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Sample records for djibouti

  1. Djibouti.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The Republic of Djibouti, an area of 9,000 square miles on the Horn of Africa, is bounded on 3 sides by Ethiopia and Somalia and on the 4th by the Gulf of Aden, where the capital city, Djibouti, with its good natural harbor, is located. The population of 387,000, growing at 5.1% a year, is divided between the majority Somalis (of the Issa, Ishaak and Gadaboursi tribes) and the Afars and Danakils. All are Cushite-speaking, although the official language is French. Almost all of the people are Muslim. The country became independent of France in 1977; it had been the French Territory of Afars and Issas from 1966-77 and French Somaliland from 1884 to 1966. During the Second World War, Djibouti was governed from Vichy until 1942, when the country joined the Free French, and a Djibouti battalion participated in the liberation of France. The country is governed by a president (Mr. Hassan Gouled Aptidon), a prime minister (Mr. Barkat Gourad Hammadou), and a 65-member parliament, elected by universal suffrage. There is only 1 permitted political party, the Rassemblement Populaire Pour le Progres (RPP), which is dominated by the Issas. There are no women in high government positions, but the status of women is somewhat higher than in most Islamic countries. Djibouti has a small army, navy, and air force, supplemented by 4000 French troops. The level of socioeconomic development is not good. The economy is stagnant, and the country is afflicted with recurring drought. Only 20% of the people are literate; infant mortality is 114/1000, and life expectancy is 50 years. Per capita income is $450. Malaria is prevalent; there is only 1 hospital; and drinking water is unsafe. There are no natural resources, no industry, and very little agriculture. Most of the country's gross domestic product of $339 million is derived from servicing the port's facilities for container shipment and transshipment and maintaining the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad. The unit of currency is the Djibouti

  2. Djibouti: country profile.

    PubMed

    Fozzard, A

    1988-08-01

    The nation of Djibouti lies on the east coast of Africa at the point where the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden meet. It has been independent since 1977, yet French influence and presence continue. For example, 2000 French troops are in Djibouti to guard its independence from its combative neighbors Somalia and Ethiopia. France also supports the government's constant budget deficit and unstable economy. The nation's 2 main sources of national income include the port and its associated services and the money spent by the unwelcome French garrison. Many of the troops and visitors from the Gulf frequent the many brothels and the Muslim Djiboutians find this sexual activity offensive. Since agriculture is almost nonexistent due to semiarid conditions and the well-paid expatriate community can afford to pay high prices for food, many of the 400,000 Djiboutians live at subsistence level or below. Additionally, the authors claim that perhaps 40% of the population is unemployed. The population consists of 2 main groups, the Afars and the Issas, who feud in the political arena. The Afars dominate the Cabinet, yet President Gouled is an Issas and patronizes Issas rival clans to maintain their support. Not surprisingly, the demands of the Afar community are not the President's top priorities. Consequently' violent protests arise and the President resorts to force.

  3. Djibouti: country profile.

    PubMed

    Fozzard, A

    1988-08-01

    The nation of Djibouti lies on the east coast of Africa at the point where the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden meet. It has been independent since 1977, yet French influence and presence continue. For example, 2000 French troops are in Djibouti to guard its independence from its combative neighbors Somalia and Ethiopia. France also supports the government's constant budget deficit and unstable economy. The nation's 2 main sources of national income include the port and its associated services and the money spent by the unwelcome French garrison. Many of the troops and visitors from the Gulf frequent the many brothels and the Muslim Djiboutians find this sexual activity offensive. Since agriculture is almost nonexistent due to semiarid conditions and the well-paid expatriate community can afford to pay high prices for food, many of the 400,000 Djiboutians live at subsistence level or below. Additionally, the authors claim that perhaps 40% of the population is unemployed. The population consists of 2 main groups, the Afars and the Issas, who feud in the political arena. The Afars dominate the Cabinet, yet President Gouled is an Issas and patronizes Issas rival clans to maintain their support. Not surprisingly, the demands of the Afar community are not the President's top priorities. Consequently' violent protests arise and the President resorts to force. PMID:12315735

  4. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  5. Supporting women's empowerment in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Z

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the work carried out by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in the small island of Djibouti, Africa. The republic's population has been plagued with problems of high levels of unemployment, poverty, malnutrition, an almost non-existent family reproductive health care service, 100% prevalence rate of female genital mutilation and low literacy rate, especially for women. In addition, refugees from Ethiopia and Eritrea have settled in the country increasing the risks of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, prostitution, and other social ills. In 1983, UNFPA started funding family planning and later reproductive health projects aimed at assuring access to services for a majority of Djiboutan women. The first country population program of assistance was started in 1992. This would help the government with health care for its population and to conduct a population census. In addition, the Fund has paid for training of doctors, midwives, and traditional birth assistants in the country and for rehabilitating maternity clinics and information centers. Moreover, it has supported agencies concerned with educating people on STDs, HIV/AIDS, safe motherhood and reproductive health for men and women, and other important issues.

  6. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    PubMed

    Rodier, G R; Parra, J P; Kamil, M; Chakib, S O; Cope, S E

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases.

  7. Interlinking Nutrition and Workfare during the First 1000 Days: A New Social Safety Net in Djibouti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodmann, Stefanie; Devoto, Florencia; Galasso, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    In Djibouti, extreme poverty was 41.9% and relative poverty 79.4% according to the poverty profile elaborated by the national statistical office (DISED) in 2012. Malnutrition remains high in Djibouti, and comparable to Sub-Saharan countries, with 29.7% of children under the age of five chronically malnourished, 29.6% underweight, and over 17.8% of…

  8. [Epidemiologic aspects of 42 cases of human brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Gavazzi, G; Prigent, D; Baudet, J M; Banoita, S; Daoud, W

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis is an ubiquitous anthropozoonoses in the Republic of Djibouti, but it has only been studied in the City of Djibouti. This retrospective study of 42 cases of human brucellosis diagnosed between April 1993 and April 1995 was carried out at the Peltier Hospital in Djibouti to obtain epidemiological data concerning brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and positive immunologic tests (Rose Bengal test > 100 UI and Wright serology > 1/80). The following information was obtained for each patient: nationality, ethnic origin, place of residence, age, sex, and risk factors for exposure to infected animals or products. There were 30 men and 12 women including 38 Djiboutis, 3 Somalis, and 1 Ethiopian. Ethnic origin was Afar in 32 cases, Somali in 6 cases, and undetermined in 4 cases. Mean age was 31.6 years. Of the 38 Djiboutis, 15 lived in the district of Djibouti, 17 in the district of Tadjourah, 3 in the district of Obock, and none in districts located in the Southern part of the country. In 18 cases brucellosis involved cattle raisers from the Northern part of the country. In five cases no risk factor could be identified. The incidence of brucellosis in the Republic of Djibouti appears to be comparable to that observed in other highly endemic countries. Further study is needed to determine the exact incidence in man and animals and ascertain the need and feasibility of preventive measures.

  9. [Djibouti, history of 2 epidemics of cholera: 1993-1994].

    PubMed

    Morillon, M; De Pina, J J; Husser, J A; Baudet, J M; Bertherat, E; Martet, G

    1998-01-01

    When two cholera epidemics broke out in Djibouti, respectively in 1993 and 1994, Bioforce was obliged to intervene. The first time, three goals were pursued: setting up a rehydration centre in a tent, organizing epidemiological surveillance and training local personnel in treatment and diagnosis techniques. The next year, the epidemic followed serious flooding. The epidemiological analysis showed that cholera had become endemic in the poor neighbourhoods of the town and that epidemic break-outs were favoured by contaminated surface water and disturbances in the distribution of drinking water. The epidemic of 1997, likewise following flooding, only confirmed this point of view. PMID:10078376

  10. [Aeromonas hydrophila in the drinking water in Djibouti: commensal germ or diarrhea-causing agent?].

    PubMed

    Fox, E; Mikhail, I A; Haberberger, R L; Abbatte, E A; Ahmed, M H

    1990-04-01

    To investigate the bacteriological quality of drinking water used by inhabitants of the Republic of Djibouti who were not supplied with piped running water, we analysed 16 fresh-water samples from various sources. Only 3 samples were sterile; they were taken from village pumps and from a water-truck. Eleven samples yielded colonies of Aeromonas hydrophila too numerous to be counted; they were taken from water tanks, metal barrels, or wells dug in either dry river beds or along the seashore. We speculate that this high isolation frequency of Aeromonas hydrophila in fresh water samples may be related to conditions that are exceptionally favourable for the growth of the bacterium (e.g. high temperature and elevated concentrations of certain salts and minerals in the fresh water of Djibouti). We wonder nevertheless whether the infected water supplies were a source of diarrhoea for humans. Indeed, antibiotic resistance patterns were dissimilar when the 11 environmental strains were compared to 7 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diarrhoeal patients in Djibouti during the same period. More studies are needed to determine if Aeromonas hydrophila is always a commensal inhabitant of fresh water in Djibouti, or if it can be a cause of infectious diarrhoea. Accordingly, Public Health authorities in Djibouti will be able to decide if water from wells and tanks is safe for drinking, or if it needs disinfection before consumption.

  11. Mycobacterial diversity causing multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Millán-Lou, M I; Ollé-Goig, J E; Tortola, M T; Martin, C; Samper, S

    2016-02-01

    On detecting a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Djibouti, 32 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates of patients hospitalised in the TB referral centre of the capital were genotyped. A high variety of M. tuberculosis lineages, including lineage 1, Indo-Oceanic, lineage 2, East-Asian, lineage 3, East-African Indian and lineage 4, Euro-American, were detected. PMID:26792464

  12. Epidemic dengue 2 in the city of Djibouti 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Rodier, G R; Gubler, D J; Cope, S E; Cropp, C B; Soliman, A K; Polycarpe, D; Abdourhaman, M A; Parra, J P; Maslin, J; Arthur, R R

    1996-01-01

    From October 1991 to February 1992, an outbreak of acute fever (in which thick blood films were negative for malaria) spread rapidly in the city of Djibouti, Djibouti Republic, affecting all age groups and both nationals and foreigners. The estimated number of cases was 12,000. The clinical features were consistent with a non-haemorrhagic dengue-like illness. Serum samples from 91 patients were analysed serologically for flavivirus infection (dengue 1-4, West Nile, yellow fever, Zika, Banzi, and Uganda-S), and virus isolation was attempted. Twelve strains of dengue 2 virus were isolated. Dengue infection was confirmed by a 4-fold or greater rise in immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody in paired serum specimens, the presence of IgM antibody, or isolation of the virus. Overall, 46 of the suspected cases (51%) were confirmed virologically or had serological evidence of a recent flavivirus infection. Statistical analysis showed that the presence of a rash was the best predictor of flavivirus seropositivity. In November 1992, Aedes aegypti was widespread and abundant in several districts of Djibouti city. A serological study of serum samples collected from Djiboutian military personnel 5 months before the epidemic showed that only 15/177 (8.5%) had flavivirus antibodies. These findings, together with a negative serosurvey for dengue serotypes 1-4 and yellow fever virus performed in 1987, support the conclusion that dengue 2 virus has only recently been introduced to Djibouti.

  13. Sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance documenting West Nile virus circulation in two Culex mosquito species indicating different transmission characteristics, Djibouti City, Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Spiesberger, Michael; Abbas, Babiker

    2012-08-01

    The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to investigate whether autochthonous WNV transmission occurs in the Djibouti City area, in how far, and which of, the endemic Culex mosquito species are involved in WNV circulation activity,and whether sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance (SSE-NRTS) may increase WNV detection sensitivity, mosquito vector monitoring was conducted from January 2010 to June 2012. Six monitoring locations, including two identified sentinel sites, considered most probable for potential anthroponotic and zoonotic virus circulation activity, have been continuously employed. Among the 20431 mosquitoes collected, 19069 (93.4%) were Cx. quinquefasciatus, and 1345 (6.6%) Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus. WNV lineage 2 circulation activity was detected between December 20th, 2010 and January 7th, 2011. Overall, 19 WNV RNA-positive mosquito pools were detected. Generally, urban environment-specific WNV-RNA circulation took place in Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus, whereas periurban and rural area-linked circulation was detected only in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Serological investigation data from 10 volunteers employed at the dislocated zoonotic WNV transmission sentinel site suggest that six persons (60%) had an acute, or recent, WNV infection. Results show that WNV should be considered endemic for Djibouti and sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance is an elegant and highly effective epidemiological tool. In Djibouti, the endemicity level, public health impact and transmission modes of vector-borne diseases in concordance with locally optimized monitoring and control regimen deserve further investigation. PMID:23214223

  14. Non-fatal gunshot trauma among a sample of adolescents in Djibouti: prevalence and sociodemographic associations.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L; Lewis, Erin R

    2014-01-01

    Firearm trauma is the second most common cause of serious injury among adolescents in the Republic of Djibouti. The aim of this study was to explore the sociodemographic correlates of serious injury and non-fatal gunshot trauma among adolescents in Djibouti. Using multinomial logistic regression, we compared a sample of adolescents (N = 1,711) who self-reported a non-firearm-related serious injury (n = 587) and those who reported a firearm-related injury (n = 101) with non-injured participants (n = 1,023) during a 12-month recall period. Analyses targeted demographic, behavioral, social, mental health, and family factors. After adjusting for covariates, participants reporting a non-firearm-related serious injury were more likely to report having been involved in physical fights (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 145; confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 2.02), being bullied (RRR = 2.83; CI = [2.24, 3.56]), feeling lonely (RRR = 1.48; CI = [1.11, 1.96]), having signs of depression (RRR = 1.27; CI = [1.02, 1.58]), and be truant from school (RRR = 1.68; CI = [1.25, 2.28]). Those who reported a gunshot injury recorded being bullied (RRR = 2.83; CI = [1.77, 4.53]) and physically attacked at higher rates (RRR = 1.78; CI = [1.09, 2.89]). Serious injuries, whether firearm related or not, are important threats to adolescent health in Djibouti with potentially serious health-related correlates. More research, particularly multilevel designs, are needed to explain context-relevant factors associated with serious trauma in Djibouti. PMID:24097908

  15. A Sero-epidemiological Study of Arboviral Fevers in Djibouti, Horn of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Andayi, Fred; Charrel, Remi N.; Kieffer, Alexia; Richet, Herve; Pastorino, Boris; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Carrat, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Arboviral infections have repeatedly been reported in the republic of Djibouti, consistent with the fact that essential vectors for arboviral diseases are endemic in the region. However, there is a limited recent information regarding arbovirus circulation, and the associated risk predictors to human exposure are largely unknown. We performed, from November 2010 to February 2011 in the Djibouti city general population, a cross-sectional ELISA and sero-neutralisation-based sero-epidemiological analysis nested in a household cohort, which investigated the arboviral infection prevalence and risk factors, stratified by their vectors of transmission. Antibodies to dengue virus (21.8%) were the most frequent. Determinants of infection identified by multivariate analysis pointed to sociological and environmental exposure to the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The population was broadly naïve against Chikungunya (2.6%) with risk factors mostly shared with dengue. The detection of limited virus circulation was followed by a significant Chikungunya outbreak a few months after our study. Antibodies to West Nile virus were infrequent (0.6%), but the distribution of cases faithfully followed previous mapping of infected Culex mosquitoes. The seroprevalence of Rift valley fever virus was 2.2%, and non-arboviral transmission was suggested. Finally, the study indicated the circulation of Toscana-related viruses (3.7%), and a limited number of cases suggested infection by tick-borne encephalitis or Alkhumra related viruses, which deserve further investigations to identify the viruses and vectors implicated. Overall, most of the arboviral cases' predictors were statistically best described by the individuals' housing space and neighborhood environmental characteristics, which correlated with the ecological actors of their respective transmission vectors' survival in the local niche. This study has demonstrated autochthonous arboviral circulations in the republic of Djibouti, and provides

  16. A sero-epidemiological study of arboviral fevers in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Andayi, Fred; Charrel, Remi N; Kieffer, Alexia; Richet, Herve; Pastorino, Boris; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Carrat, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Arboviral infections have repeatedly been reported in the republic of Djibouti, consistent with the fact that essential vectors for arboviral diseases are endemic in the region. However, there is a limited recent information regarding arbovirus circulation, and the associated risk predictors to human exposure are largely unknown. We performed, from November 2010 to February 2011 in the Djibouti city general population, a cross-sectional ELISA and sero-neutralisation-based sero-epidemiological analysis nested in a household cohort, which investigated the arboviral infection prevalence and risk factors, stratified by their vectors of transmission. Antibodies to dengue virus (21.8%) were the most frequent. Determinants of infection identified by multivariate analysis pointed to sociological and environmental exposure to the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The population was broadly naïve against Chikungunya (2.6%) with risk factors mostly shared with dengue. The detection of limited virus circulation was followed by a significant Chikungunya outbreak a few months after our study. Antibodies to West Nile virus were infrequent (0.6%), but the distribution of cases faithfully followed previous mapping of infected Culex mosquitoes. The seroprevalence of Rift valley fever virus was 2.2%, and non-arboviral transmission was suggested. Finally, the study indicated the circulation of Toscana-related viruses (3.7%), and a limited number of cases suggested infection by tick-borne encephalitis or Alkhumra related viruses, which deserve further investigations to identify the viruses and vectors implicated. Overall, most of the arboviral cases' predictors were statistically best described by the individuals' housing space and neighborhood environmental characteristics, which correlated with the ecological actors of their respective transmission vectors' survival in the local niche. This study has demonstrated autochthonous arboviral circulations in the republic of Djibouti, and provides

  17. A sero-epidemiological study of arboviral fevers in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Andayi, Fred; Charrel, Remi N; Kieffer, Alexia; Richet, Herve; Pastorino, Boris; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Carrat, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Arboviral infections have repeatedly been reported in the republic of Djibouti, consistent with the fact that essential vectors for arboviral diseases are endemic in the region. However, there is a limited recent information regarding arbovirus circulation, and the associated risk predictors to human exposure are largely unknown. We performed, from November 2010 to February 2011 in the Djibouti city general population, a cross-sectional ELISA and sero-neutralisation-based sero-epidemiological analysis nested in a household cohort, which investigated the arboviral infection prevalence and risk factors, stratified by their vectors of transmission. Antibodies to dengue virus (21.8%) were the most frequent. Determinants of infection identified by multivariate analysis pointed to sociological and environmental exposure to the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The population was broadly naïve against Chikungunya (2.6%) with risk factors mostly shared with dengue. The detection of limited virus circulation was followed by a significant Chikungunya outbreak a few months after our study. Antibodies to West Nile virus were infrequent (0.6%), but the distribution of cases faithfully followed previous mapping of infected Culex mosquitoes. The seroprevalence of Rift valley fever virus was 2.2%, and non-arboviral transmission was suggested. Finally, the study indicated the circulation of Toscana-related viruses (3.7%), and a limited number of cases suggested infection by tick-borne encephalitis or Alkhumra related viruses, which deserve further investigations to identify the viruses and vectors implicated. Overall, most of the arboviral cases' predictors were statistically best described by the individuals' housing space and neighborhood environmental characteristics, which correlated with the ecological actors of their respective transmission vectors' survival in the local niche. This study has demonstrated autochthonous arboviral circulations in the republic of Djibouti, and provides

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Methods Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. Results We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%–1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%–1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%–2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%–0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%–28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%–4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%–0.8%) in Sudan. Conclusion National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown. PMID:26900839

  19. [Management of bluespotted stingray injuries in Djibouti from July 2008 to July 2009].

    PubMed

    Aigle, L; Lions, C; Mottier, F; Ollivier, L

    2010-06-01

    Although stingray injuries have always been frequent in the Republic of Djibouti, it was not until July 2008 that the Bouffard Hospital developed a standardised management protocol. The purpose of this report is to describe that protocol and evaluate its impact on the outcome of stingray injuries based on a prospective study for the period between July 2008 and July 2009. During the study period, 12 stingray stings were treated. The treatment protocol that is based on a multidisciplinary approach involving the intensivist, anaesthesiologist, and surgeon achieved wound healing within one month. This outcome contrasts with previous publications that have generally described longer healing times with frequent infectious complications. PMID:20734594

  20. [Maxillary sinus infection by Bacillus licheniformis: a case report from Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Garcia Hejl, C; Sanmartin, N; Samson, T; Soler, C; Koeck, J-L

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic, spore-forming gram-positive Bacillus spp infections are rare and reported mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of acute unilateral maxillary sinusitis, caused by Bacillus licheniformis, in a 35-year-old French soldier stationed in Djibouti. It was easily identifiable due to its typical culture and resistance profile. This case is interesting for two reasons: first, it is, to our knowledge, the first case of sinusitis attributed to this microbe, and second, it has rarely been described in immunocompetent patients without altered skin or mucous membranes. PMID:26370779

  1. Forecasting Container Throughput at the Doraleh Port in Djibouti through Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed Ismael, Hawa; Vandyck, George Kobina

    The Doraleh Container Terminal (DCT) located in Djibouti has been noted as the most technologically advanced container terminal on the African continent. DCT's strategic location at the crossroads of the main shipping lanes connecting Asia, Africa and Europe put it in a unique position to provide important shipping services to vessels plying that route. This paper aims to forecast container throughput through the Doraleh Container Port in Djibouti by Time Series Analysis. A selection of univariate forecasting models has been used, namely Triple Exponential Smoothing Model, Grey Model and Linear Regression Model. By utilizing the above three models and their combination, the forecast of container throughput through the Doraleh port was realized. A comparison of the different forecasting results of the three models, in addition to the combination forecast is then undertaken, based on commonly used evaluation criteria Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). The study found that the Linear Regression forecasting Model was the best prediction method for forecasting the container throughput, since its forecast error was the least. Based on the regression model, a ten (10) year forecast for container throughput at DCT has been made.

  2. [Discovery of a focus of intestinal bilharziasis in te Republic of Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Koeck, J L; Modica, C; Tual, F; Czarnecki, E; Fabre, R; Merle, C; Montfort, F; Jouvenin, N; Cavallo, J D

    1999-01-01

    An unprecedented pocket of intestinal schistosomiasis was discovered in the Republic of Djibouti in 1997. The first cases were diagnosed in French and Djiboutian tourists who presented initial symptoms of bilharzian infection after bathing in the fresh-water basin under Hassan Gari Bira Falls, near Randa. Seventeen cases were subsequently confirmed by detection of anti-schistosome antibodies using indirect hemagglutination (IH) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and/or detection of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the stool. Further testing was performed in 35 village inhabitants, mostly children, who had been exposed by bathing in the basin. The IH reaction was positive in 28 patients (80 p. 100) including 17 (49 p. 100) with levels greater than 1/64. In 92 p. 100 of cases, IH findings were confirmed by IIF which indicated that association with hypereosinophilia was common. Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in stools from 7 patients (19 p. 100) who generally displayed mild hypereosinophilia. Information concerning the zone of risk was distributed and control measures were undertaken as widely as possible in Djibouti and abroad.

  3. Progenitor “Mycobacterium canettii” Clone Responsible for Lymph Node Tuberculosis Epidemic, Djibouti

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Yann; Cazajous, Géraldine; Dehan, Céline; Soler, Charles; Vong, Rithy; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Hauck, Yolande; Boulais, Christian; Andriamanantena, Dina; Martinaud, Christophe; Martin, Émilie; Pourcel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    “Mycobacterium canettii,” an opportunistic human pathogen living in an unknown environmental reservoir, is the progenitor species from which Mycobacterium tuberculosis emerged. Since its discovery in 1969, most of the ≈70 known M. canettii strains were isolated in the Republic of Djibouti, frequently from expatriate children and adults. We show here, by whole-genome sequencing, that most strains collected from February 2010 through March 2013, and associated with 2 outbreaks of lymph node tuberculosis in children, belong to a unique epidemic clone within M. canettii. Evolution of this clone, which has been recovered regularly since 1983, may mimic the birth of M. tuberculosis. Thus, recognizing this organism and identifying its reservoir are clinically important. PMID:24520560

  4. Progenitor “Mycobacterium canettii” clone responsible for lymph node tuberculosis epidemic, Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Yann; Cazajous, Géraldine; Dehan, Céline; Soler, Charles; Vong, Rithy; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Hauck, Yolande; Boulais, Christian; Andriamanantena, Dina; Martinaud, Christophe; Martin, Émilie; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    “Mycobacterium canettii,” an opportunistic human pathogen living in an unknown environmental reservoir, is the progenitor species from which Mycobacterium tuberculosis emerged. Since its discovery in 1969, most of the ≈70 known M. canettii strains were isolated in the Republic of Djibouti, frequently from expatriate children and adults. We show here, by whole-genome sequencing, that most strains collected from February 2010 through March 2013, and associated with 2 outbreaks of lymph node tuberculosis in children, belong to a unique epidemic clone within M. canettii. Evolution of this clone, which has been recovered regularly since 1983, may mimic the birth of M. tuberculosis. Thus, recognizing this organism and identifying its reservoir are clinically important.

  5. Wastewater reclamation using discarded reverse osmosis membranes for reuse in irrigation in Djibouti, an arid country.

    PubMed

    Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Hoch, Farhan Bouraleh; Bouh, Samatar Mohamed; Dirieh, Elias Said

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the feasibility of recovering discarded reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in order to reduce the salinity of domestic treated wastewater. This study shows that the reuse of RO membranes is of particular interest for arid countries having naturally high mineralized water such as Djibouti. The pilot desalination unit reduces the electrical conductivity, the turbidity and the total dissolved salt respectively at 75-85, 96.7 and 95.4%. The water produced with this desalination unit contains an average of 254 cfu/100 mL total coliforms and 87 cfu/100 mL fecal coliforms. This effluent meets the World Health Organization standards for treated wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes. The annual cost of the desalination unit was evaluated as US $/m(3) 0.82, indicating the relatively high cost of this process. Nevertheless, such processes are required to produce an effluent, with a high reuse potential.

  6. Wastewater reclamation using discarded reverse osmosis membranes for reuse in irrigation in Djibouti, an arid country.

    PubMed

    Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Hoch, Farhan Bouraleh; Bouh, Samatar Mohamed; Dirieh, Elias Said

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the feasibility of recovering discarded reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in order to reduce the salinity of domestic treated wastewater. This study shows that the reuse of RO membranes is of particular interest for arid countries having naturally high mineralized water such as Djibouti. The pilot desalination unit reduces the electrical conductivity, the turbidity and the total dissolved salt respectively at 75-85, 96.7 and 95.4%. The water produced with this desalination unit contains an average of 254 cfu/100 mL total coliforms and 87 cfu/100 mL fecal coliforms. This effluent meets the World Health Organization standards for treated wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes. The annual cost of the desalination unit was evaluated as US $/m(3) 0.82, indicating the relatively high cost of this process. Nevertheless, such processes are required to produce an effluent, with a high reuse potential. PMID:23508163

  7. Progenitor “Mycobacterium canettii” clone responsible for lymph node tuberculosis epidemic, Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Yann; Cazajous, Géraldine; Dehan, Céline; Soler, Charles; Vong, Rithy; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Hauck, Yolande; Boulais, Christian; Andriamanantena, Dina; Martinaud, Christophe; Martin, Émilie; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    “Mycobacterium canettii,” an opportunistic human pathogen living in an unknown environmental reservoir, is the progenitor species from which Mycobacterium tuberculosis emerged. Since its discovery in 1969, most of the ≈70 known M. canettii strains were isolated in the Republic of Djibouti, frequently from expatriate children and adults. We show here, by whole-genome sequencing, that most strains collected from February 2010 through March 2013, and associated with 2 outbreaks of lymph node tuberculosis in children, belong to a unique epidemic clone within M. canettii. Evolution of this clone, which has been recovered regularly since 1983, may mimic the birth of M. tuberculosis. Thus, recognizing this organism and identifying its reservoir are clinically important. PMID:24520560

  8. Evidence of Rickettsia and Orientia Infections Among Abattoir Workers in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Horton, Katherine C; Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice; Dueger, Erica; Zayed, Alia; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Pimentel, Guillermo; Richards, Allen L

    2016-08-01

    Of 49 workers at a Djiboutian abattoir, eight (16%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-29) were seropositive against spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), two (4%, 95% CI: 1-14) against typhus group rickettsiae, and three (6%, 95% CI: 2-17) against orientiae. One worker (9%, 95% CI: 2-38) seroconverted against orientiae during the study period. This is the first evidence of orientiae exposure in the Horn of Africa. SFGR were also identified by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 189 (11%, 95% CI: 8-15) tick pools from 26 of 72 (36%) cattle. Twenty-five (8%, 95% CI: 6-12) tick pools were positive for Rickettsia africae, the causative agent of African tick-bite fever. Health-care providers in Djibouti should be aware of the possibility of rickettsiae infections among patients, although further research is needed to determine the impact of these infections in the country. PMID:27273647

  9. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus and HIV-1 seroprevalences in prostitutes in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Grandadam, Marc; Flandre, Philippe; Nicand, Elisabeth; Milliancourt, Catherine; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Philippon, Michel; Teyssou, Remy; Agut, Henri; Dupin, Nicolas; Calvez, Vincent

    2002-10-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked causally to Kaposi's sarcoma. Epidemiological studies have shown that KSHV transmission can occur during sex among homosexual men, but heterosexual transmission seems to be very rare in KSHV low prevalence countries. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to determine whether KSHV is transmitted sexually between heterosexuals in an endemic country. Sera from 282 subjects of African origin living in Djibouti were tested for antibodies to KSHV and HIV-1. Among the 282 individuals, 43 were female prostitutes working in the streets (group 1), 123 were female prostitutes working in luxury bars (group 2), 41 were non-prostitute females (group 3), and 75 were non-prostitute males (group 4). KSHV seroprevalence was 26, 20, 17, and 36% in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The seroprevalence of KSHV is not different between street or bar prostitutes and non-prostitute females (OR = 1.67; P = 0.34 and OR = 1.18; P = 0.73). These results suggest that in this endemic country commercial sex work does not seem to be a risk factor for KSHV infection and provides evidence against heterosexual transmission of KSHV in the female population studied.

  10. [Invasive aspergillosis of sphenoidal sinus in a patient in Djibouti, revealed by palsy of cranial nerves: a case report].

    PubMed

    Crambert, A; Gauthier, J; Vignal, R; Conessa, C; Lombard, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report a case of invasive aspergillosis of a sphenoid sinus mucocele revealed in a patient with diabetes in Djibouti by homolateral palsy of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th nerves. This rare condition occurs preferentially in immunodeficient subjects. Because of its clinical polymorphism, its diagnosis is difficult and is often not made until complications develop. Endonasal surgery with anatomopathological and mycological examination is both a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. It must be performed early, to avoid functional or even life-threatening complications. PMID:23803589

  11. Assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning in the Afar Triple Junction: Dobe and Hanle grabens, Ethiopia and Djibouti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polun, S. G.; Stockman, M. B.; Hickcox, K.; Horrell, D.; Tesfaye, S.; Gomez, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    As the only subaerial exposure of a ridge - ridge - ridge triple junction, the Afar region of Ethiopia and Djibouti offers a rare opportunity to assess strain partitioning within this type of triple junction. Here, the plate boundaries do not link discretely, but rather the East African rift meets the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts in a zone of diffuse normal faulting characterized by a lack of magmatic activity, referred to as the central Afar. An initial assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning is based on faulted landforms in the Dobe - Hanle graben system in Ethiopia and Djibouti. These two extensional basins are connected by an imbricated accommodation zone. Several fault scarps occur within terraces formed during the last highstand of Lake Dobe, around 5 ka - they provide a means of calibrating a numerical model of fault scarp degradation. Additional timing constraints will be provided by pending exposure ages. The spreading rates of both grabens are equivalent, however in Dobe graben, extension is partitioned 2:1 between northern, south dipping faults and the southern, north dipping fault. Extension in Hanle graben is primarily focused on the north dipping Hanle fault. On the north margin of Dobe graben, the boundary fault bifurcates, where the basin-bordering fault displays a significantly higher modeled uplift rate than the more distal fault, suggesting a basinward propagation of faulting. On the southern Dobe fault, surveyed fault scarps have ages ranging from 30 - 5 ka with uplift rates of 0.71, 0.47, and 0.68 mm/yr, suggesting no secular variation in slip rates from the late Plestocene through the Holocene. These rates are converted into horizontal stretching estimates, which are compared with regional strain estimated from velocities of relatively sparse GPS data.

  12. Clinical Survey of Dengue Virus Circulation in the Republic of Djibouti between 2011 and 2014 Identifies Serotype 3 Epidemic and Recommends Clinical Diagnosis Guidelines for Resource Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Duron, Sandrine; Savini, Hélène; Cazajous, Geraldine; Vidal, Pierre-Olivier; Chenilleau, Marie-Caroline; Roseau, Jean-Baptiste; Benois, Alain; Dehan, Céline; Kugelman, Jeffrey; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Védy, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus is endemic globally, throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions. While the number of epidemics due to the four DENV serotypes is pronounced in East Africa, the total number of cases reported in Africa (16 million infections) remained at low levels compared to Asia (70 million infections). The French Armed forces Health Service provides epidemiological surveillance support in the Republic of Djibouti through the Bouffard Military hospital. Between 2011 and 2014, clinical and biological data of suspected dengue syndromes were collected at the Bouffard Military hospital and analyzed to improve Dengue clinical diagnosis and evaluate its circulation in East Africa. Examining samples from patients that presented one or more Dengue-like symptoms the study evidenced 128 Dengue cases among 354 suspected cases (36.2% of the non-malarial Dengue-like syndromes). It also demonstrated the circulation of serotypes 1 and 2 and reports the first epidemic of serotype 3 infections in Djibouti which was found in all of the hospitalized patients in this study. Based on these results we have determined that screening for Malaria and the presence of the arthralgia, gastro-intestinal symptoms and lymphopenia < 1,000cell/ mm3 allows for negative predictive value and specificity of diagnosis in isolated areas superior to 80% up to day 6. This study also provides evidence for an epidemic of Dengue virus serotype 3 previously not detected in Djibouti. PMID:27322644

  13. Clinical Survey of Dengue Virus Circulation in the Republic of Djibouti between 2011 and 2014 Identifies Serotype 3 Epidemic and Recommends Clinical Diagnosis Guidelines for Resource Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Le Gonidec, Erwan; Maquart, Marianne; Duron, Sandrine; Savini, Hélène; Cazajous, Geraldine; Vidal, Pierre-Olivier; Chenilleau, Marie-Caroline; Roseau, Jean-Baptiste; Benois, Alain; Dehan, Céline; Kugelman, Jeffrey; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Védy, Serge

    2016-06-01

    Dengue virus is endemic globally, throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions. While the number of epidemics due to the four DENV serotypes is pronounced in East Africa, the total number of cases reported in Africa (16 million infections) remained at low levels compared to Asia (70 million infections). The French Armed forces Health Service provides epidemiological surveillance support in the Republic of Djibouti through the Bouffard Military hospital. Between 2011 and 2014, clinical and biological data of suspected dengue syndromes were collected at the Bouffard Military hospital and analyzed to improve Dengue clinical diagnosis and evaluate its circulation in East Africa. Examining samples from patients that presented one or more Dengue-like symptoms the study evidenced 128 Dengue cases among 354 suspected cases (36.2% of the non-malarial Dengue-like syndromes). It also demonstrated the circulation of serotypes 1 and 2 and reports the first epidemic of serotype 3 infections in Djibouti which was found in all of the hospitalized patients in this study. Based on these results we have determined that screening for Malaria and the presence of the arthralgia, gastro-intestinal symptoms and lymphopenia < 1,000cell/ mm3 allows for negative predictive value and specificity of diagnosis in isolated areas superior to 80% up to day 6. This study also provides evidence for an epidemic of Dengue virus serotype 3 previously not detected in Djibouti. PMID:27322644

  14. Chemical-specific health consultation for chromated copper arsenate chemical mixture: port of Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Chou, Selene; Colman, Joan; Tylenda, Carolyn; De Rosa, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this health consultation to provide support for assessing the public health implications of hazardous chemical exposure, primarily through drinking water, related to releases of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in the port of Djibouti. CCA from a shipment, apparently intended for treating electric poles, is leaking into the soil in the port area. CCA is a pesticide used to protect wood against decay-causing organisms. This mixture commonly contains chromium(VI) (hexavalent chromium) as chromic acid, arsenic(V) (pentavalent arsenic) as arsenic pentoxide and copper (II) (divalent copper) as cupric oxide, often in an aqueous solution or concentrate. Experimental studies of the fate of CCA in soil and monitoring studies of wood-preserving sites where CCA was spilled on the soil indicate that the chromium(VI), arsenic and copper components of CCA can leach from soil into groundwater and surface water. In addition, at CCA wood-preserving sites, substantial concentrations of chromium(VI), arsenic and copper remained in the soil and were leachable into water four years after the use of CCA was discontinued, suggesting prolonged persistence in soil, with continued potential for leaching. The degree of leaching depended on soil composition and the extent of soil contamination with CCA. In general, leaching was highest for chromium(VI), intermediate for arsenic and lowest for copper. Thus, the potential for contamination of sources of drinking water exists. Although arsenic that is leached from CCA-contaminated soil into surface water may accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish, most of the arsenic in these animals will be in a form (often called fish arsenic) that is less harmful. Copper, which leaches less readily than the other components, can accumulate in tissues of mussels and oysters. Chromium is not likely to accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish. Limited studies of air

  15. Chemical-specific health consultation for chromated copper arsenate chemical mixture: port of Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Chou, Selene; Colman, Joan; Tylenda, Carolyn; De Rosa, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this health consultation to provide support for assessing the public health implications of hazardous chemical exposure, primarily through drinking water, related to releases of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in the port of Djibouti. CCA from a shipment, apparently intended for treating electric poles, is leaking into the soil in the port area. CCA is a pesticide used to protect wood against decay-causing organisms. This mixture commonly contains chromium(VI) (hexavalent chromium) as chromic acid, arsenic(V) (pentavalent arsenic) as arsenic pentoxide and copper (II) (divalent copper) as cupric oxide, often in an aqueous solution or concentrate. Experimental studies of the fate of CCA in soil and monitoring studies of wood-preserving sites where CCA was spilled on the soil indicate that the chromium(VI), arsenic and copper components of CCA can leach from soil into groundwater and surface water. In addition, at CCA wood-preserving sites, substantial concentrations of chromium(VI), arsenic and copper remained in the soil and were leachable into water four years after the use of CCA was discontinued, suggesting prolonged persistence in soil, with continued potential for leaching. The degree of leaching depended on soil composition and the extent of soil contamination with CCA. In general, leaching was highest for chromium(VI), intermediate for arsenic and lowest for copper. Thus, the potential for contamination of sources of drinking water exists. Although arsenic that is leached from CCA-contaminated soil into surface water may accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish, most of the arsenic in these animals will be in a form (often called fish arsenic) that is less harmful. Copper, which leaches less readily than the other components, can accumulate in tissues of mussels and oysters. Chromium is not likely to accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish. Limited studies of air

  16. L'outillage lithique du site de dépeçage à Elephas recki ileretensis de Barogali (république de Djibouti)Stone tools from the butchery site with Elephas recki ileretensis of Barogali (Republic of Djibouti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelet, Arlette

    2001-03-01

    Three seasons of excavations (1985-1987) in the Gobaad region of the Republic of Djibouti have unearthed the fossilized skeletal remains of an Elephas recki (1.3-1.6 million years old). Numerous stone artefacts discovered among the bones indicates that the excavation is a butchery site where hominids cut up and perhaps consumed the elephant meat. The discovery of cores and small flakes near the elephant carcass indicates that the hominids knapped choppers and polyhedrons and retouched flakes during the scavenging operation.

  17. First record of the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and its possible role in the resurgence of malaria in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Khaireh, Bouh A

    2014-11-01

    Anopheles stephensi is an important vector of urban malaria in India and the Persian Gulf area. Its previously known geographical range includes southern Asia and the Arab Peninsula. For the first time, we report A. stephensi from the African continent, based on collections made in Djibouti, on the Horn of Africa, where this species' occurrence was linked to an unusual urban outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with 1228 cases reported from February to May 2013, and a second, more severe epidemic that emerged in November 2013 and resulted in 2017 reported malaria cases between January and February 2014. Anopheles stephensi was initially identified using morphological identification keys, followed by sequencing of the Barcode cytochrome c-oxidase I (COI) gene and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). Positive tests for P. falciparum circumsporozoite antigen in two of six female A. stephensi trapped in homes of malaria patients in March 2013 are evidence that autochthonous urban malaria transmission by A. stephensi has occurred. Concurrent with the second malaria outbreak, P. falciparum-positive A. stephensi females were detected in Djibouti City starting in November 2013. In sub-Saharan Africa, newly present A. stephensi may pose a significant future health threat because of this species' high susceptibility to P. falciparum infection and its tolerance of urban habitats. This may lead to increased malaria outbreaks in African cities. Rapid interruption of the urban malaria transmission cycle, based on integrated vector surveillance and control programs aimed at the complete eradication of A. stephensi from the African continent, is strongly recommended. PMID:25004439

  18. Transient deformation in the Asal-Ghoubbet Rift (Djibouti) since the 1978 diking event: Is deformation controlled by magma supply rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smittarello, D.; Grandin, R.; De Chabalier, J.-B.; Doubre, C.; Deprez, A.; Masson, F.; Socquet, A.; Saad, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The Asal-Ghoubbet Rift (AG Rift) in Djibouti lies in the subaerial continuation of the Aden ridge system, thereby constituting a unique location to study rifting processes and mechanisms involved in continental breakup and oceanic spreading. Continually upgraded and expanded geodetic technology has been used to record the 1978 Asal rifting event and postdiking deformation. In light of recent results obtained for the Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rifting event (2005-2010), we propose that the horizontal and vertical geodetic data can be modeled with a double source, involving a dike-like inflation component aligned along the rift axis and a spherical pressure source located at midsegment below the Fieale caldera. By revisiting the codiking data, we propose that the reservoir below Fieale could have fed, at least partially, the 1978 injection and the contemporaneous Ardoukôba eruption and potentially induced local subsidence due to magma draining out of the central reservoir. As an alternative to previously proposed viscoelastic relaxation models, we reinterpret postdiking observations using a purely elastic rheology. We determine the relative contribution of a midsegment reservoir inflation and a dike-like opening component, together with their respective time evolutions. Our results suggest that interactions between steadily accumulating tectonic strain and temporal variations in melt supply to the shallow magma plumbing system below the AG Rift may entirely explain the geodetic observations and that viscoelastic deformation processes played a minor role in the 30 years following the 1978 rifting event.

  19. Assessment of hydraulic properties of sedimentary and volcanic aquifer systems under arid conditions in the Republic of Djibouti (Horn of Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalludin, Mohamed; Razack, Moumtaz

    The Republic of Djibouti (23,000 km2 500,000 inhabitants), located within the Horn of Africa, undergoes an arid climate with an average annual rainfall less than 150 mm. Water resources are provided up to 98% by groundwater. Two types of aquifers are encountered: volcanic and sedimentary aquifers. This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydraulic properties, which is necessary for future tasks regarding the management of these aquifers. To this end, a data base consisting of all available pumping test data obtained since the 1960s was compiled. Pumping tests have been interpreted to determine transmissivity. Solely for volcanic aquifers, transmissivity also has been estimated through an empirical relationship using specific capacity corrected for turbulent well losses. The transmissivity of each type of aquifer can span up to four orders of magnitude, pointing out their strong heterogeneity. For the various volcanic rocks, the younger the rock, the higher the transmissivity. The transmissivity of volcanic rocks has therefore decreased in the course of geological time. At present, a much better understanding of the hydraulic properties of these complex aquifers has been obtained, which should enable optimal management of their groundwater resources through the use of numerical modeling. La République de Djibouti (23,000 km2 500,000 habitants), située dans la Corne de l'Afrique, subit un climat aride avec une pluviométrie moyenne annuelle inférieure à 150 mm. Les ressources en eau sont fournies à plus de 98% par les eaux souterraines contenues dans des aquifères sédimentaires ou volcaniques. Cet article a pour objectif l'évaluation des propriétés hydrauliques de ces aquifères, étape indispensable pour entreprendre par la suite des études en vue de la gestion de ces aquifères. Une base rassemblant les données d'essais par pompage disponibles depuis les années Soixante a d'abord été établie. Les essais par pompage ont été interprétés pour

  20. Assessment of hydraulic properties of sedimentary and volcanic aquifer systems under arid conditions in the Republic of Djibouti (Horn of Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalludin, Mohamed; Razack, Moumtaz

    The Republic of Djibouti (23,000 km2 500,000 inhabitants), located within the Horn of Africa, undergoes an arid climate with an average annual rainfall less than 150 mm. Water resources are provided up to 98% by groundwater. Two types of aquifers are encountered: volcanic and sedimentary aquifers. This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydraulic properties, which is necessary for future tasks regarding the management of these aquifers. To this end, a data base consisting of all available pumping test data obtained since the 1960s was compiled. Pumping tests have been interpreted to determine transmissivity. Solely for volcanic aquifers, transmissivity also has been estimated through an empirical relationship using specific capacity corrected for turbulent well losses. The transmissivity of each type of aquifer can span up to four orders of magnitude, pointing out their strong heterogeneity. For the various volcanic rocks, the younger the rock, the higher the transmissivity. The transmissivity of volcanic rocks has therefore decreased in the course of geological time. At present, a much better understanding of the hydraulic properties of these complex aquifers has been obtained, which should enable optimal management of their groundwater resources through the use of numerical modeling. La République de Djibouti (23,000 km2 500,000 habitants), située dans la Corne de l'Afrique, subit un climat aride avec une pluviométrie moyenne annuelle inférieure à 150 mm. Les ressources en eau sont fournies à plus de 98% par les eaux souterraines contenues dans des aquifères sédimentaires ou volcaniques. Cet article a pour objectif l'évaluation des propriétés hydrauliques de ces aquifères, étape indispensable pour entreprendre par la suite des études en vue de la gestion de ces aquifères. Une base rassemblant les données d'essais par pompage disponibles depuis les années Soixante a d'abord été établie. Les essais par pompage ont été interprétés pour

  1. [Mediastinal tuberculous adenopathies in Djibouti. Report of 159 cases].

    PubMed

    Auregan, G; Ali, B; Chakib, S; Etienne, B; Migueres, J

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine cases of confirmed mediastinal tuberculous adenopathy were analysed retrospectively. This series, which is the first reported in French-speaking Africa, shows that the disease is not uncommon there, and not restricted to black Africans living in Europe. The clinical symptoms are not specific. Radiography is more interesting, and the extreme scarcity of bacillys-containing expectoration encourages endoscopy. The finding of a fistula at fibroscopy confirms the diagnosis. This easy examination is particularly useful since M. tuberculosis can be grown in cultures from ground bronchial fistula biopsies in 86% of the cases. Associated tuberculous lesions in other sites are very frequent (45%), as is extension of the disease from lymph nodes to lung tissue (79%). This clinical form of tuberculosis can be treated with modern short course chemotherapy which is remarkably effective. PMID:2075364

  2. Stress field during early magmatism in the Ali Sabieh Dome, Djibouti, SE Afar rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sue, Christian; Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Ahmed Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The so-called Ali Sabieh range, SE Afar rift, exhibits an atypical antiform structure occurring in the overall extensional tectonic context of the Afar triple junction. We dynamically analyzed the brittle deformation of this specific structural high using four different methods in order to better constrain the tectonic evolution of this key-area in the Afar depression. Paleostress inversions appear highly consistent using the four methods, which a posteriori validates this approach. Computed paleostress fields document two major signals: an early E-W extensional field, and a later transcurrent field, kinematically consistent with the previous one. The Ali Sabieh range may have evolved continuously during Oligo-Miocene times from large-scale extensional to transcurrent tectonism, as the result of probable local stress permutation between σ1 and σ2 stress axes.

  3. Young rift kinematics in the Tadjoura rift, western Gulf of Aden, Republic of Djibouti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Mohamed A.; Le Gall, Bernard; Maury, René C.; Rolet, JoëL.; Huchon, Philippe; Guillou, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The Tadjoura rift forms the westernmost edge of the westerly propagating Sheba ridge, between Arabia and Somalia, as it enters into the Afar depression. From structural and remote sensing data sets, the Tadjoura rift is interpreted as an asymmetrical south facing half-graben, about 40 km wide, dominated by a large boundary fault zone to the north. It is partially filled up by the 1-3 Myr old Gulf Basalts which onlapped the older Somali Basalts along its shallower southern flexural margin. The major and trace element analysis of 78 young onshore lavas allows us to distinguish and map four distinct basaltic types, namely the Gulf, Somali, Goumarre, and Hayyabley Basalts. These results, together with radiometric age data, lead us to propose a revised volcano-stratigraphic sketch of the two exposed Tadjoura rift margins and to discriminate and date several distinct fault networks of this oblique rift. Morphological and statistical analyses of onshore extensional fault populations show marked changes in structural styles along-strike, in a direction parallel to the rift axis. These major fault disturbances are assigned to the arrest of axial fault tip propagation against preexisting discontinuities in the NS-oriented Arta transverse zone. According to our model, the sinistral jump of rifting into the Asal-Ghoubbet rift segment results from structural inheritance, in contrast with the en échelon or transform mechanism of propagation that prevailed along the entire length of the Gulf of Aden extensional system.

  4. Numerical modelling of quaternary deformation and post-rifting displacement in the Asal-Ghoubbet rift (Djibouti, Africa) [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattin, Rodolphe; Doubre, Cécile; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; King, Geoffrey; Vigny, Christophe; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Ruegg, Jean-Claude

    2005-11-01

    Over the last three decades a host of information on rifting process relating to the geological and thermal structure, long-time scale deformation (Quaternary and Holocene) and rifting cycle displacement across the Asal-Ghoubbet rift has been made available. These data are interpreted with a two-dimensional thermo-mechanical model that incorporates rheological layering of the lithosphere, dyke inflation and faulting. Active fault locations and geometry are mainly controlled by both thermal structure and magma intrusion into the crust. The distributed slip throughout the inner rift is related to the closeness of magma chamber, leading to additional stress into the upper thinned crust. Assuming a constant Arabia-Somalia motion of 11 mm/year, the variation of subsidence rate between the last 100 and 9 ka is associated with a decrease of the average injection rate from 10 to 5 mm/year. These values, about equal to the regional opening rate, suggest that both volcanism and tectonic play an equivalent role in the rifting process. Our modelled sequence of events gives one possible explanation for both vertical and horizontal displacements observed since the 1978 seismovolcanic crisis. Although part of the post-rifting deformation could be due to viscous relaxation, the high opening rate in the first years after the event and the abrupt velocity change in 1984-1986 argue for a large dyke inflation of 12 cm/year ending in 1985. The asymmetric and constant pattern of the GPS velocity since 1991 suggests that present post-rifting deformation is mainly controlled by fault creep and regional stretching. This study demonstrates the internal consistency of the data set, highlights the role of magmatism in the mechanics of crustal stretching and reveals a complex post-rifting process including magma injection, fault creep and regional stretching.

  5. Fluid inclusion and stable isotopes studies of epithermal gold-bearing veins in the SE Afar Rift (Djibouti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, N.; Boiron, M. C.; Grassineau, N.; Fouquet, Y.; Le Gall, B.; Mohamed, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Afar rift results from the interaction of a number of actively-propagating tectono-magmatic axes. Recent field investigations in the SE Afar rift have emphasized the importance of hydrothermal system in rift-related volcanic complexes. Mineralization occur as gold-silver bearing veins and are associated with felsic volcanism. Late carbonate veins barren of sulfides and gold are common. The morphologies and textures of quartz show crustiform colloform banding, massive and breccias. Microthermometric measurements were made on quartz-hosted two phases (liquid + vapor) inclusions; mean homogenization temperature range from 150°C to 340°C and ice-melting temperatures range from -0.2° to 1.6°C indicating that inclusion solutions are dilute and contain 0.35 to 2.7 equivalent wt. % NaCl. Furthermore, δ18O and δ13C values from calcite range from 3.7 to 26.6 ‰ and -7.5 to 0.3‰, respectively. The presence of platy calcite and adularia indicate that boiling condition existed. This study shows that precious-metal deposition mainly occurred from hydrothermal fluids at 200°C at around 300 and 450 m below the present-day surface in a typical low-sulphidation epithermal environment.

  6. Gafalo, nouveau site à Palaeoloxodon recki et Hippopotamus amphibius du Pléistocène ancien du Gobaad (Répub ique de Djibouti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Martine; Guérin, Claude

    1997-06-01

    Important parts of two associated skeletons of an elephant and one hippopotamus were found at Gafalo near As Eyla (Gobaad Basin, Republic of Jibuti). The elephant is a Palaeoloxodon recki ileretensis and allows us to date the deposit from 1.3 to 1.6 My. The hippo is Hippopotamus amphibius and appears to be the oldest known for the species.

  7. 77 FR 14596 - Supplemental Identification Information for Thirteen Individuals and One Entity Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Market, Dar Salaam Buildings, Mogadishu, Somalia; 26 Urtegata Street, Oslo 0187, Norway; DOB 22 Sep 1959; POB Mogadishu, Somalia; nationality Norway; National ID No. 22095919778 (Norway); Passport 26941812...; Mogadishu, Somalia; Djibouti, Djibouti; DOB 1954; POB Eilbur, Somalia; citizen Somalia; alt....

  8. 77 FR 60022 - Supplemental Identification Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    .... JUMALI, Ahmed Ali), P.O. Box 3312, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Mogadishu, Somalia; Djibouti, Djibouti; DOB 20 May 1954; POB Eilbur, Somalia; nationality Somalia; citizen Somalia; alt. citizen Djibouti; Passport A0181988 (Somalia) issued 01 Oct 2001 expires 23 Jan 2011; Additional Djiboutian passport...

  9. Dengue surveillance in the French armed forces: a dengue sentinel surveillance system in countries without efficient local epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    de Laval, Franck; Dia, Aissata; Plumet, Sébastien; Decam, Christophe; Leparc Goffart, Isabelle; Deparis, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of travel-acquired dengue could improve dengue risk estimation in countries without ability. Surveillance in the French army in 2010 to 2011 highlighted 330 dengue cases, mainly in French West Indies and Guiana: DENV-1 circulated in Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Djibouti; DENV-3 in Mayotte and Djibouti; and DENV-4 in French Guiana.

  10. Dengue surveillance in the French armed forces: a dengue sentinel surveillance system in countries without efficient local epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    de Laval, Franck; Dia, Aissata; Plumet, Sébastien; Decam, Christophe; Leparc Goffart, Isabelle; Deparis, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of travel-acquired dengue could improve dengue risk estimation in countries without ability. Surveillance in the French army in 2010 to 2011 highlighted 330 dengue cases, mainly in French West Indies and Guiana: DENV-1 circulated in Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Djibouti; DENV-3 in Mayotte and Djibouti; and DENV-4 in French Guiana. PMID:23809078

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting supplement No. 1 to part 740, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ** For export control purposes, Cook Islands and Niue are not...** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ** For export control purposes, Cook Islands and Niue are not...** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ** For export control purposes, Cook Islands and Niue are not...** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ** For export control purposes, Cook Islands and Niue are not...** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti...

  16. 50 CFR Appendix A to Chapter I - Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (Established by the International Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Democratic People's Republic of Korea KP. Democratic Yemen YD. Denmark DK. Djibouti DJ. Dominica DM... Korea KR. Romania RO. Rwanda RW. Saint Lucia LC. Samoa WS. San Marino SM. Sao Tome and Principe ST... SO. South Africa ZA. Spain ES. Sri Lanka LK. Sudan SD. Suriname SR. Swaziland SZ. Sweden...

  17. 50 CFR Appendix A to Chapter I - Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (Established by the International Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Democratic People's Republic of Korea KP. Democratic Yemen YD. Denmark DK. Djibouti DJ. Dominica DM... Korea KR. Romania RO. Rwanda RW. Saint Lucia LC. Samoa WS. San Marino SM. Sao Tome and Principe ST... SO. South Africa ZA. Spain ES. Sri Lanka LK. Sudan SD. Suriname SR. Swaziland SZ. Sweden...

  18. 50 CFR Appendix A to Chapter I - Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (Established by the International Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Democratic People's Republic of Korea KP. Democratic Yemen YD. Denmark DK. Djibouti DJ. Dominica DM... Korea KR. Romania RO. Rwanda RW. Saint Lucia LC. Samoa WS. San Marino SM. Sao Tome and Principe ST... SO. South Africa ZA. Spain ES. Sri Lanka LK. Sudan SD. Suriname SR. Swaziland SZ. Sweden...

  19. Africa: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Magnus

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Africa form the contents of this document. International organizations and 35 countries were surveyed: Algeria; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo (Brazzaville); Djibouti; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Ivory Coast; Kenya;…

  20. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  1. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  2. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ✓ ✓ ✓ Djibouti ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Dominica ✓ ✓ Dominican Republic ✓ ✓ ✓ Ecuador ✓ ✓ ✓ Egypt ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ El Salvador.... Dominican Republic 41. Ecuador 42. Egypt 43. El Salvador 44. Equatorial Guinea 45. Eritrea 46. Ethiopia...

  4. Identity in Africa's Internal Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Francis M.

    1996-01-01

    Identifies and defines four models of internal ethnic conflict and discusses those conflicts within various African nations. The corresponding models and countries include Integration Model: Botswana and Somalia; Managed Diversity Model: Ghana, Cote d'Ivorie, Kenya, and Nigeria; Ambivalent Accommodation Model: Ethiopia and Djibouti; and Acute…

  5. Do Girls' Scholarship Programs Work? Evidence from Two Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Mushlin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent that a scholarship program operating in Sierra Leone and Djibouti was successful in increasing girls' persistence in basic education. Results of field studies indicated that scholarships could be appropriately targeted and delivered in ways that appear to minimize misappropriation of funds. However, the scholarships…

  6. Directory of Early Childhood Care and Education Organizations in the Arab States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The care and education of children is a primary task of all societies, and the role of parents, families, and communities is essential in this process. This directory describes the major activities of 64 non-governmental and governmental organizations, based on 12 Arab countries (Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mauritania,…

  7. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  8. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  9. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  10. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  11. Use of a Fogarty catheter after tracheobronchial inhalation of a bead.

    PubMed

    Landy, Christian; Massoure, Pierre-Laurent; Gauthier, Jerome; Eve, Olivier; Kaiser, Eric

    2012-10-01

    We describe a case of tracheobronchial inhalation of a bead by a five-year-old girl in Djibouti. The bead was extracted using a Fogarty balloon catheter passed through the rigid bronchoscope without complication. This kind of accident is not exceptional and we discuss the management of such cases with limited diagnostic tools and therapeutic environments. PMID:23131750

  12. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a cause of febrile hemolytic anemia in travelers].

    PubMed

    Ficko, C; Andriamanantena, D; Flateau, F; Mangouka, L; Soler, C; Carmoi, T; Rapp, C

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause varied hematologic manifestations that are frequently associated with lower respiratory tract infections. Acute febrile hemolysis without respiratory symptoms is quite rare. We describe the case of a 25-year-old man, admitted for acute fever with hemolysis, after returning from Djibouti. M. pneumoniae infection was proved by serological testing. A favorable outcome followed macrolide treatment. PMID:23352983

  13. The U.S. military's Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistance surveillance initiatives in selected populations of five countries.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alice Y; Dueger, Erica; Macalino, Grace E; Montano, Silvia M; Tilley, Drake H; Mbuchi, Margaret; Wurapa, Eyako K; Saylors, Karen; Duplessis, Christopher C; Puplampu, Naiki; Garges, Eric C; McClelland, R Scott; Sanchez, Jose L

    2013-02-01

    Multi-drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) threatens the successful treatment of gonorrhea. This report presents preliminary findings with regard to the prevalence of laboratory-confirmed GC and the extent of drug-resistance among sample populations in five countries. Between October 2010 and January 2013, 1,694 subjects (54% male; 45% female; 1% unknown) were enrolled and screened for the presence of laboratory-confirmed GC in the United States, Djibouti, Ghana, Kenya, and Peru. Overall, 108 (6%) of enrolled subjects tested positive for GC. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were available for 66 GC isolates. Resistance to at least three antibiotics was observed at each overseas site. All isolates tested in Ghana (n=6) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, penicillin, and tetracycline. In Djibouti, preliminary results suggested resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, and ceftriaxone. The small sample size and missing data prevent comparative analysis and limit the generalizability of these preliminary findings. PMID:23461308

  14. Female genital mutilations - a testimony.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Samia

    2013-02-01

    In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account. PMID:23205512

  15. Consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents: a multi-national comparison of eleven countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Al Ani, M F; Al Subhi, L K; Bose, S

    2016-03-28

    Regional cross-country profile of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study examines the prevalence and differences of consuming F&V ≥5 times/d among adolescents in eleven EMR countries, and also describes differences in the proportions of taking F&V ≥5 times/d by sex, age and BMI. The study included 26 328 school adolescents (13-15 years) with complete data on consumption of F&V, age, sex, weight and height taken from the Global School-based Student Health Survey conducted in the EMR between 2005 and 2009. Overall, only 19·4 % of adolescents reported consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. The highest prevalence was reported in Djibouti (40·4 %) and the lowest was reported in Pakistan (10·0 %). Statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed across countries (P<0·05). With the exception of Oman, Libya and Djibouti, significantly more males than females ate F&V ≥5 times/d. Proportion of students consuming F&V ≥5 times/d also varied significantly in all counties based on BMI (P<0·0001), with students within normal BMI having the highest frequency. A negative trend was observed between age and the prevalence of taking F&V ≥5 times/d in most of the eleven EMR countries but Jordan, Djibouti and Morocco. The prevalence of adequate intake of F&V was low in the eleven EMR countries. There is a need for interventions to increase the prevalence of adolescents consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. Interventions should take into consideration psychosocial, environmental and socio-environmental factors influencing F&V intake within countries.

  16. Direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved aerosol impactor samples using laser induced fluorescence spectra excited at 263 and 351 nm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuji; Pan, Yong-Le; James, Deryck; Wetmore, Alan E; Redding, Brandon

    2014-04-11

    We report a novel atmospheric aerosol characterization technique, in which dual wavelength UV laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry marries an eight-stage rotating drum impactor (RDI), namely UV-LIF-RDI, to achieve size- and time-resolved analysis of aerosol particles on-strip. The UV-LIF-RDI technique measured LIF spectra via direct laser beam illumination onto the particles that were impacted on a RDI strip with a spatial resolution of 1.2mm, equivalent to an averaged time resolution in the aerosol sampling of 3.6 h. Excited by a 263 nm or 351 nm laser, more than 2000 LIF spectra within a 3-week aerosol collection time period were obtained from the eight individual RDI strips that collected particles in eight different sizes ranging from 0.09 to 10 μm in Djibouti. Based on the known fluorescence database from atmospheric aerosols in the US, the LIF spectra obtained from the Djibouti aerosol samples were found to be dominated by fluorescence clusters 2, 5, and 8 (peaked at 330, 370, and 475 nm) when excited at 263 nm and by fluorescence clusters 1, 2, 5, and 6 (peaked at 390 and 460 nm) when excited at 351 nm. Size- and time-dependent variations of the fluorescence spectra revealed some size and time evolution behavior of organic and biological aerosols from the atmosphere in Djibouti. Moreover, this analytical technique could locate the possible sources and chemical compositions contributing to these fluorescence clusters. Advantages, limitations, and future developments of this new aerosol analysis technique are also discussed.

  17. Direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved aerosol impactor samples using laser induced fluorescence spectra excited at 263 and 351 nm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuji; Pan, Yong-Le; James, Deryck; Wetmore, Alan E; Redding, Brandon

    2014-04-11

    We report a novel atmospheric aerosol characterization technique, in which dual wavelength UV laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry marries an eight-stage rotating drum impactor (RDI), namely UV-LIF-RDI, to achieve size- and time-resolved analysis of aerosol particles on-strip. The UV-LIF-RDI technique measured LIF spectra via direct laser beam illumination onto the particles that were impacted on a RDI strip with a spatial resolution of 1.2mm, equivalent to an averaged time resolution in the aerosol sampling of 3.6 h. Excited by a 263 nm or 351 nm laser, more than 2000 LIF spectra within a 3-week aerosol collection time period were obtained from the eight individual RDI strips that collected particles in eight different sizes ranging from 0.09 to 10 μm in Djibouti. Based on the known fluorescence database from atmospheric aerosols in the US, the LIF spectra obtained from the Djibouti aerosol samples were found to be dominated by fluorescence clusters 2, 5, and 8 (peaked at 330, 370, and 475 nm) when excited at 263 nm and by fluorescence clusters 1, 2, 5, and 6 (peaked at 390 and 460 nm) when excited at 351 nm. Size- and time-dependent variations of the fluorescence spectra revealed some size and time evolution behavior of organic and biological aerosols from the atmosphere in Djibouti. Moreover, this analytical technique could locate the possible sources and chemical compositions contributing to these fluorescence clusters. Advantages, limitations, and future developments of this new aerosol analysis technique are also discussed. PMID:24745745

  18. Consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents: a multi-national comparison of eleven countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Al Ani, M F; Al Subhi, L K; Bose, S

    2016-03-28

    Regional cross-country profile of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study examines the prevalence and differences of consuming F&V ≥5 times/d among adolescents in eleven EMR countries, and also describes differences in the proportions of taking F&V ≥5 times/d by sex, age and BMI. The study included 26 328 school adolescents (13-15 years) with complete data on consumption of F&V, age, sex, weight and height taken from the Global School-based Student Health Survey conducted in the EMR between 2005 and 2009. Overall, only 19·4 % of adolescents reported consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. The highest prevalence was reported in Djibouti (40·4 %) and the lowest was reported in Pakistan (10·0 %). Statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed across countries (P<0·05). With the exception of Oman, Libya and Djibouti, significantly more males than females ate F&V ≥5 times/d. Proportion of students consuming F&V ≥5 times/d also varied significantly in all counties based on BMI (P<0·0001), with students within normal BMI having the highest frequency. A negative trend was observed between age and the prevalence of taking F&V ≥5 times/d in most of the eleven EMR countries but Jordan, Djibouti and Morocco. The prevalence of adequate intake of F&V was low in the eleven EMR countries. There is a need for interventions to increase the prevalence of adolescents consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. Interventions should take into consideration psychosocial, environmental and socio-environmental factors influencing F&V intake within countries. PMID:26817392

  19. Otologic features and teachings of a bombing attempt.

    PubMed

    Cudennec, Y F; Buffe, P; Poncet, J L

    1995-09-01

    The authors present 13 casualties observed after the bombing attempt in Djibouti (March 1987). All of them suffered blast injury to the ear. The scene and the circumstances of the explosion are described. A correlation is sought between the location and position of each casualty and the lesions he presented, with reference to animal experiment data, namely the shock waves propagation conditions. The otologic lesions are commented on with reference to acute acoustic trauma, and the need for a special study of vestibular outcome of blast injuries is emphasized. PMID:7478034

  20. Profound reduction of CD4+ lymphocytes without HIV infection: two cases from the horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Ollé-Goig, J E; Ramírez, J; Cervera, C; Miró, J M

    2012-09-01

    Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia is a disorder associated with low CD4+ T cell count and opportunistic infections resembling AIDS. Most cases are described in developed countries. We report two HIV-negative patients with idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia and AIDS-defining events diagnosed in Djibouti. The first patient developed lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma and the second one presented with pulmonary tuberculosis. Both patients died with severe immunodepression. In poor resource-areas where HIV testing may not be available it is important to bear in mind that severe immunodepression and a clinical presentation compatible with AIDS do not necessary carry the diagnosis of AIDS. PMID:23382748

  1. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii palm wines from Burkina Faso in comparison to other African beverages.

    PubMed

    Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo

    2015-10-15

    In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries. PMID:26202324

  2. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii palm wines from Burkina Faso in comparison to other African beverages.

    PubMed

    Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo

    2015-10-15

    In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries.

  3. Are the new IADPSG criteria for gestational diabetes useful in a country with a very high prevalence?

    PubMed

    Minsart, Anne-Frederique; N'guyen, Thai-Son Pierre; Dimtsu, Hirut; Ratsimandresy, Rachel; Dada, Fouad; Ali Hadji, Rachid

    2014-09-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups released new recommendations on screening methods and diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes. The main objectives of the present study were to analyze characteristics of mothers who underwent the new screening test, and to assess the prevalence of gestational diabetes and related pregnancy complications such as the 5-minute Apgar score <7, in a urban maternity clinic in Djibouti. The effect of treating gestational diabetes was also evaluated. Totally, 231 mothers underwent the new screening test, and 106 were diagnosed as having gestational diabetes (45.9%). Mothers with gestational diabetes had an excess risk of low Apgar scores, even after adjustment for socio-economic and medical covariates, with an odds ratio of 6.34 (1.77-22.66), p value <0.005. Only 46.2% of mothers with gestational diabetes followed the recommendations regarding treatment. Among these patients, 18.6% of infants from untreated mothers had a 5-minute Apgar score <7, compared to 3.9% infants from treated mothers (p value = 0.017). After adjustment, untreated mothers still had a high excess risk of low Apgar scores, although non-significant, with an odds ratio of 4.67 (0.78-27.87), p value = 0.09. In conclusion, gestational diabetes is highly prevalent in Djibouti and is related to low Apgar scores. PMID:24805833

  4. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  5. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-02-04

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  6. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  7. Revision of the genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae)

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 is revised herein. It now contains seven species; one new combination is proposed: Pachylopus glaucus = Exaesiopus glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914), comb. n., and one species is described as new: Exaesiopus therondi sp. n. from Afghanistan. Subspecies Exaesiopus grossipes berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 is sunk in synonymy with Exaesiopus grossipes (Marseul, 1855), syn. n. Lectotypes and paralectotypes, respectively, for Saprinus grossipes Marseul, 1855, Exaesiopus grossipes berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 and a neotype for Pachylopus glaucus Bickhardt, 1914 are designated. Exaesiopus grossipes is re-described; other species are provided with diagnostic descriptions and supplemented by SEM micrographs, colour images, and line drawings of their male genitalia. A key to species is given. Exaesiopus glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914) is newly recorded from the Republic of South Africa; Exaesiopus torvus Reichardt, 1926 is new to Uzbekistan and Russia; Exaesiopus atrovirens Reichardt, 1926 is new to Ukraine and Tajikistan; and Exaesiopus henoni (Schmidt, 1896) is new to Libya and Djibouti. PMID:25685017

  8. Porridge-like tuberculous cardiac tamponade: treatment difficulties in the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Massoure, Pierre-Laurent; Boddaert, Guillaume; Caumes, Jean-Luc; Gaillard, Pierre-Emmanuel; Lions, Christophe; Grassin, Frédéric

    2010-06-01

    A 16-year-old boy was hospitalized for fever, chest pain, and cardiovascular collapse. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a 30-mm circumferential echogenic "porridge-like" pericardial effusion with signs of cardiac tamponade. Tuberculosis (TB) was suspected because of its prevalence in Djibouti. Emergency pericardiocentesis was attempted, but only 10 ml of pericardial fluid was obtained. Subxiphoid pericardiotomy and drainage were then performed, and pericardial fibrinous pockets were surgically collapsed. Antituberculosis chemotherapy was given, and the pericardial effusion progressively disappeared without corticosteroids. The diagnosis of TB was subsequently confirmed by cultures of the pericardial fluid. A pericardial biopsy was normal. After 3 months of follow-up, there was no sign of constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiocentesis may fail in cases of advanced-stage fibrinous TB pericardial effusion. Thus, pericardiotomy with complete open draining is the only lifesaving procedure.

  9. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade. PMID:25812200

  10. Revision of the genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae).

    PubMed

    Lackner, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 is revised herein. It now contains seven species; one new combination is proposed: Pachylopusglaucus = Exaesiopusglaucus (Bickhardt, 1914), comb. n., and one species is described as new: Exaesiopustherondi sp. n. from Afghanistan. Subspecies Exaesiopusgrossipesberberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 is sunk in synonymy with Exaesiopusgrossipes (Marseul, 1855), syn. n. Lectotypes and paralectotypes, respectively, for Saprinusgrossipes Marseul, 1855, Exaesiopusgrossipesberberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 and a neotype for Pachylopusglaucus Bickhardt, 1914 are designated. Exaesiopusgrossipes is re-described; other species are provided with diagnostic descriptions and supplemented by SEM micrographs, colour images, and line drawings of their male genitalia. A key to species is given. Exaesiopusglaucus (Bickhardt, 1914) is newly recorded from the Republic of South Africa; Exaesiopustorvus Reichardt, 1926 is new to Uzbekistan and Russia; Exaesiopusatrovirens Reichardt, 1926 is new to Ukraine and Tajikistan; and Exaesiopushenoni (Schmidt, 1896) is new to Libya and Djibouti. PMID:25685017

  11. Most env and gag subtype A HIV-1 viruses circulating in West and West Central Africa are similar to the prototype AG recombinant virus IBNG.

    PubMed

    Montavon, C; Toure-Kane, C; Liegeois, F; Mpoudi, E; Bourgeois, A; Vergne, L; Perret, J L; Boumah, A; Saman, E; Mboup, S; Delaporte, E; Peeters, M

    2000-04-15

    The genetic subtype was identified in gag and env of 219 HIV-1-positive samples collected in different African countries, 44 from Senegal, 55 from Cameroon, 82 from Gabon, and 38 from Djibouti. In total, 20 (9.1%) samples had discordant subtypes between gag and env, 6 of 44 (13.9%) in Senegal, 4 of 55 (7.2%) in Cameroon, 1 of 38 (2.6%) in Djibouti, and 10 of 82 (12.1%) in Gabon. Subtypes A and G were predominantly involved in the recombination events. Phylogenetic tree analysis of gag showed that an important number of the A sequences form a distinct subcluster with the AG-IBNG prototype strain (a complex A/G mosaic virus): 27 of 32 (84.3%) in Senegal, 12 of 17 (70.6%) in Nigeria, 24 of 39 (61.5%) in Cameroon, and 38 of 70 (54.3%) in Gabon. Full-length genome analysis of 3 and additional sequences in pol for 10 such strains confirmed that they have a similar complex A/G mosaic genomic structure. These data suggest that in West Africa, most probably between 60% and 84% of the subtype A viruses are recombinant AG-IBNG viruses. This finding has potential implications on future vaccine, diagnostic, and treatment strategies. The actual and future role of these viruses in the global pandemic must be monitored in all new molecular epidemiologic studies, a discrimination between subtype A and AG-IBNG-like viruses is necessary. PMID:10866228

  12. Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Maroof A.; Abdallah, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11−29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3−8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger’s wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the

  13. Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Maroof A; Abdallah, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11-29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3-8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger's wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A

  14. 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid from Solanum somalense leaves: advantage of centrifugal partition chromatography over conventional column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chideh, Saïda; Pilard, Serge; Attoumbré, Jacques; Saguez, Robert; Hassan-Abdallah, Alshaimaa; Cailleu, Dominique; Wadouachi, Anne; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie

    2014-09-01

    Solanum somalense leaves, used in Djibouti for their medicinal properties, were extracted by MeOH. Because of the high polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the extract, respectively, determined at 80.80 ± 2.13 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 24.4 ± 1.01 mg quercetin equivalent/g dry weight, the isolation and purification of the main polyphenols were carried out by silica gel column chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography. Column chromatography led to 11 enriched fractions requiring further purification, while centrifugal partition chromatography allowed the easy recovery of the main compound of the extract. In a solvent system composed of CHCl3/MeOH/H2O (9.5:10:5), 21.8 mg of this compound at 97% purity was obtained leading to a yield of 2.63%. Its structure was established as 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. This work shows that S. somalense leaves contain very high level of 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (0.74% dry weight), making it a potential source of production of this secondary metabolite that is not commonly found in nature but could be partly responsible of the medicinal properties of S. somalense leaves.

  15. Descriptions of four new species of Thysanophrys (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae) from the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Leslie W

    2013-01-17

    Four new species of Thysanophrys are described from the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). T. rarita, known from a single specimen taken off Somalia, is provisionally placed in Thysanophrys and is distinguished by its color pattern and number of preocular and suborbital spines. T. tricaudata is described from three specimens taken at SCUBA stations off southwestern Sri Lanka. They differ from other western Indian Ocean (WIO) Thysanophrys in color pattern, lack of ocular flaps, number of dorsal fin spines and scale counts. The remaining two new species are somewhat similar to the widespread Indo-Pacific species, T. chiltonae Schultz (1966). T. randalli is described from specimens taken at the Amirante Islands and Mauritius. It may also be widespread in the Indo-Pacific, but differs from T. chiltonae in nasal spine structure, color pattern, type of iris lappet margin, and in having a much shorter maximum size. T. springeri also appears to be a smaller species than T. chiltonae and, aside from one record off Djibouti, is restricted to Red Sea. It also differs from T. chiltonae in color pattern, in having fewer pectoral rays and fewer scale rows between the second dorsal-fin insertion and the lateral line. Although T. chiltonae is relatively common in the northern Indian Ocean, it does not appear to have entered the Red Sea.

  16. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Grace C.; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly, Jessica

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  17. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  18. An overview of the transboundary aquifers in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Tamiru Alemayehu

    2010-11-01

    A transboundary aquifer is a body of groundwater intersected by two or more countries with the potential threat of dispute over a shared groundwater resource. A large portion of the population in East Africa relies on surface water resources for day-to-day activities; in turn, this is dependent on episodic rainfall. Surface water in the region is vulnerable to pollution and potential climate change. Consequently, frequent conflict over the water use is a regular event in the region. This paper examines the transboundary aquifers and their significance for water supply in the six adjacent Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti). Analysis of available literature and short field visits to accessible areas were undertaken in order to examine the geology, hydrogeological dynamics, and water use. The geology of the transboundary aquifers is mainly represented by Precambrian basement, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Cenozoic volcanics and recent alluvial deposits. Taking into consideration the topographic setting and water circulation, the Ethiopian highlands are the major sources of recharge to the transboundary aquifers of the adjacent countries. The surface runoff drains through 11 major rivers into the neighbouring countries. The groundwater contained in the transboundary aquifers is yet to receive attention by the various countries, but the future trend is towards exploiting the resources to alleviate water shortages in the region. It is hoped that the systematic development of these groundwater resources would strengthen cooperation in this conflict-dominated region.

  19. Somalia.

    PubMed

    1986-04-01

    This discussion of Somalia focuses on: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the US and Somalia. In 1985 the population was estimated to be 5,400,000 with an annual growth rate of 3%. The infant mortality rate is 145/1000; life expectancy is 47 years. Somalis have a homogeneous culture and identity. About 60% of all Somalis are nomadic or seminomadic pastoralists who raise cattle, camels, sheep, and goats. Sizable ethnic groups in Somalia include some 35,000 Arabs, about 2000 Italians, and 1000 Indians and Pakistanis. Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia and Djibouti, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. Somalia, which lacks natural resources and faces many major development challenges, has a principally pastoral and agricultural economy. Since independence, from Italy and Great Britain, Somalia has followed a foreign policy of nonalignment. After the Soviets were expelled, the US reintroduced the Agency for International Development program in 1978 and has provided extensive relief to Somali refugees.

  20. Assessment of human-natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.; Thompson, Barton H.; Rozelle, Scott; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Global freshwater vulnerability is a product of environmental and human dimensions, however, it is rarely assessed as such. Our approach identifies freshwater vulnerability using four broad categories: endowment, demand, infrastructure, and institutions, to capture impacts on natural and managed water systems within the coupled human-hydrologic environment. These categories are represented by 19 different endogenous and exogenous characteristics affecting water supply vulnerability. By evaluating 119 lower per capita income countries (<10 725), we find that every nation experiences some form of vulnerability. Institutional vulnerability is experienced most commonly, occurring in 44 nations, and 23 countries suffer deficiencies in all four categories. Of these highly vulnerable countries, Jordan is the most vulnerable, reporting the greatest number of characteristics (5 of 19) at critical vulnerability levels, with Yemen and Djibouti nearly as vulnerable. Surprising similarities in vulnerability were also found among geographically disparate nations such as Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Guatemala. Determining shared patterns of freshwater vulnerability provides insights into why water supply vulnerabilities are manifested in human-water systems at the national scale.

  1. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including “Mycobacterium canettii” are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  2. Research on psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Jamal M; Al-Khateeb, Anas J

    2014-02-01

    This study reviewed research conducted on the psychological aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Several databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and PsycInfo) were searched using the following two sets of search words: (1) Arab, Jordan, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Algiers, Palestine, Mauritania, Djibouti, Sudan, Comoros, and Somalia; and (2) epilepsy, seizure disorders, and convulsive disorders. Fifty-one studies were conducted in 12 Arab states. Social/emotional, employment, and other problems; knowledge and attitudes; and quality of life (QOL) were the most commonly measured parameters of psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Results revealed elevated levels of depression and anxiety, a decline in cognitive function, various behavioral problems, sexual dysfunction, and underemployment among persons with epilepsy (PWE). Misconceptions about epilepsy were found to be prevalent. While many studies reported limited knowledge of epilepsy, some studies found an average knowledge. Negative attitudes toward epilepsy were reported in most studies, and moderately positive attitudes were reported in some studies. Finally, PWE showed low overall QOL scores in the majority of studies.

  3. Fault propagation and climatic control of sedimentation on the Ghoubbet Rift Floor: insights from the Tadjouraden cruise in the western Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audin, L.; Manighetti, I.; Tapponnier, P.; Métivier, F.; Jacques, E.; Huchon, P.

    2001-02-01

    A detailed geophysical survey of the Ghoubbet Al Kharab (Djibouti) clarifies the small-scale morphology of the last submerged rift segment of the propagating Aden ridge before it enters the Afar depression. The bathymetry reveals a system of antithetic normal faults striking N130°E, roughly aligned with those active along the Asal rift. The 3.5kHz sub-bottom profiler shows how the faults cut distinct layers within the recent, up to 60m thick, sediment cover on the floor of the basin. A large volcanic structure, in the centre of the basin, the `Ghoubbet' volcano, separates two sedimentary flats. The organization of volcanism and the planform of faulting, with en echelon subrifts along the entire Asal-Ghoubbet rift, appear to confirm the westward propagation of this segment of the plate boundary. Faults throughout the rift have been active continuously for the last 8400yr, but certain sediment layers show different offsets. The varying offsets of these layers, dated from cores previously retrieved in the southern basin, imply Holocene vertical slip rates of 0.3-1.4mmyr-1 and indicate a major decrease in sedimentation rate after about 6000yr BP, and a redistribution of sediments in the deepest troughs during the period that preceded that change.

  4. Usefulness of a rapid immuno-migration test for the detection of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in Africa.

    PubMed

    Davoust, Bernard; Parzy, Daniel; Demoncheaux, Jean-Paul; Tine, Raphaël; Diarra, Mamadou; Marié, Jean-Lou; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    A rapid immuno-migration test for the serological detection of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, Witness® Ehrlichia (WE) (Zoetis, France), was evaluated in 528 serum samples from dogs living in endemic areas of West and East Africa: Senegal (N=208), Ivory Coast (N=7), Sudan (N=27), and Djibouti (N=286). Of these dogs, 200 were French military working dogs (MWD) temporarily residing in Africa. The WE test results were compared with those obtained by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). The sensitivity of WE was 97% [94.2, 98.7] with a specificity of 100% [98.6, 100]. In MWD, the seroprevalence (IFA) was 7%; in native dogs, it reached 77.1%. This significant difference can be explained by prophylactic measures from which MWD benefit. The WE test represents a simple, fast and reliable test for the detection of anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies. Its implementation for the diagnosis of clinical cases has been validated in the field, and its use allows easy detection of asymptomatic dogs that may be carriers of E. canis.

  5. 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid from Solanum somalense leaves: advantage of centrifugal partition chromatography over conventional column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chideh, Saïda; Pilard, Serge; Attoumbré, Jacques; Saguez, Robert; Hassan-Abdallah, Alshaimaa; Cailleu, Dominique; Wadouachi, Anne; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie

    2014-09-01

    Solanum somalense leaves, used in Djibouti for their medicinal properties, were extracted by MeOH. Because of the high polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the extract, respectively, determined at 80.80 ± 2.13 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 24.4 ± 1.01 mg quercetin equivalent/g dry weight, the isolation and purification of the main polyphenols were carried out by silica gel column chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography. Column chromatography led to 11 enriched fractions requiring further purification, while centrifugal partition chromatography allowed the easy recovery of the main compound of the extract. In a solvent system composed of CHCl3/MeOH/H2O (9.5:10:5), 21.8 mg of this compound at 97% purity was obtained leading to a yield of 2.63%. Its structure was established as 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. This work shows that S. somalense leaves contain very high level of 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (0.74% dry weight), making it a potential source of production of this secondary metabolite that is not commonly found in nature but could be partly responsible of the medicinal properties of S. somalense leaves. PMID:24962011

  6. Hygiene and mental health among middle school students in India and 11 other countries.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shamika; Ramesh, Swathi; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2016-01-01

    The Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) collects data from early adolescents who are approximately 13-15 years old and enrolled in middle schools (also known as junior secondary schools). We used logistic regression models to examine the associations between self-reported hygiene practices and mental health status as assessed by the 2007 India GSHS. Then, we used meta-analysis to compare the results from India with those from 11 other GSHS-participating countries in Asia and Africa (Djibouti, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Myanmar, the Philippines, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, and the United Arab Emirates). Among 7904 middle school students in India, 25.5% reported symptoms of depression, 8.6% reported loneliness, and 7.8% reported anxiety-related insomnia. Both males and females who reported symptoms of depression had an increased likelihood of poor hand and oral hygiene, including washing their hands rarely or never and brushing their teeth less than daily. The meta-analysis for this association yielded statistically significant pooled odds ratios for both boys and girls. In girls, loneliness was also associated with poor hand and oral hygiene. Reduced mental health status in adolescents may lead to worse hygiene behaviors and an increased risk of infections. Teachers, parents, healthcare workers, and other adults who observe suboptimal hygiene status in an adolescent should consider whether this indicates a mental health issue that requires clinical services. PMID:26655444

  7. Descriptions of four new species of Thysanophrys (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae) from the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Leslie W

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Thysanophrys are described from the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). T. rarita, known from a single specimen taken off Somalia, is provisionally placed in Thysanophrys and is distinguished by its color pattern and number of preocular and suborbital spines. T. tricaudata is described from three specimens taken at SCUBA stations off southwestern Sri Lanka. They differ from other western Indian Ocean (WIO) Thysanophrys in color pattern, lack of ocular flaps, number of dorsal fin spines and scale counts. The remaining two new species are somewhat similar to the widespread Indo-Pacific species, T. chiltonae Schultz (1966). T. randalli is described from specimens taken at the Amirante Islands and Mauritius. It may also be widespread in the Indo-Pacific, but differs from T. chiltonae in nasal spine structure, color pattern, type of iris lappet margin, and in having a much shorter maximum size. T. springeri also appears to be a smaller species than T. chiltonae and, aside from one record off Djibouti, is restricted to Red Sea. It also differs from T. chiltonae in color pattern, in having fewer pectoral rays and fewer scale rows between the second dorsal-fin insertion and the lateral line. Although T. chiltonae is relatively common in the northern Indian Ocean, it does not appear to have entered the Red Sea. PMID:24614455

  8. Difficult diagnoses in an austere environment: a clinical vignette ?the presentation, diagnosis, and management of ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Pickard-Gabriel, C J; Rudinsky, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Lamellar ichthyosis (LI) is a rare inherited skin disorder of cornification, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 200,000 births. It is one of three types of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI), a collective term for the spectrum of nonsyndromic ichthyoses caused by a number of well-described genetic mutations. We describe the case of LI diagnosed in a 10-day-old child of a Somali refugee at a free clinic in downtown Djibouti. Initial concern was for staphylococcal infection versus congenital disease. With the use of digital photographs, consultation with experts accessed through the Army Teledermatology Consultation Service supported a diagnosis of ARCI. Providing care to patients in austere environments can present numerous medical challenges. A provider cannot be expected to be able to diagnose and treat every disease and disorder alone, especially if there is a language barrier. Telemedicine can help close the gap in knowledge, particularly when presented with a challenging case. With a novel presentation, simply taking a photograph and e-mailing a consultant can quickly augment one?s medical acumen, ensuring appropriate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23526325

  9. Usefulness of a rapid immuno-migration test for the detection of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in Africa.

    PubMed

    Davoust, Bernard; Parzy, Daniel; Demoncheaux, Jean-Paul; Tine, Raphaël; Diarra, Mamadou; Marié, Jean-Lou; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    A rapid immuno-migration test for the serological detection of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, Witness® Ehrlichia (WE) (Zoetis, France), was evaluated in 528 serum samples from dogs living in endemic areas of West and East Africa: Senegal (N=208), Ivory Coast (N=7), Sudan (N=27), and Djibouti (N=286). Of these dogs, 200 were French military working dogs (MWD) temporarily residing in Africa. The WE test results were compared with those obtained by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). The sensitivity of WE was 97% [94.2, 98.7] with a specificity of 100% [98.6, 100]. In MWD, the seroprevalence (IFA) was 7%; in native dogs, it reached 77.1%. This significant difference can be explained by prophylactic measures from which MWD benefit. The WE test represents a simple, fast and reliable test for the detection of anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies. Its implementation for the diagnosis of clinical cases has been validated in the field, and its use allows easy detection of asymptomatic dogs that may be carriers of E. canis. PMID:24252768

  10. High-resolution predictive mapping for Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; De Clercq, Eva M; Madder, Maxime

    2013-08-01

    The brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, vector of East Coast fever (ECF) and related cattle diseases caused by Theileria parva has never been reported from the Horn of Africa. Habitat suitability for this tick species was predicted using Maxent modelling technique based on R. appendiculatus records in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two models were developed: the first is based on the tropical R. appendiculatus distribution and the one is based on the distribution records in the temperate region of Sub-Saharan Africa. The tropical model shows favourable habitat in much of the Ethiopian highlands. The whole Djibouti, the south eastern Ethiopian lowlands, majority of Somalia and Eritrea were found to be not suitable for the survival and development of this tick species. Highly suitable areas occur in areas which have moderate temperature and high precipitation. Introductions of R. appendiculatus into the Horn of Africa probably have been prevented by the natural barrier between the known R. appendiculatus distribution range in East Africa and the Horn of Africa. The effect of an introduction of R. appendiculatus and thereby ECF into the Horn of Africa could be catastrophic since the cattle in this area have no immunity against ECF, and mortality might be considerable in all age groups of cattle. PMID:23413173

  11. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including "Mycobacterium canettii" are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  12. Research on psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Jamal M; Al-Khateeb, Anas J

    2014-02-01

    This study reviewed research conducted on the psychological aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Several databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and PsycInfo) were searched using the following two sets of search words: (1) Arab, Jordan, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Algiers, Palestine, Mauritania, Djibouti, Sudan, Comoros, and Somalia; and (2) epilepsy, seizure disorders, and convulsive disorders. Fifty-one studies were conducted in 12 Arab states. Social/emotional, employment, and other problems; knowledge and attitudes; and quality of life (QOL) were the most commonly measured parameters of psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Results revealed elevated levels of depression and anxiety, a decline in cognitive function, various behavioral problems, sexual dysfunction, and underemployment among persons with epilepsy (PWE). Misconceptions about epilepsy were found to be prevalent. While many studies reported limited knowledge of epilepsy, some studies found an average knowledge. Negative attitudes toward epilepsy were reported in most studies, and moderately positive attitudes were reported in some studies. Finally, PWE showed low overall QOL scores in the majority of studies. PMID:24210464

  13. Impression Cytology with Transfer in xerophthalmia and conjunctival diseases.

    PubMed

    Resnikoff, S; Luzeau, R; Filliard, G; Amedee-Manesme, O

    1992-11-01

    During a countrywide survey, we assessed the prevalence of clinical signs of xerophthalmia and of major conjunctival diseases in a randomized sample of 2,445 subjects representative of the population of the Republic of Djibouti. On a part of this sample, conjunctival Impression Cytology with Transfer (ICT) test and a plasma retinol determination were performed. Xerophthalmia as a public health problem was displayed by clinical signs (Bitot's spots, corneal scars among preschool children), low plasma retinol levels and ICT test results: 9.3% with deficient cytology in the rural area and 12.3% in the urban one (age-standardized rates). Results of ICT were related to age (p < 0.00001). Vitamin A deficiency was prevalent not only in preschool children but also up to 15 years. Moreover, ICT results are influenced by conjunctival diseases: compared to age-matched controls, there were more abnormal cytologies among patients with trachomatous inflammation (p = 0.025), conjunctivitis (p = 0.024) or Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (p = 0.015). Thus ICT shouldn't be performed among children with conjunctival diseases. In the region under study conjunctival diseases had high rates of prevalence: 16.4% of trachomatous scarrings in the urban area (standardized rate), 8% of conjunctivitis among rural preschool children, and 5% of Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis among children between 5 and 14 years in both areas. PMID:1490836

  14. Plate break-up geometry in SE-Afar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, Laurent; Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    New structural data acquired in Djibouti strongly support the view of a magma-rich to magma-poor pair of conjugate margins developed in SE Afar since at least 9 Ma. Our model is illustrated by a crustal-scale transect that emphasizes the role of a two-stage extensional detachment fault system, with opposing senses of motion through time. The geometry and kinematics of this detachment fault pattern are mainly documented from lavas and fault dip data extracted from remote sensing imagery (Landsat ETM+, and corresponding DEM), further calibrated by field observations. Although expressed by opposite fault geometries, the two successive extensional events evidenced here are part of a two-stage continental extensional tear-system associated with the ongoing propagation of the Aden-Tadjoura oceanic axis to the NW. A flip-flop evolution of detachment faults accommodating lithosphere divergence has recently been proposed for the development of the Indian Ocean and continental margins (Sauter et al., 2013). However, the SE Afar evolution further suggests a radical and sudden change in lithosphere behavior during extension, from a long-term and widespread magmatic stage to a syn-sedimentary break-up stage where mantle melting concentrates along the future oceanic axis. Of special interest is the fact that a late and rapid stage of non-magmatic extension led to break-up, whose geometry triggered the location of the break-up axis and earliest oceanic accretion. New structural data acquired in Djibouti strongly support the view of a magma-rich to magma-poor pair of conjugate margins developed in SE Afar since at least 9 Ma. Our model is illustrated by a crustal-scale transect that emphasizes the role of a two-stage extensional detachment fault system, with opposing senses of motion through time. The geometry and kinematics of this detachment fault pattern are mainly documented from lavas and fault dip data extracted from remote sensing imagery (Landsat ETM+, and corresponding

  15. Significance of the Identification in the Horn of Africa of an Exceptionally Deep Branching Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clade

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Yann; Hauck, Yolande; Soler, Charles; Fabre, Michel; Vong, Rithy; Dehan, Céline; Cazajous, Géraldine; Massoure, Pierre-Laurent; Kraemer, Philippe; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Garnotel, Eric; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Molecular and phylogeographic studies have led to the definition within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) of a number of geotypes and ecotypes showing a preferential geographic location or host preference. The MTBC is thought to have emerged in Africa, most likely the Horn of Africa, and to have spread worldwide with human migrations. Under this assumption, there is a possibility that unknown deep branching lineages are present in this region. We genotyped by spoligotyping and multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) 435 MTBC isolates recovered from patients. Four hundred and eleven isolates were collected in the Republic of Djibouti over a 12 year period, with the other 24 isolates originating from neighbouring countries. All major M. tuberculosis lineages were identified, with only two M. africanum and one M. bovis isolates. Upon comparison with typing data of worldwide origin we observed that several isolates showed clustering characteristics compatible with new deep branching. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of seven isolates and comparison with available WGS data from 38 genomes distributed in the different lineages confirms the identification of ancestral nodes for several clades and most importantly of one new lineage, here referred to as lineage 7. Investigation of specific deletions confirms the novelty of this lineage, and analysis of its precise phylogenetic position indicates that the other three superlineages constituting the MTBC emerged independently but within a relatively short timeframe from the Horn of Africa. The availability of such strains compared to the predominant lineages and sharing very ancient ancestry will open new avenues for identifying some of the genetic factors responsible for the success of the modern lineages. Additional deep branching lineages may be readily and efficiently identified by large-scale MLVA screening of isolates from sub-Saharan African countries followed by WGS analysis of

  16. Significance of the identification in the Horn of Africa of an exceptionally deep branching Mycobacterium tuberculosis clade.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Yann; Hauck, Yolande; Soler, Charles; Fabre, Michel; Vong, Rithy; Dehan, Céline; Cazajous, Géraldine; Massoure, Pierre-Laurent; Kraemer, Philippe; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Garnotel, Eric; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Molecular and phylogeographic studies have led to the definition within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) of a number of geotypes and ecotypes showing a preferential geographic location or host preference. The MTBC is thought to have emerged in Africa, most likely the Horn of Africa, and to have spread worldwide with human migrations. Under this assumption, there is a possibility that unknown deep branching lineages are present in this region. We genotyped by spoligotyping and multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) 435 MTBC isolates recovered from patients. Four hundred and eleven isolates were collected in the Republic of Djibouti over a 12 year period, with the other 24 isolates originating from neighbouring countries. All major M. tuberculosis lineages were identified, with only two M. africanum and one M. bovis isolates. Upon comparison with typing data of worldwide origin we observed that several isolates showed clustering characteristics compatible with new deep branching. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of seven isolates and comparison with available WGS data from 38 genomes distributed in the different lineages confirms the identification of ancestral nodes for several clades and most importantly of one new lineage, here referred to as lineage 7. Investigation of specific deletions confirms the novelty of this lineage, and analysis of its precise phylogenetic position indicates that the other three superlineages constituting the MTBC emerged independently but within a relatively short timeframe from the Horn of Africa. The availability of such strains compared to the predominant lineages and sharing very ancient ancestry will open new avenues for identifying some of the genetic factors responsible for the success of the modern lineages. Additional deep branching lineages may be readily and efficiently identified by large-scale MLVA screening of isolates from sub-Saharan African countries followed by WGS analysis of

  17. Volcanic unrest in Kenya: geological history from a satellite perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, E.; Biggs, J.; Edmonds, M.; Vye-Brown, C.

    2013-12-01

    The East African Rift (EAR) system is a 5,000 km long series of fault bounded depressions that run from Djibouti to Mozambique. In the Kenyan Rift, fourteen Quaternary volcanoes lie along the central rift axis. These volcanoes are principally composed of trachyte pyroclastics and trachyte and basaltic lavas forming low-angle multi-vent edifices. Between 1997 and 2008, geodetic activity has been observed at five Kenyan volcanoes, all of which have undergone periods of caldera collapse and explosive activity. We present a remote-sensing study to investigate the temporal and spatial development of volcanic activity at Longonot volcano. High-resolution mapping using ArcGIS and an immersive 3D visualisation suite (GeovisionaryTM) has been used with imagery derived from ASTER, SPOT5 and GDEM data to identify boundaries of eruptive units and establish relative age in order to add further detail to Longonot's recent eruptive history. Mapping of the deposits at Longonot is key to understand the recent geological history and forms the basis for future volcanic hazard research to inform risk assessments and mitigation programs in Kenya. Calderas at Kenyan volcanoes are elliptical in plan view and we use high-resolution imagery to investigate the regional stresses and structural control leading to the formation of these elliptical calderas. We find that volcanoes in the central and northern segments of the Kenyan rift are elongated nearly parallel to the direction of least horizontal compressive stress, likely as a reflection of the direction of the plate motion vector at the time of caldera collapse. The southern volcanoes however are elongated at an acute angle to the plate motion vector, most likely as a result of oblique opening of the Kenyan rift in this region.

  18. Volcano geodesy: The search for magma reservoirs and the formation of eruptive vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dvorak, J.J.; Dzurisin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Routine geodetic measurements are made at only a few dozen of the world's 600 or so active volcanoes, even though these measurements have proven to be a reliable precursor of eruptions. The pattern and rate of surface displacement reveal the depth and rate of pressure increase within shallow magma reservoirs. This process has been demonstrated clearly at Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii; Long Valley caldera, California; Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy; Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea; and Aira caldera and nearby Sakurajima, Japan. Slower and lesser amounts of surface displacement at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming, are attributed to changes in a hydrothermal system that overlies a crustal magma body. The vertical and horizontal dimensions of eruptive fissures, as well as the amount of widening, have been determined at Kilauea, Hawaii; Etna, Italy; Tolbachik, Kamchatka; Krafla, Iceland; and Asal-Ghoubbet, Djibouti, the last a segment of the East Africa Rift Zone. Continuously recording instruments, such as tiltmeters, extensometers, and dilatometers, have recorded horizontal and upward growth of eruptive fissures, which grew at rates of hundreds of meters per hour, at Kilauea; Izu-Oshima, Japan; Teishi Knoll seamount, Japan; and Piton de la Fournaise, Re??union Island. In addition, such instruments have recorded the hour or less of slight ground movement that preceded small explosive eruptions at Sakurajima and presumed sudden gas emissions at Galeras, Colombia. The use of satellite geodesy, in particular the Global Positioning System, offers the possibility of revealing changes in surface strain both local to a volcano and over a broad region that includes the volcano.

  19. Molecular and antigenic evolution and geographical spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in western Africa.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, M F; Olinger, C M; Owoade, A A; Tarnagda, Z; Tahita, M C; Sow, A; De Landtsheer, S; Ammerlaan, W; Ouedraogo, J B; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fouchier, R A M; Muller, C P

    2007-08-01

    In Africa, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus was first detected in northern Nigeria and later also in other regions of the country. Since then, seven other African countries have reported H5N1 infections. This study reports a comparison of full-length genomic sequences of H5N1 isolates from seven chicken farms in Nigeria and chicken and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso with earlier H5N1 outbreaks worldwide. In addition, the antigenicity of Nigerian H5N1 isolates was compared with earlier strains. All African strains clustered within three sublineages denominated A (south-west Nigeria, Niger), B (south-west Nigeria, Egypt, Djibouti) and C (northern Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire), with distinct nucleotide and amino acid signatures and distinct geographical distributions within Africa. Probable non-African ancestors within the west Asian/Russian/European lineage distinct from the south-east Asian lineages were identified for each sublineage. All reported human cases in Africa were caused by sublineage B. Substitution rates were calculated on the basis of sequences from 11 strains from a single farm in south-west Nigeria. As H5N1 emerged essentially at the same time in the north and south-west of Nigeria, the substitution rates confirmed that the virus probably did not spread from the north to the south, given the observed sequence diversity, but that it entered the country via three independent introductions. The strains from Burkina Faso seemed to originate from northern Nigeria. At least two of the sublineages also circulated in Europe in 2006 as seen in Germany, further suggesting that the sublineages had already emerged outside of Africa and seemed to have followed the east African/west Asian and Black Sea/Mediterranean flyways of migratory birds. PMID:17622635

  20. Genetic structure of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in the Old World reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations

    PubMed Central

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Moussouni, Souhila; Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Abbas Naqvi, Summar; Ludeña, Bertha; Castillo, Karina; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Bouguedoura, Nadia; Bennaceur, Malika; Si-Dehbi, Farida; Abdoulkader, Sabira; Daher, Abdourahman; Terral, Jean-Frederic; Santoni, Sylvain; Ballardini, Marco; Mercuri, Antonio; Ben Salah, Mohamed; Kadri, Karim; Othmani, Ahmed; Littardi, Claudio; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Date palms (Phoenix dactylifera, Arecaceae) are of great economic and ecological value to the oasis agriculture of arid and semi-arid areas. However, despite the availability of a large date palm germplasm spreading from the Atlantic shores to Southern Asia, improvement of the species is being hampered by a lack of information on global genetic diversity and population structure. In order to contribute to the varietal improvement of date palms and to provide new insights on the influence of geographic origins and human activity on the genetic structure of the date palm, this study analysed the diversity of the species. Methods Genetic diversity levels and population genetic structure were investigated through the genotyping of a collection of 295 date palm accessions ranging from Mauritania to Pakistan using a set of 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and a plastid minisatellite. Key Results Using a Bayesian clustering approach, the date palm genotypes can be structured into two different gene pools: the first, termed the Eastern pool, consists of accessions from Asia and Djibouti, whilst the second, termed the Western pool, consists of accessions from Africa. These results confirm the existence of two ancient gene pools that have contributed to the current date palm diversity. The presence of admixed genotypes is also noted, which points at gene flows between eastern and western origins, mostly from east to west, following a human-mediated diffusion of the species. Conclusions This study assesses the distribution and level of genetic diversity of accessible date palm resources, provides new insights on the geographic origins and genetic history of the cultivated component of this species, and confirms the existence of at least two domestication origins. Furthermore, the strong genetic structure clearly established here is a prerequisite for any breeding programme exploiting the effective polymorphism related to each gene pool. PMID

  1. Mineralogical, chemical, and optical interrelationships of mineral dusts from desert source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; Moosmüller, H.; Pincock, S.; Jayanty, J.; Casuccio, G.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the project was to provide information on the mineralogical, chemical and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dust samples collected from global dust sources. Surface soil samples were previously collected from more than 64 desert sites, including the southwestern USA (12), Mali (3), Chad (3), Morocco (1), Canary Islands (8), Cape Verde (1), Djibouti (1), Afghanistan (3), Iraq (6), Kuwait (5), Qatar (1), UAE (1), Serbia (3), China (5), Namibia (3), Botswana (4), Australia (3), and Chile (1). The < 38 μm sieved fraction of each sample was re-suspended in an entrainment facility, from which the airborne mineral dust could be sampled and analyzed. Instruments integrated into the entrainment facility included two PM10 and two PM2.5 filter samplers, a beta attenuation gauge for the continuous measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate mass fractions, an aerodynamic particle size (APS) analyzer, and a three wavelength (405, 532, 781nm) photoacoustic instrument with integrating reciprocal nephelometer for monitoring aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients during the re-suspension process. Filter sample media included Teflon membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis (71 species), and Nuclepore filters for individual particle analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The < 38 μm sieved fractions were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction for their mineral content while the > 38 μm, < 125 μm fractions were further mineralogically characterized by optical microscopy. We will be presenting results on the optical measurements, showing the relationship between single scattering albedo (SSA) at three different wavelengths, and chemical as well as mineralogical content and interrelationships, of the entrained dust samples. Information from this data base will be available for research in global climate, remote sensing, visibility, and health (medical geology).

  2. Heat flow in the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyak, B. G.; Fernàndez, M.; Khutorskoy, M. D.; Soto, J. I.; Basov, I. A.; Comas, M. C.; Khain, V. Ye.; Alonso, B.; Agapova, G. V.; Mazurova, I. S.; Negredo, A.; Tochitsky, V. O.; de la Linde, J.; Bogdanov, N. A.; Banda, E.

    1996-10-01

    The results of the first regional heat flow survey carried out in the Alboran Basin are presented. The survey consists of 98 heat flow measurements obtained using a violin type probe, 697 nautic miles of gravity profiles, 1446 nautic miles of bathymetric survey, and 22 gravity cores. A remarkable difference in heat flow patterns exists between the western (WAB) and eastern (EAB) parts of the Alboran Basin. The average heat flow in the WAB is 69 ± 6 mW m -2 with a generally increasing trend towards the centre and to the east. In contrast, the heat flow pattern in the EAB shows an average value of 124 ± 8 mW m -2 and it is maintained rather constant for the overall area. Superimposed on this general pattern there are some local thermal anomalies, associated with hydrothermal activity, which have been detected in the central WAB (up to 123 mW m -2), in the South Alboran Basin (SAB) (up to 153 mW m -2) and in the Djibouti Bank (DB) (up to 254 mW m -2). After corrections for thermal refraction, sedimentation and cooling of volcanic bodies, the resulting heat flow distribution in the WAB is smoother, but still shows the increasing trend towards the centre and to the east. In the EAB, the application of these corrections did not lead to any noticeable changes. A 1-D approach that combines heat flow data, crustal structure and elevation shows a dramatic decrease in lithospheric thickness from the WAB (50-90 km) to the EAB (38-40 km). Likewise, the resulting crustal thickness is around 14-16 km in the central part of the WAB, increasing towards the borders of the basin, whereas in the EAB the crustal thickness varies between 12.5 and 14.5 km in its western part, and between 10 and 11.5 km in its eastern part.

  3. A comparative review of governments' views on objectives and policy instruments in the field of population and development.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    It is possible to assess population policies through statements and decisions taken by governments as they reflect the views and commitments of political authorities in the field of population and development. Cases in the following African countries are reviewed with focus on objectives and policy instruments: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Equatorial Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Swaziland; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Republic of Cameroon; Tanzania; Upper Volta; Zaire; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. The information presented was drawn from the following publications: UN Population Division, "Population Policy Briefs: Current Situation in Developing Countries and Selected Territories," and UNFPA, "Population Programs and Projects," Volume 2, 1980-1981. On the basis of this review the following conclusions are drawn, which could indicate areas in which technical assistance to the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) member States would be required: among the 50 country members of ECA, 34 countries (68%) have as a development objective the reduction of mortality, and in particular, maternal and child mortality; the 2nd important objective is stabilizing or improving spatial distribution of population, and 44% of the 50 countries have adopted this objective which involves the distribution of population from 1 place to another within a country; the 3rd important objective consists of restricting the migratory flow from rural areas to urban areas; the countries of Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Tunisia adopted the objective of reducing the rate of population growth; 34% of African countries

  4. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection among the healthy population in Iran and countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A systematic review of prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghian, Ahad

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection among the healthy asymptomatic population in Iran and countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. METHODS: A computerized English language literature search of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar was performed in September 2013. The terms, “Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO)” and “Helicobacter pylori”, “H. pylori” and “prevalence” were used as key words in titles and/or abstracts. A complementary literature search was also performed in the following countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, The United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. RESULTS: In the electronic search, a total of 308 articles were initially identified. Of these articles, 26 relevant articles were identified and included in the study. There were 10 studies from Iran, 5 studies from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 4 studies from Egypt, 2 from the United Arab Emirates, and one study from Libya, Oman, Tunisia, and Lebanon, respectively. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection in Iran, irrespective of time and age group, ranged from 30.6% to 82%. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection, irrespective of time and age group, in other EMRO countries ranged from 22% to 87.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H. pylori in EMRO countries is still high in the healthy asymptomatic population. Strategies to improve sanitary facilities, educational status, and socioeconomic status should be implemented to minimize H. pylori infection. PMID:25516677

  5. Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

    2014-05-01

    is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.

  6. Flow, melt and fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

    2014-05-01

    Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.

  7. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Sustainable Energy Planning in MENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlooji, Maral; Ristic, Bora; Price, Katherine; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    The global issue of climate change has put pressure on governments to de-carbonise their energy portfolios by transitioning from the dominant use of fossil fuels energy to extensive use of renewable energies. The lack of renewable energy laws and credible targets and valid roadmaps for energy policies within the MENA region has let to ambitious and unrealistic renewable targets, where countries such as Djibouti and Morocco are aiming for 100% and 42% renewables respectively, by 2020, while Kuwait and Qatar are only aiming for 5% and 6% respectively. Nevertheless, this demonstrates the commitment and desirability of the members of the MENA region on increasing their share of renewables in their energy mix to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of the region and minimise the unintended impacts of energy technologies on major natural resources through use of cost efficient technologies. The Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) of energy sources among the member states of the MENA region is assessed by applying the "System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment" (Hadian and Madani, 2015). RAF demonstrates the efficiency of the overall resource-use of energy resources through creating a trade-off between carbon footprint, land footprint, water footprint, and economic cost. Using the resource availability of each member states, weights are assigned to the four criteria. This allows the evaluation of the desirability of energy sources with respect to regional resource availability and therefore, the efficiency of the overall resource-use of the energy portfolio of the MENA region is determined. This study has recognised the need for reform and radical changes within the MENA region's energy profile to make a significant contribution to the reduction of carbon emissions in order to use the resources in a sustainable way and increase the regional energy security of the member states across MENA. Reference: Hadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems

  8. HIV/AIDS among pastoralists and refugees in north-east Africa: a neglected problem.

    PubMed

    Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kassa, Afework; Alwan, Fathia; Kloos, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The eight member states (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda) of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) have the largest proportions of cross-border mobile pastoralists and refugees in Africa. Although all IGAD countries have had national HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmes since the late 1980s, the IGAD Regional HIV & AIDS Partnership Program was (IRAPP) established in 2007 to mitigate the challenges of HIV among neglected pastoral and refugee communities. This article assesses vulnerability of pastoralists and refugee communities to HIV and interventions targeting these groups in the IGAD countries. Outcomes from this study may serve as a baseline for further research and to improve interventions. Published articles were accessed through web searches using PubMed and Google Scholar engines and unpublished documents were collected manually. The search terms were HIV risk behaviour, vulnerability, HIV prevalence and interventions, under the headings pastoralists, refugees, IGAD and north-east Africa for the period 2001-2014. Of the 214 documents reviewed, 78 met the inclusion criteria and were included. Most HIV/AIDS related studies focusing of pastoral communities in IGAD countries were found to be limited in scope and coverage but reveal precarious situations. Sero-prevalence among various pastoral populations ranged from 1% to 21% in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda and from 1% to 5% among refugees in Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. Socioeconomic, cultural, logistic, infrastructure and programmatic factors were found to contribute to continuing vulnerability to HIV. Interventions need to be further contextualised to the needs of those impoverished populations and integrated into national HIV/AIDS programmes. HIV/AIDS remains a major public health concern among the pastoral and refugee communities of IGAD countries. This calls for IGAD to collaborate with national and international partners in

  9. Spatially explicit Schistosoma infection risk in eastern Africa using Bayesian geostatistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Chimfwembe, Kingford; Mushinge, Gabriel; Simoonga, Christopher; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Kristensen, Thomas K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-11-01

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the tropics and subtropics, but current statistics are outdated due to demographic and ecological transformations and ongoing control efforts. Reliable risk estimates are important to plan and evaluate interventions in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. We analysed a large ensemble of georeferenced survey data derived from an open-access neglected tropical diseases database to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium for a total of 13 countries of eastern Africa. Bayesian geostatistical models based on climatic and other environmental data were used to account for potential spatial clustering in spatially structured exposures. Geostatistical variable selection was employed to reduce the set of covariates. Alignment factors were implemented to combine surveys on different age-groups and to acquire separate estimates for individuals aged ≤20 years and entire communities. Prevalence estimates were combined with population statistics to obtain country-specific numbers of Schistosoma infections. We estimate that 122 million individuals in eastern Africa are currently infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. Country-specific population-adjusted prevalence estimates range between 12.9% (Uganda) and 34.5% (Mozambique) for S. mansoni and between 11.9% (Djibouti) and 40.9% (Mozambique) for S. haematobium. Our models revealed that infection risk in Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan might be considerably higher than previously reported, while in Mozambique and Tanzania, the risk might be lower than current estimates suggest. Our empirical, large-scale, high-resolution infection risk estimates for S. mansoni and S. haematobium in eastern Africa can guide future control interventions and provide a benchmark for subsequent monitoring and evaluation activities.

  10. Estimating probabilistic rainfall and food security outcomes for eastern and southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdin, J.; Funk, C.; Dettinger, M.; Brown, M.

    2009-05-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards development. In September of 2008, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, and Somalia faced high or extreme conditions of food insecurity caused by repeated droughts and rapid food price inflation. In this talk we present research, performed for the US Agency for International Development on probabilistic projections of rainfall and food security trends for eastern and southern Africa. Analyses of station data and satellite-based estimates of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing- season rainfall has diminished by ~15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines constitute a long term danger to subsistence agricultural and pastoral livelihoods. Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically-induced warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th century Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling millions of undernourished people as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, and seed and fertilizer use. Persistence of current trends may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the

  11. GEOSCOPE network : continuous recording over 29 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.; Team, G.; Geoscope Team

    2011-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory was created in 1982 and has now provided the scientific community with nearly 30 years of continuous broadband recordings . The 33 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers. Progressively stations are being equipped with warpless base plates which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. In 2011, 3 stations have been upgraded: COYC and PEL in Chile and ATD in Djibouti. Two new stations have been installed in Ivituut (station IVI, Greenland, GLISN project) and in Vanuatu islands (station SANVU). Currently, 27 stations transmit data in real or near real time to the GEOSCOPE Data Center and to tsunami warning centers. Continuous data from all stations are collected by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users via different interfaces according to data type (http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). We provide continuous data in real time through the seedlink protocol, validated continuous waveforms through the NetDC system and Data Handler Interface, a selection of large earthquake seismograms through the geoscope web portal. GEOSCOPE/IPGP is one of the four primary nodes of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) and our data are accessible through (http://www.seismicportal.eu). Noise levels for the last 20 years of continuous data are also accessible via the geoscope web site. Stations in both hemispheres show stronger noise amplitude during local winter except for the station DRV which is surrounded by sea ice in winter.

  12. Complete coding regions of the prototypes enterovirus B93 and C95: phylogenetic analyses of the P1 and P3 regions of EV-B and EV-C strains.

    PubMed

    Junttila, N; Lévêque, N; Magnius, L O; Kabue, J P; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Maslin, J; Lina, B; Norder, H

    2015-03-01

    Complete coding regions were sequenced for two new enterovirus genomes: EV-B93 previously identified by VP1 sequencing, derived from a child with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; and EV-C95 from a French soldier with acute gastroenteritis in Djibouti. The EV-B93 P1 had more than 30% nucleotide divergence from other EV-B types, with highest similarity to E-15 and EV-B80. The P1 nucleotide sequence of EV-C95 was most similar, 71%, to CV-A21. Complete coding regions for the new enteroviruses were compared with those of 135 EV-B and 176 EV-C strains representing all types available in GenBank. When strains from the same outbreak or strains isolated during the same year in the same geographical region were excluded, 27 of the 58 EV-B, and 16 of the 23 EV-C types were represented by more than one sequence. However, for EV-B the P3 sequences formed three clades mainly according to origin or time of isolation, irrespective of type, while for EV-C the P3 sequences segregated mainly according to disease manifestation, with most strains causing paralysis, including polioviruses, forming one clade, and strains causing respiratory illness forming another. There was no intermixing of types between these two clades, apart from two EV-C96 strains. The EV-B P3 sequences had lower inter-clade and higher intra-clade variability as compared to the EV-C sequences, which may explain why inter-clade recombinations are more frequent in EV-B. Further analysis of more isolates may shed light on the role of recombinations in the evolution of EV-B in geographical context. PMID:25163640

  13. Research on psychosocial aspects of asthma in the Arab world: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Anas J; Al Khateeb, Jamal M

    2015-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staff's, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area. PMID:25905019

  14. Significance of the identification in the Horn of Africa of an exceptionally deep branching Mycobacterium tuberculosis clade.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Yann; Hauck, Yolande; Soler, Charles; Fabre, Michel; Vong, Rithy; Dehan, Céline; Cazajous, Géraldine; Massoure, Pierre-Laurent; Kraemer, Philippe; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Garnotel, Eric; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Molecular and phylogeographic studies have led to the definition within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) of a number of geotypes and ecotypes showing a preferential geographic location or host preference. The MTBC is thought to have emerged in Africa, most likely the Horn of Africa, and to have spread worldwide with human migrations. Under this assumption, there is a possibility that unknown deep branching lineages are present in this region. We genotyped by spoligotyping and multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) 435 MTBC isolates recovered from patients. Four hundred and eleven isolates were collected in the Republic of Djibouti over a 12 year period, with the other 24 isolates originating from neighbouring countries. All major M. tuberculosis lineages were identified, with only two M. africanum and one M. bovis isolates. Upon comparison with typing data of worldwide origin we observed that several isolates showed clustering characteristics compatible with new deep branching. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of seven isolates and comparison with available WGS data from 38 genomes distributed in the different lineages confirms the identification of ancestral nodes for several clades and most importantly of one new lineage, here referred to as lineage 7. Investigation of specific deletions confirms the novelty of this lineage, and analysis of its precise phylogenetic position indicates that the other three superlineages constituting the MTBC emerged independently but within a relatively short timeframe from the Horn of Africa. The availability of such strains compared to the predominant lineages and sharing very ancient ancestry will open new avenues for identifying some of the genetic factors responsible for the success of the modern lineages. Additional deep branching lineages may be readily and efficiently identified by large-scale MLVA screening of isolates from sub-Saharan African countries followed by WGS analysis of

  15. Research on psychosocial aspects of asthma in the Arab world: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Anas J; Al Khateeb, Jamal M

    2015-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staff's, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area.

  16. Spatially explicit Schistosoma infection risk in eastern Africa using Bayesian geostatistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Chimfwembe, Kingford; Mushinge, Gabriel; Simoonga, Christopher; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Kristensen, Thomas K; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-11-01

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the tropics and subtropics, but current statistics are outdated due to demographic and ecological transformations and ongoing control efforts. Reliable risk estimates are important to plan and evaluate interventions in a spatially explicit and cost-effective manner. We analysed a large ensemble of georeferenced survey data derived from an open-access neglected tropical diseases database to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium for a total of 13 countries of eastern Africa. Bayesian geostatistical models based on climatic and other environmental data were used to account for potential spatial clustering in spatially structured exposures. Geostatistical variable selection was employed to reduce the set of covariates. Alignment factors were implemented to combine surveys on different age-groups and to acquire separate estimates for individuals aged ≤20 years and entire communities. Prevalence estimates were combined with population statistics to obtain country-specific numbers of Schistosoma infections. We estimate that 122 million individuals in eastern Africa are currently infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. Country-specific population-adjusted prevalence estimates range between 12.9% (Uganda) and 34.5% (Mozambique) for S. mansoni and between 11.9% (Djibouti) and 40.9% (Mozambique) for S. haematobium. Our models revealed that infection risk in Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan might be considerably higher than previously reported, while in Mozambique and Tanzania, the risk might be lower than current estimates suggest. Our empirical, large-scale, high-resolution infection risk estimates for S. mansoni and S. haematobium in eastern Africa can guide future control interventions and provide a benchmark for subsequent monitoring and evaluation activities. PMID:22019933

  17. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  18. A space-borne, multi-parameter, Virtual Volcano Observatory for the real-time, anywhere-anytime support to decision-making during eruptive crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrucci, F.; Tampellini, M.; Loughlin, S. C.; Tait, S.; Theys, N.; Valks, P.; Hirn, B.

    2013-12-01

    The EVOSS consortium of academic, industrial and institutional partners in Europe and Africa, has created a satellite-based volcano observatory, designed to support crisis management within the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) framework of the European Commission. Data from 8 different payloads orbiting on 14 satellite platforms (SEVIRI on-board MSG-1, -2 and -3, MODIS on-board Terra and Aqua, GOME-2 and IASI onboard MetOp-A, OMI on-board Aura, Cosmo-SkyMED/1, /2, /3 and /4, JAMI on-board MTSAT-1 and -2, and, until April 8th2012, SCHIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT) acquired at 5 different down-link stations, are disseminated to and automatically processed at 6 locations in 4 countries. The results are sent, in four separate geographic data streams (high-temperature thermal anomalies, volcanic Sulfur dioxide daily fluxes, volcanic ash and ground deformation), to a central facility called VVO, the 'Virtual Volcano Observatory'. This system operates 24H/24-7D/7 since September 2011 on all volcanoes in Europe, Africa, the Lesser Antilles, and the oceans around them, and during this interval has detected, measured and monitored all subaerial eruptions occurred in this region (44 over 45 certified, with overall detection and processing efficiency of ~97%). EVOSS borne realtime information is delivered to a group of 14 qualified end users, bearing the direct or indirect responsibility of monitoring and managing volcano emergencies, and of advising governments in Comoros, DR Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Montserrat, Uganda, Tanzania, France and Iceland. We present the full set of eruptions detected and monitored - from 2004 to present - by multispectral payloads SEVIRI onboard the geostationary platforms of the MSG constellation, for developing and fine tuning-up the EVOSS system along with its real-time, pre- and post-processing automated algorithms. The set includes 91% of subaerial eruptions occurred at 15 volcanoes (Piton de la Fournaise, Karthala, Jebel al

  19. Technical note: Mineralogical, chemical, morphological, and optical interrelationships of mineral dust re-suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Moosmüller, Hans; Pincock, Samuel; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Lersch, Traci; Casuccio, Gary

    2016-08-01

    This paper promotes an understanding of the mineralogical, chemical, and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dusts collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soils were collected from arid regions, including the southwestern USA, Mali, Chad, Morocco, Canary Islands, Cabo Verde, Djibouti, Afghanistan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Serbia, China, Namibia, Botswana, Australia, and Chile. The < 38 µm sieved fraction of each sample was re-suspended in a chamber, from which the airborne mineral dust could be extracted, sampled, and analyzed. Instruments integrated into the entrainment facility included two PM10 and two PM2.5 filter samplers, a beta attenuation gauge for the continuous measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate mass fractions, an aerodynamic particle size analyzer, and a three-wavelength (405, 532, 781 nm) photoacoustic instrument with integrating reciprocal nephelometer for monitoring absorption and scattering coefficients during the dust re-suspension process. Filter sampling media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The < 38 µm sieved fractions were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction for their mineral content while the > 75, < 125 µm soil fractions were mineralogically assessed by optical microscopy. Presented here are results of the optical measurements, showing the interdependency of single-scattering albedos (SSA) at three different wavelengths and mineralogical content of the entrained dust samples. To explain the elevated concentrations of iron (Fe) and Fe / Al ratios in the soil re-suspensions, we propose that dust particles are to a large extent composed of nano-sized particles of micas, clays, metal oxides, and ions of potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), and sodium

  20. Mineralogical, Chemical, and Optical Interrelationships of Airborne Mineral Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Pincock, S. L.; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Casuccio, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide information on the mineralogical, chemical and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dust samples collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soil samples were collected from about 65 desert sites, including the southwestern USA (12), Mali (3), Chad (3), Morocco (1), Canary Islands (8), Cape Verde (1), Djibouti (1), Afghanistan (3), Iraq (6), Kuwait (5), Qatar (1), UAE (1), Serbia (3), China (5), Namibia (3), Botswana (4), Australia (3), and Chile (1). The < 38 μm sieved fraction of each sample was re-suspended in an entrainment chamber, from which the airborne mineral dust could be monitored, sampled and analyzed. Instruments integrated into the entrainment facility included two PM10 and two PM2.5 filter samplers, a beta attenuation gauge for the continuous measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate mass fractions, an aerodynamic particle size (APS) analyzer, and a three wavelength (405, 532, 781nm) photoacoustic resonator with integrating reciprocal nephelometer for monitoring absorption and scattering coefficients during the dust re-suspension process. Filter sample media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis (71 species), and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The < 38 μm sieved fractions were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction for their mineral content while the > 38 μm, < 125 μm soil fractions were mineralogically characterized by optical microscopy. We will be presenting results on the optical measurements, also showing the relationship between single scattering albedo (SSA) at three different wavelengths, and chemical as well as mineralogical content and interdependencies of the entrained dust samples. Examples showing the relationships between the single scattering albedos of airborne dusts, and iron (Fe) in hematite, goethite, and clay minerals (montmorillonite, illite, palygorskite), will

  1. Study of the deformation in Central Afar using InSAR NSBAS chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprez, A.; Doubre, C.; Grandin, R.; Saad, I.; Masson, F.; Socquet, A.

    2013-12-01

    SAR and GPS data allow us to (1) point out the role of volcano activity on the localization of the extensive deformation within these rifts, (2) describe the temporal evolution of the mostly aseismic fault slips, and eventually (3) characterize the behavior of the crust after the dyking events in relation to visco-elastic relaxation. Moreover, we analyze several interesting small patches of localized deformation revealing transient displacements by combining time series results and seismic data collected by the Arta Geophysical Observatory in Djibouti. In particular, a specific clear deformation pattern on the northern margin of the Tadjoura Bay could be associated with a seismic swarm, probably resulting from the occurrence of an offshore dyking event sequence along the immerged Tadjoura rift segment.

  2. New geodetic measurements in central Afar constraining the Arabia-Somalia-Nubia triple junction kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubre, C.; Deprez, A.; Masson, F.; Socquet, A.; Lewi, E.; Grandin, R.; Calais, E.; Wright, T. J.; Bendick, R. O.; Pagli, C.; Peltzer, G.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Ibrahim Ahmed, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Afar Depression is an extraordinary submerged laboratory where the crustal mechanisms involved in the active rifting process can be studied. But the crustal movements at the regional scale are complicated by being the locus of the meeting of three divergent plate boundaries: the oceanic spreading ridges of the Red Sea and the Aden Ridge and the intra-continental East-African Rift (EAR). We present here the first GPS measurements conducted in a new network in Central Afar, complementing existing networks in Eritrea, around the Manda-Harraro 2005-2010 active segment, in the Northern part of the EAR and in Djibouti. Even if InSAR data were appropriate for mapping the deformation field, the results are difficult to interpret for analyzing the regional kinematics because of the atmospheric conditions, the lack of complete data catalogue, the acquisition configuration and the small velocity variations. Therefore, our measurements in the new sites are crucial to obtain an accurate velocity field over the whole depression, and focus specifically on the spatial organization of the deformation to characterize the tripe junction. These first results show that a small part of the motion of the Somalia plate with respect to the Nubia plate or the Arabia plate (2-3 mm/yr) occurs south of the Tadjura Gulf and East of the Adda-do segment in Southern Afar. The complex kinematic pattern involves a clockwise rotation of this Southeastern part of the Afar rift and can be related to the significant seismic activity regularly recorded in the region of Jigjiga (northern Somalia-Ethiopia border). The western continuation of the Aden Ridge into Afar extends West of the Asal rift segment and does not reach the young active segment of Manda-Inakir (MI). A slow gradient of velocity is observed across the Dobi Graben and across the large systems of faults between Lake Abhe and the MI rift segment. A striking change of the velocity direction occurs in the region of Assaïta, west of Lake

  3. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  4. Exploring Subsurface Geology Using Radar Techniques: Experiments in Sahara and Consequences for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillou, P.; Grandjean, G.; Heggy, E.; Farr, T.

    2004-05-01

    For several years, we have conducted a quantitative study of radar penetration performances in various desert arid environments. This study combines both SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imaging from orbital and airborne platforms and in situ GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) measurements. Laboratory characterization of various minerals and rocks are used as input to electromagnetic models such as IEM (Integral Equation Model) and FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) that describe the subsurface scattering process for inversion purposes. Several test sites were explored, mainly the Sahara. Our first experiment was realized in Republic of Djibouti, an arid volcanic area which is a good analog to Mars. We observed a very little radar penetration there because of the presence of iron oxides and salts in the subsurface that make the soil conductive [Paillou et al., GRL, 2001]. A more favorable site for radar penetration was then explored in southern Egypt: the Bir Safsaf area where buried river channels were discovered using orbital SAR images. We showed how to combine SAR and GPR in order to obtain a complete description of subsurface geology down to several meters [Paillou et al., IEEE TGRS, 2003]. Such field experiments were the basis for more systematic laboratory measurements of the electromagnetic properties of various rocks and minerals which were used in numerical models in order to simulate the performances of future Martian radars, e.g. MARSIS and NETLANDER low frequency radars [Heggy et al., Icarus, 2001; Berthelier et al., JGR, 2003; Heggy et al., JGR, 2003]. More recently, new explorations were conducted in Mauritania in order to demonstrate radar capacities for geologic mapping [Grandjean et al., Coll. Afr. Geol., 2004] and in Libya where radar discovered a double impact crater in the southern desert [Paillou et al., C.R. Geoscience, 2003]. More local radar experiments were also conducted on a test site located in France, the Pyla sand dune, where we observed

  5. Status of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among prisoners in the Middle East and North Africa: review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The status of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among incarcerated populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the links between prisons and the HIV epidemic are poorly understood. This review synthesized available HIV and HCV data in prisons in MENA and highlighted opportunities for action. Methods The review was based on data generated through the systematic searches of the MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2003 to December 15, 2015) and the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2011 to December 15, 2015). Sources of data included peer-reviewed publications and country-level reports and databases. Results and discussion We estimated a population of 496,000 prisoners in MENA, with drug-related offences being a major cause for incarceration. Twenty countries had data on HIV among incarcerated populations with a median prevalence of 0.6% in Afghanistan, 6.1% in Djibouti, 0.01% in Egypt, 2.5% in Iran, 0% in Iraq, 0.1% in Jordan, 0.05% in Kuwait, 0.7% in Lebanon, 18.0% in Libya, 0.7% in Morocco, 0.3% in Oman, 1.1% in Pakistan, 0% in Palestine, 1.2% in Saudi Arabia, 0% in Somalia, 5.3% in Sudan and South Sudan, 0.04% in Syria, 0.05% in Tunisia, and 3.5% in Yemen. Seven countries had data on HCV, with a median prevalence of 1.7% in Afghanistan, 23.6% in Egypt, 28.1% in Lebanon, 15.6% in Pakistan, and 37.8% in Iran. Syria and Libya had only one HCV prevalence measure each at 1.5% and 23.7%, respectively. There was strong evidence for injecting drug use and the use of non-sterile injecting-equipment in prisons. Incarceration and injecting drugs, use of non-sterile injecting-equipment, and tattooing in prisons were found to be independent risk factors for HIV or HCV infections. High levels of sexual risk behaviour, tattooing and use of non-sterile razors among prisoners were documented. Conclusions Prisons play an important role in HIV and HCV dynamics in MENA and have facilitated the emergence of large HIV epidemics in

  6. Understanding the nature of mantle upwelling beneath East-Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James; Goes, Saskia; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, Mike; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rumpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham

    2014-05-01

    The concept of hot upwelling material - otherwise known as mantle plumes - has long been accepted as a possible mechanism to explain hotspots occurring at Earth's surface and it is recognized as a way of removing heat from the deep Earth. Nevertheless, this theory remains controversial since no one has definitively imaged a plume and over the last decades several other potential mechanisms that do not require a deep mantle source have been invoked to explain this phenomenon, for example small-scale convection at rifted margins, meteorite impacts or lithospheric delamination. One of the best locations to study the potential connection between hotspot volcanism at the surface and deep mantle plumes on land is the East African Rift (EAR). We image seismic velocity structure of the mantle below EAR with higher resolution than has been available to date by including seismic data recorded by stations from many regional networks ranging from Saudi Arabia to Tanzania. We use relative travel-time tomography to produce P- velocity models from the surface down into the lower mantle incorporating 9250 ray-paths in our model from 495 events and 402 stations. We add smaller earthquakes (4.5 < mb < 5.5) from poorly sampled regions in order to have a more uniform data coverage. The tomographic results allow us to image structures of ~ 100-km length scales to ~ 1000 km depth beneath the northern East-Africa rift (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Yemen) with good resolution also in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle. Our observations provide evidence that the shallow mantle slow seismic velocities continue trough the transition zone and into the lower mantle. In particular, the relatively slow velocity anomaly beneath the Afar Depression extends up to depths of at least 1000 km depth while another low-velocity anomaly beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift seems to be present in the upper mantle only. These features in the lower mantle are isolated with a diameter of about 400 km

  7. Uppermost mantle velocity from Pn tomography in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeau, Jordane; Rolandone, Frédérique; Leroy, Sylvie; Al-Lazki, Ali; Keir, Derek; Stuart, Graham; Stork, Anna

    2013-04-01

    We present an analysis of Pn traveltimes to determine lateral variations of velocity in the uppermost mantle and crustal thickness beneath the Gulf of Aden and its margins. No detailed tomographic image of the entire Gulf of Aden was available. Previous tomographic studies covered the eastern Gulf of Aden and were thus incomplete or at a large scale with a too low resolution to see the lithospheric structures. From 1990 to 2010, 49206 Pn arrivals were selected from the International Seismological Center catalogue. We also used temporary networks : YOCMAL (Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory) networks with broadband stations located in Oman, Yemen and Socotra from 2003 to 2011, and Djibouti network from 2009 to 2011. From these networks we picked Pn arrivals and selected 4110 rays. Using a least-squares tomographic code (Hearn, 1996), these data were analyzed to solve for velocity variations in the mantle lithosphere. We perform different inversions for shorter and longer ray path data sets in order to separate the shallow and deep structure within the mantle lid. In the upper lid, zones of low velocity (7.7 km/s) around Sanaa, Aden, Afar, and along the Gulf of Aden are related to active volcanism. Off-axis volcanism and a regional melting anomaly in the Gulf of Aden area may be connected to the Afar plume, and explained by the model of channeling material away from the Afar plume along ridge-axis. Our study validates the channeling model and shows that the influence of the Afar hotspot may extend much farther eastwards along the Aden and Sheba ridges into the Gulf of Aden than previously believed. Still in the upper lid, high Pn velocities (>8,2 km/s) are observed in Yemen and may be related to the presence of a magmatic underplating under the volcanic margin of Aden and under the Red Sea margins. In the lower lid, zones of low velocities are spatially located differently than in the upper lid. On the Oman margin, a low velocity zone (7.6 km/s) suggests deep partial

  8. Seismically imaging the Afar plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Bastow, I. D.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Ogubazghi, G.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.

    2011-12-01

    Plume related flood basalt volcanism in Ethiopia has long been cited to have instigated continental breakup in northeast Africa. However, to date seismic images of the mantle beneath the region have not produced conclusive evidence of a plume-like structure. As a result the nature and even existence of a plume in the region and its role in rift initiation and continental rupture are debated. Previous seismic studies using regional deployments of sensors in East-Africa show that low seismic velocities underlie northeast Africa, but their resolution is limited to the top 200-300km of the Earth. Thus, the connection between the low velocities in the uppermost mantle and those imaged in global studies in the lower mantle is unclear. We have combined new data from Afar, Ethiopia with 6 other regional experiments and global network stations across Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen, to produce high-resolution models of upper mantle P- and S- wave velocities to the base of the transition zone. Relative travel time tomographic inversions show that the top 100km is dominated by focussed low velocity zones, likely associated with melt in the lithosphere/uppermost asthenosphere. Below these depths a broad SW-NE oriented sheet like upwelling extends down to the top of the transition zone. Within the transition zone two focussed sharp-sided low velocity regions exist: one beneath the Western Ethiopian plateau outside the rift valley, and the other beneath the Afar depression. The nature of the transition zone anomalies suggests that small upwellings may rise from a broader low velocity plume-like feature in the lower mantle. This interpretation is supported by numerical and analogue experiments that suggest the 660km phase change and viscosity jump may impede flow from the lower to upper mantle creating a thermal boundary layer at the base of the transition zone. This allows smaller, secondary upwellings to initiate and rise to the surface. Our images of secondary upwellings

  9. Seismic constraints on a large dyking event in Western Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, A.; Doubre, C.; Leroy, S.; Perrot, J.; Audin, L.; Rolandone, F.; Keir, D.; Al-Ganad, I.; Khanbari, K.; Mohamed, K.; Vergne, J.; Jacques, E.; Nercessian, A.

    2012-04-01

    In November 2010, a large number of events were recorded by the world seismic networks showing important activity occurring along the western part of the Aden Ridge. West of the Shulka El Sheik transform zone, events in this large seismic swarm (magnitudes above 5) occurred in a complex area, where the change of both the ridge direction and the bathymetry suggest the propagation of the ridge into a continental lithosphere and the influence of the thermal anomaly of the Afar Hot Spot. We combine several sets of data from permanent networks and temporary 3C broad stations installed after the beginning of the event along the southern and eastern coasts of Yemen and Djibouti respectively, we located more than 600 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 5.6 that occurred during the first months following the first event. The spatial distribution of the main seismicity reveals a very clear N115°-trending alignment, parallel to the mean direction of the en-echelon spreading segments that form the ridge at this longitude. Half of the events, which represent half of the total seismic energy released during the first months, are located in the central third section of the segment. Here several volcanic cones and recent lava flows observed from bathymetric and acoustic reflectivity data during the Tadjouraden cruise (Audin, 1999, Dauteuil et al., 2001) constitute the sea floor. In addition to this main activity, two small groups of events suggest the activiation of landslides into a large fan and the activity in a volcanic area 50 km due east from the main active zone. The time evolution of the seismicity shows several bursts of activity. Some of them are clearly related to sudden activities within the volcanic areas, when others exhibit horizontal migration of the events, with velocity around ~ 1 km/h. The time-space evolution of the seismicity clearly reveals the intrusion of dykes associated with magma propagation from the crustal magmatic centres into the rift

  10. Seismic constraints on a large dyking event and initiation of a transform fault zone in Western Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, AbdulHakim; Doubre, Cecile; Leroy, Sylvie; Perrot, Julie; Audin, Laurence; Rolandone, Frederique; Keir, Derek; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Mohamed, Kassim; Vergne, Jerome; Jacques, Eric; Nercessian, Alex

    2013-04-01

    In November 2010, a large number of events were recorded by the world seismic networks showing important activity occurring along the western part of the Aden Ridge. West of the Shulka El Sheik fracture zone, events in this large seismic swarm (magnitudes above 5) occurred in a complex area, where the change of both the ridge direction and the bathymetry suggest the propagation of the ridge into a continental lithosphere and the influence of the Afar plume. We combine several sets of data from permanent networks and temporary 3C broad stations installed after the beginning of the event along the southern and eastern coasts of Yemen and Djibouti respectively, we located more than 600 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 2.5 to 5.6 that occurred during the first months following the first event. The spatial distribution of the main seismicity reveals a very clear N115° -trending alignment, parallel to the mean direction of the en-echelon spreading segments that form the ridge at this longitude. Half of the events, which represent half of the total seismic energy released during the first months, are located in the central third section of the segment. Here several volcanic cones and recent lava flows observed from bathymetric and acoustic reflectivity data during the Tadjouraden cruise (Audin, 1999, Dauteuil et al., 2001) constitute the sea floor. In addition to this main activity, two small groups of events suggest the activiation of landslides into a large fan and the activity in a volcanic area 50 km due east from the main active zone. The time evolution of the seismicity shows several bursts of activity. Some of them are clearly related to sudden activities within the volcanic areas, when others exhibit horizontal migration of the events, with velocity around ˜ 1 km/h. The time-space evolution of the seismicity clearly reveals the intrusion of dykes associated with magma propagation from the crustal magmatic centres into the rift zone. Taking into account

  11. Multiple mantle upwellings through the transition zone beneath the Afar Depression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Stuart, G. W.; Thompson, D. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Goitom, B.; Ogubazghi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Previous seismic studies using regional deployments of sensors in East-Africa show that low seismic velocities underlie Africa, but their resolution is limited to the top 200-300km of the Earth. Thus, the connection between the low velocities in the uppermost mantle and those imaged in global studies in the lower mantle is unclear. We have combined new data from Afar, Ethiopia with 7 other regional experiments and global network stations across Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen, to produce high-resolution models of upper mantle P- and S-wave velocities to the base of the transition zone. Relative travel time tomographic inversions show that within the transition zone two focussed sharp-sided low velocity regions exist: one beneath the Western Ethiopian plateau outside the rift valley, and the other beneath the Afar depression. Estimates of transition zone thickness suggest that this is unlikely to be an artefact of mantle discontinuity topography as a transition zone of normal thickness underlies the majority of Afar and surrounding regions. However, a low velocity layer is evident directly above the 410 discontinuity, co-incident with some of the lowest seismic velocities suggesting that smearing of a strong low velocity layer of limited depth extent may contribute to the tomographic models in north-east Afar. The combination of seismic constraints suggests that small low temperature (<50K) upwellings may rise from a broader low velocity plume-like feature in the lower mantle. This interpretation is supported by numerical and analogue experiments that suggest the 660km phase change and viscosity jump may impede flow from the lower to upper mantle creating a thermal boundary layer at the base of the transition zone. This allows smaller, secondary upwellings to initiate and rise to the surface. These, combined with possible evidence of melt above the 410 discontinuity can explain the seismic velocity models. Our images of secondary upwellings suggest that

  12. Afar-wide Crustal Strain Field from Multiple InSAR Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagli, C.; Wright, T. J.; Wang, H.; Calais, E.; Bennati Rassion, L. S.; Ebinger, C. J.; Lewi, E.

    2010-12-01

    Onset of a rifting episode in the Dabbahu volcanic segment, Afar (Ethiopia), in 2005 renewed interest in crustal deformation studies in the area. As a consequence, an extensive geodetic data set, including InSAR and GPS measurements have been acquired over Afar and hold great potential towards improving our understanding of the extensional processes that operate during the final stages of continental rupture. The current geodetic observational and modelling strategy has focused on detailed, localised studies of dyke intrusions and eruptions mainly in the Dabbahu segment. However, an eruption in the Erta ‘Ale volcanic segment in 2008, and cluster of earthquakes observed in the Tat Ale segment, are testament to activity elsewhere in Afar. Here we make use of the vast geodetic dataset available to obtain strain information over the whole Afar depression. A systematic analysis of all the volcanic segments, including Dabbahu, Manda-Hararo, Alayta, Tat ‘Ale Erta Ale and the Djibouti deformation zone, is undertaken. We use InSAR data from multiple tracks together with available GPS measurements to obtain a velocity field model for Afar. We use over 300 radar images acquired by the Envisat satellite in both descending and ascending orbits, from 12 distinct tracks in image and wide swath modes, spanning the time period from October 2005 to present time. We obtain the line-of-sight deformation rates from each InSAR track using a network approach and then combine the InSAR velocities with the GPS observations, as suggested by Wright and Wang (2010) following the method of England and Molnar (1997). A mesh is constructed over the Afar area and then we solve for the horizontal and vertical velocities on each node. The resultant full 3D Afar-wide velocity field shows where current strains are being accumulated within the various volcanic segments of Afar, the width of the plate boundary deformation zone and possible connections between distinct volcanic segments on a

  13. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. N.; Brownfield, M. E.; Bergin, M. J.

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  14. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-02-04

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  15. Delivering High-Quality Family Planning Services in Crisis-Affected Settings I: Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a “pull” system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with

  16. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  17. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    PubMed

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-22

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  18. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    PubMed

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  19. HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping from antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve and first-line treatment failures in Djiboutian patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this study we report the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistant HIV-1 genotypes of virus isolated from Djiboutian patients who failed first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and from ART naïve patients. Patients and methods A total of 35 blood samples from 16 patients who showed first-line ART failure (>1000 viral genome copies/ml) and 19 ART-naïve patients were collected in Djibouti from October 2009 to December 2009. Both the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were amplified and sequenced using National Agency for AIDS Research (ANRS) protocols. The Stanford HIV database algorithm was used for interpretation of resistance data and genotyping. Results Among the 16 patients with first-line ART failure, nine (56.2%) showed reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 strains: two (12.5%) were resistant to nucleoside (NRTI), one (6.25%) to non-nucleoside (NNRTI) reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and six (37.5%) to both. Analysis of the DNA sequencing data indicated that the most common mutations conferring drug resistance were M184V (38%) for NRTI and K103N (25%) for NNRTI. Only NRTI primary mutations K101Q, K103N and the PI minor mutation L10V were found in ART naïve individuals. No protease inhibitor resistant strains were detected. In our study, we found no detectable resistance in ∼ 44% of all patients who experienced therapeutic failure which was explained by low compliance, co-infection with tuberculosis and malnutrition. Genotyping revealed that 65.7% of samples were infected with subtype C, 20% with CRF02_AG, 8.5% with B, 2.9% with CRF02_AG/C and 2.9% with K/C. Conclusion The results of this first study about drug resistance mutations in first-line ART failures show the importance of performing drug resistance mutation test which guides the choice of a second-line regimen. This will improve the management of HIV-infected Djiboutian patients. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here

  20. Relating Optical Properties of Dusts to their Mineralogical and Physical Interrelationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Casuccio, G.; Pincock, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide information on the mineralogical, chemical and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dust samples collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soil samples were collected from about 65 desert sites, including the southwestern USA (12), Mali (3), Chad (3), Morocco (1), Canary Islands (8), Cape Verde (1), Djibouti (1), Afghanistan (3), Iraq (6), Kuwait (5), Qatar (1), UAE (1), Serbia (3), China (5), Namibia (3), Botswana (4), Australia (3), and Chile (1). The < 38 μm sieved fraction of each sample was re-suspended in an entrainment chamber, from which the airborne mineral dust could be monitored, sampled and analyzed. Instruments integrated into the entrainment facility included two PM10 and two PM2.5 filter samplers, a beta attenuation gauge for the continuous measurement of PM10 and PM2.5particulate mass fractions, an aerodynamic particle size (APS) analyzer, and a three wavelength (405, 532, 781nm) photoacoustic resonator with integrating reciprocal nephelometer for monitoring absorption and scattering coefficients during the dust re-suspension process. Filter sample media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis (71 species), and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The < 38 μm sieved fractions were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction for their mineral content while the > 38 μm, < 125 μm soil fractions were mineralogically characterized by optical microscopy. We will be presenting results on the optical measurements, also showing the relationship between single scattering albedo (SSA) at three different wavelengths, and chemical as well as mineralogical content and interdependencies of the entrained dust samples. Examples showing the relationships between the single scattering albedos of airborne dusts, and iron (Fe) in hematite, goethite, and clay minerals (montmorillonite, illite, palygorskite), will

  1. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  2. The GEOSCOPE Program: state of the art in 2003 and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roult, G.; Lepine, J.; Stutzmann, E.; Montagner, J.; Geoscope Group,.

    2003-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE program was launched in 1982 by the National Institute of Sciences of Universe (INSU), a department of the French National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS), at the instigation of the Institute of Physics of the Earth of Paris (IPGP). The purpose of the GEOSCOPE program was the installation of about 25 stations well distributed worldwide, in particular in the southern hemisphere, in the standard configuration defined by the FDSN (very broad-band 24 bit, continuous recording at 20sps). The GEOSCOPE program is operating 28 digital very-broadband stations. Data from large events are teletransmitted for some stations (by phone line or through internet) and made available within one day. A satellite transmission system is now working, in cooperation with the french military agency CEA/DASE, in cooperation with CTBTO (Dzumac in New Caledonia ). An agreement between GEOSCOPE and CTBTO allows us to get data continuously and with a low gain. The next CTBTO stations to be installed are ATD (Djibouti) and MBO (Senegal) in 2004. In terms of siting locations, the aim of the GEOSCOPE program is almost fulfilled; we plan to install a new station in MARQ (Marquesas Islands), one in Russia at high latitude at VOR (Vorkouta), one in Patagonia (COY in Chile), a joint station with IRIS at TRIS (Tristan Da Cunha) in order to fill some geographical gaps in the southern hemisphere. DCC in Antarctica is a joint EOST-Strasbourg/Concordia-Italy station. Our goal is now to replace our old digitizers by Quanterra ones, and to transmit all data in near real-time. An inversion method for the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave spectra has made possible the rapid determination of the mechanism and the seismic moments.This determination is done routinely for all events with Ms>6.8 from the teletransmitted stations data. The estimate Power Spectral Density plots have been computed for each station and are available on the Web site. Some small to medium earthquakes are not detected and

  3. The GEOSCOPE Program: state of the art in 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roult, G.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.

    2007-05-01

    The GEOSCOPE program was launched in 1982 by the National Institute of Sciences of Universe (INSU), a department of the French National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS), following the initiative of the Institute of Physics of the Earth of Paris (IPGP). The purpose was the installation of about 25 stations well distributed worldwide (in particular in the southern hemisphere), in the standard configuration defined by the FDSN (very broad-band 24 bit, continuous recording at 20sps). At present, the GEOSCOPE program is operating 28 digital 3-component very- broadband stations. In terms of site locations, the aim of the GEOSCOPE program is almost fulfilled. Our purpose is to maintain the stations at original sites (Indian Ocean, Africa) and to fill some geographical gaps at high latitudes in the southern and northern hemisphere. In particular, at high latitudes in Russia, we plan to install a new station VOR (Vorkuta) and to move the station SEY (Seimchan) to a new location in northern Kamchatka. We are also working on improving data quality and transmission. Historically, GEOSCOPE did not operate real- time data. Continuous data from most of stations arrive with significant delays and records from large events are teletransmitted from some stations (by phone RTC line or through internet) and are made available within one day. To improve this situation, we are replacing the old Streckeisen digitizers with new Quanterra data loggers, essentially Q330-HR ones. Presently data from 13 stations are made available at the IPGP Geoscope Data Center in near real-time, with a delay depending on the station: 1- ATD (Arta, Djibouti), a joint CTBTO/CERD/G station 2- CAN (Canberra, Australia), a joint ANU/G station 3- DZM (Dzumac, New Caledonia, a joint DASE/CTBTO/G station 4- ECH (Echery, France) 5- FDF (Fort de France, French West Indies) 6- KIP (Kipapa, Hawai), a joint IRIS/USGS/G station 7- PAF (Port aux Français, Kerguelen Island) 8- RER (Riviere de l'Est , La Reunion) 9

  4. The GEOSCOPE program: state of the art in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roult, G.; Geoscope Group, A

    2006-12-01

    -TAOE Marquesas Islands, a joint DASE/GEOSCOPE station 8-ATD Arta, Djibouti, a joint CTBTO/CERD/G station The next challenge is to link the maximum number of stations to our Data Center for getting data in real time. To reach this objective in a few years, we plan to upgrade 3 or 4 stations every year, giving priority to the ones easy to link permanently to Paris (TAM/Algeria, SPB/Brasil and CAN/Australia before the end of 2006). For the last ten years we have been progressively installing microbarometers and thermometers, transforming all our stations in multiparameter observatories. We also are participating to the national efforts for the creation of a Tsunami Warning Center at La Reunion Island in the frame of the CNATOI project (Centre National d'Alerte aux Tsunamis dans l'Ocean Indien).

  5. Understanding mineral dusts from the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; McDonald, E.; Gillies, J. A.; Jayanty, J.; Casuccio, G.; Gertler, A.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the program was to provide scientifically founded information on the chemical and physical properties of airborne mineral dust collected during a period of approximately one year, largely in 2006, at Djibouti, Afghanistan (Bagram, Khowst), Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Iraq (Balad, Baghdad, Tallil, Tikrit, Taji, Al Asad), and Kuwait (Northern, Central, Coastal, and Southern regions). To fully understand mineral dusts, their chemical and physical properties as well as mineralogical interrelationships were accurately established. Three collocated low volume particulate samplers, one each for the total suspended (TSP), less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) particulate matter were deployed at each of the 15 sites, operating on a "1 in 6 day" sampling schedule. A total of 3,136 filter samples were collected on a 1-in-6 day schedule, along with one-time bulk soil samples, at each of the 15 sites. Sample media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis (71 species), and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The provisional study of the data revealed three broad air pollution sources: geological dust, smoke from burn pits, and until now unidentified lead-zinc smelters and battery-processing facilities. SEM results and secondary electron imagery show that quartz and other silicate minerals and, to a lesser extent, dolomite and calcite particles are coated by a thin Si-Al-Mg layer, probably the clay minerals palygorskite and/or montmorillonite/illite. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on aerosol samples collected at six military sites in Iraq (Balad, Baghdad, Tallil, Tikrit, Taji, and Al Asad). PMF results reflect chemical differences amongst sources impacting at individual sites, further complicated by the regional geomorphology and meteorology. Sampling sites are seldom impacted by one source at

  6. Agricultural Early Warning Informing Humanitarian Response in East Africa for 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    Long rains during the March-April-May (MAM) 2011 growing season were a failure for much of the Greater Horn of Africa. These conditions resulted in severe food shortages, with the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) estimating that 12.4 million people were in need of food assistance in Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Heading into the 2012 season, La Niña conditions, an exceptionally strong western-to-central Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, and warm SSTs in the eastern Indian Ocean foretold further dryness, compounding the difficulties faced by the already vulnerable populations of this region. In an effort to assess the potential for greater food insecurity in the region, FEWS NET scientists attempted to quantify the likelihood of a dry event. This work used satellite rainfall estimates with a 13-year rainfall history. Weights were assigned to previous years based on the similarity of existing SST conditions to those of previous years in the rainfall record. Scenarios were created by randomly combining dekadal rainfall from the historical record, in accordance with the weights. This bootstrapping resulted in a suite of simulations which could be used to identify the likelihood of specific rainfall outcomes. Areal averages of each simulation were used in the analysis. Analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) rainfall record, a gridded rainfall product based on available station data, showed that the mean rainfall value for the time period of the satellite data for this region was only about 80% of the 30-year mean. The bootstrapped scenarios were corrected for this bias during the period of the satellite record. Results were expressed as percent of average rather than in absolute rainfall amounts, to account for biases in the satellite products as well as variability in spatial amounts. The results showed that during a normal year the interquartile range is typically 80-120% of normal. However, using the

  7. Seafloor spreading event in western Gulf of Aden during the November 2010-March 2011 period captured by regional seismic networks: evidence for diking events and interactions with a nascent transform zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Doubre, Cécile; Leroy, Sylvie; Kassim, Mohamed; Keir, Derek; Abayazid, Ahmadine; Julie, Perrot; Laurence, Audin; Vergne, Jérome; Alexandre, Nercessian; Jacques, Eric; Khanbari, Khaled; Sholan, Jamal; Rolandone, Frédérique; Al-Ganad, Ismael

    2016-05-01

    In November 2010, intense seismic activity including 29 events with a magnitude above 5.0, started in the western part of the Gulf of Aden, where the structure of the oceanic spreading ridge is characterized by a series of N115°-trending slow-spreading segments set within an EW-trending rift. Using signals recorded by permanent and temporary networks in Djibouti and Yemen, we located 1122 earthquakes, with a magnitude ranging from 2.1 to 5.6 from 2010 November 1 to 2011 March 31. By looking in detail at the space-time distribution of the overall seismicity, and both the frequency and the moment tensor of large earthquakes, we re-examine the chronology of this episode. In addition, we also interpret the origin of the activity using high-resolution bathymetric data, as well as from observations of seafloor cable damage caused by high temperatures and lava flows. The analysis allows us to identify distinct active areas. First, we interpret that this episode is mainly related to a diking event along a specific ridge segment, located at E044°. In light of previous diking episodes in nearby subaerial rift segments, for which field constraints and both seismic and geodetic data exist, we interpret the space-time evolution of the seismicity of the first few days. Migration of earthquakes suggests initial magma ascent below the segment centre. This is followed by a southeastward dike propagation below the rift immediately followed by a northwestward dike propagation below the rift ending below the northern ridge wall. The cumulative seismic moment associated with this sequence reaches 9.1 × 1017 Nm, and taking into account a very low seismic versus geodetic moment, we estimate a horizontal opening of ˜0.58-2.9 m. The seismic activity that followed occurred through several bursts of earthquakes aligned along the segment axis, which are interpreted as short dike intrusions implying fast replenishment of the crustal magma reservoir feeding the dikes. Over the whole period

  8. Africa in SRTM 3-D, Anaglyph of Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Mauritania, a 'bull's eye' geologic structure, (2) the Velingara Ring in Senegal, a possible meteorite impact crater, (3) the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, (4) the Cameroon Line of volcanoes, crossing Cameroon and extending offshore, (5) long linear mountain ridges crossing the southern end of Africa, (6) Mount Kilimanjaro and neighboring volcanoes in Kenya and Tanzania, (7) the Afar Triangle in Ethiopia, Djibouti, and vicinity, where Earth's crust is being pulled in three directions by tectonic forces, (8) the Dead Sea fault line, between Israel and Jordan, (9) ancient shorelines, inland from the coast of Libya, and (10) vast seas of sand dunes, particularly across the Sahara Desert and much of the Arabian Peninsula.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the

  9. Africa in SRTM 3-D, Anaglyph of Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Mauritania, a 'bull's eye' geologic structure, (2) the Velingara Ring in Senegal, a possible meteorite impact crater, (3) the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, (4) the Cameroon Line of volcanoes, crossing Cameroon and extending offshore, (5) long linear mountain ridges crossing the southern end of Africa, (6) Mount Kilimanjaro and neighboring volcanoes in Kenya and Tanzania, (7) the Afar Triangle in Ethiopia, Djibouti, and vicinity, where Earth's crust is being pulled in three directions by tectonic forces, (8) the Dead Sea fault line, between Israel and Jordan, (9) ancient shorelines, inland from the coast of Libya, and (10) vast seas of sand dunes, particularly across the Sahara Desert and much of the Arabian Peninsula.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the