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Sample records for division protein ftsz

  1. Targeting the Bacterial Division Protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Katherine A; Santos, Thiago M A; Nepomuceno, Gabriella M; Huynh, Valerie; Shaw, Jared T; Weibel, Douglas B

    2016-08-11

    Similar to its eukaryotic counterpart, the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is essential for the structural and mechanical properties of bacterial cells. The essential protein FtsZ is a central player in the cytoskeletal family, forms a cytokinetic ring at mid-cell, and recruits the division machinery to orchestrate cell division. Cells depleted of or lacking functional FtsZ do not divide and grow into long filaments that eventually lyse. FtsZ has been studied extensively as a target for antibacterial development. In this Perspective, we review the structural and biochemical properties of FtsZ, its role in cell biochemistry and physiology, the different mechanisms of inhibiting FtsZ, small molecule antagonists (including some misconceptions about mechanisms of action), and their discovery strategies. This collective information will inform chemists on different aspects of FtsZ that can be (and have been) used to develop successful strategies for devising new families of cell division inhibitors.

  2. Synthesis and Evaluation of Quinazolines as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, Gabriella M; Chan, Katie M; Huynh, Valerie; Martin, Kevin S; Moore, Jared T; O'Brien, Terrence E; Pollo, Luiz A E; Sarabia, Francisco J; Tadeus, Clarissa; Yao, Zi; Anderson, David E; Ames, James B; Shaw, Jared T

    2015-03-12

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is one of many potential targets for the development of novel antibiotics. Recently, zantrin Z3 was shown to be a cross-species inhibitor of FtsZ; however, its specific interactions with the protein are still unknown. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues that contain a more tractable core structure and an analogue with single-digit micromolar inhibition of FtsZ's GTPase activity, which represents the most potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli FtsZ reported to date. In addition, the zantrin Z3 core has been converted to two potential photo-cross-linking reagents for proteomic studies that could shed light on the molecular interactions between FtsZ and molecules related to zantrin Z3.

  3. Genetic Evidence for Inhibition of Bacterial Division Protein FtsZ by Berberine

    PubMed Central

    Boberek, Jaroslaw M.; Stach, Jem; Good, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Background Berberine is a plant alkaloid that is widely used as an anti-infective in traditional medicine. Escherichia coli exposed to berberine form filaments, suggesting an antibacterial mechanism that involves inhibition of cell division. Berberine is a DNA ligand and may induce filamentation through induction of the SOS response. Also, there is biochemical evidence for berberine inhibition of the cell division protein FtsZ. Here we aimed to assess possible berberine mechanism(s) of action in growing bacteria using genetics tools. Methodology/Principal Findings First, we tested whether berberine inhibits bacterial growth through DNA damage and induction of the SOS response. The SOS response induced by berberine was much lower compared to that induced by mitomycin C in an SOS response reporter strain. Also, cell filamentation was observed in an SOS-negative E. coli strain. To test whether berberine inhibits FtsZ, we assessed its effects on formation of the cell division Z-rings, and observed a dramatic reduction in Z-rings in the presence of berberine. We next used two different strategies for RNA silencing of ftsZ and both resulted in sensitisation of bacteria to berberine, visible as a drop in the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Furthermore, Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Indices (FICIs) showed a high level of synergy between ftsZ silencing and berberine treatment (FICI values of 0.23 and 0.25 for peptide nucleic acid- and expressed antisense RNA-based silencing of ftsZ, respectively). Finally, over-expression of ftsZ led to a mild rescue effect in berberine-treated cells. Conclusions The results argue against DNA binding as the primary mechanism of action of berberine and support the hypothesis that its antibacterial properties are due to inhibition of the cell division protein FtsZ. In addition, the genetic approach used here provides a means to rapidly test the activity of other putative FtsZ inhibitors. PMID:21060782

  4. Synthesis and Evaluation of Quinazolines as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is one of many potential targets for the development of novel antibiotics. Recently, zantrin Z3 was shown to be a cross-species inhibitor of FtsZ; however, its specific interactions with the protein are still unknown. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues that contain a more tractable core structure and an analogue with single-digit micromolar inhibition of FtsZ’s GTPase activity, which represents the most potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli FtsZ reported to date. In addition, the zantrin Z3 core has been converted to two potential photo-cross-linking reagents for proteomic studies that could shed light on the molecular interactions between FtsZ and molecules related to zantrin Z3. PMID:25815151

  5. Phenylpropanoids inhibit protofilament formation of Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Hemaiswarya, Shanmugam; Soudaminikkutty, Rohini; Narasumani, Mohana Lakshmi; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-09-01

    The earliest step in cell division in bacteria is the assembly of FtsZ, an essential cell division protein, into a ring at the division site. FtsZ has GTPase activity and can assemble in vitro to form protein filaments. The present work involved the study of eight phenylpropanoids (cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic and 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acids and eugenol) as inhibitors of Escherichia coli FtsZ. Phenylpropanoids make up the majority of our diet and act as antibacterial agents. Polymerization and GTPase inhibition assays showed that chlorogenic and caffeic acids were the most active amongst these (IC(50) of 70 and 106 µM, respectively). Circular dichroism studies indicated that chlorogenic acid perturbed the protein conformation and electron microscopy showed distorted filaments. Bacillus subtilis 168 cells treated with the phenylpropanoids were longer when compared to the control. The highest binding energy was observed between chlorogenic acid and the homology modelled E. coli FtsZ, which was consistent with the experimental results. A strong negative correlation was observed between binding energy and inhibition of the polymerization ability. 3D-Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies using GTPase activity indicated that the presence of more hydrophilic groups around the 3'- and 4'-carbon increased the activity. The effect of stress-induced formation of cell filamentation has to be understood before confirming the role of phenylpropanoids as FtsZ inhibitors.

  6. Recent advances in the discovery and development of antibacterial agents targeting the cell-division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Haranahalli, Krupanandan; Tong, Simon; Ojima, Iwao

    2016-12-15

    With the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, there is a dire need for new drug targets for antibacterial drug discovery and development. Filamentous temperature sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), is a GTP-dependent prokaryotic cell division protein, sharing less than 10% sequence identity with the eukaryotic cell division protein, tubulin. FtsZ forms a dynamic Z-ring in the middle of the cell, leading to septation and subsequent cell division. Inhibition of the Z-ring blocks cell division, thus making FtsZ a highly attractive target. Various groups have been working on natural products and synthetic small molecules as inhibitors of FtsZ. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of FtsZ inhibitors, focusing on those in the last 5years, but also includes significant findings in previous years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural reorganization of the bacterial cell-division protein FtsZ from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takashi; Yamane, Junji; Mogi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroto; Takemoto, Hiroshi; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao

    2012-09-01

    FtsZ is a key molecule in bacterial cell division. In the presence of GTP, it polymerizes into tubulin-like protofilaments by head-to-tail association. Protofilaments of FtsZ seem to adopt a straight or a curved conformation in relation to the bound nucleotide. However, although several bacterial and archaeal FtsZ structures have been determined, all of the structures reported previously are considered to have a curved conformation. In this study, structures of FtsZ from Staphylococcus aureus (SaFtsZ) were determined in apo, GDP-bound and inhibitor-complex forms and it was found that SaFtsZ undergoes marked conformational changes. The accumulated evidence suggests that the GDP-bound structure has the features of the straight form. The structural change between the curved and straight forms shows intriguing similarity to the eukaryotic cytoskeletal protein tubulin. Furthermore, the structure of the apo form showed an unexpectedly large conformational change in the core region. FtsZ has also been recognized as a novel target for antibacterial drugs. The structure of the complex with the inhibitor PC190723, which has potent and selective antistaphylococcal activity, indicated that the inhibitor binds at the cleft between the two subdomains.

  8. Ruthenium red-induced bundling of bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Santra, Manas Kumar; Beuria, Tushar K; Banerjee, Abhijit; Panda, Dulal

    2004-06-18

    The assembly of FtsZ plays a major role in bacterial cell division, and it is thought that the assembly dynamics of FtsZ is a finely regulated process. Here, we show that ruthenium red is able to modulate FtsZ assembly in vitro. In contrast to the inhibitory effects of ruthenium red on microtubule polymerization, we found that a substoichiometric concentration of ruthenium red strongly increased the light-scattering signal of FtsZ assembly. Further, sedimentable polymer mass was increased by 1.5- and 2-fold in the presence of 2 and 10 microm ruthenium red, respectively. In addition, ruthenium red strongly reduced the GTPase activity and prevented dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers. Electron microscopic analysis showed that 4-10 microm of ruthenium red produced thick bundles of FtsZ polymers. The significant increase in the light-scattering signal and pelletable polymer mass in the presence of ruthenium red seemed to be due to the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments into larger polymers rather than the actual increase in the level of polymeric FtsZ. Furthermore, ruthenium red was found to copolymerize with FtsZ, and the copolymerization of substoichiometric amounts of ruthenium red with FtsZ polymers promoted cooperative assembly of FtsZ that produced large bundles. Calcium inhibited the binding of ruthenium red to FtsZ. However, a concentration of calcium 1000-fold higher than that of ruthenium red was required to produce similar effects on FtsZ assembly. Ruthenium red strongly modulated FtsZ polymerization, suggesting the presence of an important regulatory site on FtsZ and suggesting that a natural ligand, which mimics the action of ruthenium red, may regulate the assembly of FtsZ in bacteria.

  9. Inhibition of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ by cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Domadia, Prerna; Swarup, Sanjay; Bhunia, Anirban; Sivaraman, J; Dasgupta, Debjani

    2007-09-15

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural product from spices that inhibits cell separation in Bacillus cereus. Cell division is regulated by FtsZ, a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin. FtsZ assembles into the Z-ring at the site of cell division. Here, we report the effect of cinnamaldehyde on FtsZ and hence on the cell division apparatus. Cinnamaldehyde decreases the in vitro assembly reaction and bundling of FtsZ. It is found that cinnamaldehyde perturbs the Z-ring morphology in vivo and reduces the frequency of the Z ring per unit cell length of Escherichia coli. In addition, GTP dependent FtsZ polymerization is inhibited by cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits the rate of GTP hydrolysis and binds FtsZ with an affinity constant of 1.0+/-0.2 microM(-1). Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that binding of cinnamaldehyde to FtsZ is driven by favorable enthalpic interactions. Further, we map the cinnamaldehyde binding region of FtsZ, using the saturation transfer difference-nuclear magnetic resonance and an in silico docking model. Both predict the cinnamaldehyde binding pocket at the C terminal region involving the T7 loop of FtsZ. Our results show that cinnamaldehyde binds FtsZ, perturbs the cytokinetic Z-ring formation and inhibits its assembly dynamics. This suggests that cinnamaldehyde, a small molecule of plant origin, is a potential lead compound that can be developed as an anti-FtsZ agent towards drug design.

  10. Evidence That Bacteriophage λ Kil Peptide Inhibits Bacterial Cell Division by Disrupting FtsZ Protofilaments and Sequestering Protein Subunits*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M.; Alfonso, Carlos; Margolin, William; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Kil peptide from bacteriophage λ on the assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ into one subunit thick protofilaments were studied using combined biophysical and biochemical methods. Kil peptide has recently been identified as the factor from bacteriophage λ responsible for the inhibition of bacterial cell division during lytic cycle, targeting FtsZ polymerization. Here, we show that this antagonist blocks FtsZ assembly into GTP-dependent protofilaments, producing a wide distribution of smaller oligomers compared with the average size of the intact protofilaments. The shortening of FtsZ protofilaments by Kil is detectable at concentrations of the peptide in the low micromolar range, the mid-point of the inhibition being close to its apparent affinity for GDP-bound FtsZ. This antagonist not only interferes with FtsZ assembly but also reverses the polymerization reaction. The negative regulation by Kil significantly reduces the GTPase activity of FtsZ protofilaments, and FtsZ polymers assembled in guanosine-5′-[(α,β)-methyleno]triphosphate are considerably less sensitive to Kil. Our results suggest that, at high concentrations, Kil may use an inhibition mechanism involving the sequestration of FtsZ subunits, similar to that described for other inhibitors like the SOS response protein SulA or the moonlighting enzyme OpgH. This mechanism is different from those employed by the division site selection antagonists MinC and SlmA. This work provides new insight into the inhibition of FtsZ assembly by phages, considered potential tools against bacterial infection. PMID:26124275

  11. Evidence That Bacteriophage λ Kil Peptide Inhibits Bacterial Cell Division by Disrupting FtsZ Protofilaments and Sequestering Protein Subunits.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M; Alfonso, Carlos; Margolin, William; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2015-08-14

    The effects of Kil peptide from bacteriophage λ on the assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ into one subunit thick protofilaments were studied using combined biophysical and biochemical methods. Kil peptide has recently been identified as the factor from bacteriophage λ responsible for the inhibition of bacterial cell division during lytic cycle, targeting FtsZ polymerization. Here, we show that this antagonist blocks FtsZ assembly into GTP-dependent protofilaments, producing a wide distribution of smaller oligomers compared with the average size of the intact protofilaments. The shortening of FtsZ protofilaments by Kil is detectable at concentrations of the peptide in the low micromolar range, the mid-point of the inhibition being close to its apparent affinity for GDP-bound FtsZ. This antagonist not only interferes with FtsZ assembly but also reverses the polymerization reaction. The negative regulation by Kil significantly reduces the GTPase activity of FtsZ protofilaments, and FtsZ polymers assembled in guanosine-5'-[(α,β)-methyleno]triphosphate are considerably less sensitive to Kil. Our results suggest that, at high concentrations, Kil may use an inhibition mechanism involving the sequestration of FtsZ subunits, similar to that described for other inhibitors like the SOS response protein SulA or the moonlighting enzyme OpgH. This mechanism is different from those employed by the division site selection antagonists MinC and SlmA. This work provides new insight into the inhibition of FtsZ assembly by phages, considered potential tools against bacterial infection.

  12. Estimating the bending modulus of a FtsZ bacterial-division protein filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cytrynbaum, Eric N.; Li, Yongnan Devin; Allard, Jun F.; Mehrabian, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ, a cytoskeletal protein homologous to tubulin, is the principle constituent of the division ring in bacterial cells. It is known to have force-generating capacity in vitro and has been conjectured to be the source of the constriction force in vivo. Several models have been proposed to explain the generation of force by the Z ring. Here we re-examine data from in vitro experiments in which Z rings formed and constricted inside tubular liposomes, and we carry out image analysis on previously published data with which to better estimate important model parameters that have proven difficult to measure by direct means. We introduce a membrane-energy-based model for the dynamics of multiple Z rings moving and colliding inside a tubular liposome and a fluid model for the drag of a Z ring as it moves through the tube. Using this model, we estimate an effective membrane bending modulus of 500-700 pNnm. If we assume that FtsZ force generation is driven by hydrolysis into a highly curved conformation, we estimate the FtsZ filament bending modulus to be 310-390 pNnm2. If we assume instead that force is generated by the non-hydrolysis-dependent intermediate curvature conformation, we find that Bf>1400pNnm2. The former value sits at the lower end of the range of previously estimated values and, if correct, may raise challenges for models that rely on filament bending to generate force.

  13. Chloroplast Division Protein ARC3 Regulates Chloroplast FtsZ-Ring Assembly and Positioning in Arabidopsis through Interaction with FtsZ2[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Schmitz, Aaron J.; Kadirjan-Kalbach, Deena K.; TerBush, Allan D.; Osteryoung, Katherine W.

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplast division is initiated by assembly of a mid-chloroplast FtsZ (Z) ring comprising two cytoskeletal proteins, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2. The division-site regulators ACCUMULATION AND REPLICATION OF CHLOROPLASTS3 (ARC3), MinD1, and MinE1 restrict division to the mid-plastid, but their roles are poorly understood. Using genetic analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that ARC3 mediates division-site placement by inhibiting Z-ring assembly, and MinD1 and MinE1 function through ARC3. ftsZ1 null mutants exhibited some mid-plastid FtsZ2 rings and constrictions, whereas neither constrictions nor FtsZ1 rings were observed in mutants lacking FtsZ2, suggesting FtsZ2 is the primary determinant of Z-ring assembly in vivo. arc3 ftsZ1 double mutants exhibited multiple parallel but no mid-plastid FtsZ2 rings, resembling the Z-ring phenotype in arc3 single mutants and showing that ARC3 affects positioning of FtsZ2 rings as well as Z rings. ARC3 overexpression in the wild type and ftsZ1 inhibited Z-ring and FtsZ2-ring assembly, respectively. Consistent with its effects in vivo, ARC3 interacted with FtsZ2 in two-hybrid assays and inhibited FtsZ2 assembly in a heterologous system. Our studies are consistent with a model wherein ARC3 directly inhibits Z-ring assembly in vivo primarily through interaction with FtsZ2 in heteropolymers and suggest that ARC3 activity is spatially regulated by MinD1 and MinE1 to permit Z-ring assembly at the mid-plastid. PMID:23715471

  14. Bacterial division proteins FtsZ and ZipA induce vesicle shrinkage and cell membrane invagination.

    PubMed

    Cabré, Elisa J; Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Carrara, Paolo; Ropero, Noelia; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Stano, Pasquale; Jiménez, Mercedes; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-09-13

    Permeable vesicles containing the proto-ring anchoring ZipA protein shrink when FtsZ, the main cell division protein, polymerizes in the presence of GTP. Shrinkage, resembling the constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane, occurs at ZipA densities higher than those found in the cell and is modulated by the dynamics of the FtsZ polymer. In vivo, an excess of ZipA generates multilayered membrane inclusions within the cytoplasm and causes the loss of the membrane function as a permeability barrier. Overproduction of ZipA at levels that block septation is accompanied by the displacement of FtsZ and two additional division proteins, FtsA and FtsN, from potential septation sites to clusters that colocalize with ZipA near the membrane. The results show that elementary constriction events mediated by defined elements involved in cell division can be evidenced both in bacteria and in vesicles.

  15. Bacterial Division Proteins FtsZ and ZipA Induce Vesicle Shrinkage and Cell Membrane Invagination*

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Elisa J.; Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Carrara, Paolo; Ropero, Noelia; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Stano, Pasquale; Jiménez, Mercedes; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Permeable vesicles containing the proto-ring anchoring ZipA protein shrink when FtsZ, the main cell division protein, polymerizes in the presence of GTP. Shrinkage, resembling the constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane, occurs at ZipA densities higher than those found in the cell and is modulated by the dynamics of the FtsZ polymer. In vivo, an excess of ZipA generates multilayered membrane inclusions within the cytoplasm and causes the loss of the membrane function as a permeability barrier. Overproduction of ZipA at levels that block septation is accompanied by the displacement of FtsZ and two additional division proteins, FtsA and FtsN, from potential septation sites to clusters that colocalize with ZipA near the membrane. The results show that elementary constriction events mediated by defined elements involved in cell division can be evidenced both in bacteria and in vesicles. PMID:23921390

  16. Estimating the bending modulus of a FtsZ bacterial-division protein filament.

    PubMed

    Cytrynbaum, Eric N; Li, Yongnan Devin; Allard, Jun F; Mehrabian, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ, a cytoskeletal protein homologous to tubulin, is the principle constituent of the division ring in bacterial cells. It is known to have force-generating capacity in vitro and has been conjectured to be the source of the constriction force in vivo. Several models have been proposed to explain the generation of force by the Z ring. Here we re-examine data from in vitro experiments in which Z rings formed and constricted inside tubular liposomes, and we carry out image analysis on previously published data with which to better estimate important model parameters that have proven difficult to measure by direct means. We introduce a membrane-energy-based model for the dynamics of multiple Z rings moving and colliding inside a tubular liposome and a fluid model for the drag of a Z ring as it moves through the tube. Using this model, we estimate an effective membrane bending modulus of 500-700 pN nm. If we assume that FtsZ force generation is driven by hydrolysis into a highly curved conformation, we estimate the FtsZ filament bending modulus to be 310-390 pN nm(2). If we assume instead that force is generated by the non-hydrolysis-dependent intermediate curvature conformation, we find that B(f)>1400 pN nm(2). The former value sits at the lower end of the range of previously estimated values and, if correct, may raise challenges for models that rely on filament bending to generate force. © 2012 American Physical Society

  17. The bacterial cell division proteins FtsA and FtsZ self-organize into dynamic cytoskeletal patterns.

    PubMed

    Loose, Martin; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cytokinesis is commonly initiated by the Z-ring, a cytoskeletal structure that assembles at the site of division. Its primary component is FtsZ, a tubulin superfamily GTPase, which is recruited to the membrane by the actin-related protein FtsA. Both proteins are required for the formation of the Z-ring, but if and how they influence each other's assembly dynamics is not known. Here, we reconstituted FtsA-dependent recruitment of FtsZ polymers to supported membranes, where both proteins self-organize into complex patterns, such as fast-moving filament bundles and chirally rotating rings. Using fluorescence microscopy and biochemical perturbations, we found that these large-scale rearrangements of FtsZ emerge from its polymerization dynamics and a dual, antagonistic role of FtsA: recruitment of FtsZ filaments to the membrane and negative regulation of FtsZ organization. Our findings provide a model for the initial steps of bacterial cell division and illustrate how dynamic polymers can self-organize into large-scale structures.

  18. Ca2+-mediated GTP-dependent dynamic assembly of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ into asters and polymer networks in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, X C; Margolin, W

    1997-01-01

    FtsZ, a tubulin-like GTPase that forms a dynamic ring marking the division plane of prokaryotic cells, is essential for cytokinesis. It is not known what triggers FtsZ ring assembly. In this work, we use a FtsZ-green fluorescent protein (Gfp) chimera to assay FtsZ assembly over time by using fluorescence microscopy. We show that FtsZ polymers can assemble dynamically in solution in a GTP-dependent manner. Initially, FtsZ nucleation centers grow into aster-like structures that dramatically resemble microtubule organizing centers. As assembly proceeds further, protofilament bundles emanating from different asters interconnect, mimicking the closure of the FtsZ ring in vivo. Surprisingly, millimolar levels of Ca2+ promote FtsZ dynamic assembly. FtsZ can undergo repeated GTP-dependent assembly and disassembly in solution by sequential addition and removal of Ca2+. In addition, GTP binding and hydrolysis by FtsZ are regulated by Ca2+ concentration. Although the concentration of Ca2+ required for FtsZ assembly in vitro is high, its clear and specific effect on FtsZ dynamics suggests the possibility that Ca2+ may have a role in regulating FtsZ ring assembly in the cell. PMID:9312004

  19. Cationic lipid enhances assembly of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ: a possible role of bacterial membrane in FtsZ assembly dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kuchibhatla, Anuradha; Bellare, Jayesh; Panda, Dulal

    2011-11-01

    The assembly of FtsZ plays an important role in bacterial cell division. Lipids in the bacterial cell membrane have been suggested to play a role in directing the site of FtsZ assembly. Using lipid monolayer and bilayer (liposome) systems, we directly examined the effects of cationic lipids on FtsZ assembly. We found that cationic lipids enhanced the assembly of FtsZ in association with an increase in the GTPase activity of FtsZ. The system consisting of lipid monolayer and bilayer (liposome) may mimic the bacterial membrane and therefore, the data might indicate the influence of bacterial membrane on the assembly of FtsZ protofilaments.

  20. Advances in the discovery of novel antimicrobials targeting the assembly of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ma, Shutao

    2015-05-05

    Currently, wide-spread antimicrobials resistance among bacterial pathogens continues being a dramatically increasing and serious threat to public health, and thus there is a pressing need to develop new antimicrobials to keep pace with the bacterial resistance. Filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), a prokaryotic cytoskeleton protein, plays an important role in bacterial cell division. It as a very new and promising target, garners special attention in the antibacterial research in the recent years. This review describes not only the function and dynamic behaviors of FtsZ, but also the known natural and synthetic inhibitors of FtsZ. In particular, the small molecules recently developed and the future directions of ideal candidates are highlighted.

  1. Drug discovery targeting cell division proteins, microtubules and FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Iwao; Kumar, Kunal; Awasthi, Divya; Vineberg, Jacob G

    2014-09-15

    Eukaryotic cell division or cytokinesis has been a major target for anticancer drug discovery. After the huge success of paclitaxel and docetaxel, microtubule-stabilizing agents (MSAs) appear to have gained a premier status in the discovery of next-generation anticancer agents. However, the drug resistance caused by MDR, point mutations, and overexpression of tubulin subtypes, etc., is a serious issue associated with these agents. Accordingly, the discovery and development of new-generation MSAs that can obviate various drug resistances has a significant meaning. In sharp contrast, prokaryotic cell division has been largely unexploited for the discovery and development of antibacterial drugs. However, recent studies on the mechanism of bacterial cytokinesis revealed that the most abundant and highly conserved cell division protein, FtsZ, would be an excellent new target for the drug discovery of next-generation antibacterial agents that can circumvent drug-resistances to the commonly used drugs for tuberculosis, MRSA and other infections. This review describes an account of our research on these two fronts in drug discovery, targeting eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic cell division.

  2. Variations in the binding pocket of an inhibitor of the bacterial division protein FtsZ across genotypes and species.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Amanda; Hsin, Jen; Liu, Tianyun; Tang, Grace; Altman, Russ B; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2015-03-01

    The recent increase in antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria calls for new approaches to drug-target selection and drug development. Targeting the mechanisms of action of proteins involved in bacterial cell division bypasses problems associated with increasingly ineffective variants of older antibiotics; to this end, the essential bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ is a promising target. Recent work on its allosteric inhibitor, PC190723, revealed in vitro activity on Staphylococcus aureus FtsZ and in vivo antimicrobial activities. However, the mechanism of drug action and its effect on FtsZ in other bacterial species are unclear. Here, we examine the structural environment of the PC190723 binding pocket using PocketFEATURE, a statistical method that scores the similarity between pairs of small-molecule binding sites based on 3D structure information about the local microenvironment, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We observed that species and nucleotide-binding state have significant impacts on the structural properties of the binding site, with substantially disparate microenvironments for bacterial species not from the Staphylococcus genus. Based on PocketFEATURE analysis of MD simulations of S. aureus FtsZ bound to GTP or with mutations that are known to confer PC190723 resistance, we predict that PC190723 strongly prefers to bind Staphylococcus FtsZ in the nucleotide-bound state. Furthermore, MD simulations of an FtsZ dimer indicated that polymerization may enhance PC190723 binding. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a drug-binding pocket can vary significantly across species, genetic perturbations, and in different polymerization states, yielding important information for the further development of FtsZ inhibitors.

  3. Microenvironments created by liquid-liquid phase transition control the dynamic distribution of bacterial division FtsZ protein

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Zorrilla, Silvia; Sobrinos-Sanguino, Marta; Keating, Christine D.; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    The influence of membrane-free microcompartments resulting from crowding-induced liquid/liquid phase separation (LLPS) on the dynamic spatial organization of FtsZ, the main component of the bacterial division machinery, has been studied using several LLPS systems. The GTP-dependent assembly cycle of FtsZ is thought to be crucial for the formation of the septal ring, which is highly regulated in time and space. We found that FtsZ accumulates in one of the phases and/or at the interface, depending on the system composition and on the oligomerization state of the protein. These results were observed both in bulk LLPS and in lipid-stabilized, phase-separated aqueous microdroplets. The visualization of the droplets revealed that both the location and structural arrangement of FtsZ filaments is determined by the nature of the LLPS. Relocation upon depolymerization of the dynamic filaments suggests the protein may shift among microenvironments in response to changes in its association state. The existence of these dynamic compartments driven by phase transitions can alter the local composition and reactivity of FtsZ during its life cycle acting as a nonspecific modulating factor of cell function. PMID:27725777

  4. Phytochemicals as inhibitors of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ: coumarins are promising candidates.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, Sridevi; Nankar, Rakesh P; Rajendran, Selvakumar; Doble, Mukesh

    2014-09-01

    Naturally occurring phytochemicals with reported antibacterial activity were screened for their ability to inhibit the bacterial cell division protein Escherichia coli FtsZ. Among the representative compounds, coumarins inhibit the GTPase and polymerization activities of this protein effectively. Further screening with ten coumarin analogs we identified two promising candidates, scopoletin and daphnetin. The former is found to inhibit the GTPase activity of the protein in a noncompetitive manner. Docking of these coumarins with the modeled protein indicate that they bind to T7 loop, which is different from the GTP-binding site (active site), thereby supporting the experimental data. Lowest binding energy is obtained with scopoletin. 3D QSAR indicates the need for groups such as hydroxyl, diethyl, or dimethyl amino in the 7th carbon for enhanced activity. None of the coumarins exhibited cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 and human embryonic kidney cell lines. The length of Bacillus subtilis increases in the presence of these compounds probably due to the lack of septum formation. Results of this study indicate the role of coumarins in halting the first step of bacterial cell division process.

  5. GTP hydrolysis of cell division protein FtsZ: evidence that the active site is formed by the association of monomers.

    PubMed

    Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; de Wit, Janny G; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2002-01-15

    The essential prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ is a tubulin homologue that forms a ring at the division site. FtsZ forms polymers in a GTP-dependent manner. Recent biochemical evidence has shown that FtsZ forms multimeric structures in vitro and in vivo and functions as a self-activating GTPase. Structural analysis of FtsZ points to an important role for the highly conserved tubulin-like loop 7 (T7-loop) in the self-activation of GTP hydrolysis. The T7-loop was postulated to form the active site together with the nucleotide-binding site on an adjacent FtsZ monomer. To characterize the role of the T7-loop of Escherichia coli FtsZ, we have mutagenized residues M206, N207, D209, D212, and R214. All the mutant proteins, except the R214 mutant, are severely affected in polymerization and GTP hydrolysis. Charged residues D209 and D212 cannot be substituted with a glutamate residue. All mutants interact with wild-type FtsZ in vitro, indicating that the T7-loop mutations do not abolish FtsZ self-association. Strikingly, in mixtures of wild-type and mutant proteins, most mutants are capable of inhibiting wild-type GTP hydrolysis. We conclude that the T7-loop is part of the active site for GTP hydrolysis, formed by the association of two FtsZ monomers.

  6. [Localization of the division protein FtsZ in mycoplasma cells Mycoplasma hominis].

    PubMed

    Vishniakov, I E; Borkhsenius, S N; Basovskiĭ, Iu I; Levitskiĭ, S A; Lazarev, V N; Snigirevskaia, E S; Komissarchik, Ia Iu

    2009-01-01

    Localization of the protein FtsZ in Mycoplasma hominis cells was determined. Ultra thin sections were treated by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against FtsZ M. hominis: a conjugate of protein A with colloidal gold particles was used instead of secondary antibodies. Considerable polymorphism of cells was seen on electron microscopy pictures of M. hominis cells, which is typical for mycoplasmas. Among a wide variety of cell shapes we distinguished dumbbell-shaped dividing cells, and the cells connected with each other with the aid of thin membrane tubules (former constrictions). Dominants distribution of the label in the constriction area of dividing M. hominis cells and in the area of the thin membrane tubules was observed. We revealed the cross septum in the mycoplasma cells for the first time, as well as the gold labeling of this structure. Furthermore, in some rounded and oval cells colloidal gold particles labeled the whole plasma membrane in ring-shaped manner. Probably, the label in these cases marks a submembrane contractile ring (Z-ring). The facts mentioned above confirm that FtsZ of M. hominis plays an active role in the mycoplasma cytokinesis. In a series of cases spiral-like distribution of gold particles was observed. Probably, FtsZ protofilaments in M. hominis cells can form spiral structures similar to Z-spirals of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Its presence in mycoplasma cells may be considered as an important argument in favour of model of Z-ring assembling through reorganization of Z-spirals. FtsZ also may participate in maintenance of mycoplasma cell shape (membrane localization).

  7. The Escherichia coli cell division protein ZipA forms homodimers prior to association with FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Karl; Daley, Daniel O

    2012-02-21

    ZipA is an essential component of the cell division machinery in E. coli and other closely related bacteria. It is an integral membrane protein that binds to FtsZ, tethering it to the inner membrane. ZipA also induces bundling of FtsZ protofilaments and may play a role in regulating FtsA activity; however, the molecular details behind these observations are not clear. In this study we have analyzed the oligomeric state of ZipA in vivo, by chemical cross-linking, and in vitro, by native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Our data indicate that ZipA can self-associate as a homodimer and that this self-interaction is not dependent on the FtsZ-binding domain. This observation rules out the possibility that FtsZ polymers mediate the ZipA self-interaction. Given this observation, it is possible that a certain population of ZipA is recruited to the division septum in a homodimeric form.

  8. The bacterial cell-division protein ZipA and its interaction with an FtsZ fragment revealed by X-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Mosyak, Lidia; Zhang, Yan; Glasfeld, Elizabeth; Haney, Steve; Stahl, Mark; Seehra, Jasbir; Somers, William S.

    2000-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, FtsZ, a homologue of eukaryotic tubulins, and ZipA, a membrane-anchored protein that binds to FtsZ, are two essential components of the septal ring structure that mediates cell division. Recent data indicate that ZipA is involved in the assembly of the ring by linking FtsZ to the cytoplasmic membrane and that the ZipA–FtsZ interaction is mediated by their C-terminal domains. We present the X-ray crystal structures of the C-terminal FtsZ-binding domain of ZipA and a complex between this domain and a C-terminal fragment of FtsZ. The ZipA domain is a six-stranded β-sheet packed against three α-helices and contains the split β–α–β motif found in many RNA-binding proteins. The uncovered side of the sheet incorporates a shallow hydrophobic cavity exposed to solvent. In the complex, the 17-residue FtsZ fragment occupies this entire cavity of ZipA and binds as an extended β-strand followed by α-helix. An alanine-scanning mutagenesis analysis of the FtsZ fragment was also performed, which shows that only a small cluster of the buried FtsZ side chains is critical in binding to ZipA. PMID:10880432

  9. Creating an antibacterial with in vivo efficacy: synthesis and characterization of potent inhibitors of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ with improved pharmaceutical properties.

    PubMed

    Haydon, David J; Bennett, James M; Brown, David; Collins, Ian; Galbraith, Greta; Lancett, Paul; Macdonald, Rebecca; Stokes, Neil R; Chauhan, Pramod K; Sutariya, Jignesh K; Nayal, Narendra; Srivastava, Anil; Beanland, Joy; Hall, Robin; Henstock, Vincent; Noula, Caterina; Rockley, Chris; Czaplewski, Lloyd

    2010-05-27

    3-Methoxybenzamide (1) is a weak inhibitor of the essential bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. Alkyl derivatives of 1 are potent antistaphylococcal compounds with suboptimal drug-like properties. Exploration of the structure-activity relationships of analogues of these inhibitors led to the identification of potent antistaphylococcal compounds with improved pharmaceutical properties.

  10. E. coli low molecular weight penicillin binding proteins help orient septal FtsZ, and their absence leads to asymmetric cell division and branching

    PubMed Central

    Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; de Pedro, Miguel; Young, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells lacking low molecular weight penicillin binding proteins (LMW PBPs) exhibit morphological alterations that also appear when the septal protein FtsZ is mislocalized, suggesting that peptidoglycan modification and division may work together to produce cell shape. We found that in strains lacking PBP5 and other LMW PBPs, higher FtsZ concentrations increased the frequency of branched cells and incorrectly oriented Z rings by 10- to 15-fold. Invagination of these rings produced improperly oriented septa, which in turn gave rise to asymmetric cell poles that eventually elongated into branches. Branches always originated from the remnants of abnormal septation events, cementing the relationship between aberrant cell division and branch formation. In the absence of PBP5, PBP6 and DacD localized to nascent septa, suggesting that these PBPs can partially substitute for the loss of PBP5. We propose that branching begins when mislocalized FtsZ triggers the insertion of inert peptidoglycan at unusual positions during cell division. Only later, after normal cell wall elongation separates the patches, do branches become visible. Thus, a relationship between the LMW PBPs and cytoplasmic FtsZ ultimately affects cell division and overall shape. PMID:22390731

  11. Organization of FtsZ filaments in the bacterial division ring measured from polarized fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Si, Fangwei; Busiek, Kimberly; Margolin, William; Sun, Sean X

    2013-11-05

    Cytokinesis in bacteria is accomplished by a ring-shaped cell-division complex (the Z-ring). The primary component of the Z-ring is FtsZ, a filamentous tubulin homolog that serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of other cell-division-related proteins. FtsZ forms filaments and bundles. In the cell, it has been suggested that FtsZ filaments form the arcs of the ring and are aligned in the cell-circumferential direction. Using polarized fluorescence microscopy in live Escherichia coli cells, we measure the structural organization of FtsZ filaments in the Z-ring. The data suggest a disordered organization: a substantial portion of FtsZ filaments are aligned in the cell-axis direction. FtsZ organization in the Z-ring also appears to depend on the bacterial species. Taken together, the unique arrangement of FtsZ suggests novel unexplored mechanisms in bacterial cell division.

  12. FtsZ filament capping by MciZ, a developmental regulator of bacterial division

    PubMed Central

    Bisson-Filho, Alexandre W.; Discola, Karen F.; Castellen, Patrícia; Blasios, Valdir; Martins, Alexandre; Sforça, Maurício L.; Garcia, Wanius; Zeri, Ana Carolina M.; Erickson, Harold P.; Dessen, Andréa; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J.

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal structures are dynamically remodeled with the aid of regulatory proteins. FtsZ (filamentation temperature-sensitive Z) is the bacterial homolog of tubulin that polymerizes into rings localized to cell-division sites, and the constriction of these rings drives cytokinesis. Here we investigate the mechanism by which the Bacillus subtilis cell-division inhibitor, MciZ (mother cell inhibitor of FtsZ), blocks assembly of FtsZ. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that MciZ binds to the C-terminal polymerization interface of FtsZ, the equivalent of the minus end of tubulin. Using in vivo and in vitro assays and microscopy, we show that MciZ, at substoichiometric levels to FtsZ, causes shortening of protofilaments and blocks the assembly of higher-order FtsZ structures. The findings demonstrate an unanticipated capping-based regulatory mechanism for FtsZ. PMID:25848052

  13. FtsZ filament capping by MciZ, a developmental regulator of bacterial division.

    PubMed

    Bisson-Filho, Alexandre W; Discola, Karen F; Castellen, Patrícia; Blasios, Valdir; Martins, Alexandre; Sforça, Maurício L; Garcia, Wanius; Zeri, Ana Carolina M; Erickson, Harold P; Dessen, Andréa; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J

    2015-04-28

    Cytoskeletal structures are dynamically remodeled with the aid of regulatory proteins. FtsZ (filamentation temperature-sensitive Z) is the bacterial homolog of tubulin that polymerizes into rings localized to cell-division sites, and the constriction of these rings drives cytokinesis. Here we investigate the mechanism by which the Bacillus subtilis cell-division inhibitor, MciZ (mother cell inhibitor of FtsZ), blocks assembly of FtsZ. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that MciZ binds to the C-terminal polymerization interface of FtsZ, the equivalent of the minus end of tubulin. Using in vivo and in vitro assays and microscopy, we show that MciZ, at substoichiometric levels to FtsZ, causes shortening of protofilaments and blocks the assembly of higher-order FtsZ structures. The findings demonstrate an unanticipated capping-based regulatory mechanism for FtsZ.

  14. Essential protein SepF of mycobacteria interacts with FtsZ and MurG to regulate cell growth and division.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shamba; Banerjee, Srijon Kaushik; Chatterjee, Ayan; Sharma, Arun Kumar; Kundu, Manikuntala; Basu, Joyoti

    2015-08-01

    Coordinated bacterial cell septation and cell wall biosynthesis require formation of protein complexes at the sites of division and elongation, in a temporally controlled manner. The protein players in these complexes remain incompletely understood in mycobacteria. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we showed that Rv2147c (or SepF) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis interacts with the principal driver of cytokinesis, FtsZ. SepF also interacts with itself both in vitro and in vivo. Amino acid residues 189A, 190K and 215F are required for FtsZ-SepF interaction, and are conserved across Gram-positive bacteria. Using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a surrogate system, we confirmed that sepFMSMEG is essential. Knockdown of SepF led to cell elongation, defective growth and failure of FtsZ to localize to the site of division, suggesting that SepF assists FtsZ localization at the site of division. Furthermore, SepF interacted with MurG, a peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzyme, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that SepF could serve as a link between cell division and peptidoglycan synthesis. SepF emerges as a newly identified essential component of the cell division complex in mycobacteria.

  15. ZapE is a novel cell division protein interacting with FtsZ and modulating the Z-ring dynamics.

    PubMed

    Marteyn, Benoit S; Karimova, Gouzel; Fenton, Andrew K; Gazi, Anastasia D; West, Nicholas; Touqui, Lhousseine; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Betton, Jean-Michel; Poyraz, Oemer; Ladant, Daniel; Gerdes, Kenn; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Tang, Christoph M

    2014-03-04

    Bacterial cell division requires the formation of a mature divisome complex positioned at the midcell. The localization of the divisome complex is determined by the correct positioning, assembly, and constriction of the FtsZ ring (Z-ring). Z-ring constriction control remains poorly understood and (to some extent) controversial, probably due to the fact that this phenomenon is transient and controlled by numerous factors. Here, we characterize ZapE, a novel ATPase found in Gram-negative bacteria, which is required for growth under conditions of low oxygen, while loss of zapE results in temperature-dependent elongation of cell shape. We found that ZapE is recruited to the Z-ring during late stages of the cell division process and correlates with constriction of the Z-ring. Overexpression or inactivation of zapE leads to elongation of Escherichia coli and affects the dynamics of the Z-ring during division. In vitro, ZapE destabilizes FtsZ polymers in an ATP-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cell division has mainly been characterized in vitro. In this report, we could identify ZapE as a novel cell division protein which is not essential in vitro but is required during an infectious process. The bacterial cell division process relies on the assembly, positioning, and constriction of FtsZ ring (the so-called Z-ring). Among nonessential cell division proteins recently identified, ZapE is the first in which detection at the Z-ring correlates with its constriction. We demonstrate that ZapE abundance has to be tightly regulated to allow cell division to occur; absence or overexpression of ZapE leads to bacterial filamentation. As zapE is not essential, we speculate that additional Z-ring destabilizing proteins transiently recruited during late cell division process might be identified in the future.

  16. Arabidopsis FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2 are functionally redundant, but FtsZ-based plastid division is not essential for chloroplast partitioning or plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Aaron J; Glynn, Jonathan M; Olson, Bradley J S C; Stokes, Kevin D; Osteryoung, Katherine W

    2009-11-01

    FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 are phylogenetically distinct families of FtsZ in plants that co-localize to mid-plastid rings and facilitate division of chloroplasts. In plants, altered levels of either FtsZ1 or FtsZ2 cause dose-dependent defects in chloroplast division; thus, studies on the functional relationship between FtsZ genes require careful manipulation of FtsZ levels in vivo. To define the functional relationship between the two FtsZ2 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2, we expressed FtsZ2-1 in an ftsZ2-2 null mutant, and vice versa, and determined whether the chloroplast division defects were rescued in plants expressing different total levels of FtsZ2. Full rescue was observed when either the FtsZ2-1 or FtsZ2-2 level approximated total FtsZ2 levels in wild-type (WT). Additionally, FtsZ2-2 interacts with ARC6, as shown previously for FtsZ2-1. These data indicate that FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2 are functionally redundant for chloroplast division in Arabidopsis. To rigorously validate the requirement of each FtsZ family for chloroplast division, we replaced FtsZ1 with FtsZ2 in vivo, and vice versa, while maintaining the FtsZ level in the transgenic plants equal to that of the total level in WT. Chloroplast division defects were not rescued, demonstrating conclusively that FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 are non-redundant for maintenance of WT chloroplast numbers. Finally, we generated ftsZ triple null mutants and show that plants completely devoid of FtsZ protein are viable and fertile. As plastids are presumably essential organelles, these findings suggest that an FtsZ-independent mode of plastid partitioning may occur in higher plants.

  17. Concentration and Assembly of the Division Ring Proteins FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA during the Escherichia coli Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Sonsoles; Vicente, Miguel; Mingorance, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of the cell division proteins FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA and their assembly into a division ring during the Escherichia coli B/r K cell cycle have been measured in synchronous cultures obtained by the membrane elution technique. Immunostaining of the three proteins revealed no organized structure in newly born cells. In a culture with a doubling time of 49 min, assembly of the Z ring started around minute 25 and was detected first as a two-dot structure that became a sharp band before cell constriction. FtsA and ZipA localized into a division ring following the same pattern and time course as FtsZ. The concentration (amount relative to total mass) of the three proteins remained constant during one complete cell cycle, showing that assembly of a division ring is not driven by changes in the concentration of these proteins. Maintenance of the Z ring during the process of septation is a dynamic energy-dependent event, as evidenced by its disappearance in cells treated with sodium azide. PMID:12754232

  18. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde derivatives as inhibitors of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sheng, Juzheng; Huang, Guihua; Ma, Ruixin; Yin, Fengxin; Song, Di; Zhao, Can; Ma, Shutao

    2015-06-05

    In an attempt to discover potential antibacterial agents against the increasing bacterial resistance, novel cinnamaldehyde derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against nine significant pathogens using broth microdilution method, and their cell division inhibitory activity against four representative strains. In the in vitro antibacterial activity, the newly synthesized compounds generally displayed better efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 than the others. In particular, compounds 3, 8 and 10 exerted superior or comparable activity to all the reference drugs. In the cell division inhibitory activity, all the compounds showed the same trend as their in vitro antibacterial activity, exhibiting better activity against S. aureus ATCC25923 than the other strains. Additionally, compounds 3, 6, 7 and 8 displayed potent cell division inhibitory activity with an MIC value of below 1 μg/mL, over 256-fold better than all the reference drugs.

  19. Doxorubicin inhibits E. coli division by interacting at a novel site in FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pragnya; Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Satpati, Suresh; Kar, Mitali Madhusmita; Dixit, Anshuman; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2015-11-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistance has become a major health concern in recent times. It is therefore essential to identify novel antibacterial targets as well as discover and develop new antibacterial agents. FtsZ, a highly conserved bacterial protein, is responsible for the initiation of cell division in bacteria. The functions of FtsZ inside cells are tightly regulated and any perturbation in its functions leads to inhibition of bacterial division. Recent reports indicate that small molecules targeting the functions of FtsZ may be used as leads to develop new antibacterial agents. To identify small molecules targeting FtsZ and inhibiting bacterial division, we screened a U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drug library of 800 molecules using an independent computational, biochemical and microbial approach. From this screen, we identified doxorubicin, an anthracycline molecule that inhibits Escherichia coli division and forms filamentous cells. A fluorescence-binding assay shows that doxorubicin interacts strongly with FtsZ. A detailed biochemical analysis demonstrated that doxorubicin inhibits FtsZ assembly and its GTPase activity through binding to a site other than the GTP-binding site. Furthermore, using molecular docking, we identified a probable doxorubicin-binding site in FtsZ. A number of single amino acid mutations at the identified binding site in FtsZ resulted in a severalfold decrease in the affinity of FtsZ for doxorubicin, indicating the importance of this site for doxorubicin interaction. The present study suggests the presence of a novel binding site in FtsZ that interacts with the small molecules and can be targeted for the screening and development of new antibacterial agents.

  20. Transcription of the ftsZ gene and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Robin, A; Joseleau-Petit, D; D'Ari, R

    1990-01-01

    The ftsZ gene of Escherichia coli, which lies in a cluster of cell division genes at 2 min on the genetic map, codes for a protein which is thought to play a key role in triggering cell division. Using an ftsZ::lacZ operon fusion, we have studied the transcription of the ftsZ gene under conditions in which cell division was either inhibited or synchronized in the bacterial population. In ftsZ, ftsA, ftsQ, and ftsI (or pbpB) mutants, there was no change in the differential rate of expression of the ftsZ gene in nonpermissive conditions, when cell division was completely blocked. Although the FtsZ protein is thought to be limiting for cell division, in synchronized cultures the ftsZ gene was expressed not only at the moment of septation initiation but throughout the cell cycle. Its expression, however, was not exponential but linear, with a rapid doubling in rate at a specific cell age; this age, about 20 min after division in a 60-min cycle, was different from the age at which the ftsZ::lacZ operon was duplicated. However, it was close to the age at which replication initiated and at which the rate of phospholipid synthesis doubled. During the transient division inhibition after a nutritional shift-up, ftsZ transcription again became linear, with two doublings in rate at intervals equal to the mass doubling time in the rich medium; it adopted the exponential rate typical of rich medium about 60 min after the shift-up, just before the bacterial population resumed cell division. The doubling in the rate of ftsZ transcription once per cycle in synchronized cultures and once per mass doubling time during the transition period after a nutritional shift-up reflects a new cell cycle event. PMID:2106510

  1. Organization of FtsZ Filaments in the Bacterial Division Ring Measured from Polarized Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Si, Fangwei; Busiek, Kimberly; Margolin, William; Sun, Sean X.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinesis in bacteria is accomplished by a ring-shaped cell-division complex (the Z-ring). The primary component of the Z-ring is FtsZ, a filamentous tubulin homolog that serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of other cell-division-related proteins. FtsZ forms filaments and bundles. In the cell, it has been suggested that FtsZ filaments form the arcs of the ring and are aligned in the cell-circumferential direction. Using polarized fluorescence microscopy in live Escherichia coli cells, we measure the structural organization of FtsZ filaments in the Z-ring. The data suggest a disordered organization: a substantial portion of FtsZ filaments are aligned in the cell-axis direction. FtsZ organization in the Z-ring also appears to depend on the bacterial species. Taken together, the unique arrangement of FtsZ suggests novel unexplored mechanisms in bacterial cell division. PMID:24209842

  2. Synthetic inhibitors of bacterial cell division targeting the GTP-binding site of FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Avila, Laura B; Huecas, Sonia; Artola, Marta; Vergoñós, Albert; Ramírez-Aportela, Erney; Cercenado, Emilia; Barasoain, Isabel; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Chacón, Pablo; López-Rodríguez, María L; Andreu, José M

    2013-09-20

    Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic Z-ring in most bacteria and a target for new antibiotics. FtsZ assembles with GTP into filaments that hydrolyze the nucleotide at the association interface between monomers and then disassemble. We have replaced FtsZ's GTP with non-nucleotide synthetic inhibitors of bacterial division. We searched for these small molecules among compounds from the literature, from virtual screening (VS), and from our in-house synthetic library (UCM), employing a fluorescence anisotropy primary assay. From these screens we have identified the polyhydroxy aromatic compound UCM05 and its simplified analogue UCM44 that specifically bind to Bacillus subtilis FtsZ monomers with micromolar affinities and perturb normal assembly, as examined with light scattering, polymer sedimentation, and negative stain electron microscopy. On the other hand, these ligands induce the cooperative assembly of nucleotide-devoid archaeal FtsZ into distinct well-ordered polymers, different from GTP-induced filaments. These FtsZ inhibitors impair localization of FtsZ into the Z-ring and inhibit bacterial cell division. The chlorinated analogue UCM53 inhibits the growth of clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. We suggest that these interfacial inhibitors recapitulate binding and some assembly-inducing effects of GTP but impair the correct structural dynamics of FtsZ filaments and thus inhibit bacterial division, possibly by binding to a small fraction of the FtsZ molecules in a bacterial cell, which opens a new approach to FtsZ-based antibacterial drug discovery.

  3. FtsZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles.

    PubMed

    Margolin, William

    2005-11-01

    Binary fission of many prokaryotes as well as some eukaryotic organelles depends on the FtsZ protein, which self-assembles into a membrane-associated ring structure early in the division process. FtsZ is homologous to tubulin, the building block of the microtubule cytoskeleton in eukaryotes. Recent advances in genomics and cell-imaging techniques have paved the way for the remarkable progress in our understanding of fission in bacteria and organelles.

  4. Condensation of FtsZ filaments can drive bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ganhui; Daniels, Brian R; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X

    2009-01-06

    Forces are important in biological systems for accomplishing key cell functions, such as motility, organelle transport, and cell division. Currently, known force generation mechanisms typically involve motor proteins. In bacterial cells, no known motor proteins are involved in cell division. Instead, a division ring (Z-ring) consists of mostly FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA is used to exerting a contractile force. The mechanism of force generation in bacterial cell division is unknown. Using computational modeling, we show that Z-ring formation results from the colocalization of FtsZ and FtsA mediated by the favorable alignment of FtsZ polymers. The model predicts that the Z-ring undergoes a condensation transition from a low-density state to a high-density state and generates a sufficient contractile force to achieve division. FtsZ GTP hydrolysis facilitates monomer turnover during the condensation transition, but does not directly generate forces. In vivo fluorescence measurements show that FtsZ density increases during division, in accord with model results. The mechanism is akin to van der Waals picture of gas-liquid condensation, and shows that organisms can exploit microphase transitions to generate mechanical forces.

  5. Comparison of small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ and identification of a reliable cross-species inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David E; Kim, Michelle B; Moore, Jared T; O'Brien, Terrence E; Sorto, Nohemy A; Grove, Charles I; Lackner, Laura L; Ames, James B; Shaw, Jared T

    2012-11-16

    FtsZ is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that mediates cytokinesis in bacteria. FtsZ is homologous in structure to eukaryotic tubulin and polymerizes in a similar head-to-tail fashion. The study of tubulin's function in eukaryotic cells has benefited greatly from specific and potent small molecule inhibitors, including colchicine and taxol. Although many small molecule inhibitors of FtsZ have been reported, none has emerged as a generally useful probe for modulating bacterial cell division. With the goal of establishing a useful and reliable small molecule inhibitor of FtsZ, a broad biochemical cross-comparison of reported FtsZ inhibitors was undertaken. Several of these molecules, including phenolic natural products, are unselective inhibitors that seem to derive their activity from the formation of microscopic colloids or aggregates. Other compounds, including the natural product viriditoxin and the drug development candidate PC190723, exhibit no inhibition of GTPase activity using protocols in this work or under published conditions. Of the compounds studied, only zantrin Z3 exhibits good levels of inhibition, maintains activity under conditions that disrupt small molecule aggregates, and provides a platform for exploration of structure-activity relationships (SAR). Preliminary SAR studies have identified slight modifications to the two side chains of this structure that modulate the inhibitory activity of zantrin Z3. Collectively, these studies will help focus future investigations toward the establishment of probes for FtsZ that fill the roles of colchicine and taxol in studies of tubulin.

  6. Targeting cell division: Small-molecule inhibitors of FtsZ GTPase perturb cytokinetic ring assembly and induce bacterial lethality

    PubMed Central

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Romberg, Laura; Mets, Rebecca B.; Hebert, Alan M.; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Kirschner, Marc W.; RayChaudhuri, Debabrata

    2004-01-01

    FtsZ, the ancestral homolog of eukaryotic tubulins, is a GTPase that assembles into a cytokinetic ring structure essential for cell division in prokaryotic cells. Similar to tubulin, purified FtsZ polymerizes into dynamic protofilaments in the presence of GTP; polymer assembly is accompanied by GTP hydrolysis. We used a high-throughput protein-based chemical screen to identify small molecules that target assembly-dependent GTPase activity of FtsZ. Here, we report the identification of five structurally diverse compounds, named Zantrins, which inhibit FtsZ GTPase either by destabilizing the FtsZ protofilaments or by inducing filament hyperstability through increased lateral association. These two classes of FtsZ inhibitors are reminiscent of the antitubulin drugs colchicine and Taxol, respectively. We also show that Zantrins perturb FtsZ ring assembly in Escherichia coli cells and cause lethality to a variety of bacteria in broth cultures, indicating that FtsZ antagonists may serve as chemical leads for the development of new broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. Our results illustrate the utility of small-molecule chemical probes to study FtsZ polymerization dynamics and the feasibility of FtsZ as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:15289600

  7. MapZ marks the division sites and positions FtsZ rings in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fleurie, Aurore; Lesterlin, Christian; Manuse, Sylvie; Zhao, Chao; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Macek, Boris; Combet, Christophe; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Sherratt, David; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-12-11

    In every living organism, cell division requires accurate identification of the division site and placement of the division machinery. In bacteria, this process is traditionally considered to begin with the polymerization of the highly conserved tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring that locates precisely at mid-cell. Over the past decades, several systems have been reported to regulate the spatiotemporal assembly and placement of the FtsZ ring. However, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, in common with many other organisms, is devoid of these canonical systems and the mechanisms of positioning the division machinery remain unknown. Here we characterize a novel factor that locates at the division site before FtsZ and guides septum positioning in pneumococcus. Mid-cell-anchored protein Z (MapZ) forms ring structures at the cell equator and moves apart as the cell elongates, therefore behaving as a permanent beacon of division sites. MapZ then positions the FtsZ ring through direct protein-protein interactions. MapZ-mediated control differs from previously described systems mostly on the basis of negative regulation of FtsZ assembly. Furthermore, MapZ is an endogenous target of the Ser/Thr kinase StkP, which was recently shown to have a central role in cytokinesis and morphogenesis of S. pneumoniae. We show that both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of MapZ are required for proper Z-ring formation and dynamics. Altogether, this work uncovers a new mechanism for bacterial cell division that is regulated by phosphorylation and illustrates that nature has evolved a diversity of cell division mechanisms adapted to the different bacterial clades.

  8. Super-resolution imaging of the bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Phoebe C; Cox, Guy C; Monahan, Leigh G; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2011-06-01

    The idea of a bacterial cytoskeleton arose just 10 years ago with the identification of the cell division protein, FtsZ, as a tubulin homolog. FtsZ plays a pivotal role in bacterial division, and is present in virtually all prokaryotes and in some eukaryotic organelles. The earliest stage of bacterial cell division is the assembly of FtsZ into a Z ring at the division site, which subsequently constricts during cytokinesis. FtsZ also assembles into dynamic helical structures along the bacterial cell, which are thought to act as precursors to the Z ring via a cell cycle-mediated FtsZ polymer remodelling. The fine structures of the FtsZ helix and ring are unknown but crucial for identifying the molecular details of Z ring assembly and its regulation. We now reveal using STED microscopy that the FtsZ helical structure in cells of the gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, is a highly irregular and discontinuous helix of FtsZ; very different to the smooth cable-like appearance observed by conventional fluorescence optics. STED also identifies a novel FtsZ helical structure of smaller pitch that is invisible to standard optical methods, identifying a possible third intermediate in the pathway to Z ring assembly, which commits bacterial cells to divide.

  9. Chloroplast division in higher plants requires members of two functionally divergent gene families with homology to bacterial ftsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, K W; Stokes, K D; Rutherford, S M; Percival, A L; Lee, W Y

    1998-01-01

    The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplast-localized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic cell division apparatus. Here, we report the identification of a second nuclear-encoded FtsZ-type protein from Arabidopsis that does not contain a chloroplast targeting sequence or other obvious sorting signals and is not imported into isolated chloroplasts, which strongly suggests that it is localized in the cytosol. We further demonstrate using antisense technology that inhibiting expression of either Arabidopsis FtsZ gene (AtFtsZ1-1 or AtFtsZ2-1) in transgenic plants reduces the number of chloroplasts in mature leaf cells from 100 to one, indicating that both genes are essential for division of higher plant chloroplasts but that each plays a distinct role in the process. Analysis of currently available plant FtsZ sequences further suggests that two functionally divergent FtsZ gene families encoding differentially localized products participate in chloroplast division. Our results provide evidence that both chloroplastic and cytosolic forms of FtsZ are involved in chloroplast division in higher plants and imply that important differences exist between chloroplasts and prokaryotes with regard to the roles played by FtsZ proteins in the division process. PMID:9836740

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi ftsZ Plays a Role in Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Dubytska, Lydia; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2006-01-01

    ftsZ is essential for cell division in many microorganisms. In Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, FtsZ plays a role in ring formation at the leading edge of the cell division septum. An ftsZ homologue is present in the Borrelia burgdorferi genome (ftsZBbu). Its gene product (FtsZBbu) is strongly homologous to other bacterial FtsZ proteins, but its function has not been established. Because loss-of-function mutants of ftsZBbu might be lethal, the tetR/tetO system was adapted for regulated control of this gene in B. burgdorferi. Sixty-two nucleotides of an ftsZBbu antisense DNA sequence under the control of a tetracycline-responsive modified hybrid borrelial promoter were cloned into pKFSS1. This construct was electroporated into a B. burgdorferi host strain carrying a chromosomally located tetR under the control of the B. burgdorferi flaB promoter. After induction by anhydrotetracycline, expression of antisense ftsZ RNA resulted in generation of filamentous B. burgdorferi that were unable to divide and grew more slowly than uninduced cells. To determine whether FtsZBbu could interfere with the function of E. coli FtsZ, ftsZBbu was amplified from chromosomal DNA and placed under the control of the tetracycline-regulated hybrid promoter. After introduction of the construct into E. coli and induction with anhydrotetracycline, overexpression of ftsZBbu generated a filamentous phenotype. This suggested interference of ftsZBbu with E. coli FtsZ function and confirmed the role of ftsZBbu in cell division. This is the first report of the generation of a B. burgdorferi conditional lethal mutant equivalent by tetracycline-controlled expression of antisense RNA. PMID:16484209

  11. Structure of the Z Ring-associated Protein, ZapD, Bound to the C-terminal Domain of the Tubulin-like Protein, FtsZ, Suggests Mechanism of Z Ring Stabilization through FtsZ Cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Maria A; Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Zeng, Wenjie; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2017-03-03

    Cell division in most bacteria is mediated by the tubulin-like FtsZ protein, which polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form the cytokinetic Z ring. A diverse repertoire of FtsZ-binding proteins affects FtsZ localization and polymerization to ensure correct Z ring formation. Many of these proteins bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of FtsZ, which serves as a hub for FtsZ regulation. FtsZ ring-associated proteins, ZapA-D (Zaps), are important FtsZ regulatory proteins that stabilize FtsZ assembly and enhance Z ring formation by increasing lateral assembly of FtsZ protofilaments, which then form the Z ring. There are no structures of a Zap protein bound to FtsZ; therefore, how these proteins affect FtsZ polymerization has been unclear. Recent data showed ZapD binds specifically to the FtsZ CTD. Thus, to obtain insight into the ZapD-CTD interaction and how it may mediate FtsZ protofilament assembly, we determined the Escherichia coli ZapD-FtsZ CTD structure to 2.67 Å resolution. The structure shows that the CTD docks within a hydrophobic cleft in the ZapD helical domain and adopts an unusual structure composed of two turns of helix separated by a proline kink. FtsZ CTD residue Phe-377 inserts into the ZapD pocket, anchoring the CTD in place and permitting hydrophobic contacts between FtsZ residues Ile-374, Pro-375, and Leu-378 with ZapD residues Leu-74, Trp-77, Leu-91, and Leu-174. The structural findings were supported by mutagenesis coupled with biochemical and in vivo studies. The combined data suggest that ZapD acts as a molecular cross-linking reagent between FtsZ protofilaments to enhance FtsZ assembly.

  12. Two types of FtsZ proteins in mitochondria and red-lineage chloroplasts: the duplication of FtsZ is implicated in endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Nishida, Keishin; Nishida, Keiji; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2004-03-01

    The ancestors of plastids and mitochondria were once free-living bacteria that became organelles as a result of endosymbiosis. According to this theory, a key bacterial division protein, FtsZ, plays a role in plastid division in algae and plants as well as in mitochondrial division in lower eukaryotes. Recent studies have shown that organelle division is a process that combines features derived from the bacterial division system with features contributed by host eukaryotic cells. Two nonredundant versions of FtsZ, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, have been identified in green-lineage plastids, whereas most bacteria have a single ftsZ gene. To examine whether there is also more than one type of FtsZ in red-lineage chloroplasts (red algal chloroplasts and chloroplasts that originated from the secondary endosymbiosis of red algae) and in mitochondria, we obtained FtsZ sequences from the complete sequence of the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and the draft sequence of the stramenopile (heterokont) Thalassiosira pseudonana. Phylogenetic analyses that included known FtsZ proteins identified two types of chloroplast FtsZ in red algae (FtsZA and FtsZB) and stramenopiles (FtsZA and FtsZC). These analyses also showed that FtsZB emerged after the red and green lineages diverged, while FtsZC arose by the duplication of an ftsZA gene that in turn descended from a red alga engulfed by the ancestor of stramenopiles. A comparison of the predicted proteins showed that like bacterial FtsZ and green-lineage FtsZ2, FtsZA has a short conserved C-termmal sequence (the C-terminal core domain), whereas FtsZB and FtsZC, like the green-lineage FtsZ1, lack this sequence. In addition, the Cyanidioschyzon and Dictyostelium genomes encode two types of mitochondrial FtsZ proteins, one of which lacks the C-terminal variable domain. These results suggest that the acquisition of an additional FtsZ protein with a modified C terminus was common to the primary and secondary endosymbioses that produced

  13. Visualization of plastids in pollen grains: involvement of FtsZ1 in pollen plastid division.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lay Yin; Nagata, Noriko; Matsushima, Ryo; Chen, Yuling; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2009-04-01

    Visualizing organelles in living cells is a powerful method to analyze their intrinsic mechanisms. Easy observation of chlorophyll facilitates the study of the underlying mechanisms in chloroplasts, but not in other plastid types. Here, we constructed a transgenic plant enabling visualization of plastids in pollen grains. Combination of a plastid-targeted fluorescent protein with a pollen-specific promoter allowed us to observe the precise number, size and morphology of plastids in pollen grains of the wild type and the ftsZ1 mutant, whose responsible gene plays a central role in chloroplast division. The transgenic material presented in this work is useful for studying the division mechanism of pollen plastids.

  14. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Daniel O.; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli. PMID:27609565

  15. FtsZ-less prokaryotic cell division as well as FtsZ- and dynamin-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division

    PubMed Central

    Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Nakamura, Mami; Uzuka, Akihiro; Era, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast division machinery is a mixture of a stromal FtsZ-based complex descended from a cyanobacterial ancestor of chloroplasts and a cytosolic dynamin-related protein (DRP) 5B-based complex derived from the eukaryotic host. Molecular genetic studies have shown that each component of the division machinery is normally essential for normal chloroplast division. However, several exceptions have been found. In the absence of the FtsZ ring, non-photosynthetic plastids are able to proliferate, likely by elongation and budding. Depletion of DRP5B impairs, but does not stop chloroplast division. Chloroplasts in glaucophytes, which possesses a peptidoglycan (PG) layer, divide without DRP5B. Certain parasitic eukaryotes possess non-photosynthetic plastids of secondary endosymbiotic origin, but neither FtsZ nor DRP5B is encoded in their genomes. Elucidation of the FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast division mechanism will lead to a better understanding of the function and evolution of the chloroplast division machinery and the finding of the as-yet-unknown mechanism that is likely involved in chloroplast division. Recent studies have shown that FtsZ was lost from a variety of prokaryotes, many of which lost PG by regressive evolution. In addition, even some of the FtsZ-bearing bacteria are able to divide when FtsZ and PG are depleted experimentally. In some cases, alternative mechanisms for cell division, such as budding by an increase of the cell surface-to-volume ratio, are proposed. Although PG is believed to have been lost from chloroplasts other than in glaucophytes, there is some indirect evidence for the existence of PG in chloroplasts. Such information is also useful for understanding how non-photosynthetic plastids are able to divide in FtsZ-depleted cells and the reason for the retention of FtsZ in chloroplast division. Here we summarize information to facilitate analyses of FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division. PMID

  16. Treadmilling by FtsZ filaments drives peptidoglycan synthesis and bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Bisson-Filho, Alexandre W; Hsu, Yen-Pang; Squyres, Georgia R; Kuru, Erkin; Wu, Fabai; Jukes, Calum; Sun, Yingjie; Dekker, Cees; Holden, Seamus; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Garner, Ethan C

    2017-02-17

    The mechanism by which bacteria divide is not well understood. Cell division is mediated by filaments of FtsZ and FtsA (FtsAZ) that recruit septal peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes to the division site. To understand how these components coordinate to divide cells, we visualized their movements relative to the dynamics of cell wall synthesis during cytokinesis. We found that the division septum was built at discrete sites that moved around the division plane. FtsAZ filaments treadmilled circumferentially around the division ring and drove the motions of the peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes. The FtsZ treadmilling rate controlled both the rate of peptidoglycan synthesis and cell division. Thus, FtsZ treadmilling guides the progressive insertion of new cell wall by building increasingly smaller concentric rings of peptidoglycan to divide the cell.

  17. Identification of Escherichia coli ZapC (YcbW) as a Component of the Division Apparatus That Binds and Bundles FtsZ Polymers▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Cynthia A.; Shiomi, Daisuke; Liu, Bing; Bernhardt, Thomas G.; Margolin, William; Niki, Hironori; de Boer, Piet A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Assembly of the cell division apparatus in bacteria starts with formation of the Z ring on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. This process involves the accumulation of FtsZ polymers at midcell and their interaction with several FtsZ-binding proteins that collectively organize the polymers into a membrane-associated ring-like configuration. Three such proteins, FtsA, ZipA, and ZapA, have previously been identified in Escherichia coli. FtsA and ZipA are essential membrane-associated division proteins that help connect FtsZ polymers with the inner membrane. ZapA is a cytoplasmic protein that is not required for the fission process per se but contributes to its efficiency, likely by promoting lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. We report the identification of YcbW (ZapC) as a fourth FtsZ-binding component of the Z ring in E. coli. Binding of ZapC promotes lateral interactions between FtsZ polymers and suppresses FtsZ GTPase activity. This and additional evidence indicate that, like ZapA, ZapC is a nonessential Z-ring component that contributes to the efficiency of the division process by stabilizing the polymeric form of FtsZ. PMID:21216997

  18. Roles of Arabidopsis PARC6 in Coordination of the Chloroplast Division Complex and Negative Regulation of FtsZ Assembly1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Froehlich, John E.; TerBush, Allan D.

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast division is driven by the simultaneous constriction of the inner FtsZ ring (Z ring) and the outer DRP5B ring. The assembly and constriction of these rings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are coordinated partly through the inner envelope membrane protein ACCUMULATION AND REPLICATION OF CHLOROPLASTS6 (ARC6). Previously, we showed that PARC6 (PARALOG OF ARC6), also in the inner envelope membrane, negatively regulates FtsZ assembly and acts downstream of ARC6 to position the outer envelope membrane protein PLASTID DIVISION1 (PDV1), which functions together with its paralog PDV2 to recruit DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 5B (DRP5B) from a cytosolic pool to the outer envelope membrane. However, whether PARC6, like ARC6, also functions in coordination of the chloroplast division contractile complexes was unknown. Here, we report a detailed topological analysis of Arabidopsis PARC6, which shows that PARC6 has a single transmembrane domain and a topology resembling that of ARC6. The newly identified stromal region of PARC6 interacts not only with ARC3, a direct inhibitor of Z-ring assembly, but also with the Z-ring protein FtsZ2. Overexpression of PARC6 inhibits FtsZ assembly in Arabidopsis but not in a heterologous yeast system (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), suggesting that the negative regulation of FtsZ assembly by PARC6 is a consequence of its interaction with ARC3. A conserved carboxyl-terminal peptide in FtsZ2 mediates FtsZ2 interaction with both PARC6 and ARC6. Consistent with its role in the positioning of PDV1, the intermembrane space regions of PARC6 and PDV1 interact. These findings provide new insights into the functions of PARC6 and suggest that PARC6 coordinates the inner Z ring and outer DRP5B ring through interaction with FtsZ2 and PDV1 during chloroplast division. PMID:26527658

  19. Bacterial Division: FtsZ Treadmills to Build a Beautiful Wall.

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, Kara M; Margolin, William

    2017-04-24

    The tubulin-like FtsZ protein polymerizes into a contractile ring structure required for cytokinesis in most bacteria. Two new studies report that FtsZ polymers move around the ring by treadmilling, which guides and regulates the inward growth of the septal wall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ARC3, a chloroplast division factor, is a chimera of prokaryotic FtsZ and part of eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Masato; Kuroki, Kouta; Mochizuki, Mariko; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Tatsuru; Takamiya, Ken-ichiro

    2004-08-01

    The arc3 (accumulation and replication of chloroplast) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has a small number of abnormally large chloroplasts in the cell, suggesting that chloroplast division is arrested in the mutant and ARC3 has an important role in the initiation of chloroplast division. To elucidate the role of ARC3, first we identified the ARC3 gene, and determined the location of ARC3 protein during chloroplast division because the localization and spatial orientation of such division factors are vital for correct chloroplast division. Sequencing analysis showed that ARC3 was a fusion of the prokaryotic FtsZ and part of the eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) genes. The PIP5K-homologous region of ARC3 had no catalytic domain but a membrane-occupation-and-recognition-nexus (MORN) repeat motif. Immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blotting analysis and in vitro chloroplast import and protease protection assays revealed that ARC3 protein was soluble, and located on the outer surface of the chloroplast in a ring-like structure at the early stage of chloroplast division. Prokaryotes have one FtsZ as a gene for division but have no ARC3 counterparts, the chimera of FtsZ and PIP5K, suggesting that the ARC3 gene might have been generated from FtsZ as another division factor during the evolution of chloroplast by endosymbiosis.

  1. WhmD promotes the assembly of Mycobacterium smegmatis FtsZ: A possible role of WhmD in bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dipanwita; Kumar, Ashutosh; Panda, Dulal

    2017-02-01

    WhmD is considered to have a role in the septation and division of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells. Since FtsZ is the central protein of the septum, we determined the effect of WhmD on the assembly of Mycobacterium smegmatis FtsZ (MsFtsZ) in vitro. WhmD increased both the rate and extent of the assembly of MsFtsZ in vitro. WhmD also increased the amount of polymerized MsFtsZ as evident from a sedimentation assay. Further, the assembly promoting activity of WhmD occurred in the presence of GTP. MsFtsZ polymerized to form thin filaments in the absence of WhmD while MsFtsZ formed thick filaments in the presence of WhmD suggesting that WhmD enhanced the bundling of MsFtsZ filaments. Interestingly, WhmD neither suppressed the dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ filaments nor significantly altered the GTPase activity of FtsZ. Using size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, WhmD was found to bind to MsFtsZ in vitro. The results showed that WhmD can promote the assembly of FtsZ and indicated that WhmD may play a role in the division of M. smegmatis cells by assisting the polymerization of FtsZ.

  2. Proteolysis-Dependent Remodeling of the Tubulin Homolog FtsZ at the Division Septum in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Marissa G.; LaBreck, Christopher J.; Conti, Joseph; Camberg, Jodi L.

    2017-01-01

    During bacterial cell division a dynamic protein structure called the Z-ring assembles at the septum. The major protein in the Z-ring in Escherichia coli is FtsZ, a tubulin homolog that polymerizes with GTP. FtsZ is degraded by the two-component ATP-dependent protease ClpXP. Two regions of FtsZ, located outside of the polymerization domain in the unstructured linker and at the C-terminus, are important for specific recognition and degradation by ClpXP. We engineered a synthetic substrate containing green fluorescent protein (Gfp) fused to an extended FtsZ C-terminal tail (residues 317–383), including the unstructured linker and the C-terminal conserved region, but not the polymerization domain, and showed that it is sufficient to target a non-native substrate for degradation in vitro. To determine if FtsZ degradation regulates Z-ring assembly during division, we expressed a full length Gfp-FtsZ fusion protein in wild type and clp deficient strains and monitored fluorescent Z-rings. In cells deleted for clpX or clpP, or cells expressing protease-defective mutant protein ClpP(S97A), Z-rings appear normal; however, after photobleaching a region of the Z-ring, fluorescence recovers ~70% more slowly in cells without functional ClpXP than in wild type cells. Gfp-FtsZ(R379E), which is defective for degradation by ClpXP, also assembles into Z-rings that recover fluorescence ~2-fold more slowly than Z-rings containing Gfp-FtsZ. In vitro, ClpXP cooperatively degrades and disassembles FtsZ polymers. These results demonstrate that ClpXP is a regulator of Z-ring dynamics and that the regulation is proteolysis-dependent. Our results further show that FtsZ-interacting proteins in E. coli fine-tune Z-ring dynamics. PMID:28114338

  3. Characterization of the ftsZ cell division gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: expression in Escherichia coli and N. gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Salimnia, H; Radia, A; Bernatchez, S; Beveridge, T J; Dillon, J R

    2000-01-01

    We cloned the cell division gene ftsZ of the gram-negative coccus Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) strain CH811, characterized it genetically and phenotypically, and studied its localization in N. gonorrhoeae and Escherichia coli (Ec). The 1,179-bp ORF of ftsZ(Ng) encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.5 kDa. Protein sequence alignments indicate that FtsZ(Ng) is similar to other FtsZ proteins and contains the conserved GTP binding motif. FtsZ homologues were identified in several N. gonorrhoeae strains and in Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria polysaccharae and Neisseria cinerea either by Western blot or by PCR-Southern blot analysis. Attempts to inactivate the ftsZ(Ng) on the chromosome failed, indicating that it is essential for gonococcal growth. FtsZ(Ng) was synthesized in an in vitro transcription/translation system and was shown to be 43 kDa, the same size as in Western blots. Expression of the ftsZ(Ng) gene from nongonococcal promoters resulted in a filamentous phenotype in E. coli. Under controlled expression, the FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusion protein localized at the mid-cell division site in E. coli. E. coli expressing high levels of the FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusion protein formed filaments and exhibited different fluorescent structures including helices, spiral tubules extending from pole to pole, and regularly spaced dots or bands that did not localize at the middle of the cell. Expression of the FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusion protein in N. gonorrhoeae resulted in abnormal cell division as shown by electron microscopy. FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusions were also expressed in a gonococcal background using a unique shuttle vector.

  4. 3D-SIM super resolution microscopy reveals a bead-like arrangement for FtsZ and the division machinery: implications for triggering cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Michael P; Liew, Andrew T F; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Monahan, Leigh G; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It polymerizes into a ring, called the Z ring, at the division site and acts as a scaffold to recruit other division proteins to this site as well as providing a contractile force for cytokinesis. To understand how FtsZ performs these functions, the in vivo architecture of the Z ring needs to be established, as well as how this structure constricts to enable cytokinesis. Conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy depicts the Z ring as a continuous structure of uniform density. Here we use a form of super resolution microscopy, known as 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM), to examine the architecture of the Z ring in cells of two Gram-positive organisms that have different cell shapes: the rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis and the coccoid Staphylococcus aureus. We show that in both organisms the Z ring is composed of a heterogeneous distribution of FtsZ. In addition, gaps of fluorescence were evident, which suggest that it is a discontinuous structure. Time-lapse studies using an advanced form of fast live 3D-SIM (Blaze) support a model of FtsZ localization within the Z ring that is dynamic and remains distributed in a heterogeneous manner. However, FtsZ dynamics alone do not trigger the constriction of the Z ring to allow cytokinesis. Lastly, we visualize other components of the divisome and show that they also adopt a bead-like localization pattern at the future division site. Our data lead us to propose that FtsZ guides the divisome to adopt a similar localization pattern to ensure Z ring constriction only proceeds following the assembly of a mature divisome.

  5. 3D-SIM Super Resolution Microscopy Reveals a Bead-Like Arrangement for FtsZ and the Division Machinery: Implications for Triggering Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Michael P.; Liew, Andrew T. F.; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Monahan, Leigh G.; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It polymerizes into a ring, called the Z ring, at the division site and acts as a scaffold to recruit other division proteins to this site as well as providing a contractile force for cytokinesis. To understand how FtsZ performs these functions, the in vivo architecture of the Z ring needs to be established, as well as how this structure constricts to enable cytokinesis. Conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy depicts the Z ring as a continuous structure of uniform density. Here we use a form of super resolution microscopy, known as 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM), to examine the architecture of the Z ring in cells of two Gram-positive organisms that have different cell shapes: the rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis and the coccoid Staphylococcus aureus. We show that in both organisms the Z ring is composed of a heterogeneous distribution of FtsZ. In addition, gaps of fluorescence were evident, which suggest that it is a discontinuous structure. Time-lapse studies using an advanced form of fast live 3D-SIM (Blaze) support a model of FtsZ localization within the Z ring that is dynamic and remains distributed in a heterogeneous manner. However, FtsZ dynamics alone do not trigger the constriction of the Z ring to allow cytokinesis. Lastly, we visualize other components of the divisome and show that they also adopt a bead-like localization pattern at the future division site. Our data lead us to propose that FtsZ guides the divisome to adopt a similar localization pattern to ensure Z ring constriction only proceeds following the assembly of a mature divisome. PMID:22984350

  6. Structures of the nucleoid occlusion protein SlmA bound to DNA and the C-terminal domain of the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Maria A.; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by FtsZ, which polymerizes to create the cytokinetic Z ring. Multiple FtsZ-binding proteins regulate FtsZ polymerization to ensure the proper spatiotemporal formation of the Z ring at the division site. The DNA-binding protein SlmA binds to FtsZ and prevents Z-ring formation through the nucleoid in a process called “nucleoid occlusion” (NO). As do most FtsZ-accessory proteins, SlmA interacts with the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that is connected to the FtsZ core by a long, flexible linker. However, SlmA is distinct from other regulatory factors in that it must be DNA-bound to interact with the FtsZ CTD. Few structures of FtsZ regulator–CTD complexes are available, but all reveal the CTD bound as a helix. To deduce the molecular basis for the unique SlmA–DNA–FtsZ CTD regulatory interaction and provide insight into FtsZ–regulator protein complex formation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, and Klebsiella pneumonia SlmA–DNA–FtsZ CTD ternary complexes. Strikingly, the FtsZ CTD does not interact with SlmA as a helix but binds as an extended conformation in a narrow, surface-exposed pocket formed only in the DNA-bound state of SlmA and located at the junction between the DNA-binding and C-terminal dimer domains. Binding studies are consistent with the structure and underscore key interactions in complex formation. Combined, these data reveal the molecular basis for the SlmA–DNA–FtsZ interaction with implications for SlmA’s NO function and underscore the ability of the FtsZ CTD to adopt a wide range of conformations, explaining its ability to bind diverse regulatory proteins. PMID:27091999

  7. A canonical FtsZ protein in Verrucomicrobium spinosum, a member of the Bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia that also includes tubulin-producing Prosthecobacter species

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Benjamin; Lafi, Feras F; Oakley, Brian; Staley, James T; Fuerst, John A

    2007-01-01

    Background The origin and evolution of the homologous GTP-binding cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ typical of Bacteria and tubulin characteristic of eukaryotes is a major question in molecular evolutionary biology. Both FtsZ and tubulin are central to key cell biology processes – bacterial septation and cell division in the case of FtsZ and in the case of tubulins the function of microtubules necessary for mitosis and other key cytoskeleton-dependent processes in eukaryotes. The origin of tubulin in particular is of significance to models for eukaryote origins. Most members of domain Bacteria possess FtsZ, but bacteria in genus Prosthecobacter of the phylum Verrucomicrobia form a key exception, possessing tubulin homologs BtubA and BtubB. It is therefore of interest to know whether other members of phylum Verrucomicrobia possess FtsZ or tubulin as their FtsZ-tubulin gene family representative. Results Verrucomicrobium spinosum, a member of Phylum Verrucomicrobia of domain Bacteria, has been found to possess a gene for a protein homologous to the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ. The deduced amino acid sequence has sequence signatures and predicted secondary structure characteristic for FtsZ rather than tubulin, but phylogenetic trees and sequence analysis indicate that it is divergent from all other known FtsZ sequences in members of domain Bacteria. The FtsZ gene of V. spinosum is located within a dcw gene cluster exhibiting gene order conservation known to contribute to the divisome in other Bacteria and comparable to these clusters in other Bacteria, suggesting a similar functional role. Conclusion Verrucomicrobium spinosum has been found to possess a gene for a protein homologous to the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ. The results suggest the functional as well as structural homology of the V. spinosum FtsZ to the FtsZs of other Bacteria implying its involvement in cell septum formation during division. Thus, both bacteria-like FtsZ and eukaryote-like tubulin cytoskeletal

  8. Direct interaction of FtsZ and MreB is required for septum synthesis and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Andrew K; Gerdes, Kenn

    2013-07-03

    How bacteria coordinate cell growth with division is not well understood. Bacterial cell elongation is controlled by actin-MreB while cell division is governed by tubulin-FtsZ. A ring-like structure containing FtsZ (the Z ring) at mid-cell attracts other cell division proteins to form the divisome, an essential protein assembly required for septum synthesis and cell separation. The Z ring exists at mid-cell during a major part of the cell cycle without contracting. Here, we show that MreB and FtsZ of Escherichia coli interact directly and that this interaction is required for Z ring contraction. We further show that the MreB-FtsZ interaction is required for transfer of cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes from the lateral to the mature divisome, allowing cells to synthesise the septum. Our observations show that bacterial cell division is coupled to cell elongation via a direct and essential interaction between FtsZ and MreB.

  9. Architecture of the ring formed by the tubulin homologue FtsZ in bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Szwedziak, Piotr; Wang, Qing; Bharat, Tanmay A M; Tsim, Matthew; Löwe, Jan

    2014-12-09

    Membrane constriction is a prerequisite for cell division. The most common membrane constriction system in prokaryotes is based on the tubulin homologue FtsZ, whose filaments in E. coli are anchored to the membrane by FtsA and enable the formation of the Z-ring and divisome. The precise architecture of the FtsZ ring has remained enigmatic. In this study, we report three-dimensional arrangements of FtsZ and FtsA filaments in C. crescentus and E. coli cells and inside constricting liposomes by means of electron cryomicroscopy and cryotomography. In vivo and in vitro, the Z-ring is composed of a small, single-layered band of filaments parallel to the membrane, creating a continuous ring through lateral filament contacts. Visualisation of the in vitro reconstituted constrictions as well as a complete tracing of the helical paths of the filaments with a molecular model favour a mechanism of FtsZ-based membrane constriction that is likely to be accompanied by filament sliding.

  10. Dependency of Escherichia coli cell-division size, and independency of nucleoid segregation on the mode and level of ftsZ expression.

    PubMed

    Palacios, P; Vicente, M; Sánchez, M

    1996-06-01

    Expression of ftsZ in strain VIP205 is dissociated from its natural promoters, and is under the control of an inducible tac promoter. This abolishes the oscillation in ftsZ transcription observed in the wild type, allowing different levels of ftsZ expression. We demonstrate that this construction does not affect the expression of other genes, and has no effects on replication or nucleoid segregation. A shift in IPTG from 30 microM, that supports division at wild-type sizes, to lower (6 microM) or higher (100 microM) concentrations, indicates that VIP205 cells can divide within a broad range of FtsZ concentrations. Analysis of the morphological parameters during the transition from one IPTG concentration to another suggests that the correct timing of ftsZ expression, and the correct FtsZ concentration, are required for division to occur at normal cell sizes. After a transient division delay during the transition to lower IPTG concentrations, cells in which ftsZ is expressed continuously (yielding 80% of the wild-type FtsZ levels) divide with the same division time as the wild type, but at the expense of becoming 1.5 times larger. A precise control of ftsZ expression is required for normal division, but the existence of additional regulators to maintain the correct timing during the cell cycle cannot be ruled out.

  11. Control of ftsZ Expression, Cell Division, and Glutamine Metabolism in Luria-Bertani Medium by the Alarmone ppGpp in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Bradford S.; Court, Donald L.

    1998-01-01

    Inactivation of transcription factor ς54, encoded by rpoN (glnF), restores high-temperature growth in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium to strains containing the heat-sensitive cell division mutation ftsZ84. Mutational defects in three other genes involved in general nitrogen control (glnD, glnG, and glnL) also suppress lethal filamentation. Since addition of glutamine to LB medium fully blocks suppression by each mutation, the underlying cause of suppression likely derives from a stringent response to the limitation of glutamine. This model is supported by several observations. The glnL mutation requires RelA-directed synthesis of the nutrient alarmone ppGpp to suppress filamentation. Artificially elevated levels of ppGpp suppress ftsZ84, as do RNA polymerase mutations that reproduce global effects of the ppGpp-induced state. Both the glnF null mutation and an elevated copy number of the relA gene similarly affect transcription from the upstream (pQ) promoters of the ftsQAZ operon, and both of these genetic conditions increase the steady-state level of the FtsZ84 protein. Physiological suppression of ftsZ84 by a high salt concentration was also shown to involve RelA. Additionally, we found that the growth of a glnF or glnD strain on LB medium depends on RelA or supplemental glutamine in the absence of RelA function. These data expand the roles for ppGpp in the regulation of glutamine metabolism and the expression of FtsZ during cell division. PMID:9495742

  12. Identification and Characterization of ZapC, a Stabilizer of the FtsZ Ring in Escherichia coli▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Heredia, Jorge M.; Yu, Helen H.; De Carlo, Sacha; Lesser, Cammie F.; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, spatiotemporal control of cell division occurs at the level of the assembly/disassembly process of the essential cytoskeletal protein FtsZ. A number of regulators interact with FtsZ and modulate the dynamics of the assembled FtsZ ring at the midcell division site. In this article, we report the identification of an FtsZ stabilizer, ZapC (Z-associated protein C), in a protein localization screen conducted with E. coli. ZapC colocalizes with FtsZ at midcell and interacts directly with FtsZ, as determined by a protein-protein interaction assay in yeast. Cells lacking or overexpressing ZapC are slightly elongated and have aberrant FtsZ ring morphologies indicative of a role for ZapC in FtsZ regulation. We also demonstrate the ability of purified ZapC to promote lateral bundling of FtsZ in a sedimentation reaction visualized by transmission electron microscopy. While ZapC lacks sequence similarity with other nonessential FtsZ regulators, ZapA and ZapB, all three Zap proteins appear to play an important role in FtsZ regulation during rapid growth. Taken together, our results suggest a key role for lateral bundling of the midcell FtsZ polymers in maintaining FtsZ ring stability during division. PMID:21216995

  13. Probing for Binding Regions of the FtsZ Protein Surface through Site-Directed Insertions: Discovery of Fully Functional FtsZ-Fluorescent Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Desmond A.; Whatley, Zakiya N.; Joshi, Chandra P.; Osawa, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin homologue, is a cytoskeletal protein that assembles into protofilaments that are one subunit thick. These protofilaments assemble further to form a “Z ring” at the center of prokaryotic cells. The Z ring generates a constriction force on the inner membrane and also serves as a scaffold to recruit cell wall remodeling proteins for complete cell division in vivo. One model of the Z ring proposes that protofilaments associate via lateral bonds to form ribbons; however, lateral bonds are still only hypothetical. To explore potential lateral bonding sites, we probed the surface of Escherichia coli FtsZ by inserting either small peptides or whole fluorescent proteins (FPs). Among the four lateral surfaces on FtsZ protofilaments, we obtained inserts on the front and back surfaces that were functional for cell division. We concluded that these faces are not sites of essential interactions. Inserts at two sites, G124 and R174, located on the left and right surfaces, completely blocked function, and these sites were identified as possible sites for essential lateral interactions. However, the insert at R174 did not interfere with association of protofilaments into sheets and bundles in vitro. Another goal was to find a location within FtsZ that supported insertion of FP reporter proteins while allowing the FtsZ-FPs to function as the sole source of FtsZ. We discovered one internal site, G55-Q56, where several different FPs could be inserted without impairing function. These FtsZ-FPs may provide advances for imaging Z-ring structure by superresolution techniques. IMPORTANCE One model for the Z-ring structure proposes that protofilaments are assembled into ribbons by lateral bonds between FtsZ subunits. Our study excluded the involvement of the front and back faces of the protofilament in essential interactions in vivo but pointed to two potential lateral bond sites, on the right and left sides. We also identified an FtsZ loop where

  14. Expression of Brassica oleracea FtsZ1-1 and MinD alters chloroplast division in Nicotiana tabacum generating macro- and mini-chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Chikkala, Veera R N; Nugent, Gregory D; Stalker, David M; Mouradov, Aidyn; Stevenson, Trevor W

    2012-05-01

    FtsZ1-1 and MinD plastid division-related genes were identified and cloned from Brassica oleracea var. botrytis. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoFtsZ1-1 or BoMinD exhibited cells with either fewer but abnormally large chloroplasts or more but smaller chloroplasts relative to wild-type tobacco plants. An abnormal chloroplast phenotype in guard cells was found in BoMinD transgenic tobacco plants but not in BoFtsZ1-1 transgenic tobacco plants. Transgenic tobacco plants bearing the macro-chloroplast phenotype had 10 to 20-fold increased levels of total FtsZ1-1 or MinD, whilst the transgenic tobacco plants bearing the mini-chloroplast phenotype had lower increased FtsZ1-1 or absence of detectable MinD. We also described for the first time, plastid transformation of macro-chloroplast bearing tobacco shoots with a gene cassette allowing for expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Homoplasmic plastid transformants from normal chloroplast and macro-chloroplast tobacco plants expressing GFP were obtained. Both types of transformants accumulated GFP at ~6% of total soluble protein, thus indicating that cells containing macro-chloroplasts can regenerate shoots in tissue culture and can stably integrate and express a foreign gene to similar levels as plant cells containing a normal chloroplast size and number.

  15. FtsZ polymerization assays: simple protocols and considerations.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewa; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2013-11-16

    During bacterial cell division, the essential protein FtsZ assembles in the middle of the cell to form the so-called Z-ring. FtsZ polymerizes into long filaments in the presence of GTP in vitro, and polymerization is regulated by several accessory proteins. FtsZ polymerization has been extensively studied in vitro using basic methods including light scattering, sedimentation, GTP hydrolysis assays and electron microscopy. Buffer conditions influence both the polymerization properties of FtsZ, and the ability of FtsZ to interact with regulatory proteins. Here, we describe protocols for FtsZ polymerization studies and validate conditions and controls using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis FtsZ as model proteins. A low speed sedimentation assay is introduced that allows the study of the interaction of FtsZ with proteins that bundle or tubulate FtsZ polymers. An improved GTPase assay protocol is described that allows testing of GTP hydrolysis over time using various conditions in a 96-well plate setup, with standardized incubation times that abolish variation in color development in the phosphate detection reaction. The preparation of samples for light scattering studies and electron microscopy is described. Several buffers are used to establish suitable buffer pH and salt concentration for FtsZ polymerization studies. A high concentration of KCl is the best for most of the experiments. Our methods provide a starting point for the in vitro characterization of FtsZ, not only from E. coli and B. subtilis but from any other bacterium. As such, the methods can be used for studies of the interaction of FtsZ with regulatory proteins or the testing of antibacterial drugs which may affect FtsZ polymerization.

  16. FtsZ Polymerization Assays: Simple Protocols and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Król, Ewa; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During bacterial cell division, the essential protein FtsZ assembles in the middle of the cell to form the so-called Z-ring. FtsZ polymerizes into long filaments in the presence of GTP in vitro, and polymerization is regulated by several accessory proteins. FtsZ polymerization has been extensively studied in vitro using basic methods including light scattering, sedimentation, GTP hydrolysis assays and electron microscopy. Buffer conditions influence both the polymerization properties of FtsZ, and the ability of FtsZ to interact with regulatory proteins. Here, we describe protocols for FtsZ polymerization studies and validate conditions and controls using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis FtsZ as model proteins. A low speed sedimentation assay is introduced that allows the study of the interaction of FtsZ with proteins that bundle or tubulate FtsZ polymers. An improved GTPase assay protocol is described that allows testing of GTP hydrolysis over time using various conditions in a 96-well plate setup, with standardized incubation times that abolish variation in color development in the phosphate detection reaction. The preparation of samples for light scattering studies and electron microscopy is described. Several buffers are used to establish suitable buffer pH and salt concentration for FtsZ polymerization studies. A high concentration of KCl is the best for most of the experiments. Our methods provide a starting point for the in vitro characterization of FtsZ, not only from E. coli and B. subtilis but from any other bacterium. As such, the methods can be used for studies of the interaction of FtsZ with regulatory proteins or the testing of antibacterial drugs which may affect FtsZ polymerization. PMID:24300445

  17. Contribution of individual promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region to the transcription of the essential cell-division gene ftsZ in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Flärdh, K; Garrido, T; Vicente, M

    1997-06-01

    The essential cell-division gene ftsZ is transcribed in Escherichia coli from at least six promoters found within the coding regions of the upstream ddlB, ftsQ, and ftsA genes. The contribution of each one to the final yield of ftsZ transcription has been estimated using transcriptional lacZ fusions. The most proximal promoter, ftsZ2p, contributes less than 5% of the total transcription from the region that reaches ftsZ. The ftsZ4p and ftsZ3p promoters, both located inside ftsA, produce almost 37% of the transcription. An ftsAp promoter within the ftsQ gene yields nearly 12% of total transcription from the region. A large proportion of transcription (approximately 46%) derives from promoters ftsQ2p and ftsQ1p, which are located inside the upstream ddlB gene. Thus, the ftsQAZ genes are to a large extent transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA. However, we find that the ftsZ proximal region is necessary for full expression, which is in agreement with a recent report that mRNA cleavage by RNase E at the end of the ftsA cistron has a significant role in the contol of ftsZ expression.

  18. Promoting assembly and bundling of FtsZ as a strategy to inhibit bacterial cell division: a new approach for developing novel antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Beuria, Tushar K; Singh, Parminder; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2009-09-14

    FtsZ plays an essential role in bacterial cell division. We have used the assembly of FtsZ as a screen to find antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. The effects of 81 compounds of 29 different structural scaffolds on FtsZ assembly in vitro were examined using a sedimentation assay. Out of these 81 compounds, OTBA (3-{5-[4-oxo-2-thioxo-3-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-thiazolidin-5-ylidenemethyl]-furan-2-yl}-benzoic acid) was found to promote FtsZ assembly in vitro. OTBA increased the assembly of FtsZ, caused bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, prevented dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ protofilaments and decreased the GTPase activity in vitro. It bound to FtsZ with an apparent dissociation constant of 15+/-1.5 microM. Furthermore, OTBA inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 cells with an MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of 2 microM, whereas it exerted minimal effects on mammalian cell proliferation, indicating that it might have a potential use as an antibacterial drug. In the effective proliferation inhibitory concentration range, OTBA induced filamentation in bacteria and also perturbed the formation of the cytokinetic Z-rings in bacteria. However, the agent neither perturbed the membrane structures nor affected the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis cells. The results suggested that the OTBA inhibited bacterial cytokinesis by perturbing the formation and functioning of the Z-ring via altering FtsZ assembly dynamics. The antibacterial mechanism of action of OTBA is similar to that of the widely used anticancer drug paclitaxel, which inhibits cancer cell proliferation by promoting the assembly of tubulin, a eukaryotic homologue of FtsZ.

  19. Tubulin-like protofilaments in Ca2+-induced FtsZ sheets.

    PubMed Central

    Löwe, J; Amos, L A

    1999-01-01

    The 40 kDa protein FtsZ is a major septum-forming component of bacterial cell division. Early during cytokinesis at midcell, FtsZ forms a cytokinetic ring that constricts as septation progresses. FtsZ has a high propensity to polymerize in vitro into various structures, including sheets and filaments, in a GTP-dependent manner. Together with limited sequence homology, the occurrence of the tubulin signature motif in FtsZ and a similar three-dimensional structure, this leads to the conclusion that FtsZ is the bacterial tubulin homologue. We have polymerized FtsZ1 from Methanococcus jannaschii in the presence of millimolar concentrations of Ca2+ ions to produce two-dimensional crystals of plane group P2221. Most of the protein precipitates and forms filaments approximately 23.0 nm in diameter. A three-dimensional reconstruction of tilted micrographs of FtsZ sheets in negative stain between 0 and 60 degrees shows protofilaments of FtsZ running along the sheet axis. Pairs of parallel FtsZ protofilaments associate in an antiparallel fashion to form a two-dimensional sheet. The antiparallel arrangement is believed to generate flat sheets instead of the curved filaments seen in other FtsZ polymers. Together with the subunit spacing along the protofilament axis, a fitting of the FtsZ crystal structure into the reconstruction suggests a protofilamant structure very similar to that of tubulin protofilaments. PMID:10228151

  20. The development of FtsZ inhibitors as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siti; Ma, Shutao

    2012-07-01

    The emergence and prevalence of bacterial resistance has resulted in a clear demand for novel antibacterial drugs. As a tubulin homologue, FtsZ is an essential cell-division protein in prokaryotic organisms and is showing increasing promise as a target for antibacterial drug discovery. This review describes the role of FtsZ in bacterial cytokinesis and various FtsZ inhibitors, with particular focus on their discovery, antibacterial activities, mechanisms of action, synthetic methods, and representative analogues.

  1. FtsZ rings and helices: physical mechanisms for the dynamic alignment of biopolymers in rod-shaped bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Gov, Nir S.

    2012-02-01

    In many bacterial species, the protein FtsZ forms a cytoskeletal ring that marks the future division site and scaffolds the division machinery. In rod-shaped bacteria, most frequently membrane-attached FtsZ rings or ring fragments are reported and occasionally helices. By contrast, axial FtsZ clusters have never been reported. In this paper, we investigate theoretically how dynamic FtsZ aggregates align in rod-shaped bacteria. We study systematically different physical mechanisms that affect the alignment of FtsZ polymers using a computational model that relies on autocatalytic aggregation of FtsZ filaments at the membrane. Our study identifies a general tool kit of physical and geometrical mechanisms by which rod-shaped cells align biopolymer aggregates. Our analysis compares the relative impact of each mechanism on the circumferential alignment of FtsZ as observed in rod-shaped bacteria. We determine spontaneous curvature of FtsZ polymers and axial confinement of FtsZ on the membrane as the strongest factors. Including Min oscillations in our model, we find that these stabilize axial and helical clusters on short time scales, but promote the formation of an FtsZ ring at the cell middle at longer times. This effect could provide an explanation to the long standing puzzle of transiently observed oscillating FtsZ helices in Escherichia coli cells prior to cell division.

  2. FtsZ Placement in Nucleoid-Free Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Margolin, William; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO). A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min) involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*), a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement. PMID:24638110

  3. FtsZ placement in nucleoid-free bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Margolin, William; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO). A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min) involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*), a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement.

  4. Reconstitution of Contractile FtsZ Rings in Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Masaki; Anderson, David E.; Erickson, Harold P.

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ is a tubulin homolog and the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It assembles into the Z ring, which contains FtsZ and a dozen other division proteins, and constricts to divide the cell. We have constructed a membrane-targeted FtsZ (FtsZ-mts) by splicing an amphipathic helix to its C terminus. When mixed with lipid vesicles, FtsZ-mts was incorporated into the interior of some tubular vesicles. There it formed multiple Z rings that could move laterally in both directions along the length of the liposome and coalesce into brighter Z rings. Brighter Z rings produced visible constrictions in the liposome, suggesting that FtsZ itself can assemble the Z ring and generate a force. No other proteins were needed for assembly and force generation. PMID:18420899

  5. Mechanism of regulation of prokaryotic tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ by membrane protein EzrA.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuei-Min; Hsu, Hsin-Hsien; Yeh, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Ban-Yang

    2007-05-18

    At initiation of cell division, FtsZ, a tubulin-like GTPase, assembles into a so-called Z-ring structure at the site of division. The formation of Z ring is negatively regulated by EzrA, which ensures only one ring at the midcell per cell cycle. The mechanism leading to the negative regulation of Z-ring formation by EzrA has been analyzed. Our data reveal that the interaction between EzrA and FtsZ not only reduces the GTP-binding ability of FtsZ but also accelerates the rate of GTP hydrolysis, both of which are unfavorable for the polymerization of FtsZ. Moreover, the acceleration in rate of GTP hydrolysis by EzrA is attributed to stabilization of the transition state for GTP hydrolysis and reduction in the affinity of GDP for FtsZ. Clearly, EzrA is able to modify the GTP hydrolysis cycle of FtsZ. On the basis of these results, a model for how EzrA acts to negatively regulate Z-ring formation is proposed.

  6. Bacterial cell division proteins as antibiotic targets.

    PubMed

    den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Andreu, José M; Monasterio, Octavio

    2014-08-01

    Proteins involved in bacterial cell division often do not have a counterpart in eukaryotic cells and they are essential for the survival of the bacteria. The genetic accessibility of many bacterial species in combination with the Green Fluorescence Protein revolution to study localization of proteins and the availability of crystal structures has increased our knowledge on bacterial cell division considerably in this century. Consequently, bacterial cell division proteins are more and more recognized as potential new antibiotic targets. An international effort to find small molecules that inhibit the cell division initiating protein FtsZ has yielded many compounds of which some are promising as leads for preclinical use. The essential transglycosylase activity of peptidoglycan synthases has recently become accessible to inhibitor screening. Enzymatic assays for and structural information on essential integral membrane proteins such as MraY and FtsW involved in lipid II (the peptidoglycan building block precursor) biosynthesis have put these proteins on the list of potential new targets. This review summarises and discusses the results and approaches to the development of lead compounds that inhibit bacterial cell division.

  7. New insights into FtsZ rearrangements during the cell division of Escherichia coli from single-molecule localization microscopy of fixed cells.

    PubMed

    Vedyaykin, Alexey D; Vishnyakov, Innokentii E; Polinovskaya, Vasilisa S; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail A; Sabantsev, Anton V

    2016-06-01

    FtsZ - a prokaryotic tubulin homolog - is one of the central components of bacterial division machinery. At the early stage of cytokinesis FtsZ forms the so-called Z-ring at mid-cell that guides septum formation. Many approaches were used to resolve the structure of the Z-ring, however, researchers are still far from consensus on this question. We utilized single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) in combination with immunofluorescence staining to visualize FtsZ in Esherichia coli fixed cells that were grown under slow and fast growth conditions. This approach allowed us to obtain images of FtsZ structures at different stages of cell division and accurately measure Z-ring dimensions. Analysis of these images demonstrated that Z-ring thickness increases during constriction, starting at about 70 nm at the beginning of division and increasing by approximately 25% half-way through constriction. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Metal-dependent SpoIIE oligomerization stabilizes FtsZ during asymmetric division in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Król, Ewa; de Sousa Borges, Anabela; Kopacz, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    SpoIIE is a bifunctional protein involved in asymmetric septum formation and in activation of the forespore compartment-specific transcription factor σF through dephosphorylation of SpoIIAA-P. The phosphatase activity of SpoIIE requires Mn2+ as a metal cofactor. Here, we show that the presence of a metal cofactor also influences SpoIIE oligomerization and asymmetric septum formation. Absence of Mn2+ from sporulation medium results in a delay of the formation of polar FtsZ-rings, similar to a spoIIE null mutant. We purified the entire cytoplasmic part of the SpoIIE protein, and show that the protein copurifies with bound metals. Metal binding both stimulates SpoIIE oligomerization, and results in the formation of larger oligomeric structures. The presence of SpoIIE oligomers reduces FtsZ GTP hydrolysis activity and stabilizes FtsZ polymers in a light scattering assay. Combined, these results indicate that metal binding is not just required for SpoIIE phosphatase activity but also is important for SpoIIE's role in asymmetric septum formation. PMID:28358838

  9. Energetics and Geometry of FtsZ Polymers: Nucleated Self-Assembly of Single Protofilaments☆

    PubMed Central

    Huecas, Sonia; Llorca, Oscar; Boskovic, Jasminka; Martín-Benito, Jaime; Valpuesta, José María; Andreu, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Essential cell division protein FtsZ is an assembling GTPase which directs the cytokinetic ring formation in dividing bacterial cells. FtsZ shares the structural fold of eukaryotic tubulin and assembles forming tubulin-like protofilaments, but does not form microtubules. Two puzzling problems in FtsZ assembly are the nature of protofilament association and a possible mechanism for nucleated self-assembly of single-stranded protofilaments above a critical FtsZ concentration. We assembled two-dimensional arrays of FtsZ on carbon supports, studied linear polymers of FtsZ with cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified unsupported solutions, and formulated possible polymerization models. Nucleated self-assembly of FtsZ from Escherichia coli with GTP and magnesium produces flexible filaments 4–6 nm-wide, only compatible with a single protofilament. This agrees with previous scanning transmission electron microscopy results and is supported by recent cryo-electron tomography studies of two bacterial cells. Observations of double-stranded FtsZ filaments in negative stain may come from protofilament accretion on the carbon support. Preferential protofilament cyclization does not apply to FtsZ assembly. The apparently cooperative polymerization of a single protofilament with identical intermonomer contacts is explained by the switching of one inactive monomer into the active structure preceding association of the next, creating a dimer nucleus. FtsZ behaves as a cooperative linear assembly machine. PMID:18024502

  10. Energetics and geometry of FtsZ polymers: nucleated self-assembly of single protofilaments.

    PubMed

    Huecas, Sonia; Llorca, Oscar; Boskovic, Jasminka; Martín-Benito, Jaime; Valpuesta, José María; Andreu, José Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Essential cell division protein FtsZ is an assembling GTPase which directs the cytokinetic ring formation in dividing bacterial cells. FtsZ shares the structural fold of eukaryotic tubulin and assembles forming tubulin-like protofilaments, but does not form microtubules. Two puzzling problems in FtsZ assembly are the nature of protofilament association and a possible mechanism for nucleated self-assembly of single-stranded protofilaments above a critical FtsZ concentration. We assembled two-dimensional arrays of FtsZ on carbon supports, studied linear polymers of FtsZ with cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified unsupported solutions, and formulated possible polymerization models. Nucleated self-assembly of FtsZ from Escherichia coli with GTP and magnesium produces flexible filaments 4-6 nm-wide, only compatible with a single protofilament. This agrees with previous scanning transmission electron microscopy results and is supported by recent cryo-electron tomography studies of two bacterial cells. Observations of double-stranded FtsZ filaments in negative stain may come from protofilament accretion on the carbon support. Preferential protofilament cyclization does not apply to FtsZ assembly. The apparently cooperative polymerization of a single protofilament with identical intermonomer contacts is explained by the switching of one inactive monomer into the active structure preceding association of the next, creating a dimer nucleus. FtsZ behaves as a cooperative linear assembly machine.

  11. The Kil Peptide of Bacteriophage λ Blocks Escherichia coli Cytokinesis via ZipA-Dependent Inhibition of FtsZ Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Haeusser, Daniel P.; Hoashi, Marina; Weaver, Anna; Brown, Nathan; Pan, James; Sawitzke, James A.; Thomason, Lynn C.; Court, Donald L.; Margolin, William

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of the essential, tubulin-like FtsZ protein into a ring-shaped structure at the nascent division site determines the timing and position of cytokinesis in most bacteria and serves as a scaffold for recruitment of the cell division machinery. Here we report that expression of bacteriophage λ kil, either from a resident phage or from a plasmid, induces filamentation of Escherichia coli cells by rapid inhibition of FtsZ ring formation. Mutant alleles of ftsZ resistant to the Kil protein map to the FtsZ polymer subunit interface, stabilize FtsZ ring assembly, and confer increased resistance to endogenous FtsZ inhibitors, consistent with Kil inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Cells with the normally essential cell division gene zipA deleted (in a modified background) display normal FtsZ rings after kil expression, suggesting that ZipA is required for Kil-mediated inhibition of FtsZ rings in vivo. In support of this model, point mutations in the C-terminal FtsZ-interaction domain of ZipA abrogate Kil activity without discernibly altering FtsZ-ZipA interactions. An affinity-tagged-Kil derivative interacts with both FtsZ and ZipA, and inhibits sedimentation of FtsZ filament bundles in vitro. Together, these data inspire a model in which Kil interacts with FtsZ and ZipA in the cell to prevent FtsZ assembly into a coherent, division-competent ring structure. Phage growth assays show that kil+ phage lyse ∼30% later than kil mutant phage, suggesting that Kil delays lysis, perhaps via its interaction with FtsZ and ZipA. PMID:24651041

  12. The Kil peptide of bacteriophage λ blocks Escherichia coli cytokinesis via ZipA-dependent inhibition of FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Haeusser, Daniel P; Hoashi, Marina; Weaver, Anna; Brown, Nathan; Pan, James; Sawitzke, James A; Thomason, Lynn C; Court, Donald L; Margolin, William

    2014-03-01

    Assembly of the essential, tubulin-like FtsZ protein into a ring-shaped structure at the nascent division site determines the timing and position of cytokinesis in most bacteria and serves as a scaffold for recruitment of the cell division machinery. Here we report that expression of bacteriophage λ kil, either from a resident phage or from a plasmid, induces filamentation of Escherichia coli cells by rapid inhibition of FtsZ ring formation. Mutant alleles of ftsZ resistant to the Kil protein map to the FtsZ polymer subunit interface, stabilize FtsZ ring assembly, and confer increased resistance to endogenous FtsZ inhibitors, consistent with Kil inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Cells with the normally essential cell division gene zipA deleted (in a modified background) display normal FtsZ rings after kil expression, suggesting that ZipA is required for Kil-mediated inhibition of FtsZ rings in vivo. In support of this model, point mutations in the C-terminal FtsZ-interaction domain of ZipA abrogate Kil activity without discernibly altering FtsZ-ZipA interactions. An affinity-tagged-Kil derivative interacts with both FtsZ and ZipA, and inhibits sedimentation of FtsZ filament bundles in vitro. Together, these data inspire a model in which Kil interacts with FtsZ and ZipA in the cell to prevent FtsZ assembly into a coherent, division-competent ring structure. Phage growth assays show that kil+ phage lyse ∼30% later than kil mutant phage, suggesting that Kil delays lysis, perhaps via its interaction with FtsZ and ZipA.

  13. Cytological Profile of Antibacterial FtsZ Inhibitors and Synthetic Peptide MciZ

    PubMed Central

    Araújo-Bazán, Lidia; Ruiz-Avila, Laura B.; Andreu, David; Huecas, Sonia; Andreu, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites. FtsZ inhibitors lead to long undivided cells, impair the normal assembly of FtsZ into the midcell Z-rings, induce aberrant ring distributions, punctate FtsZ foci, membrane spots and also modify nucleoid length. Quantitative analysis of cell and nucleoid length combined, or the Z-ring distribution, allows categorizing FtsZ inhibitors and to distinguish them from antibiotics with other mechanisms of action, which should be useful for identifying new antibacterial FtsZ inhibitors. Biochemical assays of FtsZ polymerization and GTPase activity combined explain the cellular effects of the FtsZ polymer stabilizing agent PC190723 and its fragments. MciZ is a 40-aminoacid endogenous inhibitor of cell division normally expressed during sporulation in B. subtilis. Using FtsZ cytological profiling we have determined that exogenous synthetic MciZ is an effective inhibitor of B. subtilis cell division, Z-ring formation and localization. This finding supports our cell-based approach to screen for FtsZ inhibitors and opens new possibilities for peptide inhibitors of bacterial cell division. PMID:27752253

  14. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Zupan, John R; Cameron, Todd A; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2013-05-28

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about to divide, however, both poles are equally labeled with FM 4-64, but the constriction site is not. Second, the cell-division protein FtsA alternates from unipolar foci in the shortest cells to unipolar and midcell localization in cells of intermediate length, to strictly midcell localization in the longest cells undergoing septation. Third, the cell division protein FtsZ localizes in a cell-cycle pattern similar to, but more complex than, FtsA. Finally, because PG synthesis is spatially and temporally regulated during the cell cycle, we treated cells with sublethal concentrations of carbenicillin (Cb) to assess the role of penicillin-binding proteins in growth and cell division. Cb-treated cells formed midcell circumferential bulges, suggesting that interrupted PG synthesis destabilizes the septum. Midcell bulges contained bands or foci of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP and no FM 4-64 label, as in untreated cells. There were no abnormal morphologies at the growth poles in Cb-treated cells, suggesting unipolar growth uses Cb-insensitive PG synthesis enzymes.

  15. The Mechanics of FtsZ Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Daniel J.; Portman, Ian; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Rodger, Alison; Roper, David I.; Smith, Corinne J.; Turner, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of the Fts family of proteins causes the growth of long filamentous cells, indicating that they play some role in cell division. FtsZ polymerizes into protofilaments and assembles into the Z-ring at the future site of the septum of cell division. We analyze the rigidity of GTP-bound FtsZ protofilaments by using cryoelectron microscopy to sample their bending fluctuations. We find that the FtsZ-GTP filament rigidity is κ = 4.7±1.0×10 − 27κ=4.7±1.0×10−27 Nm2, with a corresponding thermal persistence length of lp = 1.15±0.25lp=1.15±0.25μm, much higher than previous estimates. In conjunction with other model studies, our new higher estimate for FtsZ rigidity suggests that contraction of the Z-ring may generate sufficient force to facilitate cell division. The good agreement between the measured mode amplitudes and that predicted by equipartition of energy supports our use of a simple mechanical model for FtsZ fibers. The study also provides evidence that the fibers have no intrinsic global or local curvatures, such as might be caused by partial hydrolysis of the GTP. PMID:22385843

  16. Transcription of ftsZ oscillates during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garrido, T; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Aldea, M; Vicente, M

    1993-10-01

    The FtsZ protein is a key element controlling cell division in Escherichia coli. A powerful transcription titration assay was used to quantify the ftsZ mRNA present in synchronously dividing cells. The ftsZ mRNA levels oscillate during the cell cycle reaching a maximum at about the time DNA replication initiates. This cell cycle dependency is specifically due to the two proximal ftsZ promoters. A strain was constructed in which expression of ftsZ could be modulated by an exogenous inducer. In this strain cell size and cell division frequency were sensitive to the cellular FtsZ contents, demonstrating the rate-limiting role of this protein in cell division. Transcriptional activity of the ftsZ promoters was found to be independent of DnaA, indicating that DNA replication and cell division may be independently controlled at the time when new rounds of DNA replication are initiated. This suggests a parallelism between the prokaryotic cell cycle signals and the START point of eukaryotic cell cycles.

  17. Transcription of ftsZ oscillates during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, T; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Aldea, M; Vicente, M

    1993-01-01

    The FtsZ protein is a key element controlling cell division in Escherichia coli. A powerful transcription titration assay was used to quantify the ftsZ mRNA present in synchronously dividing cells. The ftsZ mRNA levels oscillate during the cell cycle reaching a maximum at about the time DNA replication initiates. This cell cycle dependency is specifically due to the two proximal ftsZ promoters. A strain was constructed in which expression of ftsZ could be modulated by an exogenous inducer. In this strain cell size and cell division frequency were sensitive to the cellular FtsZ contents, demonstrating the rate-limiting role of this protein in cell division. Transcriptional activity of the ftsZ promoters was found to be independent of DnaA, indicating that DNA replication and cell division may be independently controlled at the time when new rounds of DNA replication are initiated. This suggests a parallelism between the prokaryotic cell cycle signals and the START point of eukaryotic cell cycles. Images PMID:8404863

  18. Imaging-based identification of a critical regulator of FtsZ protofilament curvature in Caulobacter

    PubMed Central

    Goley, Erin D.; Dye, Natalie A.; Werner, John N.; Gitai, Zemer; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY FtsZ is an essential bacterial GTPase that polymerizes at midcell, recruits the division machinery, and may generate constrictive forces necessary for cytokinesis. However, many of the mechanistic details underlying these functions are unknown. We sought to identify FtsZ-binding proteins that influence FtsZ function in Caulobacter crescentus. Here, we present a microscopy-based screen through which we discovered two FtsZ-binding proteins, FzlA and FzlC. FzlA is conserved in α-proteobacteria and was found to be functionally critical for cell division in Caulobacter. FzlA altered FtsZ structure both in vivo and in vitro, forming stable higher order structures that were resistant to depolymerization by MipZ, a spatial determinant of FtsZ assembly. Electron microscopy revealed that FzlA organizes FtsZ protofilaments into striking helical bundles. The degree of curvature induced by FzlA depended on the nucleotide bound to FtsZ. Induction of FtsZ curvature by FzlA carries implications for regulating FtsZ function by modulating its superstructure. PMID:20864042

  19. Intrinsic characteristics of Min proteins on the cell division of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Norihito; Umeda, Akiko; Kadota, Yoshu; Kira, Mizuki; Okazaki, Ami; Matsumura, Yoshihisa; Sugiura, Tetsuro

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori divides in the human stomach resulting in persistent infections and causing various disorders. Bacterial cell division is precisely coordinated by many molecules, including FtsZ and Min proteins. However, the role of Min proteins in H. pylori division is poorly understood. We investigated the functional characteristics of Min proteins in wild-type HPK5 and five HPK5-derivative mutants using morphological and genetic approaches. All mutants showed a filamentous shape. However, the bacterial cell growth and viability of three single-gene mutants (minC, minD, minE) were similar to that of the wild-type. The coccoid form number was lowest in the minE-disruptant, indicating that MinE contributes to the coccoid form conversion during the stationary phase. Immunofluorescence microscopic observations showed that FtsZ was dispersedly distributed throughout the bacterial cell irrespective of nucleoid position in only minD-disruptants, indicating that MinD is involved in the nucleoid occlusion system. A chase assay demonstrated that MinC loss suppressed FtsZ-degradation, indicating that FtsZ degrades in a MinC-dependent manner. Molecular interactions between FtsZ and Min proteins were confirmed by immunoprecipitation (IP)-western blotting (WB), suggesting the functional cooperation of these molecules during bacterial cell division. This study describes the intrinsic characteristics of Min proteins and provides new insights into H. pylori cell division.

  20. An intrinsically disordered linker plays a critical role in bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Buske, P J; Mittal, Anuradha; Pappu, Rohit V; Levin, Petra Anne

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria, animals, fungi, and many single celled eukaryotes, division is initiated by the formation of a ring of cytoskeletal protein at the nascent division site. In bacteria, the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ serves as the foundation for the cytokinetic ring. A conserved feature of FtsZ is an intrinsically disordered peptide known as the C-terminal linker. Chimeric experiments suggest the linker acts as a flexible boom allowing FtsZ to associate with the membrane through a conserved C-terminal domain and also modulates interactions both between FtsZ subunits and between FtsZ and modulatory proteins in the cytoplasm.

  1. Roles of the essential protein FtsA in cell growth and division in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Mura, Andrea; Fadda, Daniela; Perez, Amilcar J; Danforth, Madeline L; Musu, Daniela; Rico, Ana Isabel; Krupka, Marcin; Denapaite, Dalia; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Winkler, Malcolm E; Branny, Pavel; Vicente, Miguel; Margolin, William; Massidda, Orietta

    2016-11-21

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an ovoid-shaped Gram-positive bacterium that grows by carrying out peripheral and septal peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis, analogous to model bacilli such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis In the model bacilli, FtsZ and FtsA proteins assemble into a ring at midcell and are dedicated to septal PG synthesis, but not peripheral PG synthesis; hence inactivation of FtsZ or FtsA results in long filamentous cells unable to divide. Here we demonstrate that FtsA and FtsZ colocalize at midcell in S. pneumoniae and that partial depletion of FtsA perturbs septum synthesis, resulting in elongated cells with multiple FtsZ rings that fail to complete septation. Unexpectedly, complete depletion of FtsA resulted in delocalization of FtsZ rings and ultimately cell ballooning and lysis. In contrast, depletion or deletion of gpsB and sepF, which in B. subtilis are synthetically lethal with ftsA, resulted in enlarged and elongated cells, with multiple FtsZ rings, the latter mimicking partial depletion of FtsA. Notably, cell ballooning was not observed, consistent with later recruitment of these proteins to midcell after Z ring assembly. Overproduction of FtsA stimulates septation and suppresses the cell division defects caused by deletion of sepF and gpsB under some conditions, supporting the notion that FtsA shares overlapping functions with GpsB and SepF at later steps in the division process. Our results indicate that, in S. pneumoniae, both GpsB and SepF are involved in septal PG synthesis, whereas FtsA and FtsZ coordinate both peripheral and septal PG synthesis and are codependent for localization at midcell.

  2. Preferential cytoplasmic location of FtsZ, a protein essential for Escherichia coli septation.

    PubMed

    Pla, J; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Vicente, M; Aldea, M

    1991-07-01

    An ftsZ thermonull mutant has been constructed in which the ftsZ gene has been deleted from the Escherichia coli chromosome while maintaining a wild-type copy of the gene in a thermosensitive plasmid. Under conditions in which the ftsZ+ allele is unable to be replicated at the same pace as the chromosome, the cells become non-viable and grow as filaments, indicating that, contrary to other reports, FtsZ performs a function essential for cell survival. Antibodies raised against FtsZ have been used to detect the cellular location of FtsZ and its contents per cell. Fractionation experiments indicate that most of the total FtsZ present in the cell stays in the cytoplasm.

  3. Modeling FtsZ ring formation in the bacterial cell—anisotropic aggregation via mutual interactions of polymer rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Gov, Nir

    2011-04-01

    The cytoskeletal protein FtsZ polymerizes to a ring structure (Z ring) at the inner cytoplasmic membrane that marks the future division site and scaffolds the division machinery in many bacterial species. FtsZ is known to polymerize in the presence of GTP into single-stranded protofilaments. In vivo, FtsZ polymers become associated with the cytoplasmic membrane via interaction with the membrane-binding proteins FtsA and ZipA. The FtsZ ring structure is highly dynamic and undergoes constantly polymerization and depolymerization processes and exchange with the cytoplasmic pool. In this theoretical study, we consider a scenario of Z ring self-organization via self-enhanced attachment of FtsZ polymers due to end-to-end interactions and lateral interactions of FtsZ polymers on the membrane. With the assumption of exclusively circumferential polymer orientations, we derive coarse-grained equations for the dynamics of the pool of cytoplasmic and membrane-bound FtsZ. To capture stochastic effects expected in the system due to low particle numbers, we simulate our computational model using a Gillespie-type algorithm. We obtain ring- and arc-shaped aggregations of FtsZ polymers on the membrane as a function of monomer numbers in the cell. In particular, our model predicts the number of FtsZ rings forming in the cell as a function of cell geometry and FtsZ concentration. We also calculate the time of FtsZ ring localization to the midplane in the presence of Min oscillations. Finally, we demonstrate that the assumptions and results of our model are confirmed by 3D reconstructions of fluorescently-labeled FtsZ structures in E. coli that we obtained.

  4. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, T; Laksanalamai, P; Jiemjit, A; Kagawa, H K; Alton, T; Trent, J D

    2000-09-07

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaoi, T.; Laksanalamai, P.; Jiemjit, A.; Kagawa, H. K.; Alton, T.; Trent, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. A novel membrane anchor for FtsZ is linked to cell wall hydrolysis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Meier, Elizabeth L; Razavi, Shiva; Inoue, Takanari; Goley, Erin D

    2016-07-01

    In most bacteria, the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ forms an annulus at midcell (the Z-ring) which recruits the division machinery and regulates cell wall remodeling. Although both activities require membrane attachment of FtsZ, few membrane anchors have been characterized. FtsA is considered to be the primary membrane tether for FtsZ in bacteria, however in Caulobacter crescentus, FtsA arrives at midcell after stable Z-ring assembly and early FtsZ-directed cell wall synthesis. We hypothesized that additional proteins tether FtsZ to the membrane and demonstrate that in C. crescentus, FzlC is one such membrane anchor. FzlC associates with membranes directly in vivo and in vitro and recruits FtsZ to membranes in vitro. As for most known membrane anchors, the C-terminal peptide of FtsZ is required for its recruitment to membranes by FzlC in vitro and midcell recruitment of FzlC in cells. In vivo, overproduction of FzlC causes cytokinesis defects whereas deletion of fzlC causes synthetic defects with dipM, ftsE and amiC mutants, implicating FzlC in cell wall hydrolysis. Our characterization of FzlC as a novel membrane anchor for FtsZ expands our understanding of FtsZ regulators and establishes a role for membrane-anchored FtsZ in the regulation of cell wall hydrolysis.

  7. Roles of the Essential Protein FtsA in Cell Growth and Division in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, Daniela; Perez, Amilcar J.; Danforth, Madeline L.; Musu, Daniela; Krupka, Marcin; Denapaite, Dalia; Tsui, Ho-Ching T.; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Branny, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae is an ovoid-shaped Gram-positive bacterium that grows by carrying out peripheral and septal peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis, analogous to model bacilli, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In the model bacilli, FtsZ and FtsA proteins assemble into a ring at midcell and are dedicated to septal PG synthesis but not peripheral PG synthesis; hence, inactivation of FtsZ or FtsA results in long filamentous cells unable to divide. Here, we demonstrate that FtsA and FtsZ colocalize at midcell in S. pneumoniae and that partial depletion of FtsA perturbs septum synthesis, resulting in elongated cells with multiple FtsZ rings that fail to complete septation. Unexpectedly, complete depletion of FtsA resulted in the delocalization of FtsZ rings and ultimately cell ballooning and lysis. In contrast, depletion or deletion of gpsB and sepF, which in B. subtilis are synthetically lethal with ftsA, resulted in enlarged and elongated cells with multiple FtsZ rings, with deletion of sepF mimicking partial depletion of FtsA. Notably, cell ballooning was not observed, consistent with later recruitment of these proteins to midcell after Z-ring assembly. The overproduction of FtsA stimulates septation and suppresses the cell division defects caused by the deletion of sepF and gpsB under some conditions, supporting the notion that FtsA shares overlapping functions with GpsB and SepF at later steps in the division process. Our results indicate that, in S. pneumoniae, both GpsB and SepF are involved in septal PG synthesis, whereas FtsA and FtsZ coordinate both peripheral and septal PG synthesis and are codependent for localization at midcell. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a clinically important human pathogen for which more therapies against unexploited essential targets, like cell growth and division proteins, are needed. Pneumococcus is an ovoid-shaped Gram-positive bacterium with cell growth and division properties that

  8. The GTPase Activity of Escherichia coli FtsZ Determines the Magnitude of the FtsZ Polymer Bundling by ZapA in Vitro†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ polymerizes in a ring-like structure at mid cell to initiate cell division in Escherichia coli. The ring is stabilized by a number of proteins among which the widely conserved ZapA protein. Using antibodies against ZapA, we found surprisingly that the cellular concentration of ZapA is approximately equal to that of FtsZ. This raised the question of how the cell can prevent their interaction and thereby the premature stabilization of FtsZ protofilaments in nondividing cells. Therefore, we studied the FtsZ−ZapA interaction at the physiological pH of 7.5 instead of pH 6.5 (the optimal pH for FtsZ polymerization), under conditions that stimulate protofilament formation (5 mM MgCl2) and under conditions that stimulate and stabilize protofilaments (10 mM MgCl2). Using pelleting, light scattering, and GTPase assays, it was found that stabilization and bundling of FtsZ polymers by ZapA was inversely correlated to the GTPase activity of FtsZ. As GTP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting factor for depolymerization of FtsZ, we propose that ZapA will only enhance the cooperativity of polymer association during the transition from helical filament to mid cell ring and will not stabilize the short single protofilaments in the cytoplasm. All thus far published in vitro data on the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA have been obtained with His-ZapA. We found that in our case the presence of a His tag fused to ZapA prevented the protein to complement a ΔzapA strain in vivo and that it affected the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA in vitro. PMID:19842714

  9. Structure and Mutational Analyses of Escherichia coli ZapD Reveal Charged Residues Involved in FtsZ Filament Bundling

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Elyse J.; Wroblewski, Charles; Seidel, Laura; Berezuk, Alison M.; Brewer, Dyanne; Kimber, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial cell division is an essential and highly coordinated process. It requires the polymerization of the tubulin homologue FtsZ to form a dynamic ring (Z-ring) at midcell. Z-ring formation relies on a group of FtsZ-associated proteins (Zap) for stability throughout the process of division. In Escherichia coli, there are currently five Zap proteins (ZapA through ZapE), of which four (ZapA, ZapB, ZapC, and ZapD) are small soluble proteins that act to bind and bundle FtsZ filaments. In particular, ZapD forms a functional dimer and interacts with the C-terminal tail of FtsZ, but little is known about its structure and mechanism of action. Here, we present the crystal structure of Escherichia coli ZapD and show it forms a symmetrical dimer with centrally located α-helices flanked by β-sheet domains. Based on the structure of ZapD and its chemical cross-linking to FtsZ, we targeted nine charged ZapD residues for modification by site-directed mutagenesis. Using in vitro FtsZ sedimentation assays, we show that residues R56, R221, and R225 are important for bundling FtsZ filaments, while transmission electron microscopy revealed that altering these residues results in different FtsZ bundle morphology compared to those of filaments bundled with wild-type ZapD. ZapD residue R116 also showed altered FtsZ bundle morphology but levels of FtsZ bundling similar to that of wild-type ZapD. Together, these results reveal that ZapD residues R116, R221, and R225 likely participate in forming a positively charged binding pocket that is critical for bundling FtsZ filaments. IMPORTANCE Z-ring assembly underpins the formation of the essential cell division complex known as the divisome and is required for recruitment of downstream cell division proteins. ZapD is one of several proteins in E. coli that associates with the Z-ring to promote FtsZ bundling and aids in the overall fitness of the division process. In the present study, we describe the dimeric structure of E. coli

  10. Chrysophaentins are competitive inhibitors of FtsZ and inhibit Z-ring formation in live bacteria.

    PubMed

    Keffer, Jessica L; Huecas, Sonia; Hammill, Jared T; Wipf, Peter; Andreu, Jose M; Bewley, Carole A

    2013-09-15

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form a Z-ring that marks the plane of division. As a validated antimicrobial target, considerable efforts have been devoted to identify small molecule FtsZ inhibitors. We recently discovered the chrysophaentins, a novel suite of marine natural products that inhibit FtsZ activity in vitro. These natural products along with a synthetic hemi-chrysophaentin exhibit strong antimicrobial activity toward a broad spectrum of Gram-positive pathogens. To define their mechanisms of FtsZ inhibition and determine their in vivo effects in live bacteria, we used GTPase assays and fluorescence anisotropy to show that hemi-chrysophaentin competitively inhibits FtsZ activity. Furthermore, we developed a model system using a permeable Escherichia coli strain, envA1, together with an inducible FtsZ-yellow fluorescent protein construct to show by fluorescence microscopy that both chrysophaentin A and hemi-chrysophaentin disrupt Z-rings in live bacteria. We tested the E. coli system further by reproducing phenotypes observed for zantrins Z1 and Z3, and demonstrate that the alkaloid berberine, a reported FtsZ inhibitor, exhibits auto-fluorescence, making it incompatible with systems that employ GFP or YFP tagged FtsZ. These studies describe unique examples of nonnucleotide, competitive FtsZ inhibitors that disrupt FtsZ in vivo, together with a model system that should be useful for in vivo testing of FtsZ inhibitor leads that have been identified through in vitro screens but are unable to penetrate the Gram-negative outer membrane. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of rhodomyrtone on Gram-positive bacterial tubulin homologue FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Saeloh, Dennapa; Wenzel, Michaela; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Hamoen, Leendert Willem

    2017-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone, a natural antimicrobial compound, displays potent activity against many Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, comparable to last-defence antibiotics including vancomycin and daptomycin. Our previous studies pointed towards effects of rhodomyrtone on the bacterial membrane and cell wall. In addition, a recent molecular docking study suggested that the compound could competitively bind to the main bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. In this study, we applied a computational approach (in silico), in vitro, and in vivo experiments to investigate molecular interactions of rhodomyrtone with FtsZ. Using molecular simulation, FtsZ conformational changes were observed in both (S)- and (R)-rhodomyrtone binding states, compared with the three natural states of FtsZ (ligand-free, GDP-, and GTP-binding states). Calculations of free binding energy showed a higher affinity of FtsZ to (S)-rhodomyrtone (−35.92 ± 0.36 kcal mol−1) than the GDP substrate (−23.47 ± 0.25 kcal mol−1) while less affinity was observed in the case of (R)-rhodomyrtone (−18.11 ± 0.11 kcal mol−1). In vitro experiments further revealed that rhodomyrtone reduced FtsZ polymerization by 36% and inhibited GTPase activity by up to 45%. However, the compound had no effect on FtsZ localization in Bacillus subtilis at inhibitory concentrations and cells also did not elongate after treatment. Higher concentrations of rhodomyrtone did affect localization of FtsZ and also affected localization of its membrane anchor proteins FtsA and SepF, showing that the compound did not specifically inhibit FtsZ but rather impaired multiple divisome proteins. Furthermore, a number of cells adopted a bean-like shape suggesting that rhodomyrtone possibly possesses further targets involved in cell envelope synthesis and/or maintenance. PMID:28168121

  12. Depolymerization dynamics of individual filaments of bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Paez, Alfonso; Hörger, Ines; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel; Tarazona, Pedro; Vélez, Marisela

    2012-01-01

    We report observation and analysis of the depolymerization filaments of the bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ (filament temperature-sensitive Z) formed on a mica surface. At low concentration, proteins adsorbed on the surface polymerize forming curved filaments that close into rings that remain stable for some time before opening irreversibly and fully depolymerizing. The distribution of ring lifetimes (T) as a function of length (N), shows that the rate of ring aperture correlates with filament length. If this ring lifetime is expressed as a bond survival time, (Tb ≡ NT), this correlation is abolished, indicating that these rupture events occur randomly and independently at each monomer interface. After rings open irreversibly, depolymerization of the remaining filaments is fast, but can be slowed down and followed using a nonhydrolyzing GTP analogue. The histogram of depolymerization velocities of individual filaments has an asymmetric distribution that can be fit with a computer model that assumes two rupture rates, a slow one similar to the one observed for ring aperture, affecting monomers in the central part of the filaments, and a faster one affecting monomers closer to the open ends. From the quantitative analysis, we conclude that the depolymerization rate is affected both by nucleotide hydrolysis rate and by its exchange along the filament, that all monomer interfaces are equally competent for hydrolysis, although depolymerization is faster at the open ends than in central filament regions, and that all monomer–monomer interactions, regardless of the nucleotide present, can adopt a curved configuration. PMID:22566654

  13. ARC3 is a stromal Z-ring accessory protein essential for plastid division

    PubMed Central

    Maple, Jodi; Vojta, Lea; Soll, Jurgen; Møller, Simon G

    2007-01-01

    In plants, chloroplast division is an integral part of development, and these vital organelles arise by binary fission from pre-existing cytosolic plastids. Chloroplasts arose by endosymbiosis and although they have retained elements of the bacterial cell division machinery to execute plastid division, they have evolved to require two functionally distinct forms of the FtsZ protein and have lost elements of the Min machinery required for Z-ring placement. Here, we analyse the plastid division component accumulation and replication of chloroplasts 3 (ARC3) and show that ARC3 forms part of the stromal plastid division machinery. ARC3 interacts specifically with AtFtsZ1, acting as a Z-ring accessory protein and defining a unique function for this family of FtsZ proteins. ARC3 is involved in division site placement, suggesting that it might functionally replace MinC, representing an important advance in our understanding of the mechanism of chloroplast division and the evolution of the chloroplast division machinery. PMID:17304239

  14. Three rings for the evolution of plastid shape: a tale of land plant FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Grosche, Christopher; Rensing, Stefan A

    2017-03-03

    Nuclear-encoded plant FtsZ genes are derived from endosymbiotic gene transfer of cyanobacteria-like genes. The green lineage (Chloroplastida) and red lineage (Rhodophyta) feature FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 or FtsZB and FtsZA, respectively, which are involved in plastid division. These two proteins show slight differences and seem to heteropolymerize to build the essential inner plastid division ring. A third gene, encoding FtsZ3, is present in glaucophyte and charophyte algae, as well as in land plants except ferns and angiosperms. This gene was probably present in the last common ancestor of the organisms united by having a primary plastid (Archaeplastida) and was lost during vascular plant evolution as well as in the red and green algae. The presence/absence pattern of FtsZ3 mirrors that of a full set of Mur genes and the peptidoglycan wall encoded by them. Based on these findings, we discuss a role for FtsZ3 in the establishment or maintenance of plastid peptidoglycan shells.

  15. Charged Molecules Modulate the Volume Exclusion Effects Exerted by Crowders on FtsZ Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Reija, Belén; Jiménez, Mercedes; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of protein crowders, either combined or individually, on the GTP-induced FtsZ cooperative assembly, crucial for the formation of the dynamic septal ring and, hence, for bacterial division. It was earlier demonstrated that high concentrations of inert polymers like Ficoll 70, used to mimic the crowded cellular interior, favor the assembly of FtsZ into bundles with slow depolymerization. We have found, by fluorescence anisotropy together with light scattering measurements, that the presence of protein crowders increases the tendency of FtsZ to polymerize at micromolar magnesium concentration, being the effect larger with ovomucoid, a negatively charged protein. Neutral polymers and a positively charged protein also diminished the critical concentration of assembly, the extent of the effect being compatible with that expected according to pure volume exclusion models. FtsZ polymerization was also observed to be strongly promoted by a negatively charged polymer, DNA, and by some unrelated polymers like PEGs at concentrations below the crowding regime. The influence of mixed crowders mimicking the heterogeneity of the intracellular environment on the tendency of FtsZ to assemble was also studied and nonadditive effects were found to prevail. Far from exactly reproducing the bacterial cytoplasm environment, this approach serves as a simplified model illustrating how its intrinsically crowded and heterogeneous nature may modulate FtsZ assembly into a functional Z-ring. PMID:26870947

  16. MinD directly interacting with FtsZ at the H10 helix suggests a model for robust activation of MinC to destabilize FtsZ polymers.

    PubMed

    Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2017-09-07

    Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix resulted in a decrease in the FtsZ affinity towards MinD. Based on our findings, we propose a novel model for MinCD-FtsZ interaction, where MinD through its direct interaction with FtsZ would trigger MinC activity to inhibit FtsZ functions. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. SlmA, a Nucleoid-Associated, FtsZ Binding Protein Required for Blocking Septal Ring Assembly over Chromosomes in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Thomas G.; de Boer, Piet A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cell division in Escherichia coli begins with assembly of the tubulin-like FtsZ protein into a ring structure just underneath the cell membrane. Spatial control over Z ring assembly is achieved by two partially redundant negative regulatory systems, the Min system and nucleoid occlusion (NO), which cooperate to position the division site at midcell. In contrast to the well-studied Min system, almost nothing is known about how Z ring assembly is blocked in the vicinity of nucleoids to effect NO. Reasoning that Min function might become essential in cells impaired for NO, we screened for mutations synthetically lethal with a defective Min system (slm mutants). By using this approach, we identified SlmA (Ttk) as the first NO factor in E. coli. Our combined genetic, cytological, and bio-chemical results suggest that SlmA is a DNA-associated division inhibitor that is directly involved in preventing Z ring assembly on portions of the membrane surrounding the nucleoid. PMID:15916962

  18. SB-RA-2001 Inhibits Bacterial Proliferation by Targeting FtsZ Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    FtsZ has been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target because of its vital role in bacterial cell division. In this work, we found that a taxane SB-RA-2001 inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38 and 60 μM, respectively. Cell lengths of these microorganisms increased remarkably in the presence of SB-RA-2001, indicating that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. SB-RA-2001 perturbed the formation of the FtsZ ring in B. subtilis 168 cells and also affected the localization of the late cell division protein, DivIVA, at the midcell position. Flow cytometric analysis of the SB-RA-2001-treated cells indicated that the compound did not affect the duplication of DNA in B. subtilis 168 cells. Further, SB-RA-2001 treatment did not affect the localization of the chromosomal partitioning protein, Spo0J, along the two ends of the nucleoids and also had no discernible effect on the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis 168 cells. The agent also did not appear to perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis 168 cells. In vitro, SB-RA-2001 bound to FtsZ with modest affinity, promoted the assembly and bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, and reduced the GTPase activity of FtsZ. GTP did not inhibit the binding of SB-RA-2001 to FtsZ, suggesting that it does not bind to the GTP binding site on FtsZ. A computational analysis indicated that SB-RA-2001 binds to FtsZ in the cleft region between the C-terminal domain and helix H7, and the binding site of SB-RA-2001 on FtsZ resembled that of PC190723, a well-characterized inhibitor of FtsZ. The findings collectively suggested that SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ, and this can be exploited further to develop potent FtsZ-targeted antimicrobials. PMID:24749867

  19. SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dipty; Bhattacharya, Anusri; Rai, Ankit; Dhaked, Hemendra Pal Singh; Awasthi, Divya; Ojima, Iwao; Panda, Dulal

    2014-05-13

    FtsZ has been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target because of its vital role in bacterial cell division. In this work, we found that a taxane SB-RA-2001 inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38 and 60 μM, respectively. Cell lengths of these microorganisms increased remarkably in the presence of SB-RA-2001, indicating that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. SB-RA-2001 perturbed the formation of the FtsZ ring in B. subtilis 168 cells and also affected the localization of the late cell division protein, DivIVA, at the midcell position. Flow cytometric analysis of the SB-RA-2001-treated cells indicated that the compound did not affect the duplication of DNA in B. subtilis 168 cells. Further, SB-RA-2001 treatment did not affect the localization of the chromosomal partitioning protein, Spo0J, along the two ends of the nucleoids and also had no discernible effect on the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis 168 cells. The agent also did not appear to perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis 168 cells. In vitro, SB-RA-2001 bound to FtsZ with modest affinity, promoted the assembly and bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, and reduced the GTPase activity of FtsZ. GTP did not inhibit the binding of SB-RA-2001 to FtsZ, suggesting that it does not bind to the GTP binding site on FtsZ. A computational analysis indicated that SB-RA-2001 binds to FtsZ in the cleft region between the C-terminal domain and helix H7, and the binding site of SB-RA-2001 on FtsZ resembled that of PC190723, a well-characterized inhibitor of FtsZ. The findings collectively suggested that SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ, and this can be exploited further to develop potent FtsZ-targeted antimicrobials.

  20. The peroxyl radical-induced oxidation of Escherichia coli FtsZ and its single tryptophan mutant (Y222W) modifies specific side-chains, generates protein cross-links and affects biological function.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Leinisch, Fabian; Araya, Gissela; Monasterio, Octavio; Lorentzen, Lasse G; Silva, Eduardo; Davies, Michael J; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2017-11-01

    FtsZ (filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z) is a key protein in bacteria cell division. The wild-type Escherichia coli FtsZ sequence (FtsZwt) contains three tyrosine (Tyr, Y) and sixteen methionine (Met, M) residues. The Tyr at position 222 is a key residue for FtsZ polymerization. Mutation of this residue to tryptophan (Trp, W; mutant Y222W) inhibits GTPase activity resulting in an extended time in the polymerized state compared to FtsZwt. Protein oxidation has been highlighted as a determinant process for bacteria resistance and consequently oxidation of FtsZwt and the Y222W mutant, by peroxyl radicals (ROO•) generated from AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) was studied. The non-oxidized proteins showed differences in their polymerization behavior, with this favored by the presence of Trp at position 222. AAPH-treatment of the proteins inhibited polymerization. Protein integrity studies using SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of both monomers and oligomers (dimers, trimers and high mass material) on oxidation. Western blotting indicated the presence of significant levels of protein carbonyls. Amino acid analysis showed that Tyr, Trp (in the Y222W mutant), and Met were consumed by ROO•. Quantification of the number of moles of amino acid consumed per mole of ROO• shows that most of the initial oxidant can be accounted for at low radical fluxes, with Met being a major target. Western blotting provided evidence for di-tyrosine cross-links in the dimeric and trimeric proteins, confirming that oxidation of Tyr residues, at positions 339 and/or 371, are critical to ROO•-mediated crosslinking of both the FtsZwt and Y222W mutant protein. These findings are in agreement with di-tyrosine, N-formyl kynurenine, and kynurenine quantification assessed by UPLC, and with LC-MS data obtained for AAPH-treated protein samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MinCD cell division proteins form alternating co-polymeric cytomotive filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Debnath; Trambaiolo, Daniel; Amos, Linda A.; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Summary During bacterial cell division, filaments of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ assemble at midcell to form the cytokinetic Z-ring. Its positioning is regulated by the oscillation of MinCDE proteins. MinC is activated by MinD through an unknown mechanism and prevents Z-ring assembly anywhere but midcell. Here, using X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and in vivo analyses we show that MinD activates MinC by forming a new class of alternating copolymeric filaments that show similarity to eukaryotic septin filaments A non-polymerising mutation in MinD causes aberrant cell division in E. coli. MinCD copolymers bind to membrane, interact with FtsZ, and are disassembled by MinE. Imaging a functional msfGFP-MinC fusion protein in MinE deleted cells reveals filamentous structures. EM imaging of our reconstitution of the MinCD-FtsZ interaction on liposome surfaces reveals a plausible mechanism for regulation of FtsZ ring assembly by MinCD copolymers. PMID:25500731

  2. Discovery of chlamydial peptidoglycan reveals bacteria with murein sacculi but without FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Kuru, Erkin; Hall, Edward; Brun, Yves V.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Horn, Matthias; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydiae are important pathogens and symbionts, with unique cell biology features. They lack the cell-division protein FtsZ, which functions in maintaining cell shape and orchestrating cell division in almost all other bacteria. In addition, the existence of peptidoglycan (PG) in chlamydial cell envelopes has been highly controversial. Using electron cryotomography, mass spectrometry and fluorescent labeling dyes, here we show that some environmental chlamydiae have cell-wall sacculi consisting of an unusual PG type. Treatment with fosfomycin (a PG synthesis inhibitor) leads to lower infection rates and aberrant cell shapes, suggesting that PG synthesis is crucial for the chlamydial life cycle. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of PG in a member of the Chlamydiae. They also present a unique example of a bacterium with a PG sacculus but without FtsZ, challenging the current hypothesis that it is the absence of a cell wall that renders FtsZ non-essential. PMID:24292151

  3. FtsZ Condensates: An In Vitro Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Popp, David; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Narita, Akihiro; Erickson, Harold P.; Maéda, Yuichiro

    2009-01-01

    In vivo cell division protein FtsZ from E. coli forms rings and spirals which have only been observed by low resolution light microscopy. We show that these suprastructures are likely formed by molecular crowding which is a predominant factor in prokaryotic cells and enhances the weak lateral bonds between proto-filaments. Although FtsZ assembles into single proto-filaments in dilute aqueous buffer, with crowding agents above a critical concentration, it forms polymorphic supramolecular structures including rings and toroids (with multiple protofilaments) about 200 nm in diameter, similar in appearance to DNA toroids, and helices with pitches of several hundred nm as well as long, linear bundles. Helices resemble those observed in vivo, whereas the rings and toroids may represent a novel energy minimized state of FtsZ, at a later stage of Z-ring constriction. We shed light on the molecular arrangement of FtsZ filaments within these suprastructures using high resolution electron microscopy. PMID:19137575

  4. Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates is a combination of direct targeting of FtsZ and permeabilization of bacterial membranes

    PubMed Central

    Król, Ewa; de Sousa Borges, Anabela; da Silva, Isabel; Polaquini, Carlos R.; Regasini, Luis O.; Ferreira, Henrique; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Alkyl gallates are compounds with reported antibacterial activity. One of the modes of action is binding of the alkyl gallates to the bacterial membrane and interference with membrane integrity. However, alkyl gallates also cause cell elongation and disruption of cell division in the important plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, suggesting that cell division proteins may be targeted by alkyl gallates. Here, we use Bacillus subtilis and purified B. subtilis FtsZ to demonstrate that FtsZ is a direct target of alkyl gallates. Alkyl gallates disrupt the FtsZ-ring in vivo, and cause cell elongation. In vitro, alkyl gallates bind with high affinity to FtsZ, causing it to cluster and lose its capacity to polymerize. The activities of a homologous series of alkyl gallates with alkyl side chain lengths ranging from five to eight carbons (C5–C8) were compared and heptyl gallate was found to be the most potent FtsZ inhibitor. Next to the direct effect on FtsZ, alkyl gallates also target B. subtilis membrane integrity—however the observed anti-FtsZ activity is not a secondary effect of the disruption of membrane integrity. We propose that both modes of action, membrane disruption and anti-FtsZ activity, contribute to the antibacterial activity of the alkyl gallates. We propose that heptyl gallate is a promising hit for the further development of antibacterials that specifically target FtsZ. PMID:25972861

  5. BT-benzo-29 inhibits bacterial cell proliferation by perturbing FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shashikant; Jindal, Bhavya; Kunal, Kishore; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2015-10-01

    We have identified a potent antibacterial agent N-(4-sec-butylphenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-4-carboxamide (BT-benzo-29) from a library of benzimidazole derivatives that stalled bacterial division by inhibiting FtsZ assembly. A short (5 min) exposure of BT-benzo-29 disassembled the cytokinetic Z-ring in Bacillus subtilis cells without affecting the cell length and nucleoids. BT-benzo-29 also perturbed the localization of early and late division proteins such as FtsA, ZapA and SepF at the mid-cell. Further, BT-benzo-29 bound to FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 24 ± 3 μm and inhibited the assembly and GTPase activity of purified FtsZ. A docking analysis suggested that BT-benzo-29 may bind to FtsZ at the C-terminal domain near the T7 loop. BT-benzo-29 displayed significantly weaker inhibitory effects on the assembly and GTPase activity of two mutants (L272A and V275A) of FtsZ supporting the prediction of the docking analysis. Further, BT-benzo-29 did not appear to inhibit DNA duplication and nucleoid segregation and it did not perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis cells. The results suggested that BT-benzo-29 exerts its potent antibacterial activity by inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Interestingly, BT-benzo-29 did not affect the membrane integrity of mammalian red blood cells. BT-benzo-29 bound to tubulin with a much weaker affinity than FtsZ and exerted significantly weaker effects on mammalian cells than on the bacterial cells indicating that the compound may have a strong antibacterial potential.

  6. Influence of GTP/GDP and magnesium ion on the solvated structure of the protein FtsZ: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Jamous, Carla; Basdevant, Nathalie; Ha-Duong, Tap

    2014-01-01

    We present here a structural analysis of ten extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the monomeric protein FtsZ in various binding states. Since the polymerization and GTPase activities of FtsZ depend on the nature of a bound nucleotide as well as on the presence of a magnesium ion, we studied the structural differences between the average conformations of the following five systems: FtsZ-Apo, FtsZ-GTP, FtsZ-GDP, FtsZ-GTP-Mg, and FtsZ-GDP-Mg. The in silico solvated average structure of FtsZ-Apo significantly differs from the crystallographic structure 1W59 of FtsZ which was crystallized in a dimeric form without nucleotide and magnesium. The simulated Apo form of the protein also clearly differs from the FtsZ structures when it is bound to its ligand, the most important discrepancies being located in the loops surrounding the nucleotide binding pocket. The three average structures of FtsZ-GTP, FtsZ-GDP, and FtsZ-GTP-Mg are overall similar, except for the loop T7 located at the opposite side of the binding pocket and whose conformation in FtsZ-GDP notably differs from the one in FtsZ-GTP and FtsZ-GTP-Mg. The presence of a magnesium ion in the binding pocket has no impact on the FtsZ conformation when it is bound to GTP. In contrast, when the protein is bound to GDP, the divalent cation causes a translation of the nucleotide outwards the pocket, inducing a significant conformational change of the loop H6-H7 and the top of helix H7.

  7. The bacterial tubulin FtsZ requires its intrinsically disordered linker to direct robust cell wall construction

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Kousik; Miguel, Amanda; Desmarais, Samantha M.; Meier, Elizabeth L.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Goley, Erin D.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial GTPase FtsZ forms a cytokinetic ring at midcell, recruits the division machinery, and orchestrates membrane and peptidoglycan cell wall invagination. However, the mechanism for FtsZ regulation of peptidoglycan metabolism is unknown. The FtsZ GTPase domain is separated from its membrane-anchoring C-terminal conserved (CTC) peptide by a disordered C-terminal linker (CTL). Here, we investigate CTL function in Caulobacter crescentus. Strikingly, production of FtsZ lacking the CTL (ΔCTL) is lethal: cells become filamentous, form envelope bulges, and lyse, resembling treatment with β-lactam antibiotics. This phenotype is produced by FtsZ polymers bearing the CTC and a CTL shorter than 14 residues. Peptidoglycan synthesis still occurs downstream of ΔCTL, however cells expressing ΔCTL exhibit reduced peptidoglycan crosslinking and longer glycan strands than wildtype. Importantly, midcell proteins are still recruited to sites of ΔCTL assembly. We propose that FtsZ regulates peptidoglycan metabolism through a CTL-dependent mechanism that extends beyond simple protein recruitment. PMID:26099469

  8. An analysis of FtsZ assembly using small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuchibhatla, Anuradha; Abdul Rasheed, A S; Narayanan, Janaky; Bellare, Jayesh; Panda, Dulal

    2009-04-09

    Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used for the first time to study the self-assembly of the bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ, with three different additives: calcium chloride, monosodium glutamate and DEAE-dextran hydrochloride in solution. The SAXS data were analyzed assuming a model form factor and also by a model-independent analysis using the pair distance distribution function. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for direct observation of the FtsZ filaments. By sectioning and negative staining with glow discharged grids, very high bundling as well as low bundling polymers were observed under different assembly conditions. FtsZ polymers formed different structures in the presence of different additives and these additives were found to increase the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments by different mechanisms. The combined use of SAXS and TEM provided us a significant insight of the assembly of FtsZ and microstructures of the assembled FtsZ polymers.

  9. Torsion and curvature of FtsZ filaments.

    PubMed

    González de Prado Salas, Pablo; Hörger, Ines; Martín-García, Fernando; Mendieta, Jesús; Alonso, Álvaro; Encinar, Mario; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Vélez, Marisela; Tarazona, Pedro

    2014-03-28

    FtsZ filaments participate in bacterial cell division, but it is still not clear how their dynamic polymerization and shape exert force on the underlying membrane. We present a theoretical description of individual filaments that incorporates information from molecular dynamic simulations. The structure of the crystallized Methanococcus jannaschii FtsZ dimer was used to model a FtsZ pentamer that showed a curvature and a twist. The estimated bending and torsion angles between monomers and their fluctuations were included in the theoretical description. The MD data also permitted positioning the curvature with respect to the protein coordinates and allowed us to explore the effect of the relative orientation of the preferred curvature with respect to the surface plane. We find that maximum tension is attained when filaments are firmly attached and oriented with their curvature perpendicular to the surface and that the twist serves as a valve to release or to tighten the tension exerted by the curved filaments on the membrane. The theoretical model also shows that the presence of torsion can explain the shape distribution of short filaments observed by Atomic Force Microscopy in previously published experiments. New experiments with FtsZ covalently attached to lipid membranes show that the filament on-plane curvature depends on lipid head charge, confirming the predicted monomer orientation effects. This new model underlines the fact that the combination of the three elements, filament curvature, twist and the strength and orientation of its surface attachment, can modulate the force exerted on the membrane during cell division.

  10. Short FtsZ filaments can drive asymmetric cell envelope constriction at the onset of bacterial cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qing; Jewett, Andrew I; Chang, Yi-Wei; Oikonomou, Catherine M; Beeby, Morgan; Iancu, Cristina V; Briegel, Ariane; Ghosal, Debnath; Jensen, Grant J

    2017-06-01

    FtsZ, the bacterial homologue of eukaryotic tubulin, plays a central role in cell division in nearly all bacteria and many archaea. It forms filaments under the cytoplasmic membrane at the division site where, together with other proteins it recruits, it drives peptidoglycan synthesis and constricts the cell. Despite extensive study, the arrangement of FtsZ filaments and their role in division continue to be debated. Here, we apply electron cryotomography to image the native structure of intact dividing cells and show that constriction in a variety of Gram-negative bacterial cells, including Proteus mirabilis and Caulobacter crescentus, initiates asymmetrically, accompanied by asymmetric peptidoglycan incorporation and short FtsZ-like filament formation. These results show that a complete ring of FtsZ is not required for constriction and lead us to propose a model for FtsZ-driven division in which short dynamic FtsZ filaments can drive initial peptidoglycan synthesis and envelope constriction at the onset of cytokinesis, later increasing in length and number to encircle the division plane and complete constriction. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Simple modeling of FtsZ polymers on flat and curved surfaces: correlation with experimental in vitro observations

    PubMed Central

    Paez, Alfonso; Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Hörger, Ines; Mingorance, Jesús; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel; Vélez, Marisela; Tarazona, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ is a GTPase that assembles at midcell into a dynamic ring that constricts the membrane to induce cell division in the majority of bacteria, in many archea and several organelles. In vitro, FtsZ polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner forming a variety of filamentous flexible structures. Based on data derived from the measurement of the in vitro polymerization of Escherichia coli FtsZ cell division protein we have formulated a model in which the fine balance between curvature, flexibility and lateral interactions accounts for structural and dynamic properties of the FtsZ polymers observed with AFM. The experimental results have been used by the model to calibrate the interaction energies and the values obtained indicate that the filaments are very plastic. The extension of the model to explore filament behavior on a cylindrical surface has shown that the FtsZ condensates promoted by lateral interactions can easily form ring structures through minor modulations of either filament curvature or longitudinal bond energies. The condensation of short, monomer exchanging filaments into rings is shown to produce enough force to induce membrane deformations. PACS codes: 87.15.ak, 87.16.ka, 87.17.Ee PMID:19849848

  12. Discovery of chlamydial peptidoglycan reveals bacteria with murein sacculi but without FtsZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilhofer, Martin; Aistleitner, Karin; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Kuru, Erkin; Hall, Edward; Brun, Yves V.; Vannieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Horn, Matthias; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydiae are important pathogens and symbionts with unique cell biological features. They lack the cell-division protein FtsZ, and the existence of peptidoglycan (PG) in their cell wall has been highly controversial. FtsZ and PG together function in orchestrating cell division and maintaining cell shape in almost all other bacteria. Using electron cryotomography, mass spectrometry and fluorescent labelling dyes, here we show that some environmental chlamydiae have cell wall sacculi consisting of a novel PG type. Treatment with fosfomycin (a PG synthesis inhibitor) leads to lower infection rates and aberrant cell shapes, suggesting that PG synthesis is crucial for the chlamydial life cycle. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of PG in a member of the Chlamydiae. They also present a unique example of a bacterium with a PG sacculus but without FtsZ, challenging the current hypothesis that it is the absence of a cell wall that renders FtsZ non-essential.

  13. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P.; Belland, Robert J.; Cox, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  14. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  15. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of substituted oxazole-benzamide antibacterial inhibitors of FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Neil R; Baker, Nicola; Bennett, James M; Chauhan, Pramod K; Collins, Ian; Davies, David T; Gavade, Maruti; Kumar, Dushyant; Lancett, Paul; Macdonald, Rebecca; Macleod, Leanne; Mahajan, Anu; Mitchell, Jeffrey P; Nayal, Narendra; Nayal, Yashodanand Nandan; Pitt, Gary R W; Singh, Mahipal; Yadav, Anju; Srivastava, Anil; Czaplewski, Lloyd G; Haydon, David J

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of oxazole-benzamide inhibitors of the essential bacterial cell division protein FtsZ are described. Compounds had potent anti-staphylococcal activity and inhibited the cytokinesis of the clinically-significant bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Selected analogues possessing a 5-halo oxazole also inhibited a strain of S. aureus harbouring the glycine-to-alanine amino acid substitution at residue 196 of FtsZ which conferred resistance to previously reported inhibitors in the series. Substitutions to the pseudo-benzylic carbon of the scaffold improved the pharmacokinetic properties by increasing metabolic stability and provided a mechanism for creating pro-drugs. Combining multiple substitutions based on the findings reported in this study has provided small-molecule inhibitors of FtsZ with enhanced in vitro and in vivo antibacterial efficacy.

  16. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) induces bundling of Escherichia coli FtsZ polymers inhibiting the GTPase activity.

    PubMed

    Nova, Esteban; Montecinos, Felipe; Brunet, Juan E; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio

    2007-09-15

    FtsZ (Filamentous temperature sensitivity Z) cell division protein from Escherichia coli binds the fluorescence probe DAPI. Bundling of FtsZ was facilitated in the presence of DAPI, and the polymers in solution remained polymerized longer time than the protofilaments formed in the absence of DAPI. DAPI decreased both the maximal velocity of the GTPase activity and the Michaelis-Menten constant for GTP, indicating that behaves like an uncompetitive inhibitor of the GTPase activity favoring the GTP form of FtsZ in the polymers. The results presented in this work support a cooperative polymerization mechanism in which the binding of DAPI favors protofilament lateral interactions and the stability of the resulting polymers.

  17. Cell division ring, a new cell division protein and vertical inheritance of a bacterial organelle in anammox planctomycetes.

    PubMed

    van Niftrik, Laura; Geerts, Willie J C; van Donselaar, Elly G; Humbel, Bruno M; Webb, Richard I; Harhangi, Harry R; Camp, Huub J M Op den; Fuerst, John A; Verkleij, Arie J; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Anammox bacteria are members of the phylum Planctomycetes that oxidize ammonium anaerobically and produce a significant part of the atmosphere's dinitrogen gas. They contain a unique bacterial organelle, the anammoxosome, which is the locus of anammox catabolism. While studying anammox cell and anammoxosome division with transmission electron microscopy including electron tomography, we observed a cell division ring in the outermost compartment of dividing anammox cells. In most Bacteria, GTP hydrolysis drives the tubulin-analogue FtsZ to assemble into a ring-like structure at the cell division site where it functions as a scaffold for the molecular machinery that performs cell division. However, the genome of the anammox bacterium 'Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis' does not encode ftsZ. Genomic analysis of open reading frames with potential GTPase activity indicated a possible novel cell division ring gene: kustd1438, which was unrelated to ftsZ. Immunogold localization specifically localized kustd1438 to the cell division ring. Genomic analyses of other members of the phyla Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae revealed no putative functional homologues of kustd1438, suggesting that it is specific to anammox bacteria. Electron tomography also revealed that the bacterial organelle was elongated along with the rest of the cell and divided equally among daughter cells during the cell division process.

  18. Role of Escherichia coli FtsN protein in the assembly and stability of the cell division ring.

    PubMed

    Rico, Ana Isabel; García-Ovalle, Marta; Palacios, Pilar; Casanova, Mercedes; Vicente, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Deprivation of FtsN, the last protein in the hierarchy of divisome assembly, causes the disassembly of other elements from the division ring, even extending to already assembled proto-ring proteins. Therefore the stability and function of the divisome to produce rings active in septation is not guaranteed until FtsN is recruited. Disassembly follows an inverse sequential pathway relative to assembly. In the absence of FtsN, the frequencies of FtsN and FtsQ rings are affected similarly. Among the proto-ring components, ZipA are more sensitive than FtsZ or FtsA rings. In contrast, removal of FtsZ leads to an almost simultaneous disappearance of the other elements from rings. Although restoration of FtsN allows for a quick reincorporation of ZipA into proto-rings, the de novo joint assembly of the three components when FtsZ levels are restored to FtsZ-deprived filaments is even faster. This suggests that the recruitment of ZipA into FtsZ-FtsA incomplete proto-rings may require first a period for the reversal of these partial assemblies.

  19. Spatial resolution of two bacterial cell division proteins: ZapA recruits ZapB to the inner face of the Z-ring.

    PubMed

    Galli, Elisa; Gerdes, Kenn

    2010-06-01

    FtsZ, the essential regulator of bacterial cell division, is a dynamic cytoskeletal protein that forms helices that condense into the Z-ring prior to division. Two small coiled-coil proteins, ZapA and ZapB, are both recruited early to the Z-ring. We show here that ZapB is recruited to the Z-ring by ZapA. A direct interaction between ZapA and ZapB is supported by bacterial two-hybrid and in vitro interaction assays. Using high-resolution 3-D reconstruction microscopy, we find that, surprisingly, ZapB is located inside the Z-ring in virtually all cells investigated. We propose a molecular model in which ZapA increases lateral interactions between FtsZ proto-filaments and ZapB mediates further stabilization of this interaction by cross-linking ZapA molecules bound to adjacent FtsZ proto-filaments. Gene deletion and complementation assays show that ZapB can mitigate cell division and Z-ring assembly defects even in the absence of ZapA, raising the possibility that ZapB stimulates Z-ring assembly by two different mechanisms.

  20. Hierarchal order in the formation of chloroplast division machinery in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Nobuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplasts have evolved from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont and multiply by dividing. Chloroplast division is performed by constriction of the ring-like protein complex (the PD machinery), which forms at the division site. The PD machinery is composed of cyanobacteria-descended components such as FtsZ and eukaryote-derived proteins such as the dynamin-related protein, DRP5B. In the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, FtsZ ring formation on the stromal side precedes PDR1 and DRP5B ring formation on the cytosolic side. In this study, we impaired FtsZ ring formation in C. merolae by overexpressing FtsZ just before FtsZ ring formation. As a result, PDR1 and DRP5B failed to localize at the chloroplast division site, suggesting that FtsZ ring formation is required for the PDR1 and DRP5B rings. We further found, by expressing a dominant negative form of DRP5B, that DRP5B ring formation begins on the nuclear side of the chloroplast division site. These findings provide insight into how the PD machinery forms in red algae.

  1. A protein critical for cell constriction in the Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus localizes at the division site through its peptidoglycan-binding LysM domains.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Sebastian; Takacs, Constantin N; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2010-07-01

    During division of Gram-negative bacteria, invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane and inward growth of the peptidoglycan (PG) are followed by the cleavage of connective septal PG to allow cell separation. This PG splitting process requires temporal and spatial regulation of cell wall hydrolases. In Escherichia coli, LytM factors play an important role in PG splitting. Here we identify and characterize a member of this family (DipM) in Caulobacter crescentus. Unlike its E. coli counterparts, DipM is essential for viability under fast-growth conditions. Under slow-growth conditions, the DeltadipM mutant displays severe defects in cell division and FtsZ constriction. Consistent with its function in division, DipM colocalizes with the FtsZ ring during the cell cycle. Mutagenesis suggests that the LytM domain of DipM is essential for protein function, despite being non-canonical. DipM also carries two tandems of the PG-binding LysM domain that are sufficient for FtsZ ring localization. Localization and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching microscopy experiments suggest that DipM localization is mediated, at least in part, by the ability of the LysM tandems to distinguish septal, multilayered PG from non-septal, monolayered PG.

  2. Dimer dynamics and filament organization of the bacterial cell division protein FtsA.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Jen; Fu, Rui; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2013-11-15

    FtsA is a bacterial actin homolog and one of the core proteins involved in cell division. While previous studies have demonstrated the capability of FtsA to polymerize, little is known about its polymerization state in vivo or if polymerization is necessary for FtsA function. Given that one function of FtsA is to tether FtsZ filaments to the membrane, in vivo polymerization of FtsA imposes geometric constraints and requires a specific polymer curvature direction. Here, we report a series of molecular dynamics simulations probing the structural dynamics of FtsA as a dimer and as a tetrameric single filament. We found that the FtsA polymer exhibits a preferred bending direction that would allow for its placement parallel with FtsZ polymers underneath the cytoplasmic membrane. We also identified key interfacial amino acids that mediate FtsA-FtsA interaction and propose that some amino acids play more critical roles than others. We performed in silico mutagenesis on FtsA and demonstrated that, while a moderate mutation at the polymerization interface does not significantly affect polymer properties such as bending direction and association strength, more drastic mutations change both features and could lead to non-functional FtsA.

  3. In Escherichia coli, MreB and FtsZ direct the synthesis of lateral cell wall via independent pathways that require PBP 2.

    PubMed

    Varma, Archana; Young, Kevin D

    2009-06-01

    In Escherichia coli, the cytoplasmic proteins MreB and FtsZ play crucial roles in ensuring that new muropeptide subunits are inserted into the cell wall in a spatially correct way during elongation and division. In particular, to retain a constant diameter and overall shape, new material must be inserted into the wall uniformly around the cell's perimeter. Current thinking is that MreB accomplishes this feat through intermediary proteins that tether peptidoglycan synthases to the outer face of the inner membrane. We tested this idea in E. coli by using a DD-carboxypeptidase mutant that accumulates pentapeptides in its peptidoglycan, allowing us to visualize new muropeptide incorporation. Surprisingly, inhibiting MreB with the antibiotic A22 did not result in uneven insertion of new wall, although the cells bulged and lost their rod shapes. Instead, uneven (clustered) incorporation occurred only if MreB and FtsZ were inactivated simultaneously, providing the first evidence in E. coli that FtsZ can direct murein incorporation into the lateral cell wall independently of MreB. Inhibiting penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP 2) alone produced the same clustered phenotype, implying that MreB and FtsZ tether peptidoglycan synthases via a common mechanism that includes PBP 2. However, cell shape was determined only by the presence or absence of MreB and not by the even distribution of new wall material as directed by FtsZ.

  4. Manipulation of starch granule size distribution in potato tubers by modulation of plastid division.

    PubMed

    de Pater, Sylvia; Caspers, Martien; Kottenhagen, Marijke; Meima, Henk; ter Stege, Renaldo; de Vetten, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Starch granule size is an important parameter for starch applications in industry. Starch granules are formed in amyloplasts, which are, like chloroplasts, derived from proplastids. Division processes and associated machinery are likely to be similar for all plastids. Essential roles for FtsZ proteins in plastid division in land plants have been revealed. FtsZ forms the so-called Z ring which, together with inner and outer plastid division rings, brings about constriction of the plastid. It has been shown that modulation of the expression level of FtsZ may result in altered chloroplast size and number. To test whether FtsZ is also involved in amyloplast division and whether this, in turn, may affect the starch granule size in crop plants, FtsZ protein levels were either reduced or increased in potato. As shown previously in other plant species, decreased StFtsZ1 protein levels in leaves resulted in a decrease in the number of chloroplasts in guard cells. More interestingly, plants with increased StFtsZ1 protein levels in tubers resulted in less, but larger, starch granules. This suggests that the stoichiometry between StFtsZ1 and other components of the plastid division machinery is important for its function. Starch from these tubers also had altered pasting properties and phosphate content. The importance of our results for the starch industry is discussed.

  5. Bacterial cell division and the septal ring.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David S

    2004-11-01

    Cell division in bacteria is mediated by the septal ring, a collection of about a dozen (known) proteins that localize to the division site, where they direct assembly of the division septum. The foundation of the septal ring is a polymer of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ. Recently, experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching have revealed that the Z ring is extremely dynamic. FtsZ subunits exchange in and out of the ring on a time scale of seconds even while the overall morphology of the ring appears static. These findings, together with in vitro studies of purified FtsZ, suggest that the rate-limiting step in turnover of FtsZ polymers is GTP hydrolysis. Another component of the septal ring, FtsK, is involved in coordinating chromosome segregation with cell division. Recent studies have revealed that FtsK is a DNA translocase that facilitates decatenation of sister chromosomes by TopIV and resolution of chromosome dimers by the XerCD recombinase. Finally, two murein hydrolases, AmiC and EnvC, have been shown to localize to the septal ring of Escherichia coli, where they play an important role in separation of daughter cells.

  6. Functional Domain Analysis of the Cell Division Inhibitor EzrA

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Petra Anne

    2014-01-01

    The precise spatial and temporal control of bacterial cell division is achieved through the balanced actions of factors that inhibit assembly of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ at aberrant subcellular locations or promote its assembly at the future sites of division. In Bacillus subtilis, the membrane anchored cell division protein EzrA, interacts directly with FtsZ to prevent aberrant FtsZ assembly at cell poles and contributes to the inherently dynamic nature of the cytokinetic ring. Recent work suggests EzrA also serves as a scaffolding protein to coordinate lateral growth with cell wall biosynthesis through interactions with a host of proteins, a finding consistent with EzrA's four extensive coiled-coil domains. In a previous study we identified a conserved patch of residues near EzrA's C-terminus (the QNR motif) that are critical for maintenance of a dynamic cytokinetic ring, but dispensable for EzrA-mediated inhibition of FtsZ assembly at cell poles. In an extension of this work, here we report that EzrA's two C-terminal coiled-coils function in concert with the QNR motif to mediate interactions with FtsZ and maintain the dynamic nature of the cytokinetic ring. In contrast, EzrA's two N-terminal coiled-coils are dispensable for interaction between EzrA and FtsZ in vitro and in vivo, but required for EzrA mediated inhibition of FtsZ assembly at cell poles. Finally, chimeric analysis indicates that EzrA's transmembrane anchor plays a generic role: concentrating EzrA at the plasma membrane where presumably it can most effectively modulate FtsZ assembly. PMID:25068683

  7. Mutations on FtsZ lateral helix H3 that disrupt cell viability hamper reorganization of polymers on lipid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Ileana F; Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Shin, Jae Yen; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio; Vélez, Marisela

    2017-10-01

    FtsZ filaments localize at the middle of the bacterial cell and participate in the formation of a contractile ring responsible for cell division. Previous studies demonstrated that the highly conserved negative charge of glutamate 83 and the positive charge of arginine 85 located in the lateral helix H3 bend of Escherichia coli FtsZ are required for in vivo cell division. In order to understand how these lateral mutations impair the formation of a contractile ring,we extend previous in vitro characterization of these mutants in solution to study their behavior on lipid modified surfaces. We study their interaction with ZipAand look at their reorganization on the surface. We found that the dynamic bundling capacity of the mutant proteins is deficient, and this impairment increases the more the composition and spatial arrangement of the reconstituted system resembles the situation inside the cell: mutant proteins completely fail to reorganize to form higher order aggregates when bound to an E.coli lipid surface through oriented ZipA.We conclude that these surface lateral point mutations affect the dynamic reorganization of FtsZ filaments into bundles on the cell membrane, suggesting that this event is relevant for generating force and completing bacterial division. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. LocZ Is a New Cell Division Protein Involved in Proper Septum Placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Holečková, Nela; Molle, Virginie; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT How bacteria control proper septum placement at midcell, to guarantee the generation of identical daughter cells, is still largely unknown. Although different systems involved in the selection of the division site have been described in selected species, these do not appear to be widely conserved. Here, we report that LocZ (Spr0334), a newly identified cell division protein, is involved in proper septum placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We show that locZ is not essential but that its deletion results in cell division defects and shape deformation, causing cells to divide asymmetrically and generate unequally sized, occasionally anucleated, daughter cells. LocZ has a unique localization profile. It arrives early at midcell, before FtsZ and FtsA, and leaves the septum early, apparently moving along with the equatorial rings that mark the future division sites. Consistently, cells lacking LocZ also show misplacement of the Z-ring, suggesting that it could act as a positive regulator to determine septum placement. LocZ was identified as a substrate of the Ser/Thr protein kinase StkP, which regulates cell division in S. pneumoniae. Interestingly, homologues of LocZ are found only in streptococci, lactococci, and enterococci, indicating that this close phylogenetically related group of bacteria evolved a specific solution to spatially regulate cell division. PMID:25550321

  9. Structural and Biochemical Studies Reveal a Putative FtsZ Recognition Site on the Z-ring Stabilizer ZapD

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hwajung; Min, Kyungjin; Mikami, Bunzo; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2016-01-01

    FtsZ, a tubulin homologue, is an essential protein of the Z-ring assembly in bacterial cell division. It consists of two domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal core domains, and has a conserved C-terminal tail region. Lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments and several Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps) are necessary for modulating Z-ring formation. ZapD, one of the positive regulators of Z-ring assembly, directly binds to the C-terminal tail of FtsZ and promotes stable Z-ring formation during cytokinesis. To gain structural and functional insights into how ZapD interacts with the C-terminal tail of FtsZ, we solved two crystal structures of ZapD proteins from Salmonella typhimurium (StZapD) and Escherichia coli (EcZapD) at a 2.6 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively. Several conserved residues are clustered on the concave sides of the StZapD and EcZapD dimers, the suggested FtsZ binding site. Modeled structures of EcZapD-EcFtsZ and subsequent binding studies using bio-layer interferometry also identified the EcFtsZ binding site on EcZapD. The structural insights and the results of bio-layer interferometry assays suggest that the two FtsZ binding sites of ZapD dimer might be responsible for the binding of ZapD dimer to two protofilaments to hold them together. PMID:27871169

  10. Kinetic modeling of the assembly, dynamic steady state, and contraction of the FtsZ ring in prokaryotic cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Surovtsev, Ivan V; Morgan, Jeffrey J; Lindahl, Paul A

    2008-07-04

    Cytokinesis in prokaryotes involves the assembly of a polymeric ring composed of FtsZ protein monomeric units. The Z ring forms at the division plane and is attached to the membrane. After assembly, it maintains a stable yet dynamic steady state. Once induced, the ring contracts and the membrane constricts. In this work, we present a computational deterministic biochemical model exhibiting this behavior. The model is based on biochemical features of FtsZ known from in vitro studies, and it quantitatively reproduces relevant in vitro data. An essential part of the model is a consideration of interfacial reactions involving the cytosol volume, where monomeric FtsZ is dispersed, and the membrane surface in the cell's mid-zone where the ring is assembled. This approach allows the same chemical model to simulate either in vitro or in vivo conditions by adjusting only two geometrical parameters. The model includes minimal reactions, components, and assumptions, yet is able to reproduce sought-after in vivo behavior, including the rapid assembly of the ring via FtsZ-polymerization, the formation of a dynamic steady state in which GTP hydrolysis leads to the exchange of monomeric subunits between cytoplasm and the ring, and finally the induced contraction of the ring. The model gives a quantitative estimate for coupling between the rate of GTP hydrolysis and of FtsZ subunit turnover between the assembled ring and the cytoplasmic pool as observed. Membrane constriction is chemically driven by the strong tendency of GTP-bound FtsZ to self-assembly. The model suggests a possible mechanism of membrane contraction without a motor protein. The portion of the free energy of GTP hydrolysis released in cyclization is indirectly used in this energetically unfavorable process. The model provides a limit to the mechanistic complexity required to mimic ring behavior, and it highlights the importance of parallel in vitro and in vivo modeling.

  11. Bacterial cell division: the mechanism and its precison.

    PubMed

    Harry, Elizabeth; Monahan, Leigh; Thompson, Lyndal

    2006-01-01

    The recent development of cell biology techniques for bacteria to allow visualization of fundamental processes in time and space, and their use in synchronous populations of cells, has resulted in a dramatic increase in our understanding of cell division and its regulation in these tiny cells. The first stage of cell division is the formation of a Z ring, composed of a polymerized tubulin-like protein, FtsZ, at the division site precisely at midcell. Several membrane-associated division proteins are then recruited to this ring to form a complex, the divisome, which causes invagination of the cell envelope layers to form a division septum. The Z ring marks the future division site, and the timing of assembly and positioning of this structure are important in determining where and when division will take place in the cell. Z ring assembly is controlled by many factors including negative regulatory mechanisms such as Min and nucleoid occlusion that influence Z ring positioning and FtsZ accessory proteins that bind to FtsZ directly and modulate its polymerization behavior. The replication status of the cell also influences the positioning of the Z ring, which may allow the tight coordination between DNA replication and cell division required to produce two identical newborn cells.

  12. Life without Division: Physiology of Escherichia coli FtsZ-Deprived Filaments.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Palacios, Pilar; Martínez-Arteaga, Rocío; Sánchez, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Vicente, Miguel

    2016-10-11

    When deprived of FtsZ, Escherichia coli cells (VIP205) grown in liquid form long nonseptated filaments due to their inability to assemble an FtsZ ring and their failure to recruit subsequent divisome components. These filaments fail to produce colonies on solid medium, in which synthesis of FtsZ is induced, upon being diluted by a factor greater than 4. However, once the initial FtsZ levels are recovered in liquid culture, they resume division, and their plating efficiency returns to normal. The potential septation sites generated in the FtsZ-deprived filaments are not annihilated, and once sufficient FtsZ is accumulated, they all become active and divide to produce cells of normal length. FtsZ-deprived cells accumulate defects in their physiology, including an abnormally high number of unsegregated nucleoids that may result from the misplacement of FtsK. Their membrane integrity becomes compromised and the amount of membrane proteins, such as FtsK and ZipA, increases. FtsZ-deprived cells also show an altered expression pattern, namely, transcription of several genes responding to DNA damage increases, whereas transcription of some ribosomal or global transcriptional regulators decreases. We propose that the changes caused by the depletion of FtsZ, besides stopping division, weaken the cell, diminishing its resiliency to minor challenges, such as dilution stress.

  13. Life without Division: Physiology of Escherichia coli FtsZ-Deprived Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Palacios, Pilar; Martínez-Arteaga, Rocío; Sánchez, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT When deprived of FtsZ, Escherichia coli cells (VIP205) grown in liquid form long nonseptated filaments due to their inability to assemble an FtsZ ring and their failure to recruit subsequent divisome components. These filaments fail to produce colonies on solid medium, in which synthesis of FtsZ is induced, upon being diluted by a factor greater than 4. However, once the initial FtsZ levels are recovered in liquid culture, they resume division, and their plating efficiency returns to normal. The potential septation sites generated in the FtsZ-deprived filaments are not annihilated, and once sufficient FtsZ is accumulated, they all become active and divide to produce cells of normal length. FtsZ-deprived cells accumulate defects in their physiology, including an abnormally high number of unsegregated nucleoids that may result from the misplacement of FtsK. Their membrane integrity becomes compromised and the amount of membrane proteins, such as FtsK and ZipA, increases. FtsZ-deprived cells also show an altered expression pattern, namely, transcription of several genes responding to DNA damage increases, whereas transcription of some ribosomal or global transcriptional regulators decreases. We propose that the changes caused by the depletion of FtsZ, besides stopping division, weaken the cell, diminishing its resiliency to minor challenges, such as dilution stress. PMID:27729511

  14. NDK Interacts with FtsZ and Converts GDP to GTP to Trigger FtsZ Polymerisation - A Novel Role for NDK

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Saurabh; Jakkala, Kishor; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Arumugam, Muthu; Ranjeri, Raghavendra; Gupta, Prabuddha; Rajeswari, Haryadi; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), conserved across bacteria to humans, synthesises NTP from NDP and ATP. The eukaryotic homologue, the NDPK, uses ATP to phosphorylate the tubulin-bound GDP to GTP for tubulin polymerisation. The bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ, which is the tubulin homologue, also uses GTP for polymerisation. Therefore, we examined whether NDK can interact with FtsZ to convert FtsZ-bound GDP and/or free GDP to GTP to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. Methods Recombinant and native NDK and FtsZ proteins of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as the experimental samples. FtsZ polymersation was monitored using 90° light scattering and FtsZ polymer pelleting assays. The γ32P-GTP synthesised by NDK from GDP and γ32P-ATP was detected using thin layer chromatography and quantitated using phosphorimager. The FtsZ bound 32P-GTP was quantitated using phosphorimager, after UV-crosslinking, followed by SDS-PAGE. The NDK-FtsZ interaction was determined using Ni2+-NTA-pulldown assay and co-immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and native proteins in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Results NDK triggered instantaneous polymerisation of GDP-precharged recombinant FtsZ in the presence of ATP, similar to the polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) upon the direct addition of GTP. Similarly, NDK triggered polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) in the presence of free GDP and ATP as well. Mutant NDK, partially deficient in GTP synthesis from ATP and GDP, triggered low level of polymerisation of MsFtsZ, but not of MtFtsZ. As characteristic of NDK’s NTP substrate non-specificity, it used CTP, TTP, and UTP also to convert GDP to GTP, to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. The NDK of one mycobacterial species could trigger the polymerisation of the FtsZ of another mycobacterial species. Both the recombinant and the native NDK and FtsZ showed interaction with each other in vitro and ex vivo, alluding

  15. NDK Interacts with FtsZ and Converts GDP to GTP to Trigger FtsZ Polymerisation--A Novel Role for NDK.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saurabh; Jakkala, Kishor; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Arumugam, Muthu; Ranjeri, Raghavendra; Gupta, Prabuddha; Rajeswari, Haryadi; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), conserved across bacteria to humans, synthesises NTP from NDP and ATP. The eukaryotic homologue, the NDPK, uses ATP to phosphorylate the tubulin-bound GDP to GTP for tubulin polymerisation. The bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ, which is the tubulin homologue, also uses GTP for polymerisation. Therefore, we examined whether NDK can interact with FtsZ to convert FtsZ-bound GDP and/or free GDP to GTP to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. Recombinant and native NDK and FtsZ proteins of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as the experimental samples. FtsZ polymersation was monitored using 90° light scattering and FtsZ polymer pelleting assays. The γ32P-GTP synthesised by NDK from GDP and γ32P-ATP was detected using thin layer chromatography and quantitated using phosphorimager. The FtsZ bound 32P-GTP was quantitated using phosphorimager, after UV-crosslinking, followed by SDS-PAGE. The NDK-FtsZ interaction was determined using Ni2+-NTA-pulldown assay and co-immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and native proteins in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. NDK triggered instantaneous polymerisation of GDP-precharged recombinant FtsZ in the presence of ATP, similar to the polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) upon the direct addition of GTP. Similarly, NDK triggered polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) in the presence of free GDP and ATP as well. Mutant NDK, partially deficient in GTP synthesis from ATP and GDP, triggered low level of polymerisation of MsFtsZ, but not of MtFtsZ. As characteristic of NDK's NTP substrate non-specificity, it used CTP, TTP, and UTP also to convert GDP to GTP, to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. The NDK of one mycobacterial species could trigger the polymerisation of the FtsZ of another mycobacterial species. Both the recombinant and the native NDK and FtsZ showed interaction with each other in vitro and ex vivo, alluding to the possibility of direct

  16. DNA methylation by CcrM activates the transcription of two genes required for the division of Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Diego; Collier, Justine

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation regulates many processes, including gene expression, by superimposing secondary information on DNA sequences. The conserved CcrM enzyme, which methylates adenines in GANTC sequences, is essential to the viability of several Alphaproteobacteria. In this study, we find that Caulobacter crescentus cells lacking the CcrM enzyme accumulate low levels of the two conserved FtsZ and MipZ proteins, leading to a severe defect in cell division. This defect can be compensated by the expression of the ftsZ gene from an inducible promoter or by spontaneous suppressor mutations that promote FtsZ accumulation. We show that CcrM promotes the transcription of the ftsZ and mipZ genes and that the ftsZ and mipZ promoter regions contain a conserved CGACTC motif that is critical to their activities and to their regulation by CcrM. In addition, our results suggest that the ftsZ promoter has the lowest activity when the CGACTC motif is non-methylated, an intermediate activity when it is hemi-methylated and the highest activity when it is fully methylated. The regulation of ftsZ expression by DNA methylation may explain why CcrM is essential in a subset of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:23480529

  17. A protein critical for cell constriction in the Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus localizes at the division site through its peptidoglycan-binding LysM domains

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Sebastian; Takacs, Constantin N.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Summary During division of Gram-negative bacteria, invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane and inward growth of the peptidoglycan (PG) are followed by the cleavage of connective septal PG to allow cell separation. This PG splitting process requires temporal and spatial regulation of cell wall hydrolases. In Escherichia coli, LytM factors play an important role in PG splitting. Here we identify and characterize a member of this family (DipM) in Caulobacter crescentus. Unlike its E. coli counterparts, DipM is essential for viability under fast-growth conditions. Under slow-growth conditions, the ΔdipM mutant displays severe defects in cell division and FtsZ constriction. Consistent with its function in division, DipM colocalizes with the FtsZ ring during the cell cycle. Mutagenesis suggests that the LytM domain of DipM is essential for protein function, despite being non-canonical. DipM also carries two tandems of the PG-binding LysM domain that are sufficient for FtsZ-ring localization. Localization and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching microscopy experiments suggest that DipM localization is mediated, at least in part, by the ability of the LysM tandems to distinguish septal, multilayered PG from non-septal, monolayered PG. PMID:20497503

  18. A model of membrane contraction predicting initiation and completion of bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Dow, Claire E; Rodger, Alison; Roper, David I; van den Berg, Hugo A

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial cell division involves a complex and dynamic sequence of events whereby polymers of the protein FtsZ assemble at the division plane and rearrange to achieve the goal of contracting the cell membrane at the site of cell division, thus dividing the parent cell into two daughter cells. We present a mathematical model (which we refer to as CAM-FF: Critical Accumulation of Membrane-bound FtsZ Fibres) of the assembly of the contractile ring in terms of the accumulation of short linear polymers of FtsZ that associate and dissociate from the cell membrane. In prokaryotes, the biochemical function of FtsZ is thought to underpin the assembly and at least the initial kinetic force of ring contraction. Our model extends earlier work of Surovtsev et al. [PLoS Comput. Biol., 2008, 4, e1000102] by adding (i) the kinetics of FtsZ accumulation on cell membrane anchor proteins and (ii) the physical forces required to deform the cell against its surface tension. Moreover, we provide a more rigorous treatment of intracellular diffusion and we revise some of the model parameter values in light of the experimental evidence now available. We derive a critical contraction parameter which links the chemical population dynamics of membrane-bound FtsZ molecules to the force of contraction. Using this parameter as a tool to predict the ability of the cell to initiate division, we are able to predict the division outcome in cells depleted of key FtsZ-binding proteins.

  19. Structure–function analysis of the extracellular domain of the pneumococcal cell division site positioning protein MapZ

    PubMed Central

    Manuse, Sylvie; Jean, Nicolas L.; Guinot, Mégane; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Laguri, Cédric; Bougault, Catherine M.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Grangeasse, Christophe; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Accurate placement of the bacterial division site is a prerequisite for the generation of two viable and identical daughter cells. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the positive regulatory mechanism involving the membrane protein MapZ positions precisely the conserved cell division protein FtsZ at the cell centre. Here we characterize the structure of the extracellular domain of MapZ and show that it displays a bi-modular structure composed of two subdomains separated by a flexible serine-rich linker. We further demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminal subdomain serves as a pedestal for the C-terminal subdomain, which determines the ability of MapZ to mark the division site. The C-terminal subdomain displays a patch of conserved amino acids and we show that this patch defines a structural motif crucial for MapZ function. Altogether, this structure–function analysis of MapZ provides the first molecular characterization of a positive regulatory process of bacterial cell division. PMID:27346279

  20. Structure-function analysis of the extracellular domain of the pneumococcal cell division site positioning protein MapZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuse, Sylvie; Jean, Nicolas L.; Guinot, Mégane; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Laguri, Cédric; Bougault, Catherine M.; Vannieuwenhze, Michael S.; Grangeasse, Christophe; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Accurate placement of the bacterial division site is a prerequisite for the generation of two viable and identical daughter cells. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the positive regulatory mechanism involving the membrane protein MapZ positions precisely the conserved cell division protein FtsZ at the cell centre. Here we characterize the structure of the extracellular domain of MapZ and show that it displays a bi-modular structure composed of two subdomains separated by a flexible serine-rich linker. We further demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminal subdomain serves as a pedestal for the C-terminal subdomain, which determines the ability of MapZ to mark the division site. The C-terminal subdomain displays a patch of conserved amino acids and we show that this patch defines a structural motif crucial for MapZ function. Altogether, this structure-function analysis of MapZ provides the first molecular characterization of a positive regulatory process of bacterial cell division.

  1. Structural and Functional Analyses Reveal Insights into the Molecular Properties of the Escherichia coli Z Ring Stabilizing Protein, ZapC*

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Maria A.; Zeng, Wenjie; Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    In Escherichia coli cell division is driven by the tubulin-like GTPase, FtsZ, which forms the cytokinetic Z-ring. The Z-ring serves as a dynamic platform for the assembly of the multiprotein divisome, which catalyzes membrane cleavage to create equal daughter cells. Several proteins effect FtsZ assembly, thereby providing spatiotemporal control over cell division. One important class of FtsZ interacting/regulatory proteins is the Z-ring-associated proteins, Zaps, which typically modulate Z-ring formation by increasing lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. Strikingly, these Zap proteins show no discernable sequence similarity, suggesting that they likely harbor distinct structures and mechanisms. The 19.8-kDa ZapC in particular shows no homology to any known protein. To gain insight into ZapC function, we determined its structure to 2.15 Å and performed genetic and biochemical studies. ZapC is a monomer composed of two domains, an N-terminal α/β region and a C-terminal twisted β barrel-like domain. The structure contains two pockets, one on each domain. The N-domain pocket is lined with residues previously implicated to be important for ZapC function as an FtsZ bundler. The adjacent C-domain pocket contains a hydrophobic center surrounded by conserved basic residues. Mutagenesis analyses indicate that this pocket is critical for FtsZ binding. An extensive FtsZ binding surface is consistent with the fact that, unlike many FtsZ regulators, ZapC binds the large FtsZ globular core rather than C-terminal tail, and the presence of two adjacent pockets suggests possible mechanisms for ZapC-mediated FtsZ bundling. PMID:26655719

  2. 3D super-resolution microscopy of bacterial division machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedyaykin, A. D.; Sabantsev, A. V.; Vishnyakov, I. E.; Morozova, N. E.; Polinovskaya, V. S.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is a promising tool for the field of microbiology, as bacteria sizes are comparable to the resolution limit of light microscopy. Bacterial division machinery and FtsZ protein in particular attract much attention of scientists who use different super-resolution microscopy techniques, but most of the available data on FtsZ structures was obtained using two-dimensional (2D) super-resolution microscopy. Using 3D single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM, namely dSTORM) to visualize FtsZ, we demonstrate that this approach allows more accurate interpretation of super-resolution images and provides new opportunities for the study of complex structures like bacterial divisome.

  3. Escherichia coli FtsA forms lipid-bound minirings that antagonize lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Marcin; Rowlett, Veronica W.; Morado, Dustin; Vitrac, Heidi; Schoenemann, Kara; Liu, Jun; Margolin, William

    2017-01-01

    Most bacteria divide using a protein machine called the divisome that spans the cytoplasmic membrane. Key divisome proteins on the membrane’s cytoplasmic side include tubulin-like FtsZ, which forms GTP-dependent protofilaments, and actin-like FtsA, which tethers FtsZ to the membrane. Here we present genetic evidence that in Escherichia coli, FtsA antagonizes FtsZ protofilament bundling in vivo. We then show that purified FtsA does not form straight polymers on lipid monolayers as expected, but instead assembles into dodecameric minirings, often in hexameric arrays. When coassembled with FtsZ on lipid monolayers, these FtsA minirings appear to guide FtsZ to form long, often parallel, but unbundled protofilaments, whereas a mutant of FtsZ (FtsZ*) with stronger lateral interactions remains bundled. In contrast, a hypermorphic mutant of FtsA (FtsA*) forms mainly arcs instead of minirings and enhances lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. Based on these results, we propose that FtsA antagonizes lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments, and that the oligomeric state of FtsA may influence FtsZ higher-order structure and divisome function. PMID:28695917

  4. Plastid Division: Evolution, Mechanism and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Maple, Jodi; Møller, Simon Geir

    2007-01-01

    Background The continuity of chloroplasts is maintained by division of pre-existing chloroplasts. Chloroplasts originated as bacterial endosymbionts; however, the majority of bacterial division factors are absent from chloroplasts and the eukaryotic host has added several new components. For example, the ftsZ gene has been duplicated and modified, and the Min system has retained MinE and MinD but lost MinC, acquiring at least one new component ARC3. Further, the mechanism has evolved to include two members of the dynamin protein family, ARC5 and FZL, and plastid-dividing (PD) rings were most probably added by the eukaryotic host. Scope Deciphering how the division of plastids is coordinated and controlled by nuclear-encoded factors is key to our understanding of this important biological process. Through a number of molecular-genetic and biochemical approaches, it is evident that FtsZ initiates plastid division where the coordinated action of MinD and MinE ensures correct FtsZ (Z)-ring placement. Although the classical FtsZ antagonist MinC does not exist in plants, ARC3 may fulfil this role. Together with other prokaryotic-derived proteins such as ARC6 and GC1 and key eukaryotic-derived proteins such as ARC5 and FZL, these proteins make up a sophisticated division machinery. The regulation of plastid division in a cellular context is largely unknown; however, recent microarray data shed light on this. Here the current understanding of the mechanism of chloroplast division in higher plants is reviewed with an emphasis on how recent findings are beginning to shape our understanding of the function and evolution of the components. Conclusions Extrapolation from the mechanism of bacterial cell division provides valuable clues as to how the chloroplast division process is achieved in plant cells. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the highly regulated mechanism of plastid division within the host cell has led to the evolution of features unique to the

  5. Constitutive expression of ftsZ overrides the whi developmental genes to initiate sporulation of Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Joost; Mommaas, A Mieke; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2012-03-01

    The filamentous soil bacteria Streptomyces undergo a highly complex developmental programme. Before streptomycetes commit themselves to sporulation, distinct morphological checkpoints are passed in the aerial hyphae that are subject to multi-level control by the whi sporulation genes. Here we show that whi-independent expression of FtsZ restores sporulation to the early sporulation mutants whiA, whiB, whiG, whiH, whiI and whiJ. Viability, stress resistance and high-resolution electron microscopy underlined that viable spores were formed. However, spores from sporulation-restored whiA and whiG mutants showed defects in DNA segregation/condensation, while spores from the complemented whiB mutant had increased stress sensitivity, perhaps as a result of changes in the spore sheath. In contrast to the whi mutants, normal sporulation of ssgB null mutants-which fail to properly localise FtsZ-could not be restored by enhancing FtsZ protein levels, forming spore-like bodies that lack spore walls. Our data strongly suggest that the whi genes control a decisive event towards sporulation of streptomycetes, namely the correct timing of developmental ftsZ transcription. The biological significance may be to ensure that sporulation-specific cell division will only start once sufficient aerial mycelium biomass has been generated. Our data shed new light on the longstanding question as to how whi genes control sporulation, which has intrigued scientists for four decades.

  6. Multi-color imaging of the bacterial nucleoid and division proteins with blue, orange, and near-infrared fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fabai; Van Rijn, Erwin; Van Schie, Bas G. C.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the spatiotemporal protein dynamics within live bacterial cells impose a strong demand for multi-color imaging. Despite the increasingly large collection of fluorescent protein (FP) variants engineered to date, only a few of these were successfully applied in bacteria. Here, we explore the performance of recently engineered variants with the blue (TagBFP), orange (TagRFP-T, mKO2), and far-red (mKate2) spectral colors by tagging HU, LacI, MinD, and FtsZ for visualizing the nucleoid and the cell division process. We find that, these FPs outperformed previous versions in terms of brightness and photostability at their respective spectral range, both when expressed as cytosolic label and when fused to native proteins. As this indicates that their folding is sufficiently fast, these proteins thus successfully expand the applicable spectra for multi-color imaging in bacteria. A near-infrared protein (eqFP670) is found to be the most red-shifted protein applicable to bacteria so far, with brightness and photostability that are advantageous for cell-body imaging, such as in microfluidic devices. Despite the multiple advantages, we also report the alarming observation that TagBFP directly interacts with TagRFP-T, causing interference of localization patterns between their fusion proteins. Our application of diverse FPs for endogenous tagging provides guidelines for future engineering of fluorescent fusions in bacteria, specifically: (1) The performance of newly developed FPs should be quantified in vivo for their introduction into bacteria; (2) spectral crosstalk and inter-variant interactions between FPs should be carefully examined for multi-color imaging; and (3) successful genomic fusion to the 5′-end of a gene strongly depends on the translational read-through of the inserted coding sequence. PMID:26136737

  7. Structure, function and controls in microbial division.

    PubMed

    Vicente, M; Errington, J

    1996-04-01

    Several crucial genes required for bacterial division lie close together in a region called the dcw cluster. Within the cluster, gene expression is subject to complex transcriptional regulation, which serves to adjust the cell cycle in response to growth rate. The pivotally important FtsZ protein, which is needed to initiate division, is now known to interact with many other components of the division machinery in Escherichia coli. Some biochemical properties of FtsZ, and of another division protein called FtsA, suggest that they are similar to the eukaryotic proteins tubulin and actin respectively. Cell division needs to be closely co-ordinated with chromosome partitioning. The mechanism of partitioning is poorly understood, though several genes involved in this process, including several muk genes, have been identified. The min genes may participate in both septum positioning and chromosome partitioning. Coupled transcription and translation of membrane-associated proteins might also be important for partitioning. In the event of a failure in the normal partitioning process, Bacillus subtilis, at least, has a mechanism for removing a bisected nucleoid from the division septum.

  8. Force generation by a dynamic Z-ring in Escherichia coli cell division.

    PubMed

    Allard, Jun F; Cytrynbaum, Eric N

    2009-01-06

    FtsZ, a bacterial homologue of tubulin, plays a central role in bacterial cell division. It is the first of many proteins recruited to the division site to form the Z-ring, a dynamic structure that recycles on the time scale of seconds and is required for division to proceed. FtsZ has been recently shown to form rings inside tubular liposomes and to constrict the liposome membrane without the presence of other proteins, particularly molecular motors that appear to be absent from the bacterial proteome. Here, we propose a mathematical model for the dynamic turnover of the Z-ring and for its ability to generate a constriction force. Force generation is assumed to derive from GTP hydrolysis, which is known to induce curvature in FtsZ filaments. We find that this transition to a curved state is capable of generating a sufficient force to drive cell-wall invagination in vivo and can also explain the constriction seen in the in vitro liposome experiments. Our observations resolve the question of how FtsZ might accomplish cell division despite the highly dynamic nature of the Z-ring and the lack of molecular motors.

  9. A Carbocyclic Curcumin Inhibits Proliferation of Gram-Positive Bacteria by Targeting FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Groundwater, Paul W; Narlawar, Rajeshwar; Liao, Vivian Wan Yu; Bhattacharya, Anusri; Srivastava, Shalini; Kunal, Kishore; Doddareddy, Munikumar; Oza, Pratik M; Mamidi, Ramesh; Marrs, Emma C L; Perry, John D; Hibbs, David E; Panda, Dulal

    2017-01-24

    Inhibition of FtsZ assembly has been found to stall bacterial cell division. Here, we report the identification of a potent carbocyclic curcumin analogue (2d) that inhibits Bacillus subtilis 168 cell proliferation by targeting the assembly of FtsZ. 2d also showed potent inhibitory activity (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2-4 mg/L) against several clinically important species of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, 2d displayed a significantly reduced inhibitory effect on human cervical cancer cells in comparison to its effect on bacterial cells. Using live cell imaging of GFP-FtsZ by confocal microscopy, 2d was found to rapidly perturb the cytokinetic FtsZ rings in Bacillus subtilis cells. The immunofluorescence imaging of FtsZ also showed that 2d destroyed the Z-ring in bacteria within 5 min. Prolonged treatment with 2d produced filamentous bacteria, but 2d had no detectable effect either on the nucleoids or on the membrane potential of bacteria. 2d inhibited FtsZ assembly in vitro, whereas it had minimal effects on tubulin assembly. Interestingly, 2d strongly enhanced the GTPase activity of FtsZ and reduced the GTPase activity of tubulin. Furthermore, 2d bound to purified FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 4.0 ± 1.1 μM, and the binding of 2d altered the secondary structures of FtsZ. The results together suggested that the non-natural curcumin analogue 2d possesses powerful antibacterial activity against important pathogenic bacteria, and the evidence indicates that 2d inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting FtsZ.

  10. SpyAD, a moonlighting protein of group A Streptococcus contributing to bacterial division and host cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gallotta, Marilena; Gancitano, Giovanni; Pietrocola, Giampiero; Mora, Marirosa; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Tuscano, Giovanna; Chiarot, Emiliano; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Taddei, Anna Rita; Rindi, Simonetta; Speziale, Pietro; Soriani, Marco; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada; Bensi, Giuliano

    2014-07-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen causing a wide repertoire of mild and severe diseases for which no vaccine is yet available. We recently reported the identification of three protein antigens that in combination conferred wide protection against GAS infection in mice. Here we focused our attention on the characterization of one of these three antigens, Spy0269, a highly conserved, surface-exposed, and immunogenic protein of unknown function. Deletion of the spy0269 gene in a GAS M1 isolate resulted in very long bacterial chains, which is indicative of an impaired capacity of the knockout mutant to properly divide. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the protein was mainly localized at the cell septum and could interact in vitro with the cell division protein FtsZ, leading us to hypothesize that Spy0269 is a member of the GAS divisome machinery. Predicted structural domains and sequence homologies with known streptococcal adhesins suggested that this antigen could also play a role in mediating GAS interaction with host cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by showing that recombinant Spy0269 could bind to mammalian epithelial cells in vitro and that Lactococcus lactis expressing Spy0269 on its cell surface could adhere to mammalian cells in vitro and to mice nasal mucosa in vivo. On the basis of these data, we believe that Spy0269 is involved both in bacterial cell division and in adhesion to host cells and we propose to rename this multifunctional moonlighting protein as SpyAD (Streptococcus pyogenes Adhesion and Division protein).

  11. Absence of the Polar Organizing Protein PopZ Results in Reduced and Asymmetric Cell Division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Howell, Matthew; Aliashkevich, Alena; Salisbury, Anne K; Cava, Felipe; Bowman, Grant R; Brown, Pamela J B

    2017-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped bacterium that grows by polar insertion of new peptidoglycan during cell elongation. As the cell cycle progresses, peptidoglycan synthesis at the pole ceases prior to insertion of new peptidoglycan at midcell to enable cell division. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organelle development protein PopZ has been identified as a growth pole marker and a candidate polar growth-promoting factor. Here, we characterize the function of PopZ in cell growth and division of A. tumefaciens Consistent with previous observations, we observe that PopZ localizes specifically to the growth pole in wild-type cells. Despite the striking localization pattern of PopZ, we find the absence of the protein does not impair polar elongation or cause major changes in the peptidoglycan composition. Instead, we observe an atypical cell length distribution, including minicells, elongated cells, and cells with ectopic poles. Most minicells lack DNA, suggesting a defect in chromosome segregation. Furthermore, the canonical cell division proteins FtsZ and FtsA are misplaced, leading to asymmetric sites of cell constriction. Together, these data suggest that PopZ plays an important role in the regulation of chromosome segregation and cell division.IMPORTANCEA. tumefaciens is a bacterial plant pathogen and a natural genetic engineer. However, very little is known about the spatial and temporal regulation of cell wall biogenesis that leads to polar growth in this bacterium. Understanding the molecular basis of A. tumefaciens growth may allow for the development of innovations to prevent disease or to promote growth during biotechnology applications. Finally, since many closely related plant and animal pathogens exhibit polar growth, discoveries in A. tumefaciens may be broadly applicable for devising antimicrobial strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. The physiology of bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Egan, Alexander J F; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial cell division is facilitated by the divisome, a dynamic multiprotein assembly localizing at mid-cell to synthesize the stress-bearing peptidoglycan and to constrict all cell envelope layers. Divisome assembly occurs in two steps and involves multiple interactions between more than 20 essential and accessory cell division proteins. Well before constriction and while the cell is still elongating, the tubulin-like FtsZ and early cell division proteins form a ring-like structure at mid-cell. Cell division starts once certain peptidoglycan enzymes and their activators have moved to the FtsZ-ring. Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli simultaneously synthesize and cleave the septum peptidoglycan during division leading to a constriction. The outer membrane constricts together with the peptidoglycan layer with the help of the transenvelope spanning Tol-Pal system.

  13. The FtsZ-Like Protein FtsZm of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense Likely Interacts with Its Generic Homolog and Is Required for Biomineralization under Nitrate Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Frank D.; Raschdorf, Oliver; Nudelman, Hila; Messerer, Maxim; Katzmann, Emanuel; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Zarivach, Raz

    2014-01-01

    Midcell selection, septum formation, and cytokinesis in most bacteria are orchestrated by the eukaryotic tubulin homolog FtsZ. The alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (MSR-1) septates asymmetrically, and cytokinesis is linked to splitting and segregation of an intracellular chain of membrane-enveloped magnetite crystals (magnetosomes). In addition to a generic, full-length ftsZ gene, MSR-1 contains a truncated ftsZ homolog (ftsZm) which is located adjacent to genes controlling biomineralization and magnetosome chain formation. We analyzed the role of FtsZm in cell division and biomineralization together with the full-length MSR-1 FtsZ protein. Our results indicate that loss of FtsZm has a strong effect on microoxic magnetite biomineralization which, however, could be rescued by the presence of nitrate in the medium. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that FtsZm-mCherry does not colocalize with the magnetosome-related proteins MamC and MamK but is confined to asymmetric spots at midcell and at the cell pole, coinciding with the FtsZ protein position. In Escherichia coli, both FtsZ homologs form distinct structures but colocalize when coexpressed, suggesting an FtsZ-dependent recruitment of FtsZm. In vitro analyses indicate that FtsZm is able to interact with the FtsZ protein. Together, our data suggest that FtsZm shares key features with its full-length homolog but is involved in redox control for magnetite crystallization. PMID:24272781

  14. Benzodioxane-benzamides as new bacterial cell division inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chiodini, Giuseppe; Pallavicini, Marco; Zanotto, Carlo; Bissa, Massimiliano; Radaelli, Antonia; Straniero, Valentina; Bolchi, Cristiano; Fumagalli, Laura; Ruggeri, Paola; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Valoti, Ermanno

    2015-01-07

    A SAR study was performed on 3-substituted 2,6-difluorobenzamides, known inhibitors of the essential bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, through a series of modifications first of 2,6-difluoro-3-nonyloxybenzamide and then of its 3-pyridothiazolylmethoxy analogue PC190723. The study led to the identification of chiral 2,6-difluorobenzamides bearing 1,4-benzodioxane-2-methyl residue at the 3-position as potent antistaphylococcal compounds.

  15. A New Essential Cell Division Protein in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Aurora; Camarena, Laura; Cevallos, Miguel Angel; Poggio, Sebastian

    2017-04-15

    Bacterial cell division is a complex process that relies on a multiprotein complex composed of a core of widely conserved and generally essential proteins and on accessory proteins that vary in number and identity in different bacteria. The assembly of this complex and, particularly, the initiation of constriction are regulated processes that have come under intensive study. In this work, we characterize the function of DipI, a protein conserved in Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria that is essential in Caulobacter crescentus Our results show that DipI is a periplasmic protein that is recruited late to the division site and that it is required for the initiation of constriction. The recruitment of the conserved cell division proteins is not affected by the absence of DipI, but localization of DipI to the division site occurs only after a mature divisome has formed. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that DipI strongly interacts with the FtsQLB complex, which has been recently implicated in regulating constriction initiation. A possible role of DipI in this process is discussed.IMPORTANCE Bacterial cell division is a complex process for which most bacterial cells assemble a multiprotein complex that consists of conserved proteins and of accessory proteins that differ among bacterial groups. In this work, we describe a new cell division protein (DipI) present only in a group of bacteria but essential in Caulobacter crescentus Cells devoid of DipI cannot constrict. Although a mature divisome is required for DipI recruitment, DipI is not needed for recruiting other division proteins. These results, together with the interaction of DipI with a protein complex that has been suggested to regulate cell wall synthesis during division, suggest that DipI may be part of the regulatory mechanism that controls constriction initiation.

  16. Two-plasmid vector system for independently controlled expression of green and red fluorescent fusion proteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Brzoska, Anthony J; Firth, Neville

    2013-05-01

    We have constructed a system for the regulated coexpression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusions in Staphylococcus aureus. It was validated by simultaneous localization of cell division proteins FtsZ and Noc and used to detect filament formation by an actin-like ParM plasmid partitioning protein in its native coccoid host.

  17. Pattern formation on membranes and its role in bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Simon; Schwille, Petra

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial cell division is arguably one of the most central processes in biology. Despite the identification of many important molecular players, surprisingly little is yet known about the underlying physicochemical mechanisms. However, self-organized protein patterns play key roles during division of Escherichia coli, where division is initiated by the directed localization of FtsZ to the cell middle by an inhibitor gradient arising from pole-to-pole oscillations of MinCDE proteins. In vitro reconstitution studies have established that both the Min system and FtsZ with its membrane adaptor FtsA form dynamic energy-dependent patterns on membranes. Furthermore, recent in vivo and in vitro approaches have shown that Min patterns display rich dynamics in diverse geometries and respond to the progress of cytokinesis.

  18. FtsZ Directs a Second Mode of Peptidoglycan Synthesis in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Archana; de Pedro, Miguel A.; Young, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Certain penicillin binding protein mutants of Escherichia coli grow with spirillum-like morphologies when the FtsZ protein is inhibited, suggesting that FtsZ might govern aspects of cell wall growth other than those strictly associated with septation. While investigating the mechanism of spiral cell formation, we discovered conditions for visualizing this second function of FtsZ. Normally, inhibiting the cytoskeleton protein MreB forces E. coli cells to grow as smoothly enlarging spheres from which the poles disappear, yielding coccoid or lemon-shaped forms. However, when FtsZ and MreB were inhibited simultaneously in a strain lacking PBP 5 and PBP 7, the resulting cells ballooned outward but retained conspicuous rod-shaped extensions at sites representing the original poles. This visual phenotype was paralleled by the biochemistry of sacculus growth. Muropeptides are usually inserted homogeneously into the lateral cell walls, but when FtsZ polymerization was inhibited, the incorporation of new material occurred mainly in the central regions of cells and was significantly lower in those portions of side walls abutting a pole. Thus, reduced precursor incorporation into side walls near the poles explained why these regions retained their rod-like morphology while the rest of the cell grew spherically. Also, inhibiting FtsZ increased the amount of pentapeptides in sacculi by about one-third. Finally, the MreB protein directed the helical or diagonal incorporation of new peptidoglycan into the wall, but the location of that incorporation depended on whether FtsZ was active. In sum, the results indicate that in addition to nucleating cell septation in E. coli, FtsZ can direct the insertion of new peptidoglycan into portions of the lateral wall. PMID:17513471

  19. An ancestral bacterial division system is widespread in eukaryotic mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Leger, Michelle M; Petrů, Markéta; Žárský, Vojtěch; Eme, Laura; Vlček, Čestmír; Harding, Tommy; Lang, B Franz; Eliáš, Marek; Doležal, Pavel; Roger, Andrew J

    2015-08-18

    Bacterial division initiates at the site of a contractile Z-ring composed of polymerized FtsZ. The location of the Z-ring in the cell is controlled by a system of three mutually antagonistic proteins, MinC, MinD, and MinE. Plastid division is also known to be dependent on homologs of these proteins, derived from the ancestral cyanobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to plastids. In contrast, the mitochondria of model systems such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mammals, and Arabidopsis thaliana seem to have replaced the ancestral α-proteobacterial Min-based division machinery with host-derived dynamin-related proteins that form outer contractile rings. Here, we show that the mitochondrial division system of these model organisms is the exception, rather than the rule, for eukaryotes. We describe endosymbiont-derived, bacterial-like division systems comprising FtsZ and Min proteins in diverse less-studied eukaryote protistan lineages, including jakobid and heterolobosean excavates, a malawimonad, stramenopiles, amoebozoans, a breviate, and an apusomonad. For two of these taxa, the amoebozoan Dictyostelium purpureum and the jakobid Andalucia incarcerata, we confirm a mitochondrial localization of these proteins by their heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The discovery of a proteobacterial-like division system in mitochondria of diverse eukaryotic lineages suggests that it was the ancestral feature of all eukaryotic mitochondria and has been supplanted by a host-derived system multiple times in distinct eukaryote lineages.

  20. An ancestral bacterial division system is widespread in eukaryotic mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Michelle M.; Petrů, Markéta; Žárský, Vojtěch; Eme, Laura; Vlček, Čestmír; Harding, Tommy; Lang, B. Franz; Eliáš, Marek; Doležal, Pavel; Roger, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial division initiates at the site of a contractile Z-ring composed of polymerized FtsZ. The location of the Z-ring in the cell is controlled by a system of three mutually antagonistic proteins, MinC, MinD, and MinE. Plastid division is also known to be dependent on homologs of these proteins, derived from the ancestral cyanobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to plastids. In contrast, the mitochondria of model systems such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mammals, and Arabidopsis thaliana seem to have replaced the ancestral α-proteobacterial Min-based division machinery with host-derived dynamin-related proteins that form outer contractile rings. Here, we show that the mitochondrial division system of these model organisms is the exception, rather than the rule, for eukaryotes. We describe endosymbiont-derived, bacterial-like division systems comprising FtsZ and Min proteins in diverse less-studied eukaryote protistan lineages, including jakobid and heterolobosean excavates, a malawimonad, stramenopiles, amoebozoans, a breviate, and an apusomonad. For two of these taxa, the amoebozoan Dictyostelium purpureum and the jakobid Andalucia incarcerata, we confirm a mitochondrial localization of these proteins by their heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The discovery of a proteobacterial-like division system in mitochondria of diverse eukaryotic lineages suggests that it was the ancestral feature of all eukaryotic mitochondria and has been supplanted by a host-derived system multiple times in distinct eukaryote lineages. PMID:25831547

  1. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV) Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Mychack, Aaron; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4–10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV) have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps), also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species. PMID:27088231

  2. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV) Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Mychack, Aaron; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4-10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV) have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps), also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species.

  3. FtsZ Protofilament Curvature Is the Opposite of Tubulin Rings.

    PubMed

    Housman, Max; Milam, Sara L; Moore, Desmond A; Osawa, Masaki; Erickson, Harold P

    2016-07-26

    FtsZ protofilaments (pfs) form the bacterial cytokinetic Z ring. Previous work suggested that a conformational change from straight to curved pfs generated the constriction force. In the simplest model, the C-terminal membrane tether is on the outside of the curved pf, facing the membrane. Tubulin, a homologue of FtsZ, also forms pfs with a curved conformation. However, it is well-established that tubulin rings have the C terminus on the inside of the ring. Could FtsZ and tubulin rings have the opposite curvature? In this study, we explored the FtsZ curvature direction by fusing large protein tags to the FtsZ termini. Thin section electron microscopy showed that the C-terminal tag was on the outside, consistent with the bending pf model. This has interesting implications for the evolution of tubulin. Tubulin likely began with the curvature of FtsZ, but evolution managed to reverse direction to produce outward-curving rings, which are useful for pulling chromosomes.

  4. Tubulin secondary structure analysis, limited proteolysis sites, and homology to FtsZ.

    PubMed

    de Pereda, J M; Leynadier, D; Evangelio, J A; Chacón, P; Andreu, J M

    1996-11-12

    The far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrum of the alpha beta-tubulin dimer analyzed by six different methods indicates an average content of approximately 33% alpha helix, 21% beta sheet, and 45% other secondary structure. Deconvolution of Fourier transform infrared spectra indicates 24% sheet, 37% (maximum) helix, and 38% (minimum) other structure. Separate alignments of 75 alpha-tubulin, 106 beta-tubulin, and 14 gamma-tubulin sequences and 12 sequences of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ have been employed to predict their secondary structures with the multiple-sequence method PHD [Rost, B., & Sander, C. (1993a) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 584-599]. The predicted secondary structures average of 33% alpha helix, 24% beta sheet, and 43% loop for the alpha beta dimer. The predictions have been compared with sites of limited proteolysis by 12 proteases at the surfaces of the heterodimer and taxol-induced microtubules [de Pereda, J. M., & Andreu, J. M. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 14184-14202]. From 24 experimentally determined nicking sites, 18 are at predicted loops or at the extremes of secondary structure elements. Proteolysis zone A (including acetylable Lys40 and probably Lys60 in alpha-tubulin and Gly93 in beta-tubulin) and proteolysis zone B (extending between residues 167 and 183 in both chains) are accessible in microtubules. Proteolysis zone C, between residues 278 and 295, becomes partially occluded in microtubules. The alpha-tubulin nicking site Arg339-Ser340 is at a loop following a predicted alpha helix in proteolysis zone D. This site is protected in taxol microtubules; however, a new tryptic site appears which is probably located at the N-terminal end of the same helix. Zone D also contains beta-tubulin Cys354, which is accessible in microtubules. Proteolysis zone E includes the C-terminal hypervariable loops (10-20 residues) of each tubulin chain. These follow the two larger predicted helical zones (residues 372-395 and 405-432 in beta-tubulin), which

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis protein CT009 is a structural and functional homolog to the key morphogenesis component RodZ and interacts with division septal plane localized MreB

    SciTech Connect

    Kemege, Kyle E.; Hickey, John M.; Barta, Michael L.; Wickstrum, Jason; Balwalli, Namita; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hefty, P. Scott

    2014-11-10

    Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein encoded by ORF CT009 interacts with MreB despite low sequence similarity to RodZ. The studies in this paper expand on those observations through protein structure, mutagenesis and cellular localization analyses. Structural analysis indicated that CT009 shares high level of structural similarity to RodZ, revealing the conserved orientation of two residues critical for MreB interaction. Substitutions eliminated MreB protein interaction and partial complementation provided by CT009 in RodZ deficient Escherichia coli. Cellular localization analysis of CT009 showed uniform membrane staining in Chlamydia. This was in contrast to the localization of MreB, which was restricted to predicted septal planes. Finally, MreB localization to septal planes provides direct experimental observation for the role of MreB in cell division and supports the hypothesis that it serves as a functional replacement for FtsZ in Chlamydia.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis protein CT009 is a structural and functional homolog to the key morphogenesis component RodZ and interacts with division septal plane localized MreB

    DOE PAGES

    Kemege, Kyle E.; Hickey, John M.; Barta, Michael L.; ...

    2014-11-10

    Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein encoded by ORF CT009 interacts with MreB despite low sequence similarity to RodZ. The studies in this paper expand on those observations through protein structure, mutagenesis andmore » cellular localization analyses. Structural analysis indicated that CT009 shares high level of structural similarity to RodZ, revealing the conserved orientation of two residues critical for MreB interaction. Substitutions eliminated MreB protein interaction and partial complementation provided by CT009 in RodZ deficient Escherichia coli. Cellular localization analysis of CT009 showed uniform membrane staining in Chlamydia. This was in contrast to the localization of MreB, which was restricted to predicted septal planes. Finally, MreB localization to septal planes provides direct experimental observation for the role of MreB in cell division and supports the hypothesis that it serves as a functional replacement for FtsZ in Chlamydia.« less

  7. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles targeting FtsZ as antitubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Park, Bora; Awasthi, Divya; Chowdhury, Soumya R; Melief, Eduard H; Kumar, Kunal; Knudson, Susan E; Slayden, Richard A; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-05-01

    Filamenting temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), an essential cell division protein, is a promising target for the drug discovery of new-generation antibacterial agents against various bacterial pathogens. As a part of SAR studies on benzimidazoles, we have synthesized a library of 376 novel 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles, bearing ether or thioether linkage at the 6-position. In a preliminary HTP screening against Mtb H37Rv, 108 compounds were identified as hits at a cut off concentration of 5 μg/mL. Among those hits, 10 compounds exhibited MIC values in the range of 0.63-12.5 μg/mL. Light scattering assay and TEM analysis with the most potent compound 5a clearly indicate that its molecular target is Mtb-FtsZ. Also, the Kd of 5a with Mtb-FtsZ was determined to be 1.32 μM.

  8. Visualisation of plastids in endosperm, pollen and roots of transgenic wheat expressing modified GFP fused to transit peptides from wheat SSU RubisCO, rice FtsZ and maize ferredoxin III proteins.

    PubMed

    Primavesi, Lucia F; Wu, Huixia; Mudd, Elisabeth A; Day, Anil; Jones, Huw D

    2008-08-01

    The ability to target marker proteins to specific subcellular compartments is a powerful research tool to study the structure and development of organelles. Here transit sequences from nuclear-encoded, plastid proteins, namely rice FtsZ, maize non-photosynthetic ferredoxin III (FdIII) and the small subunit of RubisCO were used to target a modified synthetic GFP (S65G, S72A) to plastids. The localisations of the fusion proteins expressed in transgenic wheat plants and under the control of the rice actin promoter were compared to an untargeted GFP control. GFP fluorescence was localised to non-green plastids in pollen, roots and seed endosperm and detected in isolated leaf chloroplasts using a GFP-specific antibody. Transit peptides appeared to influence the relative fluorescence intensities of plastids in different tissues. This is consistent with differential targeting and/or turnover of GFP fusion proteins in different plastid types. Replacement of GFP sequences with alternative coding regions enables immediate applications of our vectors for academic research and commercial applications.

  9. SAR Studies on Trisubstituted Benzimidazoles as Inhibitors of Mtb FtsZ for the Development of Novel Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Knudson, Susan E.; Slayden, Richard A.; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    FtsZ, an essential protein for bacterial cell division, is a highly promising therapeutic target, especially for the discovery and development of new-generation anti-TB agents. Following up the identification of two lead 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles, 1 and 2, targeting Mtb-FtsZ in our previous study, an extensive SAR study for optimization of these lead compounds was performed through systematic modification of the 5 and 6 positions. This study has successfully led to the discovery of a highly potent advanced lead 5f (MIC 0.06 µg/mL) and several other compounds with comparable potencies. These advanced lead compounds possess a dimethylamino group at the 6 position. The functional groups at the 5 position exhibit substantial effects on the antibacterial activity as well. In vitro experiments such as the FtsZ polymerization inhibitory assay and TEM analysis of Mtb-FtsZ treated with 5f and others indicate that Mtb-FtsZ is the molecular target for their antibacterial activity. PMID:24266862

  10. Mechanisms of organelle division and inheritance and their implications regarding the origin of eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria and plastids have their own DNAs and are regarded as descendants of endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Organellar DNAs are not naked in vivo but are associated with basic proteins to form DNA-protein complexes (called organelle nuclei). The concept of organelle nuclei provides a new approach to explain the origin, division, and inheritance of organelles. Organelles divide using organelle division rings (machineries) after organelle-nuclear division. Organelle division machineries are a chimera of the FtsZ (filamentous temperature sensitive Z) ring of bacterial origin and the eukaryotic mechanochemical dynamin ring. Thus, organelle division machineries contain a key to solve the origin of organelles (eukaryotes). The maternal inheritance of organelles developed during sexual reproduction and it is also probably intimately related to the origin of organelles. The aims of this review are to describe the strategies used to reveal the dynamics of organelle division machineries, and the significance of the division machineries and maternal inheritance in the origin and evolution of eukaryotes.

  11. MapZ beacons the division sites and positions FtsZ-rings in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Macek, Boris; Combet, Christophe; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Brun, Yves V.; Sherratt, David; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In every living organism, cell division requires accurate identification of the division site and placement of the division machinery. In bacteria, this process is traditionally considered to begin with the polymerization of the highly conserved tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring that locates precisely at midcell1. Over the last decades, several systems have been reported to regulate the spatiotemporal assembly and placement of the FtsZ-ring2-5. However, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, as many other organisms, is devoid of these canonical systems and the mechanisms of positioning of the division machinery remain unknown4,6. Here we characterize a novel factor that locates at the division site before FtsZ and guides septum positioning in the pneumococcus. MapZ (Midcell Anchored Protein Z) forms ring structures at the cell equator and moves apart as the cell elongates, therefore behaving as a permanent beacon of division sites. MapZ then positions the FtsZ-ring through direct protein-protein interactions. MapZ-mediated control differs from previously described systems mostly based on negative regulation of FtsZ assembly. Further, MapZ is an endogenous target of the ser/thr-kinase StkP, which was recently shown to play a central role in cytokinesis and morphogenesis of the pneumococcus7-9. We show that both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of MapZ are required for proper Z-ring formation and dynamics. Altogether, this work uncovers a new mechanism for bacterial cell division that is regulated by phosphorylation and illustrates that nature has evolved a diversity of cell division mechanisms adapted to the different bacterial clades. PMID:25470041

  12. Selection of the midcell division site in Bacillus subtilis through MinD-dependent polar localization and activation of MinC.

    PubMed

    Marston, A L; Errington, J

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cell division commences with the assembly of the tubulin-like protein, FtsZ, at midcell to form a ring. Division site selection in rod-shaped bacteria is mediated by MinC and MinD, which form a division inhibitor. Bacillus subtilis DivIVA protein ensures that MinCD specifically inhibits division close to the cell poles, while allowing division at midcell. We have examined the localization of MinC protein and show that it is targeted to midcell and retained at the mature cell poles. This localization is reminiscent of the pattern previously described for MinD. Localization of MinC requires both early (FtsZ) and late (PbpB) division proteins, and it is completely dependent on MinD. The effects of a divIVA mutation on localization of MinC now suggest that the main role of DivIVA is to retain MinCD at the cell poles after division, rather than recruitment to nascent division sites. By overexpressing minC or minD, we show that both proteins are required to block division, but that only MinD needs to be in excess of wild-type levels. The results suggest a mechanism whereby MinD is required both to pilot MinC to the cell poles and to constitute a functional division inhibitor.

  13. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB-FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved,coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces.

  14. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB–FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved, coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces. PMID:27053678

  15. A Replication-Inhibited Unsegregated Nucleoid at Mid-Cell Blocks Z-Ring Formation and Cell Division Independently of SOS and the SlmA Nucleoid Occlusion Protein in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, Joshua; Blinkova, Alexandra; Magnan, David; Bates, David

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome replication and cell division of Escherichia coli are coordinated with growth such that wild-type cells divide once and only once after each replication cycle. To investigate the nature of this coordination, the effects of inhibiting replication on Z-ring formation and cell division were tested in both synchronized and exponentially growing cells with only one replicating chromosome. When replication elongation was blocked by hydroxyurea or nalidixic acid, arrested cells contained one partially replicated, compact nucleoid located mid-cell. Cell division was strongly inhibited at or before the level of Z-ring formation. DNA cross-linking by mitomycin C delayed segregation, and the accumulation of about two chromosome equivalents at mid-cell also blocked Z-ring formation and cell division. Z-ring inhibition occurred independently of SOS, SlmA-mediated nucleoid occlusion, and MinCDE proteins and did not result from a decreased FtsZ protein concentration. We propose that the presence of a compact, incompletely replicated nucleoid or unsegregated chromosome masses at the normal mid-cell division site inhibits Z-ring formation and that the SOS system, SlmA, and MinC are not required for this inhibition. PMID:24142249

  16. Coordination of Chromosome Segregation and Cell Division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Amy L; Liew, Andrew T F; Kusuma, Kennardy D; Peterson, Elizabeth; Seidel, Lisa; Foster, Simon J; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Productive bacterial cell division and survival of progeny requires tight coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division to ensure equal partitioning of DNA. Unlike rod-shaped bacteria that undergo division in one plane, the coccoid human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus divides in three successive orthogonal planes, which requires a different spatial control compared to rod-shaped cells. To gain a better understanding of how this coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division is regulated in S. aureus, we investigated proteins that associate with FtsZ and the divisome. We found that DnaK, a well-known chaperone, interacts with FtsZ, EzrA and DivIVA, and is required for DivIVA stability. Unlike in several rod shaped organisms, DivIVA in S. aureus associates with several components of the divisome, as well as the chromosome segregation protein, SMC. This data, combined with phenotypic analysis of mutants, suggests a novel role for S. aureus DivIVA in ensuring cell division and chromosome segregation are coordinated.

  17. Coordination of Chromosome Segregation and Cell Division in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, Amy L.; Liew, Andrew T. F.; Kusuma, Kennardy D.; Peterson, Elizabeth; Seidel, Lisa; Foster, Simon J.; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    Productive bacterial cell division and survival of progeny requires tight coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division to ensure equal partitioning of DNA. Unlike rod-shaped bacteria that undergo division in one plane, the coccoid human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus divides in three successive orthogonal planes, which requires a different spatial control compared to rod-shaped cells. To gain a better understanding of how this coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division is regulated in S. aureus, we investigated proteins that associate with FtsZ and the divisome. We found that DnaK, a well-known chaperone, interacts with FtsZ, EzrA and DivIVA, and is required for DivIVA stability. Unlike in several rod shaped organisms, DivIVA in S. aureus associates with several components of the divisome, as well as the chromosome segregation protein, SMC. This data, combined with phenotypic analysis of mutants, suggests a novel role for S. aureus DivIVA in ensuring cell division and chromosome segregation are coordinated. PMID:28878745

  18. [Effect of cinnamon and lavender oils on FtsZ gene expression in the Staphylococus aureus ATCC 29213].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of lavender and cinnamon oils on FtsZ gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. The cinnamon and lavender oils at least partially results from the inhibition of FtsZ transcription and disruption of cell division process at the level of the septum synthesis, what is similar to mechanisms of drug action used in anti-staphylococcal therapies. The presented results could be an important background for the further detailed research, which is needed to clarify the effect of essential oils on FtsZ synthesis at the posttranscriptional level and other stages of cell division process of S. aureus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  19. A NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase coordinates metabolism with cell division in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Beaufay, François; Coppine, Jérôme; Mayard, Aurélie; Laloux, Géraldine; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Coupling cell cycle with nutrient availability is a crucial process for all living cells. But how bacteria control cell division according to metabolic supplies remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism that coordinates central metabolism with cell division in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. This mechanism involves the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase GdhZ and the oxidoreductase-like KidO. While enzymatically active GdhZ directly interferes with FtsZ polymerization by stimulating its GTPase activity, KidO bound to NADH destabilizes lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. Both GdhZ and KidO share the same regulatory network to concomitantly stimulate the rapid disassembly of the Z-ring, necessary for the subsequent release of progeny cells. Thus, this mechanism illustrates how proteins initially dedicated to metabolism coordinate cell cycle progression with nutrient availability. PMID:25953831

  20. SOS-independent coupling between DNA replication and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jaffé, A; D'Ari, R; Norris, V

    1986-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA synthesis in Escherichia coli mutants in which the SOS-dependent division inhibitors SfiA and SfiC were unable to operate led to a partial arrest of cell division. This SOS-independent mechanism coupling DNA replication and cell division was characterized with respect to residual division, particle number, and DNA content. Whether DNA replication was blocked in the initiation or the elongation step, numerous normal-sized anucleate cells were produced (not minicells or filaments). Their production was used to evaluate the efficiency of this coupling mechanism, which seems to involve the cell division protein FtsZ (SulB), also known to be the target of the division inhibitors SfiA and SfiC. In the absence of DNA synthesis, the efficiency of coupling was modulated by the cyclic-AMP-cyclic-AMP receptor protein complex, which was required for anucleate cell production. Images PMID:3001034

  1. Evolutionary Cell Biology of Division Mode in the Bacterial Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia- Chlamydiae Superphylum

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Marín, Elena; Canosa, Inés; Devos, Damien P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are exceptions to the otherwise dominant mode of division by binary fission, which is based on the interaction between the FtsZ protein and the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis machinery. Some PVC bacteria are deprived of the FtsZ protein and were also thought to lack PG. How these bacteria divide is still one of the major mysteries of microbiology. The presence of PG has recently been revealed in Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, and proteins related to PG synthesis have been shown to be implicated in the division process in Chlamydiae, providing important insights into PVC mechanisms of division. Here, we review the historical lack of observation of PG in PVC bacteria, its recent detection in two phyla and its involvement in chlamydial cell division. Based on the detection of PG-related proteins in PVC proteomes, we consider the possible evolution of the diverse division mechanisms in these bacteria. We conclude by summarizing what is known and what remains to be understood about the evolutionary cell biology of PVC division modes. PMID:28018303

  2. Evolutionary Cell Biology of Division Mode in the Bacterial Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia- Chlamydiae Superphylum.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Marín, Elena; Canosa, Inés; Devos, Damien P

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are exceptions to the otherwise dominant mode of division by binary fission, which is based on the interaction between the FtsZ protein and the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis machinery. Some PVC bacteria are deprived of the FtsZ protein and were also thought to lack PG. How these bacteria divide is still one of the major mysteries of microbiology. The presence of PG has recently been revealed in Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, and proteins related to PG synthesis have been shown to be implicated in the division process in Chlamydiae, providing important insights into PVC mechanisms of division. Here, we review the historical lack of observation of PG in PVC bacteria, its recent detection in two phyla and its involvement in chlamydial cell division. Based on the detection of PG-related proteins in PVC proteomes, we consider the possible evolution of the diverse division mechanisms in these bacteria. We conclude by summarizing what is known and what remains to be understood about the evolutionary cell biology of PVC division modes.

  3. The Arabidopsis minE mutation causes new plastid and FtsZ1 localization phenotypes in the leaf epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Makoto T.; Kojo, Kei H.; Kazama, Yusuke; Sasaki, Shun; Abe, Tomoko; Itoh, Ryuuichi D.

    2015-01-01

    Plastids in the leaf epidermal cells of plants are regarded as immature chloroplasts that, like mesophyll chloroplasts, undergo binary fission. While mesophyll chloroplasts have generally been used to study plastid division, recent studies have suggested the presence of tissue- or plastid type-dependent regulation of plastid division. Here, we report the detailed morphology of plastids and their stromules, and the intraplastidic localization of the chloroplast division-related protein AtFtsZ1-1, in the leaf epidermis of an Arabidopsis mutant that harbors a mutation in the chloroplast division site determinant gene AtMinE1. In atminE1, the size and shape of epidermal plastids varied widely, which contrasts with the plastid phenotype observed in atminE1 mesophyll cells. In particular, atminE1 epidermal plastids occasionally displayed grape-like morphology, a novel phenotype induced by a plastid division mutation. Observation of an atminE1 transgenic line harboring an AtMinE1 promoter::AtMinE1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion gene confirmed the expression and plastidic localization of AtMinE1 in the leaf epidermis. Further examination revealed that constriction of plastids and stromules mediated by the FtsZ1 ring contributed to the plastid pleomorphism in the atminE1 epidermis. These results illustrate that a single plastid division mutation can have dramatic consequences for epidermal plastid morphology, thereby implying that plastid division and morphogenesis are differentially regulated in epidermal and mesophyll plastids. PMID:26500667

  4. Super-resolution imaging of the bacterial division machinery.

    PubMed

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-21

    Bacterial cell division requires the coordinated assembly of more than ten essential proteins at midcell. Central to this process is the formation of a ring-like suprastructure (Z-ring) by the FtsZ protein at the division plan. The Z-ring consists of multiple single-stranded FtsZ protofilaments, and understanding the arrangement of the protofilaments inside the Z-ring will provide insight into the mechanism of Z-ring assembly and its function as a force generator. This information has remained elusive due to current limitations in conventional fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. Conventional fluorescence microscopy is unable to provide a high-resolution image of the Z-ring due to the diffraction limit of light (~200 nm). Electron cryotomographic imaging has detected scattered FtsZ protofilaments in small C. crescentus cells, but is difficult to apply to larger cells such as E. coli or B. subtilis. Here we describe the application of a super-resolution fluorescence microscopy method, Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM), to quantitatively characterize the structural organization of the E. coli Z-ring. PALM imaging offers both high spatial resolution (~35 nm) and specific labeling to enable unambiguous identification of target proteins. We labeled FtsZ with the photoactivatable fluorescent protein mEos2, which switches from green fluorescence (excitation = 488 nm) to red fluorescence (excitation = 561 nm) upon activation at 405 nm. During a PALM experiment, single FtsZ-mEos2 molecules are stochastically activated and the corresponding centroid positions of the single molecules are determined with <20 nm precision. A super-resolution image of the Z-ring is then reconstructed by superimposing the centroid positions of all detected FtsZ-mEos2 molecules. Using this method, we found that the Z-ring has a fixed width of ~100 nm and is composed of a loose bundle of FtsZ protofilaments that overlap with each other in three dimensions. These data provide

  5. Characterization and evolution of cell division and cell wall synthesis genes in the bacterial phyla Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes and phylogenetic comparison with rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Pilhofer, Martin; Rappl, Kristina; Eckl, Christina; Bauer, Andreas Peter; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Petroni, Giulio

    2008-05-01

    In the past, studies on the relationships of the bacterial phyla Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Lentisphaerae, and Verrucomicrobia using different phylogenetic markers have been controversial. Investigations based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses suggested a relationship of the four phyla, showing the branching order Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia/Lentisphaerae. Phylogenetic analyses of 23S rRNA genes in this study also support a monophyletic grouping and their branching order--this grouping is significant for understanding cell division, since the major bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is absent from members of two of the phyla Chlamydiae and Planctomycetes. In Verrucomicrobia, knowledge about cell division is mainly restricted to the recent report of ftsZ in the closely related genera Prosthecobacter and Verrucomicrobium. In this study, genes of the conserved division and cell wall (dcw) cluster (ddl, ftsQ, ftsA, and ftsZ) were characterized in all verrucomicrobial subdivisions (1 to 4) with cultivable representatives (1 to 4). Sequence analyses and transcriptional analyses in Verrucomicrobia and genome data analyses in Lentisphaerae suggested that cell division is based on FtsZ in all verrucomicrobial subdivisions and possibly also in the sister phylum Lentisphaerae. Comprehensive sequence analyses of available genome data for representatives of Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes strongly indicate that their last common ancestor possessed a conserved, ancestral type of dcw gene cluster and an FtsZ-based cell division mechanism. This implies that Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae may have shifted independently to a non-FtsZ-based cell division mechanism after their separate branchings from their last common ancestor with Verrucomicrobia.

  6. Structural and genetic analyses reveal the protein SepF as a new membrane anchor for the Z ring

    PubMed Central

    Duman, Ramona; Ishikawa, Shu; Celik, Ilkay; Strahl, Henrik; Ogasawara, Naotake; Troc, Paulina; Löwe, Jan; Hamoen, Leendert W.

    2013-01-01

    A key step in bacterial cell division is the polymerization of the tubulin homolog FtsZ at midcell. FtsZ polymers are anchored to the cell membrane by FtsA and are required for the assembly of all other cell division proteins. In Gram-positive and cyanobacteria, FtsZ filaments are aligned by the protein SepF, which in vitro polymerizes into large rings that bundle FtsZ filaments. Here we describe the crystal structure of the only globular domain of SepF, located within the C-terminal region. Two-hybrid data revealed that this domain comprises the FtsZ binding site, and EM analyses showed that it is sufficient for ring formation, which is explained by the filaments in the crystals of SepF. Site-directed mutagenesis, gel filtration, and analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that dimers form the basic units of SepF filaments. High-resolution structured illumination microscopy suggested that SepF is membrane associated, and it turned out that purified SepF not only binds to lipid membranes, but also recruits FtsZ. Further genetic and biochemical analyses showed that an amphipathic helix at the N terminus functions as the membrane-binding domain, making SepF a unique membrane anchor for the FtsZ ring. This clarifies why Bacillus subtilis grows without FtsA or the putative membrane anchor EzrA and why bacteria lacking FtsA contain SepF homologs. Both FtsA and SepF use an amphipathic helix for membrane binding. These helices prefer positively curved membranes due to relaxed lipid density; therefore this type of membrane anchor may assist in keeping the Z ring positioned at the strongly curved leading edge of the developing septum. PMID:24218584

  7. Protein kinase C epsilon in cell division: control of abscission.

    PubMed

    Saurin, Adrian T; Brownlow, Nicola; Parker, Peter J

    2009-02-15

    Cell division requires the separation and partitioning of sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell before an actomyosin ring contracts the membrane in between during cytokinesis. The final irreversible step occurs during abscission when the ring breaks down and the membrane is sealed in its place. The physical mechanics of contraction depend on RhoA, which is stimulated by a centralspindlin complex around the cell equator. However exactly how these events are reversed to allow actomyosin breakdown and abscission were not well understood. Here we will discuss new findings that implicate Protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) as a regulator of RhoA signalling required for abscission.

  8. Chloroplast division checkpoint in eukaryotic algae

    PubMed Central

    Sumiya, Nobuko; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts evolved from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont. It is believed that the synchronization of endosymbiotic and host cell division, as is commonly seen in existing algae, was a critical step in establishing the permanent organelle. Algal cells typically contain one or only a small number of chloroplasts that divide once per host cell cycle. This division is based partly on the S-phase–specific expression of nucleus-encoded proteins that constitute the chloroplast-division machinery. In this study, using the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, we show that cell-cycle progression is arrested at the prophase when chloroplast division is blocked before the formation of the chloroplast-division machinery by the overexpression of Filamenting temperature-sensitive (Fts) Z2-1 (Fts72-1), but the cell cycle progresses when chloroplast division is blocked during division-site constriction by the overexpression of either FtsZ2-1 or a dominant-negative form of dynamin-related protein 5B (DRP5B). In the cells arrested in the prophase, the increase in the cyclin B level and the migration of cyclin-dependent kinase B (CDKB) were blocked. These results suggest that chloroplast division restricts host cell-cycle progression so that the cell cycle progresses to the metaphase only when chloroplast division has commenced. Thus, chloroplast division and host cell-cycle progression are synchronized by an interactive restriction that takes place between the nucleus and the chloroplast. In addition, we observed a similar pattern of cell-cycle arrest upon the blockage of chloroplast division in the glaucophyte alga Cyanophora paradoxa, raising the possibility that the chloroplast division checkpoint contributed to the establishment of the permanent organelle. PMID:27837024

  9. Inhibition of Escherichia coli Division by Protein X

    PubMed Central

    Satta, Giuseppe; Pardee, Arthur B.

    1978-01-01

    We propose that protein X provides the connection between damage to Escherichia coli DNA and inhibition of septation and cell division. This connection is needed to guarantee that each new bacterium receives a complete DNA copy. We present several new experiments here which demonstrate that the degree to which septation is inhibited following damage to DNA is correlated with the amount of protein X that is produced. Rifampin selectively blocks protein X production. This drug was shown to allow cells whose DNA had been damaged by nalidixic acid to resume septation. Several mutants formed septa-less filaments and also produced protein X at 42°C; rifampin both inhibited their production of protein X and permitted them to form septa and divide. Essentially complementary results were obtained with a dnaA mutant which at 42°C stopped making DNA, did not produce protein X, and continued to divide; added bleomycin degraded DNA, induced protein X, and inhibited septation. These results, as well as previous observations, are all consistent with the proposal that protein X is produced as a consequence of DNA damage and is an inhibitor of septation. We suggest that septation could require binding of a single-stranded region of DNA to a septum site in the membrane. Protein X could block this binding by combining with the DNA. This control could provide an emergency mechanism in addition to the usually proposed coordination in which completion of DNA synthesis creates a positive effector for a terminal step of septation. Or it could be the sole coordinating mechanism, even under unperturbed growth conditions. Images PMID:76627

  10. Studies on the Dissociation and Urea-Induced Unfolding of FtsZ Support the Dimer Nucleus Polymerization Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Montecinos-Franjola, Felipe; Ross, Justin A.; Sánchez, Susana A.; Brunet, Juan E.; Lagos, Rosalba; Jameson, David M.; Monasterio, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ is a major protein in bacterial cytokinesis that polymerizes into single filaments. A dimer has been proposed to be the nucleating species in FtsZ polymerization. To investigate the influence of the self-assembly of FtsZ on its unfolding pathway, we characterized its oligomerization and unfolding thermodynamics. We studied the assembly using size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the unfolding using circular dichroism and two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The chromatographic analysis demonstrated the presence of monomers, dimers, and tetramers with populations dependent on protein concentration. Dilution experiments using fluorescent conjugates revealed dimer-to-monomer and tetramer-to-dimer dissociation constants in the micromolar range. Measurements of fluorescence lifetimes and rotational correlation times of the conjugates supported the presence of tetramers at high protein concentrations and monomers at low protein concentrations. The unfolding study demonstrated that the three-state unfolding of FtsZ was due to the mainly dimeric state of the protein, and that the monomer unfolds through a two-state mechanism. The monomer-to-dimer equilibrium characterized here (Kd = 9 μM) indicates a significant fraction (∼10%) of stable dimers at the critical concentration for polymerization, supporting a role of the dimeric species in the first steps of FtsZ polymerization. PMID:22824282

  11. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel 4-bromo-1H-indazole derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Yan, Mi; Ma, Ruixin; Ma, Shutao

    2015-04-01

    A series of novel 4-bromo-1H-indazole derivatives as filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) inhibitors were designed, synthesized, and assayed for their in vitro antibacterial activity against various phenotypes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their cell division inhibitory activity. The results indicated that this series showed better antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes than the other tested strains. Among them, compounds 12 and 18 exhibited 256-fold and 256-fold more potent activity than 3-methoxybenzamide (3-MBA) against penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and compound 18 showed 64-fold better activity than 3-MBA but 4-fold weaker activity than ciprofloxacin in the inhibition of S. aureus ATCC29213. Particularly, compound 9 presented the best activity (4 µg/mL) against S. pyogenes PS, being 32-fold, 32-fold, and 2-fold more active than 3-MBA, curcumin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively, but it was four times less active than oxacillin sodium. In addition, some synthesized compounds displayed moderate inhibition of cell division against S. aureus ATCC25923, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, sharing a minimum cell division concentration of 128 µg/mL.

  12. Bacterial cell division: experimental and theoretical approaches to the divisome.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Claire E; Roper, David I; Van Den Berg, Hugo A; Rodger, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Cell division is a key event in the bacterial life cycle. It involves constriction at the midcell, so that one cell can give rise to two daughter cells. This constriction is mediated by a ring composed offibrous multimers of the protein FtsZ. However a host of additional factors is involved in the formation and dynamics of this "Z-ring" and this complicated apparatus is collectively known as the "divisome". We review the literature, with an emphasis on mathematical modelling, and show how such theoretical efforts have helped experimentalists to make sense of the at times bewildering data, and plan further experiments.

  13. Synthesis of Antimicrobial Natural Products Targeting FtsZ: (±)-Dichamanetin and (±)-2″′-Hydroxy-5″-benzylisouvarinol-B

    PubMed Central

    Urgaonkar, Sameer; La Pierre, Henry S.; Meir, Israel; Lund, Henrik; RayChaudhuri, Debabrata; Shaw, Jared T.

    2008-01-01

    Two natural products have been synthesized using a ZnCl2-mediated benzylic coupling reaction. Both are potent inhibitors of the GTPase activity of FtsZ, a protein that is essential for bacterial cytokinesis. PMID:16321003

  14. Cell division inhibitors SulA and MinC/MinD block septum formation at different steps in the assembly of the Escherichia coli division machinery.

    PubMed

    Justice, S S; García-Lara, J; Rothfield, L I

    2000-07-01

    SulA and MinCD are specific inhibitors of cell division in Escherichia coli. In this paper, size exclusion chromatography was used to study the effect of the SulA and MinCD division inhibitors on the oligomerization state of endogenous FtsZ in cytoplasmic extracts, and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to determine the effect of SulA and MinCD on the formation of FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA rings at potential division sites. SulA prevented the formation of high-molecular-weight FtsZ polymers by interfering with FtsZ dimerization and subsequent oligomerization. In contrast, the MinCD division inhibitor did not prevent the oligomerization of FtsZ in the cell extracts or the formation of FtsZ and ZipA ring structures in vivo. However, MinCD did prevent the formation of FtsA rings. Increased expression of ftsA suppressed MinCD-induced division inhibition, but had no effect on SulA-induced division inhibition. These results indicate that MinCD blocks the assembly of the septation machinery at a later step than SulA, at the stage at which FtsA is added to the FtsZ ring.

  15. Conservation and differences of the Min system in the chloroplast and bacterial division site placement

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kabeya, Yukihiro; Okazaki, Kumiko; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2009-01-01

    Chloroplasts are descended from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont and divide by binary fission. Reminiscent of the process in their bacterial ancestor, chloroplast division involves a part of cyanobacteria-derived division machineries in addition to those acquired during chloroplast evolution.1,2 In both bacterial and chloroplast division, formation of the FtsZ ring at the mid position is required for subsequent constriction and fission at the mid division site.1–4 As in bacteria, positioning of the FtsZ ring at the mid-chloroplast is mediated by the Min system.1,2 Recently, we identified the MCD1 protein, a plant-specific component of the Min system in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts.5 Unlike other division components that have been acquired after endosymbiosis and function outside of the chloroplasts (i.e., in/on the outer envelope membrane),6–9 MCD1 functions inside the chloroplast. Since we already discussed about the function and significance of MCD1 as a division component of plant origin,5 here we focus on and discuss about the diversity and evolution of the Min system. PMID:19907699

  16. Targeting of (D)MinC/MinD and (D)MinC/DicB complexes to septal rings in Escherichia coli suggests a multistep mechanism for MinC-mediated destruction of nascent FtsZ rings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jay E; Lackner, Laura L; de Boer, Piet A J

    2002-06-01

    The MinC protein is an important determinant of septal ring positioning in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal domain ((Z)MinC) suppresses septal ring formation by interfering with FtsZ polymerization, whereas the C-terminal domain ((D)MinC) is required for dimerization as well as for interaction with the MinD protein. MinD oscillates between the membrane of both cell halves in a MinE-dependent fashion. MinC oscillates along with MinD such that the time-integrated concentration of (Z)MinC at the membrane is minimal, and hence the stability of FtsZ polymers is maximal, at the cell center. MinC is cytoplasmic and fails to block FtsZ assembly in the absence of MinD, indicating that recruitment of MinC by MinD to the membrane enhances (Z)MinC function. Here, we present evidence that the binding of (D)MinC to MinD endows the MinC/MinD complex with a more specific affinity for a septal ring-associated target in vivo. Thus, MinD does not merely attract MinC to the membrane but also aids MinC in specifically binding to, or in close proximity to, the substrate of its (Z)MinC domain. MinC-mediated division inhibition can also be activated in a MinD-independent fashion by the DicB protein of cryptic prophage Kim. DicB shows little homology to MinD, and how it stimulates MinC function has been unclear. Similar to the results obtained with MinD, we find that DicB interacts directly with (D)MinC, that the (D)MinC/DicB complex has a high affinity for some septal ring target(s), and that MinC/DicB interferes with the assembly and/or integrity of FtsZ rings in vivo. The results suggest a multistep mechanism for the activation of MinC-mediated division inhibition by either MinD or DicB and further expand the number of properties that can be ascribed to the Min proteins.

  17. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-10-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion.

  18. Coordinating bacterial cell division with nutrient availability: a role for glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Leigh G; Hajduk, Isabella V; Blaber, Sinead P; Charles, Ian G; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2014-05-13

    Cell division in bacteria is driven by a cytoskeletal ring structure, the Z ring, composed of polymers of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ. Z-ring formation must be tightly regulated to ensure faithful cell division, and several mechanisms that influence the positioning and timing of Z-ring assembly have been described. Another important but as yet poorly understood aspect of cell division regulation is the need to coordinate division with cell growth and nutrient availability. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cell division is intimately linked to central carbon metabolism in the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We showed that a deletion of the gene encoding pyruvate kinase (pyk), which produces pyruvate in the final reaction of glycolysis, rescues the assembly defect of a temperature-sensitive ftsZ mutant and has significant effects on Z-ring formation in wild-type B. subtilis cells. Addition of exogenous pyruvate restores normal division in the absence of the pyruvate kinase enzyme, implicating pyruvate as a key metabolite in the coordination of bacterial growth and division. Our results support a model in which pyruvate levels are coupled to Z-ring assembly via an enzyme that actually metabolizes pyruvate, the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. We have shown that this protein localizes over the nucleoid in a pyruvate-dependent manner and may stimulate more efficient Z-ring formation at the cell center under nutrient-rich conditions, when cells must divide more frequently. How bacteria coordinate cell cycle processes with nutrient availability and growth is a fundamental yet unresolved question in microbiology. Recent breakthroughs have revealed that nutritional information can be transmitted directly from metabolic pathways to the cell cycle machinery and that this can serve as a mechanism for fine-tuning cell cycle processes in response to changes in environmental conditions. Here we identified a novel link between

  19. Maf acts downstream of ComGA to arrest cell division in competent cells of B. subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Kenneth; Prepiak, Peter; Dias, Miguel J.; Hahn, Jeanette; Dubnau, David

    2011-01-01

    Transformable (competent) cells of Bacillus subtilis are blocked in cell division because the traffic ATPase ComGA prevents the formation of FtsZ rings. Although ComGA-deficient cells elongate and form FtsZ rings, cell division remains blocked at a later stage and the cells become mildly filamented. Here we show that the highly conserved protein Maf is synthesized predominantly in competent cells under the direct control of the transcription factor ComK and is solely responsible for the later block in cell division. In vivo and in vitro data show that Maf binds to both ComGA and DivIVA. A point mutation in maf that interferes with Maf binding to DivIVA also interferes with the ability of Maf to inhibit cell division. Based on these findings, we propose that Maf and ComGA mediate mechanisms for the inhibition of cell division in competent cells with Maf acting downstream of ComGA. We further suggest that Maf must interact with DivIVA to inhibit cell division. PMID:21564336

  20. Maf acts downstream of ComGA to arrest cell division in competent cells of B. subtilis.

    PubMed

    Briley, Kenneth; Prepiak, Peter; Dias, Miguel J; Hahn, Jeanette; Dubnau, David

    2011-07-01

    Transformable (competent) cells of Bacillus subtilis are blocked in cell division because the traffic ATPase ComGA prevents the formation of FtsZ rings. Although ComGA-deficient cells elongate and form FtsZ rings, cell division remains blocked at a later stage and the cells become mildly filamented. Here we show that the highly conserved protein Maf is synthesized predominantly in competent cells under the direct control of the transcription factor ComK and is solely responsible for the later block in cell division. In vivo and in vitro data show that Maf binds to both ComGA and DivIVA. A point mutation in maf that interferes with Maf binding to DivIVA also interferes with the ability of Maf to inhibit cell division. Based on these findings, we propose that Maf and ComGA mediate mechanisms for the inhibition of cell division in competent cells with Maf acting downstream of ComGA. We further suggest that Maf must interact with DivIVA to inhibit cell division.

  1. [Regulation of the Z ring positioning in bacterial cell division--a review].

    PubMed

    Sang, Yu; Tao, Jing; Yao, Yufeng

    2013-04-04

    The regulatory mechanism of bacterial cell division has long been a research focus. Forming a septum at the middle of the cell, the seemingly simple process is involved by multiple regulation factors. Zring (FtsZ ring) is the skeleton of the splitting complex. The locus where Z ring is formed is not only the position the septum formed but also determines the cell division site. Formation of Zring in the incorrect location results in inequality cell division. Several cell division regulation systems have been identified, including the Min system, nucleoid occlusion and the MipZ protein which effectively prevent Zring assembly by different mechanisms, ensuring formation of the fission complex at the correct position. Recent progresses about the formation process of Zring and regulation mechanism affecting the Z-ring positioning are summarized.

  2. Transcription of the Escherichia coli dcw cluster: evidence for distal upstream transcripts being involved in the expression of the downstream ftsZ gene.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, A; Palacios, P; Vicente, M

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains VIP596 and VIP597 have been constructed to compare the amount of transcription of the ftsZ gene derived from proximal promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region with that originating in the upstream regions of the dcw cluster. Both strains have in common a beta-galactosidase reporter fusion located at the ddlB locus, but differ in that VIP597 has a transcription terminator Omega interposon located downstream from lacZ. In addition, these strains have the ddlB, ftsQ, ftsA and ftsZ genes under the control of the IPTG-inducible promoter P(tac), allowing to control artificially ftsZ expression for normal cell division to take place. When beta-galactosidase activity was measured in VIP596 and VIP597 and compared to the levels measured in strain VIP407, in which the lacZ reporter fusion is located in the ftsZ gene, they were found to account for nearly 66% of the total transcription entering into ftsZ. This result indicates that the reduction in ftsZ transcription observed when the promoters in the ddlB-ftsA region are disconnected from the upstream sequences of the dcw cluster (as observed by Flärdh et al., Mol. Microbiol. 30 (1998) 305-316) in strain VIP490) is the direct consequence of the interruption in the transcription originated upstream and not due to the effect of such sequences on the promoters proximal to ftsZ.

  3. FtsZ Bacterial Cytoskeletal Polymers on Curved Surfaces: The Importance of Lateral Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hörger, Ines; Velasco, Enrique; Rivas, Germán; Vélez, Marisela; Tarazona, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    A recent theoretical article provided a mechanical explanation for the formation of cytoskeletal rings and helices in bacteria assuming that these shapes arise, at least in part, from the interaction of the inherent mechanical properties of the protein polymers and the constraints imposed by the curved cell membrane (Andrews, S., and A. P. Arkin. 2007. Biophys. J. 93:1872–1884). Due to the lack of experimental data regarding the bending rigidity and preferential bond angles of bacterial polymers, the authors explored their model over wide ranges of preferred curvature values. In this letter, we present the shape diagram of the FtsZ bacterial polymer on a curved surface but now including recent experimental data on the in vitro formed FtsZ polymers. The lateral interactions between filaments observed experimentally change qualitatively the shape diagram and indicate that the formation of rings over spirals is more energetically favored than estimated in the above-mentioned article. PMID:18359798

  4. The kinesin-like protein TOP promotes Aurora localisation and induces mitochondrial, chloroplast and nuclear division.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yamato; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Imoto, Yuuta; Yoshida, Masaki; Ohnuma, Mio; Hirooka, Shunsuke; Misumi, Osami; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kato, Shoichi; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2013-06-01

    The cell cycle usually refers to the mitotic cycle, but the cell-division cycle in the plant kingdom consists of not only nuclear but also mitochondrial and chloroplast division cycle. However, an integrated control system that initiates division of the three organelles has not been found. We report that a novel C-terminal kinesin-like protein, three-organelle division-inducing protein (TOP), controls nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast divisions in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. A proteomics study revealed that TOP is a member of a complex of mitochondrial-dividing (MD) and plastid-dividing (PD) machineries (MD/PD machinery complex) just prior to constriction. After TOP localizes at the MD/PD machinery complex, mitochondrial and chloroplast divisions occur and the components of the MD/PD machinery complexes are phosphorylated. Furthermore, we found that TOP downregulation impaired both mitochondrial and chloroplast divisions. MD/PD machinery complexes were formed normally at each division site but they were neither phosphorylated nor constricted in these cells. Immunofluorescence signals of Aurora kinase (AUR) were localized around the MD machinery before constriction, whereas AUR was dispersed in the cytosol by TOP downregulation, suggesting that AUR is required for the constriction. Taken together our results suggest that TOP induces phosphorylation of MD/PD machinery components to accomplish mitochondrial and chloroplast divisions prior to nuclear division, by relocalization of AUR. In addition, given the presence of TOP homologs throughout the eukaryotes, and the involvement of TOP in mitochondrial and chloroplast division may illuminate the original function of C-terminal kinesin-like proteins.

  5. EzrA: a spectrin-like scaffold in the bacterial cell division machinery

    PubMed Central

    Cleverley, Robert; Lewis, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Much progress has been made in identifying the components of the divisome, the assembly of proteins that undertakes the vital process of cell division in bacteria. However, how the highly interdependent processes on either side of the membrane are coordinated during division is a major unresolved question. How is the degradation and synthesis of the cell wall on the outside of the cell coordinated with cytokinesis and membrane fission, which are driven from the inside of the cell by the tubulin homologue FtsZ? A possible key mediator of such coordination is the membrane protein EzrA, as it interacts both with FtsZ and the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) that synthesize peptidoglycan. Cleverley et al. [Nature Communications (2014) 5, 5421] have recently solved the crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of B. subtilis EzrA, which points to an important scaffolding role for EzrA in the divisome. The structure resembles the eukaryotic, cytoskeletal spectrin proteins, which link actin filaments in the cytoskeleton and also connect the actin cytoskeleton to membrane-bound integrin proteins.

  6. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization

    PubMed Central

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:26903973

  7. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization.

    PubMed

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

  8. Dynamin-related proteins and Pex11 proteins in peroxisome division and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Sven; Erdmann, Ralf

    2005-10-01

    The abundance and size of cellular organelles vary depending on the cell type and metabolic needs. Peroxisomes constitute a class of cellular organelles renowned for their ability to adapt to cellular and environmental conditions. Together with transcriptional regulators, two groups of peroxisomal proteins have a pronounced influence on peroxisome size and abundance. Pex11-type peroxisome proliferators are involved in the proliferation of peroxisomes, defined here as an increase in size and/or number of peroxisomes. Dynamin-related proteins have recently been suggested to be required for the scission of peroxisomal membranes. This review surveys the function of Pex11-type peroxisome proliferators and dynamin-related proteins in peroxisomal proliferation and division.

  9. Coordinating Bacterial Cell Division with Nutrient Availability: a Role for Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Leigh G.; Hajduk, Isabella V.; Blaber, Sinead P.; Charles, Ian G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell division in bacteria is driven by a cytoskeletal ring structure, the Z ring, composed of polymers of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ. Z-ring formation must be tightly regulated to ensure faithful cell division, and several mechanisms that influence the positioning and timing of Z-ring assembly have been described. Another important but as yet poorly understood aspect of cell division regulation is the need to coordinate division with cell growth and nutrient availability. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cell division is intimately linked to central carbon metabolism in the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We showed that a deletion of the gene encoding pyruvate kinase (pyk), which produces pyruvate in the final reaction of glycolysis, rescues the assembly defect of a temperature-sensitive ftsZ mutant and has significant effects on Z-ring formation in wild-type B. subtilis cells. Addition of exogenous pyruvate restores normal division in the absence of the pyruvate kinase enzyme, implicating pyruvate as a key metabolite in the coordination of bacterial growth and division. Our results support a model in which pyruvate levels are coupled to Z-ring assembly via an enzyme that actually metabolizes pyruvate, the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. We have shown that this protein localizes over the nucleoid in a pyruvate-dependent manner and may stimulate more efficient Z-ring formation at the cell center under nutrient-rich conditions, when cells must divide more frequently. PMID:24825009

  10. Dimethyl sulphoxide and Ca2+ stimulate assembly of Vibrio cholerae FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhisek; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2014-10-01

    We cloned, overexpressed and purified Vibrio cholerae FtsZ protein for the first time. We used several complementary techniques to probe and compare the comparative assembly properties of recombinant Vibrio cholerae FtsZ (VcFtsZ) and Escherichia coli FtsZ (EcFtsZ). We observed that VcFtsZ polymerized at a slower rate than EcFtsZ and interestingly its polymerization was highly dependent on the presence of Ca(2+) ion. Furthermore, DMSO specifically modulated the polymerization of VcFtsZ, promoted polymer bundling and increased the stability of the VcFtsZ protofilaments. Whereas DMSO showed no significant stimulatory effect on the assembly and bundling of EcFtsZ. Transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated that in presence of 8% DMSO the average thickness of the VcFtsZ polymers were increased significantly. DMSO specifically stabilized the VcFtsZ polymers against dilution induced disassembly and it reduced the GTPase activity of VcFtsZ. These results collectively suggested that despite lot of sequence homology, the assembly of VcFtsZ and EcFtsZ are differently regulated processes. We expect to use this knowledge of assembly properties of VcFtsZ for screening of small molecules against VcFtsZ for development of anti-cholera agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Following the equator: division site selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-03-01

    The mechanisms that spatially regulate cytokinesis are more diverse than initially thought. In two recent publications a positive regulator of FtsZ positioning has been identified in Streptococcus pneumoniae. MapZ (LocZ) connects the division machinery with cell wall elongation, providing a simple mechanism to ensure correct division site selection.

  12. MioC and GidA proteins promote cell division in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Lies, Mark; Visser, Bryan J; Joshi, Mohan C; Magnan, David; Bates, David

    2015-01-01

    The well-conserved genes surrounding the E. coli replication origin, mioC and gidA, do not normally affect chromosome replication and have little known function. We report that mioC and gidA mutants exhibit a moderate cell division inhibition phenotype. Cell elongation is exacerbated by a fis deletion, likely owing to delayed replication and subsequent cell cycle stress. Measurements of replication initiation frequency and origin segregation indicate that mioC and gidA do not inhibit cell division through any effect on oriC function. Division inhibition is also independent of the two known replication/cell division checkpoints, SOS and nucleoid occlusion. Complementation analysis indicates that mioC and gidA affect cell division in trans, indicating their effect is at the protein level. Transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing showed that expression of a cell division septum component, YmgF, is significantly altered in mioC and gidA mutants. Our data reveal new roles for the gene products of gidA and mioC in the division apparatus, and we propose that their expression, cyclically regulated by chromatin remodeling at oriC, is part of a cell cycle regulatory program coordinating replication initiation and cell division.

  13. Influence of FtsZ GTPase activity and concentration on nanoscale Z-ring structure in vivo revealed by three-dimensional Superresolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhixin; Coltharp, Carla; Yang, Xinxing; Xiao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    FtsZ is an essential bacterial cytoskeletal protein that assembles into a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at midcell to carry out cytokinesis. In vitro, FtsZ exhibits polymorphism in polymerizing into different forms of filaments based on its GTPase activity, concentration, and buffer condition. In vivo, the Z-ring appeared to be punctate and heterogeneously organized, although continuous, homogenous Z-ring structures have also been observed. Understanding how the Z-ring is organized in vivo is important because it provides a structural basis for the functional role of the Z-ring in cytokinesis. Here, we assess the effects of both GTPase activity and FtsZ concentration on the organization of the Z-ring in vivo using three-dimensional (3D) superresolution microscopy. We found that the Z-ring became more homogenous when assembled in the presence of a GTPase-deficient mutant, and upon overexpression of either wt or mutant FtsZ. These results suggest that the in vivo organization of the Z-ring is largely dependent on the intrinsic polymerization properties of FtsZ, which are significantly influenced by the GTPase activity and concentration of FtsZ. Our work provides a unifying theme to reconcile previous observations of different Z-ring structures, and supports a model in which the wt Z-ring comprises loosely associated, heterogeneously distributed FtsZ clusters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 725-734, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Growth-Arrest-Specific Protein 2 Inhibits Cell Division in Xenopus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Dayanandan, Bama; Rouiller, Isabelle; Lawrence, Elizabeth J.; Mandato, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Growth-arrest-specific 2 gene was originally identified in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions. Furthermore, serum stimulation of quiescent, non-dividing cells leads to the down-regulation of gas2 and results in re-entry into the cell cycle. Cytoskeleton rearrangements are critical for cell cycle progression and cell division and the Gas2 protein has been shown to co-localize with actin and microtubules in interphase mammalian cells. Despite these findings, direct evidence supporting a role for Gas2 in the mechanism of cell division has not been reported. Methodology and Principal Findings To determine whether the Gas2 protein plays a role in cell division, we over-expressed the full-length Gas2 protein and Gas2 truncations containing either the actin-binding CH domain or the tubulin-binding Gas2 domain in Xenopus laevis embryos. We found that both the full-length Gas2 protein and the Gas2 domain, but not the CH domain, inhibited cell division and resulted in multinucleated cells. The observation that Gas2 domain alone can arrest cell division suggests that Gas2 function is mediated by microtubule binding. Gas2 co-localized with microtubules at the cell cortex of Gas2-injected Xenopus embryos using cryo-confocal microscopy and co-sedimented with microtubules in cytoskeleton co-sedimentation assays. To investigate the mechanism of Gas2-induced cell division arrest, we showed, using a wound-induced contractile array assay, that Gas2 stabilized microtubules. Finally, electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Gas2 bundled microtubules into higher-order structures. Conclusion and Significance Our experiments show that Gas2 inhibits cell division in Xenopus embryos. We propose that Gas2 function is mediated by binding and bundling microtubules, leading to cell division arrest. PMID:21931817

  15. ESCRT-III mediated cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius - a reconstitution perspective.

    PubMed

    Härtel, Tobias; Schwille, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of synthetic biology, it has become an intriguing question what would be the minimal representation of cell division machinery. Thus, it seems appropriate to compare how cell division is realized in different microorganisms. In particular, the cell division system of Crenarchaeota lacks certain proteins found in most bacteria and Euryarchaeota, such as FtsZ, MreB or the Min system. The Sulfolobaceae family encodes functional homologs of the eukaryotic proteins vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4) and endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III). ESCRT-III is essential for several eukaryotic pathways, e.g., budding of intraluminal vesicles, or cytokinesis, whereas Vps4 dissociates the ESCRT-III complex from the membrane. Cell Division A (CdvA) is required for the recruitment of crenarchaeal ESCRT-III proteins to the membrane at mid-cell. The proteins polymerize and form a smaller structure during constriction. Thus, ESCRT-III mediated cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius shows functional analogies to the Z ring observed in prokaryotes like Escherichia coli, which has recently begun to be reconstituted in vitro. In this short perspective, we discuss the possibility of building such an in vitro cell division system on basis of archaeal ESCRT-III.

  16. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation during meiotic divisions of starfish oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peaucellier, G.; Andersen, A.C.; Kinsey, W.H. )

    1990-04-01

    We have used an antibody specific for phosphotyrosine to investigate protein phosphorylation on tyrosine during hormone-induced maturation of starfish oocytes. Analysis of immunoprecipitates from cortices of in vivo labeled Marthasterias glacialis oocytes revealed the presence of labeled phosphotyrosine-containing proteins only after hormone addition. Six major phosphoproteins of 195, 155, 100, 85, 45, and 35 kDa were detected. Total activity in immunoprecipitates increased until first polar body emission and was greatly reduced upon completion of meiosis but some proteins exhibited different kinetics. The labeling of the 155-kDa protein reached a maximum at germinal vesicle breakdown, while the 35-kDa appeared later and disappeared after polar body emission. Similar results were obtained with Asterias rubens oocytes. In vitro phosphorylation of cortices showed that tyrosine kinase activity is a major protein kinase activity in this fraction, the main endogenous substrate being a 68-kDa protein. The proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine in vitro were almost similar in extracts from oocytes treated or not with the hormone.

  17. Control of Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein fate by CELL-DIVISION-CYCLE protein48.

    PubMed

    Niehl, Annette; Amari, Khalid; Gereige, Dalya; Brandner, Katrin; Mély, Yves; Heinlein, Manfred

    2012-12-01

    Like many other viruses, Tobacco mosaic virus replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exploits this membrane network for intercellular spread through plasmodesmata (PD), a process depending on virus-encoded movement protein (MP). The movement process involves interactions of MP with the ER and the cytoskeleton as well as its targeting to PD. Later in the infection cycle, the MP further accumulates and localizes to ER-associated inclusions, the viral factories, and along microtubules before it is finally degraded. Although these patterns of MP accumulation have been described in great detail, the underlying mechanisms that control MP fate and function during infection are not known. Here, we identify CELL-DIVISION-CYCLE protein48 (CDC48), a conserved chaperone controlling protein fate in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and animal cells by extracting protein substrates from membranes or complexes, as a cellular factor regulating MP accumulation patterns in plant cells. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CDC48 is induced upon infection, interacts with MP in ER inclusions dependent on the MP N terminus, and promotes degradation of the protein. We further provide evidence that CDC48 extracts MP from ER inclusions to the cytosol, where it subsequently accumulates on and stabilizes microtubules. We show that virus movement is impaired upon overexpression of CDC48, suggesting that CDC48 further functions in controlling virus movement by removal of MP from the ER transport pathway and by promoting interference of MP with microtubule dynamics. CDC48 acts also in response to other proteins expressed in the ER, thus suggesting a general role of CDC48 in ER membrane maintenance upon ER stress.

  18. Universal protein distributions in a model of cell growth and division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Naama; Newman, C. M.; Osmanović, Dino; Rabin, Yitzhak; Salman, Hanna; Stein, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    Protein distributions measured under a broad set of conditions in bacteria and yeast were shown to exhibit a common skewed shape, with variances depending quadratically on means. For bacteria these properties were reproduced by temporal measurements of protein content, showing accumulation and division across generations. Here we present a stochastic growth-and-division model with feedback which captures these observed properties. The limiting copy number distribution is calculated exactly, and a single parameter is found to determine the distribution shape and the variance-to-mean relation. Estimating this parameter from bacterial temporal data reproduces the measured distribution shape with high accuracy and leads to predictions for future experiments.

  19. Cyclic AMP and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    D'Ari, R; Jaffé, A; Bouloc, P; Robin, A

    1988-01-01

    We examined several aspects of cell division regulation in Escherichia coli which have been thought to be controlled by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and its receptor protein (CAP). Mutants lacking adenyl cyclase (cya) or CAP (crp) were rod shaped, not spherical, during exponential growth in LB broth or glucose-Casamino Acids medium, and lateral wall elongation was normal; in broth, stationary-phase cells became ovoid. Cell mass was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, but it remained appropriate for their slower growth rate and thus probably does not reflect early (uncontrolled) septation. The slow growth did not seem to reflect a gross metabolic disorder, since the mutants gave a normal yield on limiting glucose; surprisingly, however, the cya mutant (unlike crp) was unable to grow anaerobically on glucose, suggesting a role for cAMP (but not for CAP) in the expression of some fermentation enzyme. Both cya and crp mutants are known to be resistant to mecillinam, an antibiotic which inhibits penicillin-binding protein 2 (involved in lateral wall elongation) and also affects septation. This resistance does not reflect a lack of PBP2. Furthermore, it was not simply the result of slow growth and small cell mass, since small wild-type cells growing in acetate remained sensitive. The cAMP-CAP complex may regulate the synthesis of some link between PBP2 and the septation apparatus. The ftsZ gene, coding for a cell division protein, was expressed at a higher level in the absence of cAMP, as measured with an ftsZ::lacZ fusion, but the amount of protein per cell, shown by others to be invariable over a 10-fold range of cell mass, was independent of cAMP, suggesting that ftsZ expression is not regulated by the cAMP-CAP complex. Images PMID:2826407

  20. Cortical PAR polarity proteins promote robust cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Shawn N.; Davies, Tim; Zhuravlev, Yelena; Dumont, Julien; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the physical division of one cell into two, is thought to be fundamentally similar in most animal cell divisions and driven by the constriction of a contractile ring positioned and controlled solely by the mitotic spindle. During asymmetric cell divisions, the core polarity machinery (partitioning defective [PAR] proteins) controls the unequal inheritance of key cell fate determinants. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the cortical PAR proteins (including the small guanosine triphosphatase CDC-42) have an active role in regulating recruitment of a critical component of the contractile ring, filamentous actin (F-actin). We found that the cortical PAR proteins are required for the retention of anillin and septin in the anterior pole, which are cytokinesis proteins that our genetic data suggest act as inhibitors of F-actin at the contractile ring. Collectively, our results suggest that the cortical PAR proteins coordinate the establishment of cell polarity with the physical process of cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division to ensure the fidelity of daughter cell formation. PMID:26728855

  1. Division Cycle of Myxococcus xanthus III. Kinetics of Cell Growth and Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, David; Gottlieb, Peter; Rosenberg, Eugene

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of cell growth and protein synthesis during the division cycle of Myxococcus xanthus was determined. The distribution of cell size for both septated and nonseptated bacteria was obtained by direct measurement of the lengths of 8,000 cells. The Collins-Richmond equation was modified to consider bacterial growth in two phases: growth and division. From the derived equation, the growth rate of individual cells was computed as a function of size. Nondividing cells (growth phase) comprised 91% of the population and took up 87% of the time of the division cycle. The absolute and specific growth rates of nondividing cells were observed to increase continually throughout the growth phase; the growth rate of dividing cells could not be determined accurately by this technique because of changes in the geometry of cells between the time of septation and physical separation. The rate of protein synthesis during the division cycle was measured by pulselabeling an exponential-phase culture with radio-active valine or arginine and then preparing the cells for quantitative autoradiography. By measuring the size of individual cells as well as the number of grains, the rate of protein synthesis as a function of cell size was obtained. Nondividing cells showed an increase in both the absolute and specific rates of protein synthesis throughout the growth phase; the specific rate of protein synthesis for dividing cells was low when compared to growthphase cells. Cell growth and protein synthesis are compared to the previously reported kinetics of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid synthesis during the division cycle. PMID:4926683

  2. Evolution of the Min Protein Oscillation in E. coli Bacteria During Cell Growth and Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylis, Benjamin; Giuliani, Maximiliano; Dutcher, John

    2014-03-01

    Cell division is a key step in the life of a bacterium. This process is carefully controlled and regulated so that the cellular machinery is equally partitioned into two daughter cells of equal size. In E. coli, this is accomplished, in part, by the Min protein system, in which Min proteins oscillate along the long axis of the rod-shaped cells. We have used high magnification, time-resolved fluorescence microscopy to characterize in detail the oscillation in E. coli cells in which the MinD proteins are tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). We have used a microfluidic device to confine the bacteria into microchannels that allows us to track the evolution of the oscillation in cells as they grow and divide in LB growth media. In particular, we have tracked the loss of synchrony between the oscillations in the daughter cells following cell division.

  3. IFT proteins accumulate during cell division and localize to the cleavage furrow in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Wood, Christopher R; Wang, Zhaohui; Diener, Dennis; Zones, James Matt; Rosenbaum, Joel; Umen, James G

    2012-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins are well established as conserved mediators of flagellum/cilium assembly and disassembly. However, data has begun to accumulate in support of IFT protein involvement in other processes elsewhere in the cell. Here, we used synchronous cultures of Chlamydomonas to investigate the temporal patterns of accumulation and localization of IFT proteins during the cell cycle. Their mRNAs showed periodic expression that peaked during S and M phase (S/M). Unlike most proteins that are synthesized continuously during G1 phase, IFT27 and IFT46 levels were found to increase only during S/M phase. During cell division, IFT27, IFT46, IFT72, and IFT139 re-localized from the flagella and basal bodies to the cleavage furrow. IFT27 was further shown to be associated with membrane vesicles in this region. This localization pattern suggests a role for IFT in cell division.

  4. Bacterial cell division as a target for new antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Sass, Peter; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial resistance to currently applied antibiotics complicates the treatment of infections and demands the evaluation of new strategies to counteract multidrug-resistant bacteria. In recent years, the inhibition of the bacterial divisome, mainly by targeting the central cell division mediator FtsZ, has been recognized as a promising strategy for antibiotic attack. New antibiotics were shown to either interfere with the natural dynamics and functions of FtsZ during the cell cycle or to activate a bacterial protease to degrade FtsZ and thus bring about bacterial death in a suicidal manner. Their efficacy in animal models of infection together with resistance-breaking properties prove the potential of such drugs and validate the inhibition of bacterial cell division as an attractive approach for antibiotic intervention.

  5. Identification of long-lived proteins retained in cells undergoing repeated asymmetric divisions

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Nathaniel H.; Leverich, Christina K.; Fitzgibbon, Matthew P.; Nelson, Zara W.; Henderson, Kiersten A.; Gafken, Philip R.; Hsu, Jessica J.; Gottschling, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived proteins have been implicated in age-associated decline in metazoa, but they have only been identified in extracellular matrices or postmitotic cells. However, the aging process also occurs in dividing cells undergoing repeated asymmetric divisions. It was not clear whether long-lived proteins exist in asymmetrically dividing cells or whether they are involved in aging. Here we identify long-lived proteins in dividing cells during aging using the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast mother cells undergo a limited number of asymmetric divisions that define replicative lifespan. We used stable-isotope pulse-chase and total proteome mass-spectrometry to identify proteins that were both long-lived and retained in aging mother cells after ∼18 cells divisions. We identified ∼135 proteins that we designate as long-lived asymmetrically retained proteins (LARPS). Surprisingly, the majority of LARPs appeared to be stable fragments of their original full-length protein. However, 15% of LARPs were full-length proteins and we confirmed several candidates to be long-lived and retained in mother cells by time-lapse microscopy. Some LARPs localized to the plasma membrane and remained robustly in the mother cell upon cell division. Other full-length LARPs were assembled into large cytoplasmic structures that had a strong bias to remain in mother cells. We identified age-associated changes to LARPs that include an increase in their levels during aging because of their continued synthesis, which is not balanced by turnover. Additionally, several LARPs were posttranslationally modified during aging. We suggest that LARPs contribute to age-associated phenotypes and likely exist in other organisms. PMID:25228775

  6. Polymer Stability Plays an Important Role in the Positional Regulation of FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Petra Anne; Schwartz, Rachel L.; Grossman, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments examining the effect of polymer stability on FtsZ localization dynamics in Bacillus subtilis. A loss-of-function mutation in ezrA, a putative polymer-destabilizing factor, suppresses the defects in FtsZ polymer stability associated with minCD overexpression. In addition, a mutation that is predicted to stabilize the FtsZ polymer leads to the formation of polar FtsZ rings. These data support the hypothesis that carefully balanced polymer stability is important for the assembly and localization of FtsZ during the bacterial cell cycle. PMID:11514533

  7. Curcumin inhibits FtsZ assembly: an attractive mechanism for its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Rai, Dipti; Singh, Jay Kumar; Roy, Nilanjan; Panda, Dulal

    2008-02-15

    The assembly and stability of FtsZ protofilaments have been shown to play critical roles in bacterial cytokinesis. Recent evidence suggests that FtsZ may be considered as an important antibacterial drug target. Curcumin, a dietary polyphenolic compound, has been shown to have a potent antibacterial activity against a number of pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus. We found that curcumin induced filamentation in the Bacillus subtilis 168, suggesting that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. Further, curcumin strongly inhibited the formation of the cytokinetic Z-ring in B. subtilis 168 without detectably affecting the segregation and organization of the nucleoids. Since the assembly dynamics of FtsZ protofilaments plays a major role in the formation and functioning of the Z-ring, we analysed the effects of curcumin on the assembly of FtsZ protofilaments. Curcumin inhibited the assembly of FtsZ protofilaments and also increased the GTPase activity of FtsZ. Electron microscopic analysis showed that curcumin reduced the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. Further, curcumin was found to bind to FtsZ in vitro with a dissociation constant of 7.3+/-1.8 microM and the agent also perturbed the secondary structure of FtsZ. The results indicate that the perturbation of the GTPase activity of FtsZ assembly is lethal to bacteria and suggest that curcumin inhibits bacterial cell proliferation by inhibiting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ in the Z-ring.

  8. The BASL Polarity Protein Controls a MAPK Signaling Feedback Loop in Asymmetric Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pengcheng; Shao, Wanchen; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Dong, Juan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell polarization is linked to fate determination during asymmetric division of plant stem cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In Arabidopsis, BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL) is polarized to control stomatal asymmetric division. A MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE (MAPK) cascade determines terminal stomatal fate by promoting the degradation of the lineage determinant SPEECHLESS (SPCH). Here we demonstrate that a positive feedback loop between BASL and the MAPK pathway constitutes a polarity module at the cortex. Cortical localization of BASL requires phosphorylation mediated by MPK3/6. Phosphorylated BASL functions as a scaffold and recruits the MAPKKK YODA and MPK3/6 to spatially concentrate signaling at the cortex. Activated MPK3/6 reinforces the feedback loop by phosphorylating BASL, and inhibits stomatal fate by phosphorylating SPCH. Polarization of the BASL-MAPK signaling feedback module represents a mechanism connecting cell polarity to fate differentiation during asymmetric stem cell division in plants. PMID:25843888

  9. Self-organized partitioning of dynamically localized proteins in bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Di Ventura, Barbara; Sourjik, Victor

    2011-01-04

    How cells manage to get equal distribution of their structures and molecules at cell division is a crucial issue in biology. In principle, a feedback mechanism could always ensure equality by measuring and correcting the distribution in the progeny. However, an elegant alternative could be a mechanism relying on self-organization, with the interplay between system properties and cell geometry leading to the emergence of equal partitioning. The problem is exemplified by the bacterial Min system that defines the division site by oscillating from pole to pole. Unequal partitioning of Min proteins at division could negatively impact system performance and cell growth because of loss of Min oscillations and imprecise mid-cell determination. In this study, we combine live cell and computational analyses to show that known properties of the Min system together with the gradual reduction of protein exchange through the constricting septum are sufficient to explain the observed highly precise spontaneous protein partitioning. Our findings reveal a novel and effective mechanism of protein partitioning in dividing cells and emphasize the importance of self-organization in basic cellular processes.

  10. Functional Analysis of the Cell Division Protein FtsW of Escherichia coli†

    PubMed Central

    Pastoret, Soumya; Fraipont, Claudine; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Wolf, Benoît; Aarsman, Mirjam E. G.; Piette, André; Thomas, Annick; Brasseur, Robert; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine

    2004-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis experiments combined with fluorescence microscopy shed light on the role of Escherichia coli FtsW, a membrane protein belonging to the SEDS family that is involved in peptidoglycan assembly during cell elongation, division, and sporulation. This essential cell division protein has 10 transmembrane segments (TMSs). It is a late recruit to the division site and is required for subsequent recruitment of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) catalyzing peptide cross-linking. The results allow identification of several domains of the protein with distinct functions. The localization of PBP3 to the septum was found to be dependent on the periplasmic loop located between TMSs 9 and 10. The E240-A249 amphiphilic peptide in the periplasmic loop between TMSs 7 and 8 appears to be a key element in the functioning of FtsW in the septal peptidoglycan assembly machineries. The intracellular loop (containing the R166-F178 amphiphilic peptide) between TMSs 4 and 5 and Gly 311 in TMS 8 are important components of the amino acid sequence-folding information. PMID:15576787

  11. Divisome-dependent subcellular localization of cell-cell joining protein SepJ in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena.

    PubMed

    Ramos-León, Félix; Mariscal, Vicente; Frías, José E; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-05-01

    Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria are multicellular organisms that grow as filaments that can be hundreds of cells long. Septal junction complexes, of which SepJ is a possible component, appear to join the cells in the filament. SepJ is a cytoplasmic membrane protein that contains a long predicted periplasmic section and localizes not only to the cell poles in the intercellular septa but also to a position similar to a Z ring when cell division starts suggesting a relation with the divisome. Here, we created a mutant of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 in which the essential divisome gene ftsZ is expressed from a synthetic NtcA-dependent promoter, whose activity depends on the nitrogen source. In the presence of ammonium, low levels of FtsZ were produced, and the subcellular localization of SepJ, which was investigated by immunofluorescence, was impaired. Possible interactions of SepJ with itself and with divisome proteins FtsZ, FtsQ and FtsW were investigated using the bacterial two-hybrid system. We found SepJ self-interaction and a specific interaction with FtsQ, confirmed by co-purification and involving parts of the SepJ and FtsQ periplasmic sections. Therefore, SepJ can form multimers, and in Anabaena, the divisome has a role beyond cell division, localizing a septal protein essential for multicellularity.

  12. A DNA damage checkpoint in Caulobacter crescentus inhibits cell division through a direct interaction with FtsW.

    PubMed

    Modell, Joshua W; Hopkins, Alexander C; Laub, Michael T

    2011-06-15

    Following DNA damage, cells typically delay cell cycle progression and inhibit cell division until their chromosomes have been repaired. The bacterial checkpoint systems responsible for these DNA damage responses are incompletely understood. Here, we show that Caulobacter crescentus responds to DNA damage by coordinately inducing an SOS regulon and inhibiting the master regulator CtrA. Included in the SOS regulon is sidA (SOS-induced inhibitor of cell division A), a membrane protein of only 29 amino acids that helps to delay cell division following DNA damage, but is dispensable in undamaged cells. SidA is sufficient, when overproduced, to block cell division. However, unlike many other regulators of bacterial cell division, SidA does not directly disrupt the assembly or stability of the cytokinetic ring protein FtsZ, nor does it affect the recruitment of other components of the cell division machinery. Instead, we provide evidence that SidA inhibits division by binding directly to FtsW to prevent the final constriction of the cytokinetic ring.

  13. Domain folding and flexibility of Escherichia coli FtsZ determined by tryptophan site-directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Garcés, Andrea P.; Arbildua, José J.; Montecinos, Felipe; Brunet, Juan E.; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio

    2007-01-01

    FtsZ has two domains, the amino GTPase domain with a Rossmann fold, and the carboxyl domain that resembles the chorismate mutase fold. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the interdomain interaction is stronger than the interaction of the protofilament longitudinal interfaces. Crystal B factor analysis of FtsZ and detected conformational changes suggest a connection between these domains. The unfolding/folding characteristics of each domain of FtsZ were tested by introducing tryptophans into the flexible region of the amino (F135W) and the carboxyl (F275W and I294W) domains. As a control, the mutation F40W was introduced in a more rigid part of the amino domain. These mutants showed a native-like structure with denaturation and renaturation curves similar to wild type. However, the I294W mutant showed a strong loss of functionality, both in vivo and in vitro when compared to the other mutants. The functionality was recovered with the double mutant I294W/F275A, which showed full in vivo complementation with a slight increment of in vitro GTPase activity with respect to the single mutant. The formation of a stabilizing aromatic interaction involving a stacking between the tryptophan introduced at position 294 and phenylalanine 275 could account for these results. Folding/unfolding of these mutants induced by guanidinium chloride was compatible with a mechanism in which both domains within the protein show the same stability during FtsZ denaturation and renaturation, probably because of strong interface interactions. PMID:17656575

  14. Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins and their roles in cell division.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge G; Pereira, Ana L; Maiato, Helder

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are cellular components that are required for a variety of essential processes such as cell motility, mitosis, and intracellular transport. This is possible because of the inherent dynamic properties of microtubules. Many of these properties are tightly regulated by a number of microtubule plus-end-binding proteins or +TIPs. These proteins recognize the distal end of microtubules and are thus in the right context to control microtubule dynamics. In this review, we address how microtubule dynamics are regulated by different +TIP families, focusing on how functionally diverse +TIPs spatially and temporally regulate microtubule dynamics during animal cell division.

  15. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division.

    PubMed

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-08-25

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division.

  16. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08828.001 PMID:26305500

  17. Functional analysis of the Volvox carteri asymmetric division protein GlsA.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Valeria; Miller, Stephen M

    2009-10-01

    The Zuotin-family J protein chaperone GlsA is essential for the asymmetric divisions that establish germ and somatic cell initials during embryogenesis in the green alga Volvox carteri, but it is not known on what cellular process GlsA acts to carry out this function. Most GlsA protein is nuclear, and GlsA possesses two SANT domains, suggesting that GlsA may function as a transcriptional regulator. On the other hand, close homologs from yeast and mice are ribosome-associated factors that regulate translation fidelity, implying GlsA might also regulate translation. Here we set out to gain additional evidence regarding the function of GlsA, specifically with respect to its possible involvement in transcription and translation. We found that like zuotin mutants, glsA mutants are ultrasensitive to both cold and to the ribosome-binding aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin, so some fraction of GlsA is likely to be ribosome associated. We also found that GlsA co-immunoprecipitates with histones and that this interaction is dependent on the presence of intact SANT domains. Through rescue experiments using transgenes that encode GlsA variants, we determined that the growth and asymmetric division defects of the glsA mutant are separable-a GlsA variant that rescued the growth defects did not completely rescue the asymmetric division phenotype. Considered in total, our results suggest that GlsA acts both at the level of translation and transcription, but the function that is essential for tolerance to paromomycin and cold is not sufficient for asymmetric cell division.

  18. Protein segregation between dividing hematopoietic progenitor cells in the determination of the symmetry/asymmetry of cell division.

    PubMed

    Nteliopoulos, Georgios; Gordon, Myrtle Y

    2012-09-20

    In the present study, we investigated how the symmetry/asymmetry of cell division in mitotic CD34(+) cells can be evaluated by determining the plane of cell division and the potential distribution of proteins between daughter cells. The orientation of the mitotic spindle is dependent upon the positioning of the centrosomes, which determine the plane of cell division and the sharing of proteins. If the functions of unequally shared proteins are relevant to the kinetics of cell division, they could determine whether the daughter cells undergo self-renewal or differentiation. The kinetic function of the proteins of interest was investigated using a colony-replating assay and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining. We used Notch/Numb as a model system, since they have a role in balancing symmetric/asymmetric divisions. Mitotic cells were examined microscopically and centrosomal markers γ-tubulin/pericentrin were used with activated Notch-1 and Numb. We monitored the first crucial divisions by CFSE staining and found an inverse relationship between activated Notch and Numb expression, suggesting a reciprocal regulation. We suggest that the subpopulations expressing activated Notch or Numb have different cell fates. To determine the influence of Notch signaling on progenitor cell self-renewal, we used the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-Butyl ester (DAPT). DAPT influences self-renewal/differentiation outcome by affecting the frequency of symmetric renewal divisions without affecting the rate of divisions. Overall, the purpose of this study was to establish a cellular system for predicting the symmetry/asymmetry of hematopoietic progenitor divisions at the level of centrosomes and protein distribution and to investigate the influence of these proteins on progenitor cell kinetics.

  19. The Arabidopsis CLASP gene encodes a microtubule-associated protein involved in cell expansion and division.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, J Christian; Shoji, Tsubasa; Kotzer, Amanda M; Pighin, Jamie A; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2007-09-01

    Controlling microtubule dynamics and spatial organization is a fundamental requirement of eukaryotic cell function. Members of the ORBIT/MAST/CLASP family of microtubule-associated proteins associate with the plus ends of microtubules, where they promote the addition of tubulin subunits into attached kinetochore fibers during mitosis and stabilize microtubules in the vicinity of the plasma membrane during interphase. To date, nothing is known about their function in plants. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana CLASP protein is a microtubule-associated protein that is involved in both cell division and cell expansion. Green fluorescent protein-CLASP localizes along the full length of microtubules and shows enrichment at growing plus ends. Our analysis suggests that CLASP promotes microtubule stability. clasp-1 T-DNA insertion mutants are hypersensitive to microtubule-destabilizing drugs and exhibit more sparsely populated, yet well ordered, root cortical microtubule arrays. Overexpression of CLASP promotes microtubule bundles that are resistant to depolymerization with oryzalin. Furthermore, clasp-1 mutants have aberrant microtubule preprophase bands, mitotic spindles, and phragmoplasts, indicating a role for At CLASP in stabilizing mitotic arrays. clasp-1 plants are dwarf, have significantly reduced cell numbers in the root division zone, and have defects in directional cell expansion. We discuss possible mechanisms of CLASP function in higher plants.

  20. Chloroplast Biogenesis: Control of Plastid Development, Protein Import, Division and Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Wataru; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Jarvis, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The chloroplast is a multi-copy cellular organelle that not only performs photosynthesis but also synthesizes amino acids, lipids and phytohormones. The plastid also responds to environmental stimuli such as gravitropism. Biogenesis of chloroplasts is initiated from proplastids in shoot meristems, and involves a series of important events. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made towards understanding various aspects of chloroplast biogenesis at the molecular level, via studies in model systems such as Arabidopsis. This review focuses on two important aspects of chloroplast biogenesis, synthesis/assembly and division/transmission. Chloroplasts originated through endosymbiosis from an ancestor of extant cyanobacteria, and thus contain their own genomes. DNA in chloroplasts is organized into complexes with proteins, and these are called nucleoids. The synthesis of chloroplast proteins is regulated at various steps. However, a majority of proteins are synthesized in the cytosol, and their proper import into chloroplast compartments is a prerequisite for chloroplast development. Fundamental aspects of plastid gene expression/regulation and chloroplast protein transport are described, together with recent proteome analyses of the organelle. Chloroplasts are not de novo synthesized, but instead are propagated from pre-existing plastids. In addition, plastids are transmitted from generation to generation with a unique mode of inheritance. Our current knowledge on the division machinery and the inheritance of plastids is described. PMID:22303235

  1. Growing protein crystals in microgravity - The NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, B.

    1992-01-01

    In collaboration with a medical researcher at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, under the sponsorship of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) at NASA Headquarters, is continuing a series of space experiments in protein crystal growth which could lead to innovative new drugs as well as basic science data on protein molecular structures. From 1985 through 1992, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiments will have been flown on the Space Shuttle a total of 14 times. The first four hand-held experiments were used to test hardware concepts; later flights incorporated these concepts for vapor diffusion protein crystal growth with temperature control. This article provides an overview of the PCG program: its evolution, objectives, and plans for future experiments on NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom.

  2. Growing protein crystals in microgravity - The NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, B.

    1992-01-01

    In collaboration with a medical researcher at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, under the sponsorship of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) at NASA Headquarters, is continuing a series of space experiments in protein crystal growth which could lead to innovative new drugs as well as basic science data on protein molecular structures. From 1985 through 1992, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiments will have been flown on the Space Shuttle a total of 14 times. The first four hand-held experiments were used to test hardware concepts; later flights incorporated these concepts for vapor diffusion protein crystal growth with temperature control. This article provides an overview of the PCG program: its evolution, objectives, and plans for future experiments on NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom.

  3. The deletion of bacterial dynamin and flotillin genes results in pleiotrophic effects on cell division, cell growth and in cell shape maintenance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In eukaryotic cells, dynamin and flotillin are involved in processes such as endocytosis and lipid raft formation, respectively. Dynamin is a GTPase that exerts motor-like activity during the pinching off of vesicles, while flotillins are coiled coil rich membrane proteins with no known enzymatic activity. Bacteria also possess orthologs of both classes of proteins, but their function has been unclear. Results We show that deletion of the single dynA or floT genes lead to no phenotype or a mild defect in septum formation in the case of the dynA gene, while dynA floT double mutant cells were highly elongated and irregularly shaped, although the MreB cytoskeleton appeared to be normal. DynA colocalizes with FtsZ, and the dynA deletion strain shows aberrant FtsZ rings in a subpopulation of cells. The mild division defect of the dynA deletion is exacerbated by an additional deletion in ezrA, which affects FtsZ ring formation, and also by the deletion of a late division gene (divIB), indicating that DynA affects several steps in cell division. DynA and mreB deletions generated a synthetic defect in cell shape maintenance, showing that MreB and DynA play non-epistatic functions in cell shape maintenance. TIRF microscopy revealed that FloT forms many dynamic membrane assemblies that frequently colocalize with the division septum. The deletion of dynA did not change the pattern of localization of FloT, and vice versa, showing that the two proteins play non redundant roles in a variety of cellular processes. Expression of dynamin or flotillin T in eukaryotic S2 cells revealed that both proteins assemble at the cell membrane. While FloT formed patch structures, DynA built up tubulated structures extending away from the cells. Conclusions Bacillus subtilis dynamin ortholog DynA plays a role during cell division and in cell shape maintenance. It shows a genetic link with flotillin T, with both proteins playing non-redundant functions at the cell membrane, where they

  4. The influence of GAP-43 on orientation of cell division through G proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Zhao, Junpeng; Ju, Lili; Wen, Yujun; Xu, Qunyuan

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that GAP-43 is highly expressed in horizontally dividing neural progenitor cells, and G protein complex are required for proper mitotic-spindle orientation of those progenitors in the mammalian developing cortex. In order to verify the hypothesis that GAP-43 may influence the orientation of cell division through interacting with G proteins during neurogenesis, the GAP-43 RNA from adult C57 mouse was cloned into the pEGFP-N1 vector, which was then transfected into Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system. The interaction of GAP-43 with Gαi was detected by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), while cystogenesis of 3D morphogenesis of MDCK cells and expression of GAP-43 and Gαi were determined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The results showed are as follows: After being transfected by pEGFP-N1-GAP-43, GAP-43 was localized on the cell membrane and co-localized with Gαi, and this dramatically induced a defective cystogenesis in 3D morphogenesis of MDCK cells. The functional interaction between GAP-43 and Gαi proteins was proven by the co-IP assay. It can be considered from the results that the GAP-43 is involved in the orientation of cell division by interacting with Gαi and this should be an important mechanism for neurogenesis in the mammalian brain.

  5. Protein phosphatase 4 mediates localization of the Miranda complex during Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Nunes, Rita; Chia, William; Somers, W Greg

    2009-02-01

    Asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants is a crucial step in neuroblast asymmetric divisions. Whereas several protein kinases have been shown to mediate this process, no protein phosphatase has so far been implicated. In a clonal screen of larval neuroblasts we identified the evolutionarily conserved Protein Phosphatase 4 (PP4) regulatory subunit PP4R3/Falafel (Flfl) as a key mediator specific for the localization of Miranda (Mira) and associated cell fate determinants during both interphase and mitosis. Flfl is predominantly nuclear during interphase/prophase and cytoplasmic after nuclear envelope breakdown. Analyses of nuclear excluded as well as membrane targeted versions of the protein suggest that the asymmetric cortical localization of Mira and its associated proteins during mitosis depends on cytoplasmic/membrane-associated Flfl, whereas nuclear Flfl is required to exclude the cell fate determinant Prospero (Pros), and consequently Mira, from the nucleus during interphase/prophase. Attenuating the function of either the catalytic subunit of PP4 (PP4C; Pp4-19C in Drosophila) or of another regulatory subunit, PP4R2 (PPP4R2r in Drosophila), leads to similar defects in the localization of Mira and associated proteins. Flfl is capable of directly interacting with Mira, and genetic analyses indicate that flfl acts in parallel to or downstream from the tumor suppressor lethal (2) giant larvae (lgl). Our findings suggest that Flfl may target PP4 to the MIra protein complex to facilitate dephosphorylation step(s) crucial for its cortical association/asymmetric localization.

  6. A new Tetrahymena actin-binding protein is localized in the division furrow.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Kurasawa, Y; Watanabe, Y; Numata, O

    1998-04-01

    Using an F-actin affinity column, a 60 kDa fragment of a 71 kDa F-actin-binding protein was partially purified from Tetrahymena pyriformis. After digestion of the 60 kDa fragment with cyanogen bromide, the N-terminal 21-amino acid sequence of one of the resulting peptides was found to show sequence similarity to a region near the actin-binding site (amino acid residues 260-281) of yeast fimbrin. An antibody prepared against a synthesized 21-mer oligopeptide reacted with the 71 kDa proteins in T. pyriformis and T. thermophila cell extracts, suggesting that the 60 kDa fragment was produced from the 71 kDa protein through partial digestion occurring during isolation. The 60 kDa fragment bound to Tetrahymena F-actin as well as to rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin, and induced the bundling of Tetrahymena F-actin. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed colocalization of the 71 kDa protein and actin in the oral apparatus and the deep fiber bundles in T. pyriformis. On the other hand, in T. thermophila, the 71 kDa protein was localized in the oral apparatus and the contractile vacuole pores during the interphase. During cytokinesis, the 71 kDa protein was localized in the division furrow. Therefore, the 71 kDa protein seems to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, and to regulate the actin filament organization during phagocytosis and cytokinesis in Tetrahymena.

  7. ParA encoded on chromosome II of Deinococcus radiodurans binds to nucleoid and inhibits cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Charaka, Vijaya Kumar; Mehta, Kruti P; Misra, H S

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial genome segregation and cell division has been studied mostly in bacteria harbouring single circular chromosome and low-copy plasmids. Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacterium, harbours multipartite genome system. Chromosome I encodes majority of the functions required for normal growth while other replicons encode mostly the proteins involved in secondary functions. Here, we report the characterization of putative P-loop ATPase (ParA2) encoded on chromosome II of D. radiodurans. Recombinant ParA2 was found to be a DNA-binding ATPase. E. coli cells expressing ParA2 showed cell division inhibition and mislocalization of FtsZ-YFP and those expressing ParA2-CFP showed multiple CFP foci formation on the nucleoid. Although, in trans expression of ParA2 failed to complement SlmA loss per se, it could induce unequal cell division in slmAminCDE double mutant. These results suggested that ParA2 is a nucleoid-binding protein, which could inhibits cell division in E. coli by affecting the correct localization of FtsZ and thereby cytokinesis. Helping slmAminCDE mutant to produce minicells, a phenotype associated with mutations in the 'Min' proteins, further indicated the possibility of ParA2 regulating cell division by bringing nucleoid compaction at the vicinity of septum growth.

  8. Zipper-interacting protein kinase interacts with human cell division cycle 14A phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Haiying; Ye, Zi; Leong, Mancheong; He, Min; Li, Qin; Hu, Renming; Zhang, Shuo

    2015-04-01

    Zipper‑interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) is a novel serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of a large family of protein kinases, known as the death‑associated protein kinases. However, the function of ZIPK has yet to be fully elucidated, as few physiological substrates have currently been identified. In the present study, a yeast two‑hybrid screen was used and the human cell division cycle 14A (HsCdc14A) phosphatase was identified as a novel ZIPK binding protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the interaction between these proteins. The interaction between ZIPK and HsCdc14A was confirmed by in vitro experiments. In addition, ZIPK‑mediated phosphorylation was shown to activate the phosphatase activity of HsCdc14A. These findings indicated that ZIPK may also be involved in the regulation of the cell cycle in human cells, by interacting with HsCdc14A.

  9. The Escherichia coli datA site promotes proper regulation of cell division.

    PubMed

    Morigen, Morigen; Flåtten, Ingvild; Skarstad, Kirsten

    2014-04-01

    In Escherichia coli inhibition of replication leads to a block of cell division. This checkpoint mechanism ensures that no cell divides without having two complete copies of the genome to pass on to the two daughter cells. The chromosomal datA site is a 1 kb region that contains binding sites for the DnaA replication initiator protein, and which contributes to the inactivation of DnaA. An excess of datA sites provided on plasmids has been found to lead to both a delay in initiation of replication and in cell division during exponential growth. Here we have investigated the effect of datA on the cell division block that occurs upon inhibition of replication initiation in a dnaC2 mutant. We found that this checkpoint mechanism was aided by the presence of datA. In cells where datA was deleted or an excess of DnaA was provided, cell division occurred in the absence of replication and anucleate cells were formed. This finding indicates that loss of datA and/or excess of DnaA protein promote cell division. This conclusion was supported by the finding that the lethality of the division-compromised mutants ftsZ84 and ftsI23 was suppressed by deletion of datA, at the lowest non-permissive temperature. We propose that the cell division block that occurs upon inhibition of DNA replication is, at least in part, due to a drop in the concentration of the ATP-DnaA protein.

  10. A Multi-layered Protein Network Stabilizes the Escherichia coli FtsZ-ring and Modulates Constriction Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Shtengel, Gleb; Yang, Xinxing; Hess, Harald; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, forms a ring-like structure (FtsZ-ring) at midcell. The FtsZ-ring establishes the division plane and enables the assembly of the macromolecular division machinery (divisome). Although many molecular components of the divisome have been identified and their interactions extensively characterized, the spatial organization of these proteins within the divisome is unclear. Consequently, the physical mechanisms that drive divisome assembly, maintenance, and constriction remain elusive. Here we applied single-molecule based superresolution imaging, combined with genetic and biophysical investigations, to reveal the spatial organization of cellular structures formed by four important divisome proteins in E. coli: FtsZ, ZapA, ZapB and MatP. We show that these interacting proteins are arranged into a multi-layered protein network extending from the cell membrane to the chromosome, each with unique structural and dynamic properties. Further, we find that this protein network stabilizes the FtsZ-ring, and unexpectedly, slows down cell constriction, suggesting a new, unrecognized role for this network in bacterial cell division. Our results provide new insight into the structure and function of the divisome, and highlight the importance of coordinated cell constriction and chromosome segregation. PMID:25848771

  11. Sequence Variation in the ftsZ Gene of Bartonella henselae Isolates and Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenborg, C.; Wesslén, L.; Jakobson, Å.; Friman, G.; Holmberg, M.

    2000-01-01

    In a search for methods for subtyping of Bartonella henselae in clinical samples, we amplified and sequenced a 701-bp region in the 3′ end of the ftsZ gene in 15 B. henselae isolates derived from cats and humans in the United States and Europe. The ftsZ sequence variants that were discovered were designated variants Bh ftsZ 1, 2, and 3 and were compared with 16S rRNA genotypes I and II of the same isolates. There was no ftsZ gene variation in the strains of 16S rRNA type I, all of which were Bh ftsZ 1. The type II strains constituted two groups, with nucleotide sequence variation in the ftsZ gene resulting in amino acid substitutions at three positions, one of which was shared by the two groups. One 16S rRNA type II isolate had an ftsZ gene sequence identical to those of the type I strains. Variants Bh ftsZ 1 and 2 were detected in tissue specimens from seven Swedish patients with diagnoses such as chronic multifocal osteomyelitis, cardiomyopathy, and lymphadenopathy. Patients with similar clinical entities displayed either Bh ftsZ variant. The etiological role of B. henselae in these patients was supported by positive Bartonella antibody titers and/or amplification and sequencing of a part of the B. henselae gltA gene. B. henselae ftsZ gene sequence variation may be useful in providing knowledge about the epidemiology of various B. henselae strains in clinical samples, especially when isolation attempts have failed. This report also describes manifestations of atypical Bartonella infections in Sweden. PMID:10655367

  12. Protein Phosphatase 4 mediates localization of the Miranda complex during Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions

    PubMed Central

    Sousa-Nunes, Rita; Chia, William; Somers, W. Greg

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants is a crucial step in neuroblast asymmetric divisions. Whereas several protein kinases have been shown to mediate this process, no protein phosphatase has so far been implicated. In a clonal screen of larval neuroblasts we identified the evolutionarily conserved Protein Phosphatase 4 (PP4) regulatory subunit PP4R3/Falafel (Flfl) as a key mediator specific for the localization of Miranda (Mira) and associated cell fate determinants during both interphase and mitosis. Flfl is predominantly nuclear during interphase/prophase and cytoplasmic after nuclear envelope breakdown. Analyses of nuclear excluded as well as membrane targeted versions of the protein suggest that the asymmetric cortical localization of Mira and its associated proteins during mitosis depends on cytoplasmic/membrane-associated Flfl, whereas nuclear Flfl is required to exclude the cell fate determinant Prospero (Pros), and consequently Mira, from the nucleus during interphase/prophase. Attenuating the function of either the catalytic subunit of PP4 (PP4C; Pp4-19C in Drosophila) or of another regulatory subunit, PP4R2 (PPP4R2r in Drosophila), leads to similar defects in the localization of Mira and associated proteins. Flfl is capable of directly interacting with Mira, and genetic analyses indicate that flfl acts in parallel to or downstream from the tumor suppressor lethal (2) giant larvae (lgl). Our findings suggest that Flfl may target PP4 to the MIra protein complex to facilitate dephosphorylation step(s) crucial for its cortical association/asymmetric localization. PMID:19204120

  13. Novel roles of plant RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) protein in cell proliferation and asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Desvoyes, Bénédicte; de Mendoza, Alex; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2014-06-01

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein was identified as a human tumour suppressor protein that controls various stages of cell proliferation through the interaction with members of the E2F family of transcription factors. It was originally thought to be specific to animals but plants contain homologues of Rb, called RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR). In fact, the Rb-E2F module seems to be a very early acquisition of eukaryotes. The activity of RBR depends on phosphorylation of certain amino acid residues, which in most cases are well conserved between plant and animal proteins. In addition to its role in cell-cycle progression, RBR has been shown to participate in various cellular processes such as endoreplication, transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodelling, cell growth, stem cell biology, and differentiation. Here, we discuss the most recent advances to define the role of RBR in cell proliferation and asymmetric cell division. These and other reports clearly support the idea that RBR is used as a landing platform of a plethora of cellular proteins and complexes to control various aspects of cell physiology and plant development.

  14. Differential localization of LTA synthesis proteins and their interaction with the cell division machinery in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Nathalie T; Piçarra Cassona, Carolina; Monteiro, João M; Bottomley, Amy L; Corrigan, Rebecca M; Foster, Simon J; Pinho, Mariana G; Gründling, Angelika

    2014-04-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. In Staphylococcus aureus it consists of a polyglycerolphosphate-chain that is retained within the membrane via a glycolipid. Using an immunofluorescence approach, we show here that the LTA polymer is not surface exposed in S. aureus, as it can only be detected after digestion of the peptidoglycan layer. S. aureus mutants lacking LTA are enlarged and show aberrant positioning of septa, suggesting a link between LTA synthesis and the cell division process. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that the three key LTA synthesis proteins, YpfP and LtaA, involved in glycolipid production, and LtaS, required for LTA backbone synthesis, interact with one another. All three proteins also interacted with numerous cell division and peptidoglycan synthesis proteins, suggesting the formation of a multi-enzyme complex and providing further evidence for the co-ordination of these processes. When assessed by fluorescence microscopy, YpfP and LtaA fluorescent protein fusions localized to the membrane while the LtaS enzyme accumulated at the cell division site. These data support a model whereby LTA backbone synthesis proceeds in S. aureus at the division site in co-ordination with cell division, while glycolipid synthesis takes place throughout the membrane. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Differential localization of LTA synthesis proteins and their interaction with the cell division machinery in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Nathalie T; Piçarra Cassona, Carolina; Monteiro, João M; Bottomley, Amy L; Corrigan, Rebecca M; Foster, Simon J; Pinho, Mariana G; Gründling, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. In Staphylococcus aureus it consists of a polyglycerolphosphate-chain that is retained within the membrane via a glycolipid. Using an immunofluorescence approach, we show here that the LTA polymer is not surface exposed in S. aureus, as it can only be detected after digestion of the peptidoglycan layer. S. aureus mutants lacking LTA are enlarged and show aberrant positioning of septa, suggesting a link between LTA synthesis and the cell division process. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that the three key LTA synthesis proteins, YpfP and LtaA, involved in glycolipid production, and LtaS, required for LTA backbone synthesis, interact with one another. All three proteins also interacted with numerous cell division and peptidoglycan synthesis proteins, suggesting the formation of a multi-enzyme complex and providing further evidence for the co-ordination of these processes. When assessed by fluorescence microscopy, YpfP and LtaA fluorescent protein fusions localized to the membrane while the LtaS enzyme accumulated at the cell division site. These data support a model whereby LTA backbone synthesis proceeds in S. aureus at the division site in co-ordination with cell division, while glycolipid synthesis takes place throughout the membrane. PMID:24533796

  16. The Min System and Nucleoid Occlusion Are Not Required for Identifying the Division Site in Bacillus subtilis but Ensure Its Efficient Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Christopher D. A.; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Precise temporal and spatial control of cell division is essential for progeny survival. The current general view is that precise positioning of the division site at midcell in rod-shaped bacteria is a result of the combined action of the Min system and nucleoid (chromosome) occlusion. Both systems prevent assembly of the cytokinetic Z ring at inappropriate places in the cell, restricting Z rings to the correct site at midcell. Here we show that in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis Z rings are positioned precisely at midcell in the complete absence of both these systems, revealing the existence of a mechanism independent of Min and nucleoid occlusion that identifies midcell in this organism. We further show that Z ring assembly at midcell is delayed in the absence of Min and Noc proteins, while at the same time FtsZ accumulates at other potential division sites. This suggests that a major role for Min and Noc is to ensure efficient utilization of the midcell division site by preventing Z ring assembly at potential division sites, including the cell poles. Our data lead us to propose a model in which spatial regulation of division in B. subtilis involves identification of the division site at midcell that requires Min and nucleoid occlusion to ensure efficient Z ring assembly there and only there, at the right time in the cell cycle. PMID:22457634

  17. Cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of a herpesvirus tegument protein during cell division.

    PubMed

    Elliott, G; O'Hare, P

    2000-03-01

    We have previously shown that the herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP22 localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm of expressing cells. We have also shown that VP22 has the unusual property of intercellular spread, which involves the movement of VP22 from the cytoplasm of these expressing cells into the nuclei of nonexpressing cells. Thus, VP22 can localize in two distinct subcellular patterns. By utilizing time-lapse confocal microscopy of live cells expressing a green fluorescent protein-tagged protein, we now report in detail the intracellular trafficking properties of VP22 in expressing cells, as opposed to the intercellular trafficking of VP22 between expressing and nonexpressing cells. Our results show that during interphase VP22 appears to be targeted exclusively to the cytoplasm of the expressing cell. However, at the early stages of mitosis VP22 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it immediately binds to the condensing cellular chromatin and remains bound there through all stages of mitosis and chromatin decondensation into the G(1) stage of the next cycle. Hence, in VP22-expressing cells the subcellular localization of the protein is regulated by the cell cycle such that initially cytoplasmic protein becomes nuclear during cell division, resulting in a gradual increase over time in the number of nuclear VP22-expressing cells. Importantly, we demonstrate that this process is a feature not only of VP22 expressed in isolation but also of VP22 expressed during virus infection. Thus, VP22 utilizes an unusual pathway for nuclear targeting in cells expressing the protein which differs from the nuclear targeting pathway used during intercellular trafficking.

  18. Cell Division by Longitudinal Scission in the Insect Endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii

    PubMed Central

    Maclachlan, Catherine; Clerc-Rosset, Stéphanie; Knott, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma bacteria are highly motile bacteria with no cell wall and a helical morphology. This clade includes many vertically transmitted insect endosymbionts, including Spiroplasma poulsonii, a natural endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. S. poulsonii bacteria are mainly found in the hemolymph of infected female flies and exhibit efficient vertical transmission from mother to offspring. As is the case for many facultative endosymbionts, S. poulsonii can manipulate the reproduction of its host; in particular, S. poulsonii induces male killing in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we analyze the morphology of S. poulsonii obtained from the hemolymph of infected Drosophila. This endosymbiont was not only found as long helical filaments, as previously described, but was also found in a Y-shaped form. The use of electron microscopy, immunogold staining of the FtsZ protein, and antibiotic treatment unambiguously linked the Y shape of S. poulsonii to cell division. Observation of the Y shape in another Spiroplasma, S. citri, and anecdotic observations from the literature suggest that cell division by longitudinal scission might be prevalent in the Spiroplasma clade. Our study is the first to report the Y-shape mode of cell division in an endosymbiotic bacterium and adds Spiroplasma to the so far limited group of bacteria known to utilize this cell division mode. PMID:27460796

  19. Dynamics of pre-replication complex proteins during the cell division cycle.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, Supriya G; Méndez, Juan; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Stillman, Bruce

    2004-01-29

    Replication of the human genome every time a cell divides is a highly coordinated process that ensures accurate and efficient inheritance of the genetic information. The molecular mechanism that guarantees that many origins of replication fire only once per cell-cycle has been the area of intense research. The origin recognition complex (ORC) marks the position of replication origins in the genome and serves as the landing pad for the assembly of a multiprotein, pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) at the origins, consisting of ORC, cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6), Cdc10-dependent transcript (Cdt1) and mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins. The MCM proteins serve as key participants in the mechanism that limits eukaryotic DNA replication to once-per-cell-cycle and its binding to the chromatin marks the final step of pre-RC formation, a process referred to as 'replication licensing'. We present data demonstrating how the MCM proteins associate with the chromatin during the G1 phase, probably defining pre-RCs and then anticipate replication fork movement in a precisely coordinated manner during the S phase of the cell cycle. The process of DNA replication must also be carefully coordinated with other cell-cycle processes including mitosis and cytokinesis. Some of the proteins that control initiation of DNA replication are likely to interact with the pathways that control these important cell-cycle transitions. Herein, we discuss the participation of human ORC proteins in other vital functions, in addition to their bona fide roles in replication.

  20. Interplay of the Serine/Threonine-Kinase StkP and the Paralogs DivIVA and GpsB in Pneumococcal Cell Elongation and Division

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Nathalie; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Freton, Céline; Combet, Christophe; Guiral, Sébastien; Soufi, Boumediene; Macek, Boris; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Brun, Yves V.; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Claverys, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Anne; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Despite years of intensive research, much remains to be discovered to understand the regulatory networks coordinating bacterial cell growth and division. The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae achieves its characteristic ellipsoid-cell shape remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the interplay of the cell division paralogs DivIVA and GpsB with the ser/thr kinase StkP. We observed that the deletion of divIVA hindered cell elongation and resulted in cell shortening and rounding. By contrast, the absence of GpsB resulted in hampered cell division and triggered cell elongation. Remarkably, ΔgpsB elongated cells exhibited a helical FtsZ pattern instead of a Z-ring, accompanied by helical patterns for DivIVA and peptidoglycan synthesis. Strikingly, divIVA deletion suppressed the elongated phenotype of ΔgpsB cells. These data suggest that DivIVA promotes cell elongation and that GpsB counteracts it. Analysis of protein-protein interactions revealed that GpsB and DivIVA do not interact with FtsZ but with the cell division protein EzrA, which itself interacts with FtsZ. In addition, GpsB interacts directly with DivIVA. These results are consistent with DivIVA and GpsB acting as a molecular switch to orchestrate peripheral and septal PG synthesis and connecting them with the Z-ring via EzrA. The cellular co-localization of the transpeptidases PBP2x and PBP2b as well as the lipid-flippases FtsW and RodA in ΔgpsB cells further suggest the existence of a single large PG assembly complex. Finally, we show that GpsB is required for septal localization and kinase activity of StkP, and therefore for StkP-dependent phosphorylation of DivIVA. Altogether, we propose that the StkP/DivIVA/GpsB triad finely tunes the two modes of peptidoglycan (peripheral and septal) synthesis responsible for the pneumococcal ellipsoid cell shape. PMID:24722178

  1. Interplay of the serine/threonine-kinase StkP and the paralogs DivIVA and GpsB in pneumococcal cell elongation and division.

    PubMed

    Fleurie, Aurore; Manuse, Sylvie; Zhao, Chao; Campo, Nathalie; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Freton, Céline; Combet, Christophe; Guiral, Sébastien; Soufi, Boumediene; Macek, Boris; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Claverys, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Anne; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Despite years of intensive research, much remains to be discovered to understand the regulatory networks coordinating bacterial cell growth and division. The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae achieves its characteristic ellipsoid-cell shape remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the interplay of the cell division paralogs DivIVA and GpsB with the ser/thr kinase StkP. We observed that the deletion of divIVA hindered cell elongation and resulted in cell shortening and rounding. By contrast, the absence of GpsB resulted in hampered cell division and triggered cell elongation. Remarkably, ΔgpsB elongated cells exhibited a helical FtsZ pattern instead of a Z-ring, accompanied by helical patterns for DivIVA and peptidoglycan synthesis. Strikingly, divIVA deletion suppressed the elongated phenotype of ΔgpsB cells. These data suggest that DivIVA promotes cell elongation and that GpsB counteracts it. Analysis of protein-protein interactions revealed that GpsB and DivIVA do not interact with FtsZ but with the cell division protein EzrA, which itself interacts with FtsZ. In addition, GpsB interacts directly with DivIVA. These results are consistent with DivIVA and GpsB acting as a molecular switch to orchestrate peripheral and septal PG synthesis and connecting them with the Z-ring via EzrA. The cellular co-localization of the transpeptidases PBP2x and PBP2b as well as the lipid-flippases FtsW and RodA in ΔgpsB cells further suggest the existence of a single large PG assembly complex. Finally, we show that GpsB is required for septal localization and kinase activity of StkP, and therefore for StkP-dependent phosphorylation of DivIVA. Altogether, we propose that the StkP/DivIVA/GpsB triad finely tunes the two modes of peptidoglycan (peripheral and septal) synthesis responsible for the pneumococcal ellipsoid cell shape.

  2. Control of Tobacco mosaic virus Movement Protein Fate by CELL-DIVISION-CYCLE Protein481[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Niehl, Annette; Amari, Khalid; Gereige, Dalya; Brandner, Katrin; Mély, Yves; Heinlein, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Like many other viruses, Tobacco mosaic virus replicates in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exploits this membrane network for intercellular spread through plasmodesmata (PD), a process depending on virus-encoded movement protein (MP). The movement process involves interactions of MP with the ER and the cytoskeleton as well as its targeting to PD. Later in the infection cycle, the MP further accumulates and localizes to ER-associated inclusions, the viral factories, and along microtubules before it is finally degraded. Although these patterns of MP accumulation have been described in great detail, the underlying mechanisms that control MP fate and function during infection are not known. Here, we identify CELL-DIVISION-CYCLE protein48 (CDC48), a conserved chaperone controlling protein fate in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and animal cells by extracting protein substrates from membranes or complexes, as a cellular factor regulating MP accumulation patterns in plant cells. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CDC48 is induced upon infection, interacts with MP in ER inclusions dependent on the MP N terminus, and promotes degradation of the protein. We further provide evidence that CDC48 extracts MP from ER inclusions to the cytosol, where it subsequently accumulates on and stabilizes microtubules. We show that virus movement is impaired upon overexpression of CDC48, suggesting that CDC48 further functions in controlling virus movement by removal of MP from the ER transport pathway and by promoting interference of MP with microtubule dynamics. CDC48 acts also in response to other proteins expressed in the ER, thus suggesting a general role of CDC48 in ER membrane maintenance upon ER stress. PMID:23027663

  3. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB) to cell division.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Pamela; Rietkötter, Eva; Daniel, Richard A; Hamoen, Leendert W

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination of septal peptidoglycan synthesis. Here, we show that an ezrA mutant is hypersensitive to tetracycline, even when the tetracycline efflux pump TetA is present. This effect is not related to the protein translation inhibiting activity of tetracycline. Overexpression of FtsL suppresses this phenotype, which appears to be related to the intrinsic low FtsL levels in an ezrA mutant background. A transposon screen indicated that the tetracycline effect can also be suppressed by overproduction of the cell division protein ZapA. In addition, tetracycline sensitivity could be suppressed by transposon insertions in galE and the unknown gene ypmB, which was renamed tseB (tetracycline sensitivity suppressor of ezrA). GalE is an epimerase using UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrate. Deletion of this protein bypasses the synthetic lethality of zapA ezrA and sepF ezrA double mutations, indicating that GalE influences cell division. The transmembrane protein TseB contains an extracytoplasmic peptidase domain, and a GFP fusion shows that the protein is enriched at cell division sites. A tseB deletion causes a shorter cell phenotype, indicating that TseB plays a role in cell division. Why a deletion of ezrA renders B. subtilis cells hypersensitive for tetracycline remains unclear. We speculate that this phenomenon is related to the tendency of tetracycline analogs to accumulate into the lipid bilayer, which may destabilize certain membrane proteins.

  4. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB) to cell division

    PubMed Central

    Gamba, Pamela; Rietkötter, Eva; Daniel, Richard A.; Hamoen, Leendert W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination of septal peptidoglycan synthesis. Here, we show that an ezrA mutant is hypersensitive to tetracycline, even when the tetracycline efflux pump TetA is present. This effect is not related to the protein translation inhibiting activity of tetracycline. Overexpression of FtsL suppresses this phenotype, which appears to be related to the intrinsic low FtsL levels in an ezrA mutant background. A transposon screen indicated that the tetracycline effect can also be suppressed by overproduction of the cell division protein ZapA. In addition, tetracycline sensitivity could be suppressed by transposon insertions in galE and the unknown gene ypmB, which was renamed tseB (tetracycline sensitivity suppressor of ezrA). GalE is an epimerase using UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrate. Deletion of this protein bypasses the synthetic lethality of zapA ezrA and sepF ezrA double mutations, indicating that GalE influences cell division. The transmembrane protein TseB contains an extracytoplasmic peptidase domain, and a GFP fusion shows that the protein is enriched at cell division sites. A tseB deletion causes a shorter cell phenotype, indicating that TseB plays a role in cell division. Why a deletion of ezrA renders B. subtilis cells hypersensitive for tetracycline remains unclear. We speculate that this phenomenon is related to the tendency of tetracycline analogs to accumulate into the lipid bilayer, which may destabilize certain membrane proteins. PMID:25954268

  5. Asymmetric damage segregation at cell division via protein aggregate fusion and attachment to organelles.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Miguel; Tolić, Iva M

    2015-07-01

    The segregation of damaged components at cell division determines the survival and aging of cells. In cells that divide asymmetrically, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aggregated proteins are retained by the mother cell. Yet, where and how aggregation occurs is not known. Recent work by Zhou and collaborators shows that the birth of protein aggregates, under specific stress conditions, requires active translation, and occurs mainly at the endoplasmic reticulum. Later, aggregates move to the mitochondrial surface through fis1-dependent association. During replicative aging, aggregate association with the mother-cell mitochondria contributes to the asymmetric segregation of aggregates, because mitochondria in the daughter cell do not carry aggregates. With increasing age of mother cells, aggregates lose their connection to the mitochondria, and segregation is less asymmetric. Relating these findings to other mechanisms of aggregate segregation in different organisms, we postulate that fusion between aggregates and their tethering to organelles such as the vacuole, nucleus, ER, or mitochondria are common principles that establish asymmetric segregation during stress resistance and aging. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Regulation of transcription of cell division genes in the Escherichia coli dcw cluster.

    PubMed

    Vicente, M; Gomez, M J; Ayala, J A

    1998-04-01

    The Escherichia coli dcw cluster contains cell division genes, such as the phylogenetically ubiquitous ftsZ, and genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. Transcription in the cluster proceeds in the same direction as the progress of the replication fork along the chromosome. Regulation is exerted at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The absence of transcriptional termination signals may, in principle, allow extension of the transcripts initiated at the up-stream promoter (mraZ1p) even to the furthest down-stream gene (envA). Complementation tests suggest that they extend into ftsW in the central part of the cluster. In addition, the cluster contains other promoters individually regulated by cis- and trans-acting signals. Dissociation of the expression of the ftsZ gene, located after ftsQ and A near the 3' end of the cluster, from its natural regulatory signals leads to an alteration in the physiology of cell division. The complexities observed in the regulation of gene expression in the cluster may then have an important biological role. Among them, LexA-binding SOS boxes have been found at the 5' end of the cluster, preceding promoters which direct the expression of ftsI (coding for PBP3, the penicillin-binding protein involved in septum formation). A gearbox promoter, ftsQ1p, forms part of the signals regulating the transcription of ftsQ, A and Z. It is an inversely growth-dependent mechanism driven by RNA polymerase containing sigma s, the factor involved in the expression of stationary phase-specific genes. Although the dcw cluster is conserved to a different extent in a variety of bacteria, the regulation of gene expression, the presence or absence of individual genes, and even the essentiality of some of them, show variations in the phylogenetic scale which may reflect adaptation to specific life cycles.

  7. ROP GTPases act with the receptor-like protein PAN1 to polarize asymmetric cell division in maize.

    PubMed

    Humphries, John A; Vejlupkova, Zuzana; Luo, Anding; Meeley, Robert B; Sylvester, Anne W; Fowler, John E; Smith, Laurie G

    2011-06-01

    Plant Rho family GTPases (ROPs) have been investigated primarily for their functions in polarized cell growth. We previously showed that the maize (Zea mays) Leu-rich repeat receptor-like protein PANGLOSS1 (PAN1) promotes the polarization of asymmetric subsidiary mother cell (SMC) divisions during stomatal development. Here, we show that maize Type I ROPs 2 and 9 function together with PAN1 in this process. Partial loss of ROP2/9 function causes a weak SMC division polarity phenotype and strongly enhances this phenotype in pan1 mutants. Like PAN1, ROPs accumulate in an asymmetric manner in SMCs. Overexpression of yellow fluorescent protein-ROP2 is associated with its delocalization in SMCs and with aberrantly oriented SMC divisions. Polarized localization of ROPs depends on PAN1, but PAN1 localization is insensitive to depletion and depolarization of ROP. Membrane-associated Type I ROPs display increased nonionic detergent solubility in pan1 mutants, suggesting a role for PAN1 in membrane partitioning of ROPs. Finally, endogenous PAN1 and ROP proteins are physically associated with each other in maize tissue extracts, as demonstrated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation experiments. This study demonstrates that ROPs play a key role in polarization of plant cell division and cell growth and reveals a role for a receptor-like protein in spatial localization of ROPs.

  8. The role of peptidoglycan in chlamydial cell division: towards resolving the chlamydial anomaly.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Nicolas; Viollier, Patrick H; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydiales are obligate intracellular bacteria including some important pathogens causing trachoma, genital tract infections and pneumonia, among others. They share an atypical division mechanism, which is independent of an FtsZ homologue. However, they divide by binary fission, in a process inhibited by penicillin derivatives, causing the formation of an aberrant form of the bacteria, which is able to survive in the presence of the antibiotic. The paradox of penicillin sensitivity of chlamydial cells in the absence of detectable peptidoglycan (PG) was dubbed the chlamydial anomaly, since no PG modified by enzymes (Pbps) that are the usual target of penicillin could be detected in Chlamydiales. We review here the recent advances in this field with the first direct and indirect evidences of PG-like material in both Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria. Moreover, PG biosynthesis is required for proper localization of the newly described septal proteins RodZ and NlpD. Taken together, these new results set the stage for a better understanding of the role of PG and septal proteins in the division mechanism of Chlamydiales and illuminate the long-standing chlamydial anomaly. Moreover, understanding the chlamydial division mechanism is critical for the development of new antibiotics for the treatment of chlamydial chronic infections.

  9. The Nuclear Matrix Protein Megator Regulates Stem Cell Asymmetric Division through the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex in Drosophila Testes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Singh, Shree Ram; Zeng, Xiankun; Zhao, Jiangsha; Hou, Steven X

    2015-12-01

    In adult Drosophila testis, asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) is specified by an oriented spindle and cortically localized adenomatous coli tumor suppressor homolog 2 (Apc2). However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events remains unclear. Here we identified Megator (Mtor), a nuclear matrix protein, which regulates GSC maintenance and asymmetric division through the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) complex. Loss of Mtor function results in Apc2 mis-localization, incorrect centrosome orientation, defective mitotic spindle formation, and abnormal chromosome segregation that lead to the eventual GSC loss. Expression of mitotic arrest-deficient-2 (Mad2) and monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) of the SAC complex effectively rescued the GSC loss phenotype associated with loss of Mtor function. Collectively our results define a new role of the nuclear matrix-SAC axis in regulating stem cell maintenance and asymmetric division.

  10. glsA, a Volvox gene required for asymmetric division and germ cell specification, encodes a chaperone-like protein.

    PubMed

    Miller, S M; Kirk, D L

    1999-02-01

    The gls genes of Volvox are required for the asymmetric divisions that set apart cells of the germ and somatic lineages during embryogenesis. Here we used transposon tagging to clone glsA, and then showed that it is expressed maximally in asymmetrically dividing embryos, and that it encodes a 748-amino acid protein with two potential protein-binding domains. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, the J domain (by which Hsp40-class chaperones bind to and activate specific Hsp70 partners) abolishes the capacity of glsA to rescue mutants. Based on this and other considerations, including the fact that the GlsA protein is associated with the mitotic spindle, we discuss how it might function, in conjunction with an Hsp70-type partner, to shift the division plane in asymmetrically dividing cells.

  11. Novel Trisubstituted Benzimidazoles, Targeting Mtb FtsZ, As A New Class of Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kunal; Awasthi, Divya; Lee, Seung-Yub; Zanardi, Ilaria; Ruzsicska, Bela; Knudson, Susan; Tonge, Peter J.; Slayden, Richard A.; Ojima, Iwao

    2010-01-01

    Libraries of novel trisubstituted benzimidazoles were created through rational drug design. A good number of these benzimidazoles exhibited promising MIC values in the range of 0.5-6 μg/mL (2-15 μM) for their antibacterial activity against Mtb H37Rv strain. Moreover, five of the lead compounds also exhibited excellent activity against clinical Mtb strains with different drug-resistance profiles. All lead compounds do not show appreciable cytotoxicity (IC50 >200 μM) against Vero cells, which inhibit Mtb FtsZ assembly in a dose dependent manner. The two lead compounds unexpectedly showed enhancement of the GTPase activity of Mtb FtsZ. The result strongly suggests that the increased GTPase activity destabilizes FtsZ assembly leading to efficient inhibition of FtsZ polymerization and filament formation. The TEM and SEM analyses of Mtb FtsZ and Mtb cells, respectively, treated with a lead compound strongly suggest that lead benzimidazoles have a novel mechanism of action on the inhibition of Mtb FtsZ assembly and Z-ring formation. PMID:21126020

  12. Structure of the bacterial cell division determinant GpsB and its interaction with penicillin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Rismondo, Jeanine; Cleverley, Robert M; Lane, Harriet V; Großhennig, Stephanie; Steglich, Anne; Möller, Lars; Mannala, Gopala Krishna; Hain, Torsten; Lewis, Richard J; Halbedel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Each bacterium has to co-ordinate its growth with division to ensure genetic stability of the population. Consequently, cell division and growth are tightly regulated phenomena, albeit different bacteria utilise one of several alternative regulatory mechanisms to maintain control. Here we consider GpsB, which is linked to cell growth and division in Gram-positive bacteria. ΔgpsB mutants of the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes show severe lysis, division and growth defects due to distortions of cell wall biosynthesis. Consistent with this premise, GpsB interacts both in vitro and in vivo with the major bi-functional penicillin-binding protein. We solved the crystal structure of GpsB and the interaction interfaces in both proteins are identified and validated. The inactivation of gpsB results in strongly attenuated virulence in animal experiments, comparable in degree to classical listerial virulence factor mutants. Therefore, GpsB is essential for in vitro and in vivo growth of a highly virulent food-borne pathogen, suggesting that GpsB could be a target for the future design of novel antibacterials.

  13. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins.

  14. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis CwsA overproduction modulates cell division and cell wall synthesis.

    PubMed

    Plocinski, P; Martinez, L; Sarva, K; Plocinska, R; Madiraju, M; Rajagopalan, M

    2013-12-01

    We recently showed that two small membrane proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, CwsA and CrgA, interact with each other, and that loss of CwsA in M. smegmatis is associated with defects in the cell division and cell wall synthesis processes. Here we show that CwsA overproduction also affected growth, cell division and cell shape of M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis. CwsA overproduction in M. tuberculosis led to increased sensitivity to cefsulodin, a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1A/1B targeting beta (β) -lactam, but was unaffected by other β-lactams and vancomycin. A M. smegmatis cwsA overexpressing strain showed bulgy cells, increased fluorescent vancomycin staining and altered localization of Wag31-mCherry fusion protein. However, the levels of phosphorylated Wag31, important for optimal peptidoglycan synthesis and growth in mycobacteria, were not affected. Interestingly, CwsA overproduction in E. coli led to the formation of large rounded cells that eventually lysed whereas the overproduction of FtsZ along with CwsA reversed this phenotype. Together, our results emphasize that optimal levels of CwsA are required for regulated cell wall synthesis, hence maintenance of cell shape, and that CwsA likely interacts with and modulates the activities of other cell wall synthetic components including PBPs.

  16. whmD is an essential mycobacterial gene required for proper septation and cell division

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, James E.; Bishai, William R.

    2000-01-01

    A study of potential mycobacterial regulatory genes led to the isolation of the Mycobacterium smegmatis whmD gene, which encodes a homologue of WhiB, a Streptomyces coelicolor protein required for sporulation. Unlike its Streptomyces homologue, WhmD is essential in M. smegmatis. The whmD gene could be disrupted only in the presence of a plasmid supplying whmD in trans. A plasmid that allowed chemically regulated expression of the WhmD protein was used to generate a conditional whmD mutant. On withdrawal of the inducer, the conditional whmD mutant exhibited irreversible, filamentous, branched growth with diminished septum formation and aberrant septal placement, whereas WhmD overexpression resulted in growth retardation and hyperseptation. Nucleic acid synthesis and levels of the essential cell division protein FtsZ were unaltered by WhmD deficiency. Together, these phenotypes indicate a role for WhmD in mycobacterial septum formation and cell division. PMID:10880571

  17. SecA is required for membrane targeting of the cell division protein DivIVA in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Halbedel, Sven; Kawai, Maki; Breitling, Reinhard; Hamoen, Leendert W.

    2014-01-01

    The conserved protein DivIVA is involved in different morphogenetic processes in Gram-positive bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the protein localizes to the cell division site and cell poles, and functions as a scaffold for proteins that regulate division site selection, and for proteins that are required for sporulation. To identify other proteins that bind to DivIVA, we performed an in vivo cross-linking experiment. A possible candidate that emerged was the secretion motor ATPase SecA. SecA mutants have been described that inhibit sporulation, and since DivIVA is necessary for sporulation, we examined the localization of DivIVA in these mutants. Surprisingly, DivIVA was delocalized, suggesting that SecA is required for DivIVA targeting. To further corroborate this, we performed SecA depletion and inhibition experiments, which provided further indications that DivIVA localization depends on SecA. Cell fractionation experiments showed that SecA is important for binding of DivIVA to the cell membrane. This was unexpected since DivIVA does not contain a signal sequence, and is able to bind to artificial lipid membranes in vitro without support of other proteins. SecA is required for protein secretion and membrane insertion, and therefore its role in DivIVA localization is likely indirect. Possible alternative roles of SecA in DivIVA folding and/or targeting are discussed. PMID:24592260

  18. Intrinsic disorder of the bacterial cell division protein ZipA: coil-to-brush conformational transition.

    PubMed

    López-Montero, Iván; López-Navajas, Pilar; Mingorance, Jesús; Rivas, Germán; Vélez, Marisela; Vicente, Miguel; Monroy, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    The full-length ZipA protein from Escherichia coli, one of the essential elements of the cell division machinery, was studied in a surface model built as adsorbed monolayers. The interplay between lateral packing and molecular conformation was probed using a combined methodology based on the scaling analysis of the surface pressure isotherms and ellipsometry measurements of the monolayer thickness. The observed behavior is compatible with the one expected for an intrinsically disordered and highly flexible protein that is preferentially structured in a random coil conformation. At low grafting densities, ZipA coils organize in a mushroom-like regime, whereas a coil-to-brush transition occurs on increasing lateral packing. The structural results suggest a functional scenario in which ZipA acts as a flexible tether anchoring bacterial proto-ring elements to the membrane during the earlier stages of division.

  19. Localization to the Nucleolus Is a Common Feature of Coronavirus Nucleoproteins, and the Protein May Disrupt Host Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Torsten; Chen, Hongying; Hodgson, Teri; Britton, Paul; Brooks, Gavin; Hiscox, Julian A.

    2001-01-01

    The subcellular localization of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) (group I and group II coronaviruses, respectively) nucleoproteins (N proteins) were examined by confocal microscopy. The proteins were shown to localize either to the cytoplasm alone or to the cytoplasm and a structure in the nucleus. This feature was confirmed to be the nucleolus by using specific antibodies to nucleolin, a major component of the nucleolus, and by confocal microscopy to image sections through a cell expressing N protein. These findings are consistent with our previous report for infectious bronchitis virus (group III coronavirus) (J. A. Hiscox et al., J. Virol. 75:506–512, 2001), indicating that nucleolar localization of the N protein is a common feature of the coronavirus family and is possibly of functional significance. Nucleolar localization signals were identified in the domain III region of the N protein from all three coronavirus groups, and this suggested that transport of N protein to the nucleus might be an active process. In addition, our results suggest that the N protein might function to disrupt cell division. Thus, we observed that approximately 30% of cells transfected with the N protein appeared to be undergoing cell division. The most likely explanation for this is that the N protein induced a cell cycle delay or arrest, most likely in the G2/M phase. In a fraction of transfected cells expressing coronavirus N proteins, we observed multinucleate cells and dividing cells with nucleoli (which are only present during interphase). These findings are consistent with the possible inhibition of cytokinesis in these cells. PMID:11533198

  20. Delivery of endocytosed proteins to the cell-division plane requires change of pathway from recycling to secretion.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sandra; Kientz, Marika; Brumm, Sabine; Nielsen, Mads Eggert; Park, Misoon; Gavidia, Richard; Krause, Cornelia; Voss, Ute; Beckmann, Hauke; Mayer, Ulrike; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Jürgens, Gerd

    2014-04-08

    Membrane trafficking is essential to fundamental processes in eukaryotic life, including cell growth and division. In plant cytokinesis, post-Golgi trafficking mediates a massive flow of vesicles that form the partitioning membrane but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we identify functionally redundant Arabidopsis ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs) BIG1-BIG4 as regulators of post-Golgi trafficking, mediating late secretion from the trans-Golgi network but not recycling of endocytosed proteins to the plasma membrane, although the TGN also functions as an early endosome in plants. In contrast, BIG1-4 are absolutely required for trafficking of both endocytosed and newly synthesized proteins to the cell-division plane during cytokinesis, counteracting recycling to the plasma membrane. This change from recycling to secretory trafficking pathway mediated by ARF-GEFs confers specificity of cargo delivery to the division plane and might thus ensure that the partitioning membrane is completed on time in the absence of a cytokinesis-interphase checkpoint. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02131.001.

  1. The hypermorph FtsA* protein has an in vivo role in relieving the Escherichia coli proto-ring block caused by excess ZapC.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Cristina; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Vicente, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Assembly of the proto-ring, formed by the essential FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA proteins, and its progression into a divisome, are essential events for Escherichia coli division. ZapC is a cytoplasmic protein that belongs to a group of non-essential components that assist FtsZ during proto-ring assembly. Any overproduction of these proteins leads to faulty FtsZ-rings, resulting in a cell division block. We show that ZapC overproduction can be counteracted by an excess of the ZipA-independent hypermorph FtsA* mutant, but not by similar amounts of wild type FtsA+. An excess of FtsA+ allowed regular spacing of the ZapC-blocked FtsZ-rings, but failed to promote recruitment of the late-assembling proteins FtsQ, FtsK and FtsN and therefore, to activate constriction. In contrast, overproduction of FtsA*, besides allowing correct FtsZ-ring localization at midcell, restored the ability of FtsQ, FtsK and FtsN to be incorporated into active divisomes.

  2. The hypermorph FtsA* protein has an in vivo role in relieving the Escherichia coli proto-ring block caused by excess ZapC+

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Cristina; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Assembly of the proto-ring, formed by the essential FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA proteins, and its progression into a divisome, are essential events for Escherichia coli division. ZapC is a cytoplasmic protein that belongs to a group of non-essential components that assist FtsZ during proto-ring assembly. Any overproduction of these proteins leads to faulty FtsZ-rings, resulting in a cell division block. We show that ZapC overproduction can be counteracted by an excess of the ZipA-independent hypermorph FtsA* mutant, but not by similar amounts of wild type FtsA+. An excess of FtsA+ allowed regular spacing of the ZapC-blocked FtsZ-rings, but failed to promote recruitment of the late-assembling proteins FtsQ, FtsK and FtsN and therefore, to activate constriction. In contrast, overproduction of FtsA*, besides allowing correct FtsZ-ring localization at midcell, restored the ability of FtsQ, FtsK and FtsN to be incorporated into active divisomes. PMID:28877250

  3. Late assembly of the Vibrio cholerae cell division machinery postpones septation to the last 10% of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Elisa; Paly, Evelyne; Barre, François-Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly regulated process, which involves the formation of a complex apparatus, the divisome, by over a dozen proteins. In the few model bacteria in which the division process was detailed, divisome assembly occurs in two distinct steps: a few proteins, including the FtsZ tubulin-like protein, form a membrane associated contractile ring, the Z-ring, at ~30% of the cell cycle. The Z-ring serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of a second series of proteins, including integral membrane and periplasmic cell wall remodelling enzymes, at ~50% of the cell cycle. Actual septation occupies most of the remaining half of the cell cycle. In contrast, we present evidence suggesting that early pre-divisional Z-rings form between 40 and 50% of the cell cycle and mature into fully assembled divisome at about 80% of the cell cycle in Vibrio cholerae. Thus, actual septation is restricted to a very short amount of time. Our results further suggest that late assembly of the divisome probably helps maintain the asymmetric polar organisation of V. cholerae cells by limiting the accumulation of a cell pole marker, HubP, at the nascent cell poles. PMID:28300142

  4. Asymmetric localisation of Miranda and its cargo proteins during neuroblast division requires the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome.

    PubMed

    Slack, Cathy; Overton, Paul M; Tuxworth, Richard I; Chia, William

    2007-11-01

    Asymmetric cell divisions generate cell fate diversity during both invertebrate and vertebrate development. Drosophila neural progenitors or neuroblasts (NBs) each divide asymmetrically to produce a larger neuroblast and a smaller ganglion mother cell (GMC). The asymmetric localisation of neural cell fate determinants and their adapter proteins to the neuroblast cortex during mitosis facilitates their preferential segregation to the GMC upon cytokinesis. In this study we report a novel role for the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) during this process. Attenuation of APC/C activity disrupts the asymmetric localisation of the adapter protein Miranda and its associated cargo proteins Staufen, Prospero and Brat, but not other components of the asymmetric division machinery. We demonstrate that Miranda is ubiquitylated via its C-terminal domain; removal of this domain disrupts Miranda localisation and replacement of this domain with a ubiquitin moiety restores normal asymmetric Miranda localisation. Our results demonstrate that APC/C activity and ubiquitylation of Miranda are required for the asymmetric localisation of Miranda and its cargo proteins to the NB cortex.

  5. Dwarf and short grain 1, encoding a putative U-box protein regulates cell division and elongation in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Xing, Yadi; Lou, Qijin; Feng, Ping; Liu, Song; Zhu, Meidan; Yin, Wuzhong; Fang, Shunran; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Tianquan; Sang, Xianchun; He, Guanghua

    2017-02-01

    Plant hormones coordinate a plant's responses to environmental stimuli and the endogenous developmental programs for cell division and elongation. Brassinosteroids are among the most important of these hormones in plant development. Recently, the ubiquitin-26S-proteasome system was identified to play a key role in hormone biology. In this study, we analyzed the function of a rice (Oryza sativa) gene, DSG1, which encodes a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. In the dsg1 mutant (an allelic mutant of tud1), the lengths of the roots, internodes, panicles, and seeds were shorter than that in the wild-type, which was due to defects in cell division and elongation. In addition, the leaves of the dsg1 mutant were wider and curled. The DSG1 protein is nuclear- and cytoplasm-localized and does not show tissue specificity in terms of its expression, which occurs in roots, culms, leaves, sheaths, and spikelets. The dsg1 mutant is less sensitive to brassinosteroid treatment than the wild-type, and DSG1 expression is negatively regulated by brassinosteroids, ethylene, auxin, and salicylic acid. These results demonstrate that DSG1 positively regulates cell division and elongation and may be involved in multiple hormone pathways.

  6. The beta-subunit of the Arabidopsis G protein negatively regulates auxin-induced cell division and affects multiple developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Hemayet; Chen, Jin-Gui; Temple, Brenda; Boyes, Douglas C; Alonso, José M; Davis, Keith R; Ecker, Joseph R; Jones, Alan M

    2003-02-01

    Plant cells respond to low concentrations of auxin by cell expansion, and at a slightly higher concentration, these cells divide. Previous work revealed that null mutants of the alpha-subunit of a putative heterotrimeric G protein (GPA1) have reduced cell division. Here, we show that this prototypical G protein complex acts mechanistically by controlling auxin sensitivity toward cell division. Loss-of-function G protein mutants have altered auxin-mediated cell division throughout development, especially during the auxin-induced formation of lateral and adventitious root primordia. Ectopic expression of the wild-type Galpha-subunit phenocopies the Gbeta mutants (auxin hypersensitivity), probably by sequestering the Gbetagamma-subunits, whereas overexpression of Gbeta reduces auxin sensitivity and a constitutively active (Q222L) mutant Galpha behaves like the wild type. These data are consistent with a model in which Gbetagamma acts as a negative regulator of auxin-induced cell division. Accordingly, basal repression of approximately one-third of the identified auxin-regulated genes (47 of 150 upregulated genes among 8300 quantitated) is lost in the Gbeta transcript-null mutant. Included among these are genes that encode proteins proposed to control cell division in root primordia formation as well as several novel genes. These results suggest that although auxin-regulated cell division is not coupled directly by a G protein, the Gbeta-subunit attenuates this auxin pathway upstream of the control of mRNA steady state levels.

  7. SMC1: an essential yeast gene encoding a putative head-rod-tail protein is required for nuclear division and defines a new ubiquitous protein family

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The smc1-1 mutant was identified initially as a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that had an elevated rate of minichromosome nondisjunction. We have cloned the wild-type SMC1 gene. The sequence of the SMC1 gene predicts that its product (Smc1p) is a 141-kD protein, and antibodies against Smc1 protein detect a protein with mobility of 165 kD. Analysis of the primary and putative secondary structure of Smc1p suggests that it contains two central coiled-coil regions flanked by an amino- terminal nucleoside triphosphate (NTP)-binding head and a conserved carboxy-terminal tail. These analyses also indicate that Smc1p is an evolutionary conserved protein and is a member of a new family of proteins ubiquitous among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The SMC1 gene is essential for viability. Several phenotypic characteristics of the mutant alleles of smc1 gene indicate that its product is involved in some aspects of nuclear metabolism, most likely in chromosome segregation. The smc1-1 and smc1-2 mutants have a dramatic increase in mitotic loss of a chromosome fragment and chromosome III, respectively, but have no increase in mitotic recombination. Depletion of SMC1 function in the ts mutant, smc1-2, causes a dramatic mitosis-related lethality. Smc1p-depleted cells have a defect in nuclear division as evidenced by the absence of anaphase cells. This phenotype of the smc1- 2 mutant is not RAD9 dependent. Based upon the facts that Smc1p is a member of a ubiquitous family, and it is essential for yeast nuclear division, we propose that Smc1p and Smc1p-like proteins function in a fundamental aspect of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division. PMID:8276886

  8. Cortical localization of the Galpha protein GPA-16 requires RIC-8 function during C. elegans asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Katayoun; Willard, Francis S; Colombo, Kelly; Siderovski, David P; Gönczy, Pierre

    2005-10-01

    Understanding of the mechanisms governing spindle positioning during asymmetric division remains incomplete. During unequal division of one-cell stage C. elegans embryos, the Galpha proteins GOA-1 and GPA-16 act in a partially redundant manner to generate pulling forces along astral microtubules. Previous work focused primarily on GOA-1, whereas the mechanisms by which GPA-16 participates in this process are not well understood. Here, we report that GPA-16 is present predominantly at the cortex of one-cell stage embryos. Using co-immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance binding assays, we find that GPA-16 associates with RIC-8 and GPR-1/2, two proteins known to be required for pulling force generation. Using spindle severing as an assay for pulling forces, we demonstrate that inactivation of the Gbeta protein GPB-1 renders GPA-16 and GOA-1 entirely redundant. This suggests that the two Galpha proteins can activate the same pathway and that their dual presence is normally needed to counter Gbetagamma. Using nucleotide exchange assays, we establish that whereas GPR-1/2 acts as a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) for GPA-16, as it does for GOA-1, RIC-8 does not exhibit guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity towards GPA-16, in contrast to its effect on GOA-1. We establish in addition that RIC-8 is required for cortical localization of GPA-16, whereas it is not required for that of GOA-1. Our analysis demonstrates that this requirement toward GPA-16 is distinct from the known function of RIC-8 in enabling interaction between Galpha proteins and GPR-1/2, thus providing novel insight into the mechanisms of asymmetric spindle positioning.

  9. Oriented Cell Division in the C. elegans Embryo Is Coordinated by G-Protein Signaling Dependent on the Adhesion GPCR LAT-1

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Franziska; Sastradihardja, Tania; Binder, Claudia; Schnabel, Ralf; Kungel, Jana; Rothemund, Sven; Hennig, Christian; Schöneberg, Torsten; Prömel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Orientation of spindles and cell division planes during development of many species ensures that correct cell-cell contacts are established, which is vital for proper tissue formation. This is a tightly regulated process involving a complex interplay of various signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying several of these pathways are still incompletely understood. Here, we identify the signaling cascade of the C. elegans latrophilin homolog LAT-1, an essential player in the coordination of anterior-posterior spindle orientation during the fourth round of embryonic cell division. We show that the receptor mediates a G protein-signaling pathway revealing that G-protein signaling in oriented cell division is not solely GPCR-independent. Genetic analyses showed that through the interaction with a Gs protein LAT-1 elevates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in the C. elegans embryo. Stimulation of this G-protein cascade in lat-1 null mutant nematodes is sufficient to orient spindles and cell division planes in the embryo in the correct direction. Finally, we demonstrate that LAT-1 is activated by an intramolecular agonist to trigger this cascade. Our data support a model in which a novel, GPCR-dependent G protein-signaling cascade mediated by LAT-1 controls alignment of cell division planes in an anterior-posterior direction via a metabotropic Gs-protein/adenylyl cyclase pathway by regulating intracellular cAMP levels. PMID:26505631

  10. The INHIBITOR OF MERISTEM ACTIVITY (IMA) protein: The nexus between cell division, differentiation and hormonal control of development.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Adrien; Hernould, Michel; Chevalier, Christian

    2008-10-01

    The INHIBITOR OF MERISTEM ACTIVITY (IMA) gene from tomato regulates the processes of flower and ovule development. 1IMA encodes a Mini Zinc Finger (MIF) protein that is characterized by a very short sequence containing an unusual zinc-finger domain. IMA acts as a repressor of WUSCHEL expression which controls the meristem organizing centre and the determinacy of the nucellus during ovule development. IMA inhibits cell proliferation during floral termination, controls the number of carpels during floral development and participates in the initiation of ovule primordia by activating D-type gene expression. In addition IMA is involved in a multiple hormonal signalling pathway like its Arabidopsis homolog MIF1.2 We thus propose that IMA, as a representative of this new family of zinc finger proteins, is an important effector in the regulatory pathway controlling meristem activity linking cell division, differentiation and hormonal control of development.

  11. Isolation, Characterization and Lipid-Binding Properties of the Recalcitrant FtsA Division Protein from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Silvia; Reija, Belén; Alfonso, Carlos; Mingorance, Jesús; Rivas, Germán; Jiménez, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained milligram amounts of highly pure Escherichia coli division protein FtsA from inclusion bodies with an optimized purification method that, by overcoming the reluctance of FtsA to be purified, surmounts a bottleneck for the analysis of the molecular basis of FtsA function. Purified FtsA is folded, mostly monomeric and interacts with lipids. The apparent affinity of FtsA binding to the inner membrane is ten-fold higher than to phospholipids, suggesting that inner membrane proteins could modulate FtsA-membrane interactions. Binding of FtsA to lipids and membranes is insensitive to ionic strength, indicating that a net contribution of hydrophobic interactions is involved in the association of FtsA to lipid/membrane structures. PMID:22761913

  12. 14-3-3 proteins: key regulators of cell division, signalling and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    van Hemert, M J; Steensma, H Y; van Heusden, G P

    2001-10-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of conserved proteins present in all eukaryotic organisms so far investigated. These proteins have attracted interest because they are involved in important cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, stress response and malignant transformation and because at least 100 different binding partners for the 14-3-3 proteins have been reported. Although the exact function of 14-3-3 proteins is still unknown, they are known to (1) act as adaptor molecules stimulating protein-protein interactions, (2) regulate the subcellular localisation of proteins and (3) activate or inhibit enzymes. In this review, we discuss the role of the 14-3-3 proteins in three cellular processes: cell cycle control, signal transduction and apoptosis. These processes are regulated by the 14-3-3 proteins at multiple steps. The 14-3-3 proteins have an overall inhibitory effect on cell cycle progression and apoptosis, whereas in signal transduction they may act as stimulatory or inhibitory factors. This article contains supplementary material which may be viewed at the BioEssays website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0265-9247/Suppmat/23/v23_10.936.

  13. Screening and Development of New Inhibitors of FtsZ from M. Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Bini; Ross, Larry; Connelly, Michele C.; Lofton, Hava; Rajagopalan, Malini; Guy, R. Kiplin; Reynolds, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of commercial analogs and a newer series of Sulindac derivatives were screened for inhibition of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) in vitro and specifically as inhibitors of the essential mycobacterial tubulin homolog, FtsZ. Due to the ease of preparing diverse analogs and a favorable in vivo pharmacokinetic and toxicity profile of a representative analog, the Sulindac scaffold may be useful for further development against Mtb with respect to in vitro bacterial growth inhibition and selective activity for Mtb FtsZ versus mammalian tubulin. Further discovery efforts will require separating reported mammalian cell activity from both antibacterial activity and inhibition of Mtb FtsZ. Modeling studies suggest that these analogs bind in a specific region of the Mtb FtsZ polymer that differs from human tubulin and, in combination with a pharmacophore model presented herein, future hybrid analogs of the reported active molecules that more efficiently bind in this pocket may improve antibacterial activity while improving other drug characteristics. PMID:27768711

  14. Carolacton Treatment Causes Delocalization of the Cell Division Proteins PknB and DivIVa in Streptococcus mutans in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Reck, Michael; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The small inhibitory molecule Carolacton has been shown to cause chain formation and bulging in Streptococci, suggesting a defect in cell division, but it is not known how cell division is impaired on a molecular level. Fluorescent fusion proteins have successfully been applied to visualize protein localization and dynamics in vivo and have revolutionized our understanding of cell wall growth, cell division, chromosome replication and segregation. However, in Streptococci the required vectors are largely lacking. We constructed vectors for chromosomal integration and inducible expression of fluorescent fusion proteins based on GFP+ in S. mutans. Their applicability was verified using four proteins with known localization in the cell. We then determined the effect of Carolacton on the subcellular localization of GFP+ fusions of the cell division protein DivIVa and the serine-threonine protein kinase PknB. Carolacton caused a significant delocalization of these proteins from midcell, in accordance with a previous study demonstrating the Carolacton insensitive phenotype of a pknB deletion strain. Carolacton treated cells displayed an elongated phenotype, increased septum formation and a severe defect in daughter cell separation. GFP+ fusions of two hypothetical proteins (SMU_503 and SMU_609), that had previously been shown to be the most strongly upregulated genes after Carolacton treatment, were found to be localized at the septum in midcell, indicating their role in cell division. These findings highlight the importance of PknB as a key regulator of cell division in streptococci and indicate a profound impact of Carolacton on the coordination between peripheral and septal cell wall growth. The established vector system represents a novel tool to study essential steps of cellular metabolism. PMID:27242711

  15. ZipA is required for FtsZ-dependent preseptal peptidoglycan synthesis prior to invagination during cell division.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Kannan, Suresh; Young, Kevin D

    2012-10-01

    Rod-shaped bacteria grow by a repetitive cycle of elongation followed by division, and the mechanisms responsible for these two processes have been studied for decades. However, little is known about what happens during the transition between the two activities. At least one event occurs after elongation ends and before division commences, that being the insertion of new cell wall peptidoglycan into a narrowly circumscribed ribbon around midcell where septation is destined to take place. This insertion does not depend on the presence of the septation-specific protein PBP3 and is therefore known as PBP3-independent peptidoglycan synthesis (PIPS). Here we report that only FtsZ and ZipA are required to generate PIPS in wild-type Escherichia coli. PIPS does not require the participation of other members of the divisome, the MreB-directed cell wall elongation complex, alternate peptidoglycan synthases, the major peptidoglycan amidases, or any of the low-molecular-weight penicillin binding proteins. ZipA-directed PIPS may represent an intermediate stage that connects cell wall elongation to septal invagination and may be the reason ZipA is essential in the gammaproteobacteria.

  16. Phosphorylation of Serine 148 in Giardia lamblia End-binding 1 Protein is Important for Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juri; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Park, Soon-Jung

    2017-07-01

    Giardia lamblia is a unicellular organism, showing a polarity with two nuclei and cytoskeletal structures. Accurate positioning of these organelles is essential for division of G. lamblia, which is poorly understood. Giardia lamblia end-binding 1 (GlEB1) protein and G. lamblia aurora kinase (GlAK) have been shown to modulate microtubule (MT) distribution during cytokinesis. A direct association between GlEB1 and GlAK was demonstrated. Like GlEB1, GlAK was also found at nuclear envelopes and median bodies of G. lamblia. In vitro kinase assays using Giardia lysates immunoprecipitated with anti-GlAK antibodies or recombinant GlAK suggested that GlEB1 is a substrate of GlAK. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that threonine-205 in GlAK was auto-phosphorylated and that GlAK phosphorylated serine (Ser)-148 in GlEB1. Ectopic expression of a mutant GlEB1 (with conversion of Ser-148 into alanine of GlEB1) resulted in an increased number of Giardia cells with division defects. Treatment of G. lamblia with an AK inhibitor triggered cytokinesis defects, and ectopic expression of a phospho-mimetic mutant GlEB1 (with conversion of Ser-148 into aspartate) rescued the defects in Giardia cell division caused by the AK inhibitor. These results suggested that phosphorylation of GlEB1 played a role in cytokinesis in G. lamblia. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  17. The RNA binding protein Larp1 regulates cell division, apoptosis and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Carla; Abd Latip, Normala; Lam, Sarah-Jane; Carpenter, Lee; Sawicka, Kirsty; Tzolovsky, George; Gabra, Hani; Bushell, Martin; Glover, David M.; Willis, Anne E.; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2010-01-01

    The RNA binding protein Larp1 was originally shown to be involved in spermatogenesis, embryogenesis and cell-cycle progression in Drosophila. Our data show that mammalian Larp1 is found in a complex with poly A binding protein and eukaryote initiation factor 4E and is associated with 60S and 80S ribosomal subunits. A reduction in Larp1 expression by siRNA inhibits global protein synthesis rates and results in mitotic arrest and delayed cell migration. Consistent with these data we show that Larp1 protein is present at the leading edge of migrating cells and interacts directly with cytoskeletal components. Taken together, these data suggest a role for Larp1 in facilitating the synthesis of proteins required for cellular remodelling and migration. PMID:20430826

  18. Both the transglycosylase and transpeptidase functions in plastid penicillin-binding protein are essential for plastid division in Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Yoshiko; TAKECHI, Katsuaki; TAKIO, Susumu; TAKANO, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are active in the final step of bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. They possess a transglycosylase (TG) domain to polymerize the glycan chains and a transpeptidase (TP) domain to catalyze peptide cross-linking. We reported that knockout of the Pbp gene in the moss Physcomitrella patens (ΔPpPbp) results in a macrochloroplast phenotype by affecting plastid division. Here, expression of PpPBP-GFP in ΔPpPbp restored the wild-type phenotype and GFP fluorescence was observed mainly in the periphery of each chloroplast. Stable transformants expressing Anabaena PBP with the plastid-targeting sequence, or PpPBP replacing the Anabaena TP domain exhibited partial recovery, while chloroplast number was recovered to that of wild-type plants in the transformant expressing PpPBP replacing the Anabaena TG domain. Transient expression experiments with site-directed mutagenized PpPBP showed that mutations in the conserved amino acids in both domains interfered with phenotype recovery. These results suggest that both TG and TP functions are essential for function of PpPBP in moss chloroplast division. PMID:27941308

  19. Expression, purification and crystallization of the cell-division protein YgfE from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Addinall, Stephen G.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Dafforn, Timothy; Smith, Corinne; Rodger, Alison; Gomez, Raul Paco; Sloan, Katherine; Blewett, Anne; Scott, David J.; Roper, David I.

    2005-03-01

    An open reading frame from E. coli MG1655 has been cloned, expressed and purified. Crystals obtained from the purified recombinant protein have been obtained in a variety of different forms diffracting to 1.8 Å resolution.

  20. Variation of T-type calcium channel protein expression affects cell division of cultured tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Panner, Amith; Cribbs, Leanne L; Zainelli, Gina M; Origitano, Thomas C; Singh, Sanjay; Wurster, Robert D

    2005-02-01

    In this study we investigated the T-type calcium channel and its involvement in the cell division of U87MG cultured glioma cells and N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. Using Western blot analysis, we found that expression of both alpha1G and alpha1H subunits of the T-type calcium channel decreased during conditions associated with a decrease in proliferation as evidenced by increased expression of cyclin D1, a marker for non-proliferating cells. Both serum starvation and application of mibefradil, a selective T-type calcium channel antagonist, resulted in a 50% decrease in the expression of alpha1G and alpha1H and a 700-900% increase in levels of cyclin D1 in U87MG and N1E-115 cells, respectively. Furthermore, overexpression of the alpha1H subunit resulted in a two-fold increase in cell proliferation compared to control cultures or cultures receiving an empty vector. In contrast, blocking expression of the alpha1G subunit using antisense oligonucleotides lead to a 70% decrease in proliferation of U87MG and N1E-115 cells compared to control cultures or cultures receiving a scrambled oligonucleotide. Our findings suggest that proliferation of U87MG glioma cells and N1E-115 is regulated by T-type calcium channel expression.

  1. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) promotes structural intermediates of membrane division.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Uribe, Begoña; Müller, Hans-Michael; Otsuki, Miki; Nickel, Walter; García-Sáez, Ana J

    2014-10-31

    Drp1 is a dynamin-like GTPase that mediates mitochondrial and peroxisomal division in a process dependent on self-assembly and coupled to GTP hydrolysis. Despite the link between Drp1 malfunction and human disease, the molecular details of its membrane activity remain poorly understood. Here we reconstituted and directly visualized Drp1 activity in giant unilamellar vesicles. We quantified the effect of lipid composition and GTP on membrane binding and remodeling activity by fluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. In contrast to other dynamin relatives, Drp1 bound to both curved and flat membranes even in the absence of nucleotides. We also found that Drp1 induced membrane tubulation that was stimulated by cardiolipin. Moreover, Drp1 promoted membrane tethering dependent on the intrinsic curvature of the membrane lipids and on GTP. Interestingly, Drp1 concentrated at membrane contact surfaces and, in the presence of GTP, formed discrete clusters on the vesicles. Our findings support a role of Drp1 not only in the formation of lipid tubes but also on the stabilization of tightly apposed membranes, which are intermediate states in the process of mitochondrial fission.

  2. Cell division genes ftsQAZ in Escherichia coli require distant cis-acting signals upstream of ddlB for full expression.

    PubMed

    Flärdh, K; Palacios, P; Vicente, M

    1998-10-01

    A transcriptional reporter fusion has been introduced into the chromosomal ftsZ locus in such a way that all transcription that normally reaches ftsZ can be monitored. The new Phi(ftsZ-lacZ ) fusion yields four times more beta-galactosidase activity than a ddlB-ftsQAZ-lacZ fusion on a lambda prophage vector. A strongly polar ddlB ::Omega insertion prevents contributions from signals upstream of the ftsQAZ promoters and decreases transcription of the chromosomal Phi(ftsZ-lacZ ) fusion by 66%, demonstrating that around two-thirds of total ftsZ transcription require cis-acting elements upstream of ddlB. We suggest that those elements are distant promoters, and thus that the cell division and cell wall synthesis genes in the dcw gene cluster are to a large extent co-transcribed. The ddlB ::Omega insertion is lethal unless additional copies of ftsQA are provided or a compensatory decrease in FtsZ synthesis is made. This shows that ddlB is a dispensable gene, and reinforces the critical role of the FtsA/FtsZ ratio in septation. Using the new reporter fusion, it is demonstrated that ftsZ expression is not autoregulated.

  3. Correlation between the structure and biochemical activities of FtsA, an essential cell division protein of the actin family.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M; Valencia, A; Ferrándiz, M J; Sander, C; Vicente, M

    1994-10-17

    Cell division protein FtsA, predicted to belong to the actin family, is present in different cell compartments depending on its phosphorylation state. The FtsA fraction isolated from the cytoplasm is phosphorylated and capable of binding ATP, while the membrane-bound form is unphosphorylated and does not bind ATP. A variant of the protein FtsA102, in which the nucleotide binding site was destroyed by mutagenesis of a highly conserved residue predicted to be needed for the binding, does not bind ATP. Another variant, FtsA104, cannot be phosphorylated because the predicted phosphorylatable residue has been replaced by a non-phosphorylatable one. This protein although unable to bind ATP in vitro, is able to rescue the reversible ftsA2, the irreversible ftsA3 and, almost with the same efficiency, the ftsA16 amber alleles. Consequently, phosphorylation and ATP binding may not be essential for the function of FtsA. Alternatively they may have a regulatory role on the action of FtsA in the septator.

  4. Correlation between the structure and biochemical activities of FtsA, an essential cell division protein of the actin family.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, M; Valencia, A; Ferrándiz, M J; Sander, C; Vicente, M

    1994-01-01

    Cell division protein FtsA, predicted to belong to the actin family, is present in different cell compartments depending on its phosphorylation state. The FtsA fraction isolated from the cytoplasm is phosphorylated and capable of binding ATP, while the membrane-bound form is unphosphorylated and does not bind ATP. A variant of the protein FtsA102, in which the nucleotide binding site was destroyed by mutagenesis of a highly conserved residue predicted to be needed for the binding, does not bind ATP. Another variant, FtsA104, cannot be phosphorylated because the predicted phosphorylatable residue has been replaced by a non-phosphorylatable one. This protein although unable to bind ATP in vitro, is able to rescue the reversible ftsA2, the irreversible ftsA3 and, almost with the same efficiency, the ftsA16 amber alleles. Consequently, phosphorylation and ATP binding may not be essential for the function of FtsA. Alternatively they may have a regulatory role on the action of FtsA in the septator. Images PMID:7957059

  5. Cdc45 (cell division cycle protein 45) guards the gate of the Eukaryote Replisome helicase stabilizing leading strand engagement

    PubMed Central

    Petojevic, Tatjana; Pesavento, James J.; Costa, Alessandro; Liang, Jingdan; Wang, Zhijun; Berger, James M.; Botchan, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication licensing is now understood to be the pathway that leads to the assembly of double hexamers of minichromosome maintenance (Mcm2–7) at origin sites. Cell division control protein 45 (Cdc45) and GINS proteins activate the latent Mcm2–7 helicase by inducing allosteric changes through binding, forming a Cdc45/Mcm2-7/GINS (CMG) complex that is competent to unwind duplex DNA. The CMG has an active gate between subunits Mcm2 and Mcm5 that opens and closes in response to nucleotide binding. The consequences of inappropriate Mcm2/5 gate actuation and the role of a side channel formed between GINS/Cdc45 and the outer edge of the Mcm2–7 ring for unwinding have remained unexplored. Here we uncover a novel function for Cdc45. Cross-linking studies trace the path of the DNA with the CMG complex at a fork junction between duplex and single strands with the bound CMG in an open or closed gate conformation. In the closed state, the lagging strand does not pass through the side channel, but in the open state, the leading strand surprisingly interacts with Cdc45. Mutations in the recombination protein J fold of Cdc45 that ablate this interaction diminish helicase activity. These data indicate that Cdc45 serves as a shield to guard against occasional slippage of the leading strand from the core channel. PMID:25561522

  6. Evolution and tinkering: what do a protein kinase, a transcriptional regulator and chromosome segregation/cell division proteins have in common?

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Abderahmane; Shi, Lei; Kalantari, Aida; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we focus on functional interactions among multi-domain proteins which share a common evolutionary origin. The examples we develop are four Bacillus subtilis proteins, which all possess an ATP-binding Walker motif: the bacterial tyrosine kinase (BY-kinase) PtkA, the chromosome segregation protein Soj (ParA), the cell division protein MinD and a transcription regulator SalA. These proteins have arisen via duplication of the ancestral ATP-binding domain, which has undergone fusions with other functional domains in the process of divergent evolution. We point out that these four proteins, despite having very different physiological roles, engage in an unusually high number of binary functional interactions. Namely, MinD attracts Soj and PtkA to the cell pole, and in addition, activates the kinase function of PtkA. SalA also activates the kinase function of PtkA, and it gets phosphorylated by PtkA as well. The consequence of this phosphorylation is the activation of SalA as a transcriptional repressor. We hypothesize that these functional interactions remain preserved during divergent evolution and represent a constraint on the process of evolutionary "tinkering", brought about by fusions of different functional domains.

  7. Profiling of the Mammalian Mitotic Spindle Proteome Reveals an ER Protein, OSTD-1, as Being Necessary for Cell Division and ER Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Mary Kate; Han, Bo Hwa; Skop, Ahna

    2013-01-01

    Cell division is important for many cellular processes including cell growth, reproduction, wound healing and stem cell renewal. Failures in cell division can often lead to tumors and birth defects. To identify factors necessary for this process, we implemented a comparative profiling strategy of the published mitotic spindle proteome from our laboratory. Of the candidate mammalian proteins, we determined that 77% had orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans and 18% were associated with human disease. Of the C. elegans candidates (n=146), we determined that 34 genes functioned in embryonic development and 56% of these were predicted to be membrane trafficking proteins. A secondary, visual screen to detect distinct defects in cell division revealed 21 genes that were necessary for cytokinesis. One of these candidates, OSTD-1, an ER resident protein, was further characterized due to the aberrant cleavage furrow placement and failures in division. We determined that OSTD-1 plays a role in maintaining the dynamic morphology of the ER during the cell cycle. In addition, 65% of all ostd-1 RNAi-treated embryos failed to correctly position cleavage furrows, suggesting that proper ER morphology plays a necessary function during animal cell division. PMID:24130834

  8. Overproduction of individual gas vesicle proteins perturbs flotation, antibiotic production and cell division in the enterobacterium Serratia sp. ATCC 39006.

    PubMed

    Monson, Rita E; Tashiro, Yosuke; Salmond, George P C

    2016-09-01

    Gas vesicles are intracellular proteinaceous organelles that facilitate bacterial colonization of static water columns. In the enterobacterium Serratia sp. ATCC 39006, gas vesicle formation requires the proteins GvpA1, GvpF1, GvpG, GvpA2, GvpK, GvpA3, GvpF2 and GvpF3 and the three gas vesicle regulatory proteins GvrA, GvrB and GvrC. Deletion of gvpC alters gas vesicle robustness and deletion of gvpN or gvpV results in small bicone vesicles. In this work, we assessed the impacts on gas vesicle formation when each of these 14 essential proteins was overexpressed. Overproduction of GvpF1, GvpF2, GvrA, GvrB or GvrC all resulted in significantly reduced gas vesicle synthesis. Perturbations in gas vesicle formation were also observed when GvpV and GvpA3 were in excess. In addition to impacts on gas vesicle formation, overproduction of GvrA or GvrB led to elevated biosynthesis of the tripyrrole pigment, prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite of increasing medical interest due to its antimalarial and anticancer properties. Finally, when GvpG was overexpressed, gas vesicles were still produced, but the cells exhibited a growth defect. Further analysis showed that induction of GvpG arrested cell growth and caused a drop in viable count, suggesting a possible physiological role for this protein linking gas vesicle biogenesis and binary fission. These combined results demonstrate that the stoichiometry of individual gas vesicle proteins is crucially important for controlled organelle morphogenesis and flotation and provides evidence for the first link between gas vesicle assembly and cell division, to our knowledge.

  9. Agouti signaling protein stimulates cell division in "viable yellow" (A vy/a) mouse liver

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enhanced linear growth, hyperplasia, and tumorigenesis are well-known characteristics of "viable yellow" agouti Avy/- mice (1); however, the functional basis for this aspect of the phenotype is unknown. In the present study, we ascertained whether agouti signaling protein (ASIP) levels in Avy/a or a...

  10. A lacZ-pbpB gene fusion coding for an inducible hybrid protein that recognizes localized sites in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, J A; Plá, J; Desviat, L R; de Pedro, M A

    1988-01-01

    An in-phase gene fusion consisting of the 5'-terminal 1,314 base pairs (bp) of the structural gene for beta-galactosidase (lacZ) and the 3'-terminal 1,644 bp of the structural gene coding for penicillin-binding protein 3 (pbpB) of Escherichia coli was constructed and cloned in the plasmid pDIAM64. The product of the fusion gene was a remarkably stable protein with an apparent molecular weight of 110,000 (p110) that retained the ability to covalently interact with beta-lactam antibiotics. The fusion protein was found associated with the membrane at low levels of induction, but it accumulated in the cytoplasm of cells induced for a long time as inclusion bodies of high density. Inclusion bodies were localized at defined positions corresponding to septal sites in all of the pDIAM64-containing strains tested except PAT84 and GD113 (which carry the ftsZ84 mutant allele). These findings indicate a possible role of the FtsZ protein in the integration of Pbp3 into the membrane and in septum localization during the cell division cycle. Images PMID:3136138

  11. Size-independent symmetric division in extraordinarily long cells

    PubMed Central

    Pende, Nika; Leisch, Nikolaus; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R.; Heindl, Niels R.; Ott, Jörg; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Two long-standing paradigms in biology are that cells belonging to the same population exhibit little deviation from their average size and that symmetric cell division is size limited. Here, ultrastructural, morphometric and immunocytochemical analyses reveal that two Gammaproteobacteria attached to the cuticle of the marine nematodes Eubostrichus fertilis and E. dianeae reproduce by constricting a single FtsZ ring at midcell despite being 45 μm and 120 μm long, respectively. In the crescent-shaped bacteria coating E. fertilis, symmetric FtsZ-based fission occurs in cells with lengths spanning one order of magnitude. In the E. dianeae symbiont, formation of a single functional FtsZ ring makes this the longest unicellular organism in which symmetric division has ever been observed. In conclusion, the reproduction modes of two extraordinarily long bacterial cells indicate that size is not the primary trigger of division and that yet unknown mechanisms time the localization of both DNA and the septum. PMID:25221974

  12. Domain-swapping analysis of FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ, bitopic membrane proteins essential for cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, L M; Weiss, D S; Beckwith, J

    1997-01-01

    FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ are three membrane proteins required for assembly of the division septum in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Cells lacking any of these three proteins form long, aseptate filaments that eventually lyse. FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ are not homologous but have similar overall structures: a small cytoplasmic domain, a single membrane-spanning segment (MSS), and a large periplasmic domain that probably encodes the primary functional activities of these proteins. The periplasmic domain of FtsI catalyzes transpeptidation and is involved in the synthesis of septal peptidoglycan. The precise functions of FtsL and FtsQ are not known. To ask whether the cytoplasmic domain and MSS of each protein serve only as a membrane anchor or have instead a more sophisticated function, we have used molecular genetic techniques to swap these domains among the three Fts proteins and one membrane protein not involved in cell division, MalF. In the cases of FtsI and FtsL, replacement of the cytoplasmic domain and/or MSS resulted in the loss of the ability to support cell division. For FtsQ, MSS swaps supported cell division but cytoplasmic domain swaps did not. We discuss several potential interpretations of these results, including that the essential domains of FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ have a role in regulating the localization and/or activity of these proteins to ensure that septum formation occurs at the right place in the cell and at the right time during the division cycle. PMID:9260951

  13. Regulation of cytoplasmic division of Xenopus embryo by rho p21 and its inhibitory GDP/GTP exchange protein (rho GDI)

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the rho family, a member of the ras p21- related small GTP-binding protein superfamily, regulates cell morphology, cell motility, and smooth muscle contraction through the actomyosin system. The actomyosin system is also known to be essential for cytoplasmic division of cells (cytokinesis). In this study, we examined the action of rho p21, its inhibitory GDP/GTP exchange protein, named rho GDI, its stimulatory GDP/GTP exchange protein, named smg GDS, and botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase C3, known to selectively ADP-ribosylate rho p21 and to impair its function, in the cytoplasmic division using Xenopus embryos. The sperm-induced cytoplasmic division of Xenopus embryos was not affected by microinjection into the embryos of either smg GDS or the guanosine-5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S)-bound form of rhoA p21, one member of the rho family, but completely inhibited by microinjection of rho GDI or C3. Under these conditions, nuclear division occurred normally but the furrow formation, which was induced by the contractile ring consisting of actomyosin just beneath the plasma membrane, was impaired. Comicroinjection of rho GDI with the GTP gamma S-bound form of rhoA p21 prevented the rho GDI action. Moreover, the sperm-induced cytoplasmic division of Xenopus embryos was inhibited by microinjection into the embryos of the rhoA p21 pre-ADP- ribosylated by C3 which might serve as a dominant negative inhibitor of endogenous rho p21. These results indicate that rho p21 together with its regulatory proteins regulates the cytoplasmic division through the actomyosin system. PMID:8436590

  14. Identification of a novel function for the FtsL cell division protein from Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Dayle K; Al Jubori, Sawsan; Morby, Andrew P

    2011-07-22

    Analysis of the essential cell division protein FtsL demonstrates the partial conservation of a cysteine-pair within the trans-membrane region which itself is flanked by histidine-pairs in the cytosol and periplasm. Similar arrangements of such amino acids are seen in proteins known to transport/bind metal ions in biological systems. Heterologous expression of ftsL in Escherichia coli K12 confers a Zn(II)-sensitive phenotype and alteration of the candidate metal-ion binding residues cysteine or histidine substantially alters this phenotype. Whilst the cysteine/histidine replacement derivatives of ftsL were able to complement an otherwise ftsL-null strain, the derivative carrying ftsL lacking the cysteine pair was sensitive to raised metal-ion concentrations in the media. We show that ftsL can confer a metal-ion sensitive phenotype and that trans-membrane cysteine residues play a role in FtsL function in elevated metal-ion concentrations.

  15. The β-Lactam Resistance Protein Blr, a Small Membrane Polypeptide, Is a Component of the Escherichia coli Cell Division Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Karimova, Gouzel; Davi, Marilyne

    2012-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, cell division is performed by a multimolecular machinery called the divisome, made of 10 essential proteins and more than 20 accessory proteins. Through a bacterial two-hybrid library screen, we identified the E. coli β-lactam resistance protein Blr, a short membrane polypeptide of 41 residues, as an interacting partner of the essential cell division protein FtsL. In addition to FtsL, Blr was found to associate with several other divisomal proteins, including FtsI, FtsK, FtsN, FtsQ, FtsW, and YmgF. Using fluorescently tagged Blr, we showed that this peptide localizes to the division septum and that its colocalization requires the presence of the late division protein FtsN. Although Blr is not essential, previous studies have shown that the inactivation of the blr gene increased the sensitivity of bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics or their resistance to cell envelope stress. Here, we found that Blr, when overproduced, restores the viability of E. coli ftsQ1(Ts) cells, carrying a thermosensitive allele of the ftsQ gene, during growth under low-osmotic-strength conditions (e.g., in synthetic media or in Luria-Bertani broth without NaCl). In contrast, the inactivation of blr increases the osmosensitivity of ftsQ1(Ts) cells, and blr ftsQ1 double mutants exhibit filamentous growth in LB broth even at a moderate salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) compared to parental ftsQ1(Ts) cells. Altogether, our results suggest that the small membrane polypeptide Blr is a novel component of the E. coli cell division apparatus involved in the stabilization of the divisome under certain stress conditions. PMID:22885295

  16. (1) The Relationship of Protein Expression and Cell Division, (2) 3D Imaging of Cells Using Digital Holography, and (3) General Chemistry Enrollment at University of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 1: The role of cell division in protein expression is important to understand in order to guide the development of better nonviral gene delivery materials that can transport DNA to the nucleus with high efficiency for a variety of cell types, particularly when nondividing cells are targets of gene therapy. We evaluated the relationship…

  17. ROP GTPases Act with the Receptor-Like Protein PAN1 to Polarize Asymmetric Cell Division in Maize[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, John A.; Vejlupkova, Zuzana; Luo, Anding; Meeley, Robert B.; Sylvester, Anne W.; Fowler, John E.; Smith, Laurie G.

    2011-01-01

    Plant Rho family GTPases (ROPs) have been investigated primarily for their functions in polarized cell growth. We previously showed that the maize (Zea mays) Leu-rich repeat receptor-like protein PANGLOSS1 (PAN1) promotes the polarization of asymmetric subsidiary mother cell (SMC) divisions during stomatal development. Here, we show that maize Type I ROPs 2 and 9 function together with PAN1 in this process. Partial loss of ROP2/9 function causes a weak SMC division polarity phenotype and strongly enhances this phenotype in pan1 mutants. Like PAN1, ROPs accumulate in an asymmetric manner in SMCs. Overexpression of yellow fluorescent protein-ROP2 is associated with its delocalization in SMCs and with aberrantly oriented SMC divisions. Polarized localization of ROPs depends on PAN1, but PAN1 localization is insensitive to depletion and depolarization of ROP. Membrane-associated Type I ROPs display increased nonionic detergent solubility in pan1 mutants, suggesting a role for PAN1 in membrane partitioning of ROPs. Finally, endogenous PAN1 and ROP proteins are physically associated with each other in maize tissue extracts, as demonstrated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation experiments. This study demonstrates that ROPs play a key role in polarization of plant cell division and cell growth and reveals a role for a receptor-like protein in spatial localization of ROPs. PMID:21653193

  18. (1) The Relationship of Protein Expression and Cell Division, (2) 3D Imaging of Cells Using Digital Holography, and (3) General Chemistry Enrollment at University of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 1: The role of cell division in protein expression is important to understand in order to guide the development of better nonviral gene delivery materials that can transport DNA to the nucleus with high efficiency for a variety of cell types, particularly when nondividing cells are targets of gene therapy. We evaluated the relationship…

  19. Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) localizes to the cytokinetic machinery during cell division

    PubMed Central

    Abadía-Molina, Francisco; Morón-Calvente, Virginia; Baird, Stephen D.; Shamim, Fahad; Martín, Francisco; MacKenzie, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) is a constituent of the inflammasome and a key component of the innate immune system. Here we use immunofluorescence to position NAIP within the cytokinetic apparatus, contiguous to chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), Centralspindlin, PRC1 and KIF4A. During metaphase, NAIP accumulates in the mitotic spindle poles and is shown in spindle microtubules; in anaphase NAIP is detected in the middle of the central spindle. At the end of cytokinesis, NAIP is localized in the outlying region of the stem body, the center of the intercellular bridge formed between daughter cells prior to cellular abscission. We also describe the sustained presence of NAIP mRNA and protein throughout the cell cycle with a significant increase observed in the G2/M phase. Consistent with a role for NAIP in cytokinesis, NAIP overexpression in HeLa cells promotes the acquisition of a multinuclear phenotype. Conversely, NAIP siRNA gene silencing results in an apoptotic lethal phenotype. Our confocal and super resolution stimulated-emission-depletion (STED) examination of mammalian cell cytokinesis demonstrate a potential new role for NAIP in addition to anti-apoptotic and innate immunology functions. PMID:28059125

  20. KHARON Is an Essential Cytoskeletal Protein Involved in the Trafficking of Flagellar Membrane Proteins and Cell Division in African Trypanosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marco A.; Tran, Khoa D.; Valli, Jessica; Hobbs, Sam; Johnson, Errin; Gluenz, Eva; Landfear, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    African trypanosomes and related kinetoplastid parasites selectively traffic specific membrane proteins to the flagellar membrane, but the mechanisms for this trafficking are poorly understood. We show here that KHARON, a protein originally identified in Leishmania parasites, interacts with a putative trypanosome calcium channel and is required for its targeting to the flagellar membrane. KHARON is located at the base of the flagellar axoneme, where it likely mediates targeting of flagellar membrane proteins, but is also on the subpellicular microtubules and the mitotic spindle. Hence, KHARON is probably a multifunctional protein that associates with several components of the trypanosome cytoskeleton. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of KHARON mRNA results in failure of the calcium channel to enter the flagellar membrane, detachment of the flagellum from the cell body, and disruption of mitotic spindles. Furthermore, knockdown of KHARON mRNA induces a lethal failure of cytokinesis in both bloodstream (mammalian host) and procyclic (insect vector) life cycle stages, and KHARON is thus critical for parasite viability. PMID:27489106

  1. Expression of soluble, active fragments of the morphogenetic protein SpoIIE from Bacillus subtilis using a library-based construct screen

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Andrea E.; Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Blagova, Elena; Colledge, Vicki L.; Mas, Philippe J.; Tunaley, James; Vavrova, Ludmila; Wilson, Keith S.; Barak, Imrich; Hart, Darren J.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    SpoIIE is a dual function protein that plays important roles during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. It binds to the tubulin-like protein FtsZ causing the cell division septum to relocate from mid-cell to the cell pole, and it dephosphorylates SpoIIAA phosphate leading to establishment of differential gene expression in the two compartments following the asymmetric septation. Its 872 residue polypeptide contains a multiple-membrane spanning sequence at the N-terminus and a PP2C phosphatase domain at the C-terminus. The central segment that binds to FtsZ is unlike domains of known structure or function, moreover the domain boundaries are poorly defined and this has hampered the expression of soluble fragments of SpoIIE at the levels required for structural studies. Here we have screened over 9000 genetic constructs of spoIIE using a random incremental truncation library approach, ESPRIT, to identify a number of soluble C-terminal fragments of SpoIIE that were aligned with the protein sequence to map putative domains and domain boundaries. The expression and purification of three fragments were optimised, yielding multimilligram quantities of the PP2C phosphatase domain, the putative FtsZ-binding domain and a larger fragment encompassing both these domains. All three fragments are monomeric and the PP2C domain-containing fragments have phosphatase activity. PMID:20817757

  2. Curved FtsZ protofilaments generate bending forces on liposome membranes

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Masaki; Anderson, David E; Erickson, Harold P

    2009-01-01

    We have created FtsZ-YFP-mts where an amphipathic helix on the C-terminus tethers FtsZ to the membrane. When incorporated inside multi-lamellar tubular liposomes, FtsZ-YFP-mts can assemble Z rings that generate a constriction force. When added to the outside of liposomes, FtsZ-YFP-mts bound and produced concave depressions, bending the membrane in the same direction as the Z ring inside liposomes. Prominent membrane tubules were then extruded at the intersections of concave depressions. We tested the effect of moving the membrane-targeting sequence (mts) from the C-terminus to the N-terminus, which is approximately 180 degrees from the C-terminal tether. When mts-FtsZ-YFP was applied to the outside of liposomes, it generated convex bulges, bending the membrane in the direction opposite to the concave depressions. We conclude that FtsZ protofilaments have a fixed direction of curvature, and the direction of membrane bending depends on which side of the bent protofilament the mts is attached to. This supports models in which the FtsZ constriction force is generated by protofilament bending. PMID:19779463

  3. Small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains (SMIFH2) reveals the roles of the formin family of proteins in spindle assembly and asymmetric division in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Cheol; Jo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Namgoong, Suk

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic actin reorganization is the main driving force for spindle migration and asymmetric cell division in mammalian oocytes. It has been reported that various actin nucleators including Formin-2 are involved in the polarization of the spindle and in asymmetric cell division. In mammals, the formin family is comprised of 15 proteins. However, their individual roles in spindle migration and/or asymmetric division have not been elucidated yet. In this study, we employed a newly developed inhibitor for formin family proteins, small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains (SMIFH2), to assess the functions of the formin family in mouse oocyte maturation. Treatment with SMIFH2 during in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes inhibited maturation by decreasing cytoplasmic and cortical actin levels. In addition, treatment with SMIFH2, especially at higher concentrations (500 μM), impaired the proper formation of meiotic spindles, indicating that formins play a role in meiotic spindle formation. Knockdown of the mDia2 formins caused a similar decrease in oocyte maturation and abnormal spindle morphology, mimicking the phenotype of SMIFH2-treated cells. Collectively, these results suggested that besides Formin-2, the other proteins of the formin, including mDia family play a role in asymmetric division and meiotic spindle formation in mammalian oocytes.

  4. A lysine-rich arabinogalactan protein in Arabidopsis is essential for plant growth and development, including cell division and expansion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Sardar, Harjinder S; McGovern, Kathleen R; Zhang, Yizhu; Showalter, Allan M

    2007-02-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), a family of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, occur throughout the plant kingdom. The lysine-rich classical AGP subfamily in Arabidopsis consists of three members, AtAGP17, 18 and 19. In this study, AtAGP19 was examined in terms of its gene expression pattern and function. AtAGP19 mRNA was abundant in stems, with moderate levels in flowers and roots and low levels in leaves. AtAGP19 promoter-controlled GUS activity was high in the vasculature of leaves, roots, stems and flowers, as well as styles and siliques. A null T-DNA knockout mutant of AtAGP19 was obtained and compared to wild-type (WT) plants. The atagp19 mutant had: (i) smaller, rounder and flatter rosette leaves, (ii) lighter-green leaves containing less chlorophyll, (iii) delayed growth, (iv) shorter hypocotyls and inflorescence stems, and (v) fewer siliques and less seed production. Several abnormalities in cell size, number, shape and packing were also observed in the mutant. Complementation of this pleiotropic mutant with the WT AtAGP19 gene restored the WT phenotypes and confirmed that AtAGP19 functions in various aspects of plant growth and development, including cell division and expansion, leaf development and reproduction.

  5. 77 FR 11560 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... inhibition of bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ, an enzyme necessary for the replication of bacteria. FtsZ is responsible for Z-ring assembly in bacteria, which leads to bacterial cell division. Highly conserved among all bacteria, FtsZ is a very attractive antimicrobial target. The chrysophaetin exhibits...

  6. Mecillinam resistance in Escherichia coli is conferred by loss of a second activity of the AroK protein.

    PubMed Central

    Vinella, D; Gagny, B; Joseleau-Petit, D; D'Ari, R; Cashel, M

    1996-01-01

    Mecillinam, a beta-lactam antibiotic specific to penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2) in Escherichia coli, blocks cell wall elongation and, indirectly, cell division, but its lethality can be overcome by increased levels of ppGpp, the nucleotide effector of the stringent response. We have subjected an E. coli K-12 strain to random insertional mutagenesis with a mini-Tn10 element. One insertion, which was found to confer resistance to mecillinam in relA+ and relA strains, was mapped at 75.5 min on the E. coli map and was located between the promoters and the coding sequence of the aroK gene, which codes for shikimate kinase 1, one of two E. coli shikimate kinases, both of which are involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. The mecillinam resistance conferred by the insertion was abolished in a delta relA delta spoT strain completely lacking ppGpp, and it thus depends on the presence of ppGpp. Furthermore, the insertion increased the ppGpp pool approximately twofold in a relA+ strain. However, this increase was not observed in relA strains, although the insertion still conferred mecillinam resistance in these backgrounds, showing that mecillinam resistance is not due to an increased ppGpp pool. The resistance was also abolished in an ftsZ84(Ts) strain under semipermissive conditions, and the aroK::mini-Tn10 allele partially suppressed ftsZ84(Ts); however, it did not increase the concentration of the FtsZ cell division protein. The insertion greatly decreased or abolished the shikimate kinase activity of AroK in vivo and in vitro. The two shikimate kinases of E. coli are not equivalent; the loss of AroK confers mecillinam resistance, whereas the loss of Arol, does not. Furthermore, the ability of the aroK mutation to confer mecillinam resistance is shown to be independent of polar effects on operon expression and of effects on the availability of aromatic amino acids or shikimic acid. Instead, we conclude that the AroK protein has a second activity, possibly

  7. Functional Analysis of the Cytoskeleton Protein MreB from Chlamydophila pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Gaballah, Ahmed; Kloeckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2011-01-01

    In rod-shaped bacteria, the bacterial actin ortholog MreB is considered to organize the incorporation of cell wall precursors into the side-wall, whereas the tubulin homologue FtsZ is known to tether incorporation of cell wall building blocks at the developing septum. For intracellular bacteria, there is no need to compensate osmotic pressure by means of a cell wall, and peptidoglycan has not been reliably detected in Chlamydiaceae. Surprisingly, a nearly complete pathway for the biosynthesis of the cell wall building block lipid II has been found in the genomes of Chlamydiaceae. In a previous study, we discussed the hypothesis that conservation of lipid II biosynthesis in cell wall-lacking bacteria may reflect the intimate molecular linkage of cell wall biosynthesis and cell division and thus an essential role of the precursor in cell division. Here, we investigate why spherical-shaped chlamydiae harbor MreB which is almost exclusively found in elongated bacteria (i.e. rods, vibrios, spirilla) whereas they lack the otherwise essential division protein FtsZ. We demonstrate that chlamydial MreB polymerizes in vitro and that polymerization is not inhibited by the blocking agent A22. As observed for MreB from Bacillus subtilis, chlamydial MreB does not require ATP for polymerization but is capable of ATP hydrolysis in phosphate release assays. Co-pelleting and bacterial two-hybrid experiments indicate that MreB from Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae interacts with MurF, MraY and MurG, three key components in lipid II biosynthesis. In addition, MreB polymerization is improved in the presence of MurF. Our findings suggest that MreB is involved in tethering biosynthesis of lipid II and as such may be necessary for maintaining a functional divisome machinery in Chlamydiaceae. PMID:22022378

  8. Site-directed Fluorescence Labeling Reveals a Revised N-terminal Membrane Topology and Functional Periplasmic Residues in the Escherichia coli Cell Division Protein FtsK*

    PubMed Central

    Berezuk, Alison M.; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M.

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process. PMID:25002583

  9. Site-directed fluorescence labeling reveals a revised N-terminal membrane topology and functional periplasmic residues in the Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsK.

    PubMed

    Berezuk, Alison M; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M

    2014-08-22

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process.

  10. Loss of PodJ in Agrobacterium tumefaciens Leads to Ectopic Polar Growth, Branching, and Reduced Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Furgeson, James C.; Zupan, John R.; Grangeon, Romain

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that elongates by unipolar addition of new cell envelope material. Approaching cell division, the growth pole transitions to a nongrowing old pole, and the division site creates new growth poles in sibling cells. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organizing protein PopZ localizes specifically to growth poles. In contrast, the A. tumefaciens homolog of the C. crescentus polar organelle development protein PodJ localizes to the old pole early in the cell cycle and accumulates at the growth pole as the cell cycle proceeds. FtsA and FtsZ also localize to the growth pole for most of the cell cycle prior to Z-ring formation. To further characterize the function of polar localizing proteins, we created a deletion of A. tumefaciens podJ (podJAt). ΔpodJAt cells display ectopic growth poles (branching), growth poles that fail to transition to an old pole, and elongated cells that fail to divide. In ΔpodJAt cells, A. tumefaciens PopZ-green fluorescent protein (PopZAt-GFP) persists at nontransitioning growth poles postdivision and also localizes to ectopic growth poles, as expected for a growth-pole-specific factor. Even though GFP-PodJAt does not localize to the midcell in the wild type, deletion of podJAt impacts localization, stability, and function of Z-rings as assayed by localization of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP. Z-ring defects are further evidenced by minicell production. Together, these data indicate that PodJAt is a critical factor for polar growth and that ΔpodJAt cells display a cell division phenotype, likely because the growth pole cannot transition to an old pole. IMPORTANCE How rod-shaped prokaryotes develop and maintain shape is complicated by the fact that at least two distinct species-specific growth modes exist: uniform sidewall insertion of cell envelope material, characterized in model organisms such as Escherichia coli, and unipolar growth, which occurs

  11. Localized dimerization and nucleoid binding drive gradient formation by the bacterial cell division inhibitor MipZ.

    PubMed

    Kiekebusch, Daniela; Michie, Katharine A; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Löwe, Jan; Thanbichler, Martin

    2012-05-11

    Protein gradients play a central role in the spatial organization of cells, but the mechanisms of their formation are incompletely understood. This study analyzes the determinants responsible for establishing bipolar gradients of the ATPase MipZ, a key regulator of division site placement in Caulobacter crescentus. We have solved the crystal structure of MipZ in different nucleotide states, dissected its ATPase cycle, and investigated its interaction with FtsZ, ParB, and the nucleoid. Our results suggest that the polar ParB complexes locally stimulate the formation of ATP-bound MipZ dimers, which are then retained near the cell poles through association with chromosomal DNA. Due to their intrinsic ATPase activity, dimers eventually dissociate into freely diffusible monomers that undergo spontaneous nucleotide exchange and are recaptured by ParB. These findings clarify the molecular function of a conserved gradient-forming system and reveal mechanistic principles that might be commonly used to sustain protein gradients within cells.

  12. Dephosphorylation of F-BAR protein Cdc15 modulates its conformation and stimulates its scaffolding activity at the cell division site

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Chen, Jun-Song; McLeod, Ian; McDonald, W. Hayes; Gygi, Steven P.; Yates, John R.; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe requires the function of Cdc15, founding member of the pombe cdc15 homology (PCH) family of proteins. As an early, abundant contractile ring component with multiple binding partners, Cdc15 plays a key role in organizing the ring. We demonstrate that Cdc15 phosphorylation at many sites generates a closed conformation, inhibits Cdc15 assembly at the division site in interphase, and precludes interaction of Cdc15 with its binding partners. Cdc15 dephosphorylation induces an open conformation, oligomerization, and scaffolding activity during mitosis. Cdc15 mutants with reduced phosphorylation precociously appear at the division site in filament-like structures and display increased association with protein partners and the membrane. Our results indicate that Cdc15 phosphoregulation impels both assembly and disassembly of the contractile apparatus and suggest a regulatory strategy that PCH family and BAR superfamily members might broadly employ to achieve temporal specificity in their roles as linkers between membrane and cytoskeleton. PMID:20603077

  13. Molecular cloning of the gene for the human placental GTP-binding protein Gp (G25K): identification of this GTP-binding protein as the human homolog of the yeast cell-division-cycle protein CDC42.

    PubMed Central

    Shinjo, K; Koland, J G; Hart, M J; Narasimhan, V; Johnson, D I; Evans, T; Cerione, R A

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones from a human placental library that code for a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein originally designated Gp (also called G25K). This identification is based on comparisons with the available peptide sequences for the purified human Gp protein and the use of two highly specific anti-peptide antibodies. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein is very similar to those of various members of the ras superfamily of low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins, including the N-, Ki-, and Ha-ras proteins (30-35% identical), the rho proteins (approximately 50% identical), and the rac proteins (approximately 70% identical). The highest degree of sequence identity (80%) is found with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell-division-cycle protein CDC42. The human placental gene, which we designate CDC42Hs, complements the cdc42-1 mutation in S. cerevisiae, which suggests that this GTP-binding protein is the human homolog of the yeast protein. Images PMID:2124704

  14. Molecular cloning of the gene for the human placental GTP-binding protein Gp (G25K): identification of this GTP-binding protein as the human homolog of the yeast cell-division-cycle protein CDC42.

    PubMed

    Shinjo, K; Koland, J G; Hart, M J; Narasimhan, V; Johnson, D I; Evans, T; Cerione, R A

    1990-12-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones from a human placental library that code for a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein originally designated Gp (also called G25K). This identification is based on comparisons with the available peptide sequences for the purified human Gp protein and the use of two highly specific anti-peptide antibodies. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein is very similar to those of various members of the ras superfamily of low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins, including the N-, Ki-, and Ha-ras proteins (30-35% identical), the rho proteins (approximately 50% identical), and the rac proteins (approximately 70% identical). The highest degree of sequence identity (80%) is found with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell-division-cycle protein CDC42. The human placental gene, which we designate CDC42Hs, complements the cdc42-1 mutation in S. cerevisiae, which suggests that this GTP-binding protein is the human homolog of the yeast protein.

  15. Molecular cloning of the gene for the human placental GTP-binding protein G sub p (G25K): Identification of this GTP-binding protein as the human homolog of the yeast cell-division-cycle protein CDC42

    SciTech Connect

    Shinjo, K.; Koland, J.G.; Hart, M.J.; Narasimhan, V.; Cerione, R.A. ); Johnson, D.I. ); Evans, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The authors have isolated cDNA clones from a human placental library that code for a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein originally designated G{sub p} (also called G25K). This identification is based on comparisons with the available peptide sequences for the purified human G{sub p} protein and the use of two highly specific anti-peptide antibodies. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein is very similar to those of various members of the ras superfamily of low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins, including the N-, Ki-, and Ha-ras proteins (30-35% identical), the rho proteins and the rac proteins. The highest degree of sequence identity (80%) is found with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell division-cycle protein CDC42. The human placental gene, which they designate CDC42Hs, complements the cdc42-1 mutation in S. cerevisiae, which suggests that this GTP-binding protein is the human homolog of the yeast protein.

  16. FtsZ Filament Dynamics at Steady State: Subunit Exchange with and without Nucleotide Hydrolysis†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaodong; Erickson, Harold P.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured three aspects of FtsZ filament dynamics at steady state: rates of GTP hydrolysis, subunit exchange between protofilaments, and disassembly induced by dilution or excess GDP. All three reactions were slowed with an increase in the potassium concentration from 100 to 500 mM, via replacement of potassium with rubidium, or with an increase in the magnesium concentration from 5 to 20 mM. Electron microscopy showed that the polymers assembled under the conditions of fastest assembly were predominantly short, one-stranded protofilaments, whereas under conditions of slower dynamics, the protofilaments tended to associate into long, thin bundles. We suggest that exchange of subunits between protofilaments at steady state involves two separate mechanisms: (1) fragmentation or dissociation of subunits from protofilament ends following GTP hydrolysis and (2) reversible association and dissociation of subunits from protofilament ends independent of hydrolysis. Exchange of nucleotides on these recycling subunits could give the appearance of exchange directly into the polymer. Several of our observations suggest that exchange of nucleotide can take place on these recycling subunits, but not directly into the FtsZ polymer. Annealing of protofilaments was demonstrated for the L68W mutant in EDTA buffer but not in Mg buffer, where rapid cycling of subunits may obscure the effect of annealing. We also reinvestigated the nucleotide composition of FtsZ polymers at steady state. We found that the GDP:GTP ratio was 50:50 for concentrations of GTP > 100 μM, significantly higher than the 20:80 ratio previously reported at 20 μM GTP. PMID:19527070

  17. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis targets cell division loci and specifically recognizes L-Ala2-cross-bridged peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jun; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced from clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and consists of two extracellular proteins, BacL1 and BacA. We previously reported that BacL1 protein (595 amino acids, 64.5 kDa) is a bacteriolytic peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase that induces cell lysis of E. faecalis when an accessory factor, BacA, is copresent. However, the target of BacL1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the targeting specificity of BacL1. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using fluorescent dye-conjugated recombinant protein demonstrated that BacL1 specifically localized at the cell division-associated site, including the equatorial ring, division septum, and nascent cell wall, on the cell surface of target E. faecalis cells. This specific targeting was dependent on the triple repeat of the SH3 domain located in the region from amino acid 329 to 590 of BacL1. Repression of cell growth due to the stationary state of the growth phase or to treatment with bacteriostatic antibiotics rescued bacteria from the bacteriolytic activity of BacL1 and BacA. The static growth state also abolished the binding and targeting of BacL1 to the cell division-associated site. Furthermore, the targeting of BacL1 was detectable among Gram-positive bacteria with an L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridging peptidoglycan, including E. faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, but not among bacteria with alternate peptidoglycan structures, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that BacL1 specifically targets the L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridged peptidoglycan and potentially lyses the E. faecalis cells during cell division.

  18. Characterisation of mutant alleles of the cell division protein FtsA, a regulator and structural component of the Escherichia coli septator.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M; Dopazo, A; Pla, J; Robinson, A C; Vicente, M

    1994-01-01

    Two alleles of ftsA, a gene that encodes an essential cell division protein in Escherichia coli, have-been mapped at the nucleotide level. The mutations are located inside domains that are conserved in an ATP-binding protein family. The ftsA2 mutation lies in the adenine-binding domain, and the ftsA3 in the ribose-binding domain. The defect in ampicillin binding to PBP3 described for allele ftsA3 is allele-specific. This supports the hypothesis of the existence of different domains in FtsA having different functions.

  19. Evidence for polar positional information independent of cell division and nucleoid occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Janakiraman, Anuradha; Goldberg, Marcia B.

    2004-01-01

    We present evidence that, in Escherichia coli, polar positional information is present at midcell independent of known cell division factors. In filamented cells, IcsA, which is normally polar, localizes at or near potential cell division sites. Because the cell pole is derived from the septum, the sites to which IcsA localizes in filaments correspond to future poles. IcsA localization to these sites is independent of FtsZ, MinCDE, septation, and nucleoid occlusion, indicating that positional information for the future pole is independent of cell division and chromosome positioning. Upon IcsA localization to these sites, septation is inhibited, suggesting that IcsA recognition of this polar positional information may influence cell division. PMID:14715903

  20. The DYRK-family kinase Pom1 phosphorylates the F-BAR protein Cdc15 to prevent division at cell poles

    PubMed Central

    Ullal, Pranav; McDonald, Nathan A.; Chen, Jun-Song; Lo Presti, Libera; Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H.; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Division site positioning is critical for both symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. In many organisms, positive and negative signals cooperate to position the contractile actin ring for cytokinesis. In rod-shaped fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells, division at midcell is achieved through positive Mid1/anillin-dependent signaling emanating from the central nucleus and negative signals from the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase family kinase Pom1 at the cell poles. In this study, we show that Pom1 directly phosphorylates the F-BAR protein Cdc15, a central component of the cytokinetic ring. Pom1-dependent phosphorylation blocks Cdc15 binding to paxillin Pxl1 and C2 domain protein Fic1 and enhances Cdc15 dynamics. This promotes ring sliding from cell poles, which prevents septum assembly at the ends of cells with a displaced nucleus or lacking Mid1. Pom1 also slows down ring constriction. These results indicate that a strong negative signal from the Pom1 kinase at cell poles converts Cdc15 to its closed state, destabilizes the actomyosin ring, and thus promotes medial septation. PMID:26553932

  1. Differential Regulation of ftsZ Transcription during Septation of Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jangyul; Dharmatilake, Amitha J.; Jiang, Hao; Kendrick, Kathleen E.

    2001-01-01

    Streptomyces has been known to form two types of septa. The data in this research demonstrated that Streptomyces griseus forms another type of septum near the base of sporogenic hyphae (basal septum). To understand the regulation of the septation machinery in S. griseus, we investigated the expression of the ftsZ gene. S1 nuclease protection assays revealed that four ftsZ transcripts were differentially expressed during morphological differentiation. The vegetative transcript (emanating from Pveg) is present at a moderate level during vegetative growth, but is switched off within the first 2 h of sporulation. Two sporulation-specific transcripts predominantly accumulated, and the levels increased by approximately fivefold together shortly before sporulation septa begin to form. Consistently, the sporulation-specific transcripts were expressed much earlier and more abundantly in a group of nonsporulating mutants that form their sporulation septa prematurely. Promoter-probe studies with two different reporter systems confirmed the activities of the putative promoters identified from the 5′ end point of the transcripts. The levels and expression timing of promoter activities were consistent with the results of nuclease protection assays. The aseptate phenotype of the Pspo mutant indicated that the increased transcription from Pspo is required for sporulation septation, but not for vegetative or basal septum formation. PMID:11489862

  2. Effects of Polyhydroxybutyrate Production on Cell Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kathleen; Rahman, Asif; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biological engineering can be utilized to aide the advancement of improved long-term space flight. The potential to use synthetic biology as a platform to biomanufacture desired equipment on demand using the three dimensional (3D) printer on the International Space Station (ISS) gives long-term NASA missions the flexibility to produce materials as needed on site. Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are biodegradable, have properties similar to plastics, and can be produced in Escherichia coli using genetic engineering. Using PHBs during space flight could assist mission success by providing a valuable source of biomaterials that can have many potential applications, particularly through 3D printing. It is well documented that during PHB production E. coli cells can become significantly elongated. The elongation of cells reduces the ability of the cells to divide and thus to produce PHB. I aim to better understand cell division during PHB production, through the design, building, and testing of synthetic biological circuits, and identify how to potentially increase yields of PHB with FtsZ overexpression, the gene responsible for cell division. Ultimately, an increase in the yield will allow more products to be created using the 3D printer on the ISS and beyond, thus aiding astronauts in their missions.

  3. Asymmetric Segregation of the Double-Stranded RNA Binding Protein Staufen2 during Mammalian Neural Stem Cell Divisions Promotes Lineage Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kusek, Gretchen; Campbell, Melissa; Doyle, Frank; Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Kiebler, Michael; Temple, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric cell divisions are a fundamental feature of neural development, and misregulation can lead to brain abnormalities or tumor formation. During an asymmetric cell division, molecular determinants are segregated preferentially into one daughter cell to specify its fate. An important goal is to identify the asymmetric determinants in neural progenitor cells, which could be tumor suppressors or inducers of specific neural fates. Here we show that the double-stranded RNA-binding protein Stau2 is distributed asymmetrically during progenitor divisions in the developing mouse cortex, preferentially segregating into the Tbr2+ neuroblast daughter, taking with it a sub-set of RNAs. Knockdown of Stau2 stimulates differentiation and over-expression produces periventricular neuronal masses, demonstrating its functional importance for normal cortical development. We immunoprecipitated Stau2 to examine its cargo mRNAs, and found enrichment for known asymmetric and basal cell determinants, such as Trim32, and identified novel candidates, including a subset involved in primary cilium function. PMID:22902295

  4. SOCE proteins, STIM1 and Orai1, are localized to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis of the first and second cell division cycles in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ching Man; Aw, Jacqueline T M; Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2016-12-01

    In zebrafish embryos, distinct Ca2+ transients are localized to the early cleavage furrows during the first few cell division cycles. These transients are generated mainly by release via IP3Rs in the endoplasmic reticulum, and they are necessary for furrow positioning, propagation, deepening and apposition. We previously showed, via the use of inhibitors, that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) also appears to be essential for maintaining the IP3R-mediated elevated levels of [Ca2+]i for the extended periods required for the completion of successful furrow deepening and daughter cell apposition in these large embryonic cells. Here, newly fertilized, dechorionated embryos were fixed at various times during the first and second cell division cycles and immunolabelled with antibodies to STIM1 and/or Orai1 (key components of SOCE). We show that both of these proteins have a dynamic pattern of localization during cytokinesis of the first two cell division cycles. These new data help to support our previous inhibitor results, and provide additional evidence that SOCE contributes to the maintenance of the sustained elevated Ca2+ that is required for the successful completion of cytokinesis in the large cells of embryonic zebrafish.

  5. A plant U-box protein, PUB4, regulates asymmetric cell division and cell proliferation in the root meristem.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Atsuko; ten Hove, Colette A; Tabata, Ryo; Yamada, Masashi; Shimizu, Noriko; Ishida, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Iuchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Kurata, Tetsuya; Wada, Takuji; Seo, Mitsunori; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Blilou, Ikram; Fukuda, Hiroo; Scheres, Ben; Heidstra, Renze; Kamiya, Yuji; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2015-02-01

    The root meristem (RM) is a fundamental structure that is responsible for postembryonic root growth. The RM contains the quiescent center (QC), stem cells and frequently dividing meristematic cells, in which the timing and the frequency of cell division are tightly regulated. In Arabidopsis thaliana, several gain-of-function analyses have demonstrated that peptide ligands of the Clavata3 (CLV3)/embryo surrounding region-related (CLE) family are important for maintaining RM size. Here, we demonstrate that a plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase, PUB4, is a novel downstream component of CLV3/CLE signaling in the RM. Mutations in PUB4 reduced the inhibitory effect of exogenous CLV3/CLE peptide on root cell proliferation and columella stem cell maintenance. Moreover, pub4 mutants grown without exogenous CLV3/CLE peptide exhibited characteristic phenotypes in the RM, such as enhanced root growth, increased number of cortex/endodermis stem cells and decreased number of columella layers. Our phenotypic and gene expression analyses indicated that PUB4 promotes expression of a cell cycle regulatory gene, CYCD6;1, and regulates formative periclinal asymmetric cell divisions in endodermis and cortex/endodermis initial daughters. These data suggest that PUB4 functions as a global regulator of cell proliferation and the timing of asymmetric cell division that are important for final root architecture.

  6. The Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 7 is involved in early steps of parasite division and is crucial for parasite survival.

    PubMed

    Morlon-Guyot, Juliette; Berry, Laurence; Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Lebrun, Maryse; Daher, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites express various calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), and some of them play essential roles in invasion and egress. Five of the six CDPKs conserved in most Apicomplexa have been studied at the molecular and cellular levels in Plasmodium species and/or in Toxoplasma gondii parasites, but the function of CDPK7 was so far uncharacterized. In T. gondii, during intracellular replication, two parasites are formed within a mother cell through a unique process called endodyogeny. Here we demonstrate that the knock-down of CDPK7 protein in T. gondii results in pronounced defects in parasite division and a major growth deficiency, while it is dispensable for motility, egress and microneme exocytosis. In cdpk7-depleted parasites, the overall DNA content was not impaired, but the polarity of daughter cells budding and the fate of several subcellular structures or proteins involved in cell division were affected, such as the centrosomes and the kinetochore. Overall, our data suggest that CDPK7 is crucial for proper maintenance of centrosome integrity required for the initiation of endodyogeny. Our findings provide a first insight into the probable role of calcium-dependent signalling in parasite multiplication, in addition to its more widely explored role in invasion and egress.

  7. The Toxoplasma gondii Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 7 is involved in early steps of parasite division and is crucial for parasite survival

    PubMed Central

    Morlon-Guyot, Juliette; Berry, Laurence; Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Lebrun, Maryse; Daher, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites express various Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs), and some of them play essential roles in invasion and egress. Five of the six CDPKs conserved in most Apicomplexa have been studied at the molecular and cellular levels in Plasmodium species and/or in Toxoplasma gondii parasites, but the function of CDPK7 was so far uncharacterized. In T. gondii, during intracellular replication, two parasites are formed within a mother cell through a unique process called endodyogeny. Here we demonstrate that the knock-down of CDPK7 protein in T. gondii results in pronounced defects in parasite division and a major growth deficiency, while it is dispensable for motility, egress and microneme exocytosis. In cdpk7-depleted parasites, the overall DNA content was not impaired, but the polarity of daughter cells budding and the fate of several sub-cellular structures or proteins involved in cell division were affected, such as the centrosomes and the kinetochore. Overall, our data suggest that CDPK7 is crucial for proper maintenance of centrosome integrity required for the initiation of endodyogeny. Our findings provide a first insight into the probable role of calcium-dependent signalling in parasite multiplication, in addition to its more widely explored role in invasion and egress. PMID:24011186

  8. Novel filaments 5 nm in diameter constitute the cytosolic ring of the plastid division apparatus.

    PubMed

    Miyagishima, S; Takahara, M; Kuroiwa, T

    2001-03-01

    The plastid division apparatus (called the plastid-dividing ring) has been detected in several plant and algal species at the constricted region of plastids by transmission electron microscopy. The apparatus is composed of two or three rings: an outer ring in the cytosol, an inner ring in the stroma, and a middle ring in the intermembrane space. The components of these rings are not clear. FtsZ, which forms the bacterial cytokinetic ring, has been proposed as a component of both the inner and outer rings. Here, we present the ultrastructure of the outer ring at high resolution. To visualize the outer ring by negative staining, we isolated dividing chloroplasts from a synchronized culture of a red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, and lysed them with nonionic detergent Nonidet P-40. Nonidet P-40 extracted primarily stroma, thylakoids, and the inner and middle rings, leaving the envelope and outer ring largely intact. Negative staining revealed that the outer ring consists of a bundle of 5-nm filaments in which globular proteins are spaced 4.8 nm apart. Immunoblotting using an FtsZ-specific antibody failed to show immunoreactivity in the fraction containing the filament. Moreover, the filament structure and properties are unlike those of known cytoskeletal filaments. The bundle of filaments forms a very rigid structure and does not disassemble in 2 M urea. We also identified a dividing phase-specific 56-kD protein of chloroplasts as a candidate component of the ring. Our results suggest that the main architecture of the outer ring did not descend from cyanobacteria during the course of endosymbiosis but was added by the host cell early in plant evolution.

  9. A Kinesin-Related Protein, Krp180, Positions Prometaphase Spindle Poles during Early Sea Urchin Embryonic Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Gregory C.; Chui, Kitty K.; Lee, Edwin W.; Wedaman, Karen P.; Sharp, David J.; Holland, Gina; Morris, Robert L.; Scholey, Jonathan M.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the intracellular roles of an Xklp2-related kinesin motor, KRP180, in positioning spindle poles during early sea urchin embryonic cell division using quantitative, real-time analysis. Immunolocalization reveals that KRP180 concentrates on microtubules in the central spindle, but is absent from centrosomes. Microinjection of inhibitory antibodies and dominant negative constructs suggest that KRP180 is not required for the initial separation of spindle poles, but instead functions to transiently position spindle poles specifically during prometaphase. PMID:10931863

  10. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of isatin derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zhi-Min; Sun, Juan; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Seven isatin derivatives have been designed, and their chemical structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, 1H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Structural stabilization followed by intramolecular as well as intermolecular H-bonds makes these molecules as perfect examples in molecular recognition with self-complementary donor and acceptor units within a single molecule. These compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities. Docking simulations have been performed to position compounds into the FtsZ active site to determine their probable binding models. All of the compounds exhibited better antibacterial activities. Interestingly, compound 5c and 5d exhibited better antibacterial activities with IC50 values of 0.03 and 0.05 μmol/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Compound 5g displays antibacterial activity with IC50 values of 0.672 and 0.830 μmol/mL against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively.

  11. Protein translation during early cell divisions of sea urchin embryos regulated at the level of polypeptide chain elongation and highly sensitive to natural polyamines.

    PubMed

    Monnier, A; Morales, J; Cormier, P; Boulben, S; Bellé, R; Mulner-Lorillon, O

    2001-08-01

    Protein synthesis was analysed following fertilisation in sea urchin. Fluctuations in the accumulation of neo-synthesised proteins were observed during the first cell cycles. Accurate translation analyses were performed from lysates prepared from early embryos. The lysates readily translated endogenous pre-initiated mRNAs allowing the determination of elongation rates in the absence of re-initiation in vitro. The translation capacity of embryo lysates increased 18-fold from 0 to 90 min after fertilisation, reflecting the increase in the amount of pre-initiated mRNAs during early development. Kinetics analysis at a short time interval during the course of early development (240 min) showed an overall increase in the elongation rate (> 10-fold) which is regulated by pauses in synchrony with the cell divisions. Elongation activity in the lysates was highly sensitive to the natural polyamines, spermine (ID50 = 0.2 mM) and spermidine (ID50 = 1.8 mM), indicating high potential regulation by the intracellular level of polyamines in embryos. The regulation in the elongation changes associated with the early embryo cell divisions is discussed in the light of the physiological fluctuations in polyamine concentrations.

  12. The Natural Variation in Lifespans of Single Yeast Cells Is Related to Variation in Cell Size, Ribosomal Protein, and Division Time.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Georges E; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M

    2016-01-01

    There is a large variability in lifespans of individuals even if they are genetically identical and raised under the same environmental conditions. Our recent system wide study of replicative aging in baker's yeast predicts that protein biogenesis is a driver of aging. Here, we address how the natural variation in replicative lifespan within wild-type populations of yeast cells correlates to three biogenesis-related parameters, namely cell size, ribosomal protein Rpl13A-GFP levels, and division times. Imaging wild type yeast cells in microfluidic devices we observe that in all cells and at all ages, the division times as well as the increase in cell size that single yeast undergo while aging negatively correlate to their lifespan. In the longer-lived cells Rpl13A-GFP levels also negatively correlate to lifespan. Interestingly however, at young ages in the population, ribosome concentration was lowest in the cells that increased the most in size and had shorter lifespans. The correlations between these molecular and cellular properties related to biogenesis and lifespan explain a small portion of the variation in lifespans of individual cells, consistent with the highly individual and multifactorial nature of aging.

  13. An essential cell division gene of Drosophila, absent from Saccharomyces, encodes an unusual protein with tubulin-like and myosin-like peptide motifs.

    PubMed

    Miklos, G L; Yamamoto, M; Burns, R G; Maleszka, R

    1997-05-13

    Null mutations at the misato locus of Drosophila melanogaster are associated with irregular chromosomal segregation at cell division. The consequences for morphogenesis are that mutant larvae are almost devoid of imaginal disk tissue, have a reduction in brain size, and die before the late third-instar larval stage. To analyze these findings, we isolated cDNAs in and around the misato locus, mapped the breakpoints of chromosomal deficiencies, determined which transcript corresponded to the misato gene, rescued the cell division defects in transgenic organisms, and sequenced the genomic DNA. Database searches revealed that misato codes for a novel protein, the N-terminal half of which contains a mixture of peptide motifs found in alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tubulins, as well as a motif related to part of the myosin heavy chain proteins. The sequence characteristics of misato indicate either that it arose from an ancestral tubulin-like gene, different parts of which underwent convergent evolution to resemble motifs in the conventional tubulins, or that it arose by the capture of motifs from different tubulin genes. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome lacks a true homolog of the misato gene, and this finding highlights the emerging problem of assigning functional attributes to orphan genes that occur only in some evolutionary lineages.

  14. The Natural Variation in Lifespans of Single Yeast Cells Is Related to Variation in Cell Size, Ribosomal Protein, and Division Time

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Georges E.

    2016-01-01

    There is a large variability in lifespans of individuals even if they are genetically identical and raised under the same environmental conditions. Our recent system wide study of replicative aging in baker’s yeast predicts that protein biogenesis is a driver of aging. Here, we address how the natural variation in replicative lifespan within wild-type populations of yeast cells correlates to three biogenesis-related parameters, namely cell size, ribosomal protein Rpl13A-GFP levels, and division times. Imaging wild type yeast cells in microfluidic devices we observe that in all cells and at all ages, the division times as well as the increase in cell size that single yeast undergo while aging negatively correlate to their lifespan. In the longer-lived cells Rpl13A-GFP levels also negatively correlate to lifespan. Interestingly however, at young ages in the population, ribosome concentration was lowest in the cells that increased the most in size and had shorter lifespans. The correlations between these molecular and cellular properties related to biogenesis and lifespan explain a small portion of the variation in lifespans of individual cells, consistent with the highly individual and multifactorial nature of aging. PMID:27907085

  15. The cyanobacterial cell division factor Ftn6 contains an N-terminal DnaD-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Marbouty, Martial; Saguez, Cyril; Chauvat, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Background DNA replication and cell cycle as well as their relationship have been extensively studied in the two model organisms E. coli and B. subtilis. By contrast, little is known about these processes in cyanobacteria, even though they are crucial to the biosphere, in utilizing solar energy to renew the oxygenic atmosphere and in producing the biomass for the food chain. Recent studies have allowed the identification of several cell division factors that are specifics to cyanobacteria. Among them, Ftn6 has been proposed to function in the recruitment of the crucial FtsZ proteins to the septum or the subsequent Z-ring assembly and possibly in chromosome segregation. Results In this study, we identified an as yet undescribed domain located in the conserved N-terminal region of Ftn6. This 77 amino-acids-long domain, designated here as FND (Ftn6 N-Terminal Domain), exhibits striking sequence and structural similarities with the DNA-interacting module, listed in the PFAM database as the DnaD-like domain (pfam04271). We took advantage of the sequence similarities between FND and the DnaD-like domains to construct a homology 3D-model of the Ftn6 FND domain from the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. Mapping of the conserved residues exposed onto the FND surface allowed us to identify a highly conserved area that could be engaged in Ftn6-specific interactions. Conclusion Overall, similarities between FND and DnaD-like domains as well as previously reported observations on Ftn6 suggest that FND may function as a DNA-interacting module thereby providing an as yet missing link between DNA replication and cell division in cyanobacteria. Consistently, we also showed that Ftn6 is involved in tolerance to DNA damages generated by UV rays. PMID:19698108

  16. Involvement of YODA and mitogen activated protein kinase 6 in Arabidopsis post-embryogenic root development through auxin up-regulation and cell division plane orientation

    PubMed Central

    Smékalová, Veronika; Luptovčiak, Ivan; Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Doskočilová, Anna; Takáč, Tomáš; Vadovič, Pavol; Novák, Ondřej; Pechan, Tibor; Ziemann, Anja; Košútová, Petra; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Summary The role of YODA MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASE KINASE 4 (MAPKKK4) upstream of MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 6 (MPK6) was studied during post-embryonic root development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss- and gain-of-function mutants of YODA (yda1 and ΔNyda1) were characterized in terms of root patterning, endogenous auxin content and global proteomes.We surveyed morphological and cellular phenotypes of yda1 and ΔNyda1 mutants suggesting possible involvement of auxin. Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were up-regulated in both mutants. Proteomic analysis revealed up-regulation of auxin biosynthetic enzymes tryptophan synthase and nitrilases in these mutants. The expression, abundance and phosphorylation of MPK3, MPK6 and MICROTUBULE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 65–1 (MAP65-1) were characterized by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses and interactions between MAP65-1, microtubules and MPK6 were resolved by quantitative co-localization studies and co-immunoprecipitations.yda1 and ΔNyda1 mutants showed disoriented cell divisions in primary and lateral roots, abortive cytokinesis, and differential subcellular localization of MPK6 and MAP65-1. They also showed deregulated expression of TANGLED1 (TAN1), PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN 1 (POK1), and GAMMA TUBULIN COMPLEX PROTEIN 4 (GCP4).The findings that MPK6 localized to preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplasts while the mpk6-4 mutant transformed with MPK6AEF (alanine (A)–glutamic acid (E)–phenylanine (F)) showed a root phenotype similar to that of yda1 demonstrated that MPK6 is an important player downstream of YODA. These data indicate that YODA and MPK6 are involved in post-embryonic root development through an auxin-dependent mechanism regulating cell division and mitotic microtubule (PPB and phragmoplast) organization. PMID:24923680

  17. Repeated triggering of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis selects against a protein that affects the timing of cell division.

    PubMed

    Siebring, Jeroen; Elema, Matthijs J H; Drubi Vega, Fátima; Kovács, Akos T; Haccou, Patsy; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis sporulation is a last-resort phenotypical adaptation in response to starvation. The regulatory network underlying this developmental pathway has been studied extensively. However, how sporulation initiation is concerted in relation to the environmental nutrient availability is poorly understood. In a fed-batch fermentation set-up, in which sporulation of ultraviolet (UV)-mutagenized B. subtilis is repeatedly triggered by periods of starvation, fitter strains with mutated tagE evolved. These mutants display altered timing of phenotypical differentiation. The substrate for the wall teichoic acid (WTA)-modifying enzyme TagE, UDP-glucose, has recently been shown to be an intracellular proxy for nutrient availability, and influences the timing of cell division. Here we suggest that UDP-glucose also influences timing of cellular differentiation.

  18. Alfalfa Mob1-like proteins are involved in cell proliferation and are localized in the cell division plane during cytokinesis

    SciTech Connect

    Citterio, Sandra; Piatti, Simonetta; Albertini, Emidio; Aina, Roberta; Varotto, Serena; Barcaccia, Gianni . E-mail: gianni.barcaccia@unipd.it

    2006-04-15

    Mps-one-binder (Mob) proteins play a crucial role in yeast cytokinesis. After cloning two Mob1-like genes, MsMob1-A and MsMob1-B from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) we show that, although they are constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and pods, their transcripts and proteins are mostly produced in actively proliferating tissues. A polyclonal antibody specifically raised against MsMob1 proteins was used for immunolocalization studies in synchronized root tip cells. The subcellular localization of MsMob1-like proteins is demonstrated to be cell cycle-regulated. Cytoplasmic localization is faint and diffused during G{sub 1} and S. It becomes concentrated in punctuate and fibrillar structures in G{sub 2} as well as M phase. At the stage of cytokinesis, the protein is found at the emerging cell plate marking the progressive formation of the septum. Mob1 proteins partially co-localize with microtubules structures functionally related to the spindles and important for cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. The MsMob1 expression cannot rescue the lethality of the yeast mob1 mutant, suggesting that interaction of Mob1 proteins with their effectors may be species-specific. Localization of Mob1 proteins in the inner layer of the root cap indicates an additional function for this class of proteins in plants, which is likely related to the onset of programmed cell death.

  19. Structures Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1995 are presented.

  20. Developmentally regulated HEART STOPPER, a mitochondrially targeted L18 ribosomal protein gene, is required for cell division, differentiation, and seed development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyu; Luo, Ming; Day, Robert C.; Talbot, Mark J.; Ivanova, Aneta; Ashton, Anthony R.; Chaudhury, Abed M.; Macknight, Richard C.; Hrmova, Maria; Koltunow, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the role of a mitochondrial ribosomal (mitoribosomal) L18 protein in cell division, differentiation, and seed development after the characterization of a recessive mutant, heart stopper (hes). The hes mutant produced uncellularized endosperm and embryos arrested at the late globular stage. The mutant embryos differentiated partially on rescue medium with some forming callus. HES (At1g08845) encodes a mitochondrially targeted member of a highly diverged L18 ribosomal protein family. The substitution of a conserved amino residue in the hes mutant potentially perturbs mitoribosomal function via altered binding of 5S rRNA and/or influences the stability of the 50S ribosomal subunit, affecting mRNA binding and translation. Consistent with this, marker genes for mitochondrial dysfunction were up-regulated in the mutant. The slow growth of the endosperm and embryo indicates a defect in cell cycle progression, which is evidenced by the down-regulation of cell cycle genes. The down-regulation of other genes such as EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes links the mitochondria to the regulation of many aspects of seed development. HES expression is developmentally regulated, being preferentially expressed in tissues with active cell division and differentiation, including developing embryos and the root tips. The divergence of the L18 family, the tissue type restricted expression of HES, and the failure of other L18 members to complement the hes phenotype suggest that the L18 proteins are involved in modulating development. This is likely via heterogeneous mitoribosomes containing different L18 members, which may result in differential mitochondrial functions in response to different physiological situations during development. PMID:26105995

  1. The essential peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase MurG forms a complex with proteins involved in lateral envelope growth as well as with proteins involved in cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Karczmarek, Aneta; Crouvoisier, Muriel; Bouhss, Ahmed; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; den Blaauwen, Tanneke

    2007-08-01

    In Escherichia coli many enzymes including MurG are directly involved in the synthesis and assembly of peptidoglycan. MurG is an essential glycosyltransferase catalysing the last intracellular step of peptidoglycan synthesis. To elucidate its role during elongation and division events, localization of MurG using immunofluorescence microscopy was performed. MurG exhibited a random distribution in the cell envelope with a relatively higher intensity at the division site. This mid-cell localization was dependent on the presence of a mature divisome. Its localization in the lateral cell wall appeared to require the presence of MreCD. This could be indicative of a potential interaction between MurG and other proteins. Investigating this by immunoprecipitation revealed the association of MurG with MreB and MraY in the same protein complex. In view of this, the loss of rod shape of DeltamreBCD strain could be ascribed to the loss of MurG membrane localization. Consequently, this could prevent the localized supply of the lipid II precursor to the peptidoglycan synthesizing machinery involved in cell elongation. It is postulated that the involvement of MurG in the peptidoglycan synthesis concurs with two complexes, one implicated in cell elongation and the other in division. A model representing the first complex is proposed.

  2. The essential peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase MurG forms a complex with proteins involved in lateral envelope growth as well as with proteins involved in cell division in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Karczmarek, Aneta; Crouvoisier, Muriel; Bouhss, Ahmed; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; den Blaauwen, Tanneke

    2007-01-01

    In Escherichia coli many enzymes including MurG are directly involved in the synthesis and assembly of peptidoglycan. MurG is an essential glycosyltransferase catalysing the last intracellular step of peptidoglycan synthesis. To elucidate its role during elongation and division events, localization of MurG using immunofluorescence microscopy was performed. MurG exhibited a random distribution in the cell envelope with a relatively higher intensity at the division site. This mid-cell localization was dependent on the presence of a mature divisome. Its localization in the lateral cell wall appeared to require the presence of MreCD. This could be indicative of a potential interaction between MurG and other proteins. Investigating this by immunoprecipitation revealed the association of MurG with MreB and MraY in the same protein complex. In view of this, the loss of rod shape of ΔmreBCD strain could be ascribed to the loss of MurG membrane localization. Consequently, this could prevent the localized supply of the lipid II precursor to the peptidoglycan synthesizing machinery involved in cell elongation. It is postulated that the involvement of MurG in the peptidoglycan synthesis concurs with two complexes, one implicated in cell elongation and the other in division. A model representing the first complex is proposed. PMID:17640276

  3. The transmembrane domains of the bacterial cell division proteins FtsB and FtsL form a stable high-order oligomer.

    PubMed

    Khadria, Ambalika S; Senes, Alessandro

    2013-10-29

    FtsB and FtsL are two essential integral membrane proteins of the bacterial division complex or "divisome", both characterized by a single transmembrane helix and a juxtamembrane coiled coil domain. The two domains are important for the association of FtsB and FtsL, a key event for their recruitment to the divisome, which in turn allows the recruitment of the late divisomal components to the Z-ring and subsequent completion of the division process. Here we present a biophysical analysis performed in vitro that shows that the transmembrane domains of FtsB and FtsL associate strongly in isolation. Using Förster resonance energy transfer, we have measured the oligomerization of fluorophore-labeled transmembrane domains of FtsB and FtsL in both detergent and lipid. The data indicate that the transmembrane helices are likely a major contributor to the stability of the FtsB-FtsL complex. Our analyses show that FtsB and FtsL form a 1:1 higher-order oligomeric complex, possibly a tetramer. This finding suggests that the FtsB-FtsL complex is capable of multivalent binding to FtsQ and other divisome components, a hypothesis that is consistent with the possibility that the FtsB-FtsL complex has a structural role in the stabilization of the Z-ring.

  4. Conditional Repression of AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 Reveals That It Coordinates Cell Division and Cell Expansion during Postembryonic Shoot Development in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Nils; Wyrzykowska, Joanna; Muller, Philippe; David, Karine; Couch, Daniel; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) has long been characterized as a potentially important mediator of auxin action in plants. Analysis of the functional requirement for ABP1 during development was hampered because of embryo lethality of the null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we used conditional repression of ABP1 to investigate its function during vegetative shoot development. Using an inducible cellular immunization approach and an inducible antisense construct, we showed that decreased ABP1 activity leads to a severe retardation of leaf growth involving an alteration in cell division frequency, an altered pattern of endocycle induction, a decrease in cell expansion, and a change in expression of early auxin responsive genes. In addition, local repression of ABP1 activity in the shoot apical meristem revealed an additional role for ABP1 in cell plate formation and cell shape. Moreover, cells at the site of presumptive leaf initiation were more sensitive to ABP1 repression than other regions of the meristem. This spatial context-dependent response of the meristem to ABP1 inactivation and the other data presented here are consistent with a model in which ABP1 acts as a coordinator of cell division and expansion, with local auxin levels influencing ABP1 effectiveness. PMID:18952781

  5. Decreased levels of cell-division cycle 42 (Cdc42) protein in peripheral lymphocytes from ischaemic stroke patients are associated with Golgi apparatus function.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiao-Ye; Li, Ting; Hu, Zhi-Ping

    2013-06-01

    To investigate levels of cell-division cycle 42 (Cdc42) protein, and their relationship with Golgi apparatus function in peripheral lymphocytes, in patients following ischaemic stroke. Patients with acute cerebral ischaemic stroke (within 24-72 h of the onset of focal neurological symptoms) and healthy control subjects were enrolled in this prospective case-control study. The cellular location of Cdc42 in peripheral lymphocytes was demonstrated using immunofluorescence. Protein levels of Cdc42 and trans-golgi network protein 2 (TGN46) in peripheral lymphocytes were determined by immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting. A total of 38 patients with stroke and 38 control subjects were studied. The mean ± SD percentage of Cdc42-positive lymphocytes from patients with stroke was significantly lower than that in control subjects (39.53 ± 13.55% versus 66.61 ± 23.30%, respectively). Similar findings were demonstrated for TGN46. Cdc42 levels were positively correlated with TGN46 levels (r = 0.92). Acute ischaemic stroke was associated with reduced levels of Cdc42 protein. These findings might lead to the development of drugs that could have therapeutic benefits in patients with acute ischaemic stroke.

  6. The Cdc15 and Imp2 SH3 domains cooperatively scaffold a network of proteins that redundantly ensure efficient cell division in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Liping; Willet, Alaina H.; Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H.; McDonald, Nathan A.; Feoktistova, Anna; Chen, Jun-Song; Huang, Haiming; Guillen, Rodrigo; Boone, Charles; Sidhu, Sachdev S.; Beckley, Janel R.; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc15 homology (PCH) family members participate in numerous biological processes, including cytokinesis, typically by bridging the plasma membrane via their F-BAR domains to the actin cytoskeleton. Two SH3 domain–containing PCH family members, Cdc15 and Imp2, play critical roles in S. pombe cytokinesis. Although both proteins localize to the contractile ring, with Cdc15 preceding Imp2, only cdc15 is an essential gene. Despite these distinct roles, the SH3 domains of Cdc15 and Imp2 cooperate in the essential process of recruiting other proteins to stabilize the contractile ring. To better understand the connectivity of this SH3 domain–based protein network at the CR and its function, we used a biochemical approach coupled to proteomics to identify additional proteins (Rgf3, Art1, Spa2, and Pos1) that are integrated into this network. Cell biological and genetic analyses of these SH3 partners implicate them in a range of activities that ensure the fidelity of cell division, including promoting cell wall metabolism and influencing cell morphogenesis. PMID:25428987

  7. Genes Required for Aerial Growth, Cell Division, and Chromosome Segregation Are Targets of WhiA before Sporulation in Streptomyces venezuelae

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Matthew J.; Bibb, Maureen J.; Chandra, Govind; Findlay, Kim C.; Buttner, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT WhiA is a highly unusual transcriptional regulator related to a family of eukaryotic homing endonucleases. WhiA is required for sporulation in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces, but WhiA homologues of unknown function are also found throughout the Gram-positive bacteria. To better understand the role of WhiA in Streptomyces development and its function as a transcription factor, we identified the WhiA regulon through a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) and microarray transcriptional profiling, exploiting a new model organism for the genus, Streptomyces venezuelae, which sporulates in liquid culture. The regulon encompasses ~240 transcription units, and WhiA appears to function almost equally as an activator and as a repressor. Bioinformatic analysis of the upstream regions of the complete regulon, combined with DNase I footprinting, identified a short but highly conserved asymmetric sequence, GACAC, associated with the majority of WhiA targets. Construction of a null mutant showed that whiA is required for the initiation of sporulation septation and chromosome segregation in S. venezuelae, and several genes encoding key proteins of the Streptomyces cell division machinery, such as ftsZ, ftsW, and ftsK, were found to be directly activated by WhiA during development. Several other genes encoding proteins with important roles in development were also identified as WhiA targets, including the sporulation-specific sigma factor σWhiG and the diguanylate cyclase CdgB. Cell division is tightly coordinated with the orderly arrest of apical growth in the sporogenic cell, and filP, encoding a key component of the polarisome that directs apical growth, is a direct target for WhiA-mediated repression during sporulation. PMID:24065632

  8. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Schatten, H; Walter, M; Mazia, D; Biessmann, H; Paweletz, N; Coffe, G; Schatten, G

    1987-12-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins (designated Ah6/5/9 and referred to herein as Ah6) is found to cross-react specifically with centrosomes in sea urchin eggs and with a 68-kDa antigen in eggs and isolated mitotic apparatus. When preparations stained with Ah6 are counterstained with a human autoimmune serum whose anti-centrosome activity has been established, the immunofluorescence images superimpose exactly. A more severe test of the specificity of the antibody demands that it display all of the stages of the centrosome cycle in the cell cycle: the flattening and spreading of the compact centrosomes followed by their division and the establishment of two compact poles. The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment allows observation of the stages of the centrosome cycle--separation, division, and bipolarization--while the chromosomes are arrested in metaphase. Mitosis is arrested in the presence of 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Chromosomes remain in a metaphase configuration while the centrosomes divide, producing four poles perpendicular to the original spindle axis. Microtubules are still present in the mitotic apparatus, as indicated by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. When 2-mercaptoethanol is removed, the chromosomes reorient to the poles of a tetrapolar (sometimes tripolar) mitotic apparatus. During the following cycle, the blastomeres form a monopolar mitotic apparatus. The observations of the centrosome cycle with the Ah6 antibody display very clearly all the stages that have been seen or deduced from work with other probes. The 68-kDa antigen that reacts with the Ah6 monoclonal antibody to Drosophila intermediate filament proteins must be a constant component of sea urchin centrosomes because it is present at all stages of the centrosome cycle.

  9. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Schatten, H; Walter, M; Mazia, D; Biessmann, H; Paweletz, N; Coffe, G; Schatten, G

    1987-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins (designated Ah6/5/9 and referred to herein as Ah6) is found to cross-react specifically with centrosomes in sea urchin eggs and with a 68-kDa antigen in eggs and isolated mitotic apparatus. When preparations stained with Ah6 are counterstained with a human autoimmune serum whose anti-centrosome activity has been established, the immunofluorescence images superimpose exactly. A more severe test of the specificity of the antibody demands that it display all of the stages of the centrosome cycle in the cell cycle: the flattening and spreading of the compact centrosomes followed by their division and the establishment of two compact poles. The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment allows observation of the stages of the centrosome cycle--separation, division, and bipolarization--while the chromosomes are arrested in metaphase. Mitosis is arrested in the presence of 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Chromosomes remain in a metaphase configuration while the centrosomes divide, producing four poles perpendicular to the original spindle axis. Microtubules are still present in the mitotic apparatus, as indicated by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. When 2-mercaptoethanol is removed, the chromosomes reorient to the poles of a tetrapolar (sometimes tripolar) mitotic apparatus. During the following cycle, the blastomeres form a monopolar mitotic apparatus. The observations of the centrosome cycle with the Ah6 antibody display very clearly all the stages that have been seen or deduced from work with other probes. The 68-kDa antigen that reacts with the Ah6 monoclonal antibody to Drosophila intermediate filament proteins must be a constant component of sea urchin centrosomes because it is present at all stages of the centrosome cycle. Images PMID:3120191

  10. A Novel Family of Toxoplasma IMC Proteins Displays a Hierarchical Organization and Functions in Coordinating Parasite Division

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Josh R.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A.; Cruz de Leon, Jessica; Huynh, My-Hang; Carruthers, Vern B.; Morrissette, Naomi S.; Bradley, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Apicomplexans employ a peripheral membrane system called the inner membrane complex (IMC) for critical processes such as host cell invasion and daughter cell formation. We have identified a family of proteins that define novel sub-compartments of the Toxoplasma gondii IMC. These IMC Sub-compartment Proteins, ISP1, 2 and 3, are conserved throughout the Apicomplexa, but do not appear to be present outside the phylum. ISP1 localizes to the apical cap portion of the IMC, while ISP2 localizes to a central IMC region and ISP3 localizes to a central plus basal region of the complex. Targeting of all three ISPs is dependent upon N-terminal residues predicted for coordinated myristoylation and palmitoylation. Surprisingly, we show that disruption of ISP1 results in a dramatic relocalization of ISP2 and ISP3 to the apical cap. Although the N-terminal region of ISP1 is necessary and sufficient for apical cap targeting, exclusion of other family members requires the remaining C-terminal region of the protein. This gate-keeping function of ISP1 reveals an unprecedented mechanism of interactive and hierarchical targeting of proteins to establish these unique sub-compartments in the Toxoplasma IMC. Finally, we show that loss of ISP2 results in severe defects in daughter cell formation during endodyogeny, indicating a role for the ISP proteins in coordinating this unique process of Toxoplasma replication. PMID:20844581

  11. Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL proteins, play opposing roles in cell adhesion and coordination of cell and nuclear division

    SciTech Connect

    Prevorovsky, Martin; Grousl, Tomas; Stanurova, Jana; Rynes, Jan; Nellen, Wolfgang; Puta, Frantisek; Folk, Petr

    2009-05-01

    The CSL (CBF1/RBP-J{kappa}/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family is comprised of transcription factors essential for metazoan development, mostly due to their involvement in the Notch receptor signaling pathway. Recently, we identified two novel classes of CSL genes in the genomes of several fungal species, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. In this study, we characterized experimentally cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +}, the two CSL genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in order to elucidate the CSL function in fungi. We provide evidence supporting their identity as genuine CSL genes. Both cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +} are non-essential; they have distinct expression profiles and code for nuclear proteins with transcription activation potential. Significantly, we demonstrated that Cbf11 recognizes specifically the canonical CSL response element GTG{sup A}/{sub G}GAA in vitro. The deletion of cbf11{sup +} is associated with growth phenotypes and altered colony morphology. Furthermore, we found that Cbf11 and Cbf12 play opposite roles in cell adhesion, nuclear and cell division and their coordination. Disturbed balance of the two CSL proteins leads to cell separation defects (sep phenotype), cut phenotype, and high-frequency diploidization in heterothallic strains. Our data show that CSL proteins operate in an organism predating the Notch pathway, which should be of relevance to the understanding of (Notch-independent) CSL functions in metazoans.

  12. Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL proteins, play opposing roles in cell adhesion and coordination of cell and nuclear division.

    PubMed

    Prevorovský, Martin; Grousl, Tomás; Stanurová, Jana; Rynes, Jan; Nellen, Wolfgang; Půta, Frantisek; Folk, Petr

    2009-05-01

    The CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jkappa/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family is comprised of transcription factors essential for metazoan development, mostly due to their involvement in the Notch receptor signaling pathway. Recently, we identified two novel classes of CSL genes in the genomes of several fungal species, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. In this study, we characterized experimentally cbf11+ and cbf12+, the two CSL genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in order to elucidate the CSL function in fungi. We provide evidence supporting their identity as genuine CSL genes. Both cbf11+ and cbf12+ are non-essential; they have distinct expression profiles and code for nuclear proteins with transcription activation potential. Significantly, we demonstrated that Cbf11 recognizes specifically the canonical CSL response element GTGA/GGAA in vitro. The deletion of cbf11+ is associated with growth phenotypes and altered colony morphology. Furthermore, we found that Cbf11 and Cbf12 play opposite roles in cell adhesion, nuclear and cell division and their coordination. Disturbed balance of the two CSL proteins leads to cell separation defects (sep phenotype), cut phenotype, and high-frequency diploidization in heterothallic strains. Our data show that CSL proteins operate in an organism predating the Notch pathway, which should be of relevance to the understanding of (Notch-independent) CSL functions in metazoans.

  13. Long Divisions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-08

    The shadow of Saturn on the rings, which stretched across all of the rings earlier in Cassini's mission (see PIA08362), now barely makes it past the Cassini division. The changing length of the shadow marks the passing of the seasons on Saturn. As the planet nears its northern-hemisphere solstice in May 2017, the shadow will get even shorter. At solstice, the shadow's edge will be about 28,000 miles (45,000 kilometers) from the planet's surface, barely making it past the middle of the B ring. The moon Mimas is a few pixels wide, near the lower left in this image. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 35 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on May 21, 2016. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 2.0 million miles (3.2 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 120 miles (190 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20494

  14. Dual role of the Toxoplasma gondii clathrin adaptor AP1 in the sorting of rhoptry and microneme proteins and in parasite division

    PubMed Central

    Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Huot, Ludovic; Sindikubwabo, Fabien; Hakimi, Mohamed Ali; Langsley, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL). Disruption of the μ1 subunit resulted in the mis-sorting of microneme proteins at the level of the Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN). Furthermore, we demonstrated that TgAP1 regulates rhoptry biogenesis by activating rhoptry protein exit from the TGN, but also participates in the post-Golgi maturation process of preROP compartments into apically anchored club-shaped mature organelles. For this latter activity, our data indicate a specific functional relationship between TgAP1 and the Rab5A-positive endosome-like compartment. In addition, we unraveled an original role for TgAP1 in the regulation of parasite division. APμ1-depleted parasites undergo normal daughter cell budding and basal complex assembly but fail to segregate at the end of cytokinesis. PMID:28430827

  15. Inter- and intrachromosomal asynchrony of cell division cycle events in root meristem cells of Allium cepa: possible connection with gradient of cyclin B-like proteins

    PubMed Central

    Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Alternate treatments of Allium cepa root meristems with hydroxyurea (HU) and caffeine give rise to extremely large and highly elongated cells with atypical images of mitotic divisions, including internuclear asynchrony and an unknown type of interchromosomal asynchrony observed during metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Another type of asynchrony that cannot depend solely on the increased length of cells was observed following long-term incubation of roots with HU. This kind of treatment revealed both cell nuclei entering premature mitosis and, for the first time, an uncommon form of mitotic abnormality manifested in a gradual condensation of chromatin (spanning from interphase to prometaphase). Immunocytochemical study of polykaryotic cells using anti-β tubulin antibodies revealed severe perturbations in the microtubular organization of preprophase bands. Quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of the control cells indicate that the level of cyclin B-like proteins reaches the maximum at the G2 to metaphase transition and then becomes reduced during later stages of mitosis. After long-term incubation with low doses of HU, the amount of cyclin B-like proteins considerably increases, and a significant number of elongated cells show gradients of these proteins spread along successive regions of the perinuclear cytoplasm. It is suggested that there may be a direct link between the effects of HU-mediated deceleration of S- and G2-phases and an enhanced concentration of cyclin B-like proteins. In consequence, the activation of cyclin B-CDK complexes gives rise to an abnormal pattern of premature mitotic chromosome condensation with biphasic nuclear structures having one part of chromatin decondensed, and the other part condensed. PMID:20490501

  16. The cytological changes of tobacco zygote and proembryo cells induced by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent suggest the involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell division and cell plate formation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In dicotyledonous plant, the first asymmetric zygotic division and subsequent several cell divisions are crucial for proembryo pattern formation and later embryo development. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of extensively glycosylated cell surface proteins that are thought to have important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, including embryogenesis. Previous results from our laboratory show that AGPs are concerned with tobacco egg cell fertilization and zygotic division. However, how AGPs interact with other factors involved in zygotic division and proembryo development remains unknown. Results In this study, we used the tobacco in vitro zygote culture system and series of meticulous cell biology techniques to investigate the roles of AGPs in zygote and proembryo cell division. For the first time, we examined tobacco proembryo division patterns detailed to every cell division. The bright-field images and statistical results both revealed that with the addition of an exogenous AGPs inhibitor, beta-glucosyl Yariv (beta-GlcY) reagent, the frequency of aberrant division increased remarkably in cultured tobacco zygotes and proembryos, and the cell plate specific locations of AGPs were greatly reduced after beta-GlcY treatment. In addition, the accumulations of new cell wall materials were also significantly affected by treating with beta-GlcY. Detection of cellulose components by Calcofluor white stain showed that strong fluorescence was located in the newly formed wall of daughter cells after the zygotic division of in vivo samples and the control samples from in vitro culture without beta-GlcY treatment; while there was only weak fluorescence in the newly formed cell walls with beta-GlcY treatment. Immunocytochemistry examination with JIM5 and JIM7 respectively against the low- and high-esterified pectins displayed that these two pectins located in opposite positions of zygotes and proembryos in vivo and the polarity was

  17. The cytological changes of tobacco zygote and proembryo cells induced by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent suggest the involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell division and cell plate formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Zhao, Jie

    2012-08-01

    In dicotyledonous plant, the first asymmetric zygotic division and subsequent several cell divisions are crucial for proembryo pattern formation and later embryo development. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of extensively glycosylated cell surface proteins that are thought to have important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, including embryogenesis. Previous results from our laboratory show that AGPs are concerned with tobacco egg cell fertilization and zygotic division. However, how AGPs interact with other factors involved in zygotic division and proembryo development remains unknown. In this study, we used the tobacco in vitro zygote culture system and series of meticulous cell biology techniques to investigate the roles of AGPs in zygote and proembryo cell division. For the first time, we examined tobacco proembryo division patterns detailed to every cell division. The bright-field images and statistical results both revealed that with the addition of an exogenous AGPs inhibitor, beta-glucosyl Yariv (beta-GlcY) reagent, the frequency of aberrant division increased remarkably in cultured tobacco zygotes and proembryos, and the cell plate specific locations of AGPs were greatly reduced after beta-GlcY treatment. In addition, the accumulations of new cell wall materials were also significantly affected by treating with beta-GlcY. Detection of cellulose components by Calcofluor white stain showed that strong fluorescence was located in the newly formed wall of daughter cells after the zygotic division of in vivo samples and the control samples from in vitro culture without beta-GlcY treatment; while there was only weak fluorescence in the newly formed cell walls with beta-GlcY treatment. Immunocytochemistry examination with JIM5 and JIM7 respectively against the low- and high-esterified pectins displayed that these two pectins located in opposite positions of zygotes and proembryos in vivo and the polarity was not affected by

  18. A requirement for cell elongation protein RodZ and cell division proteins FtsN and DedD to maintain the small rod morphology of Escherichia coli at growth temperatures near 8°C.

    PubMed

    Porter, T; Frederick, D; Johnson, E; Jones, P G

    2016-09-12

    As similarly observed in nutrient-poor media at 37°C, Escherichia coli forms small rods in nutrient-rich media at temperatures near 8°C, the minimum temperature of growth. A study was initiated to identify proteins required to facilitate the small rod morphology at low temperature. E. coli contains three nonessential SPOR domain proteins (DamX, RlpA, and DedD) that have been demonstrated to bind to the septal ring. In contrast to the normal growth and small rod morphology of damX and rlpA null mutants at 10°C, the dedD null mutant exhibited reduced growth and formed filamentous cells. The presence of plasmid-encoded DedD restored growth and small rods. Plasmid-encoded FtsN, an essential SPOR domain protein that functions to stabilize the septal ring and to initiate septation, in the dedD null mutant resulted in increased growth and the formation of shorter chained cells. However, plasmid-encoded DedD failed to restore growth and cell division of cells lacking FtsN at 10°C. In contrast to cell division protein DedD, RodZ is a cell elongation protein particularly required for growth at 30°C. However, the rodZ null mutant grew similarly as the wild type strain and produced cocci in LB broth at 10°C. Moreover at 10°C, the concerted deletion of dedD and rodZ resulted in severe inhibition of growth accompanied with the formation of swollen prolate ellipsoids due to a block in septal ring assembly and cell elongation. The data indicate the cellular requirement of both FtsN and DedD for septation as well as RodZ for cell elongation to maintain the small rod morphology at temperatures near 8°C. In comparison to the growth and small rods of the wild type in M9-glucose minimal media at 37°C, the dedD null mutant grew at the same rate and produced elongated cells while the rodZ null mutant grew at a slightly slower rate and produced cocci. The data indicate that DedD and RodZ are also required to maintain the small rod morphology in nutrient-poor media, but there is a

  19. Cdc37 (cell division cycle 37) restricts Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) motility by interaction with N-terminal and middle domain binding sites.

    PubMed

    Eckl, Julia M; Rutz, Daniel A; Haslbeck, Veronika; Zierer, Bettina K; Reinstein, Jochen; Richter, Klaus

    2013-05-31

    The ATPase-driven dimeric molecular Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) and its cofactor Cdc37 (cell division cycle 37 protein) are crucial to prevent the cellular depletion of many protein kinases. In complex with Hsp90, Cdc37 is thought to bind an important lid structure in the ATPase domain of Hsp90 and inhibit ATP turnover by Hsp90. As different interaction modes have been reported, we were interested in the interaction mechanism of Hsp90 and Cdc37. We find that Cdc37 can bind to one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer. The inhibition of the ATPase activity is caused by a reduction in the closing rate of Hsp90 without obviously bridging the two subunits or affecting nucleotide accessibility to the binding site. Although human Cdc37 binds to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90, nematodal Cdc37 preferentially interacts with the middle domain of CeHsp90 and hHsp90, exposing two Cdc37 interaction sites. A previously unreported site in CeCdc37 is utilized for the middle domain interaction. Dephosphorylation of CeCdc37 by the Hsp90-associated phosphatase PPH-5, a step required during the kinase activation process, proceeds normally, even if only the new interaction site is used. This shows that the second interaction site is also functionally relevant and highlights that Cdc37, similar to the Hsp90 cofactors Sti1 and Aha1, may utilize two different attachment sites to restrict the conformational freedom and the ATP turnover of Hsp90.

  20. Cdc37 (Cell Division Cycle 37) Restricts Hsp90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) Motility by Interaction with N-terminal and Middle Domain Binding Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Eckl, Julia M.; Rutz, Daniel A.; Haslbeck, Veronika; Zierer, Bettina K.; Reinstein, Jochen; Richter, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The ATPase-driven dimeric molecular Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) and its cofactor Cdc37 (cell division cycle 37 protein) are crucial to prevent the cellular depletion of many protein kinases. In complex with Hsp90, Cdc37 is thought to bind an important lid structure in the ATPase domain of Hsp90 and inhibit ATP turnover by Hsp90. As different interaction modes have been reported, we were interested in the interaction mechanism of Hsp90 and Cdc37. We find that Cdc37 can bind to one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer. The inhibition of the ATPase activity is caused by a reduction in the closing rate of Hsp90 without obviously bridging the two subunits or affecting nucleotide accessibility to the binding site. Although human Cdc37 binds to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90, nematodal Cdc37 preferentially interacts with the middle domain of CeHsp90 and hHsp90, exposing two Cdc37 interaction sites. A previously unreported site in CeCdc37 is utilized for the middle domain interaction. Dephosphorylation of CeCdc37 by the Hsp90-associated phosphatase PPH-5, a step required during the kinase activation process, proceeds normally, even if only the new interaction site is used. This shows that the second interaction site is also functionally relevant and highlights that Cdc37, similar to the Hsp90 cofactors Sti1 and Aha1, may utilize two different attachment sites to restrict the conformational freedom and the ATP turnover of Hsp90. PMID:23569206

  1. E93R Substitution of Escherichia coli FtsZ Induces Bundling of Protofilaments, Reduces GTPase Activity, and Impairs Bacterial Cytokinesis*

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Richa; Patel, Ronak Y.; Asthana, Jayant; Jindal, Bhavya; Balaji, Petety V.; Panda, Dulal

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we found that divalent calcium has no detectable effect on the assembly of Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ (MtbFtsZ), whereas it strongly promoted the assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ (EcFtsZ). While looking for potential calcium binding residues in EcFtsZ, we found a mutation (E93R) that strongly promoted the assembly of EcFtsZ. The mutation increased the stability and bundling of the FtsZ protofilaments and produced a dominating effect on the assembly of the wild type FtsZ (WT-FtsZ). Although E93R-FtsZ was found to bind to GTP similarly to the WT-FtsZ, it displayed lower GTPase activity than the WT-FtsZ. E93R-FtsZ complemented for its wild type counterpart as observed by a complementation test using JKD7–1/pKD3 cells. However, the bacterial cells became elongated upon overexpression of the mutant allele. We modeled the structure of E93R-FtsZ using the structures of MtbFtsZ/Methanococcus jannaschi FtsZ (MjFtsZ) dimers as templates. The MtbFtsZ-based structure suggests that the Arg93-Glu138 salt bridge provides the additional stability, whereas the effect of mutation appears to be indirect (allosteric) if the EcFtsZ dimer is similar to that of MjFtsZ. The data presented in this study suggest that an increase in the stability of the FtsZ protofilaments is detrimental for the bacterial cytokinesis. PMID:20667825

  2. Accurate Chromosome Segregation at First Meiotic Division Requires AGO4, a Protein Involved in RNA-Dependent DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Cecilia; Santos, Juan Luis; Pradillo, Mónica

    2016-10-01

    The RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is important for the transcriptional repression of transposable elements and for heterochromatin formation. Small RNAs are key players in this process by regulating both DNA and histone methylation. Taking into account that methylation underlies gene silencing and that there are genes with meiosis-specific expression profiles, we have wondered whether genes involved in RdDM could play a role during this specialized cell division. To address this issue, we have characterized meiosis progression in pollen mother cells from Arabidopsis thaliana mutant plants defective for several proteins related to RdDM. The most relevant results were obtained for ago4-1 In this mutant, meiocytes display a slight reduction in chiasma frequency, alterations in chromatin conformation around centromeric regions, lagging chromosomes at anaphase I, and defects in spindle organization. These abnormalities lead to the formation of polyads instead of tetrads at the end of meiosis, and might be responsible for the fertility defects observed in this mutant. Findings reported here highlight an involvement of AGO4 during meiosis by ensuring accurate chromosome segregation at anaphase I.

  3. Monitoring structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins using QCM-D: application to the bacterial cell division protein ZipA.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Tsortos, Achilleas; Vélez, Marisela; Gizeli, Electra

    2016-05-05

    The sensitivity of QCM-D to molecular hydrodynamic properties is applied in this work to study conformational changes of the intrinsically disordered protein ZipA. Acoustic measurements can clearly follow ZipA's unstructured domain expansion and contraction with salt content and be correlated with changes in the hydrodynamic radius of 1.8 nm or less.

  4. Serine/Threonine Kinase Unc-51-like Kinase-1 (Ulk1) Phosphorylates the Co-chaperone Cell Division Cycle Protein 37 (Cdc37) and Thereby Disrupts the Stability of Cdc37 Client Proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Wan; Zhang, Luyao; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yanan; Ma, Ke; Li, Xue; Wang, Lina; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Zhao, Ying

    2017-02-17

    The serine/threonine kinase Unc-51-like kinase-1 (Ulk1) is thought to be essential for induction of autophagy, an intracellular bulk degradation process that is activated by various stresses. Although several proteins have been suggested as Ulk1 substrates during autophagic process, it still remains largely unknown about Ulk1's physiological substrates. Here, by performing in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation assay, we report that the co-chaperone cell division cycle protein 37 (Cdc37) is a Ulk1 substrate. Ulk1-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-339 in Cdc37 compromised the recruitment of client kinases to a complex comprising Cdc37 and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) but only modestly affected Cdc37 binding to Hsp90. Because the recruitment of protein kinase clients to the Hsp90 complex is essential for their stability and functions, Ser-339 phosphorylation of Cdc37 disrupts its ability as a co-chaperone to coordinate Hsp90. Hsp90 inhibitors are cancer chemotherapeutic agents by inducing depletion of clients, many of which are oncogenes. Upon treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor in cancer cells, Ulk1 promoted the degradation of Hsp90-Cdc37 client kinases, resulting in increased cellular sensitivity to Hsp90 inhibitors. Thus, our study provides evidence for an anti-proliferative role of Ulk1 in response to Hsp90 inhibition in cancer cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Chloroplast division: a work of ARTEMIS.

    PubMed

    Osteryoung, Katherine W

    2002-12-23

    Chloroplasts contain three membrane systems that constrict together during division of the organelle. A newly identified protein, ARTEMIS, may shed light on the nuclear control of chloroplast division, and also on the mechanism of thylakoid membrane fission and how this is coordinated with fission of the two envelope membranes.

  6. [Docking of low-molecular ligands on the plant FtsZ-protein with application of CUDA-accelerated calculations].

    PubMed

    Demchuk, O N; Karpov, P A; Blium, Ia B

    2012-01-01

    This article provides review and analysis of opportunities for application of the CUDA technology for acceleration of computations in structural biology and bioinformatics. On the example of work with the Hex 6.1 program, comparative analysis of increase in the speed and quality of results of hard-docking of a number of low-molecular compounds on the surface of the FtsZ protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was performed. Several potential benzimidazole--plant FtsZ protein binding sites were identified.

  7. The ASH1-RELATED3 SET-Domain Protein Controls Cell Division Competence of the Meristem and the Quiescent Center of the Arabidopsis Primary Root1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kumpf, Robert; Thorstensen, Tage; Rahman, Mohummad Aminur; Heyman, Jefri; Nenseth, H. Zeynep; Lammens, Tim; Herrmann, Ullrich; Swarup, Ranjan; Veiseth, Silje Veie; Emberland, Gitika; Bennett, Malcolm J.; De Veylder, Lieven; Aalen, Reidunn B.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell niche of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) primary root apical meristem is composed of the quiescent (or organizing) center surrounded by stem (initial) cells for the different tissues. Initial cells generate a population of transit-amplifying cells that undergo a limited number of cell divisions before elongating and differentiating. It is unclear whether these divisions occur stochastically or in an orderly manner. Using the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine to monitor DNA replication of cells of Arabidopsis root meristems, we identified a pattern of two, four, and eight neighboring cells with synchronized replication along the cortical, epidermal, and endodermal cell files, suggested to be daughters, granddaughters, and great-granddaughters of the direct progeny of each stem cell. Markers of mitosis and cytokinesis were not present in the region closest to the transition zone where the cells start to elongate, suggesting that great-granddaughter cells switch synchronously from the mitotic cell cycle to endoreduplication. Mutations in the stem cell niche-expressed ASH1-RELATED3 (ASHR3) gene, encoding a SET-domain protein conferring histone H3 lysine-36 methylation, disrupted this pattern of coordinated DNA replication and cell division and increased the cell division rate in the quiescent center. E2Fa/E2Fb transcription factors controlling the G1-to-S-phase transition regulate ASHR3 expression and bind to the ASHR3 promoter, substantiating a role for ASHR3 in cell division control. The reduced length of the root apical meristem and primary root of the mutant ashr3-1 indicate that synchronization of replication and cell divisions is required for normal root growth and development. PMID:25034019

  8. Eight weeks of pre- and postexercise whey protein supplementation increases lean body mass and improves performance in Division III collegiate female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lemuel W; Wilborn, Colin; Roberts, Michael D; White, Andrew; Dugan, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    We examined if 8 weeks of whey protein (WP) supplementation improved body composition and performance measures in NCAA Division III female basketball players. Subjects were assigned to consume 24 g WP (n = 8; age, 20 ± 2 years; height, 170 ± 6 cm; weight, 66.0 ± 3.1 kg) or 24 g of maltodextrin (MD) (n = 6; age, 21 ± 3 years; height, 169 ± 6 cm; weight, 68.2 ± 7.6 kg) immediately prior to and following training (4 days/week anaerobic and resistance training) for 8 weeks. Prior to (T1) and 8 weeks following supplementation (T2), subjects underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry body composition assessment as well as performance tests. The WP group gained lean mass from T1 to T2 (+1.4 kg, p = 0.003) whereas the MD group trended to gain lean mass (+0.4 kg, p = 0.095). The WP group also lost fat mass from T1 to T2 (-1.0 kg, p = 0.003) whereas the MD group did not (-0.5 kg, p = 0.41). The WP group presented greater gains in 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (+4.9 kg) compared with the MD group (+2.3 kg) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the WP group improved agility from T1 to T2 (p = 0.001) whereas the MD group did not (p = 0.38). Both groups equally increased leg press 1RM, vertical jump, and broad jump performances. This study demonstrates that 8 weeks of WP supplementation improves body composition and select performance variables in previously trained female athletes.

  9. Nanoengineering: Super symmetry in cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial cells can be sculpted into different shapes using nanofabricated chambers and then used to explore the spatial adaptation of protein oscillations that play an important role in cell division.

  10. Increased leaf mesophyll porosity following transient retinoblastoma-related protein silencing is revealed by microcomputed tomography imaging and leads to a system-level physiological response to the altered cell division pattern.

    PubMed

    Dorca-Fornell, Carmen; Pajor, Radoslaw; Lehmeier, Christoph; Pérez-Bueno, Marísa; Bauch, Marion; Sloan, Jen; Osborne, Colin; Rolfe, Stephen; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha; Fleming, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    The causal relationship between cell division and growth in plants is complex. Although altered expression of cell-cycle genes frequently leads to altered organ growth, there are many examples where manipulation of the division machinery leads to a limited outcome at the level of organ form, despite changes in constituent cell size. One possibility, which has been under-explored, is that altered division patterns resulting from manipulation of cell-cycle gene expression alter the physiology of the organ, and that this has an effect on growth. We performed a series of experiments on retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR), a well characterized regulator of the cell cycle, to investigate the outcome of altered cell division on leaf physiology. Our approach involved combination of high-resolution microCT imaging and physiological analysis with a transient gene induction system, providing a powerful approach for the study of developmental physiology. Our investigation identifies a new role for RBR in mesophyll differentiation that affects tissue porosity and the distribution of air space within the leaf. The data demonstrate the importance of RBR in early leaf development and the extent to which physiology adapts to modified cellular architecture resulting from altered cell-cycle gene expression.

  11. Increased leaf mesophyll porosity following transient retinoblastoma-related protein silencing is revealed by microcomputed tomography imaging and leads to a system-level physiological response to the altered cell division pattern

    PubMed Central

    Dorca-Fornell, Carmen; Pajor, Radoslaw; Lehmeier, Christoph; Pérez-Bueno, Marísa; Bauch, Marion; Sloan, Jen; Osborne, Colin; Rolfe, Stephen; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha; Fleming, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between cell division and growth in plants is complex. Although altered expression of cell-cycle genes frequently leads to altered organ growth, there are many examples where manipulation of the division machinery leads to a limited outcome at the level of organ form, despite changes in constituent cell size. One possibility, which has been under-explored, is that altered division patterns resulting from manipulation of cell-cycle gene expression alter the physiology of the organ, and that this has an effect on growth. We performed a series of experiments on retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR), a well characterized regulator of the cell cycle, to investigate the outcome of altered cell division on leaf physiology. Our approach involved combination of high-resolution microCT imaging and physiological analysis with a transient gene induction system, providing a powerful approach for the study of developmental physiology. Our investigation identifies a new role for RBR in mesophyll differentiation that affects tissue porosity and the distribution of air space within the leaf. The data demonstrate the importance of RBR in early leaf development and the extent to which physiology adapts to modified cellular architecture resulting from altered cell-cycle gene expression. PMID:24118480

  12. Detailing the Division

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-11

    NASA Cassini spacecraft looks between Saturn A and B rings to spy structure in the Cassini Division. The Cassini Division, occupying the middle and left of the image, contains five dim bands of ring material, but not all of the division is shown here.

  13. The polarity protein Baz forms a platform for the centrosome orientation during asymmetric stem cell division in the Drosophila male germline.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2015-03-20

    Many stem cells divide asymmetrically in order to balance self-renewal with differentiation. The essence of asymmetric cell division (ACD) is the polarization of cells and subsequent division, leading to unequal compartmentalization of cellular/extracellular components that confer distinct cell fates to daughter cells. Because precocious cell division before establishing cell polarity would lead to failure in ACD, these two processes must be tightly coupled; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In Drosophila male germline stem cells, ACD is prepared by stereotypical centrosome positioning. The centrosome orientation checkpoint (COC) further serves to ensure ACD by preventing mitosis upon centrosome misorientation. In this study, we show that Bazooka (Baz) provides a platform for the correct centrosome orientation and that Baz-centrosome association is the key event that is monitored by the COC. Our work provides a foundation for understanding how the correct cell polarity may be recognized by the cell to ensure productive ACD.

  14. A Method for DNA Extraction from the Desert Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis and Its Application to Identification of ftsZ

    PubMed Central

    Billi, Daniela; Grilli Caiola, Maria; Paolozzi, Luciano; Ghelardini, Patrizia

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed for extraction of DNA from Chroococcidiopsis that overcomes obstacles posed by bacterial contamination and the presence of a thick envelope surrounding the cyanobacterial cells. The method is based on the resistance of Chroococcidiopsis to lysozyme and consists of a lysozyme treatment followed by osmotic shock that reduces the bacterial contamination by 3 orders of magnitude. Then DNase treatment is performed to eliminate DNA from the bacterial lysate. Lysis of Chroococcidiopsis cells is achieved by grinding with glass beads in the presence of hot phenol. Extracted DNA is further purified by cesium-chloride density gradient ultracentrifugation. This method permitted the first molecular approach to the study of Chroococcidiopsis, and a 570-bp fragment of the gene ftsZ was cloned and sequenced. PMID:9758840

  15. FtsZ inhibition and redox modulation with one chemical scaffold: Potential use of dihydroquinolines against mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, Sridevi; Napoleon, John Victor; Nankar, Rakesh P; Senu Adeeba, V; Manheri, Muraleedharan K; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-11-10

    The dual effect of FtsZ inhibition and oxidative stress by a group of 1,2-dihydroquinolines that culminate in bactericidal effect on mycobacterium strains is demonstrated. They inhibited the non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 with MIC as low as 0.9 μg/mL and induced filamentation. Detailed studies revealed their ability to inhibit polymerization and GTPase activity of MtbFtsZ (Mycobacterial filamentous temperature sensitive Z) with an IC50 value of ∼40 μM. In addition to such target specific effects, these compounds exerted a global cellular effect by causing redox-imbalance that was evident from overproduction of ROS in treated cells. Such multi-targeting effect with one chemical scaffold has considerable significance in this era of emerging drug resistance and could offer promise in the development of new therapeutic agents against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Tunga penetrans: molecular identification of Wolbachia endobacteria and their recognition by antibodies against proteins of endobacteria from filarial parasites.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Schmetz, Christel; Bandi, Claudio; Bonow, Insa; Mand, Sabine; Fischer, Kerstin; Büttner, Dietrich W

    2002-01-01

    In search of Wolbachia in human parasites, Wolbachia were identified in the sand flea Tunga penetrans. PCR and DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S rDNA, the ftsZ cell division protein, the Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) and the Wolbachia aspartate aminotransferase genes revealed a high similarity to the respective sequences of endosymbionts of filarial nematodes. Using these sequences a phylogenetic tree was generated, that indicates a close relationship between Wolbachia from T. penetrans and from filarial parasites, but possibly as a member of a new supergroup. Ultrastructural studies showed that Wolbachia are abundant in the ovaries of neosomic fleas, whereas other, smaller and morphologically distinct, bacteria were observed in the lumen of the intestine. Wolbachia were labeled by immunohistology and immunogold electron microscopy using polyclonal antibodies against wsp of Drosophila, of the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis, or against hsp 60 from Yersinia enterocolitica. These results show that as in filariasis, humans with tungiasis are exposed to Wolbachia. Furthermore, antisera raised against proteins of Wolbachia from arthropods or from filarial parasites can be immunologically cross-reactive.

  17. Peroxisome division and proliferation in plants.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw; Zhang, Xinchun; Hu, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles with crucial functions in development. Plant peroxisomes participate in various metabolic processes, some of which are co-operated by peroxisomes and other organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Defining the complete picture of how these essential organelles divide and proliferate will be instrumental in understanding how the dynamics of peroxisome abundance contribute to changes in plant physiology and development. Research in Arabidopsis thaliana has identified several evolutionarily conserved major components of the peroxisome division machinery, including five isoforms of PEROXIN11 proteins (PEX11), two dynamin-related proteins (DRP3A and DRP3B) and two FISSION1 proteins (FIS1A/BIGYIN and FIS1B). Recent studies in our laboratory have also begun to uncover plant-specific factors. DRP5B is a dual-localized protein that is involved in the division of both chloroplasts and peroxisomes, representing an invention of the plant/algal lineage in organelle division. In addition, PMD1 (peroxisomal and mitochondrial division 1) is a plant-specific protein tail anchored to the outer surface of peroxisomes and mitochondria, mediating the division and/or positioning of these organelles. Lastly, light induces peroxisome proliferation in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings, at least in part, through activating the PEX11b gene. The far-red light receptor phyA (phytochrome A) and the transcription factor HYH (HY5 homologue) are key components in this signalling pathway. In summary, pathways for the division and proliferation of plant peroxisomes are composed of conserved and plant-specific factors. The sharing of division proteins by peroxisomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts is also suggesting possible co-ordination in the division of these metabolically associated plant organelles.

  18. Division Chief Meeting, April, 1929

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Caption: 'LMAL division chiefs confer with the engineer-in-charge in April 1929. Left to right: E.A. Myers, Personnel Division; Edward R. Sharp, Property and Clerical Division; Thomas Carroll, Flight Test Division; Henry J.E. Reid, engineer in chief; Carlton Kemper, Power Plants Division; Elton Miller, aerodynamics division.'

  19. An Arabidopsis Homolog of the Bacterial Cell Division Inhibitor SulA Is Involved in Plastid DivisionW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Raynaud, Cécile; Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Perennes, Claudette; Bergounioux, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Plastids have evolved from an endosymbiosis between a cyanobacterial symbiont and a eukaryotic host cell. Their division is mediated both by proteins of the host cell and conserved bacterial division proteins. Here, we identified a new component of the plastid division machinery, Arabidopsis thaliana SulA. Disruption of its cyanobacterial homolog (SSulA) in Synechocystis and overexpression of an AtSulA-green fluorescent protein fusion in Arabidopsis demonstrate that these genes are involved in cell and plastid division, respectively. Overexpression of AtSulA inhibits plastid division in planta but rescues plastid division defects caused by overexpression of AtFtsZ1-1 and AtFtsZ2-1, demonstrating that its role in plastid division may involve an interaction with AtFtsZ1-1 and AtFtsZ2-1. PMID:15208387

  20. Probing the binding site of curcumin in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis FtsZ--a structural insight to unveil antibacterial activity of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Modi, Niraj H; Panda, Dulal; Roy, Nilanjan

    2010-09-01

    The cytoskeletal protein, FtsZ plays a pivotal role in prokaryotic cell division and is present in majority of the bacterial species. In recent years, inhibitors of FtsZ have been identified that may function as lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobials. It has been found that curcumin, the main bioactive component of Curcuma longa, inhibits Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli growth by inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Though it is experimentally established that curcumin inhibits FtsZ polymerization, the binding site of curcumin in FtsZ is not known. In this study, interaction of curcumin with catalytic core domain of E. coli and B. subtilis FtsZ was investigated using computational docking. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The polarity protein Baz forms a platform for the centrosome orientation during asymmetric stem cell division in the Drosophila male germline

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2015-01-01

    Many stem cells divide asymmetrically in order to balance self-renewal with differentiation. The essence of asymmetric cell division (ACD) is the polarization of cells and subsequent division, leading to unequal compartmentalization of cellular/extracellular components that confer distinct cell fates to daughter cells. Because precocious cell division before establishing cell polarity would lead to failure in ACD, these two processes must be tightly coupled; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In Drosophila male germline stem cells, ACD is prepared by stereotypical centrosome positioning. The centrosome orientation checkpoint (COC) further serves to ensure ACD by preventing mitosis upon centrosome misorientation. In this study, we show that Bazooka (Baz) provides a platform for the correct centrosome orientation and that Baz-centrosome association is the key event that is monitored by the COC. Our work provides a foundation for understanding how the correct cell polarity may be recognized by the cell to ensure productive ACD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04960.001 PMID:25793442

  2. 1H, 13C, 15N resonance assignments of the extracellular loop 1 domain (ECL1) of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 FtsX, an essential cell division protein

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yue; Bruce, Kevin E.; Rued, Britta; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Giedroc, David P.

    2015-01-01

    FtsX is an integral membrane protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) that harbors an extracellular loop 1 domain (FtsXECL1Spn) that interacts with PcsB, an peptidoglycan hydrolase that is essential for cell growth and division. Here, we report nearly complete backbone and side chain resonance assignments and a secondary structural analysis of FtsXECL1Spn (residues 47–168 of FtsX) as first steps toward structure determination of FtsXECL1Spn. PMID:26370567

  3. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  4. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  5. Coupling prokaryotic cell fate and division control with a bifunctional and oscillating oxidoreductase homolog.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Sunish Kumar; Pritchard, Sean; Viollier, Patrick H

    2010-01-19

    NAD(H)-binding proteins play important roles in cell-cycle and developmental signaling in eukaryotes. We identified a bifunctional NAD(H)-binding regulator (KidO) that integrates cell-fate signaling with cytokinesis in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. KidO stimulates the DivJ kinase and directly acts on the cytokinetic tubulin, FtsZ, to tune cytokinesis with the cell cycle. At the G1-->S transition, DivJ concomitantly signals the ClpXP-dependent degradation of KidO and CtrA, a cell-cycle transcriptional regulator/DNA replication inhibitor. This proteolytic event directs KidO and CtrA into oscillatory cell-cycle abundance patterns that coordinately license replication and cytokinesis. KidO resembles NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases, and conserved residues in the KidO NAD(H)-binding pocket are critical for regulation of FtsZ, but not for DivJ. Since NADPH-dependent regulation by a KidO-like oxidoreductase also occurs in humans, organisms from two domains of life exploit the enzymatic fold of an ancestral oxidoreductase potentially to coordinate cellular or developmental activities with the availability of the metabolic currency, NAD(P)H.

  6. Division Iv: Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, Christopher; D'Antona, Francesca; Spite, Monique; Asplund, Martin; Charbonnel, Corinne; Docobo, Jose Angel; Gray, Richard O.; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2012-04-01

    This Division IV was started on a trial basis at the General Assembly in The Hague 1994 and was formally accepted at the Kyoto General Assembly in 1997. Its broad coverage of ``Stars'' is reflected in its relatively large number of Commissions and so of members (1266 in late 2011). Its kindred Division V, ``Variable Stars'', has the same history of its beginning. The thinking at the time was to achieve some kind of balance between the number of members in each of the 12 Divisions. Amid the current discussion of reorganizing the number of Divisions into a more compact form it seems advisable to make this numerical balance less of an issue than the rationalization of the scientific coverage of each Division, so providing more effective interaction within a particular field of astronomy. After all, every star is variable to a certain degree and such variability is becoming an ever more powerful tool to understand the characteristics of every kind of normal and peculiar star. So we may expect, after hearing the reactions of members, that in the restructuring a single Division will result from the current Divisions IV and V.

  7. Oriented divisions, fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Scott E.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    During development, the establishment of proper tissue architecture depends upon the coordinated control of cell divisions not only in space and time, but also direction. Execution of an oriented cell division requires establishment of an axis of polarity and alignment of the mitotic spindle along this axis. Frequently, the cleavage plane also segregates fate determinants, either unequally or equally between daughter cells, the outcome of which is either an asymmetric or symmetric division, respectively. The last few years have witnessed tremendous growth in understanding both the extrinsic and intrinsic cues that position the mitotic spindle, the varied mechanisms in which the spindle orientation machinery is controlled in diverse organisms and organ systems, and the manner in which the division axis influences the signaling pathways that direct cell fate choices. PMID:24021274

  8. Chemical Engineering Division Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical Engineering Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer was Theodore Vermeulen of the University of California at Berkeley. Other chemical engineers who received awards or special recognition at a recent ASEE annual conference are mentioned. (BB)

  9. Organization and transcription of the division cell wall (dcw) cluster in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Francis, F; Ramirez-Arcos, S; Salimnia, H; Victor, C; Dillon, J R

    2000-06-27

    A cluster of genes involved in cell division and cell wall (dcw) biosynthesis was identified in Neisseria gonorrhoeae using genomic analysis and through verification of gene order by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The gonococcal dcw cluster consists of 17 genes, in the order 5'-mraZ-mraW-ftsI-murE-hyp1-murF- mraY-hyp2-murD-ftsW-murG-murC-ddl -ft sQ-ftsA-ftsZ-hyp3-3'. The gene organization of the dcw cluster of N. gonorrhoeae is more similar to that observed in Gram-negative rods such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae than in Gram-positive bacteria. The cluster is characterized by several intergenic spaces. Compared with E. coli, two genes, ftsL and envA, are absent in the gonococcal dcw cluster and three hypothetical genes are novel to the cluster. The cluster is flanked by two transcriptional terminators consisting of paired neisserial uptake sequences and also includes four internal terminators, three of which are paired neisserial uptake sequences. We also found that a repeated sequence on the gonococcal genome, commonly called a Correia element, acts as the fourth transcriptional terminator. All termination sequences were shown to be fully functional by using reverse transcription PCR experiments. Transcriptional start sites upstream of ftsQ, ftsA and ftsZ were determined by primer extension and six promoters were identified; three promoters were located upstream of ftsZ in the intergenic space, two were upstream of ftsA within ftsQ and one was upstream of ftsQ within ddl. Some of these promoters were preferentially used under anaerobic conditions. The location of these promoters differed from those described in E. coli indicating dissimilar transcriptional regulation.

  10. Reconsidering Division Cavalry Squadrons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    battalions because they were “the central core of the reconnaissance team,” other cavalry champions, like Major General Robert Wagner , countered that they...29 Starry, Mounted Combat, 221; Robert Wagner , “Division Cavalry: The Broken Saber,” Armor (September-October 1989): 39; Thomas Tait...Cavalry Squadron of 2025.” Armor (January-March 2015): 67-71. Wagner , Robert. “Division Cavalry: The Broken Saber.” Armor (September-October 1989

  11. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    2001-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included in this report are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported is a synopsis of the work and accomplishments completed by the Division during the 1997, 1998, and 1999 calendar years. A bibliography containing 93 citations is provided.

  12. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    1999-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported are a synopsis of the work and accomplishments reported by the Division during the 1996 calendar year. A bibliography containing 42 citations is provided.

  13. Division i: Fundamental Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Dennis D.; Klioner, Sergei A.; Vondrák, Jan; Evans, Dafydd Wyn; Hohenkerk, Catherine Y.; Hosokawa, Mizuhiko; Huang, Cheng-Li; Kaplan, George H.; Knežević, Zoran; Manchester, Richard N.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Petit, Gérard; Schuh, Harald; Soffel, Michael H.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the division is to address the scientific issues that were developed at the 2009 IAU General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro. These are:•Astronomical constants-Gaussian gravitational constant, Astronomical Unit, GMSun, geodesic precession-nutation•Astronomical software•Solar System Ephemerides-Pulsar research-Comparison of dynamical reference frames•Future Optical Reference Frame•Future Radio Reference Frame•Exoplanets-Detection-Dynamics•Predictions of Earth orientation•Units of measurements for astronomical quantities in relativistic context•Astronomical units in the relativistic framework•Time-dependent ecliptic in the GCRS•Asteroid masses•Review of space missions•Detection of gravitational waves•VLBI on the Moon•Real time electronic access to UT1-UTCIn pursuit of these goals Division I members have made significant scientific and organizational progress, and are organizing a Joint Discussion on Space-Time Reference Systems for Future Research at the 2012 IAU General Assembly. The details of Division activities and references are provided in the individual Commission and Working Group reports in this volume. A comprehensive list of references related to the work of the Division is available at the IAU Division I website at http://maia.usno.navy.mil/iaudiv1/.

  14. Signaling Pathways that Regulate Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Rhind, Nicholas; Russell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Cell division requires careful orchestration of three major events: entry into mitosis, chromosomal segregation, and cytokinesis. Signaling within and between the molecules that control these events allows for their coordination via checkpoints, a specific class of signaling pathways that ensure the dependency of cell-cycle events on the successful completion of preceding events. Multiple positive- and negative-feedback loops ensure that a cell is fully committed to division and that the events occur in the proper order. Unlike other signaling pathways, which integrate external inputs to decide whether to execute a given process, signaling at cell division is largely dedicated to completing a decision made in G1 phase—to initiate and complete a round of mitotic cell division. Instead of deciding if the events of cell division will take place, these signaling pathways entrain these events to the activation of the cell-cycle kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and provide the opportunity for checkpoint proteins to arrest cell division if things go wrong. PMID:23028116

  15. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David F.; Melrose, Donald B.; Benz, Arnold O.; Bogdan, Thomas J.; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Martinez Pillet, Valentin

    2007-03-01

    Division II of the IAU provides a forum for astronomers studying a wide range of phenomena related to the structure, radiation and activity of the Sun, and its interaction with the Earth and the rest of the solar system. Division II encompasses three Commissions, 10, 12 and 49, and four working groups. During the last triennia the activities of the division involved some reorganization of the division and its working groups, developing new procedures for election of division and commission officers, promoting annual meetings from within the division and evaluating all the proposed meetings, evaluating the division's representatives for the IAU to international scientific organizations, and participating in general IAU business.

  16. Parkin suppresses Drp1-independent mitochondrial division.

    PubMed

    Roy, Madhuparna; Itoh, Kie; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    The cycle of mitochondrial division and fusion disconnect and reconnect individual mitochondria in cells to remodel this energy-producing organelle. Although dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays a major role in mitochondrial division in cells, a reduced level of mitochondrial division still persists even in the absence of Drp1. It is unknown how much Drp1-mediated mitochondrial division accounts for the connectivity of mitochondria. The role of a Parkinson's disease-associated protein-parkin, which biochemically and genetically interacts with Drp1-in mitochondrial connectivity also remains poorly understood. Here, we quantified the number and connectivity of mitochondria using mitochondria-targeted photoactivatable GFP in cells. We show that the loss of Drp1 increases the connectivity of mitochondria by 15-fold in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). While a single loss of parkin does not affect the connectivity of mitochondria, the connectivity of mitochondria significantly decreased compared with a single loss of Drp1 when parkin was lost in the absence of Drp1. Furthermore, the loss of parkin decreased the frequency of depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is caused by increased mitochondrial connectivity in Drp1-knockout MEFs. Therefore, our data suggest that parkin negatively regulates Drp1-indendent mitochondrial division.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of asymmetric division in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shao-Chen; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2013-08-01

    In contrast to symmetric division in mitosis, mammalian oocyte maturation is characterized by asymmetric cell division that produces a large egg and a small polar body. The asymmetry results from oocyte polarization, which includes spindle positioning, migration, and cortical reorganization, and this process is critical for fertilization and the retention of maternal components for early embryo development. Although actin dynamics are involved in this process, the molecular mechanism underlying this remained unclear until the use of confocal microscopy and live cell imaging became widespread in recent years. Information obtained through a PubMed database search of all articles published in English between 2000 and 2012 that included the phrases "oocyte, actin, spindle migration," "oocyte, actin, polar body," or "oocyte, actin, asymmetric division" was reviewed. The actin nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 complex and its nucleation-promoting factors, formins and Spire, and regulators such as small GTPases, partitioning-defective/protein kinase C, Fyn, microRNAs, cis-Golgi apparatus components, myosin/myosin light-chain kinase, spindle stability regulators, and spindle assembly checkpoint regulators, play critical roles in asymmetric cell division in oocytes. This review summarizes recent findings on these actin-related regulators in mammalian oocyte asymmetric division and outlines a complete signaling pathway.

  18. [An improved method of preparing protein and peptide probes in mass spectrometry with ionization of division fragments by californium-252 (TOF-PDMS)].

    PubMed

    Chivanov, V D; Zubarev, R A; Aksenov, S A; Bordunova, O G; Eremenko, V I; Kabanets, V M; Tatarinova, V I; Mishnev, A K; Kuraev, V V; Knysh, A N; Eremenko, I A

    1996-08-01

    The addition of organic acids (picric, oxalic, citric, or tartaric) to peptide and protein samples was found to significantly increase the yield of their quasi-molecular ions (QMI) in time-of-flight 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry. The yield of the ions depended on the pKa of the acid added.

  19. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Division Vi: Interstellar Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, Tom; Chu, You-Hua; Dyson, John; Breitschwerdt, Dieter; Burton, Mike; Cabrit, Sylvie; Caselli, Paola; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Ferland, Gary; Juvela, Mika; Koo, Bon-Chul; Kwok, Sun; Lizano, Susana; Rozyczka, Michal; Tóth, Viktor; Tsuboi, Masato; Yang, Ji

    2010-05-01

    The business meeting of Division VI was held on Monday 10 October 2009. Apologies had been received in advance from D Breitschwerdt, P Caselli, G Ferland, M Juvela, S Lizano, M Rozyczka, V Tóth, M Tsuboi, J Yang and B-C Koo.

  1. Order Division Automated System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kniemeyer, Justin M.; And Others

    This publication was prepared by the Order Division Automation Project staff to fulfill the Library of Congress' requirement to document all automation efforts. The report was originally intended for internal use only and not for distribution outside the Library. It is now felt that the library community at-large may have an interest in the…

  2. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  3. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Cell division in Corynebacterineae

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Catriona; Bramkamp, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cells must coordinate a number of events during the cell cycle. Spatio-temporal regulation of bacterial cytokinesis is indispensable for the production of viable, genetically identical offspring. In many rod-shaped bacteria, precise midcell assembly of the division machinery relies on inhibitory systems such as Min and Noc. In rod-shaped Actinobacteria, for example Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the divisome assembles in the proximity of the midcell region, however more spatial flexibility is observed compared to Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Actinobacteria represent a group of bacteria that spatially regulate cytokinesis in the absence of recognizable Min and Noc homologs. The key cell division steps in E. coli and B. subtilis have been subject to intensive study and are well-understood. In comparison, only a minimal set of positive and negative regulators of cytokinesis are known in Actinobacteria. Nonetheless, the timing of cytokinesis and the placement of the division septum is coordinated with growth as well as initiation of chromosome replication and segregation. We summarize here the current knowledge on cytokinesis and division site selection in the Actinobacteria suborder Corynebacterineae. PMID:24782835

  5. Painless Division with Doc Spitler's Magic Division Estimator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitler, Gail

    1981-01-01

    An approach to teaching pupils the long division algorithm that relies heavily on a consistent and logical approach to estimation is reviewed. Once learned, the division estimator can be used to support the standard repeated subtraction algorithm. (MP)

  6. Novel complexes of cyclin-dependent kinases and a cyclin-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana with a function unrelated to cell division.

    PubMed

    Barrôco, R M; De Veylder, L; Magyar, Z; Engler, G; Inzé, D; Mironov, V

    2003-02-01

    Although the majority of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a key role in cell cycle progression, recent evidence has shown that CDKs are also implicated in transcription regulation. Here, we describe two Arabidopsis CDKs designated Arath;CDKC;1 and Arath; CDKC;2. These CDKs share a PITAIRE signature in the cyclin-binding domain and the structural characteristics of mammalian CDK9. Yeast two-hybrid screens and immunoprecipitation assays identified CDKC-interacting proteins with homology to the animal cyclin T/cyclin K group. We suggest that these Arabidopsis CDKCs may be part of a kinase complex similar to the animal positive transcription elongation factor b, whose activity is essential for transcription control. Expression studies showed that Arath; CDKC transcripts are mainly confined to epidermal tissues and are most abundant in flower tissues. No expression was detected in actively dividing Arabidopsis tissues, suggesting a role for the CDKC proteins in differentiated cells.

  7. Determination of symmetric and asymmetric division planes in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carolyn G; Humphries, John A; Smith, Laurie G

    2011-01-01

    The cellular organization of plant tissues is determined by patterns of cell division and growth coupled with cellular differentiation. Cells proliferate mainly via symmetric division, whereas asymmetric divisions are associated with initiation of new developmental patterns and cell types. Division planes in both symmetrically and asymmetrically dividing cells are established through the action of a cortical preprophase band (PPB) of cytoskeletal filaments, which is disassembled upon transition to metaphase, leaving behind a cortical division site (CDS) to which the cytokinetic phragmoplast is later guided to position the cell plate. Recent progress has been made in understanding PPB formation and function as well as the nature and function of the CDS. In asymmetrically dividing cells, division plane establishment is governed by cell polarity. Recent work is beginning to shed light on polarization mechanisms in asymmetrically dividing cells, with receptor-like proteins and potential downstream effectors emerging as important players in this process.

  8. Biological activity of Pinus nigra terpenes--evaluation of FtsZ inhibition by selected compounds as contribution to their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Zorica; Matejić, Jelena S; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Veselinović, Jovana B; Džamić, Ana M; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-11-01

    In the current work, in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activites of the needle terpenes of three taxa of Pinus nigra from Serbia (ssp. nigra, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) were analyzed. The black pine essential oils showed generally weak antioxidative properties tested by two methods (DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays), where the highest activity was identified in P. nigra var. banatica (IC50=25.08 mg/mL and VitC=0.67 mg (vitamin C)/g when tested with the DPPH and ABTS reagents, respectively). In the antimicrobial assays, one fungal (Aspergilus niger) and two bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) showed sensitivity against essential oils of all three P. nigra taxa. The tested oils have been shown to possess inhibitory action in the range from 20.00 to 0.62 mg/mL, where var. banatica exhibited the highest and ssp. nigra the lowest antimicrobial action. In order to determine potential compounds that are responsible for alternative mode of action, molecular docking simulations inside FtsZ (a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin) were performed. Tested compounds were the most abundant terpenoid (germacrene D-4-ol) and its structurally similar terpene (germacrene D), both present in all three essential oils. It was determined that the oxygenated form of the molecule creates stable bonds with investigated enzyme FtsZ, and that this compound, through this mechanism of action participates in the antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parkin suppresses Drp1-independent mitochondrial division

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Madhuparna Itoh, Kie Iijima, Miho Sesaki, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    The cycle of mitochondrial division and fusion disconnect and reconnect individual mitochondria in cells to remodel this energy-producing organelle. Although dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays a major role in mitochondrial division in cells, a reduced level of mitochondrial division still persists even in the absence of Drp1. It is unknown how much Drp1-mediated mitochondrial division accounts for the connectivity of mitochondria. The role of a Parkinson’s disease-associated protein—parkin, which biochemically and genetically interacts with Drp1—in mitochondrial connectivity also remains poorly understood. Here, we quantified the number and connectivity of mitochondria using mitochondria-targeted photoactivatable GFP in cells. We show that the loss of Drp1 increases the connectivity of mitochondria by 15-fold in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). While a single loss of parkin does not affect the connectivity of mitochondria, the connectivity of mitochondria significantly decreased compared with a single loss of Drp1 when parkin was lost in the absence of Drp1. Furthermore, the loss of parkin decreased the frequency of depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is caused by increased mitochondrial connectivity in Drp1-knockout MEFs. Therefore, our data suggest that parkin negatively regulates Drp1-indendent mitochondrial division. -- Highlights: •A Drp1-mediated mechanism accounts for ∼95% of mitochondrial division. •Parkin controls the connectivity of mitochondria via a mechanism that is independent of Drp1. •In the absence of Drp1, connected mitochondria transiently depolarize. •The transient depolarization is independent of calcium signaling and uncoupling protein 2.

  10. PEX11 promotes peroxisome division independently of peroxisome metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoling; Gould, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    The PEX11 peroxisomal membrane proteins are the only factors known to promote peroxisome division in multiple species. It has been proposed that PEX11 proteins have a direct role in peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, and that they only affect peroxisome abundance indirectly. Here we show that PEX11 proteins are unique in their ability to promote peroxisome division, and that PEX11 overexpression promotes peroxisome division in the absence of peroxisomal metabolic activity. We also observed that mouse cells lacking PEX11β display reduced peroxisome abundance, even in the absence of peroxisomal metabolic substrates, and that PEX11β−/− mice are partially deficient in two distinct peroxisomal metabolic pathways, ether lipid synthesis and very long chain fatty acid oxidation. Based on these and other observations, we propose that PEX11 proteins act directly in peroxisome division, and that their loss has indirect effects on peroxisome metabolism. PMID:11839773

  11. Polarity in plant asymmetric cell division: Division orientation and cell fate differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wanchen; Dong, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is universally required for the development of multicellular organisms. Unlike animal cells, plant cells have a rigid cellulosic extracellular matrix, the cell wall, which provides physical support and forms communication routes. This fundamental difference leads to some unique mechanisms in plants for generating asymmetries during cell division. However, plants also utilize intrinsically polarized proteins to regulate asymmetric signaling and cell division, a strategy similar to the differentiation mechanism found in animals. Current progress suggests that common regulatory modes, i.e. protein spontaneous clustering and cytoskeleton reorganization, underlie protein polarization in both animal and plant cells. Despite these commonalities, it is important to note that intrinsic mechanisms in plants are heavily influenced by extrinsic cues. To control physical asymmetry in cell division, although our understanding is fragmentary thus far, plants might have evolved novel polarization strategies to orientate cell division plane. Recent studies also suggest that the phytohormone auxin, one of the most pivotal small molecules in plant development, regulates ACD in plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Polarity in plant asymmetric cell division: Division orientation and cell fate differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wanchen; Dong, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is universally required for the development of multicellular organisms. Unlike animal cells, plant cells have a rigid cellulosic extracellular matrix, the cell wall, which provides physical support and forms communication routes. This fundamental difference leads to some unique mechanisms in plants for generating asymmetries during cell division. However, plants also utilize intrinsically polarized proteins to regulate asymmetric signaling and cell division, a strategy similar to the differentiation mechanism found in animals. Current progress suggests that common regulatory modes, i.e. protein spontaneous clustering and cytoskeleton reorganization, underlie protein polarization in both animal and plant cells. Despite these commonalities, it is important to note that intrinsic mechanisms in plants are heavily influenced by extrinsic cues. To control physical asymmetry in cell division, although our understanding is fragmentary thus far, plants might have evolved novel polarization strategies to orientate cell division plane. Recent studies also suggest that the phytohormone auxin, one of the most pivotal small molecules in plant development, regulates ACD in plants. PMID:27475487

  13. Towards a bottom-up reconstitution of bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Martos, Ariadna; Jiménez, Mercedes; Rivas, Germán; Schwille, Petra

    2012-12-01

    The components of the bacterial division machinery assemble to form a dynamic ring at mid-cell that drives cytokinesis. The nature of most division proteins and their assembly pathway is known. Our knowledge about the biochemical activities and protein interactions of some key division elements, including those responsible for correct ring positioning, has progressed considerably during the past decade. These developments, together with new imaging and membrane reconstitution technologies, have triggered the 'bottom-