of highly conserved Trp126, Lys208, Asp274, and Glu329 and the main chain nitrogen of Ala96. The interaction of L-ribulokinase with L-ribulose reveals versatile structural features that help explain recognition of various 2-ketopentose substrates and competitive inhibition by L-erythrulose. Comparison of our structure to that of the structures of other sugar kinases revealed conformational variations that suggest domain-domain closure movements are responsible for establishing the observed active site environment.« less

  18. STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY IN SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY:A Story of Squares and Triangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen

    1996-10-01

    A simple method for calculating the electronic energy of extended solids is discussed in this review. This method is based on the Huckel or tight-binding theory in which an explicit pairwise repulsion is added to the generally attractive forces of the partially filled valence electron bands. An expansion based on the power moments of the electronic density of states is discussed, and the structural energy difference theorem is reviewed. The repulsive energy is found to vary linearly with the second power moment of the electronic density of states. These results are then used to show why there is such a diversity of structure in the solid state. The elemental structures of the main group are rationalized by the above methods. It is the third and fourth power moments (which correspond in part to triangles and squares of bonded atoms) that account for much of the elemental structures of the main group elements of the periodic table. This serves as an introduction to further rationalizations of transition for noble metal alloy, binary and ternary telluride and selenide, and other intermetallic structures.Thus a cohesive picture of both covalent and metallic bonding is presented in this review, illustrating the importance of atomic orbitals and their overlap integrals.

  19. Psychosocial sources of stress and burnout in the construction sector: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Meliá, Josep L; Becerril, Marta

    2007-11-01

    This study develops and tests a structural equation model of social stress factors in the construction industry. Leadership behaviours, role conflict and mobbing behaviours are considered exogenous sources of stress; the experience of tension and burnout are considered mediator variables; and psychological well-being, propensity to quit and perceived quality are the final dependent variables. A sample of Spanish construction workers participated voluntarily and anonymously in the study. After considering the indices of modification, leadership showed direct effects on the propensity to quit and perceived quality. The overall fit of the model is adequate (chi2 (13)= 10.69, p = .637, GFI= .975, AGFI= .93, RMR= .230, NFI= .969, TLI= 1.016, CFI= 1.000, RMSEA= .329). Construction has been considered a sector characterized more by high physical risks than socially-related risks. In this context, these findings about the effects of social sources of stress in construction raise new questions about the organizational characteristics of the sector and their psychosocial risks.

  20. A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs.

  1. The relationship between species diversity and genetic structure in the rare Picea chihuahuana tree species community, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Simental-Rodríguez, Sergio Leonel; Quiñones-Pérez, Carmen Zulema; Moya, Daniel; Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; López-Sánchez, Carlos Antonio; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Species diversity and genetic diversity, the most basic elements of biodiversity, have long been treated as separate topics, although populations evolve within a community context. Recent studies on community genetics and ecology have suggested that genetic diversity is not completely independent of species diversity. The Mexican Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic species listed as "Endangered" on the Red List. Forty populations of Chihuahua spruce have been identified. This species is often associated with tree species of eight genera in gallery forests. This rare Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been subject of several studies involving different topics such as ecology, genetic structure and climate change. The overall aim of these studies was to obtain a dataset for developing management tools to help decision makers implement preservation and conservation strategies. However, this unique forest tree community may also represent an excellent subject for helping us to understand the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes in determining community structure and dynamics. The AFLP technique and species composition data were used together to test the hypothesis that species diversity is related to the adaptive genetic structure of some dominant tree species (Picea chihuahuana, Pinus strobiformis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides) of the Picea chihuahuana tree community at fourteen locations. The Hill numbers were used as a diversity measure. The results revealed a significant correlation between tree species diversity and genetic structure in Populus tremuloides. Because the relationship between the two levels of diversity was found to be positive for the putative adaptive AFLP detected, genetic and species structures of the tree community were possibly simultaneously adapted to a combination of ecological or environmental factors. The present findings indicate that interactions between

  2. The "sociotype" construct: Gauging the structure and dynamics of human sociality.

    PubMed

    Marijuán, Pedro C; Montero-Marín, Jesús; Navarro, Jorge; García-Campayo, Javier; Del Moral, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the pertinence of a "sociotype" construct, established along the conceptual chain genotype-phenotype-sociotype, is the essential purpose of the present paper. Further, by following the sociotype's conceptual guidelines, a new psychometric indicator has been developed in order to gauge the level of social interaction around each individual-the sociotype questionnaire (SOCQ). A first version of this questionnaire has been elaborated by gathering data about the different classes of social bonds (family, friends, acquaintances, and work/study colleagues) in general population and about the dynamic update of these bonds via face-to-face conversation and other modes of interaction. A specific fieldwork was undertaken, involving 1,075 participants, all of them Spanish adults (with diverse social and regional backgrounds). The data obtained were analyzed by means of the correlational method with an analytical cross-sectional design: the number of factors and the consistency and reliability of the resulting scales were evaluated and correlated. The new sociotype indicator resulting from that fieldwork, in spite of its limitations, seems to be valid and reliable, as well as closely associated with widely used metrics of loneliness and psychological distress. It is interesting that the construct noticeably varies throughout the life course and circumstances of individuals, based on their gender and age, and adjusting to the different situations of social networking. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, which has tried to reach both a theoretical and an operational formulation of the sociotype construct, by establishing an ad hoc psychometric questionnaire. We think that the information provided by this operational definition opens a new direction of work that could be useful to guide the development and evaluation of programs aimed at improving and strengthening social networking in people at risk, especially for the elderly.

  3. Higher stability in forest-atmosphere exchange observed in a structurally diverse forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrakar, R.; Rayment, M.; Moyano, F.; Herbst, M.; Mund, M.; Knohl, A.

    2016-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that structurally diverse forests have greater stability on exchange processes with the atmosphere compared to forests with less diverse structure. In a case study, we assessed how net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and normalized maximum assimilation (Amax) varied over time in two forests in Germany based on 11 years of continuous eddy flux measurements. The two sites differ in structure as well as in species composition: one (Hainich) is an unmanaged, uneven-aged and heterogeneous mixed beech forest (65% beech), the other (Leinefelde) is a managed, even-aged and homogeneous pure beech stand. The two selected forests are of similar mean ages (about 130 years old) and exposed to similar air temperatures and vapour pressure deficits. Even though Hainich (the unmanaged forest) received higher rainfall (720 ± 134 mm vs 599±166 mm), the soil water availability showed no significant difference between both sites. Based on detailed biomass inventory, trees in Hainich are well distributed in all diameter at breast height (dbh) classes (10 to 90cm dbh) whereas in Leinefelde (the managed forest) trees are mostly confined to dbh classes of 40 to 55 cm. Our results showed a strong difference in inter-annual variability of NEE, which was lower in the unmanaged than in the managed site (coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.13 and 0.27, respectively). The lowest NEE was observed in both sites in 2004, a mast year and a year after the strong summer drought of 2003. The variation in the inter-annual normalized maximum assimilation (Amax) was lower in Hainich (standard deviation of 2.5 compared to 3.9 µmol m-2 s-1). Also, the seasonal course of Amax differed between the two forests which could explain why the mixed forest was more affected by the late summer drought of 2003, despite showing a more conservative carbon budget than the pure stand in the long term. The interannual anomaly in Amax was correlated with fruit production, the latter being larger in

  4. Acoustic emission source location in composite structure by Voronoi construction using geodesic curve evolution.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, R; Prasanna, G; Bhat, M R; Murthy, C R L; Gopalakrishnan, S

    2009-11-01

    Conventional analytical/numerical methods employing triangulation technique are suitable for locating acoustic emission (AE) source in a planar structure without structural discontinuities. But these methods cannot be extended to structures with complicated geometry, and, also, the problem gets compounded if the material of the structure is anisotropic warranting complex analytical velocity models. A geodesic approach using Voronoi construction is proposed in this work to locate the AE source in a composite structure. The approach is based on the fact that the wave takes minimum energy path to travel from the source to any other point in the connected domain. The geodesics are computed on the meshed surface of the structure using graph theory based on Dijkstra's algorithm. By propagating the waves in reverse virtually from these sensors along the geodesic path and by locating the first intersection point of these waves, one can get the AE source location. In this work, the geodesic approach is shown more suitable for a practicable source location solution in a composite structure with arbitrary surface containing finite discontinuities. Experiments have been conducted on composite plate specimens of simple and complex geometry to validate this method.

  5. Human cell structure-driven model construction for predicting protein subcellular location from biological images.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of subcellular location pattern is very important for fully characterizing the human proteome. Nowadays, with the great advances in automated microscopic imaging, accurate bioimage-based classification methods to predict protein subcellular locations are highly desired. All existing models were constructed on the independent parallel hypothesis, where the cellular component classes are positioned independently in a multi-class classification engine. The important structural information of cellular compartments is missed. To deal with this problem for developing more accurate models, we proposed a novel cell structure-driven classifier construction approach (SC-PSorter) by employing the prior biological structural information in the learning model. Specifically, the structural relationship among the cellular components is reflected by a new codeword matrix under the error correcting output coding framework. Then, we construct multiple SC-PSorter-based classifiers corresponding to the columns of the error correcting output coding codeword matrix using a multi-kernel support vector machine classification approach. Finally, we perform the classifier ensemble by combining those multiple SC-PSorter-based classifiers via majority voting. We evaluate our method on a collection of 1636 immunohistochemistry images from the Human Protein Atlas database. The experimental results show that our method achieves an overall accuracy of 89.0%, which is 6.4% higher than the state-of-the-art method. The dataset and code can be downloaded from https://github.com/shaoweinuaa/. dqzhang@nuaa.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Understanding Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of a Poa pratensis Worldwide Collection through Morphological, Nuclear and Chloroplast Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Luigi; Marconi, Gianpiero; Sharbel, Timothy F.; Veronesi, Fabio; Albertini, Emidio

    2015-01-01

    Poa pratensis L. is a forage and turf grass species well adapted to a wide range of mesic to moist habitats. Due to its genome complexity little is known regarding evolution, genome composition and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships of this species. In the present study we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity of 33 P. pratensis accessions from 23 different countries using both nuclear and chloroplast molecular markers as well as flow cytometry of somatic tissues. This with the aim of shedding light on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the collection that includes both cultivated and wild materials. Morphological characterization showed that the most relevant traits able to distinguish cultivated from wild forms were spring growth habit and leaf colour. The genome size analysis revealed high variability both within and between accessions in both wild and cultivated materials. The sequence analysis of the trnL-F chloroplast region revealed a low polymorphism level that could be the result of the complex mode of reproduction of this species. In addition, a strong reduction of chloroplast SSR variability was detected in cultivated materials, where only two alleles were conserved out of the four present in wild accessions. Contrarily, at nuclear level, high variability exist in the collection where the analysis of 11 SSR loci allowed the detection of a total of 91 different alleles. A Bayesian analysis performed on nuclear SSR data revealed that studied materials belong to two main clusters. While wild materials are equally represented in both clusters, the domesticated forms are mostly belonging to cluster P2 which is characterized by lower genetic diversity compared to the cluster P1. In the Neighbour Joining tree no clear distinction was found between accessions with the exception of those from China and Mongolia that were clearly separated from all the others. PMID:25893249

  7. Molecular genetic diversity and population structure of Ethiopian white lupin landraces: Implications for breeding and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Nasser; Martina, Kyalo; Dagne, Kifle; Wegary, Dagne; Tesfaye, Kassahun

    2017-01-01

    White lupin is one of the four economically important species of the Lupinus genus and is an important grain legume in the Ethiopian farming system. However, there has been limited research effort to characterize the Ethiopian white lupin landraces. Fifteen polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 212 Ethiopian white lupin (Lupinus albus) landraces and two genotypes from different species (Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus mutabilis) were used as out-group. The SSR markers revealed 108 different alleles, 98 of them from 212 landraces and 10 from out-group genotypes, with an average of 6.5 alleles per locus. The average gene diversity was 0.31. Twenty eight landraces harbored one or more private alleles from the total of 28 private alleles identified in the 212 white lupin accessions. Seventy-seven rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5% were identified and accounted for 78.6% of the total alleles detected. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 92% of allelic diversity was attributed to individual accessions within populations while only 8% was distributed among populations. At 70% similarity level, the UPGMA dendrogram resulted in the formation of 13 clusters comprised of 2 to 136 landraces, with the out-group genotypes and five landraces remaining distinct and ungrouped. Population differentiation and genetic distance were relatively high between Gondar and Ethiopian white lupin populations collected by Australians. A model-based population structure analysis divided the white lupin landraces into two populations. All Ethiopian white lupin landrace populations, except most of the landraces collected by Australians (77%) and about 44% from Awi, were grouped together with significant admixtures. The study also suggested that 34 accessions, as core collections, were sufficient to retain 100% of SSR diversity. These accessions (core G-34) represent 16% of the whole 212

  8. Development of a composite geodetic structure for space construction, phase 1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The development of a geodetic beam and beam builder for on orbit construction of large truss type space structures is discussed. The geodetic beam is a lightweight, open lattice structure composed of an equilateral gridwork of crisscrossing rods. The beam provides a high degree of stiffness and minimizes structural distortion, due to temperature gradients, through the incorporation of a new graphite and glass reinforced thermoplastic composite material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion. A low power consuming, high production rate, beam builder automatically fabricates the geodetic beams in space using rods preprocessed on Earth. Three areas of the development are focused upon; (1) geodetic beam designs for local attachment of equipment or beam to beam joining in a parallel or crossing configurations, (2) evaluation of long life pultruded rods capable of service temperatures higher than possible with the HMS/P1700 rod material, and (3) evalaution of high temperature joint encapsulant materials.

  9. Design, Construction and Test of Cryogen-Free HTS Coil Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hocker, H.; Anerella, M.; Gupta, R.

    2011-03-28

    This paper will describe design, construction and test results of a cryo-mechanical structure to study coils made with the second generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). A magnet comprised of HTS coils mounted in a vacuum vessel and conduction-cooled with Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocoolers is used to develop and refine design and construction techniques. The study of these techniques and their effect on operations provides a better understanding of the use of cryogen free magnets in future accelerator projects. A cryogen-free, superconducting HTS magnet possesses certain operational advantages over cryogenically cooled, low temperature superconductingmore » magnets.« less

  10. Evaluating the performance and intellectual structure of construction and demolition waste research during 2000-2016.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Sun, Tiantian; Yang, Lie

    2017-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste diminishes scarce land resources and endangers human health and the surrounding environment. Quantitative and visualized analysis was conducted to evaluate worldwide scientific research output on C&D waste from 2000 to 2016. The related information of 857 publications was collected from SCI-Expanded database and statistically analyzed. The number of documents about C&D waste presented a general growth during the last 17 years. Construction and Building Materials publication ranked first in the most productive journals. China and Spain acted as dominated roles comparing to other countries, and Hong Kong Polytechnic University was the institution with the largest amount of C&D waste research. Recycled aggregates, sustainable C&D waste management, and the rewarding program and commerce system were the hottest topics during 2000-2016 and in the near future according to the intellectual structure analysis.

  11. Functional understanding of the diverse exon-intron structures of human GPCR genes.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Dorothy A; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying

    2014-02-01

    The GPCR genes have a variety of exon-intron structures even though their proteins are all structurally homologous. We have examined all human GPCR genes with at least two functional protein isoforms, totaling 199, aiming to gain an understanding of what may have contributed to the large diversity of the exon-intron structures of the GPCR genes. The 199 genes have a total of 808 known protein splicing isoforms with experimentally verified functions. Our analysis reveals that 1301 (80.6%) adjacent exon-exon pairs out of the total of 1,613 in the 199 genes have either exactly one exon skipped or the intron in-between retained in at least one of the 808 protein splicing isoforms. This observation has a statistical significance p-value of 2.051762 * e(-09), assuming that the observed splicing isoforms are independent of the exon-intron structures. Our interpretation of this observation is that the exon boundaries of the GPCR genes are not randomly determined; instead they may be selected to facilitate specific alternative splicing for functional purposes.

  12. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Diversity and Opportunities for Semiconductor Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitzi, David

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices based on three-dimensional perovskites, (Cs, MA, FA)Pb(I, Br)3 (MA =methylammonium, FA =formamidinium), have attracted substantial recent interest, because of the unprecedented rise in power conversion efficiency to values above 20%, which in turn is made possible by the near ideal band gap, strong optical absorption, high carrier mobilities, long minority carrier lifetimes, and relatively benign defects and grain boundaries for the absorbers. Some of the same properties that render these materials near-ideal for PV, also make them attractive for LED and other optoelectronic applications. Despite the high levels of device performance, the incorporation of the heavy metal lead, coupled with issues of device stability and electrical hysteresis pose challenges for commercializing these exciting technologies. This talk will provide a perspective on and discuss recent advances related to the broader perovskite family, focusing on the extraordinary structural/chemical diversity, including ability to control structural/electronic dimensionality, substitute on the organic cation, metal or halogen sites, and prospects of multi-functionality arising from separately engineered organic/inorganic structural components (e.g., see). Further exploration within this perovskite structural and chemical space offers exciting opportunities for future energy and electronic materials design. This work has been financially supported by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Dept. of Energy, under Award Number DE-EE0006712.

  13. Chemical and Conformational Diversity of Modified Nucleosides Affects tRNA Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Väre, Ville Y P; Eruysal, Emily R; Narendran, Amithi; Sarachan, Kathryn L; Agris, Paul F

    2017-03-16

    RNAs are central to all gene expression through the control of protein synthesis. Four major nucleosides, adenosine, guanosine, cytidine and uridine, compose RNAs and provide sequence variation, but are limited in contributions to structural variation as well as distinct chemical properties. The ability of RNAs to play multiple roles in cellular metabolism is made possible by extensive variation in length, conformational dynamics, and the over 100 post-transcriptional modifications. There are several reviews of the biochemical pathways leading to RNA modification, but the physicochemical nature of modified nucleosides and how they facilitate RNA function is of keen interest, particularly with regard to the contributions of modified nucleosides. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are the most extensively modified RNAs. The diversity of modifications provide versatility to the chemical and structural environments. The added chemistry, conformation and dynamics of modified nucleosides occurring at the termini of stems in tRNA's cloverleaf secondary structure affect the global three-dimensional conformation, produce unique recognition determinants for macromolecules to recognize tRNAs, and affect the accurate and efficient decoding ability of tRNAs. This review will discuss the impact of specific chemical moieties on the structure, stability, electrochemical properties, and function of tRNAs.

  14. Biochemical, structural and functional diversity between two digestive α-amylases from Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Amey J; Channale, Sonal M; Patil, Sucheta S; Gupta, Vidya S; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Giri, Ashok P

    2015-09-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera) feeds on various plants using diverse digestive enzymes as one of the survival tool-kit. The aim of the present study was to understand biochemical properties of recombinant α-amylases of H. armigera viz., HaAmy1 and HaAmy2. The open reading frames of HaAmy1 and HaAmy2 were cloned in Pichia pastoris and expressed heterologously. Purified recombinant enzymes were characterized for their biochemical and biophysical attributes using established methods. Sequence alignment and homology modeling showed that HaAmy1 and HaAmy2 were conserved in their amino acid sequences and structures. HaAmy1 and HaAmy2 showed optimum activity at 60°C; however, they differed in their optimum pH. Furthermore, HaAmy2 showed higher affinity for starch and amylopectin whereas HaAmy1 had higher catalytic efficiency. HaAmy1 and HaAmy2 were inhibited to the same magnitude by a synthetic amylase inhibitor (acarbose) while wheat amylase inhibitor showed about 2-fold higher inhibition of HaAmy1 than HaAmy2 at pH7 while 6-fold difference at pH11. Interactions of HaAmy1 and HaAmy2 with wheat amylase inhibitor revealed 2:1 stoichiometric ratio and much more complex interaction with HaAmy1. The diversity of amylases in perspective of their biochemical and biophysical properties, and their differential interactions with amylase inhibitors signify the potential role of these enzymes in adaptation of H. armigera on diverse plant diets. Characterization of digestive enzymes of H. armigera provides the molecular basis for the polyphagous nature and thus could assist in designing future strategies for the insect control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Naegele, Rachel P; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation.

  16. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Naegele, Rachel P.; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  17. A Tri-Oceanic Perspective: DNA Barcoding Reveals Geographic Structure and Cryptic Diversity in Canadian Polychaetes

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Christina M.; Hardy, Sarah M.; Brown, Tanya M.; Macdonald, Tara A.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although polychaetes are one of the dominant taxa in marine communities, their distributions and taxonomic diversity are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that many species thought to have broad distributions are actually a complex of allied species. In Canada, 12% of polychaete species are thought to occur in Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Oceans, but the extent of gene flow among their populations has not been tested. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was employed to compare morphological versus molecular diversity estimates, to examine gene flow among populations of widespread species, and to explore connectivity patterns among Canada's three oceans. Analysis of 1876 specimens, representing 333 provisional species, revealed 40 times more sequence divergence between than within species (16.5% versus 0.38%). Genetic data suggest that one quarter of previously recognized species actually include two or more divergent lineages, indicating that richness in this region is currently underestimated. Few species with a tri-oceanic distribution showed genetic cohesion. Instead, large genetic breaks occur between Pacific and Atlantic-Arctic lineages, suggesting their long-term separation. High connectivity among Arctic and Atlantic regions and low connectivity with the Pacific further supports the conclusion that Canadian polychaetes are partitioned into two distinct faunas. Conclusions/Significance Results of this study confirm that COI sequences are an effective tool for species identification in polychaetes, and suggest that DNA barcoding will aid the recognition of species overlooked by the current taxonomic system. The consistent geographic structuring within presumed widespread species suggests that historical range fragmentation during the Pleistocene ultimately increased Canadian polychaete diversity and that the coastal British Columbia fauna played a minor

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Sniezko, Richard; Murray, Michael; Wang, Ning; Chen, Hao; Zamany, Arezoo; Sturrock, Rona N.; Savin, Douglas; Kegley, Angelia

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (WBP, Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) is an endangered conifer species due to heavy mortality from white pine blister rust (WPBR, caused by Cronartium ribicola) and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). Information about genetic diversity and population structure is of fundamental importance for its conservation and restoration. However, current knowledge on the genetic constitution and genomic variation is still limited for WBP. In this study, an integrated genomics approach was applied to characterize seed collections from WBP breeding programs in western North America. RNA-seq analysis was used for de novo assembly of the WBP needle transcriptome, which contains 97,447 protein-coding transcripts. Within the transcriptome, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered, and more than 22,000 of them were non-synonymous SNPs (ns-SNPs). Following the annotation of genes with ns-SNPs, 216 ns-SNPs within candidate genes with putative functions in disease resistance and plant defense were selected to design SNP arrays for high-throughput genotyping. Among these SNP loci, 71 were highly polymorphic, with sufficient variation to identify a unique genotype for each of the 371 individuals originating from British Columbia (Canada), Oregon and Washington (USA). A clear genetic differentiation was evident among seed families. Analyses of genetic spatial patterns revealed varying degrees of diversity and the existence of several genetic subgroups in the WBP breeding populations. Genetic components were associated with geographic variables and phenotypic rating of WPBR disease severity across landscapes, which may facilitate further identification of WBP genotypes and gene alleles contributing to local adaptation and quantitative resistance to WPBR. The WBP genomic resources developed here provide an invaluable tool for further studies and for exploitation and utilization of the genetic diversity preserved within this endangered conifer and other

  19. Atomically-thick two-dimensional crystals: electronic structure regulation and energy device construction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongfu; Gao, Shan; Xie, Yi

    2014-01-21

    Atomically-thick two-dimensional crystals can provide promising opportunities to satisfy people's requirement of next-generation flexible and transparent nanodevices. However, the characterization of these low-dimensional structures and the understanding of their clear structure-property relationship encounter many great difficulties, owing to the lack of long-range order in the third dimensionality. In this review, we survey the recent progress in fine structure characterization by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and also overview electronic structure modulation by density-functional calculations in the ultrathin two-dimensional crystals. In addition, we highlight their structure-property relationship, transparent and flexible device construction as well as wide applications in photoelectrochemical water splitting, photodetectors, thermoelectric conversion, touchless moisture sensing, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. Finally, we outline the major challenges and opportunities that face the atomically-thick two-dimensional crystals. It is anticipated that the present review will deepen people's understanding of this field and hence contribute to guide the future design of high-efficiency energy-related devices.

  20. Population structure and genetic diversity in a commercial maize breeding program assessed with SSR and SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Van Inghelandt, Delphine; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Lebreton, Claude; Stich, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Information about the genetic diversity and population structure in elite breeding material is of fundamental importance for the improvement of crops. The objectives of our study were to (a) examine the population structure and the genetic diversity in elite maize germplasm based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, (b) compare these results with those obtained from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, and (c) compare the coancestry coefficient calculated from pedigree records with genetic distance estimates calculated from SSR and SNP markers. Our study was based on 1,537 elite maize inbred lines genotyped with 359 SSR and 8,244 SNP markers. The average number of alleles per locus, of group specific alleles, and the gene diversity (D) were higher for SSRs than for SNPs. Modified Roger's distance (MRD) estimates and membership probabilities of the STRUCTURE matrices were higher for SSR than for SNP markers but the germplasm organization in four heterotic pools was consistent with STRUCTURE results based on SSRs and SNPs. MRD estimates calculated for the two marker systems were highly correlated (0.87). Our results suggested that the same conclusions regarding the structure and the diversity of heterotic pools could be drawn from both markers types. Furthermore, although our results suggested that the ratio of the number of SSRs and SNPs required to obtain MRD or D estimates with similar precision is not constant across the various precision levels, we propose that between 7 and 11 times more SNPs than SSRs should be used for analyzing population structure and genetic diversity.

  1. Genetic diversity and structure of elite cotton germplasm (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    Ai, XianTao; Liang, YaJun; Wang, JunDuo; Zheng, JuYun; Gong, ZhaoLong; Guo, JiangPing; Li, XueYuan; Qu, YanYing

    2017-10-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important natural textile fiber crop, and Gossypium hirsutum L. is responsible for 90% of the annual cotton crop in the world. Information on cotton genetic diversity and population structure is essential for new breeding lines. In this study, we analyzed population structure and genetic diversity of 288 elite Gossypium hirsutum cultivar accessions collected from around the world, and especially from China, using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers. The average polymorphsim information content (PIC) was 0.25, indicating a relatively low degree of genetic diversity. Population structure analysis revealed extensive admixture and identified three subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis supported the subgroups identified by STRUCTURE. The results from both population structure and phylogenetic analysis were, for the most part, in agreement with pedigree information. Analysis of molecular variance revealed a larger amount of variation was due to diversity within the groups. Establishment of genetic diversity and population structure from this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and systematic utilization of the standing genetic variation in upland cotton.

  2. Species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany depends on litter cover and landscape structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stephanie; Huber, Birgit; Stahl, Silvia; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Species diversity depends on, often interfering, multiple ecological drivers. Comprehensive approaches are hence needed to understand the mechanisms determining species diversity. In this study, we analysed the impact of vegetation structure, soil properties and fragmentation on the plant species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands, therefore, in a comparative approach. We determined plant species diversity of 18 calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany including all species and grassland specialists separately. Furthermore, we analysed the spatial structure of the grasslands as a result of fragmentation during the last 150 years (habitat area, distance to the nearest calcareous grassland and connectivity in 1830 and 2013). We also collected data concerning the vegetation structure (height of the vegetation, cover of bare soil, grass and litter) and the soil properties (content of phosphorous and potassium, ratio of carbon and nitrogen) of the grassland patches. Data were analysed using Bayesian multiple regressions. We observed a habitat loss of nearly 80% and increasing isolation between grasslands since 1830. In the Bayesian multiple regressions the species diversity of the studied grasslands depended negatively on cover of litter and to a lower degree on the distance to the nearest calcareous grassland in 2013, whereas soil properties had no significant impact. Our study supports the observation that vegetation structure, which strongly depends on land use, is often more important for the species richness of calcareous grasslands than fragmentation or soil properties. Even small and isolated grasslands may, therefore, contribute significantly to the conservation of species diversity, when they are still grazed.

  3. Mass Spectra-Based Framework for Automated Structural Elucidation of Metabolome Data to Explore Phytochemical Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Fumio; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Sawada, Yuji; Suzuki, Makoto; Hirai, Masami Y.; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    A novel framework for automated elucidation of metabolite structures in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometer metabolome data was constructed by integrating databases. High-resolution tandem mass spectra data automatically acquired from each metabolite signal were used for database searches. Three distinct databases, KNApSAcK, ReSpect, and the PRIMe standard compound database, were employed for the structural elucidation. The outputs were retrieved using the CAS metabolite identifier for identification and putative annotation. A simple metabolite ontology system was also introduced to attain putative characterization of the metabolite signals. The automated method was applied for the metabolome data sets obtained from the rosette leaves of 20 Arabidopsis accessions. Phenotypic variations in novel Arabidopsis metabolites among these accessions could be investigated using this method. PMID:22645535

  4. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae) on the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F

    2017-01-01

    Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat). The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote) and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife), this west-east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation. The evolutionary scenario with highest posterior probabilities suggests Gran Canaria as oldest population with a westward colonization path to Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and EI Hierro, and eastward dispersal path to Lanzarote through Fuerteventura. In the western islands, there is a slight decrease in the effective population size toward areas of recent colonization. However, in the eastern islands, the effective population size increase in Lanzarote relative to Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. These results further our understanding of the evolution of widespread endemic plants within Canarian archipelago.

  5. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae) on the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F.

    2017-01-01

    Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat). The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote) and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife), this west–east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation. The evolutionary scenario with highest posterior probabilities suggests Gran Canaria as oldest population with a westward colonization path to Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and EI Hierro, and eastward dispersal path to Lanzarote through Fuerteventura. In the western islands, there is a slight decrease in the effective population size toward areas of recent colonization. However, in the eastern islands, the effective population size increase in Lanzarote relative to Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. These results further our understanding of the evolution of widespread endemic plants within Canarian archipelago. PMID:28713419

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum over space and time in an African archipelago.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, Patrícia; Vicente, José Luís; Figueiredo, Rita Carrilho; Pinto, João

    2016-09-01

    The archipelago of São Tomé and Principe (STP), West Africa, has suffered the heavy burden of malaria since the 16th century. Until the last decade, when after a successful control program STP has become a low transmission country and one of the few nations with decreases of more than 90% in malaria admission and death rates. We carried out a longitudinal study to determine the genetic structure of STP parasite populations over time and space. Twelve microsatellite loci were genotyped in Plasmodium falciparum samples from two islands collected in 1997, 2000 and 2004. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, allelic diversity, population differentiation, effective population size and bottleneck effects. We have found high levels of genetic diversity and minimal inter-population genetic differentiation typical of African continental regions with intense and stable malaria transmission. We detected significant differences between the years, with special emphasis for 1997 that showed the highest proportion of samples infected with P. falciparum and the highest mean number of haplotypes per isolate. This study establishes a comprehensive genetic data baseline of a pre-intervention scenario for future studies; taking into account the most recent and successful control intervention on the territory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Clonal Population Structure of Pseudomonas stutzeri, a Species with Exceptional Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Rius, Núria; Fusté, M. Carme; Guasp, Caterina; Lalucat, Jorge; Lorén, José G.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity and genetic relationships among 42 Pseudomonas stutzeri strains belonging to several genomovars and isolated from different sources were investigated in an examination of 20 metabolic enzymes by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis. Forty-two distinct allele profiles were identified, indicating that all multilocus genotypes were represented by a single strain. All 20 loci were exceptionally polymorphic, with an average of 15.9 alleles per locus. To the best of our knowledge, this P. stutzeri sample exhibited the highest mean genetic diversity (H = 0.876) found to date in all bacterial species studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. A high frequency of occurrence of null alleles was identified. The index of association (IA) for the P. stutzeri strains analyzed was 1.10. The IA values were always significantly different from zero for all subgroups studied, including clinical and environmental isolates and strains classified as genomovar 1. These results suggest that the population structure of P. stutzeri is strongly clonal, indicating that there is no significant level of assortative recombination that might destroy linkage disequilibrium. PMID:11133969

  8. Structure and genetic diversity of Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae): a tropical shrub.

    PubMed

    Cota, L G; Moreira, P A; Brandão, M M; Royo, V A; Junior, A F Melo; Menezes, E V; Oliveira, D A

    2017-09-27

    Anacardium humile Saint Hilaire is a tropical shrub native to the Cerrado biome. It is a fruiting species with biological, medicinal, and socioeconomic significance. Thus, knowing how the genetic variability of natural populations is organized allows for the establishment of strategies for conservation and the sustainable use of the species and its biome. Six microsatellite loci previously developed from Anacardium occidentale were used to investigate the spatial genetic structure and genetic diversity of eight natural A. humile populations based on analyses of 242 adult plants. The results obtained indicate that these populations show a high level of genetic diversity (expected heterozygosity = 0.710). The endogamy coefficient was positive and significant for most populations, with a mean of 0.142 (P = 0.001). The genetic differentiation between populations was low (θ = 0.075 and G ST = 0.066) but significant (P = 0.0001). The genotypes of five of the eight populations were non-randomly distributed with clusters of related plants for which the coancestry values were positive and significant. These populations exhibited high and significant endogamy indices. The results obtained for A. humile populations show that genetic conservation programs should be implemented to maintain this species.

  9. pH dominates variation in tropical soil archaeal diversity and community structure.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Binu M; Kim, Mincheol; Lai-Hoe, Ang; Shukor, Nor A A; Rahim, Raha A; Go, Rusea; Adams, Jonathan M

    2013-11-01

    Little is known of the factors influencing soil archaeal community diversity and composition in the tropics. We sampled soils across a range of forest and nonforest environments in the equatorial tropics of Malaysia, covering a wide range of pH values. DNA was PCR-amplified for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454-pyrosequenced. Soil pH was the best predictor of diversity and community composition of Archaea, being a stronger predictor than land use. Archaeal OTU richness was highest in the most acidic soils. Overall archaeal abundance in tropical soils (determined by qPCR) also decreased at higher pH. This contrasts with the opposite trend previously found in temperate soils. Thaumarcheota group 1.1b was more abundant in alkaline soils, whereas group 1.1c was only detected in acidic soils. These results parallel those found in previous studies in cooler climates, emphasizing niche conservatism among broad archaeal groups. Among the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), there was clear evidence of niche partitioning by pH. No individual OTU occurred across the entire range of pH values. Overall, the results of this study show that pH plays a major role in structuring tropical soil archaeal communities. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Chinese Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] Landraces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunfang; Jia, Guanqing; Zhi, Hui; Niu, Zhengang; Chai, Yang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Haiquan; Lu, Ping; Zhao, Baohua; Diao, Xianmin

    2012-01-01

    As an ancient cereal of great importance for dryland agriculture even today, foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is fast becoming a new plant genomic model crop. A genotypic analysis of 250 foxtail millet landraces, which represent 1% of foxtail millet germplasm kept in the Chinese National Gene Bank (CNGB), was conducted with 77 SSRs covering the foxtail millet genome. A high degree of molecular diversity among the landraces was found, with an average of 20.9 alleles per locus detected. STRUCTURE, neighbor-jointing, and principal components analyses classify the accessions into three clusters (topmost hierarchy) and, ultimately, four conservative subgroups (substructuring within the topmost clusters) in total, which are in good accordance with eco-geographical distribution in China. The highest subpopulation diversity was identified in the accessions of Pop3 from the middle regions of the Yellow River, followed by accessions in Pop1 from the downstream regions of the Yellow River, suggesting that foxtail millet was domesticated in the Yellow River drainage area first and then spread to other parts of the country. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay of less than 20 cM of genetic distance in the foxtail millet landrace genome was observed, which suggests that it could be possible to achieve resolution down to the 20 cM level for association mapping. PMID:22870400

  11. Modeling microbial community structure and functional diversity across time and space.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter E; Gibbons, Sean M; Gilbert, Jack A

    2012-07-01

    Microbial communities exhibit exquisitely complex structure. Many aspects of this complexity, from the number of species to the total number of interactions, are currently very difficult to examine directly. However, extraordinary efforts are being made to make these systems accessible to scientific investigation. While recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have improved accessibility to the taxonomic and functional diversity of complex communities, monitoring the dynamics of these systems over time and space - using appropriate experimental design - is still expensive. Fortunately, modeling can be used as a lens to focus low-resolution observations of community dynamics to enable mathematical abstractions of functional and taxonomic dynamics across space and time. Here, we review the approaches for modeling bacterial diversity at both the very large and the very small scales at which microbial systems interact with their environments. We show that modeling can help to connect biogeochemical processes to specific microbial metabolic pathways. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, Caviidae) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Paz, William; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario; Solarte-Portilla, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p < 0.05), genetic differentiation between population pairs was found to be low. Genetic distance, as well as clustering of guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Like