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Sample records for dmba-induced hamster buccal

  1. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  2. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  3. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  4. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  5. Gene Expression Signature of DMBA-Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinomas: Modulation by Chlorophyllin and Ellagic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:22485181

  6. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:22485181

  7. Chemopreventive and Antilipidperoxidative Efficacy of Piper longum (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, Namasivayam; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Subramanian; Rajmani Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    Aim of the present study was to find out the chemopreventive efficacy of Piper longum, a plant having diverse medicinal properties, in 7,12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive potential was analysed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in DMBA induced oral cancer. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidants were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLEFet) on alternate days to DMBA painting significantly prevented the tumor incidence, volume and burden and restored the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results indicate that the dried fruits of P. longum has suppressing effects on cell proliferation, which is probably due to its antilipid peroxidative and antioxidative potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  8. Topical chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Lee, Jeng-Woei; How, Mon-Hsin

    2010-02-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has become a prominent cancer because of its highest annual increase rate among all cancer diseases. Betel quid chewing habit is a major risk factor for oral precancerous and cancerous lesions and there are more than two million people who have this habit in Taiwan. Our previous studies showed that chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative (CPD)-mediated PDT is very effective for killing of SCC-4 cell lines in vitro. In order to decrease the systemic phototoxic effect of CPD, this study was designed to use a topical CPD-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical CPD-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when CPD reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of CPD gel. We found that CPD reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 1 hour (range, 0 to 30 hours) after topical application of CPD gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical CPD-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 200 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 100 J/cm2) using the portable WonderLight LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device once or twice a week. Visual and histological examination demonstrated that topical CPD-mediated PDT was partially effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  9. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21{sup ras}, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-{kappa}B pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-11-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-{kappa}B, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-{kappa}B, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements.

  10. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by S-allylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Balasenthil, Seetharaman; Rao, Kunchala S; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble garlic constituent, on cytokeratin expression, a sensitive and specific marker for differentiation status during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis in male Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. Animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin on the right buccal pouches three times a week for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals were painted with DMBA as in group I, and in addition they received orally 200 mg/kg of SAC on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 animals received SAC as in group 2. Group 4 animals received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as the control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Cytokeratin expression was detected by Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3. In DMBA-induced HBP tumors, the decreased expression of high molecular weight cytokeratins of molecular mass between 55-70 kDa was observed. Administration of SAC (200 mg/kg) to animals painted with DMBA suppressed the incidence of DMBA-induced carcinomas and was associated with restoration of normal cytokeratin expression. The results of the present study suggest that inhibition of HBP tumorigenesis by SAC may be due to its regulatory effects on differentiation, tumor invasiveness, and its ability to migrate and form metastases. PMID:14704476

  11. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Toyohara, Yukiyo; Hashitani, Susumu; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model. PMID:22848250

  12. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    TOYOHARA, YUKIYO; HASHITANI, SUSUMU; KISHIMOTO, HIROMITSU; NOGUCHI, KAZUMA; YAMAMOTO, NOBUTO; URADE, MASAHIRO

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model. PMID:22848250

  13. S-allylcysteine, a garlic constituent, inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Balasenthil, S; Ramachandran, C R; Nagini, S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble garlic constituent, on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis was investigated in male Syrian hamstes. Forty hamsters were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals. The right buccal pouches of the animals in Group I were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week. The animals in Group II were painted with DMBA as in Group I and, in addition, received 200 mg/kg body wt p.o. SAC three times a week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group III animals received SAC as in Group II. Group IV animals received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as the control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 wk. Measurement of lipid peroxidation, the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, in the buccal pouch mucosa, liver, and circulation was used to monitor the chemopreventive potential of SAC. All hamsters painted with DMBA alone developed tumors identified histologically as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. In hamsters bearing DMBA-induced buccal pouch tumors, diminished lipid peroxidation in the tumor tissue was accompanied by decreased activities of SOD and catalase, whereas in the liver and circulation, enhanced lipid peroxidation was associated with compromised antioxidant defenses. Administration of SAC suppressed the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP tumors as revealed by the absence of carcinomas. Histologically, only keratosis was observed. SAC modulated DMBA-induced decreased susceptibility of the HBP to lipid peroxidation while simultaneously enhancing SOD and catalase activities, whereas in the liver and circulation, SAC decreased the extent of lipid peroxidation and significantly enhanced antioxidant activities. We suggest that SAC exerts its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant activities in the target organ as well as in the liver and

  14. Modulating Effect of Enicostemma littorale on the Expression Pattern of Apoptotic, Cell Proliferative, Inflammatory and Angiogenic Markers During 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Shanmugam; Rajasekaran, Duraisamy; Prabhakar, Murugaraj Manoj; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Manimaran, Asokan

    2015-01-01

    Enicostemma littorale leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation and cancer. This study has taken effort to explore the antitumor initiating potential of E. littorale leaves (ElELet) by analyzing the expression pattern of apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 associated X-protein), cell-proliferative (cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen), angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor), invasive (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9), and inflammatory (NF-κB and cyclooxygenase-2) markers during 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were induced in the buccal pouches of hamsters using the potent site and organ specific carcinogen, DMBA. DMBA application 3 times a week for 14 weeks resulted in tumor formation in the buccal pouches. Hundred percent tumor formations with dysregulation in the expression pattern of apoptotic, cell proliferative, inflammatory, angiogenic, and invasive markers were observed in the buccal pouches of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. ElELet at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight orally to DMBA treated hamsters significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as corrected the abnormalities in the expression pattern of above mentioned molecular markers. ElELet thus modulated the expression pattern of all the above mentioned molecular markers in favor of the suppression of cell proliferation occurring in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:26862274

  15. Modulating Effect of Enicostemma littorale on the Expression Pattern of Apoptotic, Cell Proliferative, Inflammatory and Angiogenic Markers During 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Shanmugam; Rajasekaran, Duraisamy; Prabhakar, Murugaraj Manoj; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Manimaran, Asokan

    2015-01-01

    Enicostemma littorale leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation and cancer. This study has taken effort to explore the antitumor initiating potential of E. littorale leaves (ElELet) by analyzing the expression pattern of apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 associated X-protein), cell-proliferative (cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen), angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor), invasive (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9), and inflammatory (NF-κB and cyclooxygenase-2) markers during 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were induced in the buccal pouches of hamsters using the potent site and organ specific carcinogen, DMBA. DMBA application 3 times a week for 14 weeks resulted in tumor formation in the buccal pouches. Hundred percent tumor formations with dysregulation in the expression pattern of apoptotic, cell proliferative, inflammatory, angiogenic, and invasive markers were observed in the buccal pouches of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. ElELet at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight orally to DMBA treated hamsters significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as corrected the abnormalities in the expression pattern of above mentioned molecular markers. ElELet thus modulated the expression pattern of all the above mentioned molecular markers in favor of the suppression of cell proliferation occurring in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:26862274

  16. Zyflamend reduces LTB4 formation and prevents oral carcinogenesis in a 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peiying; Sun, Zheng; Chan, Diana; Cartwright, Carrie A; Vijjeswarapu, Mary; Ding, Jibin; Chen, Xiaoxin; Newman, Robert A

    2008-11-01

    Aberrant arachidonic acid metabolism, especially altered cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, has been associated with chronic inflammation as well as carcinogenesis in human oral cavity tissues. Here, we examined the effect of Zyflamend, a product containing 10 concentrated herbal extracts, on development of 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA)-induced inflammation and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A hamster cheek pouch model was used in which 0.5% DMBA was applied topically onto the left cheek pouch of male Syrian golden hamsters either three times per week for 3 weeks (short term) or 6 weeks (long term). Zyflamend was then applied topically at one of three different doses (25, 50 and 100 microl) onto the left cheek pouch three times for 1 week (short-term study) or chronically for 18 weeks. Zyflamend significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, incidence of hyperplasia and dysplastic lesions, bromodeoxyuridine-labeling index as well as number of SCC in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of Zyflamend (100 microl) reduced formation of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 50% compared with DMBA-treated tissues. The reduction of LTB(4) was concentration dependent. The effect of Zyflamend on inhibition of LTB(4) formation was further confirmed with in vitro cell-based assay. Adding LTB(4) to RBL-1 cells, a rat leukemia cell line expressing high levels of 5-LOX and LTA(4) hydrolase, partially blocked antiproliferative effect of Zyflamend. This study demonstrates that Zyflamend inhibited LTB(4) formation and modulated adverse histopathological changes in the DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model. The study suggests that Zyflamend might prevent oral carcinogenesis at the post-initiation stage. PMID:18687669

  17. Chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, garcinol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xinyan; Lu, Ye; Shim, Joong-Youn; Sang, Shengmin; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that aberrant arachidonic acid metabolism, especially the 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) pathway, is involved in oral carcinogenesis and can be targeted for cancer prevention. To develop potent topical agents for oral cancer chemoprevention, 5 known 5-Lox inhibitors from dietary and synthetic sources (Zileuton, ABT-761, licofelone, curcumin, and garcinol) were evaluated in silico for their potential efficacy. Garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone from the fruit rind of Garcinia spp., was found to be a promising agent based on the calculation of a theoretical activity index. Computer modeling showed that garcinol well fit the active site of 5-Lox, and potentially inhibited enzyme activity through interactions between the phenolic hydroxyl groups and the non-heme catalytic iron. In a short-term study on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-treated hamster cheek pouch, topical garcinol suppressed leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis and inhibited inflammation and cell proliferation in the oral epithelium. In a long-term carcinogenesis study, topical garcinol significantly reduced the size of visible tumors, the number of cancer lesions, cell proliferation, and LTB4 biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that topical application of a 5-Lox inhibitor, garcinol, had chemopreventive effect on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:23137051

  18. [6]-Shogaol, a Novel Chemopreventor in 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, Suresh; Govindhan, Annamalai

    2016-04-01

    Oral cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Despite advances in chemotherapy for the cancer management, the survival rate has not yet been improved. Dietary nutrient has been receiving a lot of attention and interest in the chemotherapeutic development. [6]-Shogaol is a major bioactive compound identified in ginger that possesses many pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of [6]-shogaol on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma induced in HBP by painting with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), thrice in a week for 16 weeks. We observed 100% tumour incidence, decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, and phase II detoxification enzymes (GST, GR and GSH) in DMBA-induced hamsters. Further, enhanced activity of phase I enzymes (cytochrome p450 and b5) and over-expression of mutant p53, Bcl-2 and decreased expression of wild type p53 and Bax were noticed in DMBA-induced hamsters. Our results indicated that [6]-shogaol (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight) treated with DMBA-painted hamsters, considerably reversed tumour incidence, improved antioxidant status, phase II detoxification enzymes, and also inhibit lipid peroxidation and phase I enzymes. Moreover, [6]-shogaol inhibits mutant p53 and Bcl-2 expression and significantly restored normal p53, Bax levels. Thus, we concluded that [6]-shogaol prevents DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis through its antioxidant as well as modulating apoptotic signals. PMID:26840796

  19. Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by S-allylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Balasenthil, S; Nagini, S

    2000-07-01

    Consumption of garlic has been reported to be associated with decreased risk of cancer. We used the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinoma model to assess the oral chemopreventive potential of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble constituent of garlic. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of the animals in group I were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week. The animals in group II were painted with DMBA as in group I and in addition received 200 mg/kg body weight SAC intragastrically three times a week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group III animals received SAC as in group II. Animals in group IV received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Biochemical measurements were carried out on tumour and normal pouch tissues. Measurement of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) was used to monitor the chemopreventive potential of SAC. All hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. Diminished lipid peroxidation in the oral tumour tissue was accompanied by a significant increase in the levels of GSH, GPx and GST. Administration of SAC significantly suppressed DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of neoplasms. The results of the present study suggest that garlic may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing the levels of GSH, GPx and GST. PMID:10899678

  20. Chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch by topical application of a dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Sood, Sandeep; Li, Ning; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A; Yang, Chung S; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2008-07-01

    Oral cancer is a common neoplasm worldwide with tobacco and alcohol being the major etiological factors contributing to its pathogenesis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 are known to be involved in the development of oral cancer with the former up-regulated in up to 90% human cases. The goal of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of a dual inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases, GW2974, in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch model. A short-term experiment (3-week topical DMBA followed by 1-week topical GW2974) was conducted to examine the effects of GW2974 on aberrant arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and cell proliferation in the hamster oral epithelium. Topical application of 0.1 ml GW2974 (160 microM, three times a week) significantly reduced the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 5-, 12-, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), and cell proliferation (BrdU-labeling index). In a long-term post-initiation experiment (6-week topical DMBA followed by 18-week topical GW2974), GW2974 (4 mM and 8 mM) significantly inhibited the incidence, number and size of visible tumors. Under microscope, the numbers of oral lesions (hyperplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma) and the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were also significantly suppressed by GW2974. In summary, our study indicated that dual inhibition of EGFR and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases by GW2974 was effective in preventing oral carcinogenesis in DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model. GW2974 exerted its chemopreventive effects in part by suppressing aberrant AA metabolism. PMID:17936675

  1. The Hamster Buccal Pouch Model of Oral Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram; Kowshik, Jaganathan

    2016-01-01

    The hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model is one of the most well-characterized animal tumor models used as a prelude to investigate multistage oral carcinogenesis and to assess the efficacy of chemointervention. Hamster buccal pouch carcinomas induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) show extensive similarities to human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The HBP model offers a number of advantages including a simple and predictable tumor induction procedure, easy accessibility for examination and follow-up of lesions, and reproducibility. This model can be used to test both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27246045

  2. The Promoting Effect of Carbamide Peroxide Teeth Bleaching Gel in a Preclinical Model of Head and Neck Cancer in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Vilela, Wadson; Vilela Gonçalves, Reggiani; Tavares Rheingantz, Maria Gabriela; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Braga da Silva, Jefferson Luis; Oliveira de Oliveira, Laura Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to verify the promoting effect of carbamide peroxide on dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in the hamster buccal pouch, in order to reduce the period of latency for tumor formation. Methods Sixteen hamsters were randomized into two groups of eight animals each. The hamsters of the group I had their right buccal pouches treated with 0.5% DMBA and 10% carbamide peroxide teeth bleaching gel for 55 days. The animals of the group II had their right pouches treated only with DMBA. After, six animals of each group had their pouches prepared for light microscopy. Histomorphometry was performed to assess the presence of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, pattern of invasion, number of blood vessels, and inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor front. Furthermore, the newly formed lesions were graded according the Bryne's grading system. The remaining animals had the vascular system of the pouches casted by Mercox and qualitatively analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results Histopathological analysis of the buccal pouches treated with DMBA and carbamide peroxide exhibited formation of squamous cell carcinoma well-differentiated with a high degree of malignancy in all pouches. The development of this neoplasm was associated with a significant increase in the number of blood vessels, presence of keratin pearls, and inflammatory infiltrate. The pouches of the group II showed inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma in only three right pouches. The analysis of the electron micrographs of the pouches chemically inducted with DBMA and carbamide peroxide reveled formation of a new vascular network characteristic of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The protocol presented here, using DMBA associated with carbamide peroxide, shortens the period of latency to produce squamous cell carcinoma in the hamster buccal pouch, decreasing the time and costs of the experiments. PMID:25177438

  3. Apoptosis induction by S-allylcysteine, a garlic constituent, during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Balasenthil, S; Rao, K S; Nagini, S

    2002-09-01

    The apoptosis-inducing capacity of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble garlic constituent, during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis was investigated in male Syrian hamsters using DNA fragmentation and the apoptosis-associated proteins, tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and Bcl-2. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. Animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin on the right buccal pouches three times a week for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals painted with DMBA as in group 1, in addition received 200 mg kg(-1) body weight SAC orally on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 animals received SAC as in group 2. Group 4 animals received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as the control. The experiment was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. Administration of SAC (200 mg kg(-1) body weight) to animals painted with DMBA inhibited DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of neoplasms, induction of tTG and inhibition of Bcl-2 expression. The results of the present study suggest that SAC may exert its chemopreventive effect by inducing apoptosis. PMID:12125104

  4. Raman spectroscopic investigation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin and its nanoparticles in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnakumar, N.; Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Manoharan, S.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2013-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that can be used to optically probe the biomolecular changes associated with tumor progression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the biomolecular changes in chemopreventive response of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) during 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis by Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Raman spectra differed significantly between the control and tumor tissues, with tumors showing higher percentage signals for nucleic acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan and a lower in the percentage of phospholipids. Moreover, oral administration of free NAR and NARNPs significantly increased phospholipids and decreased the levels of tryptophan, phenylalanine and nucleic acid contents. On a comparative basis, NARNPs was found to have a more potent antitumor effect than free NAR in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the biochemical status to a normal range in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. The present study further suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of specific biomolecular changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  5. Blueberry inhibits invasion and angiogenesis in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral squamous cell carcinogenesis in hamsters via suppression of TGF-β and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Baba, Abdul Basit; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Krishnaraj, Jayaraman; Sophia, Josephraj; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling pathways plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of blueberry in the hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model based on its ability to target TGF-β, PI3K/Akt, MAPK and NF-κB signaling and its impact on invasion and angiogenesis. Squamous cell carcinomas were induced in the HBP by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The effect of blueberry on the oncogenic signaling pathways and downstream events was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Experiments with the ECV304 cell line were performed to explore the mechanism by which blueberry regulates angiogenesis. Blueberry supplementation inhibited the development and progression of HBP carcinomas by abrogating TGF-β and PI3K/Akt pathways. Although blueberry failed to influence MAPK, it suppressed NF-κB activation by preventing nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Blueberry also modulated the expression of the oncomiR miR-21 and the tumor suppressor let-7. Collectively, these changes induced a shift to an anti-invasive and anti-angiogenic phenotype as evidenced by downregulating matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor. Blueberry also inhibited angiogenesis in ECV304 cells by suppressing migration and tube formation. The results of the present study suggest that targeting oncogenic signaling pathways that influence acquisition of cancer hallmarks is an effective strategy for chemointervention. Identification of modulatory effects on phosphorylation, intracellular localization of oncogenic transcription factors and microRNAs unraveled by the present study as key mechanisms of action of blueberry is critical from a therapeutic perspective. PMID:27371785

  6. Localization of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in hamster buccal pouch epithelium treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Solt, D.B.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was explored as a histochemical marker for chemical carcinogenesis in hamster buccal pouch mucosa. One or both buccal pouches of 18 noninbred male Syrian golden hamsters were treated topically with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mineral oil over 16 weeks to produce numerous epithelial lesions at various stages of neoplastic development. Both buccal pouches of 4 control animals were similarly treated with mineral oil alone. GGT activity was not detectable in untreated pouches or pouches treated with mineral oil alone. With this technique, multiple discrete GGT-stained areas were visible in wholemounts prepared at 1 and 6 weeks after the final application of DMBA. The experimental results were consistent with the hypothesis that the early GGT-stained cell populations are preneoplastic in nature.

  7. Inhibition of DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis by rosemary extract

    SciTech Connect

    Singletary, K. )

    1991-03-15

    Extracts of the spice, rosemary, have exhibited potent antioxidant properties. In order to evaluate the ability of rosemary extract to inhibit mammary tumorigenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), two groups of 32 day old female SD rats weighing 99.4 {plus minus} 2.6 g were fed semipurified diets containing either 0 or 1.0% rosemary extract during both the initiation and promotion stages of tumor development. All rats were administered DMBA at 53 days of age. Terminal tumor incidence was 75% and 40% for rats fed the 0 and 1.0% diets, respectively. Tumors/tumor-bearing rat were 2.3 {plus minus} 0.5 and 1.8 {plus minus} 0.3, respectively. In a second study 3 groups of female rats were fed diets containing 0, 0.5 or 1.0% rosemary extract for {minus}3 to +2 weeks following DMBA administration at 53 days of age. By 13 weeks post-DMBA tumor incidence for rats fed the 1.0% rosemary diet was significantly less than for rats fed the control diet. However, by 20, weeks, incidence for rats fed 0, 0.5, and 1.0% rosemary was 72.2, 69.6 and 58.3%, respectively. Tumors/tumor bearing rat were 2.2 {plus minus} 0.3, 2.0 {plus minus} 0.4 and 2.4 {plus minus} 0.5 for rats fed the 0, 0.5 and 1.0% diets, respectively. Therefore, rosemary extract can inhibit DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis when fed prior to and after DMBA dosing. Its antitumorigenic effect is not due to inhibition of the initiation stage alone.

  8. Histological study of hamster buccal mucosa following topical application of DMBA and exposition to low-power 337-nm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Rego, Christmas M. V.; Munin, Egberto; Redigolo, Marcela L.; Salgado, Miguel C.; de Souza, Hanriete P.; Colombo, C. E. D.; Nicolau, Renata A.; Alves, Leandro P.; Zangaro, Renato A.

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to analyze the histological changes on hamster buccal mucosa caused by the topical use of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and exposition to a 220 ´J/pulse nitrogen laser light (@ 337 nm) at an average power of 2,3 mW. Twenty-one hamsters divided into two experimental groups were treated six times with DMBA. One hamster was kept as control. Group I was composed by ten hamsters and was submitted only to DMBA. Group II, also with ten hamsters, received the same treatment as group I and was exposed to the laser radiation. The time duration of each irradiation section was 10 seconds. All the treatment happened in alternated days. The histological analysis took place twice, after the end of the treatment and after sixty days. Both experimental groups presented dilatation of vessels, thickening of the epithelial tissue and the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. The preliminary results indicates that in group II the number of dilated vessels and its new area are much more significant than in group I.

  9. Obesity decreases serum selenium levels in DMBA-induced mammary tumor using Obese Zucker Rat Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported that obese Zucker rats had increased susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary tumors compared to lean Zucker rats. Several studies suggest that lower serum selenium may play an important role in increasing the risk of several types of cancers (e.g, colon, breast and prostate canc...

  10. Dietary chlorophyllin inhibits the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway and induces intrinsic apoptosis in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, P; Senthil Murugan, R; Kavitha, K; Anitha, P; Prathiba, D; Nagini, S

    2012-03-01

    Chlorophyllin, a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of the ubiquitous green pigment chlorophyll is shown to exert potent anticarcinogenic effects. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of chlorophyllin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by analyzing the expression of NF-κB family members and markers of intrinsic apoptosis. Dietary administration of chlorophyllin (4 mg/kg bw) suppressed the development of HBP carcinomas by inhibiting the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway by downregulating IKKβ, preventing the phosphorylation of IκB-α, and reducing the expression of nuclear NF-κB. Inactivation of NF-κB signaling by chlorophyllin was associated with the induction of intrinsic apoptosis as evidenced by modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, enforced nuclear localization of survivin, upregulation of apoptogenic molecules, activation of caspases, and cleavage of PARP. The results of the present study demonstrate that chlorophyllin inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis by targeting NF-κB and the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Thus, dietary agents such as chlorophyllin that simultaneously target divergent pathways of cell survival and cell death are novel candidates for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22210229

  11. Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lingyue; Xu, Qing; Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PsD-007 for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamsters. A DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model of precancerous lesions was created and the resultant 25 hamsters were divided into five groups. The right side was treated with PDT and the left side was used as the positive control. Following systemic anesthesia, an incision was made in the groin area to expose the femoral vein. PsD-007 was administered intravenously through the femoral vein. Various doses of photosensitizer were used to treat groups A-E. Subsequent to closing the incision, the right side of the buccal mucosa was irradiated with light using the krypton laser at a wavelength of 413 nm, a power density of 150 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 20 min. At six weeks post-surgery, the response was analyzed using histological examinations of the buccal pouch mucosa. A total of 24 hamsters completed the six-week observation period, as one hamster from group C died in the second week following the PDT. Of all 24 irradiated sides, 15 formed normal mucosal tissues and nine demonstrated mild dysplasia. Of the total control sides, six developed moderate dysplasia, five developed severe dysplasia and 13 progressed to carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed a significant difference between the two sides (P<0.01) and the various doses of the PsD-007 groups. When the PsD-007 dose was >10 mg/kg, there was no statistical difference (P>0.05). PsD-007-mediated krypton laser PDT is effective for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in hamsters.

  12. Synthetic progestins differentially promote or prevent DMBA-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Benakanakere, Indira; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Carroll, Candace E.; Hyder, Salman M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent clinical trials demonstrate that combined oral dosing with estrogen and progestin increases the incidence of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Similarly, in a rat model system of mammary carcinogenesis, the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) decreases latency and increases incidence of DMBA-induced mammary tumors [Clin Can Res (2006) 12:4062]. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of four clinically-relevant progestins, MPA, norgestrel (N-EL), norethindrone (N-ONE), and megestrol acetate (MGA), on DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis in the rat. The experimental protocol involved implantation of 60-day release progestin pellets four weeks after rats were treated with DMBA. In contrast to the effect of MPA, N-ONE and N-EL, but not MGA, blocked DMBA-dependent carcinogenesis, and a dose-dependent effect on tumor growth was demonstrated for N-EL; MGA did not alter tumor growth. Histopathological studies demonstrated extensive hyperplastic lesions in mammary tissue of progestin-treated animals. Furthermore, following treatment with N-EL or N-ONE, immunohistochemical staining for VEGF in hyperplastic mammary tissue was lower than in animals treated with DMBA plus MPA or DMBA alone. Expression of VEGFR-1, ERα and PR was also lower in hyperplastic mammary tissue in N-EL, N-ONE and MGA treated animals. Interestingly, N-EL stimulated progression of existing mammary tumors in DMBA/MPA treated rats, suggesting stage-specific effects of N-EL in this model. Because N-EL and N-ONE prevent tumor growth in the early stages of DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats, these progestins may have potential as chemopreventive agents in women with no history of breast disease or family history of breast cancer. PMID:20699413

  13. Effect of 3-methoxybenzamide on the induction and development of hamster-pouch tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.G.; Rivera-Hidalgo, F.; Binnie, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Data from this laboratory and others has suggested that inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase might be able to augment the action of chemical carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to see if one of these inhibitors, 3-methoxybenzamide (MBA), could enhance the carcinogenic effects of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Thirty-two female Syrian hamsters were divided into two equal experimental groups. The left buccal pouches of the animals in Group I were painted three times weekly, first with a solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and then with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in mineral oil. In Group II the basic treatment was the same except that the DMSO contained MBA (2.5%). After a total of 50 treatments (16 1/2 weeks), the animals were sacrificed and autopsied. The data indicated that the hamsters in Group II had approximately twice as many tumors as the animals in Group I. The average size of the tumors in the two groups was essentially the same. Using the two-stage mechanism for tumorigenesis it would appear the MBA affected the initiating phase of DMBA-induced carcinogenesis.

  14. Protective Effect of Piper aduncum Capsule on DMBA-induced Breast Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Acevedo, J; Chávez-Asmat, RJ; Anampa-Guzmán, A; Donaires, R; Ráez-Gonzáles, José

    2015-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Piper aduncum capsule on DMBA (dimethylbenz[α]anthracene)-induced breast cancer in rats was assessed by monitoring the tumor and lung metastases incidence and recording hematological and biochemical parameters and frequency of micronuclei. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced in 36 female Holtzman rats by providing a single subcutaneous injection of DMBA. Oral administration of P. aduncum capsule lowered adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases incidence. Pulmonary metastasis was significantly lowered (P < 0.05). Hematological indicators showed that the triglyceride level was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Also, P. aduncum capsule significantly lowered the C reactive protein (CRP) level (P < 0.01) and malondialdehyde level (P < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the frequency of DMBA-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (P < 0.01). Considering the antitumorigenic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic properties of P. aduncum capsule, we conclude that it has a protective effect on DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats. PMID:26157333

  15. The effect of dietary zinc - and polyphenols intake on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and polyphenol compounds, i.e. resveratrol and genistein, on the effectiveness of chemically induced mammary cancer and the changes in the content of selected elements (Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Ca) in tumors as compared with normal tissue of the mammary gland. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into study groups which, apart from the standard diet and DMBA (7,12-dimethyl-1,2- benz[a]anthracene), were treated with zinc ions (Zn) or zinc ions + resveratrol (Zn + resveratrol) or zinc ions + genistein (Zn + genistein) via gavage for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. The ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) technique was used to analyze the following elements: magnesium, iron, zinc and calcium. Copper content in samples was estimated in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Regardless of the diet (standard; Zn; Zn + resveratrol; Zn + genistein), DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was not inhibited. On the contrary, in the Zn + resveratrol supplemented group, tumorigenesis developed at a considerably faster rate. On the basis of quantitative analysis of selected elements we found - irrespectively of the diet applied - great accumulation of copper and iron, which are strongly prooxidative, with a simultaneous considerable decrease of the magnesium content in DMBA-induced mammary tumors. The combination of zinc supplementation with resveratrol resulted in particularly large differences in the amount of the investigated elements in tumors as compared with their content in normal tissue. Conclusions Diet supplementation with zinc and polyphenol compounds, i.e. resveratrol and genistein had no effect on the decreased copper level in tumor tissue and inhibited mammary carcinogenesis in the rat. Irrespectively of the applied diet, the development of the neoplastic process in rats resulted in changes of the iron and magnesium

  16. Chemopreventive action of Syzygium cumini on DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P K

    2010-01-01

    Syzygium cumini L. is widely used for the treatment of diabetes in various parts of India. The protective efficacy of S. cumini seed extract (SCE) against peroxidative damage contributing to skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice was tested in the present study. A single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (100 microg/100 microl acetone), followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week) and continued till the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 weeks) caused a 100% tumor incidence. In contrast, mice treated with the SCE (125 mg/ kg/ b.wt./ animal /day) in either the peri (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after the application of DMBA) or post-initiation (i.e. from the day of start of croton oil treatment and continued till the end of the experiment) phases demonstrated significant reduction in cumulative numbers of papillomas and tumor incidence (75%). The average latency period in the SCE treated group was also significantly increased (Pre Group - 11.1 weeks; Post Group - 10.9 weeks) as compared with the carcinogen control group (7.9). Results from the present study indicate that the anticarcinogenic activity of SCE during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis is mediated through alteration of antioxidant status. Thus, SCE can be considered as a readily accessible, promising novel cancer chemopreventive agent. PMID:20593968

  17. Glutamine affects glutathione recycling enzymes in a DMBA-induced breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Yihong; Todorova, Valentina K; Luo, Shaoke; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Malignancy depletes host glutathione (GSH) levels to increase treatment-related toxicity and increases itself to resist the treatments. Our previous studies have shown that dietary glutamine (GLN) prevented 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors through enhancing gut GSH release and reducing tumor GSH level. In addition, GSH synthesis, metabolism, and recycling are accomplished in gamma-glutamyl cycle. We hypothesized that the GLN prevention might be through a differential regulation of the gamma-glutamyl cycle enzymes. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into DMBA-tumor bearing, DMBA-treated, and control groups subdivided into GLN and water groups. GLN supplementation was given at 1 g/kg/day by gastric gavage. The activities and messenger RNA levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), 5-oxo-L-prolinase (OPase), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GTF), and glutaminase (GLNase) were determined in gut mucosa and breast tumor using specific enzyme assays and semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. GLN upregulated gut GTP, GCS, OPase, and GLNase in DMBA-tumor bearing, DMBA-treated, and/or control rats; however, it downregulated these enzymes in the tumor. The paradoxical effect of GLN on key GSH recycling enzymes in the gut versus tumor suggests that dietary supplemental GLN could be used in the clinical practice to increase the therapeutic index of cancer treatments by protecting normal tissues from, and sensitizing tumor cells to, chemotherapy and radiation-related injury.

  18. Effect of nisin and doxorubicin on DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis--a possible adjunct therapy.

    PubMed

    Preet, Simran; Bharati, Sanjay; Panjeta, Anshul; Tewari, Rupinder; Rishi, Praveen

    2015-11-01

    In view of the emergence of multidrug-resistant cancer cells, there is a need for therapeutic alternatives. Keeping this in mind, the present study was aimed at evaluating the synergism between nisin (an antimicrobial peptide) and doxorubicin (DOX) against DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis. The possible tumoricidal activity of the combination was evaluated in terms of animal bioassay observations, changes in hisotological architecture of skin tissues, in situ apoptosis assay (TUNEL assay) and in terms of oxidant and antioxidant status of the skin tissues. In vivo additive effect of the combination was evidenced by larger decreases in mean tumour burden and tumour volume in mice treated with the combination than those treated with the drugs alone. Histological observations indicated that nisin-DOX therapy causes chromatin condensation and marginalisation of nuclear material in skin tissues of treated mice which correlated well with the results of TUNEL assay wherein a marked increase in the rate of apoptosis was revealed in tissues treated with the combination. A slightly increased oxidative stress in response to the adjunct therapy as compared to dox-alone-treated group was revealed by levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitrite generation in skin tissue-treated mice. An almost similar marginal enhancement in superoxide dismutase levels corresponding with a decrease in catalase activity could also be observed in nisin + DOX-treated groups as compared to nisin and dox-alone-treated groups. These results point towards the possible use of nisin as an adjunct to doxorubicin may help in developing alternate strategies to combat currently developing drug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:26002579

  19. Effect of nisin and doxorubicin on DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis--a possible adjunct therapy.

    PubMed

    Preet, Simran; Bharati, Sanjay; Panjeta, Anshul; Tewari, Rupinder; Rishi, Praveen

    2015-11-01

    In view of the emergence of multidrug-resistant cancer cells, there is a need for therapeutic alternatives. Keeping this in mind, the present study was aimed at evaluating the synergism between nisin (an antimicrobial peptide) and doxorubicin (DOX) against DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis. The possible tumoricidal activity of the combination was evaluated in terms of animal bioassay observations, changes in hisotological architecture of skin tissues, in situ apoptosis assay (TUNEL assay) and in terms of oxidant and antioxidant status of the skin tissues. In vivo additive effect of the combination was evidenced by larger decreases in mean tumour burden and tumour volume in mice treated with the combination than those treated with the drugs alone. Histological observations indicated that nisin-DOX therapy causes chromatin condensation and marginalisation of nuclear material in skin tissues of treated mice which correlated well with the results of TUNEL assay wherein a marked increase in the rate of apoptosis was revealed in tissues treated with the combination. A slightly increased oxidative stress in response to the adjunct therapy as compared to dox-alone-treated group was revealed by levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitrite generation in skin tissue-treated mice. An almost similar marginal enhancement in superoxide dismutase levels corresponding with a decrease in catalase activity could also be observed in nisin + DOX-treated groups as compared to nisin and dox-alone-treated groups. These results point towards the possible use of nisin as an adjunct to doxorubicin may help in developing alternate strategies to combat currently developing drug resistance in cancer cells.

  20. Protective and curative effects of the sea cucumber Holothuria atra extract against DMBA-induced hepatorenal diseases in rats.

    PubMed

    Dakrory, Ahmed I; Fahmy, Sohair R; Soliman, Amel M; Mohamed, Ayman S; Amer, Sayed A M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra extract (HaE) as an antioxidant against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene- (DMBA-) induced hepatorenal dysfunction. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups: protective and curative. Each group was then divided into five subgroups pre- or posttreated either with distilled water (DMBA subgroups) or with HaE (200 mg/kg body weight) for seven and fourteen days. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats resulted in a significant increase in the serum liver enzymes and kidney function's parameters. DMBA increased level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissue, and induced liver histopathological alterations. Pre- or posttreatment with HaE orally for 14 days significantly reversed the hepatorenal alterations induced following DMBA administration. In conclusion, HaE exhibits good hepatoprotective, curative, and antioxidant potential against DMBA-induced hepatorenal dysfunction in rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation. PMID:25821811

  1. Protective and Curative Effects of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra Extract against DMBA-Induced Hepatorenal Diseases in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dakrory, Ahmed I.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Soliman, Amel M.; Mohamed, Ayman S.; Amer, Sayed A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra extract (HaE) as an antioxidant against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene- (DMBA-) induced hepatorenal dysfunction. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups: protective and curative. Each group was then divided into five subgroups pre- or posttreated either with distilled water (DMBA subgroups) or with HaE (200 mg/kg body weight) for seven and fourteen days. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats resulted in a significant increase in the serum liver enzymes and kidney function's parameters. DMBA increased level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissue, and induced liver histopathological alterations. Pre- or posttreatment with HaE orally for 14 days significantly reversed the hepatorenal alterations induced following DMBA administration. In conclusion, HaE exhibits good hepatoprotective, curative, and antioxidant potential against DMBA-induced hepatorenal dysfunction in rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation. PMID:25821811

  2. Nimbolide, a neem limonoid inhibits Phosphatidyl Inositol-3 Kinase to activate Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sophia, Josephraj; Kiran Kishore T., Kranthi; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Mishra, Rajakishore; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase is frequently inactivated by the oncogenic signalling kinases PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK in diverse malignancies. The present study was designed to investigate GSK-3β signalling circuits in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model and the therapeutic potential of the neem limonoid nimbolide. Inactivation of GSK-3β by phosphorylation at serine 9 and activation of PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK and β-catenin was associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion during stepwise evolution of HBP carcinomas. Administration of nimbolide inhibited PI3K/Akt signalling with consequent activation of GSK-3β thereby inducing trafficking of β-catenin away from the nucleus and enhancing the expression of miR-126 and let-7. Molecular docking studies confirmed interaction of nimbolide with PI3K, Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. Furthermore, nimbolide attenuated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased p-cyclin D1Thr286 and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present study has unravelled aberrant phosphorylation as a key determinant for oncogenic signalling and acquisition of cancer hallmarks in the HBP model. The study has also provided mechanistic insights into the chemotherapeutic potential of nimbolide that may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of natural compounds targeting PI3K for oral cancer treatment. PMID:26902162

  3. Nimbolide, a neem limonoid inhibits Phosphatidyl Inositol-3 Kinase to activate Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sophia, Josephraj; Kiran Kishore T, Kranthi; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Mishra, Rajakishore; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-02-23

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase is frequently inactivated by the oncogenic signalling kinases PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK in diverse malignancies. The present study was designed to investigate GSK-3β signalling circuits in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model and the therapeutic potential of the neem limonoid nimbolide. Inactivation of GSK-3β by phosphorylation at serine 9 and activation of PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK and β-catenin was associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion during stepwise evolution of HBP carcinomas. Administration of nimbolide inhibited PI3K/Akt signalling with consequent activation of GSK-3β thereby inducing trafficking of β-catenin away from the nucleus and enhancing the expression of miR-126 and let-7. Molecular docking studies confirmed interaction of nimbolide with PI3K, Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. Furthermore, nimbolide attenuated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased p-cyclin D1(Thr286) and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present study has unravelled aberrant phosphorylation as a key determinant for oncogenic signalling and acquisition of cancer hallmarks in the HBP model. The study has also provided mechanistic insights into the chemotherapeutic potential of nimbolide that may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of natural compounds targeting PI3K for oral cancer treatment.

  4. Nimbolide, a neem limonoid inhibits Phosphatidyl Inositol-3 Kinase to activate Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sophia, Josephraj; Kiran Kishore T, Kranthi; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Mishra, Rajakishore; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase is frequently inactivated by the oncogenic signalling kinases PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK in diverse malignancies. The present study was designed to investigate GSK-3β signalling circuits in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model and the therapeutic potential of the neem limonoid nimbolide. Inactivation of GSK-3β by phosphorylation at serine 9 and activation of PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK and β-catenin was associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion during stepwise evolution of HBP carcinomas. Administration of nimbolide inhibited PI3K/Akt signalling with consequent activation of GSK-3β thereby inducing trafficking of β-catenin away from the nucleus and enhancing the expression of miR-126 and let-7. Molecular docking studies confirmed interaction of nimbolide with PI3K, Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. Furthermore, nimbolide attenuated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased p-cyclin D1(Thr286) and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present study has unravelled aberrant phosphorylation as a key determinant for oncogenic signalling and acquisition of cancer hallmarks in the HBP model. The study has also provided mechanistic insights into the chemotherapeutic potential of nimbolide that may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of natural compounds targeting PI3K for oral cancer treatment. PMID:26902162

  5. Astaxanthin Inhibits JAK/STAT-3 Signaling to Abrogate Cell Proliferation, Invasion and Angiogenesis in a Hamster Model of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kowshik, J.; Baba, Abdul Basit; Giri, Hemant; Deepak Reddy, G.; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2014-01-01

    Identifying agents that inhibit STAT-3, a cytosolic transcription factor involved in the activation of various genes implicated in tumour progression is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dietary astaxanthin on JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by examining the mRNA and protein expression of JAK/STAT-3 and its target genes. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that astaxanthin supplementation inhibits key events in JAK/STAT signaling especially STAT-3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of STAT-3. Furthermore, astaxanthin downregulated the expression of STAT-3 target genes involved in cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis, and reduced microvascular density, thereby preventing tumour progression. Molecular docking analysis confirmed inhibitory effects of astaxanthin on STAT signaling and angiogenesis. Cell culture experiments with the endothelial cell line ECV304 substantiated the role of astaxanthin in suppressing angiogenesis. Taken together, our data provide substantial evidence that dietary astaxanthin prevents the development and progression of HBP carcinomas through the inhibition of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling and its downstream events. Thus, astaxanthin that functions as a potent inhibitor of tumour development and progression by targeting JAK/STAT signaling may be an ideal candidate for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25296162

  6. Circadian variations in 32P uptake of DMBA-induced mammary tumour and Walker carcinosarcoma in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Møoller, U.; Bojsen, J.

    1976-01-01

    The 32P uptake in a mammary tumour induced by DMBA and in the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma was measured by external GM -tubes. The uptake was significantly higher than in the skin. During exposure to a synchronized light regime a circadian variation was present in the 32P uptake of the hormone-dependent DMBA-induced tumour. The maximal 32P uptake was in the dark period, in which the highest temperature in the tumour has also been found (Møoller and Bojsen, 1975). In the hormone-independent Walker 256 carcinosarcoma there was no periodicity in 32P uptake. No variation in 32P uptake was registered in the skin of normal controls or in tumour-bearing rats. PMID:820364

  7. Chemopreventive action of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt) on DMBA-induced papillomagenesis in the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Jannu, L N; Hussain, S P; Rao, A R

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports the chemopreventive property of mace (aril covering the seed of Myristica fragrans) on DMBA-induced papillomagenesis in the skin of male Swiss albino mice. When a single topical application of DMBA (150 micrograms in 100 microliters of acetone) was followed, 2 weeks later, by repeated applications of croton oil (1% in acetone, three times/week) skin papillomas appeared in 100% animals and the average tumors per tumor-bearing animal was 5.67. On the other hand, when animals receiving similar treatments were put on a diet containing 1% mace during the periinitiational phase of tumorigenesis, the skin papilloma incidence was reduced to 50% and the average tumor per tumor-bearing mouse was only 1.75. This decline in papilloma was significant (P less than 0.05). PMID:1900737

  8. Alteration of DMBA-induced oxidative stress by additive action of a modified indigenous preparation--Kalpaamruthaa.

    PubMed

    Arulkumaran, Shanmugam; Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2007-04-25

    The present study investigated the protective efficacy of the novel preparation named as Kalpaamruthaa (KA, includes Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract (SA), dried powder of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and honey) on the peroxidative damage and abnormal antioxidant levels in the hepatic mitochondrial fraction of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinoma rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats of weight 180+/-10 g were categorized into six groups. Three groups were administered DMBA (25 mg/rat dissolved in olive oil, orally) to induce mammary carcinoma. One of these groups received KA treatment (300 mg/kg b.wt., orally) and other group received SA (200 mg/kg b.wt., orally) for 14 days after 90 days of DMBA induction. Vehicle-treated control and drug control groups were also included. The hepatic mitochondrial fraction of untreated DMBA rats showed 2.96-fold increase in MDA content when compared to control rats and abnormal changes in the activities/levels of mitochondrial enzymic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymic (glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E) antioxidants were observed. DMBA-treated rats also showed decline in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. In contrast, rats treated with SA and KA showed normal lipid peroxidation antioxidant defenses and mitochondrial enzymes, thereby showing the protection rendered by SA and KA. Although, KA treatment exhibited more profound effect in inhibiting DMBA-induced oxidative stress than sole SA treatment. Results of the study indicate that the anticarcinogenic activity of KA during DMBA-initiated mammary carcinogenesis is mediated through alteration of hepatic antioxidant status as well as modulation of TCA cycle enzymes. On the basis of the observed results, KA can be considered as a readily accessible, promising and novel

  9. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    ... removed after 12 hours.You may brush your teeth; use mouthwash; use tobacco products; chew gum; eat; and drink alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages while you are wearing a testosterone buccal system. ...

  10. Steroid receptor coactivators, HER-2 and HER-3 expression is stimulated by tamoxifen treatment in DMBA-induced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) may modulate estrogen receptor (ER) activity and the response to endocrine treatment in breast cancer, in part through interaction with growth factor receptor signaling pathways. In the present study the effects of tamoxifen treatment on the expression of SRCs and human epidermal growth factor receptors (HERs) were examined in an animal model of ER positive breast cancer. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats with DMBA-induced breast cancer were randomized to 14 days of oral tamoxifen 40 mg/kg bodyweight/day or vehicle only (controls). Tumors were measured throughout the study period. Blood samples and tumor tissue were collected at sacrifice and tamoxifen and its main metabolites were quantified using LC-MS/MS. The gene expression in tumor of SRC-1, SRC-2/transcription intermediary factor-2 (TIF-2), SRC-3/amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1), ER, HER-1, -2, -3 and HER-4, as well as the transcription factor Ets-2, was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Protein levels were further assessed by Western blotting. Results Tamoxifen and its main metabolites were detected at high concentrations in serum and accumulated in tumor tissue in up to tenfolds the concentration in serum. Mean tumor volume/rat decreased in the tamoxifen treated group, but continued to increase in controls. The mRNA expression levels of SRC-1 (P = 0.035), SRC-2/TIF-2 (P = 0.002), HER-2 (P = 0.035) and HER-3 (P = 0.006) were significantly higher in tamoxifen treated tumors compared to controls, and the results were confirmed at the protein level using Western blotting. SRC-3/AIB1 protein was also higher in tamoxifen treated tumors. SRC-1 and SRC-2/TIF-2 mRNA levels were positively correlated with each other and with HER-2 (P ≤ 0.001), and the HER-2 mRNA expression correlated with the levels of the other three HER family members (P < 0.05). Furthermore, SRC-3/AIB1 and HER-4 were positively correlated with each other and Ets-2 (P < 0

  11. Effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in carcinoma of the hamster tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, K.; Shingaki, S.; Nakajima, T. )

    1990-07-01

    The effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas of the hamster tongue are reported. Metastasis to the submandibular lymph nodes was confirmed histologically in 48.0% of the animals. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was significantly increased (65.9%) after repeated incisions of tongue carcinomas. Three gray whole-body irradiation also increased the rate of metastasis from 31.0% to 46.3%. Higher incidences of lymphatic vessel invasion after incision and concomitant lymph node metastasis in the lymphatic invasion-positive group indicated a stepwise relationship leading to an increase in lymph node metastasis after incision. Because of the high incidence of metastases and close resemblance to human carcinomas in the tumor cell deposition and establishment of metastatic foci, DMBA-induced tongue carcinoma with invasion may serve as an experimental model of human oral carcinomas.

  12. DMBA induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1 and activates the tyrosine kinases lck and fyn in the HPB-ALL human T-cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Schieven, G.L.; Ledbetter, J.A.; Burchiel, S.W. . Coll. of Pharmacy)

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that DMBA alters biochemical events associated with lymphocyte activation including formation of the second messenger IP[sub 3] and the release of intracellular Ca[sup 2+]. The purpose of the present studies was to evaluate the mechanisms by which DMBA induces IP[sub 3] formation and Ca[sup 2+] release by examining phosphorylation of membrane associated proteins and activation of protein tyrosine kinases lck and fyn. These studies demonstrated that exposure of HPB-ALL cells to 10[mu]M DMBA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1 that correlated with our earlier findings of IP[sub 3] formation and Ca[sup 2+] release. These results indicate that the effects of DMBA on the PI-PLC signaling pathway are in part, the result of DMBA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-[gamma]1 enzyme. The mechanism of DMBA- induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1 may be due to activation of fyn or lck kinase activity, since it was found that DMBA increased the activity of these PTKs by more than 2-fold. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that DMBA may disrupt T cell activation by stimulating PTK activation with concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1, release of IP[sub 3], and mobilization of intracellular Ca[sup 2+].

  13. DMBA induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1 and activates the tyrosine kinases lck and fyn in the HPB-ALL human T-cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Schieven, G.L.; Ledbetter, J.A.; Burchiel, S.W.

    1993-02-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that DMBA alters biochemical events associated with lymphocyte activation including formation of the second messenger IP{sub 3} and the release of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The purpose of the present studies was to evaluate the mechanisms by which DMBA induces IP{sub 3} formation and Ca{sup 2+} release by examining phosphorylation of membrane associated proteins and activation of protein tyrosine kinases lck and fyn. These studies demonstrated that exposure of HPB-ALL cells to 10{mu}M DMBA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1 that correlated with our earlier findings of IP{sub 3} formation and Ca{sup 2+} release. These results indicate that the effects of DMBA on the PI-PLC signaling pathway are in part, the result of DMBA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-{gamma}1 enzyme. The mechanism of DMBA- induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1 may be due to activation of fyn or lck kinase activity, since it was found that DMBA increased the activity of these PTKs by more than 2-fold. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that DMBA may disrupt T cell activation by stimulating PTK activation with concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1, release of IP{sub 3}, and mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}.

  14. Potential of Diallyl Sulfide Bearing pH-Sensitive Liposomes in Chemoprevention Against DMBA-Induced Skin Papilloma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Kalra, Neetu; Alam, Maroof; Ahmad, Manzoor Gatoo; Hakim, Seema Rashid; Owais, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Diallyl sulfide (DAS), an active component of garlic, possesses strong anti-neoplastic properties against various forms of cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated chemo-preventive effects of liposomized DAS (conventional egg PC and pH-sensitive liposomes) against DMBA-induced skin papilloma. Various liposome-based novel formulations of DAS (250 μg/mouse) were applied topically, after one hour of exposure to DMBA (52 μg/mouse/dose), to the animals. The animals were treated thrice weekly for the total period of 12 weeks. The efficacy of the various liposomal formulations of DAS was evaluated on the basis of parameters such as incidence of tumorogenesis and total numbers and sizes of induced tumor nodules. The liposomized DAS formulations also were assessed for their effect on the expression of p53wt, p53mut, and p21/Waf1. The results of the present study showed that liposomized DAS could effectively delay the onset of tumorogenesis and reduce the cumulative numbers and sizes of tumor papillomas in treated mice. Treatment of DMBA-exposed animals with the liposomal formulation of DAS ensued in upregulation of p53wt and p21/Waf1, while levels of p53mut expression reduced down. The promising chemo-preventive nature of liposomal DAS may form the basis for establishing effective means of controlling various forms of cancer, including skin papilloma. PMID:17622315

  15. Isolation and evaluation of anticancer efficacy of stigmasterol in a mouse model of DMBA-induced skin carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Huma; Dixit, Savita; Ali, Daoud; Alqahtani, Saeed M; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud

    2015-01-01

    Stigmasterol (99.9% pure) was isolated from Azadirachta indica and its chemopreventive effect on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin cancer was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Skin tumors were induced by topical application of DMBA and promoted by croton oil. To assess the chemopreventive potential of stigmasterol, it was orally administered at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg three times weekly for 16 weeks. Reduction in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen as a result of treatment with stigmasterol. The average latency period was significantly increased as compared with the carcinogen-treated control. Stigmasterol induced a significant decrease in the activity of serum enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin as compared with the control. Stigmasterol significantly increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase as compared with the control. Elevated levels of lipid peroxide and DNA damage in the control group were significantly inhibited by administration of stigmasterol. From the present study, it can be inferred that stigmasterol has chemopreventive activity in an experimental model of cancer. This chemopreventive activity may be linked to the oxidative stress of stigmasterol. The antigenotoxic properties of stigmasterol are also likely to contribute to its chemopreventive action. PMID:26060396

  16. Elimination of deleterious effects of DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice by Syzygium cumini seed extract.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, Pradeep K

    2011-09-01

    The inhibition of tumor incidence by hydro-alcoholic extract of S.cumini seed was evaluated in mice on two stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by single application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (100 µg/100µl of acetone), and 2 weeks later promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% acetone/thrice in a week) till the end of the experiment (i.e. 16 weeks). Oral administration of extract at a dose of 250mg/kg b.wt./day at the peri-initiational stage (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application), promotional stage (i.e. from the time of croton oil application) and at both the stages (i.e. 7 days prior to DMBA application & continued till the end of experiment) to the mice, recorded a significant reduction in tumor incidence to 37.5, 50 & 25% respectively in comparison to the carcinogen treated control, where tumor incidence was found as 100%. Tumor yield and Tumor burden were also significantly reduced by SCE. Similarly, the cumulative number of papillomas after 16 weeks was 68 in the control group, which was reduced to 15, 21 & 8 in the animals treated with the SCE continuously at peri-, post- and peri- & post- initiation stage respectively. A significant impairment was noticed in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase & protein and enhancement in LPO in liver and skin of carcinogen treated control mice as compared with vehicle treated mice. All such parameters were returned to near normal value by administration of SCE to DMBA treated mice. These results suggest a possible chemopreventive property of S.cumini against DMBA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:21147816

  17. Modulation of p53 and c-myc in DMBA-induced mammary tumors by oral glutamine.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Valentina K; Kaufmann, Yihong; Luo, Shaoke; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies established that oral glutamine (GLN) reduced tumor development in implantable and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer models. This finding was associated with a decrease in tumor glutathione (GSH) levels, while maintaining normal gut, blood, and breast GSH. Alterations in GSH levels contribute to the control of apoptotic and cell cycle-regulating signaling. The aim of this study was to examine the role of dietary GLN on activation of p53 and c-myc, which play critical roles in cancer development and sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy. Mammary gland carcinomas were induced in rats by DMBA. The rats were gavaged daily with GLN or water (controls), starting 1 wk prior DMBA-application and throughout the duration of the experiment (11 wk after DMBA). Tumor DNA was examined for mutations in p53 exons 5 and 6. Protein and mRNA levels of p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1), PTEN, IGF-IR, mdm2, and c-myc in tumors of GLN-supplemented rats were compared with those of the control rats (received water). The sequencing of p53 showed that it was wild type. Increased phosphorylation of p53, as well as higher mRNA and protein levels of p21(WAF1/CIP1), PTEN, and mdm2, and lower levels of IGF-IR were detected in tumors of GLN-supplemented rats vs. controls. Both phosphorylated c-myc and c-myc mRNA levels were reduced by GLN. The up-regulation of tumor p53 signaling and down-regulation of c-myc, in addition to previously established inhibition of Akt signaling in DMBA-breast cancer model, suggest that dietary GLN could be a useful approach for increasing the effectiveness of cancer treatment.

  18. Effect of DMSO and DMBA hamster pouch carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Hidalgo, F.; Miller, E.G.; Binnie, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The penetration of mucosal surfaces by chemical carcinogens is required for tumor induction. The effectiveness of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a carrier for carcinogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine what effect DMSO would have on the 9,10-dimethyl- 1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in the hamster cheek pouch. Thirty Syrian golden hamsters were divided into two groups: the control group received a topical application of 0.5% DMBA in mineral oil three times per week for 16 weeks, while the experimental group received a topical application of DMSO previous to each DMBA application. At autopsy, both groups had developed tumors, the tumor ratio of control to experimental was 3.5:1.9 and the average size of tumors was 2.2 to 1.9 mm sq. The results suggest that DMSO interfered with the usual DMBA induction mechanism.

  19. Effects of morin on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si H; Lee, Joo H; Lee, Dae Y; Lee, Myung G; Lyuk, Koon C; Kim, So H

    2011-10-01

    Docetaxel is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and metabolized via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A subfamily in rats. Morin is an inhibitor of both CYPs and P-gp. Hence, the effects of morin on the intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of docetaxel were investigated using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor rats (DMBA rats) as an animal model of human breast cancer. Docetaxel was administered intravenously (4 mg/kg) and orally (20 mg/kg) without and with morin (15 mg/kg) in DMBA rats. After the intravenous administration of docetaxel in control and DMBA rats with and without morin, the values of non-renal clearance and area under the plasma concentration-time (AUC) for docetaxel were comparable. Morin did not increase AUC or the absolute oral bioavailability (F) for docetaxel after the oral administration of docetaxel in control and DMBA rats with and without morin. The inhibition of hepatic and intestinal metabolism of docetaxel by morin and/or DMBA and the effect of intestinal P-gp inhibition by morin on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel did not seem to be considerable in DMBA-induced mammary tumor rats.

  20. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid ameliorates cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and potentiates its anti-tumor activity in DMBA induced breast cancer in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Mundhe, Nitin Arunrao; Kumar, Parveen; Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Jamdade, Vinayak; Mundhe, Sanjay; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-09-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic drug, but its clinical usefulness is limited due to dose dependent nephrotoxicity. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural compound with broad pharmacological properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of NDGA on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as well as its anticancer activity in rats bearing DMBA induced mammary tumors. The effect of NDGA on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity was evaluated by checking serum nephrotoxicity markers, antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory markers level and kidney histopathology. NDGA induced amelioration of cisplatin nephrotoxicity was clearly visible from significant reductions in serum blood urea nitrogen (86.51 g/dl) and creatinine (5.30 g/dl) levels and significant improvement in body weight change (-10.34 g) and kidney weight (728 mg/kg). The protective effect of NDGA against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in the rats was further confirmed by significant restoration of antioxidant enzymes like SOD (86.28% inhibition), inflammatory markers like TNF-α (34.6 pg/ml) and histopathological examination. Moreover, our results showed that NDGA potentiated anti-breast cancer activity of cisplatin through an increment in the expression of antioxidant enzymes like SOD (85.35% inhibition) in breast cancer tissue. These results indicated that NDGA potentiated the anti-breast cancer activity of cisplatin, which was clearly evident from the tumor volume and % tumor inhibition in breast cancer rats. The current study demonstrated that NDGA may modify the therapeutic effect of cisplatin in DMBA induced breast cancer in female Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:26247680

  1. Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Fluorescence as a Biomarker to Monitor the Anticancer Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium in DMBA Induced Mammary Carcinoma Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vani, S; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2015-07-01

    Endogenous fluorescence has been proposed as a means of aiding the diagnosis of various malignancies. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the spectrofluorimetric analysis of blood components as a marker for the analysis of mammary carcinoma treatment and also to bring about the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium on oxidative stress mediated damage of erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectra of the blood components were studied and also the level of lipid per oxides and antioxidant enzymes status in erythrocytes were determined in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma rats treated with Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy of blood components are altered under cancer conditions and the drug effectively ameliorated these alterations in mammary carcinoma induced rats. The drug also effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced erythrocyte damage thereby restoring the erythrocytes antioxidant status. These results suggest that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and hence acts as new biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25943985

  2. Decreased expression of stem cell markers by simvastatin in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rennó, André Lisboa; Alves-Júnior, Marcos José; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; De Souza, Philipi Coutinho; de Souza, Valéria Barbosa; Jampietro, Juliano; Vassallo, José; Hyslop, Stephen; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; de Moraes Schenka, Natália Guimarães; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Schenka, André Almeida

    2015-04-01

    Simvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase widely used in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia-related diseases, has recently been associated to in vitro anticancer stem cell (CSC) actions. However, these effects have not been confirmed in vivo. To assess in vivo anti-CSC effects of simvastatin, female Sprague-Dawley rats with 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary cancer and control animals were treated for 14 days with either simvastatin (20 or 40 mg/kg/day) or soybean oil (N = 60). Tumors and normal breast tissues were removed for pathologic examination and immunodetection of CSC markers. At 40 mg/kg/day, simvastatin significantly reduced tumor growth and the expression of most CSC markers. The reduction in tumor growth (80%) could not be explained solely by the decrease in CSCs, since the latter accounted for less than 10% of the neoplasia (differentiated cancer cells were also affected). Stem cells in normal, nonneoplastic breast tissues were not affected by simvastatin. Simvastatin was also associated with a significant decrease in proliferative activity but no increase in cell death. In conclusion, this is the first study to confirm simvastatin anti-CSC actions in vivo, further demonstrating that this effect is specific for neoplastic cells, but not restricted to CSCs, and most likely due to inhibition of cell proliferation.

  3. Induction of apoptosis and downregulation of ERα in DMBA-induced mammary gland tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats by synthetic 3,5-disubstituted isoxazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Hanumappa; Kumar, Kothanahally S Sharath; Hegde, Mahesh; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S

    2016-09-01

    Isoxazole derivatives are an important group of chemotherapeutic prototypes. In the current study, we have synthesized few isoxazole derivatives and tested them for their antiproliferative properties in cancer cell lines such as MCF7 and HeLa. The lead compound, 3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-(thiophen-2-yl)isoxazole (2b), showed considerable inhibition of proliferation of MCF7 and HeLa cells with the IC50 values of 19.5 and 39.2 µM, respectively. Cell cycle analyses and annexin-FITC staining in 2b-treated breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) showed increased sub-G1 population and apoptosis. Furthermore, we tested the tumor inhibitory effect of 2b and estrogen receptor expression profile in DMBA-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats. The gross morphology of tumor studies was investigated by histopathology and ERα protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, which showed tumor regression and downregulation of ERα in tumor cells. The present results implicate that compound 2b could be used for the further derivatization for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27473146

  4. Combined supplementation of vanadium and fish oil suppresses tumor growth, cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sangita; Das, Subhadeep; Chatterjee, Mary; Janarthan, M; Chatterjee, Malay

    2011-09-01

    The anti-cancer activity of vanadium and fish oil has been shown in a large number of studies. This study was undertaken to analyze the combined effect of vanadium and fish oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The whole experiment was divided into three parts: (1) DNA strand breaks study, (2) morphological analysis, and (3) histological and immunohistochemical study. Rats were treated with DMBA (0.5 mg/0.2 ml corn oil/100 g body weight) by a tail vein injection. Rats received vanadium (w/v) as ammonium monovanadate at a concentration of 0.5 ppm (4.27 µmol/L) in the drinking water and given ad libitum and/or fish oil (0.5 ml/day/rat) by oral gavage. Histology, morphology, DNA strand breaks, cell proliferation, and apoptosis of the mammary tissue were assessed in this study. Treatment with vanadium or fish oil alone significantly reduced the DNA strand breaks, palpable mammary tumors, tumor multiplicity, and cell proliferation but the maximum protection effect was found in the group that received both vanadium and fish oil and the combination treatment offered an additive effect (P < 0.05). Furthermore, vanadium and fish oil significantly increased the TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells (P < 0.05) but the increase was maximal with combination treatment and had an additive effect. These results affirm the benefits of administration of vanadium and fish oil in the prevention of rat mammary carcinogenesis which was associated with reduced DNA strand breaks, palpable mammary tumors and cell proliferation and increased TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells.

  5. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Miguel, Cristina; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Solanas, Montserrat; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3) DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac) by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression. PMID:26401660

  6. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Miguel, Cristina; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Solanas, Montserrat; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3) DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac) by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression. PMID:26401660

  7. Canalicular adenoma of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Maamouri, F; Bellil, K; Bellil, S; Chelly, I; Mekni, A; Kchir, N; Haouet, S; Zitouna, M

    2007-06-01

    Canalicular adenoma is a benign tumor which comprises 1% of salivary gland neoplasms and 4% of minor salivary gland tumors. It occurs in the upper lip mucosa in about 90% of cases. The next most common location is the buccal mucosa (9.5% of tumors). We present herein a new case of canalicular adenoma of buccal mucosa involving a 74-year-old man. He was suffering of a slowly growing and painless nodule of the right buccal mucosa. The treatment was surgery and histological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of canalicular adenoma. No recurrence was noted one year later.

  8. Buccal mucosal ulcer healing effect of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sook; Yoon, Joon Il; Li, Hong; Moon, Dong Cheul; Han, Kun

    2003-08-01

    We have studied the effect of rhEGF on the buccal mucosal ulcer healing. rhEGF was rapidly degraded upon incubation with the hamster buccal mucosal homogenates; The degradation of rhEGF was significantly inhibited by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Eudispert hv hydrogel and Polycarbophil 974P hydrogel were prepared for rhEGF delivery and their mucoadhesiveness was measured by the Instron method. The mucoadhesive force of Eudispert hv was significantly greater than that of Polycarbophil 974P. Moreover, rhEGF in Eudispert hv hydrogel remained stable for about 2 months. To evaluate the ulcer healing effect of rhEGF, the buccal mucosal ulcer was induced in golden hamsters using acetic acid. At 24 h after administration of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel, the ulcerous area was decreased compared with rhEGF solution and, as a result, the curative ratio was 36.8 +/- 5.68%. By the addition of SLS (0.5%) to Eudispert hv hydrogel, the curative ratio increased 1.5 times. The mechanism of the action was probably due to a combination of protection of the drug against proteases present in mucosa and prolongation of the release of rhEGF from the formulation at the site of action.

  9. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  10. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  11. Buprenorphine Sublingual and Buccal (opioid dependence)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sublingual film (Suboxone) to take under the tongue and as a buccal film (Bunavail) to apply ... the sublingual tablets, place the tablets under your tongue until they completely melt. If you are taking ...

  12. Microbial Contamination of Orthodontic Buccal Tubes from Manufacturers

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Pinto, John; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to test the sterility of new unused orthodontic buccal tubes received from manufacturers. Four different types of buccal tubes were used straight from the manufactures package without any additional sterilizing step. Of these buccal tubes tested, three genera of bacteria, implicated as opportunistic pathogens, namely Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were recovered from these buccal tubes. Our data showing microbial contamination on buccal tubes highlights the need of sterilization before clinical use. We also suggest that manufacturers should list the sterility state of orthodontic buccal tubes on their packaging or instructions stating the need for sterilization. PMID:20957099

  13. Hemangioma of the buccal fat pad

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a rare place for hemangioma. In this report, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are described in a rare case of hemangioma with phleboliths involving the BFP, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject. PMID:24963256

  14. CT and MR imaging of the buccal space and buccal space masses.

    PubMed

    Tart, R P; Kotzur, I M; Mancuso, A A; Glantz, M S; Mukherji, S K

    1995-05-01

    The authors describe the normal variations in the buccal space and present the range of buccal space pathologic conditions seen on computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. In a series of 50 patients studied with CT and 30 with MR imaging, the visualization and measurement of the normal facial expression and buccinator muscles, parotidomasseteric fascia, parotid duct, accessory parotid tissue, and facial neurovascular bundle were statistically equivalent. The size of the buccal fat pad was statistically the same from side to side within a given patient. Normal lymph nodes were rarely discernible from the facial neurovascular bundles. In a series of 26 patients with unsuspected buccal space masses, salivary gland tumors were the most common masses. Less frequently, benign lesions (eg, hemangioma and dilated parotid ducts) and soft-tissue malignancies (eg, sarcoma) manifested as buccal space masses. Occasionally, a cheek mass of uncertain cause proved to be lymphadenopathy; however, adenopathy is more commonly associated with clinically evident, deeply infiltrating facial neoplasms. Knowledge of the anatomic variations and expected abnormalities of the buccal space is useful for the radiologist interpreting facial CT or MR images.

  15. The Hamster Cheek Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1973-01-01

    To gain insight into factors that might be responsible for the normal avascularity of the cornea and for its vascularization in certain pathologic states, an experimental model was designed in which corneal vascularization could be studied under controlled conditions in hamster cheek pouch chambers. Normal corneal tissue, as well as corneas that had been altered in a variety of ways (eg, boiled, autoclaved, freeze-thawed) were implanted into hamster cheek pouch chambers. The fate of the transplanted tissue was observed at regular intervals by direct visualization within the hamster cheek pouch at various magnifications and by light and electron microscopy. This report reviews observations on more than 300 such experiments. Normal and injured corneal autografts, allografts and xenografts and nonviable (autoclaved, boiled or freeze-thawed) corneas commonly became vascularized in the cheek pouch. When this occurred, a similar morphologic sequence of events preceded and accompanied the growth of blood vessels into the cornea. Vascular invasion was generally preceded by the formation of granulation tissue around the cornea. This was followed by a leukocytic, and frequently a fibroblastic, infiltration of the cornea. When cells did not invade the transplanted cornea, the cornea invariably remained avascular. In the present model, a swollen cornea was not a sufficient stimulus for corneal vascularization. The data suggest that under certain circumstances leukocytes may produce one or more factors which stimulate directional vascular growth. The findings are viewed in terms of current concepts on corneal vascularization. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14 PMID:4271966

  16. Gait disturbances in dystrophic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Thomas G; Kale, Ajit; Amende, Ivo; Tang, Wenlong; McCue, Scott; Bhagavan, Hemmi N; VanDongen, Case G

    2011-01-01

    The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient hamster is an excellent model to study muscular dystrophy. Gait disturbances, important clinically, have not been described in this animal model. We applied ventral plane videography (DigiGait) to analyze gait in BIO TO-2 dystrophic and BIO F1B control hamsters walking on a transparent treadmill belt. Stride length was ∼13% shorter (P < .05) in TO-2 hamsters at 9 months of age compared to F1B hamsters. Hindlimb propulsion duration, an indicator of muscle strength, was shorter in 9-month-old TO-2 (247 ± 8 ms) compared to F1B hamsters (272 ± 11 ms; P < .05). Braking duration, reflecting generation of ground reaction forces, was delayed in 9-month-old TO-2 (147 ± 6 ms) compared to F1B hamsters (126 ± 8 ms; P < .05). Hindpaw eversion, evidence of muscle weakness, was greater in 9-month-old TO-2 than in F1B hamsters (17.7 ± 1.2° versus 8.7 ± 1.6°; P < .05). Incline and decline walking aggravated gait disturbances in TO-2 hamsters at 3 months of age. Several gait deficits were apparent in TO-2 hamsters at 1 month of age. Quantitative gait analysis demonstrates that dystrophic TO-2 hamsters recapitulate functional aspects of human muscular dystrophy. Early detection of gait abnormalities in a convenient animal model may accelerate the development of therapies for muscular dystrophy.

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, Shubhangi; Dive, Alka; Munde, Prashant; Wankhede, Neena Dongre

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland swellings can result from tumors, an inflammatory process or cysts. It can sometimes be difficult to establish; whether pathology arises from the salivary gland itself or adjacent structures. Neoplasms of the salivary glands account for less than 1% of all tumors, 3-5% of all head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the buccal minor salivary gland. A case of PA of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor; with emphasis on diagnosis.

  18. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chilagondanahalli, Nandini L.; Bundele, Manish M.; Kanagalingam, Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic), mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type) of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision. PMID:27672465

  19. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tham, Alex C; Chilagondanahalli, Nandini L; Bundele, Manish M; Kanagalingam, Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic), mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type) of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision. PMID:27672465

  20. Recurrent sialadenoma papilliferum of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, M T; López Amado, M; García Sarandeses, A

    1995-08-01

    Sialadenoma papilliferum is a rare, benign, exophytic tumour of the salivary glands. The prognosis is exceptionally good. Since the lesion was first described, 30 cases have been reported in the English literature, and only one of these is known to have recurred. A case of sialadenoma papilliferum occurring in the buccal mucosa with recurrence three years after local excision, is presented. The literature is briefly discussed.

  1. Evaluation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin-loaded nanoparticles in experimental oral carcinogenesis using laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the chemopreventive effects of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to the efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) in modifying the carcinogenic process and to study the changes in the endogenous fluorophores during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) spectroscopy. LIAF emission spectra from the hamster buccal mucosa of the control and experimental groups of animals were recorded in the 350-700 nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from different anatomical sites of each group, with excitation at 404 nm from a diode laser. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. DMBA-painted animals revealed morphological changes, hyperplasia, dysplasia and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. LIAF emission spectra showed significant difference between the control and tumor tissues. The tumor tissues are characterized by an increase in the emission of porphyrins and a decrease in the emission of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogenase (NADH) and flavin adenine nucleotide (FAD) when compared to the control tissues. Furthermore, oral administration of NAR and its nanoparticulates restored the status of endogenous fluorophores in the buccal mucosa of DMBA-painted animals. On a comparative basis, the treatment of nanoparticulate naringenin was found to be more effective than free naringenin in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the status of endogenous porphyrins to a normal range in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The result of the present study further suggests that LIAF spectroscopy may be a very valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of endogenous fluorophore changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  2. Transbuccal delivery of chlorpheniramine maleate from mucoadhesive buccal patches.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, K Chandra; Naidu, K V S; Vishnu, Y Vamshi; Gannu, Ramesh; Kishan, V; Rao, Y Madhusudan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes buccal permeation of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) and its transbuccal delivery using mucoadhesive buccal patches. Permeation of CPM was calculated in vitro using porcine buccal membrane and in vivo in healthy humans. Buccal formulations were developed with hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and evaluated for in vitro release, moisture absorption, mechanical properties, and bioadhesion, and optimized formulation was subjected for bioavailability studies in healthy human volunteers. In vitro flux of CPM was calculated to be 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg.h(-1).cm(-2) and buccal absorption also was demonstrated in vivo in human volunteers. In vitro drug release and moisture absorbed were governed by HEC content and formulations exhibited good tensile and mucoadhesive properties. Bioavailability from optimized buccal patch was 1.46 times higher than the oral dosage form and the results showed statistically significant difference.

  3. Management of Buccal Gap and Resorption of Buccal Plate in Immediate Implant Placement: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Hardik; Shah, Sheekha

    2015-01-01

    When a dental implant is placed into a fresh extraction socket, a space between the implant periphery and surrounding bone occurs. A gap can occur on any aspect of an immediately placed implant: Buccal, lingual or proximally. The objective of immediate implant placement is to provide an osseointegrated fixture suitable for an aesthetic and functional restoration. Bone fill in the gap between the implant and the peripheral bone is important. Surgical management of the buccal gap to obtain an optimal result is controversial and confusing with respect to the best techniques to achieve the following: Optimal bone fills in the gap, most coronal level of bone-to-implant contact, and the least amount of buccal bone loss and soft tissue recession. This clinical case report illustrates the management of the buccal gap and reducing buccal plate resorption when contemplating immediate implant placement. PMID:26225110

  4. Delayed buccal fat pad herniation: An unusual complication of buccal flap in cleft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Puneet; Parashar, Atul; Nanda, Vipul; Sharma, Ramesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Buccal musculomucosal flap is commonly used in cleft palate surgery for providing additional lining when nasal mucosa is inadequate. We report an unusual complication of progressively increasing fat herniation from the sutured donor site which started appearing on the third postoperative day. This necessitated excision of the protruding fat pad on the seventh postoperative day. The possible mechanism and precautions for prevention of this complication are discussed. PMID:19881029

  5. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  6. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  7. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Govindasamy, Parthasarathy; Kesavan, Bhaskar Reddy; Narasimha, Jayaveera Korlakunta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84% and FB16 released 99.01% of drug in 140 min. Conclusions The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine. PMID:24093793

  8. Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Prasanth, V.V.; Puratchikody, A.; Mathew, S.T.; Ashok, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches. PMID:25657797

  9. Inhibition and regression of tumors in hamster DMBA model following laser microvascular targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Wang, Zhi; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1998-07-01

    Vascular targeting is a recent approach to cancer therapy that aims at damaging tumor vasculature to induce tumor cell hypoxia and subsequent cell death. Squamous cell cancer arises in the superficial mucosal and cutaneous epithelial layers, and tumor microvasculature therefore may be particularly well suited for targeting by selective photothermolysis. An initial evaluation of the effect of selective eradication of microvasculature on tumor development was undertaken here using the chemically-induced hamster cheek pouch model and a 585 nm pulsed dye laser. In a first group of 6 hamsters, progression of premalignant mucosal lesions was compared between control and laser treatment groups, and laser-induced regression of established tumors was evaluated. In a second group of 12 hamsters, the number of laser treatments required to produce complete regression of tumors of the buccal mucosa was determined. The effect of the laser on tumors appearing on the skin in these animals was also investigated. These experiments showed that laser treatment inhibited tumor development and caused complete regression of established tumors 10 mm3 or smaller. Photothermal microvascular targeting may be useful in treating dyplasia and early tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and skin, with fewer adverse sequelae than existing modalities.

  10. Eikenella corrodens adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Y; Ebisu, S; Okada, H

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of Eikenella corrodens adherence to human buccal epithelial cells in vitro was studied. Initial experiments to determine the optimal conditions for adherence of E. corrodens to buccal epithelial cells showed that adherence was dependent on time, temperature, bacterial concentration, and pH. Different strains of E. corrodens varied in their ability to adhere, and strain 1073 showed the greatest ability in adherence. Strain 1073 was selected for studies of adherence mechanisms. Trypsin treatment or heating (100 degrees C, 10 min) of the bacterial cells abolished their capacity to adhere to buccal epithelial cells. Treatment of buccal epithelial cells with trypsin also abolished adherence of E. corrodens 1073, whereas neuraminidase treatment of buccal epithelial cells enhanced the adherence. The adherence was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and restored by adding Ca2+. The adherence was remarkably inhibited by sugars containing D-galactose and n-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Treatment of neuraminidase-treated epithelial cells with sodium metaperiodate or alpha- and beta-galactosidase did not decrease the adherence. These data suggest that adherence of E. corrodens 1073 to human buccal epithelial cells may require the interaction of lectin-like proteins on the bacterial surface with galactose-like receptors on the surface of epithelial cells. PMID:6260661

  11. Hamster-tropic sarcomagenic and nonsarcomagenic viruses derived from hamster tumors induced by the Gross pseudotype of Moloney sarcoma virus.

    PubMed

    Kelloff, G; Huebner, R J; Lee, Y K; Toni, R; Gilden, R

    1970-02-01

    Hamster sarcomas induced by the Gross pseudotype of Moloney sarcoma virus yielded a virus sarcomagenic for hamsters but not mice. This virus was able to produce foci on hamster embryo cells, but not on mouse embryo cells. A hamster-tropic nonfocus-forming helper virus was also found in the viral stocks. These hamster-tropic viruses are not immunologically related to the murine viruses in the original inoculum but appear to represent indigenous C-type RNA viruses of the hamster.

  12. Myoepithelioma arising from the buccal gland: histopathological and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, R; Kuyama, K; Utsunomiya, T; Morikawa, M; Fukumoto, M; Yamamoto, H

    2000-03-01

    A rare case of myoepithelioma of the buccal gland in a 54-year-old Japanese woman is reported. As the swelling exhibited a normal mucosal color and was relatively well defined, showing no ulcers, a benign salivary gland tumor was suspected upon clinical inspection. Microscopically, the parenchyma of the present case mainly consisted of plasmacytoid cells with round nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, and partial spindle cells with eccentric nuclei. The stroma was composed of fibro-hyalinized or myxoid connective tissue that separated from the parenchyma. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of the plasmacytoid and spindle cells was moderately positive for vimentin and GFAP, whereas the buccal gland adjacent to the tumor was negative for these antibodies. S-100 protein reactivity is strong for both types tumor cells. Actin reactivity was negative for both types of tumor cells, notwithstanding the fact that myoepithelial cells of the buccal gland were positively stained. Anti-cytokeratin reactivity was weak for both types of tumor cells in portions of the plexiform and solid areas; nevertheless, the buccal glands were moderately positive. These results suggest that neoplasmic myoepithelial cells exhibit abnormal differentiation and modification. There have been only two published reports of myoepithelioma arising from the buccal gland in the literature to date.

  13. Directed Student Inquiry: Modeling in Roborovsky Hamsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Bouchard, Adam

    2007-01-01

    In this inquiry-based activity, Roborovsky hamsters are used to provide students with an opportunity to develop their skills of analysis, inquiry, and design. These hamsters are easy to maintain, yet offer students a means to use conventional techniques and those of their own design to make further observations through measuring, assessing, and…

  14. Lack of Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein2 on Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Induced in the Syrian hamster Cheek Pouch.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Khaled Waleed; Nhar, Bander Mossa; Ghadeer Alanazi, Salman Mohammed; Murad, Rashad; Domani, Ahmad; Alhafi, Awadh Jamman

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein2 (rhBMP2 ), a member of the TGF? family, has been used widely in recent years to regenerate defects of the maxillary and mandible bones. Such defects are sometimes caused by resection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet the biologic effects of rhBMP2 on these carcinomas are not fully clear. The objective of this study was to determine histologically whether rhBMP2 produces adverse effects on angiogenesis during induction of OSCC, a biologic process critical for tumor formation in an experimental model in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters. Buccal cavities were exposed to painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks, then biopsies were taken. Division was into 2 groups: a study group of 10 hamsters receiving 0.25?g/ml of rhBMP2 in the 3rd and 6th weeks; and a control group of 10 hamsters which did not receive any additional treatment. VEGF expression and microvessel density were measured but no differences were noted between the two groups. According to this study, rhBMP2 does not stimulate angiogenesis during induction of OCSSs. PMID:27510004

  15. Effect of dexamethasone on babesiasis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Eckblad, W P; Stiller, D; Woodard, L F; Kuttler, K L

    1984-09-01

    Three subcutaneous injections of 0.20 mg of dexamethasone/kg of body weight caused a substantial increase in Babesia microti-parasitized RBC of hamsters, indicating that this was a useful method for revealing the presence of latent infections. A relative neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, and eosinopenia were also seen in the long-term B microti-infected carrier hamsters after 0.20 mg or 0.02 mg of dexamethasone/kg. Noninfected hamsters treated with dexamethasone had a neutrophilic leukocytosis and a transient lymphocytopenia. Spleen to body weight ratios of noninfected hamsters decreased significantly (P less than 0.02) after 4 injections with either dosage level. These ratios did not significantly (P greater than 0.05) decrease in dexamethasone-treated infected hamsters.

  16. Surgical management of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandna, Shalu; Sachdeva, Surinder; Kochar, Deepak; Kapil, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostosis is benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. A 24-year-old female presented with gingival enlargement on the buccal aspect of both the quadrants of the maxillary arch. The overgrowth was a cosmetic problem for the patient. The etiology of the overgrowth remains unclear though the provisional diagnosis indicates toward a bony enlargement, which was confirmed with the help of transgingival probing. The bony enlargement was treated with resective osseous surgery. The following paper presents a rare case of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis and its successful management. PMID:26229284

  17. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  18. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  19. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet... determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn from sale... drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg, if all other legal...

  20. In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

    2011-01-01

    Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability. PMID:22615661

  1. Chimerism of buccal membrane cells in a monochorionic dizygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Seiko; Hosoi, Kenichiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Hiroaki; Yan, Kunimasa; Saji, Hiroh; Oka, Akira

    2014-04-01

    No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth.

  2. [Enlargement of the buccal aperture via. Technical consideration (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pons, J; Pasturel, A; Pochan, Y; Barbier, M

    1979-01-01

    For a long time we know that it is possible to take out from the mouth a part or all the mandibule which presents a local malignant tumour. When the tumour is too extensed, the buccal aperture can be enlarged. The authors describe a new surgical technique which resolves this problem with notable and faithful advantages.

  3. Downregulation of Keratin 76 Expression during Oral Carcinogenesis of Human, Hamster and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Emma; Pandey, Manishkumar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kane, Shubhada; Patil, Asawari; Maru, Girish B.; Desai, Rajiv S.; Watt, Fiona M.; Mahimkar, Manoj B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Keratins are structural marker proteins with tissue specific expression; however, recent reports indicate their involvement in cancer progression. Previous study from our lab revealed deregulation of many genes related to structural molecular integrity including KRT76. Here we evaluate the role of KRT76 downregulation in oral precancer and cancer development. Methods We evaluated KRT76 expression by qRT-PCR in normal and tumor tissues of the oral cavity. We also analyzed K76 expression by immunohistochemistry in normal, oral precancerous lesion (OPL), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and in hamster model of oral carcinogenesis. Further, functional implication of KRT76 loss was confirmed using KRT76-knockout (KO) mice. Results We observed a strong association of reduced K76 expression with increased risk of OPL and OSCC development. The buccal epithelium of DMBA treated hamsters showed a similar trend. Oral cavity of KRT76-KO mice showed preneoplastic changes in the gingivobuccal epithelium while no pathological changes were observed in KRT76 negative tissues such as tongue. Conclusion The present study demonstrates loss of KRT76 in oral carcinogenesis. The KRT76-KO mice data underlines the potential of KRT76 being an early event although this loss is not sufficient to drive the development of oral cancers. Thus, future studies to investigate the contributing role of KRT76 in light of other tumor driving events are warranted. PMID:23936238

  4. Spontaneous endomyometrial neoplasms in aging Chinese hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Brownstein, D.G.; Brooks, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-one endomyometrial neoplasms among 93 nulliparous noninbred Chinese hamsters were evaluated. The median survival time of the 93 females was 1040 days. The median age of hamsters with endomyometrial neoplasms was 1200 days. Neoplasms were classified as carcinomas or malignant mixed muellerian tumors of the endometrium and benign or malignant myometrial neoplasms. There were 13 endometrial adenocarcinomas. Three tumors were mixed adenosquamous carcinomas, which occurred in significantly older Chinese hamsters than did adenocarcinomas. Three malignant mixed muellerian tumors consisted of 2 carcinosarcomas and 1 mixed mesodermal tumor. The 2 myometrial neoplasms were a lelomyoma and a lelomyosarcoma. The classification and relative frequency of these neoplasms were similar to endomyometrial neoplasms of women, which makes Chinese hamsters useful subjects for studies of spontaneous endomyometrial cancers.

  5. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, J.L.; Schell, R.F.; Hejka, A.; England, D.M.; Konick, L.

    1988-09-01

    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling were dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis.

  6. SV40 lymphomagenesis in Syrian golden hamsters

    PubMed Central

    McNees, Adrienne L.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Heard, Tiffany C.; Sroller, Vojtech; Wong, Connie; Herron, Alan J.; Hamilton, Mary J.; Davis, William C.; Butel, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) isolates differ in oncogenic potential in Syrian golden hamsters following intraperitoneal inoculation. Here we describe the effect of intravenous exposure on tumor induction by SV40. Strains SVCPC (simple regulatory region) and VA45-54(2E) (complex regulatory region) were highly oncogenic following intravenous inoculation, producing a spectrum of tumor types. Three lymphoma cell lines were established; all expressed SV40 T-antigen, were immortalized for growth in culture, and were tumorigenic following transplantation in vivo. New monoclonal antibodies directed against hamster lymphocyte surface antigens are described. The cell lines expressed MHC class II and macrophage markers and were highly phagocytic, indicating a histiocytic origin. Many hamsters that remained tumor-free developed SV40 T-antigen antibodies, suggesting that viral replication occurred. This study shows that route of exposure influences the pathogenesis of SV40-mediated carcinogenesis, that SV40 strain VA45-54(2E) is lymphomagenic in hamsters, that hamster lymphoid cells of histiocytic origin can be transformed in vivo and established in culture, and that reagents to hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules are now available. PMID:19038412

  7. [Buccal bony exostoses induced by free gingival grafts].

    PubMed

    Tal, H; Slutzkey, S

    2011-01-01

    Buccal Bony Exostoses (BBE) is a local benign osseous overgrowth continuous with the facial aspect of the jaw. Post operative BBE may be the result of dermal grafts used to restore the buccal vestibulum, of connective tissue graft placement, and of Free Gingival Grafts (FGG) procedures. In 46 patients in whom 72 FGG procedures were performed by the senior author (HT) over the past 12 years, BBE was clinically and radiographically diagnosed. In one case the tumor was surgically removed. The etiology, pathogenesis and frequency of BBE following FGG procedures was reviewed and discussed. We suggest that the BBE may develop owing to periosteal surgical trauma during FGG procedures, and suggest that this phenomenon receives further attention.

  8. Buccal Micronucleus Cytome Assay in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Mallika Bokka Sri Satya; Gour, Shreya; Nallagutta, Nalini; Velidandla, Surekha; Manikya, Sangameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is a commonly inherited blood disorder preceded by episodes of pain, chronic haemolytic anaemia and severe infections. The underlying phenomenon which causes this disease is the point mutation in the haemoglobin beta gene (Hbβ) found on chromosome 11 p. Increased oxidative stress leads to DNA damage. DNA damage occurring in such conditions can be studied by the buccal micronucleus cytome assay, which is a minimally invasive method for studying chromosomal instability, cell death and regenerative potential of human buccal tissue. Aim To evaluate genomic instability in patients with sickle cell disease by buccal micronucleus cytome assay. Materials and Methods The study included 40 sickle cell anemia patients (Group A) and 40 age and sex matched controls (Group B). Buccal swabs were collected and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP). Number of cells with micronucleus, binuclei, nuclear bud, pyknosis and karyolysis were counted in two groups as parameters for the evaluation of genome stability. Results All the analysis was done using t-test. A p-value of <0.001 was considered statistically significant. There was a statistically significant increase in micronuclei number in SCA patients when compared with controls. Karyolytic (un-nucleated) cell number in Group A was more than to those of the controls. Conclusion The results might suggest that patients with sickle cell anaemia have genome instability which is represented by the presence of micronuclei in the somatic cells. Presence of apoptotic cells might only indicate the bodily damage to the tissue as a result of the disease. PMID:27504413

  9. Evaluation of polymeric films for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Skulason, S; Asgeirsdottir, M S; Magnusson, J P; Kristmundsdottir, T

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 981 NF, Carbopol 1382 and sodium alginate as possible carriers for films for buccal drug delivery. Films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporation method, using propylene glycol as plasticizer and hydoxypropylmethyl cellulose to modify the properties of the films. The bioadhesive and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated with a TA-XT2i Texture Analyser. The alginate films exhibited greater bioadhesion and showed higher tensile strength and elasticity than the Carbopol films. There was a marked difference in the way the polymeric films hydrated in simulated saliva solution. Upon swelling the diameter of the alginate films did not increase but their thickness increases slightly, however the surface area of the Carbopol films increased significantly which points to them being unsuitable for drug delivery to the buccal mucosa. Excessive hydration of a polymeric film for buccal delivery could lead to decreasing adhesive strength and possibly loss of adhesion and hence shorter duration of retention. HPMC appeared to improve the properties of the films, affecting the bioadhesiveness and increasing tensile strength. For the alginate films an increase in HPMC leads to an increase in elasticity but for the Carbopol polymers this was not the case. The release profile of a model drug, sumatriptan succinate, showed that drug release was by diffusion rather than due to disintegration of the films. The results indicate that sodium alginate may be a suitable carrier for polymeric films for use in the buccal cavity. PMID:19348343

  10. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  11. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  12. Polypeptide heterogeneity of hamster and calf fibronectins.

    PubMed Central

    Pena, S D; Mills, G; Hughes, R C; Aplin, J D

    1980-01-01

    The adhesive glycoprotein fibronectin has been isolated from fresh hamster plasma by affinity chromatography on gelatin coupled to Sepharose beads by the method of Engvall & Ruoslahti [Int. J. Cancer (1979) 20, 1-5]. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of material heated in sodium dodecyl sulphate and 2-mercaptoethanol shows two prominent polypeptide subunits of approx. mol.wts. 215 000 and 200 000, with variable amounts of lower-molecular-weight fragments. The unexpected polypeptide heterogeneity of different preparations of hamster fibronectins and bovine serum fibronectin is shown to be partly an artefact and is generated during isolation and storage of purified fibronectin. Treatment of each hamster fibronectin subunit or a smaller fragment of approx. mol.wt. 140 000 with thermolysin or trypsin after radioiodination produces similar patterns of tyrpsine-containing peptides, indicating similar primary amino-acid sequences. Antibodies raised against the major subunits of hamster plasma fibronectin were coupled to Sepharose beads and used in conjunction with gelatin affinity chromatography to isolate fibronectins extracted with urea from baby-hamster kidney (BHK) cells and present in the long-term culture medium of these cells. The cell and medium fibronectins are similar to hamster plasma fibronectin in amino-acid and carbohydrate composition and also produce very similar peptide 'maps'. We conclude that the various forms of hamster fibronectins are structurally analogous in agreement with indistinguishable biological properties in mediating the substance adhesion of BKH cells [Pena & Hughes (1978) Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 3, 339-344]. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:7458916

  13. Hydrodynamic effects in buccal cell DNA sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, C. K.; Sozer, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    Many different methods can be used for collection of biological samples from individuals for DNA profiling purposes. However, blood and buccal cells are the two most popular sources of DNA. In situations where large numbers of samples have to be collected, buccal cell collection methods are the preferred choice because of minimized health risks and ease of collection, transportation, and storage. The normal practice in buccal cell collection is to rub a cotton swab or a piece of paper through the inner check of the subject in order to release the cells and to attach and collect the cells on the cotton or paper fibers. The problem with the current forms of sample collection and storage is that in some cases up to 20% of the samples collected do not result in a DNA profile of adequate quality to be reported by the laboratory without repeated testing. In this study, we consider the mechanics of a small sheet of paper being rubbed on the surface of the inner check. The process is not too different from coating a paper substrate with highly deformable material. The shear field developed between the paper and the fluid adjacent to the cells are estimated based on the available data. The action of the cell release and the cell adherence to the surface will be outlined.

  14. The susceptibility of the hamster to mouse encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    DEAN, D J; DALLDORF, G

    1948-12-01

    The OT strain of mouse encephalomyelitis virus induces an inapparent infection in suckling hamsters associated with lesions of the central nervous system and skeletal muscles. The virus increases in pathogenicity after alternating mouse-hamster transfers and then induces both paralysis and encephalitis. Pathogenicity is lost through serial hamster passages but is restored by a single mouse transfer.

  15. Subcutaneous Angiolipoma of Abdomen in a Golden Hamster (Mesocrietus auratus).

    PubMed

    Kondo, H; Sato, T; Shibuya, H; Onuma, M

    2005-10-01

    This is a single case report of an angiolipoma located in the subcutis of a 2-year-old golden hamster. The histological appearance of the tumour resembled that described in other species. The hamster died 1 month following removal of tumour and a necropsy was not performed. This is apparently the first recorded case of angiolipoma in a hamster.

  16. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  17. A neuroethological approach to hamster vision.

    PubMed

    Finlay, B L; Sengelaub, D R; Berg, A T; Cairns, S J

    1980-12-01

    The contributions of the midbrain optic tectum to visuomotor behaviors likely to be important to hamsters in the wild were studied, including aperture detection, insect catching, and barrier avoidance. Following tectal undercuts, hamsters ceased to make direct approaches to apertures in the posterior 180 degrees of the visual field; this appeared to be mediated by a loss of exploratory or scanning head movements. Reorientation to and pursuit of crickets jumping out of grasp into the visual periphery was impaired, though initial approach to them was not. Barrier avoidance was unaffected by tectal undercuts. This pattern is similar to the contribution of the frog and toad optic tectum to analogous visuomotor tasks. The contribution of the tectum to searching and scanning in the hamster is an extension of the basic orienting capabilities dependent on optic tectum in anurans.

  18. Decreased adult neurogenesis in hibernating Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; García, Esther; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Hernández, Félix; DeFelipe, Javier; Ávila, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Generation of new neurons from adult neural stem cells occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles. In this article, we study the neurogenesis that takes place during the hibernation of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Using a variety of standard neurogenesis markers and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, we describe a preferential decrease in the proliferation of newborn neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the hibernating hamsters (torpor) rather than in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proliferative capacity is recovered after 3-4days of torpor when arousal is triggered under natural conditions (i.e., not artificially provoked). In addition, we show that tau3R, a tau isoform with three microtubule-binding domains, is a suitable marker to study neurogenesis both in the SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the Syrian hamster brain. PMID:27436535

  19. Controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Sadhu, N; Srinivas, A; Prasad, R G

    2016-01-01

    In the present study controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) were designed using HPMC as rate controlling and bioadhesive polymer by direct compression method. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were used in varying amounts as effervescence forming agents. Carbon dioxide evolved due to reaction of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was explored for its potential as buccal permeation enhancer. The designed buccal discs were evaluated for physical characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Bioadhesive behavior of designed buccal discs was assessed using texture analyzer. In vivo animal studies were performed in rabbits to study bioavailability of BS in the designed buccal discs and to establish permeation enhancement ability of carbon dioxide. It was observed that effervescent buccal discs have faster drug release compared to non-effervescent buccal discs in vitro and effervescent buccal discs demonstrated significant increase in bioavailability of drug when compared to non-effervescent formulation. Hence, effervescent buccal discs can be used as an alternative to improve the drug permeation resulting in better bioavailability. However, the amount of acid and base used for generation of carbon dioxide should be selected with care as this may damage the integrity of bioadhesive dosage form. PMID:24892624

  20. Identification of Streptococcus parasanguinis DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of buccal swabs in clinical and scientific studies is a very popular method of collecting DNA, due to its non-invasive nature of collection. However, contamination of the DNA sample may interfere with analysis. Findings Here we report the finding of Streptococcus parasanguinis bacterial DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples, which led to preferential amplification of bacterial sequence with PCR primers designed against human sequence. Conclusion Contamination of buccal-derived DNA with bacterial DNA can be significant, and may influence downstream genetic analysis. One needs to be aware of possible bacterial contamination when interpreting abnormal findings following PCR amplification of buccal swab DNA samples. PMID:24266944

  1. Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 ± 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 ± 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P < 0.05). Eighty percent of group 1 buccal tubes failed at buccal tube/resin interface and eighty percent of group 2 mostly failed at porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

  2. Oral Insulin and Buccal Insulin: A Critical Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Jacques, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Despite the availability of modern insulin injection devices with needles that are so sharp and thin that practically no injection pain takes place, it is still the dream of patients with diabetes to, for example, swallow a tablet with insulin. This is not associated with any pain and would allow more discretion. Therefore, availability of oral insulin would not only ease insulin therapy, it would certainly increase compliance. However, despite numerous attempts to develop such a “tablet” in the past 85 years, still no oral insulin is commercially available. Buccal insulin is currently in the last stages of clinical development by one company and might become available in the United States and Europe in the coming years (it is already on the market in some other countries). The aim of this review is to critically describe the different approaches that are currently under development. Optimal coverage of prandial insulin requirements is the aim with both routes of insulin administration (at least with most approaches). The speed of onset of metabolic effect seen with some oral insulin approaches is rapid, but absorption appears to be lower when the tablet is taken immediately prior to a meal. With all approaches, considerable amounts of insulin have to be applied in order to induce therapeutically relevant increases in the metabolic effect because of the low relative biopotency of buccal insulin. Unfortunately, the number of publications about clinical–experimental and clinical studies is surprisingly low. In addition, there is no study published in which the variability of the metabolic effect induced (with and without a meal) was studied adequately. In summary, after the failure of inhaled insulin, oral insulin and buccal insulin are hot candidates to come to the market as the next alternative routes of insulin administration. PMID:20144297

  3. Congenital Transmission of Experimental Leishmaniasis in a Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Yaneth; Rodriguez, Luz D.; Bonilla, Diana L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Henao, Hector; Saldarriaga, Omar; Travi, Bruno L.

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on transplacental transmission of Leishmania spp. We determined the frequency and impact of congenital infection caused by Leishmania panamensis or L. donovani in experimentally infected hamsters. A polymerase chain reaction showed that congenital transmission occurred in 25.8% (24 of 93) of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and 14.6% (11 of 75) offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters. Mortality during lactation was higher in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters than controls, and lymphoproliferation to Leishmania was more frequent in offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters (17.4%, 11 of 63) than in offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters (8.5%, 3 of 35). After weaning, only offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters had lower weight gain (P < 0.001) and hematocrit levels (P = 0.0045) than controls. Challenge of offspring born to L. panamensis-infected hamsters with L. panamensis showed no differences in lesion evolution, and offspring born to L. donovani-infected hamsters were more susceptible to L. donovani challenge than controls. Consequently, prenatal exposure of hamsters to L. donovani significantly increased the mortality risk and susceptibility to secondary homologous infection. PMID:22556079

  4. Asymmetric learning to avoid heterospecific males in Mesocricetus hamsters.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E

    2012-08-01

    If a female mates with a male of a closely related species, her fitness is likely to decline. Consequently, females may develop behavioral mechanisms to avoid mating with heterospecific males. In some species, one such mechanism is for adult females to learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure to such males. We have previously shown that adult, female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against male Turkish hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) after exposure to a single heterospecific male during 8 days across a wire-mesh barrier. Here we repeated that experiment but this time we exposed female Turkish hamsters to a male Syrian hamster for 8 days and then measured sexual and aggressive behaviors towards that heterospecific male and towards a conspecific male. In contrast to female Syrian hamsters, female Turkish hamsters did not differ in their latency to go into lordosis or in any measure of aggression towards either type of male. Female Turkish hamsters spent less time in lordosis with the heterospecific male, but the percentage of trials in which females copulated with conspecific and heterospecific males did not differ. When comparing females from both species that had been exposed to a heterospecific male for 8days, female Syrian hamsters copulated less and were more aggressive towards the heterospecific male compared to the behavior of female Turkish hamsters. We discuss how this asymmetric response between females of the two species may be due to the much larger geographical range of Turkish hamsters compared to Syrian hamsters.

  5. Increased human buccal cell autofluorescence is a candidate biomarker of tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M; Timm, Earl A; Mahoney, Martin C; Wallace, Paul K; Sullivan Nasca, Maureen A; Tammela, Tracey L; Hutson, Alan; Pauly, John L

    2008-01-01

    Human buccal cells display diverse changes that are associated with smoked and smokeless tobacco, and clinicopathologic studies have correlated human buccal cell changes with oral cancer. Reported herein are the results of studies that were undertaken to identify a high-throughput technology that would advance efforts to use human buccal cells. We report that (a) a relatively large (mean +/- SD, 2.1 +/- 1.4 x 10(5) cells) population of human buccal cells can be collected in a noninvasive manner with a toothbrush and purified (>98% human buccal cells; n = 138 samples of the oral mucosa; n = 69 donors); (b) despite their large size (diameter, approximately 65 microm), the human buccal cells were analyzed successfully with a single laser cytometer (FACScan) and an advanced multispectral cytometer (FACSAria) having three lasers (excitation = 488, 633, and 407 nm wavelengths) and nine distinct emission channels; (c) cytometry revealed that the buccal cells expressed a high level of autofluorescence that was displayed over a broad spectrum (450-780 nm wavelength); (d) autofluorescence of human buccal cells collected from the left and right cheek was consistent, illustrating the reproducibility of the sample collection and assay procedure; (e) human buccal cell autofluorescence differed significantly among 69 adult subjects; and (f) a statistical difference (P = 0.018) between current, former, and never smokers. Summarily, this report is thought to be the first to show the application of flow cytometry for assaying human buccal cells and identifies buccal cell autofluorescence as a candidate biomarker of tobacco smoking. PMID:18199730

  6. Preference for bedding material in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lanteigne, M; Reebs, S G

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether Syrian (golden) hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, prefer certain bedding materials and whether bedding material can affect paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity. In a first experiment, 26 male hamsters had access to two connected cages, each cage containing a different bedding material (either pine shavings, aspen shavings, corn cob or wood pellets). In a second experiment, 14 male hamsters had access to four connected cages that contained the different bedding materials and also a piece of paper towel to serve as nest material. In a third experiment, 30 male hamsters were each placed in a single cage, 10 of them with pine shavings, 10 with aspen shavings and 10 with corn cob, and they were monitored for 50 days. Significant preferences in the first experiment were: pine shavings over aspen shavings, corn cob over wood pellets, pine shavings over corn cob and aspen shavings over wood pellets (aspen shavings versus corn cob was not tested). However, there was no significant preference expressed in the second experiment, suggesting that the general preference for shavings in the first experiment was based on bedding material suitability as a nesting material. No significant effect of bedding material on paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity was detected. None of the four bedding materials tested in this study can be judged to be inappropriate in the short term if nesting material is added to the cage and if the litter is changed regularly. PMID:17018212

  7. Chemopreventive efficacy of naringenin-loaded nanoparticles in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced experimental oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sulfikkarali, Nechikkad; Krishnakumar, Narendran; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Nirmal, Ramadas Madhavan

    2013-04-01

    Nanochemoprevention has been introduced recently as a novel approach for improving phytochemicals bioavailability and anti-tumor effect. The present study is designed to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) against 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis by evaluating the status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and immunoexpression patterns of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 proteins. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) investigations have confirmed a narrow size distribution of the prepared nanoparticles (40-90 nm) with ~88 % encapsulation efficiency. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5 % DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. DMBA painted animals revealed the morphological changes, hyperplasia, dysplasia and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, the status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and immunoexpression of PCNA and p53 were significantly altered during DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. Oral administration of NARNPs (50 mg NAR/kg body weight/day) to DMBA-treated animals completely prevented the tumor formation as compared to the free NAR and significantly reduced the degree of histological lesions, in addition to restoration of the status of biochemical and molecular markers during oral carcinogenesis. In addition, NARNPs have more potent anti-lipid peroxidative, antiproliferative effect and antioxidant potentials compared to free NAR in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. In conclusion, the present study suggests that NARNPs could be a potentially useful drug carrier system for targeted delivery of naringenin for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23233294

  8. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:21637497

  9. Successful dental implant placement surgeries with buccal bone fenestrations.

    PubMed

    Steier, Liviu; Steier, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    This is the first comprehensive review of the classification, preventative measures, diagnosis, treatment methods, and determination of success criteria of buccal bone plate fenestrations (BPFs) secondary to posterior implant surgeries. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss the current literature from peer-reviewed journals, recent studies, and international implantology guidelines and to provide practitioners with guiding points to identify and understand whether BPFs are complications or accidents of implant surgeries. In addition, this review sets forth a detailed set of criteria for the evaluation and diagnosis of BPFs and for the subsequent classification of BPFs as either complications or accidents of posterior implant surgeries. From the literature analyzed, it is clear that BPFs are disqualified from the class of implant treatment failures because BPFs neither impair nor significantly delay treatment. A comprehensive outline of preventative measures and surgery aids to avoid fenestrating the buccal bone plate during implant placement, and a variety of repair methods are included in this review. Considerations of treatment outcomes and patient sensitivities are also included in this comprehensive review. PMID:23573944

  10. Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets Based on Chitosan/Gelatin Microparticles for Delivery of Propranolol Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abruzzo, Angela; Cerchiara, Teresa; Bigucci, Federica; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Luppi, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Propranolol administration through buccal route offers some distinct advantages thanks to the easy access to the oral mucosa, fast onset of action, and avoidance of hepatic and intestinal degradation mechanisms. To overcome the effective removal existing in the buccal cavity, mucoadhesive delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact with the buccal mucosa. The aim of this study was to prepare mucoadhesive tablets based on chitosan/gelatin microparticles for buccal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. Spray-dried microparticles were prepared with different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios and characterized in terms of yield and morphology. Microparticles were subsequently compressed with the drug to obtain loaded buccal tablets. In vitro water uptake, mucoadhesion, release, and permeation tests were performed to investigate tablet ability to hydrate, to adhere to the mucosa, and to deliver drug through buccal mucosa. Microparticles showed a different morphology based on the different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios. Moreover, buccal tablets based on the prepared microparticles showed different technological and functional characteristics in virtue of their composition. In particular, tablets with an excess of chitosan showed the best mucoadhesive properties, allowed the permeation of the greatest drug amount among all formulations, and could be promising for buccal administration of propranolol hydrochloride.

  11. Sequential expression and cooperative interaction of c-Ha-ras and c-erbB genes in in vivo chemical carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Z.; Fei, Y.; Roy, S.; Biswas, D.K. ); Solt, D.B.; Polverini, P.J. )

    1989-02-01

    The level of expression of several cellular protooncogenes is examined at different stages of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced tumor development in hamster buccal pouch epithelium (HBPE). Results presented demonstrate overexpression of c-Ha-ras gene at a very early stage of tumor development, and this elevated level of expression of the gene persists throughout the tumorigenesis process. The expression of the cellular protooncogene c-erbB, on the other hand, can be detected only after 8-10 weeks of DMBA treatment of the tissue and increases with the progression of the disease. The overexpression of c-erbB gene can be correlated with the stage of extensive proliferation and subsequent invasion of the HBPE cells into the underlying connective tissue. This sequential pattern of stage-specific expression of the two cellular protooncogenes can be observed in (i) treated tissues, (ii) stage-representative cultured cells, and (iii) NIH 3T3 transformants derived with DNA from HBPE cells. The sequential overexpression of c-Ha-ras and c-erbB genes in a stage-specific manner and their cooperative interaction in the DMBA-induced in vivo oral carcinogenesis have been demonstrated.

  12. In Vitro and in Vivo Anticancer Activity of Pardaxin against Proliferation and Growth of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Yifan; Cui, Zhibin; Li, Yen-Hsing; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Pardaxin (H-GFFALIPKIISSPLFKTLLSAVGSALSSSGGQE-OH), a 33-amino-acid polypeptide, is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) isolated from the marine fish species Pardachirus marmoratus. Pardaxin shows antibacterial and antitumor activities. However, pardaxin-induced inhibition of oral cancer and the mechanism of tumor reduction in buccal pouch carcinogenesis after pardaxin painting remain undetermined. Additionally, the toxic effects of pardaxin on normal tissue remain unclear. The present study investigated the anticancer activity of pardaxin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells in the hamster buccal pouch model with or without 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) pretreatment. This is the first study to confirm the effects of pardaxin on normal tissue and its nontoxic effects in vivo. Cell viability assays and colony formation tests in OSCC cell lines (SCC-4) demonstrated that pardaxin reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence staining of cleaved caspase-3 in SCC-4 cells revealed that expression of activated caspase-3 in SCC-4 cells significantly increased after 24-h treatment with pardaxin. Additionally, a cell cycle analysis indicated that pardaxin treatment resulted in the cell cycle arrest of SCC-4 cells in the G2/M phase, thereby limiting cell proliferation. Furthermore, pardaxin treatment substantially alleviated carcinogenesis in the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch model by lowering prostaglandin E₂ levels. These results suggest that pardaxin is a potential marine drug for adjuvant chemotherapy for human OSCC and oral cancer. PMID:26703631

  13. In Vitro and in Vivo Anticancer Activity of Pardaxin against Proliferation and Growth of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yifan; Cui, Zhibin; Li, Yen-Hsing; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Pardaxin (H-GFFALIPKIISSPLFKTLLSAVGSALSSSGGQE-OH), a 33-amino-acid polypeptide, is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) isolated from the marine fish species Pardachirus marmoratus. Pardaxin shows antibacterial and antitumor activities. However, pardaxin-induced inhibition of oral cancer and the mechanism of tumor reduction in buccal pouch carcinogenesis after pardaxin painting remain undetermined. Additionally, the toxic effects of pardaxin on normal tissue remain unclear. The present study investigated the anticancer activity of pardaxin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells in the hamster buccal pouch model with or without 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) pretreatment. This is the first study to confirm the effects of pardaxin on normal tissue and its nontoxic effects in vivo. Cell viability assays and colony formation tests in OSCC cell lines (SCC-4) demonstrated that pardaxin reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence staining of cleaved caspase-3 in SCC-4 cells revealed that expression of activated caspase-3 in SCC-4 cells significantly increased after 24-h treatment with pardaxin. Additionally, a cell cycle analysis indicated that pardaxin treatment resulted in the cell cycle arrest of SCC-4 cells in the G2/M phase, thereby limiting cell proliferation. Furthermore, pardaxin treatment substantially alleviated carcinogenesis in the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch model by lowering prostaglandin E2 levels. These results suggest that pardaxin is a potential marine drug for adjuvant chemotherapy for human OSCC and oral cancer. PMID:26703631

  14. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate.

  15. Differences in the adhesive properties of Neisseria meningitidis for human buccal epithelial cells and erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Trust, T J; Gillespie, R M; Bhatti, A R; White, L A

    1983-01-01

    The ability of clinical and carrier isolates of Neisseria meningitidis to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells and erythrocytes was investigated. Four of the 10 fimbriated strains were able to hemagglutinate. Serial subculture of three of these strains resulted in a loss of ability to hemagglutinate and was coincident with a loss of fimbriation. Other fimbriated strains were unable to hemagglutinate but did adhere to buccal epithelial cells. Subculture of one of these strains for as many as 42 passages did not result in loss of fimbriation or ability to adhere to buccal epithelial cells. The attachment of this strain to buccal epithelial cells was inhibited by glycoconjugates. Further, pH exerted different influences on the attachment of hemagglutinating and non-hemagglutinating fimbriated strains to buccal epithelial cells and erythrocytes. The results suggest that different fimbrial mechanisms are involved in the attachment of N. meningitidis to different cell types and that hemagglutination is not an absolute test for fimbriae. PMID:6134676

  16. Bioactivation of diethylstilbestrol by the Syrian hamster kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Male Syrian golden hamsters chronically exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) develop renal adenocarcinomas with an incidence approaching 100%. The ability of the hamster kidney to bioactivate DES was assessed using hamster kidney slices. The male hamster renal cortex has a 2- to 5-fold greater capacity to irreversibly bind ({sup 3}H)DES as compared with female hamster renal cortex and with male hamster renal medulla. Incubation of the tissue under anaerobic conditions inhibited the metabolism and irreversible binding of ({sup 3}H)DES. Gel electrophoresis analysis of covalently modified proteins revealed several radioactive peaks indicating that specific adduct formation had occurred. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitors SKF 525-A, metyrapone, carbon monoxide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and dicumarol decreased the irreversible binding of ({sup 3}H)DES to renal cortical protein by 38 to 72%.

  17. Drinking, but not feeding, is opiate-sensitive in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lowy, M T; Yim, G K

    1982-05-10

    The long-lasting opiate antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), was examined for its effects on various types of consummatory behavior in male golden hamsters and rats. Rat, but not hamster, 24 hr food and water intakes were significantly decreased by four daily NTX (10.0 mg/kg) injections. Hamsters displayed a minimal night to day feeding ratio compared to rats. Hamsters increased food intake following insulin (50 U/kg) administration, but not after 24 hr food deprivation (FD) or 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG; 800 mg/kg) injections. NTX (1.0 and 10 mg/kg) had no effect on feeding, but markedly attenuated hamster drinking induced by 48 hr water deprivation or hypertonic saline injection. Dexamethasone (DEX), a glucocorticoid which depletes pituitary beta-endorphin and produces anorexia in rats, had no effect on daily hamster intake. Since the normal feeding profile of the hamster is similar to that of naloxone and DEX-treated rats, hamsters appear to lack an opiate-sensitive feeding system. In contrast, stimulated drinking behavior of hamsters operates through an opiate-sensitive mechanism. Thus, there are marked species differences concerning the involvement of endogenous opioids in consummatory behavior.

  18. SV40 induces mesotheliomas in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Cicala, C.; Pompetti, F.; Carbone, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the course of studies to elucidate the relative contribution of simian virus 40 (SV40) large T and small t proteins during oncogenesis, we observed the appearance of pericardial and pleural tumors in 100% of Syrian hamsters injected in the pleural space with wild type SV40. When SV40 was injected via the intracardiac or intraperitoneal routes, more than 50% of hamsters developed mesothelial tumors. Macroscopic, microscopic, ultramicroscopic, and histochemical characteristics identify these neoplasms and derived cell lines as mesotheliomas and mesothelioma-derived cell lines. The SV40 genome was integrated and expressed in the mesotheliomas and derived cell lines. The absence of mesotheliomas in hamsters injected with SV40 small t deletion mutants indicates that the small t protein plays an important role in the development of SV40-induced mesotheliomas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first definitive report of virus-induced mesotheliomas in mammals. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8388174

  19. In-vitro characterization of buccal iontophoresis: the case of sumatriptan succinate.

    PubMed

    Telò, Isabella; Tratta, Elena; Guasconi, Barbara; Nicoli, Sara; Pescina, Silvia; Govoni, Paolo; Santi, Patrizia; Padula, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Buccal administration of sumatriptan succinate might be an interesting alternative to the present administration routes, due to its non-invasiveness and rapid onset of action, but because of its low permeability, a permeation enhancement strategy is required. The aim of this work was then to study, in-vitro, buccal iontophoresis of sumatriptan succinate. Permeation experiments were performed in-vitro across pig esophageal epithelium, a recently proposed model of human buccal mucosa, using vertical diffusion cells. The iontophoretic behavior of the tissue was characterized by measuring its isoelectric point (Na(+) transport number and the electroosmotic flow of acetaminophen determination) and by evaluating tissue integrity after current application. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of pig esophageal epithelium as an in-vitro model membrane for buccal drug delivery. The application of iontophoresis increased sumatriptan transport, proportionally to the current density applied, without tissue damage: electrotransport was the predominant mechanism. Integrating the results of the present work with literature data on the transport of other molecules across the buccal mucosa and across the skin, we can draw a general conclusion: the difference in passive transport across buccal mucosa and across the skin is influenced by permeant lipophilicity and by the penetration pathway. Finally, buccal iontophoretic administration of sumatriptan allows to administer 6mg of the drug in 1h, representing a promising alternative to the current administration routes.

  20. Buccal vs. nasogastric tube administration of tacrolimus after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Goorhuis, Joanne F; Scheenstra, Rene; Peeters, Paul M J G; Albers, Marcel J I J

    2006-02-01

    Tacrolimus is an important drug for immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Bioavailability of enterally administered tacrolimus is poor, and further reduced by gastric residuals or by enteral nutrition. Buccal administration might be an alternative route especially in children. Tacrolimus trough levels (TTLs) obtained after buccal administration of tacrolimus after liver transplantation have not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether buccal administration of tacrolimus is feasible and to compare TTLs after nasogastric tube (NGT) administration with buccal administration. TTLs after NGT or buccal administration during the first week after pediatric liver transplantation were analyzed from 28 cadaveric liver transplants in 23 pediatric recipients between June 2002 and March 2004. Each level was scored within, under or above the target range. Buccal administration was well tolerated in all patients. A total of 149 TTLs were obtained of which nine were excluded because of incomplete information on target levels. Overall 27% of TTLs was adequate. The percentage of levels under, within and above the target range were comparable in both groups (chi-square test; p = 0.64). Both groups had a decrease in percentages within the target range on day 3 and 4 after liver transplantation with a subsequent rise. Buccal tacrolimus administration is feasible. Similar TTLs are achieved compared with NGT tacrolimus administration during the first week after pediatric liver transplantation.

  1. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-08-22

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster.

  2. Transformation of Hamster Embryo Cells and Tumor Induction in Newborn Hamsters by Simian Adenovirus SV11

    PubMed Central

    Casto, Bruce C.

    1969-01-01

    Simian adenovirus, SV11, readily transformed hamster embryo cell cultures in vitro and produced tumors in vivo when inoculated into newborn hamsters. Foci consisting of small, loosely attached, rounded cells could be seen as early as 7 days postinoculation. Many of these cells contained several nuclei or the nucleus was multilobed. The cells grew without extensive cell to cell contact or formed small chains or clusters when passaged in vitro. This pattern of cell morphology and growth has not been reported with other simian or human adenovirus-transformed cells. Linearity of foci formation with virus dilution was observed when the virus multiplicity was less than 3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/cell. The PFU to focus-forming units ratio for SV11 was found to be 2 × 104 to 4 × 104, which is approximately 5- to 10-fold and 50- to 100-fold lower than those reported for simian adenovirus, SA7, and human adenovirus type 12, respectively. Cells transformed by SV11: (i) produced tumors when inoculated into young hamsters, (ii) contained tumor antigen which reacts with serum obtained from hamsters bearing SV11 passaged tumors, and (iii) could be propagated in vitro through an indefinite number of generations. Images PMID:5786181

  3. Rare Carcinoma Ex-pleomorphic Adenoma of Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Prashant; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Agrawal, Dipti; Singh, Sompal

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is exceedingly rare in minor salivary glands of oral cavity. We present a case of CXPA arising from buccal mucosa in a 44-year-old male patient. The man presented to surgery outpatient department with right buccal mucosa swelling. Clinical impression suggests a neoplasm of buccal mucosa and the patient was sent for fine needle aspiration cytology. By examining the cytological smears, possibility of carcinoma was revealed. The mass was dissected and excised with safety margins. Examining Hematoxylin and Eosin slides, final diagnosis of CXPA was given. Patient did not turn for regular follow-ups and presented 1 year after surgery with recurrence at the same site. CXPA is an uncommon malignant tumor with highly aggressive biological behavior. Its occurrence in sites like buccal mucosa is rare. Hence, quite a diagnostic challenge at such sites cause diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27134712

  4. Thermostability of sperm nuclei assessed by microinjection into hamster oocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees-125 degrees C for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  5. Use of buccal swabs for sampling DNA from nestling and adult birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Pajot, Lisa; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells fromsmall (2‐ to 13‐g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4‐ to 8‐day‐old) black‐capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from6 4‐day‐old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica). We compared DNA from buccal epithelial samples to that fromblood samples from the same individuals. We extracted sufficient quantities of DNA for analysis from all buccalsamples, and samples remained viable even after being stored in original plastic sampling tubes at room temperature for up to 18 months. Yields were equivalent whether extracted using the proprietary quick‐extraction solution provided with buccal swab kits or using a salt‐extraction process with inexpensive reagents. Yields of DNA from buccal samples were consistently lower than those from blood samples, but quantities were sufficient for all analyses. Assignment of sex, based on DNA extracted from paired buccal and blood samples, was identical for all 87 birds. We found no difference in the genotypes obtained from buccal and blood samples for 12 individuals tested using 5 microsatellite loci and found perfect concordance in sequencing of an 823‐base‐pair segment within the control region of mitochondrial DNA for 7 individuals tested. Use of buccal swabs is highly recommended as a rapid, noninvasive technique for sampling avian genomic DNA, especially for extremely young altricial nestlings or small‐bodied adults, or for any birds for which blood sampling may be impossible or stressful.

  6. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa masquerading as a salivary gland neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Nayal, Bhavna; Kantipudi, Swarna; Ray, Satadru

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the oral cavity is a rare occurrence with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) being the third most common tumor to metastasize to this location. Buccal mucosa is rarely involved and in the absence of a known primary, such lesions pose a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist. The histomorphological features may mimic a primary salivary gland neoplasm adding to the dilemma. We present one such case of metastatic RCC of the buccal mucosa.

  7. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

  8. Fibrolipoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Masayasu; Saida, Naotaka; Tanaka, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms derived from mature adipose tissue. However, they rarely arise in the oral cavity. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mainly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic issues. This article describes the case of a 71-year-old male with a fibrolipoma of the left buccal mucosa and a review of previous articles about fibrolipoma. PMID:26885425

  9. Characteristics of 263K Scrapie Agent in Multiple Hamster Species

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Kent D.; Race, Brent; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Don; Taubner, Lara; Porcella, Stephen; Race, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are known to cross species barriers, but the pathologic and biochemical changes that occur during transmission are not well understood. To better understand these changes, we infected 6 hamster species with 263K hamster scrapie strain and, after each of 3 successive passages in the new species, analyzed abnormal proteinase K (PK)–resistant prion protein (PrPres) glycoform ratios, PrPres PK sensitivity, incubation periods, and lesion profiles. Unique 263K molecular and biochemical profiles evolved in each of the infected hamster species. Characteristics of 263K in the new hamster species seemed to correlate best with host factors rather than agent strain. Furthermore, 2 polymorphic regions of the prion protein amino acid sequence correlated with profile differences in these TSE-infected hamster species. PMID:19193264

  10. Onset of Buccal Pumping in Catshark Embryos: How Breathing Develops in the Egg Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the “internal gills.” The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the “internal gills,” (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

  11. Circadian rhythms of photorefractory siberian hamsters remain responsive to melatonin.

    PubMed

    Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Turner, Kevin W; Park, Jin Ho; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2008-04-01

    Short day lengths increase the duration of nocturnal melatonin (Mel) secretion, which induces the winter phenotype in Siberian hamsters. After several months of continued exposure to short days, hamsters spontaneously revert to the spring-summer phenotype. This transition has been attributed to the development of refractoriness of Mel-binding tissues, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), to long-duration Mel signals. The SCN of Siberian hamsters is required for the seasonal response to winter-like Mel signals, and becomes refractory to previously effective long-duration Mel signals restricted to this area. Acute Mel treatment phase shifts circadian locomotor rhythms of photosensitive Siberian hamsters, presumably by affecting circadian oscillators in the SCN. We tested whether seasonal refractoriness of the SCN to long-duration Mel signals also renders the circadian system of Siberian hamsters unresponsive to Mel. Males manifesting free-running circadian rhythms in constant dim red light were injected with Mel or vehicle for 5 days on a 23.5-h T-cycle beginning at circadian time 10. Mel injections caused significantly larger phase advances in activity onset than did the saline vehicle, but the magnitude of phase shifts to Mel did not differ between photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters. Similarly, when entrained to a 16-h light/8-h dark photocycle, photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters did not differ in their response to Mel injected 4 h before the onset of the dark phase. Activity onset in Mel-injected hamsters was masked by light but was revealed to be significantly earlier than in vehicle-injected hamsters upon transfer to constant dim red light. The acute effects of melatonin on circadian behavioral rhythms are preserved in photorefractory hamsters.

  12. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  13. A case of small cell carcinoma in the buccal region.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, K; Nozoe, E; Hirayama, Y; Miyawaki, A; Semba, I; Nakamura, N

    2009-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) in the head and neck region is an extremely rare high-grade malignant tumor. The authors report a case of an SCC occurring in the left buccal region. An 85-year-old man exhibited left cheek swelling that rapidly increased in size. Histopathological examination revealed invasive growth of an SCC into the musculo-adipose tissue. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CD56, but negative for cytokeratin 20. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which resulted in marked regression of the tumor. Surgical resection was performed. The serum levels of NSE and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (pro-GRP) increased and multiple metastases of the tumor occurred 1 month after surgery. SCCs tend to exhibit aggressive invasion and metastasis so chemotherapy for the whole body is recommended to prevent dissemination of the tumor cells. Serum levels of NSE and pro-GRP are considered to be useful tumor markers for understanding the status of the tumor and the clinical symptoms. PMID:19464148

  14. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells.

  15. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of buccal candidiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy on buccal candidiasis in rats. After experimental candidiasis had been induced on the tongue dorsum, 72 rats were distributed into four groups according to treatment: treated with laser and methylene blue photosensitizer (L+P+); treated only with laser (L+P-); treated only with photosensitizer (L--P+); not treated with laser or photosensitizer (L-P-). The rats were killed immediately, 1 day, or 5 days after treatment, for microscopic analysis of the tongue dorsum. Observation verified that the photodynamic therapy group (L+P+) exhibited fewer epithelial alterations and a lower chronic inflammatory response than the L-P- group. The group L+P- presented more intense epithelial alterations and chronic inflammatory response than the remaining groups. The L-P+ group showed tissue lesions similar to those of the L-P- group. In conclusion, rats treated with photodynamic therapy developed more discrete candidiasis lesions than did the remaining groups.

  16. In vitro peptide release from liquid crystalline buccal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kellaway, I W

    2000-02-15

    Swelling and [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin (DADLE) release from the lamellar and cubic liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) were studied using two in vitro methods, a total immersion method and a Franz cell method. The swelling of the lamellar phase and glyceryl monooleate (0% w/w water content) and DADLE release from the liquid crystalline phases were temperature dependent. The swelling ratio was greater at 20 degrees C than 37 degrees C while DADLE release increased at 37 degrees C compared to 20 degrees C for both the lamellar and cubic phases. The water uptake increased dramatically with decreasing initial water content of the liquid crystalline phases. However, DADLE release increased with increasing initial water content, which corresponded to increased viscosity. The swelling and DADLE release profiles obtained using a Franz cell method with a moist nylon membrane to mimic buccal drug release conditions were slower than the total immersion method. These results show that the swelling and DADLE release strongly depended on temperature, the initial water content of the liquid crystalline matrix and the methodology employed for determining the swelling and DADLE release.

  17. Peptide washout and permeability from glyceryl monooleate buccal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehwi; Kellaway, Ian W

    2002-10-01

    Simultaneous evaluation of the permeation and washout of a peptide from the mucoadhesive liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) has been investigated using a donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell. [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE) was incorporated into the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases of GMO and applied to excised porcine buccal mucosa mounted in the donor compartment flow-through cell. Phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.4 (PBS) was pumped across the upper surface of the liquid crystalline phases to mimic salivary flow. The steady-state fluxes of DADLE and GMO from the cubic phase were significantly greater than that from the lamellar phase (P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference between the amounts of DADLE and GMO washed out from the lamellar and cubic phases (P > 0.05). The donor compartment flow-through diffusion cell was found to be a useful tool to evaluate the impact of salivary washout on mucoadhesive oral mucosal delivery systems.

  18. Metabolic fuel homeostasis in Syrian hamsters: nycthemeral and exercise variables.

    PubMed

    Rowland, N

    1984-08-01

    The food intake and growth of male and female golden hamsters, with and without access to running wheels, were measured under several conditions. These included different seasons, photoperiods and diets. Chow-fed males in wheels invariably had slowed weight gain and showed little hyperphagia relative to sedentary controls. One group of exercising female hamsters, fed high fat diet, grew faster than sedentary controls. The food intake of both exercising and sedentary groups was distributed evenly through the day/night cycle, but the exercising animals took smaller, more frequent meals at night. The nycthemeral variations in plasma glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acids and liver glycogen were quite small in sedentary hamsters. In exercising hamsters, however, liver glycogen was elevated in the late daytime and depleted in the mid-to-late night. In vivo lipogenesis rates in white and brown adipose and liver were elevated by day in the exercising compared to sedentary hamsters, and were lower at night in both groups. It appears that in exercising hamsters, and to a lesser extent sedentary hamsters, the day phase is one of inactivity and fuel storage, and the night phase is one of exercise and fuel mobilization.

  19. Azithromycin buccal patch in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P < 0.05) AZM as monotherapy did not offer clinical benefits over SRP. Baseline data were compared at the end, i.e., 90th day a significant reduction in plaque scores, gingival bleeding, and PPD was observed however no significant gain in the clinical attachment was observed. Conclusion: The monotherapy resulted in no improvement of periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325

  20. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  1. Influence of Smile Arc and Buccal Corridors on Facial Attractiveness: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Shashank; Vaz, Anna C; Singh, Baldeep; Taneja, Lavina; Vinod, KS; Verma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two aspects of the smile: the Smile Arc (SA) and Buccal Corridors (BC) have been the interest of the orthodontist in recent years. Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the smile arc and buccal corridors on facial attractiveness as evaluated by orthodontists, general dentists and laymen. Materials and Methods Two subjects (one male & one female) were selected from the regional population fulfilling the criteria of an ideal smile arc and ideal buccal corridors. Frontal smile view photographs of these subjects were taken and modified by using adobe photoshop 7.0 to create combination of three smile arc variance and three buccal corridors variations respectively which were shown to 25 orthodontists, 25 general dentists & 25 laymen, to rate the facial attractiveness of each image on a rating scale. Results All the three groups (laypersons, dentists and orthodontists) showed significant difference in ratings, indicating that they had different perceptions on the facial attractiveness. Conclusion Orthodontists were more precise in discerning the smile arc and buccal corridors compared to dentists and laypersons. PMID:27790573

  2. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate. PMID:23121942

  3. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery.

  4. A role for glucose in hypothermic hamsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. E.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1976-01-01

    Hypothermic hamsters at a rectal temperature of 7 C showed a fivefold increase in survival times from 20 to 100.5 hr when infused with glucose which maintained a blood level at about 45 mg/100 ml. A potential role for osmotic effects of the infusion was tested and eliminated. There was no improvement in survival of 3-O-methylglucose or dextran 40-infused animals. The fact that death eventually occurs even in the glucose-infused animal after about 4 days and that oxygen consumption undergoes a slow decrement in that period suggests that hypothermic survival is not wholly substrate limited. Radioactive tracer showed that localization of the C-14 was greatest in brain tissue and diaphragm, intermediate in heart and kidney, and lowest in skeletal muscle and liver. The significance of the label at sites important to respiration and circulation was presented.

  5. A study of the carcinogenicity of glycidol in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M

    1992-01-01

    The industrial chemical glycidol is a directly acting mutagen and a broadly acting carcinogen in rats. It was administered to Syrian golden hamsters (20 male and 20 female) by gavage of 12 mg twice a week for 60 weeks. The total dose per animal was 1.45 g or 20 mmol. Survival was not different from control hamsters treated with corn oil/ethyl acetate. Of the treated males, 9 had tumors and 13 of the treated females had tumors, some of which were adrenal cortex tumors seen in controls. More tumors were seen in the glycidol-treated hamsters than in controls, but the spleen was the only notable target organ and the number of animals with spleen hemangiosarcomas was small. Glycidol appeared to be less carcinogenic in hamsters than in rats or mice.

  6. Evidence for a metabolic limitation of survival in hypothermic hamsters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewitt, R. L.; Anderson, G. L.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    The underlying factors limiting survival in the hypothermic state are studied. Hamsters of both sexes, clipped and unclipped, were inducted into profound hypothermia by the helium cold method until they reached a temperature between 7 and 10 C. It appears that the primary cause of death is failure of respiration due to the depletion of carbohydrate energy supplies and may explain why survival time in hypothermia is shorter than the normal hibernation time of the hamster.

  7. Histaminergic regulation of seasonal metabolic rhythms in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    I'anson, Helen; Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Ebling, Francis J P

    2011-06-01

    We investigated whether histaminergic tone contributes to the seasonal catabolic state in Siberian hamsters by determining the effect of ablation of histaminergic neurons on food intake, metabolic rate and body weight. A ribosomal toxin (saporin) conjugated to orexin-B was infused into the ventral tuberomammillary region of the hypothalamus, since most histaminergic neurons express orexin receptors. This caused not only 75-80% loss of histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus, but also some loss of other orexin-receptor expressing cells e.g. MCH neurons. In the long-day anabolic state, lesions produced a transient post-surgical decrease in body weight, but the hamsters recovered and maintained constant body weight, whereas weight gradually increased in sham-lesioned hamsters. VO(2) in the dark phase was significantly higher in the lesioned hamsters compared to shams, and locomotor activity also tended to be higher. In a second study in short days, sham-treated hamsters showed the expected seasonal decrease in body weight, but weight remained constant in the lesioned hamsters, as in the long-day study. Lesioned hamsters consumed more during the early dark phase and less during the light phase due to an increase in the frequency of meals during the dark and decreased meal size during the light, and their cumulative food intake in their home cages was greater than in the control hamsters. In summary, ablation of orexin-responsive cells in the posterior hypothalamus blocks the short-day induced decline in body weight by preventing seasonal hypophagia, evidence consistent with the hypothesis that central histaminergic mechanisms contribute to long-term regulation of body weight.

  8. Fasting-induced daily torpor in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).

    PubMed

    Chi, Qing-Sheng; Wan, Xin-Rong; Geiser, Fritz; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Daily torpor is frequently expressed in small rodents when facing energetically unfavorable ambient conditions. Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii, ~20g) appear to be an exception as they have been described as homeothermic. However, we hypothesized that they can use torpor because we observed reversible decreases of body temperature (Tb) in fasted hamsters. To test this hypothesis we (i) randomly exposed fasted summer-acclimated hamsters to ambient temperatures (Tas) ranging from 5 to 30°C or (ii) supplied them with different rations of food at Ta 23°C. All desert hamsters showed heterothermy with the lowest mean Tb of 31.4±1.9°C (minimum, 29.0°C) and 31.8±2.0°C (minimum, 29.0°C) when fasted at Ta of 23°C and 19°C, respectively. Below Ta 19°C, the lowest Tb and metabolic rate increased and the proportion of hamsters using heterothermy declined. At Ta 5°C, nearly all hamsters remained normothermic by increasing heat production, suggesting that the heterothermy only occurs in moderately cold conditions, perhaps to avoid freezing at extremely low Tas. During heterothermy, Tbs below 31°C with metabolic rates below 25% of those during normothermia were detected in four individuals at Ta of 19°C and 23°C. Consequently, by definition, our observations confirm that fasted desert hamsters are capable of shallow daily torpor. The negative correlation between the lowest Tbs and amount of food supply shows that heterothermy was mainly triggered by food shortage. Our data indicate that summer-acclimated desert hamsters can express fasting-induced shallow daily torpor, which may be of significance for energy conservation and survival in the wild.

  9. Fasting-induced daily torpor in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).

    PubMed

    Chi, Qing-Sheng; Wan, Xin-Rong; Geiser, Fritz; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Daily torpor is frequently expressed in small rodents when facing energetically unfavorable ambient conditions. Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii, ~20g) appear to be an exception as they have been described as homeothermic. However, we hypothesized that they can use torpor because we observed reversible decreases of body temperature (Tb) in fasted hamsters. To test this hypothesis we (i) randomly exposed fasted summer-acclimated hamsters to ambient temperatures (Tas) ranging from 5 to 30°C or (ii) supplied them with different rations of food at Ta 23°C. All desert hamsters showed heterothermy with the lowest mean Tb of 31.4±1.9°C (minimum, 29.0°C) and 31.8±2.0°C (minimum, 29.0°C) when fasted at Ta of 23°C and 19°C, respectively. Below Ta 19°C, the lowest Tb and metabolic rate increased and the proportion of hamsters using heterothermy declined. At Ta 5°C, nearly all hamsters remained normothermic by increasing heat production, suggesting that the heterothermy only occurs in moderately cold conditions, perhaps to avoid freezing at extremely low Tas. During heterothermy, Tbs below 31°C with metabolic rates below 25% of those during normothermia were detected in four individuals at Ta of 19°C and 23°C. Consequently, by definition, our observations confirm that fasted desert hamsters are capable of shallow daily torpor. The negative correlation between the lowest Tbs and amount of food supply shows that heterothermy was mainly triggered by food shortage. Our data indicate that summer-acclimated desert hamsters can express fasting-induced shallow daily torpor, which may be of significance for energy conservation and survival in the wild. PMID:27215346

  10. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions.

  11. Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saifulla P; Muzzammil, Shariff; Pramod, Kumar T M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis. The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment. The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied. The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties, in vitro release studies and mucoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Tablets containing 50% of polymers (Carbopol & Noveon) were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h, which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients.

  12. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization in buccal cells

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E.I.; Dávila-Rodríguez, M.I.; Fernández, J.L.; López-Fernández, C.; Gosálvez, J.

    2012-01-01

    DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91). In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work. PMID:23361245

  13. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the right buccal region: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    YU, LIJIANG; LI, MINGLIANG; LIN, RUNTAI; MU, YUE; ZHAO, JIZHI

    2014-01-01

    Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (EMCS) is a rare malignant cartilaginous tumor arising from the soft tissues. The most common areas of extraskeletal origin are the lower extremities, the orbits and the central nervous system, among others. In this study, the case of primary EMCS arising from the right buccal region in a 26-year old female is presented. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EMCS. Subseqently, the patient was treated with radical surgery, but declined chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which was recommended. One year after surgery, no recurrence had been identified in the patient. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of primary EMCS of the buccal region has been reported previously. In the current study, a case of primary EMCS of the buccal region is presented. PMID:25364427

  14. Clinical reliability of radial forearm free flap in repair of buccal defects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ideal method for buccal defects should provide good outcome of both function and appearance; our goal is to highlight the reliability of radial forearm flap in buccal reconstruction. Methods A retrospective study was conducted. From 2005 to 2012, 20 radial forearm flaps were used to repair the defects. We analyzed the superiority and reliability of the flap; in addition, we reviewed some related literature and made a comparison between radial forearm flap and platysma flap. Results All radial forearm flaps totally survived, but two flaps suffered venous obstruction, hematoma, respectively. Radial forearm flap preserved the original interincisal distance well. In our follow-up, all patients had sufficient mouth-opening width (mean: 4.3 cm). Conclusion Radial forearm flap is a reliable method for buccal defect reconstruction. PMID:23363472

  15. Prosthetic improvement of pronounced buccally positioned zygomatic implants: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Ataís; Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes dos; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Nóbilo, Mauro Antonio de Arruda; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2014-08-01

    This report presents a prosthetic technique for the improvement of surgically positioned, buccally placed zygomatic implants with the use of custom abutments for improved retention screw position and an esthetic implant reconstruction. The patient presented four zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination. The anterior implants were inclined toward the location where the anterior artificial teeth should be placed during rehabilitation. As the manufacturer does not provide angulated abutments, we attempted the waxing and overcasting of a prosthetic abutment, repositioning the access holes of the prosthetic screws to a more palatal position. This clinical report demonstrates that abutment customization could be an interesting way to relocate the access holes of the prosthetic screws in cases of zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination.

  16. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  17. Regulation of hamster splenocyte reactivity to concanavalin A during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Weppner, W.A.; Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1980-08-15

    The survival to term of mammalian fetuses regardless of their expression of paternal or embryonic developmental antigens suggests that some alteration in the immune capabilities of a female occur during pregnancy. The immunocompetence of female Syrian golden hamsters during pregnancy was investigated with respect to the blastogenic response of spleen cells to the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). The blastogenic response of spleen cells from pregnant hamsters during mid- or late gestation is 10% of that observed for spleen cells from age-matched, virgin female animals. The spleen cells from pregnant hamsters are not capable of suppressing the proliferative response of spleen cells from virgin females to Con A. However, the serum from pregnant hamsters, in comparison with serum from virgin female animals, is capable of reducing this mitogenic response. Extensive washing of the splenocytes from pregnant hamsters does reduce the degree of suppression. These results suggest that the hamster is an excellent animal model for the investigation of the mechanism(s) of immune regulation that operate during pregnancy.

  18. Weather entrainment and multispectral diel activity rhythm of desert hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinrong; Zhang, Xinjie; Huo, Yingjun; Wang, Guiming

    2013-10-01

    The circadian rhythm of animals is an adaptation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Multiple internal oscillators may allow animals to cope with environmental oscillations in different frequencies. Heat stress and dramatic differences between night and day temperatures are the main selective pressures of the diel activity of desert mammals, particularly small-sized rodents. We tested the hypotheses that the diel activities of desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) would be entrained by ambient humidity and temperature. We predicted that increases in night temperature and humidity would improve the propensity to perform activities of the hamster. We observed hourly activities of desert hamsters under semi natural conditions for 24 consecutive hours, with seven replicates in 7 different days. We fit generalized linear mixed models to observed proportions of active hamsters, temperatures, and relative humidity. Observed diel activities of desert hamsters consisted of three harmonic oscillations in the periodicities of 24 h, 12 h, and 6 h, respectively. Furthermore, probabilities to perform activities were positively related to night temperature and humidity. Therefore, the diel activities of desert hamsters are synchronized by atmospheric humidity, temperatures, and environmental cues of ultradian fluctuations.

  19. Suppression of hamster lymphocyte reactivity to simian virus 40 tumor surface antigens by spleen cells from pregnant hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Weppner, W.A.; Adkinson, L.R.; Coggin, J.H.Jr

    1980-09-01

    SV40-transformed tumor cells in hamsters have been found to have cell surface antigens cross-reactive with antigens temporally expressed on fetal tissues. Using a lymphocyte transformation assay, spleen cells from pregnant hamsters were found to be incapable of responding to preparations of either hamster fetal tissue or SV40-transformed cells. However, a suppressor component can be demonstrated in spleen cell populations of both primi-and multiparous hamsters during pregnancy that is capable of reducing the response of lymphocytes sensitized against SV40 tumor-associated antigens. The degree of suppression is proportional to the ratio of responder cells to spleen cells from pregnant animals. These results suggest there is a subpopulation of spleen cells involved in immunoregulation during pregnancy that has the ability to suppress the reactivity of lymphocytes sensitized against SV40-associated oncofetal antigens.

  20. Alveolar buccal bone maintenance after immediate implantation with a surgical flap approach: a study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo G; Marin, Charles; Granato, Rodrigo; Bonfante, Estevam A; Lima, Cirilo P; Oliveira, Sergio; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Suzuki, Mercelo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated buccal bone maintenance after implantation with a surgical flap approach immediately following tooth extraction in a dog model. Mandibular premolars of six dogs were extracted, and threaded implants of 4-mm diameter and 8-mm length with as-machined and dual acid-etched surfaces were placed through balanced procedures in the distal root extraction sockets with a full-thickness flap design. Submerged healing was allowed for 4 weeks, and following euthanization, bone-to-implant contact and buccal and lingual bone loss were evaluated. None of the parameters evaluated were indicative of an effect of implant surface in hindering bone loss around immediately placed implants. PMID:22140672

  1. Teeth erupted from the buccal mucosa: simple odontogenic choristoma or accessory teeth?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbin; Huang, Yi; Yu, Tao; Li, Longjiang

    2013-11-01

    The eruption of developed teeth from the buccal mucosa is a rare phenomenon in the head and neck region. Such phenomena are possibly choristomas, tumorlike masses of histologically normal tissue occurring in an abnormal position. However, the accurate classification of this abnormality remains debatable. This report describes a case of a congenital, maldevelopmental, and noncystic lesion in a 4-year-old girl without other anomalies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of multiple supernumerary teeth forming in the buccal and zygomatic regions.

  2. Subway mandibular buccal defect blocked with two part prosthesis unified by Earth magnets.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Shikha; Arora, Aman; Upadhyaya, Viram

    2013-03-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a two-piece obturator used to close the mandibular buccal defect. Two-piece obturator prosthesis was fabricated with clear heat cure acrylic resin to be used during the healing period following the marsupialization of odontogenic keratocyst which had lead to the loss of portions of the mandibular buccal region. The prosthesis fabricated in two parts was joined by the rare earth magnets. Retention was increased by lining the prosthesis with tissue conditioner material engaging the undercut. PMID:24431709

  3. The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

    2012-05-01

    The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

  4. Subway mandibular buccal defect blocked with two part prosthesis unified by Earth magnets.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Shikha; Arora, Aman; Upadhyaya, Viram

    2013-03-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a two-piece obturator used to close the mandibular buccal defect. Two-piece obturator prosthesis was fabricated with clear heat cure acrylic resin to be used during the healing period following the marsupialization of odontogenic keratocyst which had lead to the loss of portions of the mandibular buccal region. The prosthesis fabricated in two parts was joined by the rare earth magnets. Retention was increased by lining the prosthesis with tissue conditioner material engaging the undercut.

  5. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates automation of DNA sequencing. PMID:27625209

  6. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  7. Exogenous T3 mimics long day lengths in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Freeman, David A; Teubner, Brett J W; Smith, Carlesia D; Prendergast, Brian J

    2007-06-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit seasonal cycles of reproduction driven by changes in day length. Day length is encoded endogenously by the duration of nocturnal melatonin (Mel) secretion from the pineal gland. Short-duration Mel signals stimulate reproduction and long-duration signals inhibit reproduction. The mechanism by which Mel signals are decoded at the level of neural target tissues remains uncharacterized. In Siberian hamsters, exposure to short day lengths or injections of Mel in long days results in a decrease in hypothalamic expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) mRNA. Dio2 catalyzes the conversion of the thyroid hormone thyroxine to triiodothyronine (T3). Thus exposure to short and long day lengths should decrease and increase hypothalamic T3 concentrations, respectively. We tested the hypothesis that exogenous T3 administered to short-day hamsters would mimic exposure to long day lengths with respect to gonadal stimulation. Hamsters gestated and raised in short day lengths that exhibited photoinhibition of the testes were given daily subutaneous injections of T3 or saline vehicle for 4 wk beginning at week 12 of life. The results indicate that exogenous T3 induced gonadal growth in short-day hamsters and delayed spontaneous gonadal development by an interval equal to the number of weeks during which T3 was administered. T3 injections delayed gonadal regression if given coincident with the transfer of hamsters from long to short day lengths. These results suggest that T3 mimics long day exposure in Siberian hamsters and may serve as an intermediate step between the Mel rhythm and the reproductive response.

  8. Copulatory and agonistic behavior in Syrian hamsters following social defeat.

    PubMed

    Jeffress, Elizabeth C; Huhman, Kim L

    2013-01-01

    Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive animals that reliably defend their home territory. After social defeat, however, hamsters no longer defend their home cage but instead display submissive and defensive behavior toward an intruder, a response that we have termed conditioned defeat. Plasma testosterone is significantly reduced in Syrian hamsters following repeated defeat suggesting that social defeat might also impair copulatory behavior. The present study aimed to determine whether copulatory behavior in male Syrian hamsters is suppressed following repeated social defeats and additionally whether exposure to a hormone-primed stimulus female after social defeat reduces the behavioral response to defeat. Hamsters were paired with an aggressive opponent for one or nine defeats using a resident-intruder model, while controls were placed into the empty cage of a resident aggressor. On the day after the last treatment, half of the hamsters were paired with a receptive female for 10 min. There were no significant differences in the copulatory behavior of defeated versus non-defeated hamsters, and the opportunity to copulate had no effect on subsequent conditioned defeat testing, as defeated animals displayed significantly more submissive behavior than did non-defeated animals. The current data suggest that conditioned defeat is not necessarily a maladaptive response to social stress, at least in terms of reproductive behavior, but may instead represent a viable behavioral strategy adopted by losing animals following social defeat. Further, these data indicate that conditioned defeat is relatively persistent and stable, as the opportunity to copulate does not reduce the subsequent display of submissive behavior.

  9. Social thermoregulation and torpor in the Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Głabska, Marta; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2011-04-01

    Social thermoregulation and huddling bring about energy benefits to animals sharing a nest because of the smaller surface-to-volume ratio of a huddle and the higher local temperature in the nest. We tested whether living in groups and huddling affect daily torpor, metabolic rate and seasonal changes in the body mass of a small heterothermic rodent, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), housed under semi-natural conditions both singly and in groups of four litter-mates. We predicted that in hamsters housed in groups: (1) synchronized torpor bouts would be longer and deeper than non-synchronized ones but shallower than in solitary hamsters, (2) seasonal variations in metabolic rate would be lower than in solitary hamsters, and (3) the winter decrease in body mass would be smaller in grouped than in singly housed hamsters. We found that group housing led to a smaller decrease in body mass in winter, and affected the length and depth of daily torpor. In group-living hamsters more than 50% of all torpor episodes were synchronized and torpid animals were often found in huddles formed of all cage-mates. The longest and deepest torpor bouts in groups were recorded when all animals in a group entered torpor simultaneously. Although the minimum body temperature during torpor was higher, torpor duration was slightly longer than in solitary hamsters. We did not record significant differences in the body mass-adjusted rate of oxygen consumption between solitary and grouped animals, either in the cold or at the lower critical temperature. We conclude that social thermoregulation enables maintenance of a larger body mass, and thus a larger body fat content, which can ensure better body condition at the beginning of the reproductive season.

  10. Polymeric mucoadhesive tablets for topical or systemic buccal delivery of clonazepam: Effect of cyclodextrin complexation.

    PubMed

    Mura, P; Cirri, M; Mennini, N; Casella, G; Maestrelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Two kinds of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of clonazepam (CLZ) were developed to provide, a prolonged local or systemic delivery respectively. Tablets prepared by direct compression of combinations of different polymers were tested for swelling, erosion and residence time properties. Carbopol 971P/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Poloxamer/chitosan mixtures were the best and were selected for drug loading. The effect of CLZ complexation with different cyclodextrins was investigated. Randomly-methylated-βCD (RAMEßCD) was the most effective, allowing 100% drug released increase from local-delivery buccal tablets. Kollicoat was the best among the tested backing-layers, assuring a unidirectional release from systemic-delivery buccal tablets (<0.8% drug released in simulated saliva after 24h). In vitro permeation studies from coated-tablets showed that CLZ loading as RAMEßCD-coground enabled a 5-times increase in drug flux and permeability. Therefore, complexation with RAMEßCD was a successful strategy to improve the CLZ performance from buccal tablets for both local or systemic action. PMID:27516327

  11. Active matrix metalloproteinase-7 is associated with invasion in buccal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hui-Ching; Su, Chih-Ying; Huang, Hsuang-Ying; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Chien, Chih-Yen; Du, Yung-Ying; Chuang, Jiin-Haur

    2008-12-01

    Protein microarrays have shown that matrix metalloproteinase-7 is upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, but its role in local tissue invasion is still uncertain. We investigated the expression of active matrix metalloproteinase-7, using tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting, in oral tissues from 24 patients with buccal squamous cell carcinoma, and correlated the findings with clinicopathological features. Normal buccal tissue samples from the same patients, obtained at sites at least 1 cm from tumor tissue, served as normal controls. Total matrix metalloproteinase-7 was detected on western blots in 9 of 15 (60%) tumor tissue samples and in 2 of 15 (13%) normal mucosal samples; this difference was significant (P=0.008). Moreover, the active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was expressed only in eight of the nine (89%) tumor samples that expressed matrix metalloproteinase-7, and in none of the normal tissue samples, regardless of the expression status of the pro-matrix metalloproteinase-7. Immunostaining of matrix metalloproteinase-7 was observed histologically in both tumor and nonneoplastic epithelium, but immunostaining of active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was present only in tumor nests. Expression of active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was associated with larger tumor size (P=0.022) and was significantly higher in buccal squamous cell carcinoma with adjacent skin or bone invasion (P=0.036). In conclusion, active matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression was associated with more aggressive buccal squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:18931651

  12. [Atypical solitary fibrous tumor of the buccal mucosa: report of 1 case].

    PubMed

    Pei, Jing; Chen, Wei-hua; Jia, Yun-xiang

    2013-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is often considered to be a mesenchymal tumor. We reported a case of atypical SFT of the buccal mucosa in a 56-year-old male patient. We found hypercellularity, nuclear atypia, increased number of mitotic figures(more than 4 per 10 high-power fields) microscopically. A long-term follow-up is necessary after complete excision.

  13. [Inhibition of adherence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases from marine hydrobiontes].

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S; Makarenkova, I D; Bakunina, I Iu; Burtseva, Iu V; Kusaĭkin, M I; Balabanova, L A; Zviagintseva, T N; Besednova, N N; Rasskazov, V A

    2010-01-01

    A possibility of adhesion inhibition of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes was investigated using alpha-galactosidase from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine fungi Chaetomium, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine mollusk Littorina kurila, and total enzyme preparation from crystalline style of marine mollusk Spisula sachalinensis were used. The enzymes were added to test-tubes containing buccal epithelial cells and/or the toxigenic bacterial strain C. diphtheriae No 1129, v. gravis. All the investigated enzymes were able to abort C. diphtheriae adherence, to human buccal epithelocytes. Inhibition of adhesion was more pronounced in the case of treatment of epithelocytes with highly purified enzymes of marine hydrobiontes in comparison with total enzyme preparations. The significant inhibition of C. diphtheriae adhesion was observed when the enzymes were added to the epithelocytes with the attached microorganisms. The results obtained show that glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes degrade any carbohydrates expressed on cell surface of bacterium or human buccal epithelocytes, impair unique lectin-carbohydrate interaction and prevent the adhesion. PMID:20695214

  14. A review on bioadhesive buccal drug delivery systems: current status of formulation and evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinna Reddy, P; Chaitanya, K.S.C.; Madhusudan Rao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. Through this route it is possible to realize mucosal (local effect) and transmucosal (systemic effect) drug administration. In the first case, the aim is to achieve a site-specific release of the drug on the mucosa, whereas the second case involves drug absorption through the mucosal barrier to reach the systemic circulation. The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to overcome such obstacles include the employment of new materials that, possibly, combine mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory and penetration enhancer properties and the design of innovative drug delivery systems which, besides improving patient compliance, favor a more intimate contact of the drug with the absorption mucosa. This presents a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery and the anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanisms of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery systems and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations. PMID:23008684

  15. Lyophilized sustained release mucoadhesive chitosan sponges for buccal buspirone hydrochloride delivery: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; ElMeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2015-06-01

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive lyophilized chitosan sponges of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. Chitosan sponges were prepared using simple casting/freeze-drying technique according to 3(2) factorial design where chitosan grade was set at three levels (low, medium, and high molecular weight), and concentration of chitosan solution at three levels (0.5, 1, and 2%). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h), and time for release of 50% BH (T50%) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal chitosan sponge were prepared to achieve uni-directional BH release toward the buccal mucosa. Sponges were evaluated in terms of drug content, surface pH, scanning electron microscopy, swelling index, mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, and in vitro drug release. Cup and core sponge (HCH 0.5E) were able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8 h. It showed Q8h of 68.89% and exhibited a uni-directional drug release profile following Higuchi diffusion model.

  16. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease Risk in Peripheral Tissues; Focus on Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    François, Maxime; Leifert, Wayne; Martins, Ralph; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder of the brain and is the most common form of dementia. To-date no simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive procedure is available to confirm with certainty the early diagnosis of AD prior to the manifestations of symptoms characteristic of the disease. Therefore, if population screening of individuals is to be performed, more suitable, easily accessible tissues would need to be used for a diagnostic test that would identify those who exhibit cellular pathology indicative of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD risk so that they can be prioritized for primary prevention. This need for minimally invasive tests could be achieved by targeting surrogate tissues, since it is now well recognized that AD is not only a disorder restricted to pathology and biomarkers within the brain. Human buccal cells for instance are accessible in a minimally invasive manner, and exhibit cytological and nuclear morphologies that may be indicative of accelerated ageing or neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. However, to our knowledge there is no review available in the literature covering the biology of buccal cells and their applications in AD biomarker research. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some of the main findings of biomarkers reported for AD in peripheral tissues, with a further focus on the rationale for the use of the buccal mucosa (BM) for biomarkers of AD and the evidence to date of changes exhibited in buccal cells with AD. PMID:24938500

  17. Buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty in a case of urethral amyloidosis presenting with long anterior urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kurbatov, Dmitry; Stojanovic, Borko; Dubskiy, Sergey; Lepetukhin, Alex; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.

    2015-01-01

    Urethral amyloidosis is a rare condition, but clinically relevant because it can mimic urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of localized urethral amyloidosis presenting with a long anterior urethral stricture. We used extensive grafts of buccal mucosa for standard augmentation urethroplasty, with a successful outcome at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600896

  18. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  19. Development and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive tablet of an anti-emetic agent ondansetron.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Nisreen; Khar, R K; Ali, Mushir; Ali, Javed

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a buccal adhesive tablet containing ondansetron hydrochloride (OH). Special punches and dies were fabricated and used while preparing buccal adhesive tablets. The tablets were prepared using carbopol (CP 934), sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose low viscosity (SCMC LV), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 15cps) as mucoadhsive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose to act as an impermeable backing layer. The formulations were prepared by direct compression and characterized by different parameters such as weight uniformity, content uniformity, thickness, hardness, swelling index, in vitro drug release studies, mucoadhesive strength, and ex vivo permeation study. As compared with the optimized formulation composed of OH--5 mg, CP 934--30 mg, SCMC LV--165 mg, PEG 6000--40 mg, lactose--5 mg, magnesium stearate--1.5 mg, and aspartame--2 mg, which gave the maximum release (88.15%), non-bitter (OH) that form namely ondansetron base and complexed ondansetron was used in order to make the selected formulation acceptable to human. The result of the in vitro release studies and permeation studies through bovine buccal mucosa revealed that complexed ondansetron gave the maximum release and permeation. The stability of drug in the optimized adhesive tablet was tested for 6 h in natural human saliva; both the drug and device were found to be stable in natural human saliva. Thus, buccal adhesive tablet of ondansetron could be an alternative route to bypass the hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of (OH).

  20. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland: magnetic resonance imaging findings with differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj

    2012-08-01

    The majority of minor salivary gland tumors are malignant. Of the benign tumors, pleomorphic adenomas are most common. The cheeks, lips, and gingiva are rarely sites of occurrence. A case of pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland is presented here with a discussion of the importance of magnetic resonance imaging in demonstrating the extent of the lesion and establishing a differential diagnoses.

  1. Treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Finquelievich, J L; Negroni, R; Iovannitti, C; Bava, A J

    1989-02-01

    A comparative study between itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B in the treatment of experimental histoplasmosis in hamsters was carried out. Seventy five animals were inoculated intracardiacally with the yeast-phase of Histoplasma capsulatum. They were divided in 5 groups: 1) treated with itraconazole by gavage (g) at a daily dose of 16 mg/kg; 2) treated with ketoconazole by (g) at a daily dose of 80 mg/kg; 3) treated with amphotericin B intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 6 mg/kg every other day; 4) control animals receiving distilled water i.p. and 5) control animals receiving P.E.G. 200 by (g). All the treatments were started one week after the challenge inoculation and they were given for 21 days. The results were evaluated by autopsy of all the animals one week after the end of the treatments. The following determinations were taken into account: microscopic examinations of spleen, liver and lungs and cultures of the spleen with determination of colony forming units/g. All the antifungal drugs used in this study were able to cause negative microscopic examinations of the liver, spleen and lungs; but only amphotericin B produced culture negative results. Itraconazole and ketoconazole presented 66% and 86% of positive cultures respectively, nevertheless the C.F.U. were lower than those obtained in control groups. In these experimental conditions amphotericin B seems to be more active than the azolic compounds and itraconazole is slightly superior to ketoconazole at a lower dose.

  2. Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N; Krag, Sharon S; Cole, Robert N; Palsson, Bernhard O; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Five-hundred four of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications, and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  3. REMOVED: Protective effect of Daucus carota against UV-DMBA induced skin cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Natarajamurthy, Sindhuja H; Dharmesh, Shylaja M

    2014-08-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been removed at the request of "Due to a processing error during the review process, this paper was erroneously published online prematurely. The Publisher apologizes to readers and the authors for any inconvenience caused."

  4. Effects of 900 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Da; Shen, Yonghao; Kuster, Niels; Fu, Yiti; Chiang, Huai

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether exposure to 900 MHz GSM wireless communication signals enhances mammary tumor development and growth induced by low-dose DMBA. Five hundred female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a single dose of 35 mg/kg DMBA and then divided into five groups in a blinded fashion: one cage control group and four exposure groups, including three microwave exposure groups and one sham exposure with specific absorption rates (SARs) of 4.0, 1.33, 0.44 and 0 W/kg, respectively. Exposure started on the day after DMBA administration and lasted 4 h/day, 5 days/week for 26 weeks. Rats were weighed and palpated weekly for the presence of tumors and were killed humanely at the end of the 26-week exposure period. All mammary glands were examined histologically. There were no statistically significant differences in body weight between sham- and GSM microwave-exposed groups. No significant differences in overall mammary tumor incidence, latency to tumor onset, tumor multiplicity, or tumor size were observed between microwave- and sham-exposed groups. There was a tendency for reduction of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence in the lowest microwave exposure group (0.44 W/ kg) compared with the sham-exposed group (P = 0.058). Additionally, a higher incidence of adenocarcinoma was noticed in the 4.0 W/kg group from the 15th to 26th weeks, especially in the 19th week (P = 0.358 compared to sham). However, neither tendency was statistically significant; thus this study does not provide evidence that GSM microwave exposure promotes mammary tumor development in rats. In the present study there were significant differences between the cage controls and the experimental groups (sham and exposure). Body weight and mammary tumor (malignant plus benign) incidence in the cage control group were significantly higher than in the sham- and GSM microwave-exposed groups. The latency to the mammary tumor onset was significantly shorter in the cage control group than in the other groups. PMID:16435916

  5. Myeloperoxidase and crystalline bodies in the granules of DMBA-induced rat chloroma cells.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, H L; Keller, S; Sabbath, M; Andersson, B; Dorsett, B; Essner, E

    1972-01-01

    Chloroma (chloroleukemia) was induced in a splenectomized rat by repeatedly administering dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and was serially transplanted thereafter. Composed of immature myeloid cells, the tumor imparted a green discoloration to the tissues that it infiltrated extensively. Chloroma cells fluoresced red in ultraviolet light, produced a characteristic curve in spectrophotometry, and contained large amounts of myeloperoxidase. They included numerous intracytoplasmic granules of both types A and B, which contained occasional crystalline bars. Permanent lines of chloroma cells were established in tissue culture. These cells, while maintaining their initial morphology, ceased producing myeloperoxidase and subsequently induced white tumors when they were isotransplanted.

  6. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollag, M. D.

    1982-12-01

    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  7. Isolation, antimicrobial activities, and primary structures of hamster neutrophil defensins.

    PubMed Central

    Mak, P; Wójcik, K; Thogersen, I B; Dubin, A

    1996-01-01

    Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) neutrophil granules contain at least four microbicidal peptides belonging to the defensin family. These compounds were purified from granule acid extracts by reverse-phase chromatography and termed HaNP-1 to -4 (hamster neutrophil peptide). HaNP-1 and HaNP-3 revealed the most bactericidal activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.3 to 0.8 microg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The HaNP-4 was always isolated in concentrations exceeding about 10 times the concentrations of other hamster peptides, but its antibacterial activity as well as that of HaNP-2 was relatively lower, probably as a result of conserved Arg residue substitutions. Other microorganisms were also tested, and generally, hamster defensins exhibited less potency against gram-negative bacteria. The amino acid sequence of hamster defensins showed a high percentage of identity to the sequence of mouse enteric defensins, reaching about 60% identical residues in the case of HaNP-3 and cryptdin 3. PMID:8890190

  8. Interval timer control of puberty in photoinhibited Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Ho; Kauffman, Alexander S; Paul, Matthew J; Butler, Matthew P; Beery, Annaliese K; Costantini, Ruth M; Zucker, Irving

    2006-10-01

    Puberty, which is markedly delayed in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born into short day lengths, is controlled by an interval timer regulated by the duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion. Properties of the interval timer were assessed by perturbing normal patterns of melatonin secretion in males gestated and maintained thereafter in 1 of 2 short day lengths, 10 h light/day (10 L) or 12L. Melatonin secretion of short-day hamsters was suppressed by constant light treatment or modified by daily injection of propranolol to mimic nocturnal melatonin durations typical of long-day hamsters. Constant light treatment during weeks 3 to 5 induced early incomplete gonadal growth in 12L but not 10 L hamsters but did not affect late onset of gonadal development indicative of puberty in either photoperiod. Propranolol treatment during postnatal weeks 3 to 5 induced transient growth of the testes and ultimately delayed the timing of puberty by 3 weeks. Similar treatments between weeks 5 and 7 or on alternate weeks for 24 weeks did not affect the interval timer. The first 2 weeks after weaning may constitute a critical period during which the interval timer is highly responsive to photoperiod. Alternatively, the hamsters' photoperiodic history rather than age or developmental stage may be the critical variable. The interpolation of long-day melatonin signals at the time of weaning does not appear to reset the interval timer to its zero position but may reduce timer responsiveness to long-day melatonin signals several weeks later.

  9. Environmental induction of photononresponsiveness in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    PubMed

    Gorman, M R; Zucker, I

    1997-03-01

    In seasonally breeding rodent species, a fraction of the population is unresponsive to short day lengths (DL) and remains reproductively competent during winter. We previously observed that incidence of nonresponsiveness to short days was affected by photoperiodic history. Here we tested whether exposure to long DL (18 h light/day; 18L) renders animals unresponsive to short DL (10L). Hamsters, maintained from birth in 10L, were transferred at week 6 to 18L or 14L. Ten weeks later (week 16), groups were transferred to 10L for 10 wk. All hamsters maintained in short DL from birth had undeveloped testes at week 6. At week 26, however, 92% of hamsters previously kept in 18L failed to undergo complete gonadal regression in 10L, compared with only 10% of hamsters previously in 14L. Entrainment of locomotor activity in 10L in nonresponsive hamsters resembled that typically observed under long DL. Exposure to 18L may induce nonresponsiveness by altering interactions of component circadian oscillators that mediate gonadal regression in short DL.

  10. The Syrian hamster model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hooper, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a relatively rare, but frequently fatal disease associated with New World hantaviruses, most commonly Sin Nombre and Andes viruses in North and South America, respectively. It is characterized by fever and the sudden, rapid onset of severe respiratory distress and cardiogenic shock, which can be fatal in up to 50% of cases. Currently there are no approved antiviral therapies or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of HPS. A major obstacle in the development of effective medical countermeasures against highly pathogenic agents like the hantaviruses is recapitulating the human disease as closely as possible in an appropriate and reliable animal model. To date, the only animal model that resembles HPS in humans is the Syrian hamster model. Following infection with Andes virus, hamsters develop HPS-like disease which faithfully mimics the human condition with respect to incubation period and pathophysiology of disease. Perhaps most importantly, the sudden and rapid onset of severe respiratory distress observed in humans also occurs in hamsters. The last several years has seen an increase in studies utilizing the Andes virus hamster model which have provided unique insight into HPS pathogenesis as well as potential therapeutic and vaccine strategies to treat and prevent HPS. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of HPS disease progression in Syrian hamsters and discuss the suitability of utilizing this model to evaluate potential medical countermeasures against HPS. PMID:22705798

  11. Hamster and murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis.

    PubMed

    Munson, Erik; Nardelli, Dean T; Du Chateau, Brian K; Callister, Steven M; Schell, Ronald F

    2012-01-01

    Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ-) deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology.

  12. The hamster flank organ model: Is it relevant to man

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, T.J.; Lehman, P.A.; Pochi, P.; Odland, G.F.; Olerud, J. )

    1989-10-01

    The critical role that androgens play in the etiology of acne has led to a search for topically active antiandrogens and the frequent use of the flank organ of the golden Syrian hamster as an animal model. 17-alpha-propyltestosterone (17-PT) has been identified as having potent antiandrogenic activity in the hamster model, and this report describes its clinical evaluation. Two double-blind placebo controlled studies comparing 4% 17-PT in 80% alcohol versus vehicle alone were conducted. One study examined 17-PT sebosuppressive activity in 20 subjects. The second study examined its efficacy in 44 subjects having mild to moderate acne. A third study measured in vitro percutaneous absorption of 17-PT through hamster flank and monkey skin, and human face skin in-vivo, using radioactive drug. 17-PT was found to be ineffective in reducing either the sebum excretion rate or the number of inflammatory acne lesions. Failure of 17-PT to show clinical activity was not a result of poor percutaneous absorption. Total absorption in man was 7.7% of the dose and only 1.0% in the hamster. The sebaceous gland of hamster flank organ is apparently more sensitive to antiandrogens than the human sebaceous gland.

  13. Characterisation of the fibrinogenolytic properties of the buccal gland secretion from Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Li, Qing-Wei; Perrett, Sarah; He, Rong-Qiao

    2007-03-01

    Lampetra japonica is representative of the ancient cyclostomota class of animals, and its buccal gland secretion (called lamphredin) is known to act as an anticoagulant. In this study, it was observed by both native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE that the secretion mainly contained two protein bands, buccal gland secretion protein-1 (BGSP-1, 159,909 Da) and buccal gland secretion protein-2 (BGSP-2, 25,660 Da). The N-terminal amino acids of BGSP-1 (EAESF QNLKT RICGG LNGLG) and BGSP-2 (TSVND WKLLD TKLSA NRKVI) were sequenced. Using a Sephadex G-75 column, we isolated BGSP-1, BGSP-2 and small peptides from the buccal gland secretion, but found only BGSP-1 showed fibrinogenolytic activity. BGSP-1 and lamphredin were found to rapidly degrade the alpha chain of human fibrinogen, slowly degrade the beta chain and hardly degrade the gamma chain. BGSP-1 and lamphredin showed a similar map by SDS-PAGE for the degradation of fibrinogen by cleavage at Ala(10)-Glu(11) and His(368)-Ser(369). BGSP-1 was also found to hydrolyze neuronal protein tau at Glu(12)-Asp(13) and Gln(244)-Thr(245). Further study showed that lamphredin and BGSP-1 were inactivated in the presence of a metal chelating agent EDTA. However, addition of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) but not Zn(2+) restored the fibrinogenolytic activity. This suggests that BGSP-1 acts in the buccal gland as a metalloproteinase with a broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, the secretion showed cytolytic properties towards human SH-SY5Y and HeLa cells in culture, and lamphredin at a 50-fold dilution induced cell death. PMID:17029742

  14. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  15. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  16. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  17. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. PMID:24813111

  18. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    PubMed Central

    PITHON, Matheus Melo; da MATA, Kayure Rocha; ROCHA, Karina Silva; COSTA, Brenda do Nascimento; NEVES, Fernando; BARBOSA, George Caique Gouveia; COQUEIRO, Raildo da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%). To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA). The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient's facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive. PMID:25466472

  19. Torpor shortens the period of Siberian hamster circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E M; Jewett, M E; Zucker, I

    1993-10-01

    We investigated the influence of ambient and body temperature (Ta and Tb) on circadian rhythms of gonadectomized male Siberian hamsters. Animals that entered torpor (Tb < 30 degrees C) had significantly shorter circadian periods (tau s) than did nontorpid hamsters at a Ta of 13 degrees C (24.17 +/- 0.05 vs. 24.33 +/- 0.04 h). The tau s of homeothermic hamsters were not affected by Ta change. Short-term decreases in Tb, rather than changes in Ta, appear to affect tau. Access to activity wheels inhibited expression of torpor in short daylengths and was associated with significant increases in body mass. Running wheel activity can mask or block specific short-day responses.

  20. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-15

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  1. Homeostatic regulation of sleep in arrhythmic Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yokogawa, Tohei; Heller, H Craig; Franken, Paul; Ruby, Norman F

    2004-07-01

    Sleep is regulated by independent yet interacting circadian and homeostatic processes. The present study used a novel approach to study sleep homeostasis in the absence of circadian influences by exposing Siberian hamsters to a simple phase delay of the photocycle to make them arrhythmic. Because these hamsters lacked any circadian organization, their sleep homeostasis could be studied in the absence of circadian interactions. Control animals retained circadian rhythmicity after the phase shift and re-entrained to the phase-shifted photocycle. These animals displayed robust daily sleep-wake rhythms with consolidated sleep during the light phase beginning about 1 h after light onset. This marked sleep-wake pattern was circadian in that it persisted in constant darkness. The distribution of sleep in the arrhythmic hamsters over 24 h was similar to that in the light phase of rhythmic animals. Therefore, daily sleep amounts were higher in arrhythmic animals compared with rhythmic ones. During 2- and 6-h sleep deprivations (SD), it was more difficult to keep arrhythmic hamsters awake than it was for rhythmic hamsters. Because the arrhythmic animals obtained more non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the SD, they showed a diminished compensatory response in NREMS EEG slow-wave activity during recovery sleep. When amounts of sleep during the SD were taken into account, there were no differences in sleep homeostasis between experimental and control hamsters. Thus loss of circadian control did not alter the homeostatic response to SD. This supports the view that circadian and homeostatic influences on sleep regulation are independent processes.

  2. The thalamic intergeniculate leaflet modulates photoperiod responsiveness in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Freeman, David A; Dhandapani, Krishnan M; Goldman, Bruce D

    2004-11-26

    Siberian hamsters are seasonal breeders that use changes in day length to synchronize their reproductive effort with those times of the year most favorable for successful reproduction. The ability of Siberian hamsters to measure and respond to changes in day length depends upon accurate photoentrainment of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Two pathways have been characterized through which entraining stimuli reach the SCN: the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), which transmits light information from the retinae, and the geniculohypothalamic tract (GHT) from the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus (IGL), which is involved in transmitting both photic and nonphotic cues. Ablating the IGL/GHT results in only modest alterations in entrainment to static day lengths and fails to interfere with seasonal responses induced by transfer from static long day to static short day lengths. Because several studies suggest that the IGL may be involved in tracking the time of dusk and dawn, we sought to determine whether an intact IGL is necessary for hamsters to respond to a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP) in which the time of dusk and dawn gradually changes in a pattern approximating the rate of change in day length that occurs during autumn at the latitude this species inhabits in nature. The results indicate that neurochemical lesions of the IGL alter both the pattern of circadian entrainment and photoperiodic responsiveness of Siberian hamsters to an SNP. Both intact and IGL-lesioned hamsters exhibited testicular regression in shortening day lengths, but only IGL-intact hamsters exhibited seasonal pelage molt.

  3. Foodborne transmission of nipah virus in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Prescott, Joseph; Falzarano, Darryl; Bushmaker, Trenton; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J

    2014-03-01

    Since 2001, outbreaks of Nipah virus have occurred almost every year in Bangladesh with high case-fatality rates. Epidemiological data suggest that in Bangladesh, Nipah virus is transmitted from the natural reservoir, fruit bats, to humans via consumption of date palm sap contaminated by bats, with subsequent human-to-human transmission. To experimentally investigate this epidemiological association between drinking of date palm sap and human cases of Nipah virus infection, we determined the viability of Nipah virus (strain Bangladesh/200401066) in artificial palm sap. At 22°C virus titers remained stable for at least 7 days, thus potentially allowing food-borne transmission. Next, we modeled food-borne Nipah virus infection by supplying Syrian hamsters with artificial palm sap containing Nipah virus. Drinking of 5×10⁸ TCID₅₀ of Nipah virus resulted in neurological disease in 5 out of 8 hamsters, indicating that food-borne transmission of Nipah virus can indeed occur. In comparison, intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with the same dose of Nipah virus resulted in lethal respiratory disease in all animals. In animals infected with Nipah virus via drinking, virus was detected in respiratory tissues rather than in the intestinal tract. Using fluorescently labeled Nipah virus particles, we showed that during drinking, a substantial amount of virus is deposited in the lungs, explaining the replication of Nipah virus in the respiratory tract of these hamsters. Besides the ability of Nipah virus to infect hamsters via the drinking route, Syrian hamsters infected via that route transmitted the virus through direct contact with naïve hamsters in 2 out of 24 transmission pairs. Although these findings do not directly prove that date palm sap contaminated with Nipah virus by bats is the origin of Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh, they provide the first experimental support for this hypothesis. Understanding the Nipah virus transmission cycle is essential for preventing

  4. Maternal Photoperiodic History Affects Offspring Development in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Routman, David M.; Zucker, Irving

    2009-01-01

    During the first 7 weeks of postnatal life, short day lengths inhibit the onset of puberty in many photoperiodic rodents, but not in Syrian hamsters. In this species, timing of puberty and fecundity are independent of the early postnatal photoperiod. Gestational day length affects postnatal reproductive development in several rodents; its role in Syrian hamsters has not been assessed. We tested the hypothesis that cumulative effects of pre- and postnatal short day lengths would restrain gonadal development in male Syrian hamsters. Males with prenatal short day exposure were generated by dams transferred to short day lengths 6 weeks, 3 weeks, and 0 weeks prior to mating. Additional groups were gestated in long day lengths and transferred to short days at birth, at 4 weeks of age, or not transferred (control hamsters). In pups of dams exposed to short day treatment throughout gestation, decreased testis growth was apparent by 3 weeks and persisted through 9 weeks of age, at which time maximum testis size was attained. A subset of males (14%), whose dams had been in short days for 3 to 6 weeks prior to mating displayed pronounced delays in testicular development, similar to those of other photoperiodic rodents. This treatment also increased the percentage of male offspring that underwent little or no gonadal regression postnatally (39%). By 19 weeks of age, males housed in short days completed spontaneous gonadal development. After prolonged long day treatment to break refractoriness, hamsters that initially were classified as nonregressors underwent testicular regression in response to a 2nd sequence of short day lengths. The combined action of prenatal and early postnatal short day lengths diminishes testicular growth of prepubertal Syrian hamsters no later than the 3rd week of postnatal life, albeit to a lesser extent than in other photoperiodic rodents. PMID:18838610

  5. Ultrastructural organization of the hamster renal pelvis.

    PubMed

    Lacy, E R; Schmidt-Nielsen, B

    1979-08-01

    The renal pelvis of the hamster has been studied by light microscopy (epoxy resin sections), transmission electron microscopy, and morphometric analysis of electron micrographs. Three morphologically distinct epithelia line the pelvis, and each covers a different zone of the kidney. A thin epithelium covering the outer medulla (OM) consists of two cell types: (1) granular cells are most numerous and have apically positioned granules which stain intensely with toluidine blue, are membrane-bound, and contain a fine particulate matter that stains light grey to black in electron micrographs. (2) Basal cells do not have granules, are confined to the basal lamina region, and do not reach the mucosal epithelial surface. The inner medulla (IM) is covered by a pelvic epithelium morphologically similar to collecting duct epithelium of IM. Some cells in this portion of the pelvic epithelium (IM) stain intensely dark with toluidine blue, osmium tetroxide, lead, and uranyl acetate. Transitional epithelium, which separates cortex (C) from pelvic urine, has an asymmetric luminal plasma membrane and discoid vesicles, each of which is similar to those previously observed in mammalian ureter and urinary bladder epithelia. Based on morphological comparisons with other epithelia, the IM and OM pelvic epithelia would appear permeable to solutes and/or water, while the transitional epithelium covering the C appears relatively impermeable. It would also appear that the exchange of solutes and water between pelvic urine and OM would involve capillaries, primarily, since morphometric analysis showed that both fenestrated and continuous capillaries of the OM were extremely abundant (greater than 60% of OM pelvic surface area) just under the thin pelvic epithelium.

  6. Deposition of salicylic acid into hamster sebaceous.

    PubMed

    Motwani, M R; Rhein, L D; Zatz, J L

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we identified vehicles that are miscible with sebum, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this paper, the potential of these vehicles to deliver salicylic acid (SA) into the sebum-filled follicles of hamster ears is examined. The main objective of this study is to correlate the melting transitions of a model sebum with the follicular delivery of SA, using two different types of vehicles (fatty and polar). Generally, the fatty vehicles show higher deposition than the polar vehicles. Follicular delivery of salicylic acid correlates well with its solubility in the respective vehicles. This extent of deposition also shows a relationship with the effect of the vehicle on thermal behavior of the model sebum. The nature of the relationship depends on the vehicle (polar or fatty) tested. We conclude that DSC could be used to identify appropriate vehicles for drugs whose follicular delivery depends on solubility. The results also suggest that delivery into the sebaceous glands occurs by two different mechanisms, depending upon the polarity of the vehicle and the physicochemical properties of the drug. The results of these experiments are further extended to investigate follicular delivery of SA from two different types of oil-in-water emulsion formulations. From these studies we conclude that either increasing the volume of the oil phase or changing the emulsion to a water-in-oil emulsion would increase follicular deposition. Our research highlights the role of sebum, its compatibility with drug molecules, and vehicle selection in the transport of drugs into the follicles. The overall results of these experiments provide a reasonable understanding of the mechanisms underlying the transport of drugs to, and subsequently through, the sebaceous follicle.

  7. Physiological and behavioral responses to glucoprivation in the golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Rowland, N

    1983-05-01

    Golden hamsters failed to increase their food intake following food deprivation alone or in combination with insulin or 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) treatment. 2DG also failed to induce feeding in hamsters tested at night. In this latter experiment, there was no effect of 2DG on wheel running or general alertness. Insulin administration significantly decreased plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). 2DG treatment produced a dose-related hyperglycemia associated with increased ketone levels. These data are discussed in terms of cerebral energy status and its relation to food intake and physiological responses.

  8. Isolation and identification of normal killer cells from Syrian hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Matveeva, V.A.; Klyuchareva, T.E.

    1986-09-01

    This paper gives data on isolation of normal killer cells from the blood and various tissues of Syrian hamsters in a Percoll density gradient and their identification on the basis of morphologic criteria and cytotoxic activity (CTA). CTA of the isolated cells was studied in the cytotoxic test with target cells of a human MOLT-4 thymoma cell labeled with /sup 51/Cr. Isolation of large granular lymphocytes from blood, spleen, and bone marrow of Syrian hamsters in Percoll density gradient is shown in the results of five experiments used for cells of each type.

  9. Use of CB hamsters in the study of Treponema pertenue.

    PubMed

    Schell, R F; Le Frock, J L; Babu, J P; Chan, J K

    1979-10-01

    The CB/Ss LAK strain of inbred hamster was used as a model for studies of infection with Treponema pertenue and of acquired resistance to it. When infected, this strain developed cutaneous lesions which lasted for six to seven months, even in the presence of peak titres of antitreponemal antibody. The rate of appearance and resolution of these lesions varied with the size of the inoculum. The infected hamsters' inguinal lymph nodes increased significantly in weight and teemed with treponemes for several weeks. Animals infected for eight or 10 weeks obtained quick resolution of their lesions by treatment with penicillin and were thereafter resistant to reinfection. PMID:509189

  10. Efficient gene targeting in golden Syrian hamsters by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiqiang; Li, Wei; Lee, Sang R; Meng, Qinggang; Shi, Bi; Bunch, Thomas D; White, Kenneth L; Kong, Il-Keun; Wang, Zhongde

    2014-01-01

    The golden Syrian hamster is the model of choice or the only rodent model for studying many human diseases. However, the lack of gene targeting tools in hamsters severely limits their use in biomedical research. Here, we report the first successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficiently conduct gene targeting in hamsters. We designed five synthetic single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs)--three for targeting the coding sequences for different functional domains of the hamster STAT2 protein, one for KCNQ1, and one for PPP1R12C--and demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient in introducing site-specific mutations in hamster somatic cells. We then developed unique pronuclear (PN) and cytoplasmic injection protocols in hamsters and produced STAT2 knockout (KO) hamsters by injecting the sgRNA/Cas9, either in the form of plasmid or mRNA, targeting exon 4 of hamster STAT2. Among the produced hamsters, 14.3% and 88.9% harbored germline-transmitted STAT2 mutations from plasmid and mRNA injection, respectively. Notably, 10.4% of the animals produced from mRNA injection were biallelically targeted. This is the first success in conducting site-specific gene targeting in hamsters and can serve as the foundation for developing other genetically engineered hamster models for human disease.

  11. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach. PMID:27279067

  12. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kini, Yogesh; Desai, Chirag; Mahindra, Uma; Kalburge, Jitendra

    2012-04-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells' invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years. PMID:22919226

  13. Solitary fibrous tumor of the buccal space resected in combination with coronoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Fujihara, Hisako; Fukami, Kaori; Mishima, Kenji; Nakaoka, Kazutoshi; Kumagai, Kenichi; Imamura, Eisaku

    2012-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle-cell mesenchymal tumor of probable fibroblastic derivation that most often occurs in the pleura, where it is typically benign. This report describes a case of a large SFT that arose in the buccal space, and includes computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET) findings. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET axial imaging showed weak abnormal accumulation of FDG in the left buccal region. The tumor was located behind the posterior wall of the maxilla, adjacent to the medial aspect of the coronoid process and was compressed between the coronoid and maxillary alveolar processes. We resected it with the use of a transoral approach in combination with coronoidectomy. Coronoidectomy was chosen because it facilitated safe removal of the tumor by improving its visibility and providing enough working space to resect it through a transoral approach.

  14. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  15. An Innovative Technique for Columellar Reconstruction using ‘Flip-Over’ Buccal Mucosa Flap

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Kapil S.; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of columella is a significant deformity and its reconstruction proves to be quite difficult. An 18-year-old lady had loss of columella due to burn while steam inhalation at a young age and required reconstruction for the same. Labial mucosa has been used as a source of tissue for columellar reconstruction since long. We describe a modification of the buccal mucosal flap to manage a difficult case of columellar deficiency. The buccal mucosa flap was used to cover the columellar defect in the usual manner in the first stage and in second stage, along with division of the base, the residual length of the mucosal flap was used to add to the thickness of columella by doubling it on itself. PMID:27630898

  16. An Innovative Technique for Columellar Reconstruction using 'Flip-Over' Buccal Mucosa Flap.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kapil S; Shrotriya, Raghav; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-07-01

    Loss of columella is a significant deformity and its reconstruction proves to be quite difficult. An 18-year-old lady had loss of columella due to burn while steam inhalation at a young age and required reconstruction for the same. Labial mucosa has been used as a source of tissue for columellar reconstruction since long. We describe a modification of the buccal mucosal flap to manage a difficult case of columellar deficiency. The buccal mucosa flap was used to cover the columellar defect in the usual manner in the first stage and in second stage, along with division of the base, the residual length of the mucosal flap was used to add to the thickness of columella by doubling it on itself. PMID:27630898

  17. Dirofilariasis Presenting as an Infiltrative Mass in the Right Buccal Space.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Pérez, Anneliese; Liang, Li; Syklawer, Erica; Chavez, Violeta; Zhang, Songlin; Wanger, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    Dirofilariasis is caused by filarial nematodes (roundworms) of the genus Dirofilaria Dirofilariasis of the oral mucosa is very rare. Herein, we report a case of a 79-year-old man who had a slowly growing infiltrative mass in the right buccal space. Histopathologic examination showed an inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophilia, histiocytes, and small organisms (0.2-0.3 mm). Digital images were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which identified the parasite as a nematode in the genus Dirofilaria It appeared to be dead and degenerating, but external, fine longitudinal cuticular ridges and the presence of tall muscle cells were diagnostic. Thus, Dirofilaria, despite its rarity, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions in the buccal mucosa. PMID:27305941

  18. Lipoma of mandibular buccal vestibule: a case with histopathological literature review.

    PubMed

    Mehendirratta, Monica; Jain, Kanu; Kumra, Madhumani; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma is a tumour of soft tissue with rare occurrence in oral cavity accounting for only 1-4% of benign oral tumours. Most common sites of involvement are the buccal mucosa, tongue and floor of the mouth with typical presentation of an asymptomatic, soft, smooth-surfaced, nodular and yellowish mass. Histopathologically, a classical lipoma resembles normal adipose tissue and it has multiple variants which are less commonly seen except fibrolipoma. The article presents a case report of a relatively large oral classical lipoma in a 60-year-old man on a rare site, mandibular buccal vestibule, along with a review of the literature and special emphasis on its various histopathological variants. PMID:27489068

  19. Secondhand smoke induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis in hamster fetus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling.

  20. [Prevention of cholelithiasis with ascorbic acid. Experimental study in hamsters].

    PubMed

    Peraza, M; Méndez, N; Lagarriga, J; Cohen, J; Alcantar, M; Chiprut, R

    1979-01-01

    Cholesterol lithogenesis is the end result of hepatic microsomal enzymatic alterations which determine an increase in cholesterol synthesis (HMG CoA reductase) and a decrease in its transformation into bile salts (7 alpha hydroxylase). Therefore biliary cholesterol excretion is increased while bile salt excretion is diminished. Ascorbic Acid (A.A.) seems capable of reversing those enzymatic derrangements in scorbutic animals. Since hamsters are able to synthesize A.A., we evaluated its effect used in high doses during diet induced lithogenesis. Two groups of 6 weeks old, male hamsters, were fed with a lithogenic diet for 30 days. Group A received the usual amount of A.A. contained in the diet (0.25 mg/day/manster) while group B had supplementary A.A. added to drinking water (5 mg/day/hamster). Thirteen out of twenty of group A (65%) and 5 out of 20 of group B (25%) developed cholesterol calculi (p 0.05). Less stones were found in the gallbladders of hamsters fed with supplementary A.A. It is concluded that A.A. in this model, has an inhibitory effect on lithogenesis. The possible mechanism seems to be related to A.A. influence on the microsomal enzymes involved in lithogenesis. These findings, plus the lack of undesirable secondary effects of supplementary A.A. suggest a potential therapeutic role in human cholelithiasis. PMID:531439

  1. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving

    2003-01-01

    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.

  2. Neuropeptide Y induces torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthew J; Freeman, David A; Park, Jin Ho; Dark, John

    2005-09-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are known to decrease body temperature (Tb) of laboratory rats by 1-3 degrees C. Several NPY pathways in the brain terminate in hypothalamic structures involved in energy balance and thermoregulation. Laboratory rats are homeothermic, maintaining Tb within a narrow range. We examined the effect of ICV injected NPY on Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), a species that naturally undergoes daily torpor in which Tb decreases by as much as 15-20 degrees C. Minimum effective dose was determined in preliminary testing then various doses of NPY were tested in cold-acclimated Siberian hamsters while food was withheld. NPY markedly reduced Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster. In addition, the reduction in Tb in 63% of the observations was sufficient to reach the criterion for daily torpor (Tb < 32 degrees C for at least 30 min). Neither the incidence of torpor nor its depth or duration was related to NPY dose. Both likelihood and magnitude of response varied within animals on different test days. NPY decreased 24-h food intake and this was exaggerated in the animals reaching criterion for torpor; the decrease in food intake was positively correlated with the magnitude of the decrease in Tb. The mild hypothermia seen in homeothermic laboratory rats after NPY injected ICV is exaggerated, often greatly, in the heterothermic Siberian hamster. NPY treatment may be activating hypothalamic systems that normally integrate endogenous torpor-producing signals and initiate torpor.

  3. Mutagenicity of instant coffee on cultured Chinese hamster lung cells.

    PubMed

    Nakasato, F; Nakayasu, M; Fujita, Y; Nagao, M; Terada, M; Sugimura, T

    1984-10-01

    Coffee showed mutagenic activity in cultured Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells as assessed by using diphtheria toxin resistance as a selective marker. Most of the mutagenicity was suppressed in the presence of sodium bisulfite. The contribution of methylglyoxal to the total mutagenicity of coffee was less than 3%.

  4. Hamster bite peritonitis: Pasteurella pneumotropica peritonitis in a dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Campos, A; Taylor, J H; Campbell, M

    2000-11-01

    We report the first case of Pasteurella pneumotropica peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient. This rare infection was the result of contamination of the dialysis tubing by a pet hamster. We stress the importance of household pets as a source of infection in the peritoneal dialysis population. PMID:11095007

  5. Evaluation of the scatter doses in the direction of the buccal mucosa from dental metals.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Sumida, Iori; Kakimoto, Naoya; Marutani, Keisuke; Okahata, Ryoko; Usami, Ai; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Souhei; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2015-05-08

    The presence of dental metals creates radiation dose perturbation due to scattered radiation during radiation therapy for the head and neck region. The purpose of our study was to compare the scatter doses resulting from various dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa among a single-field technique, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) during radiation therapy for the head and neck region. We used nine metal cubes with 10 mm sides, which were placed inside a water phantom. The scatter doses from the cubes in the direction of the buccal mucosa were measured using radiochromic films. The films were placed perpendicularly to the surface of the cubes. The phantom was irradiated with a 4 MV photon energy by a linear accelerator for all techniques. In the single-field technique, the scatter doses from dental metals showed 3.7%-19.3% dose increases, and gold showed the largest dose increase. In 3D CRT, the scatter doses from dental metals showed 1.4%-6.9% dose increases, which were within the measurement uncertainty (except for gold). In IMRT, the scatter doses from dental metals showed only 1.4%-4.3% dose increases, which were all within the measurement uncertainty. During radiation therapy for the head and neck region, the scatter doses from the tested dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa in 3D CRT or IMRT were lower than those using the single-field technique. However, there were no differences between the scatter doses resulting from particular dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa in 3D CRT and those in IMRT, except for gold.

  6. Development and in vitro evaluation of a buccal drug delivery system based on preactivated thiolated pectin.

    PubMed

    Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Müller, Christiane; Ohm, Moritz; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of preactivated thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys-MNA) for buccal drug delivery. Therefore, a gel formulation containing this novel polymer and the model drug lidocaine was prepared and investigated in vitro in terms of rheology, mucoadhesion, swelling behavior and drug release in comparison to formulations based on pectin (Pec) and thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys). Both pectin derivatives showed gel formation without addition of any other excipient due to self-crosslinking thiol groups. Under same conditions, pectin did not show gel formation. Viscosity of Pec-Cys-based formulation increased 92-fold and viscosity of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulations by 4958-fold compared to pectin-based formulation. Gels did not dissolve in aqueous environment during several hours and were able to take up water. Mucoadhesion of pectin on buccal tissue could be improved significantly, value of total work of adhesion increased in the following rank order: Pec-Cys-MNA > Pec-Cys > Pec. The retention time of a model drug incorporated in gel formulations on buccal mucosa under continuous rinsing with phosphate-buffered saline was prolonged, after 1.5 h 3-fold higher amount of a model drug was to be found on tissue after application of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulation compared to pectin-based and 2-fold compared to Pec-Cys-based formulation. The Pec-Cys-MNA-based gel showed a more sustained release of lidocaine than Pec-Cys-based gel, whereas pectin solution revealed an immediate release. According to these results, the self-crosslinking pectin-derivative is a promising tool for buccal application.

  7. Bulbar urethral stricture: How to optimise the use of buccal mucosal grafts.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan N; Wisenbaugh, Eric S; Martins, Francisco E

    2016-06-01

    The use of buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (BMGU) for bulbar urethral strictures has gained widespread popularity since the first report in 1996. Over the last two decades, there have been many modifications in the surgical technique. This, along with better understanding of urethral anatomy, has allowed the BMG to become the 'gold standard' in urethral substitution. The present article reviews the evolution and techniques of BMGU in order to answer the question - how do we optimise the use of BMGs? PMID:27489734

  8. Maxillary first Molar with three canal orifices in MesioBuccal root.

    PubMed

    Ayranci, Leyla B; Arslan, Hakan; Topcuoglu, H Sinan

    2011-10-01

    The present case describes root canal treatment in a maxillary first molar with unusual anatomy. A male patient was referred for the treatment of maxillary left first molar tooth. Clinical examination of the pulpal floor revealed 3 orifices in the mesio buccal root. The tooth was treated successfully. Anatomic variations must be taken into consideration in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. PMID:22144820

  9. Maxillary first Molar with three canal orifices in MesioBuccal root

    PubMed Central

    Ayranci, Leyla B.; Arslan, Hakan; Topcuoglu, H Sinan

    2011-01-01

    The present case describes root canal treatment in a maxillary first molar with unusual anatomy. A male patient was referred for the treatment of maxillary left first molar tooth. Clinical examination of the pulpal floor revealed 3 orifices in the mesio buccal root. The tooth was treated successfully. Anatomic variations must be taken into consideration in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment PMID:22144820

  10. Use of overlapping buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty for complex anterior urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Complex anterior urethral stricture disease typically manifests as a symptomatic, severely narrowed, long stricture (or multiple strictures) in which conventional excision and/or augmentation is not feasible. Overlapping buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (OBMGU) is an innovative hybrid technique, combining the well-established principles of dorsal and ventral graft augmentation to allow single stage reconstruction of complex anterior urethral strictures. In this review, we discuss the rationale, techniques, and outcomes of OBMGU for complex anterior urethral strictures. PMID:26813234

  11. The perinuclear factor, a rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantigen, is not present in keratohyalin granules of cultured buccal mucosa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoet, R M; Voorsmit, R A; Van Venrooij, W J

    1991-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients have antibodies in their serum directed against the perinuclear factor, a protein component present in keratohyalin granules in the cytoplasm of human buccal mucosa cells. The anti-perinuclear factor (APF) can only be detected by an indirect immunofluorescence test performed on fresh buccal mucosa cells from 'selected donors'. To obtain a more reliable antigen source and to gain more insight into the origin and nature of the perinuclear factor we attempted to culture perinuclear factor-containing buccal mucosa cells. Here we describe the successful culturing of such cells, which, however, did not contain keratohyalin granules nor the perinuclear factor. By adding the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) we were able to induce keratohyalin granules in both cultured primary buccal mucosa cells and a squamous carcinoma cell line of the cheek (SqCC/Y1). These induced keratohyalin granules do contain the protein profilaggrin, which in vivo, in fresh buccal mucosa cells, co-localizes with the perinuclear factor. However, we were not able to demonstrate the presence of the perinuclear factor, not even after induction of terminal differentiation of the cultured cells nor after Epstein-Barr virus infection. Our results suggest that the perinuclear factor, in contrast to profilaggrin, is not an integral component of buccal mucosa cells. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1849807

  12. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>−1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤−1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  13. Effect of cryoprotectants for maintaining drug permeability barriers in porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Marxen, Eva; Axelsen, Mary Carlos; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jacobsen, Jette

    2016-09-10

    Ex vivo drug permeation studies are useful for early screening of drug candidates for buccal delivery. However, it is not always feasible to obtain fresh tissue for each experiment. Therefore, a method for storing excised tissue for later use is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine if permeability barriers for small molecules (nicotine and diazepam) were maintained after freezing porcine buccal mucosa with cryoprotectants to -80°C. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide, bovine serum albumin, glycerol and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. The permeability of nicotine and diazepam across fresh or frozen/thawed tissue was determined using modified Ussing chambers. Haematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections for histology were prepared. The permeability of nicotine across tissue frozen without cryoprotectants was significantly higher compared to tissue frozen with cryoprotectants or fresh tissue. Freezing with or without cryoprotectants did not significantly affect the flux of diazepam compared to fresh tissue. Only minor histological changes were seen in frozen/thawed porcine buccal mucosa compared to fresh tissue. In conclusion, permeability barriers for nicotine and diazepam were preserved after freezing with any of the combinations of cryoprotectants; however, the barrier may be damaged when freezing without cryoprotectants. PMID:27426107

  14. Temperature rise and shear bond strength of bondable buccal tubes bonded by various light sources.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Cagri; Irmak, Ozgür; Bagis, Yildirim Hakan; Ulusoy, Ozgür Ilke Atasoy

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine the intrapulpal temperature changes and to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of bondable buccal tubes bonded by high-intensity light sources. Ninety caries-free human first molar teeth extracted for periodontal reasons were used. For the temperature measurement test, 30 teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) whereas 60 teeth were used in three groups (n = 20) for SBS testing. Three light sources, high-intensity halogen, blue light-emitting diode (LED), and xenon plasma arc (PAC), were used for polymerization of Transbond XT. Temperature variations (Delta T) were recorded by a K-type thermocouple wire connected to a data logger. For SBS testing, a universal testing machine was used at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until buccal tube bonding failure occurred. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The high-intensity halogen light resulted in significantly (P < 0.01) higher intrapulpal temperature changes than the LED or PAC. The results of the shear bond test revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences only between the halogen and LED groups. The findings of the present investigation showed that high-intensity curing devices can safely be used in bonding buccal tubes to molar teeth without causing a deleterious effect on the dental pulp. PMID:18632840

  15. Composite HPMC and sodium alginate based buccal formulations for nicotine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Obinna C; Boateng, Joshua S

    2016-10-01

    Smoking cessation is of current topical interest due to the significant negative health and economic impact in many countries. This study aimed to develop buccal films and wafers comprising HPMC and sodium alginate (SA) for potential use in nicotine replacement therapy via the buccal mucosa, as a cheap but effective alternative to currently used nicotine patch and chewing gum. The formulations were characterised using texture analyser (tensile and hardness, mucoadhesion), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and swelling capacity. Drug loaded films and wafers were characterised for content uniformity (HPLC) whilst the drug loaded wafers only were further characterised for in vitro drug dissolution. SA modified and improved the functional properties of HPMC at optimum ratio of HPMC: SA of 1.25: 0.75. Generally, both films and wafers (blank and drug loaded) were amorphous in nature which impacted on swelling and mucoadhesive performance. HPMC-SA composite wafers showed a porous internal morphology with higher mucoadhesion, swelling index and drug loading capacity compared to the HPMC-SA composite films which were non-porous. The study demonstrates the potential use of composite HPMC-SA wafers in the buccal delivery nicotine. PMID:27222284

  16. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  17. Buccal Injection of 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine for the Removal of Maxillary Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sunil; Verma, Ajay; Sachdeva, Akash

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate if 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine could provide palatal anesthesia in maxillary tooth removal with a single buccal injection. The subjects included in the clinical study were those requiring extraction of the maxillary third molar of either side. For the purpose of comparison, the sample was randomly divided into 2 main groups: group 1 (study group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single injection before extraction, and group 2 (control group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single buccal injection and a single palatal injection before extraction. After 5 minutes the extraction was performed. All patients were observed for Faces Pain Scale during extraction and asked for the same on a 100-mm visual analog scale after extraction. According to visual analog scale and Faces Pain Scale scores, when maxillary third molar removal without palatal injection (study group) and with palatal injection (control group) were compared the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Removal of maxillary third molars without palatal injection is possible by depositing 2 mL of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine to the buccal vestibule of the tooth. PMID:24010986

  18. Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-Y.; Lee, L.-Y.; Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J.; Fan, K.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

  19. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  20. Cytomorphometric Characteristics of Buccal Mucosal Cells in Behçet's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aktunc, Erol; Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Altinyazar, Cevdet; Koca, Rafet; Bostan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare the cytomorphometric characteristics of the buccal cells of Behçet's disease patients with those of healthy controls. Methods. This case-control study compared a group of 30 patients with Behçet's disease with an age- and gender-matched control group of 30 healthy individuals. The buccal mucosal smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique for cytomorphometric analyses. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas were evaluated using digital image analysis; the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic areas and nuclear roundness are presented. Results. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of the BD patients' cells were significantly smaller than those of the healthy controls' cells, while the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly between the groups. However, the nuclear area, cytoplasmic area, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and nuclear roundness factor were significantly higher in patients without aphthae. The neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly in patients with or without aphthae. Conclusion. Behçet's disease can produce cytomorphometric changes in buccal cells that are detectable by exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometric analysis techniques. PMID:27088074

  1. Buccal Micronuclei Assay as a Tool For Biomonitoring DNA Damage in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Vidyalakshmi, S.; Nirmal, R. Madhavan; Veeravarmal, V.; Santhadevy, A.; Sumathy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The malignant transformation rate of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is between 0% and 5.8%. Oral lesions of lichen planus clinically presents itself multifocally, simulating the process of field cancerization in high risk malignancies. The Buccal MicroNucleus Cytome Assay (BMN Assay) provides a platform to identify the high risk individuals by evaluating the markers of nuclear damage at an earliest micro invasive phase. Aim To evaluate DNA damage in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in individuals with oral lichen planus lesions and thereby to delineate the high risk group. Materials and Methods Buccal smears from 22 OLP and 10 control samples were stained in modified Feulgen-Rossenback reaction for micronuclei assay. Cytological evaluation of number of MicroNucleated cells (CMN), Total Number of Micronuclei (TMN) in micronucleated cells was done in both groups. Results Frequency of micronucleated cells (CMN) when compared among the study and control group, a mean value of 4.27 ± 1.80 and 0.90 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. On comparing the total number of micronuclei in the micronucleated cells (TMN) between the study and control groups, a mean value of 5.38 ± 2.42 and 1.5 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. Conclusion There was a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei and the micronucleated cells in the oral lichen planus as compared to normal individuals. PMID:27630941

  2. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Lavínia Tércia Magalhães; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; Lessa, Júlia Paula Ramos; Oliveira, Márcio Campos; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Polpo de Campos, Adriano; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Macílio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei) and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin) in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P < 0.0001). They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P < 0.0001). Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia. PMID:22315605

  3. Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saifulla P; Muzzammil, Shariff; Pramod, Kumar T M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis. The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment. The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied. The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties, in vitro release studies and mucoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Tablets containing 50% of polymers (Carbopol & Noveon) were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h, which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients. PMID:21748974

  4. Seasonal aspects of sleep in the Djungarian hamster

    PubMed Central

    Palchykova, Svitlana; Deboer, Tom; Tobler, Irene

    2003-01-01

    Background Changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature trigger seasonal adaptations in the physiology and behaviour of many species, including the Djungarian hamster. Exposure of the hamsters to a short photoperiod and low ambient temperature leads to a reduction of the polyphasic distribution of sleep and waking over the light and dark period. In contrast, a long photoperiod enhances the daily sleep-wake amplitude leading to a decline of slow-wave activity in NREM sleep within the light period. It is unknown whether these changes can be attributed specifically to photoperiod and/or ambient temperature, or whether endogenous components are contributing factors. The influence of endogenous factors was investigated by recording sleep in Djungarian hamsters invariably maintained at a low ambient temperature and fully adapted to a short photoperiod. The second recording was performed when they had returned to summer physiology, despite the maintenance of the 'winter' conditions. Results Clear winter-summer differences were seen in sleep distribution, while total sleep time was unchanged. A significantly higher light-dark cycle modulation in NREM sleep, REM sleep and waking was observed in hamsters in the summer physiological state compared to those in the winter state. Moreover, only in summer, REM sleep episodes were longer and waking bouts were shorter during the light period compared to the dark period. EEG power in the slow-wave range (0.75–4.0 Hz) in both NREM sleep and REM sleep was higher in animals in the summer physiological state than in those in the 'winter' state. In winter SWA in NREM sleep was evenly distributed over the 24 h, while in summer it decreased during the light period and increased during the dark period. Conclusion Endogenous changes in the organism underlie the differences in sleep-wake redistribution we have observed previously in hamsters recorded in a short and long photoperiod. PMID:12756056

  5. A low-cost automated apparatus for investigating the effects of social defeat in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Askew, Alicia; González, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    We describe an automated apparatus that can be used to investigate the effects of defeat in hamsters. It consists of a covered alleyway that leads to a box, or arena, where hamsters can be kept separate or allowed to fight. The alleyway is divided into seven equal-sized chambers. Low-power lasers and laser detectors are used to keep track of a hamster's position in the alleyway. A CFL flood lamp placed over the chamber farthest from the arena generates a light gradient in the alleyway that engenders in the subjects a preference for the darker chambers near the arena. A computer automatically records the interruption of the laser beams and yields three measures: average position, the frequency of visits to each chamber, and the frequency of changes in direction of travel in each chamber. The results of a pilot study indicated that when a dominant hamster was placed behind a screened gate in the arena and a subordinate hamster was placed in the alleyway, the subordinate maintained a significantly greater distance from the dominant than did a nondefeated hamster. The subordinate hamster also changed its direction of travel more frequently than did the nondefeated hamster. The results suggest that conditioned fear was elicited in the defeated hamster by proximity to the dominant hamster, an effect that is consistent with published results in which the data were recorded manually or by using commercially available event-tracking software. PMID:24519494

  6. Gedunin abrogates aldose reductase, PI3K/Akt/mToR, and NF-κB signaling pathways to inhibit angiogenesis in a hamster model of oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kishore T, Kranthi Kiran; Ganugula, Raghu; Gade, Deepak Reddy; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling pathways plays a central role in tumor development and progression. The aim of this present study was to investigate the chemopreventive effects of the neem limonoid gedunin in the hamster model of oral cancer based on its ability to modulate aldose reductase (AR), phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways to block angiogenesis. Administration of gedunin suppressed the development of HBP carcinomas by inhibiting PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways through the inactivation of Akt and inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK), respectively. Immunoblot and molecular docking interactions revealed that inhibition of these signaling pathways may be mediated via inactivation of AR by gedunin. Gedunin blocked angiogenesis by downregulating the expression of miR-21 and the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). In conclusion, the results of the present study provide compelling evidence that gedunin prevents progression of hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinomas via inhibition of the kinases Akt, IKK, and AR, and the oncogenic transcription factors NF-κB and HIF-1α to block angiogenesis. PMID:26342697

  7. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  8. Estrogen receptor immunoreactivity in prepubertal and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Romeo, R D; Diedrich, S L; Sisk, C L

    1999-04-23

    Estrogen and estrogen receptors (ER) are involved in the expression of steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether there are pubertal changes in ER expression in brain that are correlated with pubertal changes in responsiveness to steroid negative feedback and behavioral activation. We found equivalent numbers of ER-immunoreactive (ER-ir) cells in castrated prepubertal and adult male hamsters in nuclei that comprise the neural circuit that mediate male sexual behavior. Therefore, increases in the number of cells in these nuclei that express ER are not correlated with the increased behavioral responsiveness to steroid hormone shown by hamsters after puberty. The number of ER-ir cells in the ventral medial hypothalamus was less in adults compared with juveniles. This pubertal decrease in ER expression is correlated with the decreased responsiveness to steroid negative feedback in the adult.

  9. Sarcolemmal phospholipid N-methylation in genetically determined hamster cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, K.; Panagia, V.; Jasmin, G.; Dhalla, N.S.

    1987-02-27

    The heart sarcolemmal phosphatidylethanolamine N-methylation in UM-X7.1 strain of cardiomyopathic hamsters was examined by using 0.055, 10 and 150 microM S-adenosyl-L-(methyl-/sup 3/H) methionine as methyl donor for sites I, II and III, respectively. In comparison with control values, methylation activities at site I was increased in 40, 120 and 250 days old cardiomyopathic hamsters. On the other hand, methylation activities at sites II and III in 120 and 250 days old cardiomyopathic animals were depressed without any change in the 40 days old group. The alterations in N-methylation activities were associated with kinetic changes in apparent Vmax values without any changes in the apparent Km. These results indicate a defect in the phospholipid N-methylation process in heart sarcolemma during the development of genetically determined cardiomyopathy.

  10. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome.

    PubMed

    Petrini, D; Di Giuseppe, M; Deli, G; De Caro Carella, C

    2016-01-01

    A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis. PMID:27540515

  11. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, D.; Di Giuseppe, M.; Deli, G.; De Caro Carella, C.

    2016-01-01

    A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis. PMID:27540515

  12. Cleft palate development in hamster embryos following triamcinolone treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, R M

    1979-01-01

    Development of the palate was studied in normal and triamcionolone-treated hamster fetuses. The results demonstrated that normal palatogenesis was completed between days 12 and 13 of gestation. Following triamcinolone treatment the reorientation of the palatal shelves was delayed before there was any general retardation of fetal growth (as indicated by crown-rump length and body weight). Since triamcinolone affected palatogenesis at an earlier stage than hydrocortisone, the view that the former is a more potent teratogen was supported. Chronological age, fetal weight and crown-rump length were reliable predictors of normal palatogenesis in the hamster, whereas the numerical morphological rating systems were not. Neither measures of general fetal growth, nor numerical rating, were useful in predicting the stages of experimentally induced cleft palate, since triamcinolone appears to be site-specific, and the drug does not produce a general retardation of embryonic development. PMID:575531

  13. Hibernation, stress, intestinal functions, and catecholoamine turnover rate in hamsters and gerbils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1973-01-01

    Bioenergetic studies on hamsters during depressed metabolic states are reported. External support of blood glucose extended the survival times of hibernating animals. Radioresistance increased in hibernating as well as in hypothermic hamsters. Marked changes in hamster catecholamine turnover rates were observed during acclimatization to high temperature stress. High radioresistance levels of the gerbil gastrointestinal system were attributed in part to the ability of the gut to maintain functional integrity.

  14. Metabolic influences on circadian rhythmicity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters exposed to long photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Challet, E; Kolker, D E; Turek, F W

    2000-01-01

    Calorie restriction and other situations of reduced glucose availability in rodents alter the entraining effects of light on the circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Siberian and Syrian hamsters are photoperiodic species that are sexually active when exposed to long summer-like photoperiods, while both species show opposite changes in body mass when transferred from long to short or short to long days. Because metabolic cues may fine tune the photoperiodic responses via the suprachiasmatic nuclei, we tested whether timed calorie restriction can alter the photic synchronization of the light-entrainable pacemaker in these two hamster species exposed to long photoperiods. Siberian and Syrian hamsters were exposed to 16 h:8 h light:dark cycles and received daily hypocaloric (75% of daily food intake) or normocaloric diet (100% of daily food intake) 4 h after light onset. Four weeks later, hamsters were transferred to constant darkness and fed ad libitum. The onset of the nocturnal pattern of locomotor activity was phase advanced by 1.5 h in calorie-restricted Siberian hamsters, but not in Syrian hamsters. The lack of phase change in calorie-restricted Syrian hamsters was also observed in individuals exposed to 14 h:10 h dim light:dark cycles and fed with lower hypocaloric food (i.e. 60% of daily food intake) 2 h after light onset. Moreover, in hamsters housed in constant darkness and fed ad lib., light-induced phase shifts of the locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters, but not in Syrian hamsters were significantly reduced when glucose utilization was blocked by pretreatment with 500 mg/kg i.p. 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Taken together, these results show that the photic synchronization of the light-entrainable pacemaker can be modulated by metabolic cues in Siberian hamsters, but not in Syrian hamsters maintained on long days.

  15. Molecular and Immunological Characterization of the First Allergenic Lipocalin in Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Torres, José Alberto; de las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster. PMID:24993820

  16. Ct Anatomy of Buccal Fat Pad and its Role in Volumetric Alterations of Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Guryanov, A. S.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of our study is the revision of the anatomy of buccal fat pad and its role in a volumetric pattern of face. Bichat fat pad is a fatty anatomical structure with body and numerous process enclosed between the bony and muscular structures in temporal, pterygopalatine fossae and extents to the cheek area. Nevertheless, the opinion about its structure and role in forming of volume pattern of face sometimes could be controversial. The Bichat fat pad consists on predominately hormone insensitive fat tissue with underdeveloped stroma, this leads to the stability of the fat pad volume and lesser radiodensity in contrast to the subcutaneous fat. Moreover, the buccal fat pad is delimited from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area by the strong capsule. This feature allows us to use CT to divide the Bichat fat pad from the surrounding tissues. The thorough embryological data provide the distinction of Bichat fat pad from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area even at the stage of development. On the other hand, the border between the masticatory muscles and the processes of the fat pad is not evident and resembles cellular spaces in the other anatomical areas. To elicit the role of the buccal fat pad in volume pattern of face and its function we have performed the several experiments, analyzed the postoperative results after Bichat fat pad resection using surface scanner and CT data. At first, we have performed the gravity test: the patient's face photogrammetry scanning in horizontal and vertical position of head and it revealed the excess of volume in temporal area in horizontal position. To exclude mechanism of overflowing of the skin and subcutaneous fat over the zygomatic arch we have placed the markers on the skin surface at the different areas of face including the projection of ligaments and found out that the migration of soft tissue over the zygomatic arch is about 3-5 mm and almost the same in temporal area. However, the acquired result was unsatisfying because

  17. A Golden Hamster Model for Human Acute Nipah Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K. Thong; Grosjean, Isabelle; Brisson, Christine; Blanquier, Barissa; Fevre-Montange, Michelle; Bernard, Arlette; Loth, Philippe; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Chevallier, Michelle; Akaoka, Hideo; Marianneau, Philippe; Lam, Sai Kit; Wild, T. Fabian; Deubel, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    A predominantly pig-to-human zoonotic infection caused by the novel Nipah virus emerged recently to cause severe morbidity and mortality in both animals and man. Human autopsy studies showed the pathogenesis to be related to systemic vasculitis that led to widespread thrombotic occlusion and microinfarction in most major organs especially in the central nervous system. There was also evidence of extravascular parenchymal infection, particularly near damaged vessels (Wong KT, Shieh WJ, Kumar S, Norain K, Abdullah W, Guarner J, Goldsmith CS, Chua KB, Lam SK, Tan CT, Goh KJ, Chong HT, Jusoh R, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Zaki SR, Nipah Virus Pathology Working Group: Nipah virus infection: Pathology and pathogenesis of an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Am J Pathol 2002, 161:2153–2167). We describe here a golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model that appears to reproduce the pathology and pathogenesis of acute human Nipah infection. Hamsters infected by intranasal or intraperitoneal routes died within 9 to 29 days or 5 to 9 days, respectively. Pathological lesions were most severe and extensive in the hamster brain. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and more rarely, multinucleated endothelial syncytia, were found in blood vessels of multiple organs. Viral antigen and RNA were localized in both vascular and extravascular tissues including neurons, lung, kidney, and spleen, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. Paramyxoviral-type nucleocapsids were identified in neurons and in vessel walls. At the terminal stage of infection, virus and/or viral RNA could be recovered from most solid organs and urine, but not from serum. The golden hamster is proposed as a suitable model for further studies including pathogenesis studies, anti-viral drug testing, and vaccine development against acute Nipah infection. PMID:14578210

  18. Photoperiodic Influences on Ultradian Rhythms of Male Siberian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Zucker, Irving

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology and behavior are proximately controlled by the annual variation in day length. Long summer and short winter day lengths markedly alter the amplitude of endogenous circadian rhythms and may affect ultradian oscillations, but the threshold photoperiods for inducing these changes are not known. We assessed the effects of short and intermediate day lengths and changes in reproductive physiology on circadian and ultradian rhythms of locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters. Males were maintained in a long photoperiod from birth (15 h light/day; 15 L) and transferred in adulthood to 1 of 7 experimental photoperiods ranging from 14 L to 9 L. Decreases in circadian rhythm (CR) robustness, mesor and amplitude were evident in photoperiods ≤14 L, as were delays in the timing of CR acrophase and expansion of nocturnal activity duration. Nocturnal ultradian rhythms (URs) were comparably prevalent in all day lengths, but 15 L markedly inhibited the expression of light-phase URs. The period (τ’), amplitude and complexity of URs increased in day lengths ≤13 L. Among hamsters that failed to undergo gonadal regression in short day lengths (nonresponders), τ’ of the dark-phase UR was longer than in photoresponsive hamsters; in 13 L the incidence and amplitude of light-phase URs were greater in hamsters that did not undergo testicular regression. Day lengths as long as 14 L were sufficient to trigger changes in the waveform of CRs without affecting UR waveform. The transition from a long- to a short-day ultradian phenotype occurred for most UR components at day lengths of 12 L–13 L, thereby establishing different thresholds for CR and UR responses to day length. At the UR-threshold photoperiod of 13 L, differences in gonadal status were largely without effect on most UR parameters. PMID:22848579

  19. Circadian arrhythmia dysregulates emotional behaviors in aged Siberian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Onishi, Kenneth G.; Patel, Priyesh N.; Stevenson, Tyler J.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of chronic circadian arrhythmia generated noninvasively, via a series of circadian-disruptive light treatments, to investigate interactions between circadian desynchrony and aging on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and on limbic neuroinflammatory gene expression that has been linked with emotionality. We also examined whether a social manipulation (group housing) would attenuate effects of arrhythmia on emotionality. In aged (14-18 months of age) male Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia increased behavioral despair and decreased social motivation, but decreased exploratory anxiety. These effects were not evident in younger (5-9 months of age) hamsters. Social housing (3-5 hamsters/cage) abolished the effects of circadian arrhythmia on emotionality. Circadian arrhythmia alone was without effect on hippocampal or cortical interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) mRNA expression in aged hamsters, but social housing decreased hippocampal IL-1β and Ido mRNAs. The data demonstrate that circadian disruption can negatively impact affective state, and that this effect is pronounced in older individuals. Although clear associations between circadian arrhythmia and constitutive limbic proinflammatory activity were not evident, the present data suggest that social housing markedly inhibits constitutive hippocampal IL-1β and Ido activity, which may contribute to the ameliorating effects of social housing on a number of emotional behaviors. PMID:24333374

  20. Circadian arrhythmia dysregulates emotional behaviors in aged Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Patel, Priyesh N; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2014-03-15

    Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of chronic circadian arrhythmia generated noninvasively, via a series of circadian-disruptive light treatments, to investigate interactions between circadian desynchrony and aging on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and on limbic neuroinflammatory gene expression that has been linked with emotionality. We also examined whether a social manipulation (group housing) would attenuate effects of arrhythmia on emotionality. In aged (14-18 months of age) male Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia increased behavioral despair and decreased social motivation, but decreased exploratory anxiety. These effects were not evident in younger (5-9 months of age) hamsters. Social housing (3-5 hamsters/cage) abolished the effects of circadian arrhythmia on emotionality. Circadian arrhythmia alone was without effect on hippocampal or cortical interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) mRNA expression in aged hamsters, but social housing decreased hippocampal IL-1β and Ido mRNAs. The data demonstrate that circadian disruption can negatively impact affective state, and that this effect is pronounced in older individuals. Although clear associations between circadian arrhythmia and constitutive limbic proinflammatory activity were not evident, the present data suggest that social housing markedly inhibits constitutive hippocampal IL-1β and Ido activity, which may contribute to the ameliorating effects of social housing on a number of emotional behaviors.

  1. Photoperiodic influences on ultradian rhythms of male Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Zucker, Irving

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology and behavior are proximately controlled by the annual variation in day length. Long summer and short winter day lengths markedly alter the amplitude of endogenous circadian rhythms and may affect ultradian oscillations, but the threshold photoperiods for inducing these changes are not known. We assessed the effects of short and intermediate day lengths and changes in reproductive physiology on circadian and ultradian rhythms of locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters. Males were maintained in a long photoperiod from birth (15 h light/day; 15 L) and transferred in adulthood to 1 of 7 experimental photoperiods ranging from 14 L to 9 L. Decreases in circadian rhythm (CR) robustness, mesor and amplitude were evident in photoperiods ≤14 L, as were delays in the timing of CR acrophase and expansion of nocturnal activity duration. Nocturnal ultradian rhythms (URs) were comparably prevalent in all day lengths, but 15 L markedly inhibited the expression of light-phase URs. The period (τ'), amplitude and complexity of URs increased in day lengths ≤13 L. Among hamsters that failed to undergo gonadal regression in short day lengths (nonresponders), τ' of the dark-phase UR was longer than in photoresponsive hamsters; in 13 L the incidence and amplitude of light-phase URs were greater in hamsters that did not undergo testicular regression. Day lengths as long as 14 L were sufficient to trigger changes in the waveform of CRs without affecting UR waveform. The transition from a long- to a short-day ultradian phenotype occurred for most UR components at day lengths of 12 L-13 L, thereby establishing different thresholds for CR and UR responses to day length. At the UR-threshold photoperiod of 13 L, differences in gonadal status were largely without effect on most UR parameters.

  2. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures

    PubMed Central

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G.; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs – but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genes PDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this “Buccal-Cell-Signature” correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  3. Cytomorphological changes in buccal mucosa of patients treated with low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Sezer, Ufuk; Aras, Mutan Hamdi; Aktan, Ali Murat; Cengiz, Beyhan; Ozkul, Nadide; Ay, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the cytomorphological changes occurring in the buccal mucosa in patients treated with low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation. Seventeen individuals (12 males, five females) 18-24 years of age were included in the study. Low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation was applied to the right buccal mucosa near the premolar region; this therapy was repeated for 10 days. Buccal epithelial cells were collected from the right and left premolar regions of the individuals with a brush before and after therapy. The specimens collected from the left side were measured cytomorphometrically and used for the control group. Student's t test was used for statistical comparison of the values of the buccal epithelial cells collected from individuals; a p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. None of the patients showed any adverse reactions to the low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation therapy during application. There was no cytogenetic damage to the therapied or non-therapied regions in the buccal mucosa cells, as determined cytomorphologically. The results suggest that low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation therapy has no genotoxic potential. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that low-level 1,064-nm laser radiation therapy may be used safely in dental treatments.

  4. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. PMID:26355705

  5. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:27605986

  6. Anabolic androgenic steroids induce micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells of bodybuilders

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Bugarín, O; Covarrubias‐Bugarín, R; Zamora‐Perez, A L; Torres‐Mendoza, B M G; García‐Ulloa, M; Martínez‐Sandoval, F G

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate genotoxicity of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in male bodybuilders by a micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells. Methods 11 male bodybuilders volunteered to participate in this study and two groups were formed: group 1 (n = 6), without AAS consumption and group 2 (n = 5), with AAS consumption. A sample of buccal epithelium was taken from each participant once a week for 6 weeks. Samples were fixed, stained and analysed by a light microscope, and 2000 cells were counted from each slide. Results are expressed as micronucleated cells (MNC) per 1000 cells and were analysed by the Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon's test. Results A marked increased in MNC was seen in bodybuilders with AAS consumption compared with those without AAS consumption (mean (SD) 4.1 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells vs 0.4 (0.4) MNC/1000 cells, respectively; p<0.004). Intragroup comparisons showed no differences in the MNC frequencies during the sampling time in group 1, whereas the MNC frequency in group 2 varied significantly, reaching the highest MNC frequencies in the third and fourth week of sampling (5.9 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells; 5.8 (1.8) MNC/1000 cells, respectively); frequency in the first sampled week was 1.1 (0.1) MNC/1000 cells. Significant differences in all sampled weeks were found between the two groups. Conclusion AAS consumption increased the frequency of MNC from buccal mucosa in bodybuilders. PMID:17502334

  7. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  8. Clinical application of micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells: A systematic review and metanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Bonassi, Stefano; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Fenech, Michael; Bruzzone, Marco; Lando, Cecilia; Ceppi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus assay in uncultured exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, involving minimally invasive sampling, was successfully applied to evaluate inhalation and local exposure to genotoxic agents, impact of nutrition and lifestyle factors. The potential use of the assay in clinics to monitor the development of local oral lesions and as an early biomarker for tumors and different chronic disorders was also investigated. A systematic review of the literature was carried out focusing on the clinical application of the assay. The literature search updated to January 2015 allowed to retrieve 42 eligible articles. Fifty three percent of investigations are related to oral, head and neck cancer, and premalignant oral diseases. Our analysis evidences a potential usefulness of the MN assay applied in buccal exfoliated cells in the prescreening and in the follow up of precancerous oral lesions. A significant excess of MN, in patients compared with matched controls was observed for subgroups of oral and neck cancer (meta-MR of 2.40, 95% CI: 2.02-2.85) and leukoplakia (meta-MR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.51-2.35). The meta-analysis of studies available on other tumors (meta-MR 2.00; 95% CI:1.66-2.41) indicates that the MN frequency in buccal cells could reflect the chromosomal instability of other organs. Increased MN frequency was also observed in small size studies on patients with chronic diseases, with Alzheimer's disease and with Down syndrome. The application of the cytome approach providing information of genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects is suggestive of the possibility of an improvement in the predictive value of the assay and this deserves further investigations. PMID:26596545

  9. Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Wayne R; Nguyen, Tori; Rembach, Alan; Martins, Ralph; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Macaulay, S Lance; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively correlated with plasma Mg²⁺ and LDL, while positively correlated with vitamin B12, red cell hematocrit/volume, and basophils in the MCI group and positively correlated with insulin and vitamin B12 in the AD group. The combined biomarker panel (CK14 expression, plasma vitamin B12, and homocysteine) was significantly lower in the MCI (p = 0.003) and AD (p = 0.0001) groups compared with controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.829 for the MCI (p = 0.002) group and 0.856 for the AD (p = 0.0003) group. These complex associations of multiple related parameters highlight the differences between the MCI and AD cohorts and possibly an underlying metabolic pathology associated with the development of early memory impairment. The changes in buccal cell CK14 expression observed in this pilot study supports previous results suggesting the peripheral biomarkers and metabolic changes are not restricted to brain pathology alone in MCI and AD and could prove useful as a potential biomarker in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. PMID:26402008

  10. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  11. Effects of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Buccal-Cell DNA

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Franklin, Tracie; Chanock, Stephen; Puri, Vinita; Welch, Robert; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vaught, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Buccal cells were collected from 29 participants, by use of mouthwash rinses, and were split into equal aliquots, with one aliquot irradiated by electron-beam (E-beam) irradiation equivalent to the sterilizing dosage used by the U.S. Postal Service and the other left untreated. Aliquots were extracted and tested for DNA yields (e.g., TaqMan assay for quantifying human genomic DNA), genomic integrity, and amplification-based analysis of genetic variants (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] and single tandem repeats [STRs]). Irradiated aliquots had lower median DNA yields (3.7 μg/aliquot) than untreated aliquots (7.6 μg/aliquot) (P<.0005) and were more likely to have smaller maximum DNA fragment size, on the basis of genomic integrity gels, than untreated aliquots (P<.0005). Irradiated aliquots showed poorer PCR amplification of a 989-bp β-globin target (97% for weak amplification and 3% for no amplification) than untreated aliquots (7% for weak amplification and 0% for no amplification) (P<.0005), but 536-bp and 268-bp β-globin targets were amplified from all aliquots. There was no detectable irradiation effect on SNP assays, but there was a significant trend for decreased detection of longer STRs (P=.01) in irradiated versus untreated aliquots. We conclude that E-beam irradiation reduced the yield and quality of buccal-cell specimens, and, although irradiated buccal-cell specimens may retain sufficient DNA integrity for some amplified analyses of many common genomic targets, assays that target longer DNA fragments (>989 bp) or require whole-genome amplification may be compromised. PMID:12917795

  12. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

  13. Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Wayne R; Nguyen, Tori; Rembach, Alan; Martins, Ralph; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Macaulay, S Lance; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively correlated with plasma Mg²⁺ and LDL, while positively correlated with vitamin B12, red cell hematocrit/volume, and basophils in the MCI group and positively correlated with insulin and vitamin B12 in the AD group. The combined biomarker panel (CK14 expression, plasma vitamin B12, and homocysteine) was significantly lower in the MCI (p = 0.003) and AD (p = 0.0001) groups compared with controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.829 for the MCI (p = 0.002) group and 0.856 for the AD (p = 0.0003) group. These complex associations of multiple related parameters highlight the differences between the MCI and AD cohorts and possibly an underlying metabolic pathology associated with the development of early memory impairment. The changes in buccal cell CK14 expression observed in this pilot study supports previous results suggesting the peripheral biomarkers and metabolic changes are not restricted to brain pathology alone in MCI and AD and could prove useful as a potential biomarker in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD.

  14. Buccal swab as a reliable predictor for X inactivation ratio in inaccessible tissues

    PubMed Central

    de Hoon, Bas; Monkhorst, Kim; Riegman, Peter; Laven, Joop S E; Gribnau, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the epigenetic phenomenon of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) every woman is a mosaic of cells with either an inactive paternal X chromosome or an inactive maternal X chromosome. The ratio between inactive paternal and maternal X chromosomes is different for every female individual, and can influence an X-encoded trait or disease. A multitude of X linked conditions is known, and for many of them it is recognised that the phenotype in affected female carriers of the causative mutation is modulated by the XCI ratio. To predict disease severity an XCI ratio is usually determined in peripheral blood samples. However, the correlation between XCI ratios in peripheral blood and disease affected tissues, that are often inaccessible, is poorly understood. Here, we tested several tissues obtained from autopsies of 12 female individuals for patch size and XCI ratio. Methods XCI ratios were analysed using methyl-sensitive PCR-based assays for the AR, PCSK1N and SLITRK4 loci. XCI patch size was analysed by testing the XCI ratio of tissue samples with decreasing size. Results XCI patch size was analysed for liver, muscle, ovary and brain samples and was found too small to confound testing for XCI ratio in these tissues. XCI ratios were determined in the easily accessible tissues, blood, buccal epithelium and hair follicle, and compared with ratios in several inaccessible tissues. Conclusions Buccal epithelium is preferable over peripheral blood for predicting XCI ratios of inaccessible tissues. Ovary is the only inaccessible tissue showing a poor correlation to blood and buccal epithelium, but has a good correlation to hair follicle instead. PMID:26220467

  15. Smoking-Associated Site-Specific Differential Methylation in Buccal Mucosa in the COPDGene Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Weiliang; Carey, Vincent J.; Morrow, Jarrett; Bacherman, Helene; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hokanson, John E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Crapo, James D.; DeMeo, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a complex, tissue-specific phenomenon that can reflect both endogenous factors and exogenous exposures. Buccal brushings represent an easily accessible source of DNA, which may be an appropriate surrogate tissue in the study of environmental exposures and chronic respiratory diseases. Buccal brushings were obtained from a subset of current and former smokers from the COPDGene study. Genome-wide DNA methylation data were obtained in the discovery cohort (n = 82) using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K array. Empirical Bayes methods were used to test for differential methylation by current smoking status at 468,219 autosomal CpG sites using linear models adjusted for age, sex, and race. Pyrosequencing was performed in a nonoverlapping replication cohort (n = 130). Current smokers were significantly younger than former smokers in both the discovery and replication cohorts. Seven CpG sites were associated with current smoking at a false discovery rate less than 0.05 in the discovery cohort. Six of the seven significant sites were pyrosequenced in the replication cohort; five CpG sites, including sites annotated to CYP1B1 and PARVA, were replicated. Correlations between cumulative smoke exposure and time since smoking cessation were observed in a subset of the significantly associated CpG sites. A significant correlation between reduced lung function and increased radiographic emphysema with methylation at cg02162897 (CYP1B1) was observed among female subjects. Site-specific methylation of DNA isolated from buccal mucosa is associated with exposure to cigarette smoke, and may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying differential susceptibility toward the development of smoking-related chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:25517428

  16. Epigenetic regulation of human buccal mucosa mitochondrial superoxide dismutase gene expression by diet.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Roman; Karlic, Heidrun; Rust, Petra; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2009-03-01

    The impact of nutrition on the epigenetic machinery has increasingly attracted interest. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of various diets on methylation and gene expression. The antioxidative enzyme mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was chosen as the model system because epigenetic regulation has been previously shown in cell lines for this gene. Promoter methylation and gene expression of MnSOD in buccal swabs from three sample groups were analysed. The three groups included: (1) forty vegetarians (aged 20-30 years); (2) age-matched omnivores; (3) elderly omnivores (aged>85 years). A 3-fold increase in the expression of the MnSOD gene was associated with decreased CpG methylation of the analysed promoter region in the vegetarian group compared with the age-matched omnivores group. Expression and promoter methylation of the MnSOD gene in elderly omnivores showed no significant differences compared with younger omnivores. In accordance with previous findings in various tissues, DNA global methylation was found to be significantly higher (30 %) in buccal swabs of younger subjects (independent of the diet), than in those of elderly omnivores. In the control experiment which was designed to verify the findings of the human buccal swab studies, the Caco-2 cell line was treated with zebularine. Results of the control study showed a 6-fold increase of MnSOD expression, an approximately 40 % decreased methylation of specified CpG in the MnSOD promoter and a 50 % reduction of global DNA methylation. These results indicate that diet affects the epigenetic regulation of human MnSOD.

  17. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated.

  18. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID

  19. Effect of nickel and chromium exposure on buccal cells of electroplaters.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Saba; Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2012-02-01

    The electroplating industry commonly involves the use of nickel and chromium. An assessment of the genotoxic effects of these metals can be carried out by micronucleus (MN) test in buccal cells. Other nuclear anomalies (NA) observed in buccal cells viz., karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis are also the indicators of genotoxicity. The current study aims at determining the extent of genotoxic damage in relation to the duration of exposure to nickel and hexavalent chromium via micronuclei induction and other nuclear anomalies. The present investigation included 150 subjects of which 50 individuals with no history of nickel/chromium exposure (Group I) were taken as control, 50 electroplaters exposed to nickel and hexavalent chromium for duration of less than 10 years (Group II) and 50 electroplaters exposed for ≥10 years (Group III) were included. Slides of buccal cells were prepared and the frequency of MN (‰) and NA (‰) were calculated. ANOVA was applied to test significance. Results were considered significant at p < 0.05 and p < 0.001. Group III showed the highest MN frequency (1.08 ± 0.54‰, p < 0.05), karyorrhexis (20.75 ± 6.29, p < 0.05), karyolysis (3.50 ± 1.91, p < 0.001), binucleate (4.75 ± 2.75, p < 0.05) and enucleated cells (5.75 ± 1.70, p < 0.05). Significant increase in frequencies between Group II and III was found as duration of exposure increased. Plasma nickel and chromium levels were also determined which showed a positive correlation with frequency MN and other nuclear abnormalities (p < 0.01).

  20. Management of recurrent anterior urethral strictures following buccal mucosal graft-urethroplasty: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Javali, Tarun Dilip; Katti, Amit; Nagaraj, Harohalli K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the safety, feasibility and outcome of redo buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients presenting with recurrent anterior urethral stricture following previous failed BMG urethroplasty. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 21 patients with recurrent anterior urethral stricture after buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty, who underwent redo urethroplasty at our institute between January 2008 to January 2014. All patients underwent preoperative evaluation in the form of uroflowmetry, RGU, sonourethrogram and urethroscopy. Among patients with isolated bulbar urethral stricture, who had previously undergone ventral onlay, redo dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty was done and vice versa (9+8 patients). Three patients, who had previously undergone Kulkarni-Barbagli urethroplasty, underwent dorsal free graft urethroplasty by ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach. One patient who had previously undergone urethroplasty by ASOPA technique underwent 2-stage Bracka repair. Catheter removal was done on 21st postoperative day. Follow-up consisted of uroflow, PVR and AUA-SS. Failure was defined as requirement of any post operative procedure. Results: Idiopathic urethral strictures constituted the predominant etiology. Eleven patients presented with stricture recurrence involving the entire grafted area, while the remaining 10 patients had fibrotic ring like strictures at the proximal/distal graft-urethral anastomotic sites. The success rate of redo surgery was 85.7% at a mean follow-up of 41.8 months (range: 1 yr-6 yrs). Among the 18 patients who required no intervention during the follow-up period, the graft survival was longer compared to their initial time to failure. Conclusion: Redo buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty is safe and feasible with good intermediate term outcomes. PMID:26834398

  1. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy Th; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety-enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (-28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  2. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases.

  3. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy Th; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety-enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (-28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions.

  4. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy TH; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety–enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (−28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  5. In dystrophic hamsters losartan affects control of ventilation and dopamine D1 receptor density.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2010-08-31

    The BIO 14.6 hamster (DV), an animal model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, has elevated angiotensin AT1 receptors that may affect ventilation. Moreover, AT1 receptors may modulate expression of dopamine D1 receptors. We investigated if chronic treatment of BIO 14.6 hamsters (DL) with losartan, an AT1 receptor blocker, affects D1 receptor density in the striatum and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and normalizes ventilation during exposure to air, hypoxia, following hypoxia, and hypercapnia, Ventilation was evaluated using plethysmography. Compared to the golden Syrian hamsters (GS), DV hamsters exhibited lower hypercapnic and hypoxic responsiveness and ventilation during hypercapnic exposure. Relative to GS, DL hamsters increased breathing frequency in air and maintained ventilation during hypercapnia. Post-hypoxic minute ventilation decline occurred in DV but not in DL or GS hamsters. DL hamsters exhibited higher D1 receptor density in the striatum and NTS relative to DV hamsters. Thus, in dystrophic hamsters chronic losartan treatment stimulated frequency of breathing and increased the density of D1 receptors.

  6. [Features of infection in hamsters by Junín virus].

    PubMed

    Contigiani, M S; Sabattini, M S

    1983-01-01

    Suckling hamsters infected with three low passaged strains of Junin virus by intracerebral route developed a non differentiated illness with about 7 log of virus replication in the brain after which they either died between 6 and 19 days post inoculation or developed CF antibodies. Even in suckling hamsters and suckling mice gave similar results for viral titration, isolation attempts were less successful in hamsters. The young hamster response was characterized by a severe neurological disease and subsequent recovery with the development of CF antibodies 3). Except for isolation efficiency, the results obtained with Junin virus are similar to those reported for other arenavirus.

  7. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) synthesis following microinjection of heterologous sperm and somatic cell nuclei into hamster oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Naish, S.J.; Perreault, S.D.; Zirkin, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the ability of the hamster oocyte to initiate DNA synthesis in nuclei differing in basic protein content. DNA synthesis was studied by autoradiography in oocytes that had been incubated in /sup 3/H-thymidine after being parthenogenetically activated by sham microinjection, or microinjected with hamster, mouse, rabbit, or fish sperm nuclei, or hamster hepatocyte nuclei. Within 6 hr of sham or nucleus microinjection, nuclei of each type underwent transformation into pronuclei and synthesized DNA. These results demonstrated that the hamster egg can access and utilize its own and each type of template provided, whether homologous or heterologous. However, pronuclei derived from hamster sperm nuclei were more likely to be synthesizing DNA at 6 hr than pronuclei derived from sperm nuclei of other species. The authors conclude that the mechanisms employed by the hamster oocyte to transform hamster sperm nuclei into pronuclei and to effect DNA synthesis in these nuclei are not specific for the hamster sperm nucleus. Nevertheless, these mechanisms apparently operate more efficiently when the hamster sperm nucleus, rather than a heterologous sperm nucleus, is present.

  8. Food hoarding is increased by food deprivation and decreased by leptin treatment in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Carolyn A; Schneider, Jill E

    2003-11-01

    Compensatory increases in food intake are commonly observed after a period of food deprivation in many species, including laboratory rats and mice. Thus it is interesting that Syrian hamsters fail to increase food intake after a period of food deprivation, despite a fall in plasma leptin concentrations similar to those seen in food-deprived rats and mice. In previous laboratory studies, food-deprived Syrian hamsters increased the amount of food hoarded. We hypothesized that leptin treatment during food deprivation would attenuate food-deprivation-induced increases in hoarding. Baseline levels of hoarding were bimodally distributed, with no hamsters showing intermediate levels of hoarding. Both high (HH) and low hoarding (LH) hamsters were included in each experimental group. Fifty-six male hamsters were either food deprived or given ad libitum access to food for 48 h. One-half of each group received intraperitoneal injections of leptin (4 mg/kg) or vehicle every 12 h during the food-deprivation period. Within the HH group, the hoarding score increased significantly in food-deprived but not fed hamsters (P < 0.05). Leptin treatment significantly decreased hoarding in the food-deprived HH hamsters (P < 0.05). The LH hamsters did not increase hoarding regardless of whether they were food deprived or had ad libitum access to food. These results are consistent with the idea that HH hamsters respond to energetic challenges at least in part by changing their hoarding behavior and that leptin might be one factor that mediates this response.

  9. Melanin content of hamster tissues, human tissues, and various melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, K.P.; Fairchild, R.G.; Slatkin, D.N.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.; Atkins, H.L.; Hannon, S.J.

    1981-02-01

    Melanin content (percentage by weight) was determined in both pigmented and nonpigmented tissues of Syrian golden hamsters bearing Greene melanoma. Melanin content was also measured in various other melanoma models (B-16 in C57 mice, Harding-Passey in BALB/c mice, and KHDD in C3H mice) and in nine human melanomas, as well as in selected normal tissues. The purpose was to evaluate the possible efficacy of chlorpromazine, which is known to bind to melanin, as a vehicle for boron transport in neutron capture therapy. Successful therapy would depend upon selective uptake and absolute concentration of borated compounds in tumors; these parameters will in turn depend upon melanin concentration in melanomas and nonpigmented ''background'' tissues. Hamster whole eyes, hamster melanomas, and other well-pigmented animal melanomas were found to contain 0.3 to 0.8% melanin by weight, whereas human melanomas varied from 0.1 to 0.9% (average, 0.35%). Other tissues, with the exception of skin, were lower in content by a factor of greater than or equal to30. Melanin pigment was extracted from tissues, and the melanin content was determined spectrophotometrically. Measurements were found to be sensitive to the presence of other proteins. Previous procedures for isolating and quantifying melanin often neglected the importance of removing proteins and other interfering nonmelanic substances.

  10. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of nickel carbonyl in Syrian hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Allpass, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel carbonyl was administered to groups of pregnant hamsters by inhalation on days 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 15 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Exposure to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 4 or 5 of gestation resulted in malformation in 5.5% and 5.8% of the progeny, respectively. Progeny included 9 fetuses with cystic lungs, 7 fetuses with exencephaly, 1 fetus with exencephaly plus fused rib and 1 fetus with anophthalmia plus cleft palate. Hemorrhages into serious cavities were found. In progeny of dams exposed to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 6 or 7 of gestation, there was 1 fetus with fused ribs and there were 2 fetuses with hydronephrosis. In another experiment, pregnant hamsters were exposed to inhalation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on day 5 of gestation; these dams were permitted to deliver their litters and to nurse their pups. There was no significant difference in the average number of live pups in the Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters compared to control litters. Neonatal mortality was increased in Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters. This study demonstrates that Ni(CO)/sub 4/ is teratogenic and embryotoxic in Syrian hamsters.

  11. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2016-01-01

    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans. PMID:27302647

  12. Lack of carcinogenicity of cadmium chloride in female Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P; Rehm, S

    1998-04-01

    Cadmium is very effective at inducing necrosis within the ovaries of rodents, and the Syrian hamster appears particularly sensitive. The extent of cadmium-induced necrosis depends on the stage of the estrous cycle and is most pronounced when injected on the day prior to ovulation (proestrous). In male rodents cadmium induces a similar necrosis within the testes, which given sufficient time can lead to the development of testicular tumors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that cadmium-induced ovarian necrosis could eventually lead to tumor formation. In sexually mature groups of female Syrian hamsters (> 8 weeks old; n = 50-59), the estrous cycle was determined by visual inspection of vaginal discharge for four consecutive cycles. The animals were then given cadmium (0, 30, 40 and 50 micromol/kg) subcutaneously as a single injection in the dorsal thoracic midline on cycle day 4 (proestrous). Based on prior work, these doses are sufficient to induce extensive acute ovarian damage. Animals were then observed over the next 78 weeks. Although survival and body weight were reduced by cadmium, treatment with the metal did not result in an enhanced incidence of tumors at any site including the ovaries. Non-neoplastic lesions such as amyloidosis and pancreatic hepatocytes were linked to cadmium exposure. These results indicate that the association of cadmium-induced testicular necrosis with tumor development seen in males does not occur in the Syrian hamster ovaries. PMID:9674965

  13. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2016-01-01

    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans. PMID:27302647

  14. Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschlander, Mark E.; Freake, Michael J.; Borland, Christopher; Phillips, John B.; Madden, R C.; Anderson, Larry E.; Wilson, B W.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic orientation has been demonstrated in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. The behavior, using a nest building assay, shows a directional preference in nest position and appears in this animal to be a learned behavior. Hamsters were housed prior to testing in rectangular cages aligned along perpendicular axes. When subsequently tested in a radially-symmetrical arena, the hamsters positioned their nests in a bimodal distribution that coincided with the magnetic direction of the long-axis of the holding cages. In addition, results are presented that illustrate some of the factors that can influence behavioral responses to the magnetic field. In particular for P. sungorus, holding conditions prior to testing and the presence of non-magnetic cues may influence the strength and expression of magnetic orientation. Failure to consider these and other factors may help to explain why previous attempts to demonstrate magnetic orientation in a number of rodent species have failed or, when positive results have been obtained, have been difficult to replicate in other laboratories.

  15. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-22

    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence.

  16. Procedures for risk-stratification of lung cancer using buccal nanocytology

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, H.; Viswanathan, P.; Cherkezyan, L.; Iyengar, R.; Rozhok, S.; Verleye, M.; Derbas, J.; Czarnecki, J.; Roy, H. K.; Backman, V.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. with survival dramatically depending on stage at diagnosis. We had earlier reported that nanocytology of buccal cells can accurately risk-stratify smokers for the presence of early and late-stage lung cancer. To translate the technique into clinical practice, standardization of operating procedures is necessary to consistently yield precise and repeatable results. Here, we develop and validate simple, robust, and easily implementable procedures for specimen collection, processing, etc. in addition to a commercially-viable instrument prototype. Results of this work enable translation of the technology from academic lab to physicians’ office.

  17. Solitary fibrous tumor of the buccal vestibule: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Manor, Esther; Sion-Vardy, Netta; Woldenberg, Yitzhak; Bodner, Lipa

    2012-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare benign tumor that occurs most frequently in the pleura. It is considered rare in the maxillofacial area. Two new cases of SFT of the buccal vestibule are reported. The previously reported cases of oral SFT are reviewed. The tumors were composed of spindle-shaped cells that were arranged haphazardly and were positive for CD-34, BCL-2, CD-99 and vimentin. Although rare, SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of oral soft tissue tumors. The clinical presentation and imaging can provide the clinician a better tool for preoperative diagnosis.

  18. Procedures for risk-stratification of lung cancer using buccal nanocytology

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, H.; Viswanathan, P.; Cherkezyan, L.; Iyengar, R.; Rozhok, S.; Verleye, M.; Derbas, J.; Czarnecki, J.; Roy, H. K.; Backman, V.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. with survival dramatically depending on stage at diagnosis. We had earlier reported that nanocytology of buccal cells can accurately risk-stratify smokers for the presence of early and late-stage lung cancer. To translate the technique into clinical practice, standardization of operating procedures is necessary to consistently yield precise and repeatable results. Here, we develop and validate simple, robust, and easily implementable procedures for specimen collection, processing, etc. in addition to a commercially-viable instrument prototype. Results of this work enable translation of the technology from academic lab to physicians’ office. PMID:27699138

  19. Buccal anomalies, cephalometric analysis and genetic study of two sisters with orofaciodigital syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Romero, Martín; Franco, Brunella; del Pozo, Jaime Sánchez; Romance, Ana

    2007-11-01

    Orofaciodigital syndromes have many clinical and cephalometric anomalies, including facial irregularities, oral cavity abnormalities, and malformations of fingers and toes. In this case of twin girls, buccal exploration, cephalometric examination, and genetic analysis were performed to diagnose Orofaciodigital I or Orofaciodigital II syndrome. Clinically, the twins had several dental and skeletal irregularities. Genetic analysis revealed a DNA segment abnormality corresponding to exon 3 and presence of nucleotide change, 243C>G, leading to the missense mutation H81Q. This causative mutation associated with the OFD1 gene has not been reported previously. Both patients were diagnosed as having Orofaciodigital I syndrome.

  20. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  1. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. Aim To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. Materials and Methods The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Conclusion Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity

  2. Ectopic compound odontoma in the buccal mucosa: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed.

  3. Oral mucocele of unusual size on the buccal mucosa: clinical presentation and surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana Dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  4. “Osteolipoma of buccal mucosa: Case report and literature review”

    PubMed Central

    Kumar-Bokkasam, Vijay; Suresh, Dirasantchu; Venkata, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Osteolipoma affecting oral cavity is indeed rare. We hereby report a case of osteolipoma affecting buccal mucosa. A review of literature of osteolipoma of oral cavity, particularly on radiographic/imaging findings was done. Only 16 cases of Osteolipoma of oral cavity are reported in the literature. The radiographic findings of our case, i.e. multiple dense homogenous radio-opaque structures was reported earlier only in one case [out of 16] of osteolipoma of oral cavity. Key words:Lipoma, osteolipoma, panoramic radiography, radio-opaque, radiography. PMID:27034764

  5. Spindle Cell Lipoma Occurring in the Buccal Mucosa: An Unusual Location of This Benign Lipomatous Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Milhan, Noala Vicensoto Moreira; Cavalcante, Ana Sueli Rodrigues; Marques, Yonara Maria Freire Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous neoplasm, which rarely occurs in the oral cavity. The aims of this paper are to report a case of spindle cell lipoma located in buccal mucosa and discuss the main clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of this entity. Thus, we report a 4-year history of an asymptomatic smooth surface nodule in an elderly Caucasian man with clinical hypothesis of fibroma. The histopathological examination showed spindle cells, mature adipose tissue, and many mast cells in a stroma of connective tissue presenting ropey collagen fibers bundles. After immunohistochemical analysis, the final diagnosis was spindle cell lipoma. PMID:26491592

  6. Minor salivary gland mucinous adenocarcinoma of buccal mucosa - case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska-Pawelec, G; Koryczan, P; Zapała, J; Gontarz, M; Opach, M; Kuśnierz, P; Kosowski, B; Adamek, D

    2013-12-01

    Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract but head and neck localisations are very rare. This article presents the case of a 67-year-old patient suffering from a minor salivary gland MAC of the left buccal mucosa, who was treated in the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery in Krakow due to multiple recurrences of the tumour. The results of immunohistochemical staining, the course of surgical treatment and follow-up, as well as a review of literature are also discussed.

  7. Ectopic Compound Odontoma in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed. PMID:25810930

  8. Oral mucocele of unusual size on the buccal mucosa: clinical presentation and surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana Dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion.

  9. Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-08-18

    Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (≈60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-∞ is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first

  10. Posttraumatic spindle cell nodule of the buccal mucosa. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Zellers, R A; Bicket, W J; Parker, M G

    1992-08-01

    A benign posttraumatic spindle cell proliferation arising at a site of laceration in the buccal mucosa of a 19-year old man is described. This lesion, which histologically mimicked a leiomyosarcoma, appears to represent a reactive process similar to that described as postoperative spindle cell nodules of the genitourinary tract. Reexcision of the area 1 month after biopsy revealed only scar formation and mild chronic inflammation. Recognition of this type of benign spindle cell proliferation at traumatized sites in the oral cavity is important if misdiagnosis and subsequent aggressive therapy is to be avoided.

  11. Androgen dependence in hamsters: overdose, tolerance, and potential opioidergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Peters, K D; Wood, R I

    2005-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are drugs of abuse. However, the potential for steroid reward and addiction remains largely unexplored. This study used i.c.v. testosterone self-administration and controlled infusions of testosterone or vehicle in hamsters to explore central mechanisms of androgen overdose. Forty-two hamsters used nose-pokes to self-administer 1 microg/microl testosterone i.c.v. 4 h/day in an operant chamber. During 1-56 days of androgen self-administration, 10 (24%) hamsters died. Deaths correlated with peak daily intake of testosterone. Of the hamsters that self-administered a peak intake of <20 microg/day, there was 100% survival (10/10). Survival decreased to 86% (19/22) when daily testosterone intake peaked at 20-60 microg/day. Only 30% (three of 10) survived when daily testosterone intake exceeded 60 microg/day. Deaths are not due to volume or vehicle because i.c.v. infusions of 80 mul vehicle had no effect. Testosterone overdose resembles opiate intoxication. When male hamsters received infusions of 40 microg testosterone, locomotion (25.1+/-18.8 grid-crossings/10 min), respiration (72.7+/-5.4 breaths/min) and body temperature (33.5+/-0.4 degrees C) were significantly reduced, compared with males receiving vehicle infusions (186.1+/-8.1 crossings/10 min, 117.6+/-1.0 breaths/min, 35.9+/-0.1 degrees C, P<0.05). However, males developed tolerance to continued daily testosterone infusion. After 15 days, locomotion (170.2+/-6.3 crossings), respiration (118.4+/-1.3 breaths/min), and body temperature (35.3+/-0.3 degrees C) in testosterone-infused males were equivalent to that in vehicle controls (P>0.05). The depressive effects of testosterone infusion are blocked by the opioid antagonist, naltrexone. With naltrexone pre-treatment (10 mg/kg s.c.), locomotion (183.7+/-1.8 crossings/10 min), respiration (116.9+/-0.3 breaths/min), and body temperature (36.1+/-0.4 degrees C) during testosterone infusion were equivalent to vehicle controls. Likewise, naltrexone

  12. Alignment of a buccally displaced maxillary canine in the late mixed dentition with a modified utility arch: a patient report.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Licciardello, Valeria; Greco, Mariagrazia; Rossetti, Bruno; Barbato, Ersilia

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary canines and first molars are the most common ectopic teeth in young people. Ectopic buccal eruption of maxillary canines is strongly associated with lack of space or crowding in the dental arch. This report demonstrates the management of a buccally erupted maxillary canine in an 11-year, 8-month-old boy without sufficient space. The patient had a mostly dental Class II occlusion and was in the late mixed dentition, and the root development of his canines was consistent with his dental age. To correct the distal occlusion and gain space in the maxillary arch for the eruption of both canines, the patient received cervical headgear. To guide the maxillary left canine into occlusion, it was surgically exposed and a modified utility arch inserted. The result of this approach proves that a custom-designed utility arch allows the distal movement of a buccally displaced canine, while at the same time increasing the maxillary arch length.

  13. Chimerism in DNA of buccal swabs from recipients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations: implications for forensic DNA testing.

    PubMed

    Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Roswitha; Clausen, Johannes; Berger, Cordula; Nachbaur, David; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    We attempted to quantitatively determine the chimeric state in a total of 162 buccal swabs from 77 adult recipients aged 19-74 (median 50 years) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation by estimating the chimeric recipient/donor DNA ratios through analysis of 15 autosomal short tandem repeat markers. From each individual between one and nine, buccal swabs were taken at known time intervals after transplantation, ranging from 17 to 3,361 days (median 394 days). In buccal cells, the determined recipient/donor DNA ratios turned out to be highly variable between individuals and also within an individual. Relative donor chimerism levels (%Ch) between 0 and 100 % were detected with maximal frequencies between 10 and 30 %. Blood was always found to show the donor's genotype while hair samples in all cases gave the recipient's genotype. We examine chimerism levels with respect to age, gender, and posttransplantation period and discuss the results in the context of forensic identity testing.

  14. Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad in 1 year old child: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gadipelly, Srinivas; Sudheer, M V S; Neshangi, Srisha; Harsha, G; Reddy, Vijaybaskar

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad (BFP) is very rare, usually seen in infants and young children ranging from 5 months to 12 years of age. Etiology will be blunt injury to buccal mucosa from foreign objects or trauma due to teeth and fall. The suckling activity in infants may also encourage the herniation following trauma. A minor injury or perforation to the buccal mucosa can cause herniation of BFP. The size of herniated mass is very large when compared to the size of the perforation. The history of trauma, absence of prolapse before the injury, its occurrence in infants and young children, specific anatomic sites and location of perforation in mucosa, histopathological appearance of adipose tissue are the characteristic features important for diagnosing the condition. The treatment options for the herniated BFP are usually excision. Alternative to excision is repositioning of the herniated fat in its anatomical location if noticed early. PMID:25848153

  15. Comparison of tooth displacement between buccal mini-implants and palatal plate anchorage for molar distalization: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Il-Jun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Sung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kee-Joon; Chun, Youn-Sic; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2014-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to mechanically evaluate distalization modalities through the application of skeletal anchorage using finite element analysis. Base models were constructed from commercial teeth models. A finite element model was created and three treatment modalities were modified to make 10 models. Modalities 1 and 2 placed mini-implants in the buccal side, and modality 3 placed a plate on the palatal side. Distalization with the palatal plate in modality 3 showed bodily molar movement and insignificant displacement of the incisors. Placing mini-implants on the buccal side in modalities 1 and 2 caused the first molar to be distally tipped and extruded, while the incisors were labially flared and intruded. Distalization with the palatal plate rather than mini-implants on the buccal side provided bodily molar movement without tipping or extrusion. It is recommended to use our findings as a clinical guide for the application of skeletal anchorage devices for molar distalization.

  16. Proximity of the mandibular molar root apex from the buccal bone surface: a cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dokyung; Jin, Myoung-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proximity of the mandibular molar apex to the buccal bone surface in order to provide anatomic information for apical surgery. Materials and Methods Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 127 mandibular first molars and 153 mandibular second molars were analyzed from 160 patients' records. The distance was measured from the buccal bone surface to the root apex and the apical 3.0 mm on the cross-sectional view of CBCT. Results The second molar apex and apical 3 mm were located significantly deeper relative to the buccal bone surface compared with the first molar (p < 0.01). For the mandibular second molars, the distance from the buccal bone surface to the root apex was significantly shorter in patients over 70 years of age (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this distance was significantly shorter when the first molar was missing compared to nonmissing cases (p < 0.05). For the mandibular first molars, the distance to the distal root apex of one distal-rooted tooth was significantly greater than the distance to the disto-buccal root apex (p < 0.01). In mandibular second molar, the distance to the apex of C-shaped roots was significantly greater than the distance to the mesial root apex of non-C-shaped roots (p < 0.01). Conclusions For apical surgery in mandibular molars, the distance from the buccal bone surface to the apex and apical 3 mm is significantly affected by the location, patient age, an adjacent missing anterior tooth, and root configuration. PMID:27508159

  17. Sequencing, Annotation and Analysis of the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Tchitchek, Nicolas; Safronetz, David; Rasmussen, Angela L.; Martens, Craig; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Background The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus) is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species. Results A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons). This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species. Conclusions This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional

  18. An atomic force microscopy investigation of bioadhesive polymer adsorption onto human buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, D; Smith, J R; Smith, A W; Grist, N; Barnett, P; Smart, J D

    2000-05-10

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine the buccal cell surface in order to image the presence of adsorbed bioadhesive polymers identified from previous work. Isotonic saline solution (5 ml) containing either polycarbophil (pH 7.6), chitosan (pH 4.5) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (pH 7.6) (0.5% w/v) was exposed to freshly collected buccal cells (ca. 48x10(4) cells/test) for 15 min at 30 degrees C. The cells were then rinsed with a small volume of double distilled water, allowed to air-dry on a freshy cleaved mica surface and imaged using contact mode AFM. Untreated cells showed relatively smooth surface characteristics, with many small 'crater-like' pits and indentations spread over cell surfaces. Cells that had been treated with all the investigated polymers appeared to have lost the crater and indentation characteristic and gained a higher surface roughness. These results suggest that polymer chains had adsorbed onto the cell surfaces. Quantitative image analysis of cell topography showed significant increases (P<0.05) in arithmetic roughness average (R(a)) for all the investigated polymer treated cells surfaces with respect to untreated control specimens. The changes in surface topography indicate the presence of adsorbed polymer, confirming previous work. This study demonstrates the suitability of AFM as a powerful and sensitive technique for detecting and imaging bioadhesive polymers present on mucosal cell surfaces. PMID:10867257

  19. Mucoadhesive buccal patches based on interpolymer complexes of chitosan–pectin for delivery of carvedilol

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to develop bioadhesive patches of carvedilol hydrochloride using chitosan (CH) and pectin (PE) interpolymer complexes and to systematically evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performances. Mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared using solvent casting method. The physicochemical interaction between CH and PE was investigated by FTIR and DSC studies. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like mass variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, ex vivo mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, surface pH, in vitro drug release, in situ release study, and in vivo bioavailability study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the PE concentration. The surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between 6.2 and 7.2. The optimized bioadhesive patch (C1, CH:PE 20:80) showed bioadhesive strength of 22.10 ± 0.20 g, in vitro release of 98.73% and ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 451 min with in a period of 8 h. The optimized patch demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo results. The buccal delivery of carvedilol in rabbits showed a significant improvement in bioavailability of carvedilol from patches when compared to oral route. PMID:23960773

  20. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. PMID:23071958

  1. Hydrotalcite composites for an effective fluoride buccal administration: a new technological approach.

    PubMed

    Perioli, Luana; Nocchetti, Morena; Giannelli, Paola; Pagano, Cinzia; Bastianini, Maria

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this work was to develop new mucoadhesive buccal patches containing an inorganic fluorinated compound, MgAl-F, intended for decay prevention. Firstly MgAl-F was synthesized and characterized, then the patches were prepared starting from a physical blend of mucoadhesive polymers (NaCMC and polycarbophil) in which MgAl-F was dispersed in different amounts in order to obtain the films. The prepared mucoadhesive patches were characterized in terms of swelling capacity, mucoadhesion force and time, surface morphology and in vitro release studies. Moreover, the organoleptic properties and acceptability have been evaluated by in vivo application. The performed studies demonstrated that the proposed formulations are practical, manageable, flexible and adaptable to the biological substrate showing, at the same time, good organoleptic properties. Moreover, the presence of the MgAl-F is able to decrease the strong adhesion of the employed polymers, reducing pain and irritations resulting in a high patient acceptability. Data obtained from release studies revealed that the application of small patch portions is enough able to release, for a prolonged time, an amount of fluoride ions able to reach the efficacious dose. These observations suggest the applicability of such formulations for buccal administration of different active ingredients.

  2. A CBCT atlas of buccal cortical bone thickness in interradicular spaces

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Patrick B.; Wolf, Bethany J.; Zhou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide a road map of buccal cortical bone thickness in interradicular locations where miniscrew implants are commonly placed. Materials and Methods Cone-beam computed tomography images from 100 study quadrants (50 maxillary and 50 mandibular) were studied. Cortical bone thickness was measured at the most mesial point, the midpoint, and the most distal point in interradicular areas from the canine to the first molar in both arches at 4 mm and 6 mm from the alveolar ridge. Indicator variables of whether the cortical bone thickness was thinner than 1 mm and thicker than 1.5 mm were constructed and analyzed in a general linear mixed model. Results Buccal cortical bone was significantly thinner at a point bisecting two teeth than the bone adjacent to the teeth (P < .0001). The site with the greatest percentage of measurements <1 mm (20%) was at the midpoint bisecting the mandibular canine and the first premolar. The site with the highest percentage of measurements >1.5 mm (50%) was in the mandible adjacent to the first molar (distal to the midpoint of the second premolar and first molar) at 6 mm from the alveolar crest. Conclusion Cortical bone thickness is significantly thinner centrally between two teeth than in the areas adjacent to the roots. PMID:25760885

  3. Cytogenetic Biomonitoring in Buccal Mucosa Cells from Women Submitted to Chemotherapy After Mastectomy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Carolina Flygare; DA Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Seixas, Camila; DE Oliveira Scudeller, Tania Terezinha; DO Amaral, Maria Teresa Pace; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-04-01

    In addition to surgery, one of the most widely applied treatments for breast cancer is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is currently considered efficient in curing this disease; however, the therapy may induce damage to the patient's genetic material. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate putative cytotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by chemotherapy in women diagnosed with breast cancer. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 42 women, aged 18 to 70 years, allocated according to the diagnosis and stage of breast cancer treatment: control group (healthy) (n=15), chemotherapy group (n=11) and post-chemotherapy group (n=16). Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were analyzed by the micronucleus test in buccal mucosa cells. A higher frequency (p<0.05) of micronucleated cells was detected in the chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy groups when compared to the control. A higher frequency (p<0.05) of karyorrhexis and pyknosis in the chemotherapy group was also noted. Taken together, our results indicate that chemotherapy induces mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in buccal mucosa cells of women diagnosed with breast cancer, being persistent after finishing their treatment. PMID:27069186

  4. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins.

  5. A study on cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliative buccal cells in iron deficiency anemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sumanthi, J.; Reddy, G. Sridhar; Anuradha, C. H.; Sekhar, P. Chandhra; Prasad, L. Krishna; Reddy, B. V. Ramana

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the quantitative changes in nuclear diameter (ND), cytoplasmic diameter (CD) and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) in cytological buccal smears of iron deficiency anemic patients by comparing with normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 40 healthy individuals and 40 iron deficiency anemic patients who were selected on clinical history, hematological investigations, and confirmed by serum ferritin levels. Exfoliative buccal smears stained with PAP stain were evaluated for cytoplasimic, nuclear diameters, and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios (N/C) using Image Proexpress Version 6.0 image analysis system. All the parameters were statistically analyzed by using unpaired ‘t’ test. Results: A significant increase is seen in the average nuclear diameter (ND) and N/C ratio of the anemic group when compared to the control group. The average cytoplasmic diameter (CD) did not show any statistical difference among the two groups. Conclusion: Oral exfoliative cytological techniques could possibly be a noninvasive alternative diagnostic tool for iron deficiency anemia. PMID:23230352

  6. Single stage: dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using perineal route

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Vikram; Devaraju, Shishir; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the outcome of single stage dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures (>4cm long) using a perineal incision. Materials and Methods From August 2010 to August 2013, 20 patients underwent BMG urethroplasty. The cause of stricture was Lichen sclerosis in 12 cases (60%), Instrumentation in 5 cases (25%), and unknown in 3 cases (15%). Strictures were approached through a perineal skin incision and penis was invaginated into it to access the entire urethra. All the grafts were placed dorsolaterally, preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle, central tendon of perineum and one-sided attachement of corpus spongiosum. Procedure was considered to be failure if the patient required instrumentation postoperatively. Results Mean stricture length was 8.5cm (range 4 to 12cm). Mean follow-up was 22.7 months (range 12 to 36 months). Overall success rate was 85%. There were 3 failures (meatal stenosis in 1, proximal stricture in 1 and whole length recurrent stricture in 1). Other complications included wound infection, urethrocutaneous fistula, brownish discharge per urethra and scrotal oedema. Conclusion Dorsolateral buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using a single perineal incision is simple, safe and easily reproducible by urologists with a good outcome. PMID:27286122

  7. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins. PMID:25899288

  8. Benzydamine hydrochloride buccal bioadhesive gels designed for oral ulcers: preparation, rheological, textural, mucoadhesive and release properties.

    PubMed

    Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2009-01-01

    This study developed and examined the characterization of Benzidamine hydrochloride (BNZ) bioadhesive gels as platforms for oral ulcer treatments. Bioadhesive gels were prepared with four different hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) types (E5, E15, E50 and K100M) with different ratios. Each formulation was characterized in terms of drug release, rheological, mechanical properties and adhesion to a buccal bovine mucosa. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration and individual viscosity of each polymeric component increased due to improved viscosity of the gel formulations. The amount of drug released for the formulations ranged from 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 1.14 +/- 0.01 (mg/cm2 +/- SD). Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and all formulations, increasing the concentration of HPMC content significantly raised storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), dynamic viscosity (eta') at 37 degrees C. Increasing concentration of each polymeric component also significantly improved the hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion but decreased the elasticity of the gel formulations. All formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion due to the relaxation and swelling of the polymers with water. In conclusion, the formulations studied showed a wide range of mechanical and drug diffusion characteristics. On the basis of the obtained data, the bioadhesive gel formulation which was prepared with 2.5% HPMC K 100M was determined as the most appropriate formulation for buccal application in means of possessing suitable mechanical properties, exhibiting high cohesion and bioadhesion. PMID:19883251

  9. Serum-responsive expression of carbonyl-metabolizing enzymes in normal and transformed human buccal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Staab, C A; Ceder, R; Roberg, K; Grafström, R C; Höög, J-O

    2008-11-01

    Gene expression of carbonyl-metabolizing enzymes (CMEs) was investigated in normal buccal keratinocytes (NBK) and the transformed buccal keratinocyte lines SVpgC2a and SqCC/Y1. Studies were performed at a serum concentration known to induce terminal squamous differentiation (TSD) in normal cells. Overall, 39 of 58 evaluated CMEs were found to be expressed at the transcript level. Together the transformed cell lines showed altered transcription of eight CME genes compared to NBK, substantiating earlier results. Serum increased transcript levels of ALDH1A3, DHRS3, HPGD and AKR1A1, and decreased those of ALDH4A1 in NBK; of these, the transformed, TSD-deficient cell lines partly retained regulation of ALDH1A3 and DHRS3. Activity measurements in crude cell lysates, including relevant enzymatic inhibitors, indicated significant capacity for CME-mediated xenobiotic metabolism among the cell lines, notably with an increase in serum-differentiated NBK. The results constitute the first evidence for differential CME gene expression and activity in non-differentiated and differentiated states of epithelial cells. PMID:18854940

  10. Prelaminated Gracilis Flap with Buccal Mucosal Graft for Salvage of Devastated Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In patients with devastated bulbous urethra, that is, bulbar necrosis, failed fasciocutaneous repairs and “watering can perineum” repair options are limited by paucity of reliable local tissue suitable for reconstruction. In this case report we demonstrate a novel variation of a two-stage technique for reconstruction of a devastated bulbous urethra in a 57-year-old male who suffered penetrating trauma to his previously reconstructed urethra. Because of extensive loss of local tissue from the prior reconstruction and subsequent trauma and infection a 2-stage technique with use of gracilis was employed. This technique involved creation of two independently vascularized urethral hemi-plates prelaminated with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). In the first stage the dorsal plate was created by quilting buccal graft onto corpora cavernosa to create a temporary augmented perineal urethrostomy. In the same stage the future ventral neourethral plate was created by grafting another BMG onto the exposed distal gracilis muscle. Eight weeks later the two prelaminated plates were anastomosed by tunneling the gracilis-BMG composite into the perineum. At 8-month follow-up patient has normal voiding and continence. To our knowledge this is the first report of reconstructing an entire segment of devastated urethra in such a manner. PMID:26257976

  11. Development of Buccal Adhesive Tablet with Prolonged Antifungal activity: Optimization and ex vivo Deposition Studies.

    PubMed

    Madgulkar, A; Kadam, S; Pokharkar, V

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present work was to prepare buccal adhesive tablets of miconazole nitrate. The simplex centroid experimental design was used to arrive at optimum ratio of carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and polyvinylpyrollidone, which will provide desired drug release and mucoadhesion. Swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release of the prepared tablet was determined. The drug release and bioadhesion was dependent on type and relative amounts of the polymers. The optimized combination was subjected to in vitro antifungal activity, transmucosal permeation, drug deposition in mucosa, residence time and bioadhesion studies. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate any interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution of miconazole from tablets was sustained for 6 h. based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared slow release buccoadhesive tablets of miconazole would markedly prolong the duration of antifungal activity. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of tablet with marketed gel showed that drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration were achieved immediately from both formulations but release from tablet was sustained up to 6 h, while the gel showed initially fast drug release, which did not sustain later. Drug permeation across buccal mucosa was minimum from the tablet as well as marketed gel; the deposition of drug in mucosa was higher in case of tablet. In vitro residence time and bioadhesive strength of tablet was higher than gel. Thus the buccoadhesive tablet of miconazole nitrate may offer better control of antifungal activity as compared to the gel formulation. PMID:20490296

  12. Reconstruction of anterior maxillary defect with buccal pad fat after excision of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Rattan, Vidya; Rai, Sachin; Yadav, Shikha; Sahu, Gyana Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights a rare case of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy involving the anterior maxilla in a 3-month-old infant. The tumor was excised completely, and the defect was reconstructed with a bilateral buccal pad of fat. The patient has been followed for 2 years without any evidence of recurrence. We propose that for similar anterior maxillary defects in infants and children, a buccal pad of fat can be utilized as an appropriate pedicled flap for coverage after tumor resection. PMID:26981478

  13. Bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for simultaneous reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chih-Hsuan; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to simultaneously reconstruct bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis. In this study, we report two cases where bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flaps were used to resurface two separate buccal defects.

  14. Bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for simultaneous reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chih-Hsuan; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to simultaneously reconstruct bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis. In this study, we report two cases where bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flaps were used to resurface two separate buccal defects. PMID:27619322

  15. Lack of Negative Effects on Syrian Hamsters and Mongolian Gerbils Housed in the Same Secondary Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-01-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  16. On the analysis of neonatal hamster tooth germs with the photon microprobe at Daresbury, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tros, G. H. J.; Van Langevelde, F.; Vis, R. D.

    1990-04-01

    Complementary to the micro-PIXE experiments performed on hamster tooth germs to elucidate the role of fluoride during the growth, the photon microprobe at Daresbury was used to obtain information on the distribution of Zn. The germs of fluoride-administered hamsters, together with a control group, were analyzed with the micro-synchrotron radiation fluorescence method (micro-SXRF).

  17. Lack of negative effects on Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils housed in the same secondary enclosure.

    PubMed

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-05-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure.

  18. Effect of exercise on redistribution and clearance of inhaled particles from hamster lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, T.D.; Tryka, A.F.; Brain, J.D. )

    1990-03-01

    Does exercise alter the redistribution and clearance of particles from the lungs Sedentary hamsters and hamsters that were exercise trained by voluntary wheel running for the previous 5 wk were exposed to a 198Au-labeled aerosol for 25 min. Six trained and 6 sedentary animals were killed within 5 min after the exposure (day 0); the same number were killed 5 days later. The trained hamsters ran ad libitum during those 5 days. The lungs of all animals were excised, dried at total lung capacity, sliced into 1-mm-thick sections, and dissected into pieces that were counted for radioactivity and weighed. On day 0, trained hamsters had 80% more particles per milligram of lung than sedentary hamsters, although both were exposed under identical conditions of restraint. After five days, exercising hamsters cleared 38% of the particles present at day 0, whereas sedentary animals removed only 15%. Significant clearance was observed from the middle lung regions of sedentary hamsters and from all lung regions in exercising hamsters. We conclude that exercise can enhance the redistribution and clearance of particles from the lungs; the mechanisms responsible are as yet unclear.

  19. Effects of wheel running on photoperiodic responses of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Scherbarth, Frank; Petri, Ines; Steinlechner, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed to artificial short days either with access to a running wheel (RW) or without. Within 6 weeks RW hamsters considerably increased their body mass, whereas controls showed the typical body mass reduction. Estimation of paired testis weights indicated a decelerated testis regression in RW hamsters. Subsequent locking of RWs for 9 weeks led to a decline in body mass of RW animals in parallel to controls. Daily torpor was almost completely missing in hamsters with initially unlocked wheels. During the final phase when RWs were again unlocked (3 weeks), body mass of exercising hamsters increased again, while controls reached the nadir in body mass. In comparison to equiponderate long-day (LD) controls the relative liver weight of RW hamsters was significantly increased unlike the relative heart weight. However, the latter tended to be higher than in sedentary LD hamsters. A growth-stimulating effect of wheel running was proven by elongated femora in exercising short-day (SD) hamsters compared to SD controls and suggested by exercise-induced elevation of body mass in a further experiment under continuous LD conditions, indicating a growth-promoting effect of wheel running independent from the photoperiod.

  20. The Chemistry of Cold: Mechanisms of Torpor Regulation in the Siberian Hamster.

    PubMed

    Cubuk, Ceyda; Bank, Jonathan H H; Herwig, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Siberian hamsters use spontaneous daily torpor, a state of hypometabolism and hypothermia, to save energy during winter. Multiple neuroendocrine signals set the scene for spontaneous torpor to occur, and several brain areas have been identified as potential sites for torpor regulation. Here, we summarize the known mechanisms of a fascinating physiological state in the Siberian hamster.

  1. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  2. Abnormalities of ADP/ATP carrier protein in J-2-N cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kato, M; Yang, J; Iwai, T; Tanamura, A; Arino, T; Kawashima, O; Takeda, N

    1993-02-17

    ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC) is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane and has an important function in mitochondrial energy supply. This protein transports ATP to the cytoplasm and counter transports ADP into the mitochondria. J-2-N cardiomyopathic hamsters were investigated to determine the AAC content in cardiac mitochondria. After recording an electrocardiogram and collecting blood, the cardiac mitochondria were isolated. The mitochondrial membranes were labelled with eosin-5-maleimide (EMA) and separated on SDS polyacrylamide gels. The position of the AAC component was identified by exposing the gel under UV light, and the AAC content was determined by densitometry after staining with Coomassie blue. The AAC content ratio was significantly decreased in both 10-week-old and 1-year survived J-2-N hamsters when compared to control Golden hamster. Among 10-week-old J-2-N hamsters, the decrease in the AAC content ratio was more marked for the animals with more severe myocardial damage. The H(+)-ATPase activities of mitochondrial membrane were higher in 10-week-old J-2-N hamsters than in control hamsters. These results suggest that the decrease of AAC in J-2-N hamster plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy in J-2-N hamsters. PMID:8455591

  3. Lack of negative effects on Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils housed in the same secondary enclosure.

    PubMed

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-05-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  4. Elimination of microbial flora from conventionally raised Syrian hamsters by antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K K

    1988-04-01

    An attempt was made to identify and eliminate the normal endogenous microflora from conventionally-raised Syrian hamsters. A total of 14 bacterial and 2 yeast species were identified using enrichment, differential and selective media. The elimination of endogenous flora was carried out in two steps. In each step, hamsters were given a filter-sterilized mixture of two or more antibiotics for 10 weeks continuously through drinking water. During the second week, the hamsters were immersed once into a germicidal solution then housed in horizontal laminar-flow units. They were monitored at weekly intervals for the presence or absence of microorganisms in their fecal samples and fur swabs which were cultured on media as mentioned above. In step I, up to four resistant bacteria were cultured. On the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity profile of the surviving bacteria, step II procedure was started. The antibiotic mixture containing Kanamycin and Amphotericin B was fatal for the hamsters in both steps. Within 4 to 5 weeks of step II, all groups of hamsters tested bacteria-free and remained so for the duration of the step. Two weeks following withdrawal of antibiotics from drinking water, only one group of hamsters showed the presence of Escherichia coli. The other groups of hamsters tested bacteria-free for the 5 week duration of the experiment. The autopsies of these hamsters revealed greatly enlarged and thin-walled cecums, a characteristic of the germfree state.

  5. A novel phenomenon predicting the entry into a state of hibernation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Arai, Shigeyuki; Hanaya, Toshiharu; Sakurai, Takeo; Ikeda, Masao; Kurimoto, Masashi

    2005-02-01

    When Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are bred in a cold and short-day environment, most animals go into hibernation after a certain period of time. However, to date it has not been possible to predict which hamster will enter hibernation. In this study, we subcutaneously implanted thermo-loggers in hamsters bred in the cold environment, and recorded the subcutaneous temperature at short intervals until they went into hibernation. A time series analysis of temperature disclosed that a fall of 0.4 to 0.8 degrees C in subcutaneous temperature was seen 5 to 16 days before entering hibernation, and this phenomenon continued for three days or more. No hamster went into the hibernation without displaying this signal. Although the mechanism by which this phenomenon takes place is not clear, it is a sign from the body, which is useful for indicating if a hamster will enter hibernation shortly.

  6. Spontaneous nonneoplastic lesions in control Syrian hamsters in three 24-month long-term carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Elizabeth F; Ernst, Heinrich; Germann, Paul-Georg

    2015-02-01

    Information about the incidence of spontaneously occurring, nonneoplastic background findings in Syrian hamsters is essential if Syrian hamsters are to be used for toxicity studies. Male and female Syrian hamsters of the strain Han:AURA from the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM) breeding colony were maintained as control animals for carcinogenicity studies and were examined for the presence of nonneoplastic background findings either when they died or when the study was terminated. The nonneoplastic background lesions observed at an incidence of >50% (high), >25% (moderate), and >10% (low) in either male or female animals or in both sexes in one or more long-term studies are detailed. The results are compared to previous published reports of nonneoplastic, spontaneous background lesions in Syrian hamsters. Background information about the incidence of background lesions in Syrian hamsters on short- and long-term studies is useful to both toxicologists and toxicological pathologists.

  7. Phylogenetic conservation of immunoglobulin heavy chains: direct comparison of hamster and mouse Cmu genes.

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, K L; Duncan, W R; Tucker, P W

    1985-01-01

    We have analyzed the JH-Cmu locus of the Syrian hamster by DNA cloning and sequencing. The single Cmu gene is highly homologous to that of the mouse. The hamster equivalents of the JH and switch (S) recombination regions are arranged as in the mouse, but surprisingly are not highly conserved. Also unlike its close murine relative, the Smu regions among inbred hamster strains are not polymorphic. The complete nucleotide sequence of hamster and mouse Cmu genes have been compared to partial Cmu sequences of other species. Conservation within a portion of the 3' untranslated region may signify functional requirements for 3' end processing. Mutational frequencies within exons and introns of hamster and mouse do not support the theory that the rate of DNA transitions to transversions decreases with evolutionary distance. Images PMID:2994005

  8. Melatonin attenuates photic disruption of circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ruby, N F; Kang, T; Heller, H C

    1997-10-01

    Body temperature (Tb) was recorded via a biotelemetry system from 28 adult male Siberian hamsters maintained in a light-dark (LD) cycle of 16 h light/day for several months. After Tb was recorded for 3 wk, the LD cycle was phase delayed by extending the light phase by 5 h for 1 day; animals remained on a 16:8 LD cycle for the remainder of the experiment. Hamsters were injected daily with melatonin or vehicle solution for several weeks, beginning either 2 mo after (experiment 1) or on the day of (experiment 2) the phase shift; injections occurred within 30 min of dark onset. In experiment 1, 75% of animals free ran with circadian periods >24 h, beginning on the day of the phase shift, and never reentrained to the LD cycle; no hamsters unambiguously entrained to daily injections. In contrast, 78% of animals in experiment 2 entrained to melatonin injections, and 71% of those animals subsequently reentrained to the photocycle when the injection regimen ended. No vehicle-treated animals entrained to the injection schedule. Melatonin had no effect on daily mean Tb and Tb rhythm amplitude in either experiment; however, melatonin doubled the duration of a hyperthermic response that occurred after each injection. Thus melatonin can prevent loss of entrainment induced by a phase shift of the LD cycle but cannot restore entrainment to free-running animals. Failure to reentrain in the presence of two appropriately coordinated entraining agents also suggests that a phase shift of the photocycle can diminish the sensitivity of the circadian system to both photic and nonphotic input.

  9. Aging, reproduction, and the melatonin rhythm in the Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Horton, T H; Yellon, S M

    2001-06-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that responsiveness to melatonin, the presence of the melatonin rhythm in circulation, and parameters of the GnRH neuron system are sustained across the aging continuum in Siberian hamsters. Afternoon melatonin injections induced testicular atrophy in 42% of aged males compared with 100% of adult males. The proportion of aged males failing to respond to the melatonin injections was similar to the proportion that failed to undergo testicular regression upon exposure to short days. Exposure to short days induced testicular atrophy in juvenile and adult hamsters; however, regression was incomplete or absent in 43% of aged males. The nocturnal rise in melatonin was similar with regard to duration and peak amplitude, and appropriate with respect to photoperiod in 25-day-old juveniles, adult (5 months), and aged (17 months) hamsters. Neither advanced age nor timed melatonin treatments affected GnRH neuron numbers or distribution. Fertility was maintained in aged and adult males to a comparable extent with respect to latency to first litter and number of pups per litter; reproductive success was dramatically reduced in aged compared with adult females. Because melatonin rhythms accurately reflect day length information throughout the continuum from puberty to advanced age, the present evidence suggests that limitations in testis regression in response to short days or exogenous melatonin in a subset of aged males result from a reduced ability to respond to melatonin. In the wild, failure to undergo testicular regression in the presence of shortening day lengths may extend the breeding season of aged males.

  10. Photoperiodic regulation of FGF21 production in the Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Samms, Ricardo J; Fowler, Maxine J; Cooper, Scott; Emmerson, Paul; Coskun, Tamer; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Tsintzas, Kostas; Ebling, Francis J P

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". FGF21 is an endocrine member of the fibroblast growth factor superfamily that has been shown to play an important role in the physiological response to nutrient deprivation. Food restriction enhances hepatic FGF21 production, which serves to engage an integrated response to energy deficit. Specifically, elevated FGF21 levels lead to reduced gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic ketogenesis. However, circulating FGF21 concentrations also paradoxically rise in states of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity. Furthermore, multiple peripheral tissues also produce FGF21 in addition to the liver, raising questions as to its endocrine and paracrine roles in the control of energy metabolism. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma FGF21 concentrations in the Siberian hamster, a rodent which undergoes a seasonal cycle of fattening and body weight gain in the long days (LD) of summer, followed by reduction of appetite and fat catabolism in the short days (SD) of winter. Groups of adult male hamsters were raised in long days, and then exposed to SD for up to 12 weeks. Chronic exposure of LD animals to SD led to a significant increase in circulating FGF21 concentrations. This elevation of circulating FGF21 was preceded by an increase in liver FGF21 protein production evident as early as 4 weeks of exposure to SD. FGF21 protein abundance was also increased significantly in interscapular brown adipose tissue, with a positive correlation between plasma levels of FGF21 and BAT protein abundance throughout the experimental period. Epididymal white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) also produced FGF21, but levels did not change in response to a change in photoperiod. In summary, a natural programmed state of fat catabolism was associated with increased FGF21 production in the liver and BAT, consistent with the view that FGF21 has a role in adapting hamsters to the hypophagic winter state.

  11. Reproductive aging in the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus campbelli.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H E; Tweedie, C J; Terranova, P F; Lisk, R D; Wynne-Edwards, K E

    1998-03-01

    Changes in fertility (delivery success), fecundity (litter size and weaning success), sensitivity to pregnancy-blocking stimuli (mate removal after 24 h), and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function were assessed during reproductive aging in the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus campbelli. All indices of aging occurred earlier in the Djungarian hamster than they do in other laboratory models, including the mouse. Fertility and fecundity were halved by 8 mo of age, and the response to pregnancy-blocking stimuli disappeared by 4-6 mo. Pup birth weight increased with maternal age and decreasing litter size. Older females also tended to lose entire litters rather than to reduce litter size and successfully wean remaining pups. Impaired ovarian function was a major contributor to reproductive aging. Numbers of large antral follicles developing in aged females and in aged females receiving eCG treatment were similar to those in young females. However, a few preovulatory follicles routinely failed to ovulate from each ovary. Healthy preovulatory follicles in old females secreted the large quantities of estradiol-17 beta typical of estrous cycles, but eCG-induced preovulatory follicles did not. As young females of this species have smaller folicular reserves than other rodent species, and follicle numbers in older females are further reduced (with a high incidence of completely degenerate ovaries), follicular exhaustion was coincident with reproductive failure. Neuroendocrine aging of the hypothalamus was also implicated in the loss of a pregnancy-blocking response and the failure of maternal care with increasing maternal age. Similarities to reproductive aging in long-cycle species (including primates) suggest that the Djungarian hamster is a useful laboratory model that deserves further investigation. PMID:9510975

  12. In vitro infection by Ehrlichia ruminantium of baby hamster kidney (BHK), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells.

    PubMed

    Zweygarth, E; Josemans, A I

    2003-06-01

    The Welgevonden stock of Ehrlichia ruminantium, aetiological agent of heartwater, was propagated in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells and Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. The cultures required supplementation of the medium with cycloheximide for reliable growth of E. ruminantium. Growth of the Welgevonden stock in BHK and CHO-K1 cells could lead to the development of suspension cultures suitable for the mass production of E. ruminantium for an inactivated elementary body vaccine.

  13. Distribution and metabolism of four different dimethylated arsenicals in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Naranmandura, Hua; Iwata, Katsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2010-05-15

    Arsenic toxicity and distribution are highly dependent on animal species and its chemical species. Recently, thioarsenical has been recognized in highly toxic arsenic metabolites, which was commonly found in human and animal urine. In the present study, we revealed the mechanism underlying the distribution and metabolism of non-thiolated and thiolated dimethylarsenic compounds such as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA{sup V}), and dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA{sup V}) after the administration of them into femoral vein of hamsters. DMA{sup V} and DMDTA{sup V} distributed in organs and body fluids were in their unmodified form, while DMA{sup III} and DMMTA{sup V} were bound to proteins and transformed to DMA{sup V} in organs. On the other hand, DMA{sup V} and DMDTA{sup V} were mostly excreted into urine as their intact form 1 h after post-injection, and more than 70% of the doses were recovered in urine as their intact form. By contrast, less than 8-14% of doses were recovered in urine as DMA{sup V}, while more than 60% of doses were distributed in muscles and target organs (liver, kidney, and lung) of hamsters after the injection of DMMTA{sup V} and DMA{sup III}. However, in red blood cells (RBCs), only a small amount of the arsenicals was distributed (less than 4% of the doses) after the injection of DMA{sup III} and DMMTA{sup V}, suggesting that the DMA{sup III} and DMMTA{sup V} were hardly accumulated in hamster RBCs. Based on these observations, we suggest that although DMMTA{sup V} and DMDTA{sup V} are thioarsenicals, DMMTA{sup V} is taken up efficiently by organs, in a manner different from that of DMDTA{sup V}. In addition, the distribution and metabolism of DMMTA{sup V} are like in manner similar to DMA{sup III} in hamsters, while DMDTA{sup V} is in a manner similar to DMA{sup V}.

  14. Quantitative mutagenesis and mutagen screening with Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, A.W.; San Sebastian, J.R.; Tan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented on the development of a specific gene mutation assay, the Chinese hamster ovary cells/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) system, and the utilization of this system to study structure-activity relationship affecting cytotoxicity and gene mutation by various carcinogens. Then, preliminary development and validation of a Multiplex CHO System for the simultaneous determination of chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange in addition to cytotoxicity and gene mutation is presented. The potential use of a CHO/human cell hybrid system for measuring chromosomal deletion and loss is discussed.

  15. Pineal-dependent and -independent effects of photoperiod on immune function in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jarvi C.; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit reproductive and immunological responses to photoperiod. Short (<10-h light/day) days induce gonadal atrophy, increase leukocyte concentrations, and attenuate thermoregulatory and behavioral responses to infection. Whereas hamster reproductive responses to photoperiod are dependent on pineal melatonin secretion, the role of the pineal in short-day induced changes in immune function is not fully understood. To examine this, adult hamsters were pinealectomized (PINx) or sham-PINx, and transferred to short days (9-h light/day; SD) or kept in their natal long-day (15-h light/day; LD) photoperiod. Intact and PINx hamsters housed in LD maintained large testes over the next 12 weeks; sham-PINx hamsters exhibited gonadal regression in SD, and PINx abolished this effect. Among pineal-intact hamsters, blood samples revealed increases in leukocyte, lymphocyte, CD62L+ lymphocyte, and T cell counts in SD relative to LD; PINx did not affect leukocyte numbers in LD hamsters, but abolished the SD increase in these measures. Hamsters were then treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induced thermoregulatory (fever), behavioral (anorexia, reductions in nest building), and somatic (weight loss) sickness responses in all groups. Among pineal-intact hamsters, febrile and behavioral responses to LPS were attenuated in SD relative to LD. PINx did not affect sickness responses to LPS in LD hamsters, but abolished the ameliorating effects of SD on behavioral responses to LPS. Surprisingly, PINx failed to abolish the effect of SD on fever. In common with the reproductive system, PINx induces the LD phenotype in most aspects of the immune system. The pineal gland is required for photoperiodic regulation of circulating leukocytes and neural-immune interactions that mediate select aspects of sickness behaviors. PMID:17022983

  16. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in fetal, newborn, and young adult Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed Central

    Parker, J C; Igel, H J; Reynolds, R K; Lewis, A M; Rowe, W P

    1976-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in fetal, newborn, and young adult hamsters was studied. Infected newborn hamsters initially developed a persistent viremia and viruria with titers often in excess of 10(4.0) mean infectious doses/0.03 ml of blood or urine. After week 12 two different patterns of infection became evident. Approximately one-half of the hamsters eventually cleared the infection, whereas the others developed a chronic progressive and ultimalely fatal disease characterized by continuous high-titered viremia and viruria and high titers of virus in their tissues. Complement-fixing antibody and, to a lesser degree, virus-neutralizing antibody coexisted with the viremia. Hamsters with persistently high levels of viremia and viruria developed chronic glomerulonephritis and widespread vasculitis, whereas hamsters that cleared their infections did not develop these lesions. Litters of hamsters born to viremic mothers were invariably infected. Litter sizes were small and breeding effectiveness was reduce; however, vertical, congenital infection was successfully passed through three generations. The course of infection in the congenitally infected hamsters was similar to that in newborn infected hamsters, with all animals producing complement-fixing antibody, some animals being capable of clearing the viremia and remaining healthy, and other animals having persistent viremia and fatal disease. Inoculated young adult hamsters did not become diseased, developed viremia and viruria which persisted up to 3 and 6 months, respectively, and developed complement-fixing antibody by 10 days after infection. The prolonged urinary excretion of large amounts of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by asymptomatic, chronically infected hamsters is an important public health consideration when dealing with potential human infection. Images PMID:1270139

  17. Formulation and evaluation of buccal film of Ivabradine hydrochloride for the treatment of stable angina pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Mohasin; Dubey, Akhilesh; Narayan, Reema; Prabhu, Prabhakara; Priya, Sneh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ivabradine hydrochloride is an anti-anginal drug with a biological half-life of about 2 h, and repeated daily administration is needed to maintain effective plasma level. Present investigation of buccal films of Ivabradine hydrochloride is an attempt to avoid the repeated administration and release of drug in more controlled fashion, thereby, to improve the bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Buccal patches were fabricated by solvent casting technique and were evaluated for its physical properties like physical appearance, weight uniformity, thickness, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesive time, and folding endurance, in vitro and ex vivo release studies. Results: A combination of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K15M and K100M with carbopol 940, PEG 6000 gave promising results. Further, the drug content of all the formulations was determined and was found to be uniform. All the formulations were subjected to in vitro release study using phosphate buffer pH 6.6. Patches exhibited drug release in the range of 90.36% ± 0.854 to 98.37% ± 0.589 at the end of six hrs. The best formulations (F2 and F5) containing the composition of HPMC K15-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg and HPMC K100-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg respectively exhibited in vitro drug release of 97.61% ± 0.589 and 98.37% ± 0.114 respectively. The results of ex vivo diffusion using goat cheek pouch revealed that the drug release rate was retarded up to seven hrs. Films prepared with permeation enhancer (Tween 80) showed faster drug release. Finally, stability studies were carried out by using human saliva for the optimized formulation (F2-F5). Conclusion: The present study indicated enormous potential of mucoadhesive buccal patches containing Ivabradine for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing hepatic first pass metabolism. Further work is recommended to

  18. DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Z; Xia, Y; Tian, D; Wu, K; Schmitt, M; Kwok, R K; Mumford, J L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 +/- 23.7 micrograms/L (mean +/- SEM) and 13 controls exposed to arsenic at 4.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms/L. DNA fragmentation by the DNA ladder and TUNEL assay were used to detect DNA damage in buccal cells. In the DNA ladder assay, 89% (17/19) of the arsenic-exposed group showed < 100 bp DNA fragments, in contrast to 15% (2/13) of the controls (p < 0.0001). For the TUNEL assay, the mean frequencies of positive cells were higher in the exposed group (15.1%) than in the controls (2.0%) (p < 0.0001). This study showed that high arsenic exposure via drinking water resulted in DNA damage and DNA fragmentation in buccal cells thus may be an appropriate biomarker for assessing chronic effects of arsenic in humans. A study investigating DNA fragmentation from the individuals with low levels of arsenic exposure in this population is in progress.

  19. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  20. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Surgical management of the buccal bifurcation cyst: bone grafting as a treatment adjunct to enucleation and curettage.

    PubMed

    Levarek, Rachel E; Wiltz, Mauricio J; Kelsch, Robert D; Kraut, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The buccal bifurcation cyst (BBC) is a rare inflammatory odontogenic cyst of unknown etiology. It typically develops on the buccal aspect of the permanent mandibular first molar and occasionally on the permanent mandibular second molar in children 4 to 14 years old. Distinct clinical findings of the BBC include involvement of a vital partially or fully erupted mandibular first or second molar, swelling in the affected mandibular molar region, delayed or altered eruption pattern of the involved tooth, and an increase in periodontal pocket depth when the affected tooth is partially erupted. Specific radiographic features include a radiolucent lesion on the buccal aspect of the tooth involving the roots to a variable extent, tilting of the involved molar so that the root apices are toward the lingual cortical plate, an intact periodontal ligament space and lamina dura, a periosteal reaction on the buccal surface, and an intact inferior border of the mandible. The histopathology of the lesion has been described as similar to a radicular or inflammatory odontogenic cyst. Most of the current literature supports simple enucleation and curettage of the cyst without extraction of the involved tooth as the treatment of choice. This report presents 3 cases of BBCs that were treated with enucleation and curettage without extraction of the involved tooth, in addition to a bone graft placed primarily or secondarily as an adjunctive treatment approach to the current therapies. PMID:25234530

  2. Buccal permeation of [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin from liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kellaway, I W

    2000-02-15

    The ex vivo buccal permeability of a [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]enkephalin (DADLE) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was examined from the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases of GMO and aqueous phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4, PBS) solution across excised porcine buccal mucosa mounted in a Franz cell. GMO was released in vitro from the liquid crystalline phases indicating the erosion of the liquid crystal matrices. GMO released from the liquid crystalline matrices permeated the porcine buccal mucosa with fluxes of 0.10+/-0.03 and 0.07+/-0.00%/cm(2) per h for the cubic and lamellar phases, respectively. The flux of DADLE (1.21+/-0.32 and 1. 15+/-0.11%/cm(2) per h for the cubic and lamellar phases, respectively) from the liquid crystalline phases was significantly enhanced by the GMO compared with PBS solution (0.43+/-0.08%/cm(2) per h) during the initial permeation phase (t<3 h). Our results suggest that the cubic and lamellar liquid crystalline phases can be considered as promising buccal drug carriers for peptide drugs as well as acting as permeation enhancers.

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of locust bean gum and chitosan combination as a carrier for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, C; Vasanthakumar, S; Ramakrishnan, A

    2008-05-01

    The object of the study was to evaluate locust bean gum and chitosan in ratios of 2:3; 3:2 and 4:1 (F1, F2 and F3) as a mucoadhesive component in buccal tablets and to compare the bioavailability of a propranolol hydrochloride buccal tablet with the oral tablet in healthy human volunteers. Propranolol hydrochloride buccal tablets containing various weight ratios of locust bean gum and chitosan were prepared and coated with 5% w/v ethyl cellulose on one face, and oral tablets containing 10 mg propranolol hydrochloride alone were formulated using a direct compression technique. The strength of mucoadhesion of the tablets was quantified based on the tensile force required to break the adhesive bond between a model membrane (porcine buccal mucosa) and the test polymer. The forces of detachment for the mucoadhesive buccal tablets were 14.61 +/- 0.14, 13.21 +/- 0.13 and 11.71 +/- 0.12. An in vitro study was carried out in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and the cumulative percentage release of propranolol measured at 10 min intervals for 600 min was found to be 98.31 +/- 0.10, 92.24 +/- 0.41 and 90.18 +/- 0.76 respectively. A bioavailability study was conducted with the prepared formulation in 16 healthy human volunteers to determine the plasma concentration of propranolol at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h. The bioavailability (AUC(0-t*) ng x h/ml) of the buccal propranolol hydrochloride tablets (F1, F2 and F3) and oral tablet (F4) was found to be 2244.18 +/- 210, 3580.69 +/- 460, 3889.19 +/- 290 and 1732 +/- 96 ng x hr/ml respectively. The study indicates that locust bean gum and chitosan in a weight ratio of 2:3 (F1) not only releases the drug unidirectionally from the dosage form, but also gives buccal tablets which are sufficiently mucoadhesive for clinical applications.

  4. Evaluation of a novel, natural oligosaccharide gum as a sustained-release and mucoadhesive component of calcitonin buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Alur, H H; Beal, J D; Pather, S I; Mitra, A K; Johnston, T P

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gum from Hakea gibbosa (hakea) as a sustained-release and mucoadhesive component in buccal tablets for a model peptide, namely, salmon calcitonin. Flat-faced core tablets containing either 12 or 32 mg of hakea and 40 microg (200 IU) of salmon calcitonin (sCT) per tablet were formulated using a direct compression technique and were coated with Cutina on all but one face. The in vitro release profiles were sigmoidal in nature and according to a mathematical model indicated super Case II transport as the primary mechanism of release. The resulting plasma sCT and calcium concentrations were determined following both intravenous administration and buccal application of mucoadhesive tablets in rabbits. Following intravenous administration, the mean values determined for t(1/2) (alpha), t(1/2) (beta), V(d), and CL for sCT were 0.76 +/- 0.06 min, 67 +/- 18 min, 1484 +/- 454 mL/kg, and 19 +/- 2 mL/min.kg, respectively. Following the application of the mucoadhesive buccal tablets which contained 40 microg of sCT and either 12 or 32 mg of hakea, the calculated apparent bioavailability (F) and clearance (CL) were 37 +/- 6% and 19 +/- 3.3 mL/min.kg and 16 +/- 8% and 18 +/- 0.4 mL/min. kg, respectively. Serum calcium concentrations indicated that biologically active sCT was delivered across the rabbit buccal mucosa. The strength of mucoadhesion of the tablets was also quantitated in terms of the force of detachment as a function of time. The force of detachment for the mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing either 12 or 32 mg of hakea and 40 microg of sCT increased from 4.47 +/- 0.68 to 8.41 +/- 1.0 N and 8.23 +/- 1.62 to 14.98 +/- 1.63 N, respectively, from 5 to 90 min following application to excised rabbit intestinal mucosa. These results demonstrate that the novel, natural gum from Hakea gibbosa may be used to sustain the release of sCT from a unidirectional-release buccal tablet. The mechanism of in vitro release is likely to

  5. Hemangiolymphangioama of buccal mucosa: Report of a rare case and review of literature on treatment aspect

    PubMed Central

    Sobhana, C. R.; Beena, V. T.; Soni, Ashish; Choudhary, Kanaram; Sapru, Deepthy

    2012-01-01

    Hemangiomas are lesions that are not present at birth. They manifest within first month of life, exhibit a rapid proliferative phase, and slowly involute to non-existent. Hemangiomas of the oral cavity are not common pathological entities, but the head and neck are common sites. Furthermore some time histologically lymphatic channels may be evident in hemangiomas, and then it will be categorized according predominant component, e.g.; hemangiolymphangiomas or lymphangiohemangiomas, vice versa is true for lymphangiomas. Most true hemangiomas involute with time, but 10-20% of true hemnagioma in completely involute and required post- adolescent ablative treatment. In the present article we are reporting a case of hemangiolypmangiomas of left buccal mucosa in an 18-year-old male patient. We have also reviewed various treatment modalities and their clinical implication. PMID:23833496

  6. Pedicled buccal fat pad graft for root coverage in severe gingival recession defect

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saurav; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Satpathy, Anurag; Das, Abhaya Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is a condition resulting in root exposure which leads to root sensitivity, pain, root caries, plaque retention, poor esthetics, and tooth loss. Sites exhibiting Miller Class III and IV GR are not suitable for treatment with surgical root coverage techniques, and their prognosis are very poor with current techniques. In this case report, pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP) was employed as subepithelial graft technique for root coverage of maxillary tooth with Class III GR defect along with furcation involvement and the absence of keratinized gingiva. PBFP as the subepithelial graft is likely to increase the predictability and outcome of root coverage procedures in the treatment of cases with poor prognosis, owing to its pedicled vascularity. PBFP may be considered as a reliable modality for root coverage of such severe maxillary posterior GR defects, as reported, that could not be repaired by other conventional procedures. PMID:27143839

  7. Interdisciplinary Management of Maxillary Canine Buccal Ectopia Associated with Peg Shaped Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Sawhny, Asheesh

    2016-01-01

    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. The purpose of this report is to illustrate an interdisciplinary approach involving both orthodontic management and conservative tooth restoration. The case was treated through an orthodontic nonextraction fixed appliance mechanotherapy for successful alignment of buccally ectopic upper left canine followed by a conservative direct composite tooth buildup of peg lateral incisor associated with the upper left ectopic canine in a 16-year-old adolescent North Indian female. Posttreatment records demonstrated good alignment of the displaced tooth and restoration of normal anatomy of the peg shaped lateral incisor. PMID:27725890

  8. Phlebolith in arteriovenous malformation in buccal fat pad masquerading sialolith: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arpita; Mohapatra, Mounabati; Patra, Susama; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare vascular lesion in the buccal fat pad (BFP). One of the important complications associated with these lesions is phlebolith formation within it. To the best of authors' knowledge, there is no medical literature on AVM with phlebolith formation in BFP till date. The present case is a 12-year-old boy who presented with a swelling in the right side of the face, clinically diagnosed to be sialocele with sialolith. Excision of the mass was done, and histopathology revealed AVM with the formation of phlebolith. This rare entity needs to be kept in mind while evaluating a case of calcification in BFP. The first case of AVM with phlebolith formation in BFP is reported here along with brief review of literature. PMID:26097367

  9. Phlebolith in arteriovenous malformation in buccal fat pad masquerading sialolith: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Arpita; Mohapatra, Mounabati; Patra, Susama; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare vascular lesion in the buccal fat pad (BFP). One of the important complications associated with these lesions is phlebolith formation within it. To the best of authors’ knowledge, there is no medical literature on AVM with phlebolith formation in BFP till date. The present case is a 12-year-old boy who presented with a swelling in the right side of the face, clinically diagnosed to be sialocele with sialolith. Excision of the mass was done, and histopathology revealed AVM with the formation of phlebolith. This rare entity needs to be kept in mind while evaluating a case of calcification in BFP. The first case of AVM with phlebolith formation in BFP is reported here along with brief review of literature. PMID:26097367

  10. Assessing the Accuracy of Cone-Beam Computerized Tomography in Measuring Thinning Oral and Buccal Bone.

    PubMed

    Raskó, Zoltán; Nagy, Lili; Radnai, Márta; Piffkó, József; Baráth, Zoltán

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in measuring thinning bone surrounding dental implants. Three implants were inserted into the mandible of a domestic pig at 6 different bone thicknesses on the vestibular and the lingual sides, and measurements were recorded using CBCT. The results were obtained, analyzed, and compared with areas without implants. Our results indicated that the bone thickness and the neighboring implants decreased the accuracy and reliability of CBCT for measuring bone volume around dental implants. We concluded that CBCT slightly undermeasured the bone thickness around the implant, both buccally and orally, compared with the same thickness without the implant. These results support that using the i-CAT NG with a 0.2 voxel size is not accurate for either qualitative or quantitative bone evaluations, especially when the bone is thinner than 0.72 mm in the horizontal dimension.

  11. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  12. Reconstruction of maxillary cemento-ossifying fibroma defect with buccal pad of fat.

    PubMed

    Sivaraj, Subramonian; Jeevadhas, Pratheep

    2013-07-01

    A cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a rare benign neoplasm of maxilla when compared with mandible (World Health Organization, 1992). COF of maxilla may be quite large and locally very aggressive lesion. These tumor mass was peeled out by en-bloc excision using gentle blunt dissection. This paper presents 35-year-old male patient who had a gradually expanding lobular mass in the left maxillary posterior region for past 1 year. He has been treated successfully by surgical en-bloc resection. Various techniques were used to reconstruction the defect. Buccal pad of fat is a simple technique having advantages like good vascularity, adaptability, good closure of the defect with favorable prognosis. PMID:23956608

  13. [Urethroplasty with buccal mucosa graft or penile skin graft for anterior urethral stricture?].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Alvaro

    2015-06-04

    Currently the treatment for urethral stricture considers various techniques, including augmentation urethroplasty using tissue from different parts of the body. The more used are the buccal mucosa and penile skin, but are there any differences in success between both tissues? Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified one systematic review including 18 primary studies addressing this question, six of them prospective. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded there is uncertainty about the superiority of one technique over another because the certainty of the evidence is very low. A new systematic review is urgently needed on this topic as randomized studies have been published after the most recent review, which could provide greater certainty.

  14. Reconstruction of maxillary cemento-ossifying fibroma defect with buccal pad of fat.

    PubMed

    Sivaraj, Subramonian; Jeevadhas, Pratheep

    2013-07-01

    A cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a rare benign neoplasm of maxilla when compared with mandible (World Health Organization, 1992). COF of maxilla may be quite large and locally very aggressive lesion. These tumor mass was peeled out by en-bloc excision using gentle blunt dissection. This paper presents 35-year-old male patient who had a gradually expanding lobular mass in the left maxillary posterior region for past 1 year. He has been treated successfully by surgical en-bloc resection. Various techniques were used to reconstruction the defect. Buccal pad of fat is a simple technique having advantages like good vascularity, adaptability, good closure of the defect with favorable prognosis.

  15. Pedicled buccal fat pad graft for root coverage in severe gingival recession defect.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saurav; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Satpathy, Anurag; Das, Abhaya Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is a condition resulting in root exposure which leads to root sensitivity, pain, root caries, plaque retention, poor esthetics, and tooth loss. Sites exhibiting Miller Class III and IV GR are not suitable for treatment with surgical root coverage techniques, and their prognosis are very poor with current techniques. In this case report, pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP) was employed as subepithelial graft technique for root coverage of maxillary tooth with Class III GR defect along with furcation involvement and the absence of keratinized gingiva. PBFP as the subepithelial graft is likely to increase the predictability and outcome of root coverage procedures in the treatment of cases with poor prognosis, owing to its pedicled vascularity. PBFP may be considered as a reliable modality for root coverage of such severe maxillary posterior GR defects, as reported, that could not be repaired by other conventional procedures. PMID:27143839

  16. [Cytologic study of buccal epithelium in various lengths of service in chrysotile-asbestos production].

    PubMed

    Kurkin, A V; Dauletkalieva, Zh A; Rybalkina, D H

    2015-01-01

    Buccal epithelium cytograms were analyzed in workers of chrysotile-asbestos production "Kostanaiskiye mineraly" JSC. Findings are that 10-20 years of service are associated with increased number of 4th differentiation grade cells and correspondingly decreased number of 5th differentiation grade cells. Later, with 20 years of service, numbers of 4th and 5th grade epitheliocytes reach initial values. With 10-20 years of service, integral parameters of differentiation index, cornification index and intracellular relations decrease. Findings are that 10-20 years of service are connected with domination of proliferation over differentiation processes. Length of service over 20 years is with adaptive processess in the workers. These data are important in evaluation of mucosal system in variable length of occupational service.

  17. The pressures of suction feeding: the relation between buccal pressure and induced fluid speed in centrarchid fishes.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Day, Steven W; Wainwright, Peter C

    2006-09-01

    Suction feeding fish rapidly expand their oral cavity, resulting in a flow of water directed towards the mouth that is accompanied by a drop in pressure inside the buccal cavity. Pressure inside the mouth and fluid speed external to the mouth are understood to be mechanically linked but the relationship between them has never been empirically determined in any suction feeder. We present the first simultaneous measurements of fluid speed and buccal pressure during suction feeding in fishes. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed video were used to measure the maximum fluid speed in front of the mouth of four largemouth bass and three bluegill sunfish by positioning a vertical laser sheet on the mid-sagittal plane of the fish. Peak magnitude of pressure inside the buccal cavity was quantified using a transducer positioned within a catheter that opened into the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity. In both species the time of peak pressure preceded the time of peak fluid speed by as much as 42 ms, indicating a role for unsteady flow effects in shaping this relation. We parameterized an existing model of suction feeding to determine whether the relationship between peak pressures and fluid speeds that we observed could be predicted using just a few kinematic variables. The model predicted much higher fluid speeds than we measured at all values of peak pressure and gave a scaling exponent between them (0.51) that was higher than observed (0.36 for largemouth bass, 0.38 for bluegill). The scaling between peak buccal pressure and peak fluid speed at the mouth aperture differed in the two species, supporting the recent conclusion that species morphology affects this relation such that a general pattern may not hold. PMID:16916963

  18. Evaluation of the Tolerability of Switching Patients on Chronic Full μ-Opioid Agonist Therapy to Buccal Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Gruener, Daniel; Kirby, Todd; Xiang, Qinfang; Tzanis, Evan; Finn, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assess whether patients with chronic pain receiving 80 to 220 mg oral morphine sulfate equivalent of a full μ-opioid agonist could be transitioned to buccal buprenorphine at approximately 50% of their full dose without inducing opioid withdrawal or sacrificing analgesic efficacy. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, two-period crossover study in adult patients receiving around-the-clock full opioid agonist therapy and confirmed to be opioid dependent by naloxone challenge. Study doses were substituted at the time of the regular dose schedule for each patient. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a maximum Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale score ≥ 13 (moderate withdrawal) or use of rescue medication. Results. 35 subjects on ≥ 80 mg morphine sulfate equivalent per day were evaluable for opioid withdrawal. One patient during buccal buprenorphine treatment and two during 50% full μ-opioid agonist treatment experienced opioid withdrawal of at least moderate intensity. The mean maximum Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale scores were similar, and numerically lower on buccal buprenorphine. There were no significant differences in pain ratings between treatments. The most frequent adverse events with buccal buprenorphine were headache (19%), vomiting (13%), nausea, diarrhea, and drug withdrawal syndrome (each 9%), and with full μ-opioid agonist were headache (16%), drug withdrawal syndrome (13%), and nausea (6%). Conclusions. Chronic pain patients treated with around-the-clock full μ-opioid agonist therapy can be switched to buccal buprenorphine (a partial μ-opioid agonist) at approximately 50% of the full μ-opioid agonist dose without an increased risk of opioid withdrawal or loss of pain control. PMID:26917621

  19. Needle-free buccal anesthesia using iontophoresis and amino amide salts combined in a mucoadhesive formulation.

    PubMed

    Cubayachi, Camila; Couto, Renê Oliveira do; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Freitas, Osvaldo de; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2015-12-01

    Iontophoresis is a strategy to increase the penetration of drugs through biological membranes; however, its use has been underexplored in mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of iontophoresis in the mucosal penetration of prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and lidocaine hydrochloride (LCL), which are largely used in dentistry as local anesthetics, when combined in the same formulation. Semisolid hydrogels containing these drugs either alone or in combination were developed at two different pHs (7.0 and 5.8) and presented adequate mechanical and mucoadhesive properties for buccal administration. The distribution coefficients between the mucosa and the formulations (Dm/f) and the in vitro mucosa permeation and retention rates were evaluated for both PCL and LCL. At pH 7.0, the combination of the drugs decreased the Dm/f of PCL by approximately 3-fold but did not change the Dm/f of LCL; iontophoresis increased the permeation rate of PCL by 12-fold and did not significantly change LCL flux compared with the passive permeation rate of the combined drugs. Combining the drugs also resulted in an increase in both PCL (86-fold) and LCL (12-fold) accumulation in the mucosa after iontophoresis at pH 7.0 compared with iontophoresis of the isolated drugs. Therefore, applying iontophoresis to a semisolid formulation of this drug combination at pH 7.0 can serve as a needle-free strategy to speed the onset and prolong the duration of buccal anesthesia.

  20. Long ureteric stricture replacement by buccal mucosa graft: an Armenian experience case series report

    PubMed Central

    Akopyan, Kristina; Levonyan, Arthur; Tsaturyan, Ashot

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to demonstrate the results of a case series concerning the replacement of long ureteric strictures using buccal mucosa grafts. Material and methods Five patients (3 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 35 years old, underwent reconstructive ureteral surgery using buccal mucosa graft with omental wrapping during the period of 2010–2013. In all cases, the location of strictures was in the proximal ureters with the length of strictures varying from 2.5 to 5.0 cm. Results We did not observe any major complications postoperatively. Two patients complained of constipation, which was resolved on the second day without any special treatment. Only one patient experienced fever (39°C) on the seventh day after the surgery due to inadequate drainage of the nephrostomic tube. Mean follow-up time was 39.6 months (range 26–52 months), mean hospital stay length was 10.6 days. Intravenous and antegrade urography were performed after removing JJ stents. Results were favorable without any signs of stricture. Repetitive ultrasound and radiologic imaging was performed at month 3, 6, 12 in the first year and every half-year thereafter. Intravenous urography showed no signs of strictures. Hydronephrosis was resolved in all patients by the sixth month following the surgery. Conclusions Postoperatively, we observed favorable results in all patients in terms of absence of short term-surgical complications. This technique could be considered for patients with long ureteric strictures in whom ureteral replacement with bowel interposition or kidney auto-transplantation is contraindicated. PMID:27551561

  1. Dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of middle and upper Pleistocene human fossils.

    PubMed

    Lalueza, C; Pérez-Pérez, A; Turbón, D

    1996-07-01

    Buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastoralist, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (Inuit, Fueguians, Bushmen, Australian aborigines, Andamanese, Indians from Vancouver, Veddahs, Tasmanians, Lapps, and Hindus), preserved at museum collections. Molds of an area of the buccal surface have been obtained and observed at 100x magnification in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The length and orientation of each striation have been determined with a semiautomatic program of an image analyzer system (IBAS). Results show that intergroup variability is significantly higher than the intragroup variability. There exists a tendency toward fewer striations and a higher proportion of vertical striations in the carnivorous groups than in the vegetarian ones. This microwear pattern is concordant with biomechanics (predominantly vertical mandible movements in meat eaters) and phytolith content in plants (more abrasive particles in vegetarian diets). The variability found has been used in a multivariate analysis as a base to compare the microwear pattern of a sample of 20 Middle and Upper Pleistocene fossils, mainly from Europe, analyzed with the same methodology. The sample includes specimens usually classified as archaic H. sapiens (Broken Hill, Banyoles, Montmaurin, La Chaise-Suard, La Chaise-Bourgeios et Delaunay), Neanderthal (La Quina V, Gibraltar 2, Tabun 1 and 2, Amud 1, Malarnaud, St. Cesaire, Marillac), and anatomically modern H. sapiens (Skhül 4, Qafzeh 9, Cro-Magnon 4, Abri-Pataud, Veyrier, La Madelaine, Rond-du-Barry). Results indicate that some of the Neanderthal specimens have a microwear pattern close to that of the carnivorous groups (such as Inuit and Fueguians), suggesting that these individuals follow a hunter strategy. In contrast, archaic H. sapiens and H. sapiens sapiens seem to have a more abrasive diet, probably more depending on vegetable materials, than the Neanderthals

  2. Dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of middle and upper Pleistocene human fossils.

    PubMed

    Lalueza, C; Pérez-Pérez, A; Turbón, D

    1996-07-01

    Buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastoralist, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (Inuit, Fueguians, Bushmen, Australian aborigines, Andamanese, Indians from Vancouver, Veddahs, Tasmanians, Lapps, and Hindus), preserved at museum collections. Molds of an area of the buccal surface have been obtained and observed at 100x magnification in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The length and orientation of each striation have been determined with a semiautomatic program of an image analyzer system (IBAS). Results show that intergroup variability is significantly higher than the intragroup variability. There exists a tendency toward fewer striations and a higher proportion of vertical striations in the carnivorous groups than in the vegetarian ones. This microwear pattern is concordant with biomechanics (predominantly vertical mandible movements in meat eaters) and phytolith content in plants (more abrasive particles in vegetarian diets). The variability found has been used in a multivariate analysis as a base to compare the microwear pattern of a sample of 20 Middle and Upper Pleistocene fossils, mainly from Europe, analyzed with the same methodology. The sample includes specimens usually classified as archaic H. sapiens (Broken Hill, Banyoles, Montmaurin, La Chaise-Suard, La Chaise-Bourgeios et Delaunay), Neanderthal (La Quina V, Gibraltar 2, Tabun 1 and 2, Amud 1, Malarnaud, St. Cesaire, Marillac), and anatomically modern H. sapiens (Skhül 4, Qafzeh 9, Cro-Magnon 4, Abri-Pataud, Veyrier, La Madelaine, Rond-du-Barry). Results indicate that some of the Neanderthal specimens have a microwear pattern close to that of the carnivorous groups (such as Inuit and Fueguians), suggesting that these individuals follow a hunter strategy. In contrast, archaic H. sapiens and H. sapiens sapiens seem to have a more abrasive diet, probably more depending on vegetable materials, than the Neanderthals.

  3. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future.

  4. A Solitary Phlebolith in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Entity and Clinicopathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, A; Kumar, N Govindraj; Kumar, B Jambukeshwar; Naik, Raghavendra M; Sangineedi, Y Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Pathological conditions can give rise to calcifications within oral mucosa representing either a local or systemic disturbance. Inflammation, trauma, debris acting as nidus and vascular lesions have been attributed as principal causes for occurrence of calcifications within the oral mucosa. Occurrence of multiple calcified thrombi (phleboliths) is considered pathognomonic for hemangiomas and vascular malformations in the oral and maxillofacial region. Isolated occurrence of phlebolith in oral mucosa though very rare, especially without any underlying vascular lesions, can be diagnostically challenging. Either a traumatic association at that site or a hemangioma of childhood that has regressed once the individual became an adult are the possible explanations suggested for the occurrence of these unique solitary phleboliths. Histologically, an "onion-ring"-like concentric lamellar fibrosis around a central core with varying amounts of calcifications and presence of minute vascular channels within or around calcified lamellae is characteristic for phlebolith. There is a high propensity for misdiagnosing solitary phlebolith located in sites like the buccal mucosa where various other pathologic soft-tissue calcifications, such as sialoliths, calcified lymph nodes, traumatic myositis ossificans, etc. can occur and they too appear radiopaque in radiographs. Besides, the absence of any associated underlying vascular lesion adds to the mispercep-tion. In such cases, histopathological examination with routine hematoxylin and eosin staining alone may not be sufficient to determine the accurate diagnosis. Allied clinical history and immunohistochemistry can aid to arrive at the final diagnosis. We report such a case of nonvascular lesion-associated solitary phlebolith in the right buccal mucosa of a healthy 49-year-old male patient and discuss its differential diagnosis with emphasis on histological presentation. PMID:27659092

  5. Role of luteinizing hormone in luteotropic complex of pregnant hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, H.; Greenwald, G.S.

    1987-04-01

    Hamsters were hypophysectomized on day 4 of pregnancy and injected subcutaneously on days 4-7 with various combinations of 200 ..mu..g prolactin (Prl), 10 ..mu..g follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 20 ..mu..g luteinizing hormone (LH) in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to decrease its rate of absorption or in saline. End points for luteal function on day 8 were maintenance of pregnancy, serum progesterone (P/sub 4/), luteal weight, and luteal binding for human chorionic gonadotropin, FSH, and Prl. After hypophysectomy, a drastic decline occurred in all parameters including an 89% decrease in luteal weight. Injection of Prl did not maintain pregnancy nor serum P/sub 4/ but partially maintained luteal weight and human chorionic gonadotropin binding sites per corpus luteum. The minimal luteotropic complex of Prl and FSH was effective in maintaining pregnancy and significantly increased serum P/sub 4/ and Prl and FSH receptors but not to control levels. Thus, the luteotropic activity of LH was only demonstrable when it was injected in a long-acting form; when delivered as a bolus, LH (saline) was luteolytic. P/sub 4/ and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay. Radioiodinated gonadotropins were prepared. The percentage of tracer reacting with an excess of receptor were 51% of /sup 125/I-FSH and 45.9% of /sup 125/I-hCG using whole homogenates of hamster ovaries.

  6. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-02-17

    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise.

  7. Social forces can impact the circadian clocks of cohabiting hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Matthew J.; Indic, Premananda; Schwartz, William J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of field and laboratory studies have shown that the social environment influences daily rhythms in numerous species. However, underlying mechanisms, including the circadian system's role, are not known. Obstacles to this research have been the inability to track and objectively analyse rhythms of individual animals housed together. Here, we employed temperature dataloggers to track individual body temperature rhythms of pairs of cohabiting male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in constant darkness and applied a continuous wavelet transform to determine the phase of rhythm onset before, during, and after cohabitation. Cohabitation altered the predicted trajectory of rhythm onsets in 34% of individuals, representing 58% of pairs, compared to 12% of hamsters single-housed as ‘virtual pair’ controls. Deviation from the predicted trajectory was by a change in circadian period (τ), which tended to be asymmetric—affecting one individual of the pair in nine of 11 affected pairs—with hints that dominance might play a role. These data implicate a change in the speed of the circadian clock as one mechanism whereby social factors can alter daily rhythms. Miniature dataloggers coupled with wavelet analyses should provide powerful tools for future studies investigating the principles and mechanisms mediating social influences on daily timing. PMID:24500164

  8. Constant darkness restores entrainment to phase-delayed Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Norman F; Joshi, Nirav; Heller, H Craig

    2002-12-01

    Over 90% of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) fail to reentrain to a 5-h phase delay of a 16:8-h photocycle. Because constant darkness (DD) restores rhythms disrupted by constant light, we tested whether DD could also restore entrainment. DD began 0, 5, or 14 days after a 5-h phase delay, and the light-dark cycle was reinstated 14 days later. All hamsters exposed to DD on day 0 reentrained, whereas 42% reentrained irrespective of whether DD began 5 or 14 days later. For these latter two groups, tau (tau) and alpha (alpha) in DD predicted reentrainment; animals that reentrained had a mean tau and alpha of 24.1 and 8.9 h, respectively, whereas those that failed to reentrain maintained a mean tau and alpha of 25.0 and of 7.1 h, respectively. Restoration of entrainment by DD is somewhat paradoxical because it suggests that reentrainment to the photocycle was prevented by continued exposure to that same photocycle. The dichotomy of circadian responses to DD suggests "entrainment" phenotypes that are similar to those of photoperiodic responders and nonresponders.

  9. Dose response of elastase-induced emphysema in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Raub, J A; Mercer, R R; Miller, F J; Graham, J A; O'Neil, J J

    1982-04-01

    Elastase-induced emphysema in hamsters was studied using pulmonary function tests in an effort to develop techniques for determining the effects of air pollutants on the progression of this disease. Single intratracheal injections of 6, 12, or 24 units of porcine pancreatic elastase produced dose-related changes in pulmonary function after 4 wk when compared with sham-injected control animals. Boyle's law end-expiratory volume and residual volume, measured by gas dilution, increased (p less than 0.05) at 12 and 24 units, respectively, whereas vital capacity, determined plethysmographically, and total lung capacity wee increased (p less than 0.05) at all 3 elastase doses. Respiratory system compliance, calculated by a nonlinear least squares regression fit of the deflation pressure-volume curve, increased (p less than 0.05) at 24 units only. The multiple-breath nitrogen washout slope (N2 slope) and the single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) decreased (p less than 0.05) at all 3 doses of elastase. Both histologic and physiologic evaluation showed dose-related pulmonary impairment. It appears, therefore, that as little as 6 units of elastase produces mild emphysema in hamsters, which is detectable by pulmonary function testing. Of these tests, the DLCO and N2 slope were the most effective in detecting the degree of impairment. PMID:6918202

  10. Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection in Golden Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Scharton, Dionna; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Vest, Zachary; Westover, Jonna B.; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Gowen, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a formidable pathogen that causes severe disease and abortion in a variety of livestock species and a range of disease in humans that includes hemorrhagic fever, fulminant hepatitis, encephalitis and blindness. The natural transmission cycle involves mosquito vectors, but exposure can also occur through contact with infected fluids and tissues. The lack of approved antiviral therapies and vaccines for human use underlies the importance of small animal models for proof-of-concept efficacy studies. Several mouse and rat models of RVFV infection have been well characterized and provide useful systems for the study of certain aspects of pathogenesis, as well as antiviral drug and vaccine development. However, certain host-directed therapeutics may not act on mouse or rat pathways. Here, we describe the natural history of disease in golden Syrian hamsters challenged subcutaneously with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Peracute disease resulted in rapid lethality within 2 to 3 days of RVFV challenge. High titer viremia and substantial viral loads were observed in most tissues examined; however, histopathology and immunostaining for RVFV antigen were largely restricted to the liver. Acute hepatocellular necrosis associated with a strong presence of viral antigen in the hepatocytes indicates that fulminant hepatitis is the likely cause of mortality. Further studies to assess the susceptibility and disease progression following respiratory route exposure are warranted. The use of the hamsters to model RVFV infection is suitable for early stage antiviral drug and vaccine development studies. PMID:25607955

  11. Acid-induced secretory cell metaplasia in hamster bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T.G.; Lucey, E.C.; Breuer, R.; Snider, G.L.

    1988-02-01

    Hamsters were exposed to an intratracheal instillation of 0.5 ml of 0.08 N nitric, hydrochloric, or sulfuric acid to determine their airway epithelial response. Three weeks after exposure, the left intrapulmonary bronchi in Alcian blue/PAS-strained paraffin sections were evaluated for the amount of secretory product in the airway epithelium as a measure of secretory cell metaplasia (SCM). Compared to saline-treated control animals, all three acids caused statistically significant SCM. In addition to the bronchial lesion, all three acids caused similar interstitial fibrosis, bronchiolectasis, and bronchiolization of alveoli that varied in individual animals from mild to severe. In a separate experiment to study the persistence of the SCM, hamsters treated with a single instillation of 0.1 N nitric acid showed significant SCM 3, 7, and 17 weeks after exposure. There was a high correlation (r = 0.96) between a subjective assessment of SCM and objective assessment using a digital image-analysis system. We conclude that protons induce SCM independently of the associated anion; the SCM persists at least 17 weeks. Sulfuric acid is an atmospheric pollutant and nitric acid may form locally on the mucosa of lungs exposed to nitrogen dioxide. These acids may contribute to the development of maintenance of the SCM seen in the conducting airways of humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  12. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-02-17

    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise. PMID:23333554

  13. Effects of equine herpesvirus-9 infection in pregnant mice and hamsters.

    PubMed

    El-Habashi, N; El-Nahass, E; Fukushi, H; Nayel, M; Hibi, D; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9, a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus isolated from gazelles, was assessed in pregnant rodents (mice and hamsters) following intranasal inoculation. The pregnant female mice and hamsters were inoculated with EHV-9 in the early or late trimesters. The inoculated animals exhibited mild to severe neurological signs and gave birth to dead or undersized fetuses. All three mice and four hamsters inoculated in the first trimester had varying degrees of placental abnormality, characterized by markedly dilated maternal blood sinusoids, atrophy of the trophoblast cells and necrosis of the middle layer of the trophoblast. There was also endometrial blood vessel congestion and necrosis and disorganization of the fetal capillaries in the mice and hamsters inoculated in the last trimester. EHV-9 antigen was detected in the brain of dams and the lungs of the fetuses and in the middle of the trophoblast layer of the placenta in hamsters inoculated in the first trimester. The placental lesions were milder in mice than in the hamsters. The mice and hamsters inoculated in the last trimester had more prominent lesions than the animals inoculated in the first trimester. These results suggest that EHV-9 can cause the death of the fetus or abortion and that these events may be secondary to placental vascular compromise. PMID:20813378

  14. Pineal-independent regulation of photo-nonresponsiveness in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Prendergast, B J; Freeman, D A

    1999-02-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin influences circadian rhythms and also mediates reproductive responses to photoperiod. The authors tested whether pinealectomy influences circadian oscillators responsible for induction of nonresponsiveness to short day lengths by preventing normal short-day patterns of circadian entrainment. Adult male Siberian hamsters were pinealectomized or sham operated, maintained in either 18 h light per day (18L) or 15L for 10 weeks, and then tested for responsiveness to 10L. Because pinealectomized hamsters do not show gonadal regression in short day lengths, responsiveness was assessed by measuring phase angle of entrainment and the length of the nightly activity period following transfer to 10L. The incidence of nonresponsiveness was significantly higher in 18L hamsters than in 15L hamsters but was unaffected by pineal status. Fully 88% of 18L hamsters failed to entrain to 10L in the normal short-day manner; the duration of nightly activity remained compressed, and the phase angle of entrainment was large and negative relative to lights off. The 15L hamsters entrained normally to 10L. Exposure to constant light after 10L treatment was equally effective in inducing arrhythmicity in pinealectomized and intact hamsters. Changes in the period of morning and evening circadian oscillators subsequent to 18L treatment did not predict circadian responsiveness to short photoperiod. Long-day induction of photo-nonresponsiveness, which prevents winter responses to short day lengths, occurs independently of pineal melatonin feedback on the circadian system.

  15. The Siberian hamster as a model for study of the mammalian photoperiodic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goldman, B D

    1999-01-01

    The Siberian hamster has been a useful model for studies of mammalian photoperiodism for a number of reasons: 1) Siberian hamsters are hardy animals that are easily maintained and bred in the laboratory. 2) The species exhibits a large number of seasonal, photoperiod-driven, pineal-dependent responses. Thus, the Siberian hamster is an excellent species in which to examine whether several different types of photoperiod responses share similar mechanistic features with respect to their control by MEL. Are all the responses cued to the duration of the nocturnal MEL peak? Does MEL act at a single site to influence all the types of responses, or are there separate MEL target sites for different responses? 3) Juvenile Siberian hamsters exhibit an unusually rapid (for mammals) response to photoperiod change or to MEL treatments, making them ideal subjects for certain types of photoperiod-related studies. 4) Populations of Siberian hamsters show individual variations in photoperiod responsiveness, and the differences are at least partly heritable. These hamsters also exhibit strong influences of environmental history on short day responsiveness. Thus, the species may be a valuable model for the investigation of both genetic and environmental influences on the photoperiodic mechanism. 5) Siberian hamsters have proved to be useful animals in which to study maternal influences on the developing photoperiodic mechanism of the fetus.

  16. Early photoperiod history and short-day responsiveness in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D

    2003-03-01

    Siberian hamsters exhibit seasonal, photoperiod influenced cycles of reproductive activity, body size, pelage characteristics, and thermoregulatory behavior. Laboratory populations generally exhibit inter-individual variability in expression of photoperiod responsiveness, with a subset of individuals that fail to show the species typical responses to short photoperiod. This variability is partly explained by a genetic component, as it has been possible to increase the number of short-day nonresponders by artificial selection. Responsiveness to short photoperiod is also substantially influenced by photoperiod history in this species; hamsters that have been raised under long (16L) or very long (18L) day lengths are less likely to exhibit winter-type responses to short days as compared to hamsters raised under an intermediate (14L) day length. In the present experiment, we examined effects of age and early photoperiod history in a strain of Siberian hamsters that had been selected for short-day nonresponsiveness. Hamsters transferred into short photoperiod on the day of birth were uniform in exhibiting winter-type responses. However, hamsters raised until 25 days of age in either continuous illumination or in 16L exhibited variation in responsiveness when subsequently moved into short photoperiod. We conclude that virtually all hamsters of the short-day nonresponsive strain are born responsive to short days. Subsequent development of resistance to potential short day effects is dependent on age and/or photoperiod history.

  17. Effects of equine herpesvirus-9 infection in pregnant mice and hamsters.

    PubMed

    El-Habashi, N; El-Nahass, E; Fukushi, H; Nayel, M; Hibi, D; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9, a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus isolated from gazelles, was assessed in pregnant rodents (mice and hamsters) following intranasal inoculation. The pregnant female mice and hamsters were inoculated with EHV-9 in the early or late trimesters. The inoculated animals exhibited mild to severe neurological signs and gave birth to dead or undersized fetuses. All three mice and four hamsters inoculated in the first trimester had varying degrees of placental abnormality, characterized by markedly dilated maternal blood sinusoids, atrophy of the trophoblast cells and necrosis of the middle layer of the trophoblast. There was also endometrial blood vessel congestion and necrosis and disorganization of the fetal capillaries in the mice and hamsters inoculated in the last trimester. EHV-9 antigen was detected in the brain of dams and the lungs of the fetuses and in the middle of the trophoblast layer of the placenta in hamsters inoculated in the first trimester. The placental lesions were milder in mice than in the hamsters. The mice and hamsters inoculated in the last trimester had more prominent lesions than the animals inoculated in the first trimester. These results suggest that EHV-9 can cause the death of the fetus or abortion and that these events may be secondary to placental vascular compromise.

  18. Kinetics and pathogenicity of oral infection by equine herpesvirus-9 in mice and suckling hamsters.

    PubMed

    El-Nahass, E; El-Habashi, N; Abdelaziz, A A; Nayel, M; Kasem, S; Fukushi, H; Tuji, H; Hirata, A; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis and kinetics of oral infection by equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9 were studied in mice and hamsters. After oral inoculation of 10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus, 1-week-old suckling hamsters showed varying severity of neurological disease from 72 hours post inoculation (hpi) and all of these animals had died by 96 hpi. Four-week-old ICR mice inoculated orally with 4 × 10(4)PFU of virus showed no clinical signs, but they developed erosive and ulcerative gastritis from 36 hpi. Varying degrees of encephalitis were seen in infected mice and hamsters, and the hamsters also developed myelitis by 96 hpi. Immunohistochemistry performed on whole body sections of suckling hamsters revealed the kinetics of spread of the virus to the central nervous system. EHV-9 antigen was detected initially in macrophages of the oral and lingual submucosa. At 36 hpi virus antigen was detected in the nerve fibres and pseudounipolar neurons of the trigeminal ganglion and at 96 hpi antigen was present in the myenteric plexuses of the intestine. Virus antigen was also detected in the liver, lungs and heart of affected animals. EHV-9 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the brain, blood and spinal cord of suckling hamsters at 36, 48 and 96 hpi. These findings show that EHV-9 may spread via the trigeminal nerve when mice and hamsters are inoculated orally with virus.

  19. Hamster Weight Patterns Predict the Intensity and Course of Schistosoma haematobium Infection.

    PubMed

    Le, Thien-Linh P; Boyett, Deborah M; Hurley-Novatny, Amelia; Hsieh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Although Syrian golden hamsters are widely used as hosts for experimental infection by Schistosoma haematobium , surprisingly little is known about the course of infection and associated intensity (as defined by measures of parasite burden). As such, we sought to define inexpensive, simple, noninvasive, and accurate methods for assessing and predicting the severity of disease in S. haematobium -infected hamsters in order to prevent premature hamster sacrifice and unexpected morbidity and mortality. Through monitoring the weight and behavior of infected hamsters, we determined that the weight-loss patterns of infected hamsters are highly correlated with commonly used measures of the severity of infection (i.e., numbers of eggs passed in the stool, worm burdens, and total egg yields). In contrast, we found no significant correlation between hamster weight-loss patterns and egg yields from liver and intestinal tissues. Our findings suggest that a more complex relationship exists among worm burden, fecundity, and egg passage in the feces than previously appreciated. Regardless, our data may be useful for workers seeking to optimize harvests of S. haematobium eggs and worms from infected hamsters for downstream applications.

  20. Photoperiodic regulation of circulating leukocytes in juvenile Siberian hamsters: mediation by melatonin and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Nelson, Randy J

    2003-12-01

    The reproductive system of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) undergoes rapid phenotypic responses to changes in day length that occur around the time of weaning. The present experiments tested whether the immune system of Siberian hamsters is similarly photoperiodic early in life and whether photoperiodic changes in melatonin or gonadal hormone secretions mediate any such responses to day length. Circulating blood leukocyte concentrations (WBC) were measured in juvenile male Siberian hamsters that were gestated in long-days (LD), transferred to short-days (SD) on the day of birth, and subsequently either remained in SD or were transferred from SD to LD at 18 days of age (day 18). WBC values were comparable between LD and SD hamsters on day 18. Between day 18 and day 32, SD hamsters exhibited a 3-fold increase in WBC, whereas LD hamsters failed to undergo a significant increase in WBC during this interval. WBC of LD hamsters was significantly lower than that of SD hamsters on day 25 and on day 32. In LD housed males, peripheral injections of melatonin delivered so as to extend the nocturnal duration of elevated endogenous melatonin secretion (i.e., provided in late afternoon) on days 18-31 increased WBC as measured on day 32. Peripubertal (day 17) gonadectomy abolished the immunosuppressive effect of LD exposure on WBC, and treatment with silastic implants containing testosterone suppressed WBC independent of photoperiod treatment. These data indicate that juvenile Siberian hamsters are immunologically responsive to photoperiod and that the leukocyte responses to day length are the result of melatonin-mediated effects of photoperiod on testicular hormone secretion.

  1. Evaluation of genotoxicity of N-nitrosodibenzylamine in Chinese hamster V79 cells and in Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Boyes, B G; Rogers, C G; Matula, T I; Stapley, R; Sen, N P

    1990-08-01

    Health concerns have arisen due to the formation of N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA; CAS No. 5336-53-8) in pork processed in a new type of rubber netting. In view of the potent carcinogenicity of related nitrosamines (e.g. N-nitroso-n-dibutylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine), NDBzA was evaluated for genotoxicity in vitro in both Chinese hamster V79 cells and in Salmonella. In V79 cells, concentrations up to 25 micrograms/ml were tested with and without activation by rat or hamster hepatocytes. Significant elevation of SCE frequency was seen only at 25 micrograms/ml in the presence of uninduced hamster hepatocytes. Mutation to 6-thioguanine resistance was observed at 25 micrograms/ml, in the absence of hepatocytes and in the presence of induced (Aroclor 1254) or uninduced hamster hepatocytes, but not with rat hepatocytes. With uninduced rat hepatocytes, a small but significant (p less than 0.05) increase in the mutation frequency was seen with 10 micrograms/ml NDBzA. In the Salmonella assay, using a pre-incubation protocol and concentrations up to 1000 micrograms/ml, NDBzA was negative in strain TA98, and in TA100 with rat S9, but was positive at the highest dose in TA100 with hamster S9, and more strongly with Aroclor 1254-induced hamster S9. When activated by uninduced rat or hamster hepatocytes, as opposed to S9, NDBzA was negative with all tester strains. Hamster hepatocytes activated more than rat in the V79 studies, and hamster S9 was more strongly activating in the Salmonella assay. These results indicate that NDBzA is weakly mutagenic to both Salmonella and V79 cells.

  2. Bioavailability and disposition of 3H-solanine in rat and hamster.

    PubMed

    Groen, K; Pereboom-de Fauw, D P; Besamusca, P; Beekhof, P K; Speijers, G J; Derks, H J

    1993-09-01

    1. The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (p.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration in rat and hamster were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The i.v. dose was 54 micrograms/kg; the oral dose was 170 micrograms/kg. 2. After i.v. administration, the toxicokinetics of total radioactivity in blood were comparable in rat and hamster. However, the clearance of total radioactivity from plasma was more effective in rat than in hamster. The half-lives of distribution and of the terminal phase of unchanged alpha-solanine were not different between rat and hamster, whereas the systemic and metabolic clearance were, respectively, about 1.6 and 2.7 times higher in rat than in hamster. The clearance of unchanged alpha-solanine is more effective than of total radioactivity. 3. After p.o. administration in rat and hamster, the mean bioavailability of total radioactivity is about 29 and 57%, respectively. The bioavailability of unchanged alpha-solanine is only 1.6 and 3.2%, respectively, when compared with i.v. administration. 4. T1/2el of alpha-solanine after p.o. administration was in rats a factor of four and in hamsters a factor of two shorter than after i.v. administration. A strong retention of radioactivity was seen in the hamsters after p.o. administration; only 40% of the dose was excreted within 7 days versus 90% in rat. 5. Based on these and toxicological data from literature, it was decided that the hamster is a more appropriate model in (sub)-chronic toxicity studies with alpha-solanine than the rat.

  3. In vitro metabolism of cannabinol in rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil and cat.

    PubMed

    Brown, N K; Harvey, D J

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of cannabinol (CBN) was studied in hepatic microsomal incubates from mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, cat, hamster and gerbil. Metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate, concentrated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and identified by GC/MS as TMS derivatives. Six monohydroxy metabolites were identified. These had hydroxy groups at C-11 and at all positions of the pentyl side-chain. Metabolism varied considerably between the species. 11-Hydroxylation was the most prominent route in the majority of species, but in the hamster and cat the major metabolic pathway was 4'-hydroxylation. Metabolites hydroxylated in the pentyl chain were generally more abundant in guinea pig, hamster and cat. PMID:2253656

  4. Short-day response in Djungarian hamsters of different circadian phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Schöttner, Konrad; Schmidt, Maren; Hering, Anke; Schatz, Juliane; Weinert, Dietmar

    2012-05-01

    In Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) bred at the authors' institute, a certain number of animals show activity patterns incompatible with proper entrainment of their endogenous circadian pacemaker to the environmental light-dark (LD) cycle. Even though the activity-offset in these animals is stably coupled to "light-on," activity-onset is increasingly delayed, leading to a compression of the activity time (α). If α falls below a critical value, the circadian rhythm in these so called delayed activity-onset (DAO) hamsters starts to free-run and finally breaks down. Animals then show an arrhythmic activity pattern (AR hamsters). Previous studies revealed the mechanisms of photic entrainment have deteriorated (DAO) or the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) does not generate a rhythmic signal (AR). The aim of the present study was to investigate the consequences that these deteriorations have upon photoperiodic time measurement. Animals were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14L/10D (long day, LD) regimen. Locomotor activity was recorded continuously using passive infrared motion detectors. Body mass, testes size, and fur coloration were measured weekly or biweekly to further quantify the photoperiodic reaction. In a first experiment, adult male wild-type (WT), DAO, and AR hamsters were transferred initially to a 16L/8D cycle. After 3-4 wks, the light period was shortened symmetrically by 8 h. After 14 wks, none of the DAO and AR hamsters, and only 1 of 8 WT hamsters showed short-day (SD) traits. Therefore, in a second experiment, hamsters were transferred to SD conditions (8L/16D cycle) for 8 wks directly from standard LD conditions. In 6 of 7 WT hamsters, activity time expanded, body mass and testes size decreased, and fur coloration changed from summer to winter pelage. In contrast, none of the DAO and AR hamsters displayed an SD response. In a third experiment, DAO and AR hamsters were kept in constant

  5. Testicular amyloidosis in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J. L.; Gallego, E.; Castaño, M.; Rueda, A.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally with Leishmania donovani. Testes were examined grossly and histologically by light and electron microscopy. Progressive testicular atrophy developed. Spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous tubules showed vacuolar degeneration and decreased in number leading to a total azoospermia in the final weeks of the pathological process. Lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates with macrophages containing leishmanias appeared in the intertubular space. Amyloid deposits in the intertubular space and tubular basement membrane were identified by optical and ultrastructural methods. It has been suggested that testicular amyloidosis may have a pathogenic mechanism related to a dysfunction of plasma cells and stimulation of the reticuloendothial system, due to the antigenic character of the parasite. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6639870

  6. Uptake of indocyanine green by hamster sebaceous glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Lo, Kai-Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2001-05-01

    Photothermal injury to the sebaceous glands is a potential curative treatment for the common skin disease acne vulgaris. Accumulation of the exogenous chromophore indocyanine green in the sebaceous glands may be accomplished using an emulsion or liposomal formulation applied to the skin surface. An emulsion containing 0.09% by weight indocyanine green (ICG) was applied to the epidermis of hamster ears ex vivo and the flank organ in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of ICG in the underlying sebaceous glands. The concentration of ICG that may be expected to accumulate in sebaceous glands of humans was then estimated on the basis of the gland size and orifice area, for the case of topical application of a more concentrated 1% ICG liposomal formulation. Monte Carlo modeling and heat transfer calculations showed that the sebaceous glands containing the exogenous chromophore may be selectively damaged by pulsed 810 nm laser radiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling.

  7. X-ray microanalysis of hamster tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, A.J.; Roomans, G.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelia are of great interest if we are to understand the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystic fibrosis in which ion transport is abnormal. Concentrations of elements were determined in various subcellular regions of normal or isoproterenol-treated hamster tracheal epithelium, using X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections. Samples of trachea were taken from animals under anesthesia and either frozen in situ or dissected and plunge frozen. Concentrations of Mg, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were higher in cytoplasm and nuclei of control epithelial cells in dissected samples than in cryoneedle samples. Following treatment with isoproterenol, a large decrease in the concentration of Cl was observed. The results confirm that cyclic AMP-regulated chloride secretion is unaffected by anesthesia.

  8. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-02-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T4U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T3U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using SVI-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T4U, and a 204% increase in T3U. The much greater increase in T3U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposure induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T3U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T4U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed.

  9. Ultrastructure of Measles Virus in Cultures of Hamster Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Raine, C. S.; Feldman, L. A.; Sheppard, R. D.; Bornstein, M. B.

    1969-01-01

    Replication of Edmonston strain of measles virus in cultures of hamster central nervous system tissue was studied by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. Infected cultures were fixed from 3 hr to 39 days postinoculation (PI). Measles nucleocapsid was first seen within the cytoplasm of giant cells, the latter appearing 5 to 6 days PI. Measles virus particles were most abundant at 10 days PI and appeared to bud off from areas of the cell membrane along which nucleocapsid was aligned. Intranuclear nucleocapsid was more abundant at later stages, and by 39 days PI entire nuclei were seen to be occupied. By this time, the cytoplasmic formations, which had been sequestered by membranes, appeared to lose their regular structure. Budding viral particles at 39 days PI were of a much simplified structure and did not involve the alignment of nucleocapsid about their periphery. Images PMID:5806983

  10. Arsenite exposure compromises early embryonic development in the Golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Unis, Dave; Osborne, Cassandra; Diawara, Moussa M

    2009-11-01

    The toxicity of arsenite to 8-cell stage hamster embryos was evaluated. Females were superovulated and mated; embryos were collected and grown for 72 h in culture medium containing vehicle control, 25, 50, 250, 500, or 750 nM arsenite. Morphological observations were taken at 0 and 24h increments. A TUNEL assay was used for determining DNA damage. Survival was expressed by the ability to undergo zona escape. The control group had 78% survival and no evidence of deformities. Embryos in the 25, 50 and 250 nM groups had survival rates of 63%, 55% and 27%, respectively. Arsenite exposure caused total embryo lethality, major deformities, complete failure to undergo zona lysis, and significantly higher number of cells with fragmented DNA in embryos at the 500 and 750 nM concentrations. The study underscores the sensitivity of preimplantation stage embryos to the presence of even relatively small amounts of arsenic in luminal fluid.

  11. Retention of inhaled particles in hamsters with pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, T.D.; Brain, J.D.; Tryka, A.F.; Godleski, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    Aerosol retention was studied in hamsters 30, 60, and 90 days after the initiation of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis by a combination of bleomycin (bleo), 0.16 U/100 g body weight given intratracheally, and O2, for 72 h. Groups of bleo-O2-treated and control animals were exposed (awake) for 25 min to a 99mTc-labeled insoluble aerosol (activity median aerodynamic diameter, 0.45 micron; geometric standard deviation, 1.3). Within 5 min after exposure, the hamsters were killed and their lungs were excised and dried at total lung capacity, and sliced into 1-mm sections. Slices were dissected into pieces, and an evenness index (EI) was calculated for each piece (formula: see text). With uniformity of retention, all Els would be 1. The distribution of Els in control animals had a mean of 1.0 and a SD of 0.27; 0% of the Els were less than or equal to 0.20. Total retention diminished and was less uniform in bleo-O2-treated animals. At 30 days, the SD increased to 0.62, and 6% of the Els were less than or equal to 0.20. At 60 and 90 days, nonuniformity decreased but was still greater than that in the control animals (SD60 . 0.42, SD90 . 0.36). When examined histologically, individual pieces with low Els had more disease than those with high Els. Local decreases in compliance caused by fibrosis may have altered regional ventilation and retention. Our data also correlate with the progression of fibrosis from a focal lesion at 30 days to a more diffuse lesion at 90 days.

  12. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D'Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J P; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  13. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D’Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis. PMID:26555143

  14. Fluoxetine disrupts motivation and GABAergic signaling in adolescent female hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel

    2016-08-01

    Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. PMID:27068049

  15. Interaction of calcium sulfate with xanthan gum: effect on in vitro bioadhesion and drug release behavior from xanthan gum based buccal discs of buspirone.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Abhishek, A; Vinay, S; Charde, S Y

    2013-11-01

    Bioadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery systems play an important role in delivery of therapeutic drug molecules for local and systemic action. Xanthan gum, a GRAS listed natural polymer was used to design buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride by direct compression method. Effect of calcium sulfate on bioadhesive and drug release behavior of xanthan gum buccal discs was studied. Varying amount of calcium sulfate (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, w/w) in combination with xanthan gum was used to prepare buccal bioadhesive discs. Increase in calcium sulfate concentration resulted in faster drug release and decreased the bioadhesive strength of the designed discs. Further, in rheological evaluation it was observed that viscosity of xanthan gum gel reduces with increasing concentration of calcium sulfate. Compatibility of drug with various excipients was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. PMID:23907052

  16. Buccal absorption of propofol when dosed in 1-perfluorobutylpentane to anaesthetised and conscious Wistar rats and Göttingen mini-pigs.

    PubMed

    Tsagogiorgas, Charalambos; Theisinger, Sonja; Holm, Per; Thiel, Manfred; Quintel, Michael; Holm, René

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether propofol could be absorbed buccally when administered in semifluorinated alkanes (SFAs), here specifically perfluorobutylpentane (F4H5). This was evaluated in anesthetised and conscious rats and mini-pigs, to measure the relative bioavailability of propofol following buccal administration, but also partly to evaluate the animal models used for this investigation. The absolute bioavailability in the conscious animals was approximately 10% for both species and approximately 50% and 30% in the anesthetised rats and mini-pigs, respectively. This clearly demonstrates that propofol can be absorbed buccally, and F4H5 appears to be a relevant excipient for buccal administration of lipophilic drugs like propofol. The lower absorption in the conscious animals clearly indicates the need for an optimisation of the formulation.

  17. Embryotoxic response produced by inorganic mercury in different strains of hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, T.F.

    1981-02-01

    This report compares the mercury-induced embryotoxicity among one noninbred and five inbred strains of hamsters. A single dose of mercuric acetate was injected into pregnant hamsters on the morning of the 8th gestation day. Treated and control animals were killed on either the 12th or 15th gestation day and studied for the types and frequency of external and internal abnormalities as well as the incidence of resorption sites. The hamster strains exhibited significant resorption rates as well as a variety of abnormalities including edema, retardation, ventral wall defects, pericardial cavity distention, cleft palate, hydrocephalus, and heart defects. Significant but varied interstrain differences were observed for most of these indicators of mercury-induced embryotoxicity. The results of this study were compared with prior work in which the same hamster strains were exposed to cadmium or lead.

  18. Development of a Hamster Model for Chikungunya Virus Infection and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Han, Sushan; Hartwig, Airn; Bowen, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes severe, debilitating infectious arthritis in humans. The need for an animal model to study the disease process and evaluate potential treatments is imminent as the virus continues its spread into novel geographic locations. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are often used as outbred laboratory animal models for arboviral diseases. Here we demonstrate that hamsters inoculated with chikungunya virus developed viremia and histopathologic lesions in their limbs and joints similar to those seen in human patients. The virus disseminated rapidly and was found in every major organ, including brain, within a few days of infection. Hamsters did not manifest overt clinical signs, and the virus was generally cleared within 4 days, followed by a strong neutralizing antibody response. These results indicate that hamsters are highly susceptible to chikungunya virus infection and develop myositis and tenosynovitis similar to human patients followed by a complete recovery. This animal model may be useful for testing antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  19. The daily melatonin pattern in Djungarian hamsters depends on the circadian phenotype.

    PubMed

    Schöttner, Konrad; Simonneaux, Valérie; Vuillez, Patrick; Steinlechner, Stephan; Pévet, Paul; Weinert, Dietmar

    2011-12-01

    Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) bred at the Institute of Halle reveal three different circadian phenotypes. The wild type (WT) shows normal locomotor activity patterns, whereas in hamsters of the DAO (delayed activity onset) type, the activity onset is continuously delayed. Since the activity offset in those hamsters remains coupled to "light-on," the activity time becomes compressed. Hamsters of the AR (arrhythmic) type are episodically active throughout the 24 h. Previous studies showed that a disturbed interaction of the circadian system with the light-dark (LD) cycle contributes to the phenomenon observed in DAO hamsters. To gain better insight into the underlying mechanisms, the authors investigated the daily melatonin rhythm, as it is a reliable marker of the circadian clock. Hamsters were kept individually under standardized laboratory conditions (LD 14:10, T=22°C±2°C, food and water ad libitum). WT, DAO (with exactly 5 h delay of activity onset), and AR hamsters were used for pineal melatonin and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) measurement. Pineal melatonin content was determined at 3 time points: 4 h after "light-off" [D+4], 1 h before "light-on" [L-1], and 1h after "light-on" [L+1]). The 24-h profile of melatonin secretion was investigated by transferring the animals to metabolic cages for 27?h to collect urine at 3-h intervals for aMT6s analysis. WT hamsters showed high pineal melatonin content during the dark time (D+4, L-1), which significantly decreased at the beginning of the light period (L+1). In contrast, DAO hamsters displayed low melatonin levels during the part of the dark period when animals were still resting (D+4). At the end of the dark period (L-1), melatonin content increased significantly and declined again when light was switched on (L+1). AR hamsters showed low melatonin levels, comparable to daytime values, at all 3 time points. The results were confirmed by aMT6s data. WT hamsters showed a marked circadian pattern of

  20. Langerhans cell function dictates induction of contact hypersensitivity or unresponsiveness to DNFB in Syrian hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Streilein, J.W.; Bergstresser, P.R.

    1981-09-01

    The relationship between distribution and function of Langerhans cells within the epidermis and the capacity of cutaneous surfaces to promote the induction of contact hypersensitivity to DNFB have been examined in inbred Syrian hamsters. In a manner very similar to previous findings in mice, the results indicate that hamster cutaneous surfaces deficient in normally functioning Langerhans cells, naturally (cheek pouch epithelium) or artificially (after perturbation with ultraviolet light), are inefficient at promoting DNFB sensitization. Instead, DNFB applied to these regions of skin results in the induction of a state of specific unresponsiveness. Viable lymphoid cells from unresponsive hamsters can transfer the unresponsiveness to naive hamsters suggesting that active suppression is at least partly responsible, probably mediated by T lymphocytes.

  1. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  2. Survival of Danish cancer patients 1943-1987. Buccal cavity and pharynx.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M; Storm, H H

    1993-01-01

    Cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx are anatomically related and (with the exception of cancers of the salivary glands and nasopharynx) share risk factors, i.e., tobacco and alcohol. For cancers of the lip ("lipstick area") exposure to sunlight is also an important risk factor. Cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx are rare tumours, accounting for less than 2% of all malignant tumours in Denmark. The largest group is lip cancers (6545 cases in 1943-87) for which the survival rate remained high during the study period, 95-99% of patients surviving longer than five years. Survival from cancer of the tongue (1555 cases in 1943-87) and cancer of the mouth (2770 cases) also remained fairly constant during the period; the relative one-year survival rate for males were 57% for tongue cancer and 75% for mouth cancer in 1983-87. Survival (Kaplan-Meier estimates) from cancers at either site diagnosed in 1978-87 was better for females than for males; however, relative mortality was higher among males than among females for cancer of the tongue (16.3 after one year compared to 11.9 among females), while relative mortality for mouth cancer was 8.9 and 7.8, respectively. After five years, relative mortality was 1.6 and 2.6 for male patients and 1.7 and 1.6 for female patients with cancer of the tongue and mouth. Five-year survival rate after cancer of the salivary glands (2147 cases) fell from 73 in males and 81% in females in 1943-47 to 45 and 71% in 1983-87. During the same period, however, the incidence rate almost halved, and patients were generally older at presentation, with more advanced tumours. The one-year survival rate from tumours of the pharynx (2948 cases; 38% in the tonsils, 28% in the naso-pharynx and 25% in the hypopharynx) increased between 1943 and 1987 from 48% in males and 48% in females to 59% and 67%. After five years, relative mortality was still high in both males (2.5), and females, (4.9). PMID:8512743

  3. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  4. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  5. Seasonal adaptation of dwarf hamsters (Genus Phodopus): differences between species and their geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Müller, D; Hauer, J; Schöttner, K; Fritzsche, P; Weinert, D

    2015-12-01

    The genus Phodopus consists of three species--P. campbelli (Pc), P. sungorus (Ps), and P. roborovskii (Pr). They inhabit steppes, semi-deserts, and deserts in continental Asia with a climate changing from a moderate to a hard Continental one with extreme daily and seasonal variations. These different environmental challenges are likely to have consequences for hamsters' morphology, physiology, and behavior. Hamsters of all three species were investigated during the course of the year in the laboratory though using natural lighting and temperature conditions. Motor activity and body temperature were measured continuously, and body mass, testes size, and fur coloration every 1-2 weeks. With regard to the pattern of activity, nearly twice as many Pc as Ps hamsters (25 vs. 14%) failed to respond to changes of photoperiod, whereas all Pr hamsters did. Body mass and testes size were high in summer and low in winter, with the biggest relative change in Ps and the lowest in Pr hamsters. Changes of fur coloration were found in Ps hamsters only. All responding animals (that is excluding Pr), exhibited regular torpor bouts during the short winter days. In autumn, seasonal changes started considerably earlier in Ps hamsters. To investigate the putative causes of these different time courses, a further experiment was performed, to identify the critical photoperiod. Hamsters were kept for 10 weeks under different photoperiods, changing from 16 to 8 h light per day. Motor activity was recorded continuously, to identify responding and non-responding animals. Body mass was measured at the beginning and the end of the experiment, testes mass only at the end. The critical photoperiod was found to be similar in all three species. Though in a further experiment, Pc and Pr hamsters showed a delayed response, whereas the changes in Ps hamsters started immediately following transfer to short-day conditions. The results show that interspecific differences in seasonal adaptation exist, even

  6. Seasonal adaptation of dwarf hamsters (Genus Phodopus): differences between species and their geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Müller, D; Hauer, J; Schöttner, K; Fritzsche, P; Weinert, D

    2015-12-01

    The genus Phodopus consists of three species--P. campbelli (Pc), P. sungorus (Ps), and P. roborovskii (Pr). They inhabit steppes, semi-deserts, and deserts in continental Asia with a climate changing from a moderate to a hard Continental one with extreme daily and seasonal variations. These different environmental challenges are likely to have consequences for hamsters' morphology, physiology, and behavior. Hamsters of all three species were investigated during the course of the year in the laboratory though using natural lighting and temperature conditions. Motor activity and body temperature were measured continuously, and body mass, testes size, and fur coloration every 1-2 weeks. With regard to the pattern of activity, nearly twice as many Pc as Ps hamsters (25 vs. 14%) failed to respond to changes of photoperiod, whereas all Pr hamsters did. Body mass and testes size were high in summer and low in winter, with the biggest relative change in Ps and the lowest in Pr hamsters. Changes of fur coloration were found in Ps hamsters only. All responding animals (that is excluding Pr), exhibited regular torpor bouts during the short winter days. In autumn, seasonal changes started considerably earlier in Ps hamsters. To investigate the putative causes of these different time courses, a further experiment was performed, to identify the critical photoperiod. Hamsters were kept for 10 weeks under different photoperiods, changing from 16 to 8 h light per day. Motor activity was recorded continuously, to identify responding and non-responding animals. Body mass was measured at the beginning and the end of the experiment, testes mass only at the end. The critical photoperiod was found to be similar in all three species. Though in a further experiment, Pc and Pr hamsters showed a delayed response, whereas the changes in Ps hamsters started immediately following transfer to short-day conditions. The results show that interspecific differences in seasonal adaptation exist, even

  7. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-González, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with discomfort when shaving or skin compression. Discussion Several branches of the trigeminal nerve follow a path through the masticatory muscles, being the lingual nerve and buccal nerve the most involved. The hyperactivity of the muscle bundles that are crossed by nerve structures generates a compression that could explain certain orofacial neuropathies (numbness and / or pain) in which a clear etiologic factor can not be identified. Key words:Buccal nerve, paresthesia, idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. PMID:26855715

  8. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajanta; De, Madhusnata

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I –type 1V) were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear. PMID:23112505

  9. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable.

  10. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  11. Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of telomeres in buccal cells identifies mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shubha; Glogowska, Aleksandra; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Righolt, Christiaan; Rutherford, Jaclyn; Willing, Cornelia; Banik, Upama; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Mai, Sabine; Garcia, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Using three-dimensional (3D) telomeric analysis of buccal cells of 82 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and cognitively normal age and gender-matched controls, we have for the first time examined changes in the 3D nuclear telomeric architecture of buccal cells among levels of AD severity based on five 3D parameters: i) telomere length, ii) telomere number, iii) telomere aggregation, iv) nuclear volume, and v) a/c ratio, a measure of spatial telomere distribution. Our data indicate that matched controls have significantly different 3D telomere profiles compared to mild, moderate, and severe AD patients (p < 0.0001). Distinct profiles were also evident for each AD severity group. An increase in telomere number and aggregation concomitant with a decrease in telomere length from normal to severe AD defines the individual stages of the disease (p < 0.0001).

  12. Articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltration in securing mandibular first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine inferior alveolar nerve block: A randomized, double-blind crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Gazal, Giath; Alharbi, Abdullah Muteb; Al-Samadani, Khalid HidayatAllah; Kanaa, Mohammad Dib

    2015-01-01

    Aims: A crossover double-blind, randomized study was designed to explore the efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration following 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for testing pulp anesthesia of mandibular first molar teeth in adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 healthy adult volunteers received two regimens with at least 1-week apart; one with 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% mepivacaine IANB (articaine regimen) and another with 2% mepivacaine buccal infiltration supplemented to 2% mepivacaine IANB (mepivacaine regimen). Pulp testing of first molar tooth was electronically measured twice at baseline, then at intervals of 2 min for the first 10 min, then every 5 min until 45 min postinjection. Anesthetic success was considered when two consecutive maximal stimulation on pulp testing readings without sensation were obtained within 10 min and continuously sustained for 45 min postinjection. Results: In total, the number of no sensations to maximum pulp testing for first molar teeth were significantly higher after articaine regimen than mepivacaine during 45 min postinjection (267 vs. 250 episodes, respectively, P < 0.001), however, both articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltrations are equally effective in securing anesthetic success for first molar pulp anesthesia when supplemented to mepivacaine IANB injections (P > 0.05). Interestingly, volunteers in the articaine regimen provided faster onset and longer duration (means 2.78 min, 42.22 min, respectively) than mepivacaine regimen (means 4.26 min, 40.74 min, respectively) for first molar pulp anesthesia (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Supplementary mepivacaine and articaine buccal infiltrations produced similar successful first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine IANB injections in volunteers. Articaine buccal infiltration produced faster onset and

  13. Use of hamster as a model to study diet-induced atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Golden-Syrian hamsters have been used as an animal model to assess diet-induced atherosclerosis since the early 1980s. Advantages appeared to include a low rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, receptor-mediated uptake of LDL cholesterol, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, hepatic apoB-100 and intestinal apoB-48 secretion, and uptake of the majority of LDL cholesterol via the LDL receptor pathway. Early work suggested hamsters fed high cholesterol and saturated fat diets responded similarly to humans in terms of lipoprotein metabolism and aortic lesion morphology. Recent work has not consistently replicated these findings. Reviewed was the literature related to controlled hamster feeding studies that assessed the effect of strain, background diet (non-purified, semi-purified) and dietary perturbation (cholesterol and/or fat) on plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion formation. F1B hamsters fed a non-purified cholesterol/fat-supplemented diet had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles (nHDL-C > HDL-C) than other hamster strains or hamsters fed cholesterol/fat-supplemented semi-purified diets. However, fat type; saturated (SFA), monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) had less of an effect on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. Cholesterol- and fish oil-supplemented semi-purified diets yielded highly variable results when compared to SFA or n-6 PUFA, which were antithetical to responses observed in humans. Dietary cholesterol and fat resulted in inconsistent effects on aortic lipid accumulation. No hamster strain was reported to consistently develop lesions regardless of background diet, dietary cholesterol or dietary fat type amount. In conclusion, at this time the Golden-Syrian hamster does not appear to be a useful model to determine the mechanism(s) of diet-induced development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:21143982

  14. Phase Resetting in Duper Hamsters: Specificity to Photic Zeitgebers and Circadian Phase

    PubMed Central

    Manoogian, Emily N. C.; Leise, Tanya L.; Bittman, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    The duper mutation in Syrian hamsters shortens the free-running period of locomotor activity (τDD) to about 23 h and results in a type 0 phase-response curve (PRC) to 15-min light pulses. To determine whether exaggerated phase shifts are specific to photic cues and/or restricted to subjective night, we subjected hamsters to novel wheel confinements and dark pulses during subjective day. Small phase shifts elicited by the nonphotic cue were comparable in mutant and wild-type (WT) hamsters, but dark pulses triggered larger shifts in dupers. To assess further the effects of the duper mutation on light-dark transitions, we transferred hamsters between constant light (LL) and constant dark (DD) or between DD and LL at various circadian phases. Duper hamsters displayed significantly larger phase shifts than WT hamsters when transferred from LL to DD during subjective day and from DD to LL during subjective night. The variability of phase shifts in response to all light/dark transitions was significantly greater in duper hamsters at all time points. In addition, most duper hamsters, but none of the WTs, displayed transient ultradian wheel-running patterns for 5 to 12 days when transferred from light to dark at CT 18. The χ2 periodogram and autocorrelation analyses indicate that these ultradian patterns differ from the disruption of rhythmicity by SCN lesions or exposure to constant bright light. We conclude that the duper mutation specifically amplifies phase shifts to photic cues and may destabilize coupling of circadian organization upon photic challenge due to weakened coupling among components of the circadian pacemaker. Mathematical modeling of the circadian pacemaker supports this hypothesis. PMID:25633984

  15. Reproductive responses to photoperiod persist in olfactory bulbectomized Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Pyter, Leah M; Galang, Jerome; Kay, Leslie M

    2009-03-01

    In reproductively photoperiodic Syrian hamsters, removal of the olfactory bulbs (OBx) leads to a marked and sustained increase in gonadotrophin secretion which prevents normal testicular regression in short photoperiods. In contrast, among reproductively nonphotoperiodic laboratory strains of rats and mice, bulbectomy unmasks reproductive responses to photoperiod. The role of the olfactory bulbs has been proposed to have opposite effects on responsiveness to photoperiod, depending on the photoperiodicity of the reproductive system; however, Syrian hamsters are the only reproductively photoperiodic rodent species for which the role of the olfactory bulb in reproductive endocrinology has been assessed. This experiment evaluated the role of the olfactory bulbs in the photoperiodic control of reproduction in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), an established model species for the study of neural substrates mediating seasonality. Relative to control hamsters housed in long days (15 h light/day), exposure of adult male hamsters to short days (9h light/day) for 8 weeks led to a temporal expansion of the pattern of nocturnal locomotor activity, testicular regression, decreases in testosterone (T) production, and undetectable levels of plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy failed to affect any of these responses to short days. The patterns of entrainment to long and short days suggests that pre-pineal mechanisms involved in photoperiodic timekeeping are functioning normally in OBx hamsters. The absence of increases in FSH following bulbectomy in long days is incompatible with the hypothesis that the olfactory bulbs provide tonic inhibition of the HPG axis in this species. In marked contrast to Syrian hamsters, the olfactory bulbs of Siberian hamsters play essentially no role in the modulation of tonic gonadotrophin production or gonadotrophin responses to photoperiod.

  16. Gonadal hormone-dependent and -independent regulation of immune function by photoperiod in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Baillie, Scott R; Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2008-02-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit changes in reproductive and immune function in response to seasonal variations in day length. Exposure to short days induces gonadal regression and inhibits testosterone secretion. In parallel, short days enhance immune function: increasing leukocyte numbers and attenuating cytokine and behavioral responses to infection. We examined whether photoperiodic changes in leukocyte phenotypes and sickness behaviors are dependent on concurrent photoperiodic changes in gonadal function. Male hamsters were gonadectomized or sham-gonadectomized and either exposed to short days (9 h light/day; SD) or kept in their natal long-day (15 h light/day; LD) photoperiod for 10-13 wk. Blood samples were obtained for leukocyte enumeration, and hamsters were challenged with bacterial LPS, which induced behavioral (anorexia, reductions in nest building) and somatic (weight loss) sickness responses. Among gonad-intact hamsters, exposure to SD increased total and CD62L+ lymphocytes and CD3+ T lymphocytes in blood and significantly attenuated LPS-induced sickness responses. Independent of photoperiod, castration alone increased total and CD62L+ lymphocyte and CD3+ T lymphocyte numbers and attenuated somatic and anorexic sickness responses. Among castrated hamsters, SD exposure increased lymphocyte numbers and suppressed sickness behaviors. In castrated hamsters, the magnitude of most immunological effects of SD were diminished relative to those evident in gonad-intact hamsters. The SD phenotype in several measures of immunity can be instated via elimination of gonadal hormones alone; however, photoperiodic effects on immune function persist even in castrated hamsters. Thus, photoperiod affects the immune system and neural-immune interactions underlying sickness behaviors via gonadal hormone-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

  17. Phase resetting in duper hamsters: specificity to photic zeitgebers and circadian phase.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Emily N C; Leise, Tanya L; Bittman, Eric L

    2015-04-01

    The duper mutation in Syrian hamsters shortens the free-running period of locomotor activity (τDD) to about 23 h and results in a type 0 phase-response curve (PRC) to 15-min light pulses. To determine whether exaggerated phase shifts are specific to photic cues and/or restricted to subjective night, we subjected hamsters to novel wheel confinements and dark pulses during subjective day. Small phase shifts elicited by the nonphotic cue were comparable in mutant and wild-type (WT) hamsters, but dark pulses triggered larger shifts in dupers. To assess further the effects of the duper mutation on light-dark transitions, we transferred hamsters between constant light (LL) and constant dark (DD) or between DD and LL at various circadian phases. Duper hamsters displayed significantly larger phase shifts than WT hamsters when transferred from LL to DD during subjective day and from DD to LL during subjective night. The variability of phase shifts in response to all light/dark transitions was significantly greater in duper hamsters at all time points. In addition, most duper hamsters, but none of the WTs, displayed transient ultradian wheel-running patterns for 5 to 12 days when transferred from light to dark at CT 18. The χ(2) periodogram and autocorrelation analyses indicate that these ultradian patterns differ from the disruption of rhythmicity by SCN lesions or exposure to constant bright light. We conclude that the duper mutation specifically amplifies phase shifts to photic cues and may destabilize coupling of circadian organization upon photic challenge due to weakened coupling among components of the circadian pacemaker. Mathematical modeling of the circadian pacemaker supports this hypothesis.

  18. Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Arthur S; Subbiah, Madhuri; Shive, Heather; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2011-02-23

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world and are separated into nine serotypes (APMV-1 to -9). Only in the case of APMV-1, the infection of non-avian species has been investigated. The APMVs presently are being considered as human vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the replication and pathogenicity of all nine APMV serotypes in hamsters. The hamsters were inoculated intranasally with each virus and monitored for clinical disease, pathology, histopathology, virus replication, and seroconversion. On the basis of one or more of these criteria, each of the APMV serotypes was found to replicate in hamsters. The APMVs produced mild or inapparent clinical signs in hamsters except for APMV-9, which produced moderate disease. Gross lesions were observed over the pulmonary surface of hamsters infected with APMV-2 & -3, which showed petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, respectively. Replication of all of the APMVs except APMV-5 was confirmed in the nasal turbinates and lungs, indicating a tropism for the respiratory tract. Histologically, the infection resulted in lung lesions consistent with bronchointerstitial pneumonia of varying severity and nasal turbinates with blunting or loss of cilia of the epithelium lining the nasal septa. The majority of APMV-infected hamsters exhibited transient histological lesions that self resolved by 14 days post infection (dpi). All of the hamsters infected with the APMVs produced serotype-specific HI or neutralizing antibodies, confirming virus replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that all nine known APMV serotypes are capable of replicating in hamsters with minimal disease and pathology.

  19. Serum leptin, energy budget, and thermogenesis in striped hamsters exposed to consecutive decreases in ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Leptin has been found to be a direct participant in the regulation of both energy intake and energy expenditure in small mammals showing seasonal declines in body mass (M(b)) and fat mass, but its roles in an animal exhibiting seasonally increased thermogenesis and unchanged M(b) remain unclear. Serum leptin levels, energy budget, and thermogenesis were measured in striped hamsters exposed to consecutive decreases in ambient temperatures ranging from 23° to -23°C. Cold-exposed hamsters had significant increases in gross energy intake (GEI), the rate of basal metabolism, nonshivering thermogenesis, and activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in brown adipose tissue (BAT), compared with control hamsters, indicating a cold-induced elevation of thermogenesis. Body mass and fat content were decreased in cold-exposed animals, and serum leptin levels were increased in hamsters exposed to temperatures of -8°C and below in inverse proportion to body fat content. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with GEI and BAT COX activity in cold-exposed hamsters, but no such relationships were observed in control animals. These findings suggest that cold-exposed hamsters increase food consumption to meet the energy requirements for increased BAT thermogenesis. The increases in serum leptin levels are likely involved in increased thermogenesis in hamsters under cold stress. Cold-exposed hamsters may become leptin resistant, which is associated with impaired regulation of food intake. This new natural model of leptin resistance may also provide insight into the dynamic long-term control of energy homeostasis for animals that do not exhibit seasonal decline in M(b).

  20. Raloxifene improves vascular reactivity in pressurized septal coronary arteries of ovariectomized hamsters fed cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau-Chi; Leung, Fung Ping; Tian, Xiao Yu; Yung, Lai Ming; Lau, Chi Wai; Chen, Zhen Yu; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Laher, Ismail; Huang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Although vascular effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been extensively examined in conduit arteries, whether SERMs could favorably modulate myogenic response in resistance arteries is unknown. The impact of raloxifene therapy and cholesterol diet on myogenic constriction during estrogen deficiency is unresolved. This study investigated changes in vascular reactivity and myogenic responses in female ovariectomized (Ovx) hamsters fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with and without chronic treatment of raloxifene. Functional studies were performed on hamster septal coronary arteries cannulated in a pressure myograph. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced dilatation was reduced in arteries from cholesterol-fed Ovx hamsters, but not in those from cholesterol-fed hamsters, while pressure-induced myogenic constriction was unaffected. Chronic treatment with raloxifene restored ACh-induced dilatation in cholesterol-fed Ovx hamsters. U46619-induced constriction was increased in arteries from cholesterol-fed Ovx hamsters but not from cholesterol-fed control hamsters, which was normalized by chronic raloxifene treatment. The pressure-diameter relationship is presented as normalized diameter versus intraluminal pressure, while the effect of ACh or U46619 is expressed as percentage of tone at 80 mm Hg. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post-tests were used for statistical evaluation among different treatment groups. P<0.05 was taken as statistically significant. The present results show that chronic treatment with raloxifene could benefit myogenically active coronary arteries by (i) restoring ACh-induced dilatation and (ii) reducing U46619-induced constriction without affecting pressure-induced myogenic responses in cholesterol-fed hamsters during estrogen deficiency. If such benefit can be observed in humans, raloxifene and other SERMs may be useful to preserve endothelial function and curtail vascular hypersensitivity in resistance

  1. Leptin mediates seasonal variation in some but not all symptoms of sickness in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Many seasonally breeding species, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), exhibit seasonal variation in sickness responses. One hypothesis regarding the mechanism of this variation is that sickness intensity tracks an animal's energetic state, such that sickness is attenuated in the season that an animal has the lowest fat stores. Energetic state may be signaled via leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a signal of fat stores. Siberian hamsters respond to extended housing in short, winter-like days by reducing fat stores and leptin levels, relative to those housed in long, summer-like days. Sickness responses are also attenuated in short-day hamsters as compared to long-day hamsters. We hypothesized that leptin provides a physiological signal by which seasonally breeding animals modulate sickness responses, such that animals with higher leptin levels show increased sickness intensity. To test this, we provided short-day hamsters with a long-day-like leptin signal and assessed their responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a sickness-inducing antigen. We compared these responses to short-day vehicle-, long-day vehicle-, and long-day leptin-treated hamsters. Unexpectedly, LPS induced a hypothermic response (rather than fever) in all groups. Short-day vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited the greatest LPS-induced hypothermia, and leptin treatment attenuated this response, making hypothermia more long-day-like. Contrary to our hypothesis, short-day leptin-treated hamsters showed the least pronounced LPS-induced anorexia among all groups. These results suggest that leptin may mediate some but not all aspects of seasonal sickness variation in this species. Future studies should be targeted at determining roles of other energetic hormones in regulating seasonal sickness response variation.

  2. Hematologic Assessment in Pet Rats, Mice, Hamsters, and Gerbils: Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  3. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I

    2010-11-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster's alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure to either: alcohol, sucrose or saccharin. In Experiments 1 and 2, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v) and water; once alcohol consumption steadied, a bottle containing an ascending concentration of sucrose (99-614 mM) or saccharin (2-10 mM), or water was added. In Experiment 3, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v), sucrose (614 mM), saccharin (4 mM), or a second water bottle for 14 days. After the second bottle was removed, measurements continued for 14days. Sucrose exposure suppressed alcohol consumption at concentrations lower in calories than the alcohol solution. Saccharin exposure failed to suppress alcohol consumption. Exposure to sucrose and alcohol but not saccharin decreased food intake. Decreased alcohol consumption in response to a caloric sweetener and decreased food intake during alcohol exposure support that alcohol consumption by the hamster is mediated by caloric content. However, suppression of alcohol intake by a sucrose solution of lower caloric content and the equivalent intake of individual alcohol, sucrose and saccharin solutions support a role for reward value in alcohol consumption. PMID:20688091

  4. Leptin mediates seasonal variation in some but not all symptoms of sickness in Siberian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Many seasonally breeding species, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), exhibit seasonal variation in sickness responses. One hypothesis regarding the mechanism of this variation is that sickness intensity tracks an animal's energetic state, such that sickness is attenuated in the season that an animal has the lowest fat stores. Energetic state may be signaled via leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a signal of fat stores. Siberian hamsters respond to extended housing in short, winter-like days by reducing fat stores and leptin levels, relative to those housed in long, summer-like days. Sickness responses are also attenuated in short-day hamsters as compared to long-day hamsters. We hypothesized that leptin provides a physiological signal by which seasonally breeding animals modulate sickness responses, such that animals with higher leptin levels show increased sickness intensity. To test this, we provided short-day hamsters with a long-day-like leptin signal and assessed their responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a sickness-inducing antigen. We compared these responses to short-day vehicle-, long-day vehicle-, and long-day leptin-treated hamsters. Unexpectedly, LPS induced a hypothermic response (rather than fever) in all groups. Short-day vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited the greatest LPS-induced hypothermia, and leptin treatment attenuated this response, making hypothermia more long-day-like. Contrary to our hypothesis, short-day leptin-treated hamsters showed the least pronounced LPS-induced anorexia among all groups. These results suggest that leptin may mediate some but not all aspects of seasonal sickness variation in this species. Future studies should be targeted at determining roles of other energetic hormones in regulating seasonal sickness response variation. PMID:25461974

  5. Aflatoxin B1 metabolism by 3-methylcholanthrene-induced hamster hepatic cytochrome P-450s.

    PubMed

    Lai, T S; Chiang, J Y

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the activation of aflatoxin B1 by hamster liver microsomes and purified hamster cytochrome P-450 isozymes using a umu mutagen test. The hamster liver microsomes or S-9 fractions were much more active than rat liver microsomes or S-9 fractions in the activation of umu gene expression by aflatoxin B1 metabolites. 3-Methyl-cholanthrene treatment increased aflatoxin B1 activation by hamster liver microsomes. Two major 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozymes, P-450 MC1 (IIA) and P-450 MC4 (IA2), were purified from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated hamster liver microsomes, and the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by these two cytochromes was studied. In the reconstituted enzyme system, both P-450 MC1 and P-450 MC4 were highly active in the activation of aflatoxin B1, and antibodies against these P-450s specifically inhibited these activities. Antibody against P-450 MC1 inhibited the activation of aflatoxin B1 by 20% in the presence of 3-methyl-cholanthrene-treated hamster liver microsomes. In contrast, antibody against P-450 MC4 stimulated the activity by 175%. These results indicated that hamster P-450 MC1 might convert aflatoxin B1 to more toxic metabolite(s), whereas P-450 MC4 might convert aflatoxin B1 to less toxic metabolite(s), than aflatoxin B1 in liver microsomes. The metabolite(s) produced by both hamster cytochrome P-450 MC1 and MC4 were genotoxic in the umu mutagen test. PMID:2126562

  6. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

  7. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula. PMID:27437540

  8. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < 0.05). No difference in the amount of force released in presence of a misalignment of 1.5 mm was recorded among the three systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB. PMID:20631083

  9. Preventing dyslipidemia by Chlorella pyrenoidosa in rats and hamsters after chronic high fat diet treatment.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Jong-Yuh; Shih, Mei-Fen

    2005-05-13

    The effects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa on serum lipid profiles, after concomitant long-term treatment of high-fat diet (HFD) in rats and hamsters was studied. Wistar rats and Syrian hamsters were fed with or without various concentrations of Chlorella pyrenoidosa contained high-fat diet (CHFD) for 2, 4 and 8 weeks prior to assay of serum lipids. Fasting triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol as well as HDL cholesterol levels in high-fat diet treated rats and hamster were determined. Results showed that triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels in HFD treated rats and hamsters were increased from the normal rodent diet (NRD) treated controls after 2, 4, and 8-week treatments. However, the presence of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in high-fat diets significantly decreased the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol with comparison to HFD group in rats and hamsters. The total cholesterol/HDL ratios, an indication of occurrence of coronary heart disease, were decreased in all CHFD treated grouped rats and hamsters which suggests administration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa could lower the occurring risk of heart diseases. In conclusion, Chlorella pyrenoidosa has the ability to prevent dyslipidemia in chronic high-fat fed animals and could be potential in use to prevent intestinal absorption of redundant lipid from our daily intake and subsequently to prevent hyperlipidemia as well as atherosclerosis. PMID:15850594

  10. Individual differences in circadian waveform of Siberian hamsters under multiple lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer A; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Gorman, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Because the circadian clock in the mammalian brain derives from a network of interacting cellular oscillators, characterizing the nature and bases of circadian coupling is fundamental to understanding how the pacemaker operates. Various phenomena involving plasticity in circadian waveform have been theorized to reflect changes in oscillator coupling; however, it remains unclear whether these different behavioral paradigms reference a unitary underlying process. To test whether disparate coupling assays index a common mechanism, we examined whether there is covariation among behavioral responses to various lighting conditions that produce changes in circadian waveform. Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, were transferred from long to short photoperiods to distinguish short photoperiod responders (SP-R) from nonresponders (SP-NR). Short photoperiod chronotyped hamsters were subsequently transferred, along with unselected controls, to 24-h light:dark:light: dark cycles (LDLD) with dim nighttime illumination, a procedure that induces bifurcated entrainment. Under LDLD, SP-R hamsters were more likely to bifurcate their rhythms than were SP-NR hamsters or unselected controls. After transfer from LDLD to constant dim light, SP-R hamsters were also more likely to become arrhythmic compared to SP-NR hamsters and unselected controls. In contrast, short photoperiod chronotype did not influence more transient changes in circadian waveform. The present data reveal a clear relationship in the plasticity of circadian waveform across 3 distinct lighting conditions, suggesting a common mechanism wherein individual differences reflect variation in circadian coupling.

  11. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.

  12. Dual tracer autoradiographic study with thallium-201 and radioiodinated fatty acid in cardiomyopathic hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Kurata, C.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of myocardial scintigraphy with radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in cardiomyopathy, quantitative dual tracer autoradiographic study with /sup 201/Tl and (/sup 125/I)BMIPP was performed in 27 cardiomyopathic Bio 14.6 Syrian hamsters and eight normal hamsters. Furthermore, 16 Bio 14.6 Syrian hamsters aged 21 days were divided into verapamil-treated (during 70 days) and control groups (respectively, n = 8), and autoradiography with /sup 201/Tl and (/sup 125/I)BMIPP was performed. Quantitative autoradiography demonstrated an uncoupling of /sup 201/Tl and (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distributions and a regional heterogeneity of (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distribution in cardiomyopathic hamsters aged more than 2 mo, while normal hamsters showed only mild heterogeneity of (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distribution without an uncoupling of tracers. Age-matched comparison between normal and cardiomyopathic hamsters (5-8 mo old) demonstrated that a difference between their (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distributions are more marked than that between their /sup 201/Tl distributions. Furthermore, (/sup 125/I)BMIPP visualized effects of verapamil on cardiomyopathy more distinctly than did /sup 201/Tl. In conclusion, myocardial imaging with (/sup 123/I)BMIPP could be useful for investigating cardiomyopathy and evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic intervention in patients with cardiomyopathy.

  13. Aneuploidy in spermatozoa detected by FISH. Comparison with sperm chromosome data obtained via hamster system

    SciTech Connect

    Estop, A.M.; Van Kirk, V.; Cieply, K.

    1994-09-01

    Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with two-color and cocktail DNA probes was used to assess the rates of aneuploidy for the X,Y and 18 chromosomes in 3 male donors. (Experiment 1). These individuals had previously been studied with the hamster system and published. Experiment 2 was designed in order to compare aneuploidy rates for chromosome 18 in donor 2 in conjunction with chromosome 6 and 12 as an internal control. (1) Aneuploidy for the sex chromosomes in the hamster system was 0.5 for Donor 1 and 0.7 (3) which was very similar to 0.49 (1) and 0.41 (3) found in this experiment. However, Donor 2 showed a lower rate of sex non-disjunction with this system: 0.18 vs. 0.7 with the hamster system. (2) Diploidy rates are in the same ranges in experiments 1 and 2. (3) If autosome aneuploidy rates are extrapolated to 22 chromosomes, the following values are found: Donor 1:2.42 (vs. 2.0 in the hamster system); donor 3:2.2 (vs. 1.34 with the hamster system) and donor 2:1.32 which is lower than 4.32 found with the hamster system. More data needs to be collected on the use of FISH for this study of aneuploides in sperm cells and attention needs to be paid to the different types of probes used for validation of results.

  14. In Hamsters Dopamine D2 Receptors affect Ventilation during and following Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Evelyn H.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) carotid body dopaminergic D2 receptors modulate ventilation in air, during exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) and reoxygenation. Ventilation was evaluated using the barometric method and CO2 production was determined using the flow through method. Hamsters (n=8) received either subcutaneous injections of vehicle, haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) or domperidone (0.5 mg/kg). Ventilatory and metabolic variables were determined 30 minutes following injections, after each of 5 bouts of 5 minutes of 10% oxygen interspersed by normoxia (IH), and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes following IH when hamsters were exposed to air. Haloperidol, but not domperidone decreased body temperature in hamsters. Neither treatment affected CO2 production. Vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited ventilatory long term facilitation (VLTF) following IH. Haloperidol or domperidone decreased ventilation in air, during IH and eliminated VLTF due to changes in tidal volume and not frequency of breathing. Thus, in hamsters D2 receptors are involved in control of body temperature and ventilation during and following IH PMID:17884646

  15. Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus).

    PubMed

    Qin, T; Zhu, H; Wang, D; Hao, H; Du, W

    2015-01-01

    In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the Chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the Chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The Chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε and α) and one reverse δ remnant fragment. The Igκ locus contains only a single Cκ gene, 4 Jκ segments and 48 Vκ segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Igλ locus contains 4 Cλ genes, but only Cλ 3 and Cλ 4 each preceded by a Jλ gene segment. A total of 49 Vλ segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and κ sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the Chinese hamster λ gene despite more potential germline-encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the Chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Lucky, A.W.; Eisenfeld, A.J.; Visintin, I.

    1985-02-01

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( (/sup 3/H)DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. (/sup 3/H)DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of (/sup 3/H)DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of (/sup 3/H) DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT.

  17. Copper and resveratrol attenuates serum catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and element values in rats with DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Skrajnowska, Dorota; Bobrowska-Korczak, Barbara; Tokarz, Andrzej; Bialek, Slawomir; Jezierska, Ewelina; Makowska, Justyna

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a hypothesis was assessed whether or not the intoxication with copper and supplementation with copper plus resveratrol would result in changes in the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and moreover if the characteristic changes would appear in concentrations of copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the serum of rats with chemically induced carcinogenesis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into study groups which, apart from the standard diet, were treated with copper (42.6 mg Cu/kg food as CuSO4·5H2O) or copper plus resveratrol (0.2 mg/kg body) via gavage for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. In cancer groups, the rats were treated with a dose of 80 mg/body weight of 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) given in rapeseed oil at 50 and 80 days of age to induce mammary carcinogenesis. The control groups included the rats kept in the same conditions and fed with the same diet as the animals from the study groups, but not DMBA-treated. The activity of catalase significantly decreased in groups of rats with mammary carcinogenesis that were supplemented with copper (p < 0.05) or copper plus resveratrol (p < 0.001) in comparison with the control groups that received the same diets. In cancer groups of nonsupplemented rats, the increase of glutathione peroxidase activity was observed. The process of carcinogenesis and the applied supplementation significantly altered the concentrations of trace elements in serum, in particular as concerns iron and copper. The mean serum iron levels in rats with breast cancer were significantly lower than those in the control groups (p < 0.001). The mean serum copper levels significantly decreased in the groups of rats with mammary carcinogenesis that were supplemented with copper or copper plus resveratrol in comparison with the control groups that received the same diets (p < 0.001). The characteristic changes in iron content and the zinc/copper and zinc/iron ratios in blood may be used as one of the prognostic factors in breast cancer research.

  18. Influence of diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acids on their distribution in tissues of rats with DMBA induced tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Backround Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with proven beneficial influence on health. They show e.g. anticarcinogenic, antiobesity, and antiatherogenic effect. Milk, dairy products and meat of poligastric animals are their most valuable dietary sources, with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (RA - rumenic acid) being the predominant isomer. Dietary supplements with CLA became very popular, mainly among the overweight and bodybuilders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the food supplements with conjugated linoleic acid on carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluation of CLA and other fatty acids distribution in their bodies. Animals were divided into four groups depending on the diet supplementation (oil or Bio-C.L.A. (Pharma Nord Denmark) given intragastrically) and presence or absence of carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antharcene). Animals were decapitated at 21st week of experiment and serum and microsomes were extracted. Results and conclusions The mammary tumours (adenocarcinoma) occurred in groups treated with DMBA. Diet enriched with CLA decreased the cancer morbidity (67% in Bio-C.L.A. compared to 88% in oil) and delayed the cancer induction (p = 0.0018). There were no differences in body and organs weight. The supplement used in the study was a mixture of several fatty acids with the greatest proportion of CLA isomers: trans-10, cis-12 (33%) and cis-9, trans-11 (31%). Both of them were present in tissues but the content of rumenic acid was greater. Dietary supplementation had also significant impact on other fatty acids content, both in serum and in microsomes. PMID:21044306

  19. Copper and resveratrol attenuates serum catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and element values in rats with DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Skrajnowska, Dorota; Bobrowska-Korczak, Barbara; Tokarz, Andrzej; Bialek, Slawomir; Jezierska, Ewelina; Makowska, Justyna

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a hypothesis was assessed whether or not the intoxication with copper and supplementation with copper plus resveratrol would result in changes in the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and moreover if the characteristic changes would appear in concentrations of copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in the serum of rats with chemically induced carcinogenesis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into study groups which, apart from the standard diet, were treated with copper (42.6 mg Cu/kg food as CuSO4·5H2O) or copper plus resveratrol (0.2 mg/kg body) via gavage for a period from 40 days until 20 weeks of age. In cancer groups, the rats were treated with a dose of 80 mg/body weight of 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) given in rapeseed oil at 50 and 80 days of age to induce mammary carcinogenesis. The control groups included the rats kept in the same conditions and fed with the same diet as the animals from the study groups, but not DMBA-treated. The activity of catalase significantly decreased in groups of rats with mammary carcinogenesis that were supplemented with copper (p < 0.05) or copper plus resveratrol (p < 0.001) in comparison with the control groups that received the same diets. In cancer groups of nonsupplemented rats, the increase of glutathione peroxidase activity was observed. The process of carcinogenesis and the applied supplementation significantly altered the concentrations of trace elements in serum, in particular as concerns iron and copper. The mean serum iron levels in rats with breast cancer were significantly lower than those in the control groups (p < 0.001). The mean serum copper levels significantly decreased in the groups of rats with mammary carcinogenesis that were supplemented with copper or copper plus resveratrol in comparison with the control groups that received the same diets (p < 0.001). The characteristic changes in iron content and the zinc/copper and zinc/iron ratios in blood may be used as one of the prognostic factors in breast cancer research. PMID:24213724

  20. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  1. Transmucosal Implant Placement with Submarginal Connective Tissue Graft in Area of Shallow Buccal Bone Dehiscence: A Three-Year Follow-Up Case Series.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Martina; Felice, Pietro; Mazzotti, Claudio; Marzadori, Matteo; Gherlone, Enrico F; Zucchelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present case series study was to evaluate the short- and long-term (3 years) soft tissue stability of a surgical technique combining transmucosal implant placement with submarginal connective tissue graft (CTG) in an area of shallow buccal bone dehiscence. A sample of 20 patients were treated by positioning a transmucosal implant in an intercalated edentulous area. A CTG sutured to the inner aspect of the buccal flap was used to cover the shallow buccal bone dehiscence. Clinical evaluations were made at 6 months (T₁) and 1 (T₂) and 3 (T₃) years after the surgery. Statistically significant increases in buccal soft tissue thickness and improvement of vertical soft tissue level were achieved at the T₁, T₂, and T₃ follow-ups. A significant increase in keratinized tissue height was also found at T₃. No significant marginal bone loss was recorded. The submarginal CTG technique was able to provide simultaneous vertical and horizontal soft tissue increases around single implants with shallow buccal bone dehiscence and no buccal mucosal recession or clinical signs of mucositis or peri-implantitis at 1 and 3 years. PMID:27560667

  2. [TISSUE-ENGINEERED SUBSTITUTION URETHROPLASTY BASED ON DECELLULARIZED VASCULAR MATRIX AND AUTOLOGOUS CELLS OF THE BUCCAL MUCOSA: THE FIRST EXPERIENCE].

    PubMed

    Glybochko, P V; Aljaev, Ju G; Nikolenko, V N; Shehter, A B; Vinarov, A Z; Istranov, L P; Istranova, E V; Abojanc, R K; Ljundup, A V; Danilevskij, M I; Guller, A E; Elistratov, P A; Butnaru, D V; Kantimerov, D F; Mashin, G A; Titov, A S; Proskura, A V; Kudrichevskaja, K V

    2015-01-01

    Urethral strictures and anomalies remain a challenging urological problem. Reconstructive plastic surgery has been shown to be the most effective way to treat them. There are two main types of urethroplasty: anastomosis (anastomotic urethroplasty) and expansion of the urethral lumen using of flaps and grafts (substitution urethroplasty). Currently the ideal material for substitution urethroplasty does not exist. Tissue engineering of the urethra seems to be one of the most promising approaches to address this problem. Various tissues-engineering techniques were proposed for substitution urethroplasty. In this study, tissue-engineering design was based on the decellularized cadaveric arterial wall. The study results demonstrated the feasibility of creating stable tissue-engineered structures with autologous cultured epithelial cells of the buccal mucosa and decellularized matrix from human cadaveric arterial wall (DMCAW). There was a complete engraftment of tissue-engineering design based on DMCAW and buccal mucosa cells, used for substitution urethroplasty in a patient with the bulbar urethral stricture. Postoperatively (within 4 months after surgery) no complications and/or adverse events were observed. However, in the late postoperative period (12 months) there was recurrence of urethral stricture in the middle of the tissue-engineering design and the native urethra that warranted another surgery. Tissue-engineering design based on DMCAW and autologous buccal mucosa is safe as a material for substitution urethroplasty. Further research is required to ascertain the effectiveness of the method.

  3. Tissue engineered pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalents utilizing a primary triculture of epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Heller, M; Frerick-Ochs, E V; Bauer, H-K; Schiegnitz, E; Flesch, D; Brieger, J; Stein, R; Al-Nawas, B; Brochhausen, C; Thüroff, J W; Unger, R E; Brenner, W

    2016-01-01

    Artificial generated buccal mucosa equivalents are a promising approach for the reconstruction of urethral defects. Limiting in this approach is a poor blood vessel supply after transplantation, resulting in increased morbidity and necrosis. We generated a pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalent in a tri-culture of primary buccal epithelial cells, fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells, using a native collagen membrane as a scaffold. A successful pre-vascularization and dense formation of capillary-like structures at superficial areas was demonstrated. The lumen size of pre-formed blood vessels corresponded to the capillary size in vivo (10-30 μm). Comparing native with a highly cross-linked collagen membrane we found a distinct higher formation of capillary-like structures on the native membrane, apparently caused by higher secretion of angiogenic factors such as PDGF, IL-8 and angiopoietin by the cells. These capillary-like structures became functional blood vessels through anastomosis with the host vasculature after implantation in nude mice. This in vitro method should result in an accelerated blood supply to the biomaterial with cells after transplantation and increase the succes rates of the implant material.

  4. Functional physico-chemical, ex vivo permeation and cell viability characterization of omeprazole loaded buccal films for paediatric drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajjad; Trivedi, Vivek; Boateng, Joshua

    2016-03-16

    Buccal films were prepared from aqueous and ethanolic Metolose gels using the solvent casting approach (40°C). The hydration (PBS and simulated saliva), mucoadhesion, physical stability (20°C, 40°C), in vitro drug (omeprazole) dissolution (PBS and simulated saliva), ex vivo permeation (pig buccal mucosa) in the presence of simulated saliva, ex vivo bioadhesion and cell viability using MTT of films were investigated. Hydration and mucoadhesion results showed that swelling capacity and adhesion was higher in the presence of PBS than simulated saliva (SS) due to differences in ionic strength. Omeprazole was more stable at 20°C than 40°C whilst omeprazole release reached a plateau within 1h and faster in PBS than in SS. Fitting release data to kinetic models showed that Korsmeyer-Peppas equation best fit the dissolution data. Drug release in PBS was best described by zero order via non-Fickian diffusion but followed super case II transport in SS attributed to drug diffusion and polymer erosion. The amount of omeprazole permeating over 2h was 275 ug/cm(2) whilst the formulations and starting materials showed cell viability values greater than 95%, confirming their safety for potential use in paediatric buccal delivery. PMID:26802493

  5. Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Åsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  6. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal region is composed of salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, K; Ohuchi, T; Hasegawa, T; Hiratsuka, H

    2009-10-01

    A 73-year-old female presented with an asymptomatic mass in the left buccal region that she had first noticed 4 years earlier. The tumor, which was located in the buccal space, was clinically diagnosed as a salivary gland tumor and treated by excision. Histopathological examination revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisting of three different histopathological neoplastic areas in a large, fibrous, hyalinizing stromal background. The neoplastic lesion contained two malignant and one benign element, with histological characteristics consistent with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA). The SCC nests showed no continuity with the buccal mucosa. Both the SCC and SDC nests were surrounded by non-atypical myoepithelial cells, suggesting that both components may have developed from transformation of metaplastic luminal epithelial cells of PA. The tumor was diagnosed as a non-invasive carcinoma (SCC and SDC) ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA). There was no evidence of recurrence 16 months after operation.

  7. Body weight as a determinant of clinical evolution in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Galindo, Angela María; Delgado-Murcia, Lucy Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The clinical outcome of infection with Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia in hamster model (Mesocricetus auratus) has shown to be different depending on experimental protocol. Body weight has been a relevant determinant of the clinical outcome of the infection in hamsters with visceral leishmaniasis but its importance as a clinical parameter in hamsters with cutaneous leishmaniasis is not known. In this study, the clinical evolution of infection with L. (V) panamensis was evaluated in juvenile and adult male hamsters during 11 weeks by comparing clinical parameters such as attitude, temperature, respiratory rate, appearance of the stool, and body weight between infected and non-infected groups. Results showed that body weight decreased in adult hamsters after infection by L. (V) panamensis; this observation supports the use of body weight as an additional parameter to define the management or treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in infected adult hamsters used as an animal experimental model for leishmaniasis.

  8. Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, Bharat; Sharma, Abhishek; Shetty, Raju Singam; Bolla, Sheetal Chowdary; Gantha, Naga Sribala; Reddy, Prasun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001). Interpretation and Conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25374837

  9. Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales

    PubMed Central

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as . The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution. PMID:19939846

  10. Development and In vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Nebivolol

    PubMed Central

    Mane, P. P.; Bushetti, S. S.; Keshavshetti, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Nebivolol, a cardioselective β-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. All the prepared films were found to be smooth, elegant and uniform in thickness and weight. Among the three polymer combinations used, 6:4 (BFN6) showed increased in vitro residence time, which appeared to be mainly due to mucoadhesive nature of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose. Evaluation of the films showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation (96.21±0.71 to 97.02±0.12%). In vitro drug release studies showed better results at the end of 8 h. The release profile of all the formulations was subjected to kinetic analyses, which suggested that the drug was released by diffusion mechanism following super case-II transport. PMID:24843191

  11. Dyclonine rescues frataxin deficiency in animal models and buccal cells of patients with Friedreich's ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Sahdeo, Sunil; Scott, Brian D.; McMackin, Marissa Z.; Jasoliya, Mittal; Brown, Brandon; Wulff, Heike; Perlman, Susan L.; Pook, Mark A.; Cortopassi, Gino A.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited deficiency in the mitochondrial protein frataxin (FXN) causes the rare disease Friedreich's ataxia (FA), for which there is no successful treatment. We identified a redox deficiency in FA cells and used this to model the disease. We screened a 1600-compound library to identify existing drugs, which could be of therapeutic benefit. We identified the topical anesthetic dyclonine as protective. Dyclonine increased FXN transcript and FXN protein dose-dependently in FA cells and brains of animal models. Dyclonine also rescued FXN-dependent enzyme deficiencies in the iron–sulfur enzymes, aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase. Dyclonine induces the Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2] transcription factor, which we show binds an upstream response element in the FXN locus. Additionally, dyclonine also inhibited the activity of histone methyltransferase G9a, known to methylate histone H3K9 to silence FA chromatin. Chronic dosing in a FA mouse model prevented a performance decline in balance beam studies. A human clinical proof-of-concept study was completed in eight FA patients dosed twice daily using a 1% dyclonine rinse for 1 week. Six of the eight patients showed an increase in buccal cell FXN levels, and fold induction was significantly correlated with disease severity. Dyclonine represents a novel therapeutic strategy that can potentially be repurposed for the treatment of FA. PMID:25113747

  12. An in-vitro method for buccal adhesion studies: importance of instrument variables.

    PubMed

    Wong, C F; Yuen, K H; Peh, K K

    1999-03-25

    A method using a texture analyzer equipment and chicken pouch as the biological tissue was investigated for measuring the bioadhesive properties of polymers under simulated buccal conditions. The method was evaluated using two polymers, namely Carbopol 974P and Methocel K4M while the instrument variables studied included the contact force, contact time and speed of withdrawal of the probe from the tissue. The parameters measured were the work of adhesion and peak detachment force. Longer contact time and faster probe speed not only gave better reproducibility of results, but also better sensitivities for both parameters measured. On the other hand, a certain level of contact force was found essential for achieving good bioadhesion, above which there was no further contribution to the bioadhesion process. When the method was applied to determine the bioadhesiveness of several polymers, the values obtained for the work of adhesion and peak detachment force were quite consistent in the ranking of the polymers. The Carbopols were found to have the highest values, followed by gelatin, sodium carboxymethyl celluloses and hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses. On the other hand, Alginic acid, Eudragit RLPO and RSPO, and Chitosan appeared to have low bioadhesive values. PMID:10089291

  13. Fimbria-mediated adherence of Candida albicans to glycosphingolipid receptors on human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L; Lee, K K; Sheth, H B; Lane-Bell, P; Srivastava, G; Hindsgaul, O; Paranchych, W; Hodges, R S; Irvin, R T

    1994-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunist fungal pathogen that has the ability to adhere to host cell surface receptors via a number of adhesins. Yu et al. (L. Yu, K. K. Lee, K. Ens, P. C. Doig, M. R. Carpenter, W. Staddon, R. S. Hodges, W. Paranchych, and R. T. Irvin, Infect. Immun. 62:2834-2842, 1994) described the purification and initial characterization of a fimbrial adhesin from C. albicans. In this paper, we show that C. albicans fimbriae also bind to asialo-GM1 [gangliotetraosylceramide: beta Gal(1-3)beta GalNAc(1-4) beta Gal(1-4)beta Glc(1-1)Cer] immobilized on microtiter plates in a saturable and concentration-dependent manner. C. albicans fimbrial binding to exfoliated human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) was inhibited by asialo-GM1 in in vitro binding assays. The fimbriae interact with the glycosphingolipid receptors via the carbohydrate portion of the receptors, since fimbriae were observed to bind to synthetic beta GalNAc(1-4)beta Gal-protein conjugates and the disaccharide was able to inhibit binding of fimbriae to BECs in in vitro binding assays. We conclude from these results that the C. albicans yeast form expresses a fimbrial adhesin that binds to glycosphingolipids displayed on the surface of human BECs. Images PMID:8005674

  14. Multivariate toxicity screening of liposomal formulations on a human buccal cell line.

    PubMed

    Smistad, Gro; Jacobsen, Jette; Sande, Sverre A

    2007-02-01

    The influence of various formulation factors on the in vitro cellular toxicity of liposomes on human buccal cells (TR146), were studied by using the concept of statistical experimental design and multivariate evaluation. The factors investigated were the type of main phospholipid (egg-PC, DMPC, DPPC), lipid concentration, the type of charge, liposome size, and amount and nature of the charged component (diacyl-PA, diacyl-PG, diacyl-PS, stearylamine (SA), diacyl-TAP) in the liposomes. Both full factorial design and D-optimal designs were created. Several significant main factors and interactions were revealed. Positively charged liposomes were shown to be toxic. The toxicity of negatively charged liposomes was relatively low. Diacyl-TAP was less toxic than SA, and DPPC was less toxic than DMPC. Low level of positively charged component was favourable and essential when using egg-PC as the main lipid. The amount of negatively charged component, the liposome size, and the total lipid concentration did not affect the toxicity within the experimental room. DPPC appeared to be a good candidate when formulating both positively and negatively charged liposomes with low cellular toxicity. The concept of statistical experimental design and multivariate evaluation was shown to be a useful approach in cell toxicity screening studies. PMID:16997516

  15. Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip.

  16. Arecoline-stimulated connective tissue growth factor production in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts: Modulation by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi-Ting; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping

    2009-09-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is associated with the onset and progression of fibrosis in many human tissues. Areca nut (AN) chewing is the most important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). We immunohistochemically examined the expression of CTGF protein in 20 cases of OSF and found positive CTGF staining in fibroblasts and endothelial cells in all cases. Western blot analysis showed that arecoline, a main alkaloid found in AN, stimulated CTGF synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in buccal mucosal fibroblasts. Constitutive overexpression of CTGF during AN chewing may enhance the fibrotic activity in OSF and play a role in the pathogenesis of OSF. Pretreatment with NF-kappaB inhibitor Bay 11-7082, JNK inhibitor SP600125, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine, but not ERK inhibitor PD98059, significantly reduced arecoline-induced CTGF synthesis. Furthermore, curcumin completely inhibited arecoline-induced CTGF synthesis and the inhibition is dose-dependent. These results indicated that arecoline-induced CTGF synthesis was mediated by ROS, NF-kappaB, JNK, P38 MAPK pathways and curcumin could be a useful agent in controlling OSF.

  17. Obliteration of Recurrent Large Dentigerous Cyst Using Bilateral Buccal Fat Pad Sling Flaps.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Jun Beom

    2016-07-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC), also known as follicular cyst, is an odontogenic cyst with fluid accumulation between the crown and enamel organ of an unerupted tooth, pushing the crown away from the alveolar bone. The patients with DC in the maxillary sinus should be evaluated thoroughly by extraoral and intraoral examinations, proper diagnostic imaging procedures, and pathologic examination to avoid misdiagnosis of maxillary sinusitis. The standard treatment for DC in the maxillary sinus is often removed by Caldwell-Luc approach. Furthermore, marsupialization or functional endoscopic sinus surgery may be performed because of the size, location of the cysts, or the age of the patients. Sometimes, DC recurred and it made contour deformity. The buccal fat pad (BFP) was mentioned for the first time by Heister in 1732 and better described by Bichat in 1802. Egyedi was the first to report use of the BFP in oral reconstruction for the closure of oroantral and oronasal communications, and Tideman et al showed there was no need to cover BFP by a skin graft when used for defects of oral cavity. So, the authors report our experience with the bilateral pedicled sling BFP flap for intraoral reconstruction after larger recurrent DC removal and describe advantages, operative procedure, and possible complications of the DC. PMID:27391514

  18. Increased numbers of mast cells in the hyperplastic buccal mucosa of the zinc-deficient rat.

    PubMed

    Kreavich, M E; Meyer, J; Waterhouse, J P

    1981-02-01

    Six weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 0.4 ppm Zn and seven were fed an identical diet except for 40 ppm Zn. After 4 weeks, specimens of buccal mucosa in the region facing the molar teeth were removed. Paraffin sections, cut at 6 micron, were stained with toluidine blue, and tracings made of five sections per animal, spaced no less than 60 micron apart. Counts of mast cells of five sections length of section were made in a superficial zone of the lamina propria of 50 micron width and a deeper zone of 250 micron width. The average number of mast cells, per mm in the subepithelial zone of the experimental animals was 15.4, the range 9.2-33.1. The control average was 4.0; the range was 2.9-5.3. No increase was found in the deeper zone. The epithelium was parakeratotic and its thickness was increased two-fold. In the peripheral portion of the section, cellular and keratin layers were evenly increased in thickness, but in the central portion a disproportionate, nearly four-fold increase occurred in the keratin layer and a lesser increase in the cellular layer.

  19. Genetic damage in coal miners evaluated by buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    León-Mejía, Grethel; Quintana, Milton; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny; Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Hartmann, Andreas; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Da Silva, Juliana

    2014-09-01

    During coal mining activities, large quantities of coal dust, ashes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are released into the environment. This complex mixture presents one of the most important occupational hazards for health of workers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic damage together with the presence of inorganic elements, in an exposed workers population to coal mining residues of Guajira-Colombia. Thus, 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. To determine genetic damage we assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequencies and nuclear buds in buccal mucosa samples (BMCyt) assay, which were significantly higher in the exposed group than non-exposed control group. In addition, karyorrhectic and karyolytic cells were also significantly higher in the exposed group (cell death). No significant difference was observed between the exposed groups engaged in different mining activities. No correlation between age, alcohol consumption, time of service and MN assay data were found in this study. However, the content of inorganic elements in blood samples analyzed by a Particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE) showed higher values of silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the exposed group. In this study we discuss the possibility of DNA damage observed in the mine workers cells be a consequence of oxidative damage.

  20. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique. PMID:24778463