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Sample records for dna-binding transcription factors

  1. Modulation of DNA binding by gene-specific transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Schleif, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    The transcription of many genes, particularly in prokaryotes, is controlled by transcription factors whose activity can be modulated by controlling their DNA binding affinity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which DNA binding affinity is regulated is important, but because forming definitive conclusions usually requires detailed structural information in combination with data from extensive biophysical, biochemical, and sometimes genetic experiments, little is truly understood about this topic. This review describes the biological requirements placed upon DNA binding transcription factors and their consequent properties, particularly the ways that DNA binding affinity can be modulated and methods for its study. What is known and not known about the mechanisms modulating the DNA binding affinity of a number of prokaryotic transcription factors, including CAP and lac repressor, is provided.

  2. DNA-binding small molecules as inhibitors of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chung-Hang; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Ma, Victor Pui-Yan; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2013-07-01

    Accumulating evidence implicating the role of aberrant transcription factor signaling in the pathogenesis of various human diseases such as cancer and inflammation has stimulated the development of small molecule ligands capable of targeting transcription factor activity and modulating gene expression. The use of DNA-binding small molecules to selectively inhibit transcription factor-DNA interactions represents one possible approach toward this goal. In this review, we summarize the development of DNA-binding small molecule inhibitors of transcription factors from 2004 to 2011, and their binding mode and therapeutic potential will be discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Predicting DNA-Binding Specificities of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Adrian; Eichner, Johannes; Supper, Jochen; Eichner, Jonas; Wanke, Dierk; Henneges, Carsten; Zell, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Today, annotated amino acid sequences of more and more transcription factors (TFs) are readily available. Quantitative information about their DNA-binding specificities, however, are hard to obtain. Position frequency matrices (PFMs), the most widely used models to represent binding specificities, are experimentally characterized only for a small fraction of all TFs. Even for some of the most intensively studied eukaryotic organisms (i.e., human, rat and mouse), roughly one-sixth of all proteins with annotated DNA-binding domain have been characterized experimentally. Here, we present a new method based on support vector regression for predicting quantitative DNA-binding specificities of TFs in different eukaryotic species. This approach estimates a quantitative measure for the PFM similarity of two proteins, based on various features derived from their protein sequences. The method is trained and tested on a dataset containing 1 239 TFs with known DNA-binding specificity, and used to predict specific DNA target motifs for 645 TFs with high accuracy. PMID:21152420

  4. DNA-binding specificities of human transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Jolma, Arttu; Yan, Jian; Whitington, Thomas; Toivonen, Jarkko; Nitta, Kazuhiro R; Rastas, Pasi; Morgunova, Ekaterina; Enge, Martin; Taipale, Mikko; Wei, Gonghong; Palin, Kimmo; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Vincentelli, Renaud; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Hughes, Timothy R; Lemaire, Patrick; Ukkonen, Esko; Kivioja, Teemu; Taipale, Jussi

    2013-01-17

    Although the proteins that read the gene regulatory code, transcription factors (TFs), have been largely identified, it is not well known which sequences TFs can recognize. We have analyzed the sequence-specific binding of human TFs using high-throughput SELEX and ChIP sequencing. A total of 830 binding profiles were obtained, describing 239 distinctly different binding specificities. The models represent the majority of human TFs, approximately doubling the coverage compared to existing systematic studies. Our results reveal additional specificity determinants for a large number of factors for which a partial specificity was known, including a commonly observed A- or T-rich stretch that flanks the core motifs. Global analysis of the data revealed that homodimer orientation and spacing preferences, and base-stacking interactions, have a larger role in TF-DNA binding than previously appreciated. We further describe a binding model incorporating these features that is required to understand binding of TFs to DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA Binding by the Ribosomal DNA Transcription Factor Rrn3 Is Essential for Ribosomal DNA Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H.; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A.; Rothblum, Lawrence I.

    2013-01-01

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382–400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I. PMID:23393135

  6. DNA binding by the ribosomal DNA transcription factor rrn3 is essential for ribosomal DNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A; Rothblum, Lawrence I

    2013-03-29

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382-400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I.

  7. Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Foti, M; Omichinski, J G; Stahl, S; Maloney, D; West, J; Schweitzer, B I

    1999-02-05

    We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.

  8. Survey of variation in human transcription factors reveals prevalent DNA binding changes

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Luis A.; Rogers, Julia M.; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S.; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Woodard, Jaie; Mariani, Luca; Kock, Kian Hong; Inukai, Sachi; Siggers, Trevor; Shokri, Leila; Gordân, Raluca; Sahni, Nidhi; Cotsapas, Chris; Hao, Tong; Yi, Song; Kellis, Manolis; Daly, Mark J.; Vidal, Marc; Hill, David E.; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing of exomes and genomes has revealed abundant genetic variation affecting the coding sequences of human transcription factors (TFs), but the consequences of such variation remain largely unexplored. We developed a computational, structure-based approach to evaluate TF variants for their impact on DNA-binding activity and used universal protein binding microarrays to assay sequence-specific DNA-binding activity across 41 reference and 117 variant alleles found in individuals of diverse ancestries and families with Mendelian diseases. We found 77 variants in 28 genes that affect DNA-binding affinity or specificity and identified thousands of rare alleles likely to alter the DNA-binding activity of human sequence-specific TFs. Our results suggest that most individuals have unique repertoires of TF DNA-binding activities, which may contribute to phenotypic variation. PMID:27013732

  9. Survey of variation in human transcription factors reveals prevalent DNA binding changes.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Luis A; Vedenko, Anastasia; Kurland, Jesse V; Rogers, Julia M; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Woodard, Jaie; Mariani, Luca; Kock, Kian Hong; Inukai, Sachi; Siggers, Trevor; Shokri, Leila; Gordân, Raluca; Sahni, Nidhi; Cotsapas, Chris; Hao, Tong; Yi, Song; Kellis, Manolis; Daly, Mark J; Vidal, Marc; Hill, David E; Bulyk, Martha L

    2016-03-25

    Sequencing of exomes and genomes has revealed abundant genetic variation affecting the coding sequences of human transcription factors (TFs), but the consequences of such variation remain largely unexplored. We developed a computational, structure-based approach to evaluate TF variants for their impact on DNA binding activity and used universal protein-binding microarrays to assay sequence-specific DNA binding activity across 41 reference and 117 variant alleles found in individuals of diverse ancestries and families with Mendelian diseases. We found 77 variants in 28 genes that affect DNA binding affinity or specificity and identified thousands of rare alleles likely to alter the DNA binding activity of human sequence-specific TFs. Our results suggest that most individuals have unique repertoires of TF DNA binding activities, which may contribute to phenotypic variation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Experimental analysis and computer prediction of CTF/NFI transcription factor DNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Roulet, E; Bucher, P; Schneider, R; Wingender, E; Dusserre, Y; Werner, T; Mermod, N

    2000-04-07

    Accurate prediction of transcription factor binding sites is needed to unravel the function and regulation of genes discovered in genome sequencing projects. To evaluate current computer prediction tools, we have begun a systematic study of the sequence-specific DNA-binding of a transcription factor belonging to the CTF/NFI family. Using a systematic collection of rationally designed oligonucleotides combined with an in vitro DNA binding assay, we found that the sequence specificity of this protein cannot be represented by a simple consensus sequence or weight matrix. For instance, CTF/NFI uses a flexible DNA binding mode that allows for variations of the binding site length. From the experimental data, we derived a novel prediction method using a generalised profile as a binding site predictor. Experimental evaluation of the generalised profile indicated that it accurately predicts the binding affinity of the transcription factor to natural or synthetic DNA sequences. Furthermore, the in vitro measured binding affinities of a subset of oligonucleotides were found to correlate with their transcriptional activities in transfected cells. The combined computational-experimental approach exemplified in this work thus resulted in an accurate prediction method for CTF/NFI binding sites potentially functioning as regulatory regions in vivo. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. A Potential Structural Switch for Regulating DNA-Binding by TEAD Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sun; Vonrhein, Clemens; Albarado, Diana; Raman, C S; Veeraraghavan, Sudha

    2016-06-19

    TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors are essential for the normal development of eukaryotes and are the downstream effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. Whereas our earlier work established the three-dimensional structure of the highly conserved DNA-binding domain using solution NMR spectroscopy, the structural basis for regulating the DNA-binding activity remains unknown. Here, we present the X-ray crystallographic structure and activity of a TEAD mutant containing a truncated L1 loop, ΔL1 TEAD DBD. Unexpectedly, the three-dimensional structure of the ΔL1 TEAD DBD reveals a helix-swapped homodimer wherein helix 1 is swapped between monomers. Furthermore, each three-helix bundle in the domain-swapped dimer is a structural homolog of MYB-like domains. Our investigations of the DNA-binding activity reveal that although the formation of the three-helix bundle by the ΔL1 TEAD DBD is sufficient for binding to an isolated M-CAT-like DNA element, multimeric forms are deficient for cooperative binding to tandemly duplicated elements, indicating that the L1 loop contributes to the DNA-binding activity of TEAD. These results suggest that switching between monomeric and domain-swapped forms may regulate DNA selectivity of TEAD proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of the Sre1 hypoxic transcription factor by oxygen-dependent control of DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Yung S.; Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Hughes, Bridget T.; Espenshade, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Regulation of gene expression plays an integral role in adaptation of cells to hypoxic stress. In mammals, prolyl hydroxylases control levels of the central transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) through regulation of HIFα subunit stability. Here, we report that the hydroxylase Ofd1 regulates the Sre1 hypoxic transcription factor in fission yeast by controlling DNA binding. Prolyl hydroxylases require oxygen as a substrate and the activity of Ofd1 regulates Sre1-dependent transcription. In the presence of oxygen, Ofd1 binds the Sre1 N-terminal transcription factor domain (Sre1N) and inhibits Sre1-dependent transcription by blocking DNA binding. In the absence of oxygen, the inhibitor Nro1 binds Ofd1, thereby releasing Sre1N and leading to activation of genes required for hypoxic growth. In contrast to the HIF system where proline hydroxylation is essential for regulation, Ofd1 inhibition of Sre1N does not require hydroxylation, and thus defines a new mechanism for hypoxic gene regulation. PMID:22017871

  13. The repertoire of DNA-binding transcription factors in prokaryotes: functional and evolutionary lessons.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rueda, Ernesto; Martinez-Nuñez, Mario Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The capabilities of organisms to contend with environmental changes depend on their genes and their ability to regulate their expression. DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) play a central role in this process, because they regulate gene expression positively and/or negatively, depending on the operator context and ligand-binding status. In this review, we summarise recent findings regarding the function and evolution of TFs in prokaryotes. We consider the abundance of TFs in bacteria and archaea, the role of DNA-binding domains and their partner domains, and the effects of duplication events in the evolution of regulatory networks. Finally, a comprehensive picture for how regulatory networks have evolved in prokaryotes is provided.

  14. Engineering transcription factors with novel DNA-binding specificity using comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Tasha A.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Alm, Eric J.; Rao, Christopher V.

    2009-01-01

    The transcriptional program for a gene consists of the promoter necessary for recruiting RNA polymerase along with neighboring operator sites that bind different activators and repressors. From a synthetic biology perspective, if the DNA-binding specificity of these proteins can be changed, then they can be used to reprogram gene expression in cells. While many experimental methods exist for generating such specificity-altering mutations, few computational approaches are available, particularly in the case of bacterial transcription factors. In a previously published computational study of nitrogen oxide metabolism in bacteria, a small number of amino-acid residues were found to determine the specificity within the CRP (cAMP receptor protein)/FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase regulatory protein) family of transcription factors. By analyzing how these amino acids vary in different regulators, a simple relationship between the identity of these residues and their target DNA-binding sequence was constructed. In this article, we experimentally tested whether this relationship could be used to engineer novel DNA–protein interactions. Using Escherichia coli CRP as a template, we tested eight designs based on this relationship and found that four worked as predicted. Collectively, these results in this work demonstrate that comparative genomics can inform the design of bacterial transcription factors. PMID:19264798

  15. Id Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins Antagonize Pax Transcription Factor Activity by Inhibiting DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, E. Claire; Deed, Richard W.; Inoue, Toshiaki; Norton, John D.; Sharrocks, Andrew D.

    2001-01-01

    The Id subfamily of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. The major mechanism by which Id proteins are thought to inhibit differentiation is through interaction with other HLH proteins and inhibition of their DNA-binding activity. However, Id proteins have also been shown to interact with other proteins involved in regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation, suggesting a more widespread regulatory function. In this study we demonstrate functional interactions between Id proteins and members of the Pax-2/-5/-8 subfamily of paired-domain transcription factors. Members of the Pax transcription factor family have key functions in regulating several developmental processes exemplified by B lymphopoiesis, in which Pax-5 plays an essential role. Id proteins bind to Pax proteins in vitro and in vivo. Binding occurs through the paired DNA-binding domain of the Pax proteins and results in the disruption of DNA-bound complexes containing Pax-2, Pax-5, and Pax-8. In vivo, Id proteins modulate the transcriptional activity mediated by Pax-5 complexes on the B-cell-specific mb-1 promoter. Our results therefore demonstrate a novel facet of Id function in regulating cellular differentiation by functionally antagonizing the action of members of the Pax transcription factor family. PMID:11134340

  16. Identification of amino acid residues of transcription factor AP-2 involved in DNA binding.

    PubMed

    García, M A; Campillos, M; Ogueta, S; Valdivieso, F; Vázquez, J

    2000-08-25

    AP-2 is a cell-type specific, developmentally regulated transcription factor which has been described as a critical regulator of gene expression during vertebrate development and embryogenesis. Although the overall domains of this factor necessary for their activity have been identified, the exact identity of AP-2 amino acid residues responsible for its interaction with the DNA structure has not yet been described. Here, we describe the identification of a region of AP-2 which was protected by an oligonucleotide probe containing its binding site from trypsin digestion, monitored by peptide mapping by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we analyzed the relative in vitro DNA-binding activity, the stimulatory potency on the AP-2-dependent APOE promoter, as well as the ability to inhibit the effect of the wild-type protein of each one of a set of single-site substitution AP-2 mutants spanning the identified region. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that the region between amino acid residues 252-260 of AP-2 is essential for its DNA-binding activity. Particularly, the individual substitution in any of the residues 253, 254, 255, 257 or 260 is sufficient for completely abolishing the interaction with DNA and the stimulation of APOE promoter activity. These results indicate a crucial role of this region in the formation of an active DNA-binding domain and strongly suggest that these residues provide direct contacts with the DNA structure at the AP-2 binding site. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Insights into structural and functional diversity of Dof (DNA binding with one finger) transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Malviya, N; Kushwaha, H; Nasim, J; Bisht, N C; Singh, V K; Yadav, D

    2015-03-01

    The structural, functional and in-silico studies of Dof transcription factor attempted so far reveals immense opportunity to analyze the plant genomes in terms of number of Dof genes and discuss in light of the evolution. The multiple functions of Dof genes needs to explored for crop improvement. Transcription factors play a very vital role in gene regulation at transcriptional level and are being extensively studied across phylas. In recent years, sequencing of plant genomes has led to genome-wide identification and characterizations of diverse types of plant-specific transcription factor gene family providing key insights into their structural and functional diversity. The DNA binding with one finger (Dof), a class belonging to C2H2-type zinc finger family proteins, is a plant-specific transcription factor having multiple roles such as seed maturation and germination, phytohormone and light-mediated regulation and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof proteins are present across plant lineage, from green algae to higher angiosperm, and represent a unique class of transcription factor having bifunctional binding activities, with both DNA and proteins, to regulate the complex transcriptional machinery in plant cells. The structural and functional diversity of the Dof transcription factor family along with the bioinformatics analysis highlighting the phylogeny of Dof families is reviewed in light of its importance in plant biotechnology for crop improvement.

  18. Lineage-specific expansion of DNA-binding transcription factor families

    PubMed Central

    Charoensawan, Varodom; Wilson, Derek; Teichmann, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    DNA-binding domains (DBDs) are essential components of sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs). We have investigated the distribution of all known DBDs in more than 500 completely sequenced genomes from the three major superkingdoms (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota) and documented conserved and specific DBD occurrence in diverse taxonomic lineages. By combining DBD occurrence in different species with taxonomic information, we have developed an automatic method for inferring the origins of DBD families and their specific combinations with other protein families in TFs. We found only three out of 131 (2%) DBD families shared by the three superkingdoms. PMID:20675012

  19. Regulation of cell cycle transcription factor Swi4 through auto-inhibition of DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Baetz, K; Andrews, B

    1999-10-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two transcription factors, SBF (SCB binding factor) and MBF (MCB binding factor), promote the induction of gene expression at the G(1)/S-phase transition of the mitotic cell cycle. Swi4 and Mbp1 are the DNA binding components of SBF and MBF, respectively. The Swi6 protein is a common subunit of both transcription factors and is presumed to play a regulatory role. SBF binding to its target sequences, the SCBs, is a highly regulated event and requires the association of Swi4 with Swi6 through their C-terminal domains. Swi4 binding to SCBs is restricted to the late M and G(1) phases, when Swi6 is localized to the nucleus. We show that in contrast to Swi6, Swi4 remains nuclear throughout the cell cycle. This finding suggests that the DNA binding domain of Swi4 is inaccessible in the full-length protein when not complexed with Swi6. To explore this hypothesis, we expressed Swi4 and Swi6 in insect cells by using the baculovirus system. We determined that partially purified Swi4 cannot bind SCBs in the absence of Swi6. However, Swi4 derivatives carrying point mutations or alterations in the extreme C terminus were able to bind DNA or activate transcription in the absence of Swi6, and the C terminus of Swi4 inhibited Swi4 derivatives from binding DNA in trans. Full-length Swi4 was determined to be monomeric in solution, suggesting an intramolecular mechanism for auto-inhibition of binding to DNA by Swi4. We detected a direct in vitro interaction between a C-terminal fragment of Swi4 and the N-terminal 197 amino acids of Swi4, which contain the DNA binding domain. Together, our data suggest that intramolecular interactions involving the C-terminal region of Swi4 physically prevent the DNA binding domain from binding SCBs. The interaction of the carboxy-terminal region of Swi4 with Swi6 alleviates this inhibition, allowing Swi4 to bind DNA.

  20. The role of the DNA-binding One Zinc Finger (DOF) transcription factor family in plants.

    PubMed

    Noguero, Mélanie; Atif, Rana Muhammad; Ochatt, Sergio; Thompson, Richard D

    2013-08-01

    The DOF (DNA-binding One Zinc Finger) family of transcription factors is involved in many fundamental processes in higher plants, including responses to light and phytohormones as well as roles in seed maturation and germination. DOF transcription factor genes are restricted in their distribution to plants, where they are in many copies in both gymnosperms and angiosperms and also present in lower plants such as the moss Physcomitrella patens and in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which possesses a single DOF gene. DOF transcription factors bind to their promoter targets at the consensus sequence AAAG. This binding depends upon the presence of the highly conserved DOF domain in the protein. Depending on the target gene, DOF factor binding may activate or repress transcription. DOF factors are expressed in most if not all tissues of higher plants, but frequently appear to be functionally redundant. Recent next-generation sequencing data provide a more comprehensive survey of the distribution of DOF sequence classes among plant species and within tissue types, and clues as to the evolution of functions assumed by this transcription factor family. DOFs do not appear to be implicated in the initial differentiation of the plant body plan into organs via the resolution of meristematic zones, in contrast to MADS-box and homeobox transcription factors, which are found in other non-plant eukaryotes, and this may reflect a more recent evolutionary origin.

  1. Dissecting the protein architecture of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gómez, Nancy; Martínez-Núñez, Mario Alberto; Pastor, Nina; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    Gene regulation at the transcriptional level is a central process in all organisms where DNA-binding transcription factors play a fundamental role. This class of proteins binds specifically at DNA sequences, activating or repressing gene expression as a function of the cell's metabolic status, operator context and ligand-binding status, among other factors, through the DNA-binding domain (DBD). In addition, TFs may contain partner domains (PaDos), which are involved in ligand binding and protein-protein interactions. In this work, we systematically evaluated the distribution, abundance and domain organization of DNA-binding TFs in 799 non-redundant bacterial and archaeal genomes. We found that the distributions of the DBDs and their corresponding PaDos correlated with the size of the genome. We also identified specific combinations between the DBDs and their corresponding PaDos. Within each class of DBDs there are differences in the actual angle formed at the dimerization interface, responding to the presence/absence of ligands and/or crystallization conditions, setting the orientation of the resulting helices and wings facing the DNA. Our results highlight the importance of PaDos as central elements that enhance the diversity of regulatory functions in all bacterial and archaeal organisms, and our results also demonstrate the role of PaDos in sensing diverse signal compounds. The highly specific interactions between DBDs and PaDos observed in this work, together with our structural analysis highlighting the difficulty in predicting both inter-domain geometry and quaternary structure, suggest that these systems appeared once and evolved with diverse duplication events in all the analysed organisms.

  2. The thyroid transcription factor 2 (TTF-2) is a promoter-specific DNA-binding independent transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Perrone, L; Pasca di Magliano, M; Zannini, M; Di Lauro, R

    2000-08-18

    The thyroid transcription factor TTF-2 is a forkhead-containing protein involved in thyroid-specific gene expression and necessary for thyroid morphogenesis. In this paper, we demonstrate that TTF-2 is able to inhibit the activity of the thyroid-specific transcription factors TTF-1 and Pax-8 only on certain promoters. We identified the minimal protein domain responsible for repressor activity, which behaves as an independent functional domain, and we show that repression by TTF-2 is DNA-binding independent. We suggest that TTF-2 is able to interfere with a specific cofactor required for TTF-1 and Pax-8 activity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Crystal Structure and DNA Binding of the Homeodomain of the Stem Cell Transcription Factor Nanog

    SciTech Connect

    Jauch, Ralf; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Saikatendu, Kumar Singh; Stevens, Raymond C.; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2010-02-08

    The transcription factor Nanog is an upstream regulator in early mammalian development and a key determinant of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Nanog binds to promoter elements of hundreds of target genes and regulates their expression by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure of the murine Nanog homeodomain (HD) and analysis of its interaction with a DNA element derived from the Tcf3 promoter. Two Nanog amino acid pairs, unique among HD sequences, appear to affect the mechanism of nonspecific DNA recognition as well as maintain the integrity of the structural scaffold. To assess selective DNA recognition by Nanog, we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays using a panel of modified DNA binding sites and found that Nanog HD preferentially binds the TAAT(G/T)(G/T) motif. A series of rational mutagenesis experiments probing the role of six variant residues of Nanog on its DNA binding function establish their role in affecting binding affinity but not binding specificity. Together, the structural and functional evidence establish Nanog as a distant member of a Q50-type HD despite having considerable variation at the sequence level.

  4. Characterization of sequence-specific DNA binding by the transcription factor Oct-1.

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, T; Chang, J F; Phillips, K; Luisi, B; Ladbury, J E

    2000-06-27

    The DNA-binding domain of the Oct-1 transcription factor, POU, recognizes a defined DNA sequence known as the octamer element to regulate the expression of both general and cell-type-specific genes. The two-part DNA-binding domain partially encircles the DNA to recognize the eight base pairs of the octamer element. We have characterized the binding of Oct-1/POU to an octamer element using isothermal titration calorimetry. As found for other cognate protein/DNA complexes, the formation of the Oct-1 POU/DNA complex is associated with a large negative heat capacity change, DeltaC(p)()(, obs). However, the observed change is much greater than expected by empirical relationships with buried surface area. Supported by data from proteolysis studies on the free and DNA-bound protein, we propose that the discrepancy in heat capacity arises principally from the partial folding of the Oct-1 POU protein upon complex formation. Formation of the Oct-1 POU/DNA complex is strongly dependent on ionic strength, and the detailed quantification of this relationship suggests that six charged contacts are made between the protein and the phosphate groups of the DNA. This agrees with observations from the crystal structure of an Oct-1 POU/DNA complex.

  5. Evolution of DNA-Binding Sites of a Floral Master Regulatory Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, Jose M.; de Bruijn, Suzanne; Pajoro, Alice; Geuten, Koen; Vingron, Martin; Angenent, Gerco C.; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Flower development is controlled by the action of key regulatory transcription factors of the MADS-domain family. The function of these factors appears to be highly conserved among species based on mutant phenotypes. However, the conservation of their downstream processes is much less well understood, mostly because the evolutionary turnover and variation of their DNA-binding sites (BSs) among plant species have not yet been experimentally determined. Here, we performed comparative ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-seq experiments of the MADS-domain transcription factor SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) in two closely related Arabidopsis species: Arabidopsis thaliana and A. lyrata which have very similar floral organ morphology. We found that BS conservation is associated with DNA sequence conservation, the presence of the CArG-box BS motif and on the relative position of the BS to its potential target gene. Differences in genome size and structure can explain that SEP3 BSs in A. lyrata can be located more distantly to their potential target genes than their counterparts in A. thaliana. In A. lyrata, we identified transposition as a mechanism to generate novel SEP3 binding locations in the genome. Comparative gene expression analysis shows that the loss/gain of BSs is associated with a change in gene expression. In summary, this study investigates the evolutionary dynamics of DNA BSs of a floral key-regulatory transcription factor and explores factors affecting this phenomenon. PMID:26429922

  6. Eukaryotic damaged DNA-binding proteins: DNA repair proteins or transcription factors?

    SciTech Connect

    Protic, M.

    1994-12-31

    Recognition and removal of structural defects in the genome, caused by diverse physical and chemical agents, are among the most important cell functions. Proteins that recognize and bind to modified DNA, and thereby initiate damage-induced recovery processes, have been identified in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Damaged DNA-binding (DDB) proteins from prokaryotes are either DNA repair enzymes or noncatalytic subunits of larger DNA repair complexes that participate in excision repair, or in recombinational repair and SOS-mutagenesis. Although the methods employed may not have allowed detection of all eukaryotic DDB proteins and identification of their functions, it appears that during evolution cells have developed a wide array of DDB proteins that can discriminate among the diversity of DNA conformations found in the eukaryotic nucleus, as well as a gene-sharing feature found in DDB proteins that also act as transcription factors.

  7. DNA-binding domains of plant-specific transcription factors: structure, function, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Kigawa, Takanori; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2013-05-01

    The families of the plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) are defined by their characteristic DNA-binding domains (DBDs), such as AP2/ERF, B3, NAC, SBP, and WRKY. Recently, three-dimensional structures of the DBDs, including those in complexes with DNA, were determined by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. In this review we summarize the functional and evolutionary implications arising from structure analyses. The unexpected structural similarity between B3 and the noncatalytic DBD of the restriction endonuclease EcoRII allowed us to build structural models of the B3/DNA complex. Most of the DBDs of plant-specific TFs are likely to have originated from endonucleases associated with transposable elements. After the DBDs have been established in unicellular eukaryotes, they experienced extensive plant-specific expansion, by acquiring new functions.

  8. Gene regulation knowledge commons: community action takes care of DNA binding transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Sushil; Vercruysse, Steven; Chawla, Konika; Christie, Karen R.; Blake, Judith A.; Huntley, Rachael P.; Orchard, Sandra; Hermjakob, Henning; Thommesen, Liv; Lægreid, Astrid; Kuiper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A large gap remains between the amount of knowledge in scientific literature and the fraction that gets curated into standardized databases, despite many curation initiatives. Yet the availability of comprehensive knowledge in databases is crucial for exploiting existing background knowledge, both for designing follow-up experiments and for interpreting new experimental data. Structured resources also underpin the computational integration and modeling of regulatory pathways, which further aids our understanding of regulatory dynamics. We argue how cooperation between the scientific community and professional curators can increase the capacity of capturing precise knowledge from literature. We demonstrate this with a project in which we mobilize biological domain experts who curate large amounts of DNA binding transcription factors, and show that they, although new to the field of curation, can make valuable contributions by harvesting reported knowledge from scientific papers. Such community curation can enhance the scientific epistemic process. Database URL: http://www.tfcheckpoint.org PMID:27270715

  9. Structural and dynamic studies of the transcription factor ERG reveal DNA binding is allosterically autoinhibited.

    PubMed

    Regan, Michael C; Horanyi, Peter S; Pryor, Edward E; Sarver, Jessica L; Cafiso, David S; Bushweller, John H

    2013-08-13

    The Ets-Related Gene (ERG) belongs to the Ets family of transcription factors and is critically important for maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell population. A chromosomal translocation observed in the majority of human prostate cancers leads to the aberrant overexpression of ERG. We have identified regions flanking the ERG Ets domain responsible for autoinhibition of DNA binding and solved crystal structures of uninhibited, autoinhibited, and DNA-bound ERG. NMR-based measurements of backbone dynamics show that uninhibited ERG undergoes substantial dynamics on the millisecond-to-microsecond timescale but autoinhibited and DNA-bound ERG do not. We propose a mechanism whereby the allosteric basis of ERG autoinhibition is mediated predominantly by the regulation of Ets-domain dynamics with only modest structural changes.

  10. Compound hierarchical correlated beta mixture with an application to cluster mouse transcription factor DNA binding data.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongying; Charnigo, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Modeling correlation structures is a challenge in bioinformatics, especially when dealing with high throughput genomic data. A compound hierarchical correlated beta mixture (CBM) with an exchangeable correlation structure is proposed to cluster genetic vectors into mixture components. The correlation coefficient, [Formula: see text], is homogenous within a mixture component and heterogeneous between mixture components. A random CBM with [Formula: see text] brings more flexibility in explaining correlation variations among genetic variables. Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and Stochastic Expectation-Maximization (SEM) algorithm are used to estimate parameters of CBM. The number of mixture components can be determined using model selection criteria such as AIC, BIC and ICL-BIC. Extensive simulation studies were conducted to compare EM, SEM and model selection criteria. Simulation results suggest that CBM outperforms the traditional beta mixture model with lower estimation bias and higher classification accuracy. The proposed method is applied to cluster transcription factor-DNA binding probability in mouse genome data generated by Lahdesmaki and others (2008, Probabilistic inference of transcription factor binding from multiple data sources. PLoS One, 3: , e1820). The results reveal distinct clusters of transcription factors when binding to promoter regions of genes in JAK-STAT, MAPK and other two pathways. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Widespread evidence of cooperative DNA binding by transcription factors in Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Kazemian, Majid; Pham, Hannah; Wolfe, Scot A; Brodsky, Michael H; Sinha, Saurabh

    2013-09-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic gene transcription is often combinatorial in nature, with multiple transcription factors (TFs) regulating common target genes, often through direct or indirect mutual interactions. Many individual examples of cooperative binding by directly interacting TFs have been identified, but it remains unclear how pervasive this mechanism is during animal development. Cooperative TF binding should be manifest in genomic sequences as biased arrangements of TF-binding sites. Here, we explore the extent and diversity of such arrangements related to gene regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. We used the DNA-binding specificities of 322 TFs along with chromatin accessibility information to identify enriched spacing and orientation patterns of TF-binding site pairs. We developed a new statistical approach for this task, specifically designed to accurately assess inter-site spacing biases while accounting for the phenomenon of homotypic site clustering commonly observed in developmental regulatory regions. We observed a large number of short-range distance preferences between TF-binding site pairs, including examples where the preference depends on the relative orientation of the binding sites. To test whether these binding site patterns reflect physical interactions between the corresponding TFs, we analyzed 27 TF pairs whose binding sites exhibited short distance preferences. In vitro protein-protein binding experiments revealed that >65% of these TF pairs can directly interact with each other. For five pairs, we further demonstrate that they bind cooperatively to DNA if both sites are present with the preferred spacing. This study demonstrates how DNA-binding motifs can be used to produce a comprehensive map of sequence signatures for different mechanisms of combinatorial TF action.

  12. Characterization of the DNA-binding Properties of the Mohawk Homeobox Transcription Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Douglas M.; George, Rajani; Noyes, Marcus B.; Rowton, Megan; Liu, Wenjin; Jiang, Rulang; Wolfe, Scot A.; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Rawls, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The homeobox transcription factor Mohawk (Mkx) is a potent transcriptional repressor expressed in the embryonic precursors of skeletal muscle, cartilage, and bone. MKX has recently been shown to be a critical regulator of musculoskeletal tissue differentiation and gene expression; however, the genetic pathways through which MKX functions and its DNA-binding properties are currently unknown. Using a modified bacterial one-hybrid site selection assay, we determined the core DNA-recognition motif of the mouse monomeric Mkx homeodomain to be A-C-A. Using cell-based assays, we have identified a minimal Mkx-responsive element (MRE) located within the Mkx promoter, which is composed of a highly conserved inverted repeat of the core Mkx recognition motif. Using the minimal MRE sequence, we have further identified conserved MREs within the locus of Sox6, a transcription factor that represses slow fiber gene expression during skeletal muscle differentiation. Real-time PCR and immunostaining of in vitro differentiated muscle satellite cells isolated from Mkx-null mice revealed an increase in the expression of Sox6 and down-regulation of slow fiber structural genes. Together, these data identify the unique DNA-recognition properties of MKX and reveal a novel role for Mkx in promoting slow fiber type specification during skeletal muscle differentiation. PMID:22923612

  13. A DNA-binding-site landscape and regulatory network analysis for NAC transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lindemose, Søren; Jensen, Michael K.; de Velde, Jan Van; O'Shea, Charlotte; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Workman, Christopher T.; Vandepoele, Klaas; Skriver, Karen; Masi, Federico De

    2014-01-01

    Target gene identification for transcription factors is a prerequisite for the systems wide understanding of organismal behaviour. NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors are amongst the largest transcription factor families in plants, yet limited data exist from unbiased approaches to resolve the DNA-binding preferences of individual members. Here, we present a TF-target gene identification workflow based on the integration of novel protein binding microarray data with gene expression and multi-species promoter sequence conservation to identify the DNA-binding specificities and the gene regulatory networks of 12 NAC transcription factors. Our data offer specific single-base resolution fingerprints for most TFs studied and indicate that NAC DNA-binding specificities might be predicted from their DNA-binding domain's sequence. The developed methodology, including the application of complementary functional genomics filters, makes it possible to translate, for each TF, protein binding microarray data into a set of high-quality target genes. With this approach, we confirm NAC target genes reported from independent in vivo analyses. We emphasize that candidate target gene sets together with the workflow associated with functional modules offer a strong resource to unravel the regulatory potential of NAC genes and that this workflow could be used to study other families of transcription factors. PMID:24914054

  14. Conformational stability and DNA binding specificity of the cardiac T-box transcription factor Tbx20.

    PubMed

    Macindoe, Ingrid; Glockner, Laura; Vukasin, Paul; Stennard, Fiona A; Costa, Mauro W; Harvey, Richard P; Mackay, Joel P; Sunde, Margaret

    2009-06-12

    The transcription factor Tbx20 acts within a hierarchy of T-box factors in lineage specification and morphogenesis in the mammalian heart and is mutated in congenital heart disease. T-box family members share a approximately 20-kDa DNA-binding domain termed the T-box. The question of how highly homologous T-box proteins achieve differential transcriptional control in heart development, while apparently binding to the same DNA sequence, remains unresolved. Here we show that the optimal DNA recognition sequence for the T-box of Tbx20 corresponds to a T-half-site. Furthermore, we demonstrate using purified recombinant domains that distinct T-boxes show significant differences in the affinity and kinetics of binding and in conformational stability, with the T-box of Tbx20 displaying molten globule character. Our data highlight unique features of Tbx20 and suggest mechanistic ways in which cardiac T-box factors might interact synergistically and/or competitively within the cardiac regulatory network.

  15. Multiple DNA-binding modes for the ETS family transcription factor PU.1.

    PubMed

    Esaki, Shingo; Evich, Marina G; Erlitzki, Noa; Germann, Markus W; Poon, Gregory M K

    2017-09-29

    The eponymous DNA-binding domain of ETS (E26 transformation-specific) transcription factors binds a single sequence-specific site as a monomer over a single helical turn. Following our previous observation by titration calorimetry that the ETS member PU.1 dimerizes sequentially at a single sequence-specific DNA-binding site to form a 2:1 complex, we have carried out an extensive spectroscopic and biochemical characterization of site-specific PU.1 ETS complexes. Whereas 10 bp of DNA was sufficient to support PU.1 binding as a monomer, additional flanking bases were required to invoke sequential dimerization of the bound protein. NMR spectroscopy revealed a marked loss of signal intensity in the 2:1 complex, and mutational analysis implicated the distal surface away from the bound DNA as the dimerization interface. Hydroxyl radical DNA footprinting indicated that the site-specifically bound PU.1 dimers occupied an extended DNA interface downstream from the 5'-GGAA-3' core consensus relative to its 1:1 counterpart, thus explaining the apparent site size requirement for sequential dimerization. The site-specifically bound PU.1 dimer resisted competition from nonspecific DNA and showed affinities similar to other functionally significant PU.1 interactions. As sequential dimerization did not occur with the ETS domain of Ets-1, a close structural homolog of PU.1, 2:1 complex formation may represent an alternative autoinhibitory mechanism in the ETS family at the protein-DNA level. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Determinants of the DNA binding specificity of class I and class II TCP transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Viola, Ivana L; Reinheimer, Renata; Ripoll, Rodrigo; Manassero, Nora G Uberti; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2012-01-02

    TCP proteins constitute a family of plant transcription factors with more than 20 members in angiosperms. They can be divided in two classes based on sequence homology and the presence of an insertion within the basic region of the TCP DNA binding and dimerization domain. Here, we describe binding site selection studies with the class I protein TCP16, showing that its DNA binding preferences are similar to those of class II proteins. Through sequence comparison and the analysis of mutants and chimeras of TCP16, TCP20 (class I), and TCP4 (class II), we established that the identity of residue 11 of the class I TCP domain or the equivalent residue 15 of the class II domain, whether it is Gly or Asp, determines a preference for a class I or a class II sequence, respectively. Footprinting analysis indicated that specific DNA contacts related to these preferences are established with one of the strands of DNA. The dimerization motif also influences the selectivity of the proteins toward class I and class II sequences and determines a requirement of an extended basic region in proteins with Asp-15. We postulate that differences in orientation of base-contacting residues brought about by the presence of either Gly or Asp are responsible for the binding site preferences of TCP proteins. Expression of repressor forms of TCP16 with Asp-11 or Gly-11 differently affects leaf development. TCP16-like proteins with Asp-11 in the TCP domain arose in rosids and may be related to developmental characteristics of this lineage of eudicots.

  17. Identification of Specific DNA Binding Residues in the TCP Family of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Das Gupta, Mainak; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Srinivasan, N.; Nath, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    The TCP transcription factors control multiple developmental traits in diverse plant species. Members of this family share an ∼60-residue-long TCP domain that binds to DNA. The TCP domain is predicted to form a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) structure but shares little sequence similarity with canonical bHLH domain. This classifies the TCP domain as a novel class of DNA binding domain specific to the plant kingdom. Little is known about how the TCP domain interacts with its target DNA. We report biochemical characterization and DNA binding properties of a TCP member in Arabidopsis thaliana, TCP4. We have shown that the 58-residue domain of TCP4 is essential and sufficient for binding to DNA and possesses DNA binding parameters comparable to canonical bHLH proteins. Using a yeast-based random mutagenesis screen and site-directed mutants, we identified the residues important for DNA binding and dimer formation. Mutants defective in binding and dimerization failed to rescue the phenotype of an Arabidopsis line lacking the endogenous TCP4 activity. By combining structure prediction, functional characterization of the mutants, and molecular modeling, we suggest a possible DNA binding mechanism for this class of transcription factors. PMID:20363772

  18. Genomic repertoires of DNA-binding transcription factors across the tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Charoensawan, Varodom; Wilson, Derek; Teichmann, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) are important to genetic regulation in all organisms because they recognize and directly bind to regulatory regions on DNA. Here, we survey and summarize the TF resources available. We outline the organisms for which TF annotation is provided, and discuss the criteria and methods used to annotate TFs by different databases. By using genomic TF repertoires from ∼700 genomes across the tree of life, covering Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota, we review TF abundance with respect to the number of genes, as well as their structural complexity in diverse lineages. While typical eukaryotic TFs are longer than the average eukaryotic proteins, the inverse is true for prokaryotes. Only in eukaryotes does the same family of DNA-binding domain (DBD) occur multiple times within one polypeptide chain. This potentially increases the length and diversity of DNA-recognition sequence by reusing DBDs from the same family. We examined the increase in TF abundance with the number of genes in genomes, using the largest set of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes to date. As pointed out before, prokaryotic TFs increase faster than linearly. We further observe a similar relationship in eukaryotic genomes with a slower increase in TFs. PMID:20675356

  19. Universal protein binding microarrays for the comprehensive characterization of the DNA binding specificities of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Michael F.; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    Protein binding microarray (PBM) technology provides a rapid, high-throughput means of characterizing the in vitro DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs). Using high-density, custom-designed microarrays containing all 10-mer sequence variants, one can obtain comprehensive binding site measurements for any TF, regardless of its structural class or species of origin. Here, we present a protocol for the examination and analysis of TF binding specificities at high resolution using such ‘all 10-mer’ universal PBMs. This procedure involves double-stranding a commercially synthesized DNA oligonucleotide array, binding a TF directly to the double-stranded DNA microarray, and labeling the protein-bound microarray with a fluorophore-conjugated antibody. We describe how to computationally extract the relative binding preferences of the examined TF for all possible contiguous and gapped 8-mers over the full range of affinities, from highest affinity sites to nonspecific sites. Multiple proteins can be tested in parallel in separate chambers on a single microarray, enabling the processing of a dozen or more TFs in a single day. PMID:19265799

  20. Curated collection of yeast transcription factor DNA binding specificity data reveals novel structural and gene regulatory insights

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcription factors (TFs) play a central role in regulating gene expression by interacting with cis-regulatory DNA elements associated with their target genes. Recent surveys have examined the DNA binding specificities of most Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFs, but a comprehensive evaluation of their data has been lacking. Results We analyzed in vitro and in vivo TF-DNA binding data reported in previous large-scale studies to generate a comprehensive, curated resource of DNA binding specificity data for all characterized S. cerevisiae TFs. Our collection comprises DNA binding site motifs and comprehensive in vitro DNA binding specificity data for all possible 8-bp sequences. Investigation of the DNA binding specificities within the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and VHT1 regulator (VHR) TF families revealed unexpected plasticity in TF-DNA recognition: intriguingly, the VHR TFs, newly characterized by protein binding microarrays in this study, recognize bZIP-like DNA motifs, while the bZIP TF Hac1 recognizes a motif highly similar to the canonical E-box motif of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs. We identified several TFs with distinct primary and secondary motifs, which might be associated with different regulatory functions. Finally, integrated analysis of in vivo TF binding data with protein binding microarray data lends further support for indirect DNA binding in vivo by sequence-specific TFs. Conclusions The comprehensive data in this curated collection allow for more accurate analyses of regulatory TF-DNA interactions, in-depth structural studies of TF-DNA specificity determinants, and future experimental investigations of the TFs' predicted target genes and regulatory roles. PMID:22189060

  1. Divergent DNA-binding specificities of a group of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors involved in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Tsubasa; Mishima, Masaki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) recognize target DNA sequences with distinct DNA-binding domains (DBDs). The DBD of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (AtERF1) uses three consecutive β-strands to recognize a GCC-containing sequence, but tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) ERF189 and periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) Octadecanoid-derivative Responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain protein3 (ORCA3) of the same TF subgroup appear to target similar but divergent DNA sequences. Here, we examined how DNA-binding specificities of these TFs have diverged in each plant lineage to regulate distinct defense metabolisms. Extensive mutational analyses of these DBDs suggest that two modes of protein-DNA interactions independently contribute to binding specificity and affinity. Substitution of a conserved arginine to lysine in the first β-strand of ERF189 relaxes its interaction with the second GC pair of the GCC DNA sequence. By contrast, an increased number of basic amino acids in the first two β-strands of ORCA3 allows this TF to recognize more than one GCC-related target, presumably via increased electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged phosphate backbone of DNA. Divergent DNA-binding specificities of the ERFs may have arisen through mutational changes of these amino acid residues.

  2. TATA-box DNA binding activity and subunit composition for RNA polymerase III transcription factor IIIB from Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    McBryant, S J; Meier, E; Leresche, A; Sharp, S J; Wolf, V J; Gottesfeld, J M

    1996-01-01

    The RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor TFIIIB contains the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) and polymerase III-specific TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Previous studies have shown that DNA oligonucleotides containing the consensus TATA-box sequence inhibit polymerase III transcription, implying that the DNA binding domain of TBP is exposed in TFIIIB. We have investigated the TATA-box DNA binding activity of Xenopus TFIIIB, using transcription inhibition assays and a gel mobility shift assay. Gel shift competition assays with mutant and nonspecific DNAs demonstrate the specificity of the TFIIIB-TATA box DNA complex. The apparent dissociation constant for this protein-DNA interaction is approximately 0.4 nM, similar to the affinity of yeast TBP for the same sequence. TFIIIB transcriptional activity and TATA-box binding activity cofractionate during a series of four ion-exchange chromatographic steps, and reconstituted transcription reactions demonstrate that the TATA-box DNA-protein complex contains TFIIIB TAF activity. Polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 75 and 92 kDa are associated with TBP in this complex. These polypeptides were renatured after elution from sodium dodecyl sulfate-gels and tested individually and in combination for TFIIIB TAF activity. Recombinant TBP along with protein fractions containing the 75- and 92-kDa polypeptides were sufficient to reconstitute TFIIIB transcriptional activity and DNA binding activity, suggesting that Xenopus TFIIIB is composed of TBP along with these polypeptides. PMID:8756620

  3. The combination of sequence-specific and nonspecific DNA-binding modes of transcription factor SATB1.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Yamasaki, Tomoko

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SATB1 (special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1) contains multiple DNA-binding domains (DBDs), i.e. two CUT-domain repeats (CUTr1 and CUTr2 from the N-terminus) and a homeodomain, and binds to the matrix attachment region (MAR) of DNA. Although CUTr1 and the homeodomain, but not CUTr2, are known to contribute to DNA binding, different research groups have not reached a consensus on which DBD is responsible for recognition of the target sequence in MAR, 5'-TAATA-3'. Here, we used isothermal titration calorimetry to demonstrate that CUTr1 has binding specificity to this motif, whereas the homeodomain shows affinity for a variety of DNAs without specificity. In line with nonspecific DNA-binding properties of the homeodomain, a mutation of the invariant Asn at position 51 of the homeodomain (typically in contact with the A base in a sequence-specific binding mode) did not affect the binding affinity significantly. The NMR analyses and computational modeling of the homeodomain, however, revealed the tertiary structure and DNA-binding mode that are typical of homeodomains capable of sequence-specific binding. We believe that the lack of highly conserved basic residues in the helix relevant to the base recognition loosens its fitting into the DNA groove and impairs the specific binding. The two DBDs, when fused in tandem, showed strong binding to DNA containing the 5'-TAATA-3' motif with an affinity constant >10(8) M(-1) and retained nonspecific binding activity. The combination of the sequence-specific and nonspecific DNA-binding modes of SATB1 should be advantageous in a search for target loci during transcriptional regulation. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Structures of the Ets Protein DNA-binding Domains of Transcription Factors Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Christopher D. O.; Newman, Joseph A.; Aitkenhead, Hazel; Allerston, Charles K.; Gileadi, Opher

    2015-01-01

    Ets transcription factors, which share the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain, number nearly 30 members in humans and are particularly involved in developmental processes. Their deregulation following changes in expression, transcriptional activity, or by chromosomal translocation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Ets DNA binding, selectivity, and regulation have been extensively studied; however, questions still arise regarding binding specificity outside the core GGA recognition sequence and the mode of action of Ets post-translational modifications. Here, we report the crystal structures of Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev, alone and in complex with DNA. We identify previously unrecognized features of the protein-DNA interface. Interactions with the DNA backbone account for most of the binding affinity. We describe a highly coordinated network of water molecules acting in base selection upstream of the GGAA core and the structural features that may account for discrimination against methylated cytidine residues. Unexpectedly, all proteins crystallized as disulfide-linked dimers, exhibiting a novel interface (distant to the DNA recognition helix). Homodimers of Etv1, Etv4, and Etv5 could be reduced to monomers, leading to a 40–200-fold increase in DNA binding affinity. Hence, we present the first indication of a redox-dependent regulatory mechanism that may control the activity of this subset of oncogenic Ets transcription factors. PMID:25866208

  5. τ91, an Essential Subunit of Yeast Transcription Factor IIIC, Cooperates with τ138 in DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Arrebola, Rosalía; Manaud, Nathalie; Rozenfeld, Sophie; Marsolier, Marie-Claude; Lefebvre, Olivier; Carles, Christophe; Thuriaux, Pierre; Conesa, Christine; Sentenac, André

    1998-01-01

    Transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC) (or τ) is a large multisubunit and multifunctional factor required for transcription of all class III genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is responsible for promoter recognition and TFIIIB assembly. We report here the cloning and characterization of TFC6, an essential gene encoding the 91-kDa polypeptide, τ91, present in affinity-purified TFIIIC. τ91 has a predicted molecular mass of 74 kDa. It harbors a central cluster of His and Cys residues and has basic and acidic amino acid regions, but it shows no specific similarity to known proteins or predicted open reading frames. The TFIIIC subunit status of τ91 was established by the following biochemical and genetic evidence. Antibodies to τ91 bound TFIIIC-DNA complexes in gel shift assays; in vivo, a B block-deficient U6 RNA gene (SNR6) harboring GAL4 binding sites was reactivated by fusing the GAL4 DNA binding domain to τ91; and a point mutation in TFC6 (τ91-E330K) was found to suppress the thermosensitive phenotype of a tfc3-G349E mutant affected in the B block binding subunit (τ138). The suppressor mutation alleviated the DNA binding and transcription defects of mutant TFIIIC in vitro. These results indicated that τ91 cooperates with τ138 for DNA binding. Recombinant τ91 by itself did not interact with a tRNA gene, although it showed a strong affinity for single-stranded DNA. PMID:9418847

  6. S-nitrosylation influences the structure and DNA binding activity of AtMYB30 transcription factor from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Carolina Pereira; Vernal, Javier; Delena, Ricardo Alexandre; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Cassia, Raul; Terenzi, Hernán

    2014-04-01

    MYB proteins are a family of transcription factors that play an important role in plant development and regulatory defense processes. Arabidopsis thaliana MYB30 (AtMYB30), a member of this protein family, is involved in cell death processes during the hypersensitive response (HR) of plants. HR is characterized by a vast production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). NO may thus influence the binding of AtMYB30 to DNA. In this work we evaluated the effect of NO on AtMYB30 DNA binding activity, and also in the protein structural properties. A fully active minimal DNA-binding domain (DBD) of AtMYB30 (residues 11-116) containing two cysteine residues (C49 and C53) was overexpressed and purified. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to obtain AtMYB30 DBD mutants C49A and C53A. The DNA binding activity of AtMYB30 DBD, and Cys single mutants is clearly inhibited upon incubation with a NO donor, and S-nitrosylation was confirmed by the biotin switch assay. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of NO effect on AtMYB30 DNA binding activity we performed circular dichroism analysis, to correlate the observed protein function inhibition and a potential structural impairment on AtMYB30 DBD. Indeed, NO modification of C49 and C53 residues promotes a subtle modification on the secondary structure of this transcription factor. We thus demonstrated, using various techniques, the in vitro effect of NO on AtMYB30 DBD, and thus the potential consequences of NO activity on plant metabolism influenced by this transcription factor.

  7. Effect of DNA Binding on Geminate CO Recombination Kinetics in CO-sensing Transcription Factor CooA*

    PubMed Central

    Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Karunakaran, Venugopal; Youn, Hwan; Poulos, Thomas L.; Champion, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation activator (CooA) proteins are heme-based CO-sensing transcription factors. Here we study the ultrafast dynamics of geminate CO rebinding in two CooA homologues, Rhodospirillum rubrum (RrCooA) and Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans (ChCooA). The effects of DNA binding and the truncation of the DNA-binding domain on the CO geminate recombination kinetics were specifically investigated. The CO rebinding kinetics in these CooA complexes take place on ultrafast time scales but remain non-exponential over many decades in time. We show that this non-exponential kinetic response is due to a quenched enthalpic barrier distribution resulting from a distribution of heme geometries that is frozen or slowly evolving on the time scale of CO rebinding. We also show that, upon CO binding, the distal pocket of the heme in the CooA proteins relaxes to form a very efficient hydrophobic trap for CO. DNA binding further tightens the narrow distal pocket and slightly weakens the iron-proximal histidine bond. Comparison of the CO rebinding kinetics of RrCooA, truncated RrCooA, and DNA-bound RrCooA proteins reveals that the uncomplexed and inherently flexible DNA-binding domain adds additional structural heterogeneity to the heme doming coordinate. When CooA forms a complex with DNA, the flexibility of the DNA-binding domain decreases, and the distribution of the conformations available in the heme domain becomes restricted. The kinetic studies also offer insights into how the architecture of the heme environment can tune entropic barriers in order to control the geminate recombination of CO in heme proteins, whereas spin selection rules play a minor or non-existent role. PMID:22544803

  8. Targeting the DNA-binding activity of the human ERG transcription factor using new heterocyclic dithiophene diamidines

    PubMed Central

    Nhili, Raja; Peixoto, Paul; Depauw, Sabine; Flajollet, Sébastien; Dezitter, Xavier; Munde, Manoj M.; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Kumar, Arvind; Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Stephens, Chad E.; Duterque-Coquillaud, Martine; David Wilson, W.; Boykin, David W.; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Direct modulation of gene expression by targeting oncogenic transcription factors is a new area of research for cancer treatment. ERG, an ETS-family transcription factor, is commonly over-expressed or translocated in leukaemia and prostate carcinoma. In this work, we selected the di-(thiophene-phenyl-amidine) compound DB1255 as an ERG/DNA binding inhibitor using a screening test of synthetic inhibitors of the ERG/DNA interaction followed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) validation. Spectrometry, footprint and biosensor-surface plasmon resonance analyses of the DB1255/DNA interaction evidenced sequence selectivity and groove binding as dimer. Additional EMSA evidenced the precise DNA-binding sequence required for optimal DB1255/DNA binding and thus for an efficient ERG/DNA complex inhibition. We further highlighted the structure activity relationships from comparison with derivatives. In cellulo luciferase assay confirmed this modulation both with the constructed optimal sequences and the Osteopontin promoter known to be regulated by ERG and which ERG-binding site was protected from DNaseI digestion on binding of DB1255. These data showed for the first time the ERG/DNA complex modulation, both in vitro and in cells, by a heterocyclic diamidine that specifically targets a portion of the ERG DNA recognition site. PMID:23093599

  9. Maximal stimulation of meiotic recombination by a yeast transcription factor requires the transcription activation domain and a DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, D T; Fan, Q; Petes, T D

    1999-01-01

    The DNA sequences located upstream of the yeast HIS4 represent a very strong meiotic recombination hotspot. Although the activity of this hotspot requires the transcription activator Rap1p, the level of HIS4 transcription is not directly related to the level of recombination. We find that the recombination-stimulating activity of Rap1p requires the transcription activation domain of the protein. We show that a hybrid protein with the Gal4p DNA-binding domain and the Rap1p activation domain can stimulate recombination in a strain in which Gal4p-binding sites are inserted upstream of HIS4. In addition, we find recombination hotspot activity associated with the Gal4p DNA-binding sites that is independent of known transcription factors. We suggest that yeast cells have two types of recombination hotspots, alpha (transcription factor dependent) and beta (transcription factor independent). PMID:10224246

  10. Phosphorylation Affects DNA-Binding of the Senescence-Regulating bZIP Transcription Factor GBF1

    PubMed Central

    Smykowski, Anja; Fischer, Stefan M.; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Massive changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana during onset and progression of leaf senescence imply a central role for transcription factors. While many transcription factors are themselves up- or down-regulated during senescence, the bZIP transcription factor G-box-binding factor 1 (GBF1/bZIP41) is constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis leaf tissue but at the same time triggers the onset of leaf senescence, suggesting posttranscriptional mechanisms for senescence-specific GBF1 activation. Here we show that GBF1 is phosphorylated by the threonine/serine CASEIN KINASE II (CKII) in vitro and that CKII phosphorylation had a negative effect on GBF1 DNA-binding to G-boxes of two direct target genes, CATALASE2 and RBSCS1a. Phosphorylation mimicry at three serine positions in the basic region of GBF1 also had a negative effect on DNA-binding. Kinase assays revealed that CKII phosphorylates at least one serine in the basic domain but has additional phosphorylation sites outside this domain. Two different ckII α subunit1 and one α subunit2 T-DNA insertion lines showed no visible senescence phenotype, but in all lines the expression of the senescence marker gene SAG12 was remarkably diminished. A model is presented suggesting that senescence-specific GBF1 activation might be achieved by lowering the phosphorylation of GBF1 by CKII. PMID:27135347

  11. Regulation of the transcription factor YY1 in mitosis through phosphorylation of its DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Rizkallah, Raed; Hurt, Myra M

    2009-11-01

    Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) is a ubiquitously expressed zinc finger transcription factor. It regulates a vast array of genes playing critical roles in development, differentiation, and cell cycle. Very little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the functions of YY1. It has long been proposed that YY1 is a phosphoprotein; however, a direct link between phosphorylation and the function of YY1 has never been proven. Investigation of the localization of YY1 during mitosis shows that it is distributed to the cytoplasm during prophase and remains excluded from DNA until early telophase. Immunostaining studies show that YY1 is distributed equally between daughter cells and rapidly associates with decondensing chromosomes in telophase, suggesting a role for YY1 in early marking of active and repressed genes. The exclusion of YY1 from DNA in prometaphase HeLa cells correlated with an increase in the phosphorylation of YY1 and loss of DNA-binding activity that can be reversed by dephosphorylation. We have mapped three phosphorylation sites on YY1 during mitosis and show that phosphorylation of two of these sites can abolish the DNA-binding activity of YY1. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the inactivation of YY1 through phosphorylation of its DNA-binding domain.

  12. Regulation of the Transcription Factor YY1 in Mitosis through Phosphorylation of Its DNA-binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Rizkallah, Raed

    2009-01-01

    Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) is a ubiquitously expressed zinc finger transcription factor. It regulates a vast array of genes playing critical roles in development, differentiation, and cell cycle. Very little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the functions of YY1. It has long been proposed that YY1 is a phosphoprotein; however, a direct link between phosphorylation and the function of YY1 has never been proven. Investigation of the localization of YY1 during mitosis shows that it is distributed to the cytoplasm during prophase and remains excluded from DNA until early telophase. Immunostaining studies show that YY1 is distributed equally between daughter cells and rapidly associates with decondensing chromosomes in telophase, suggesting a role for YY1 in early marking of active and repressed genes. The exclusion of YY1 from DNA in prometaphase HeLa cells correlated with an increase in the phosphorylation of YY1 and loss of DNA-binding activity that can be reversed by dephosphorylation. We have mapped three phosphorylation sites on YY1 during mitosis and show that phosphorylation of two of these sites can abolish the DNA-binding activity of YY1. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the inactivation of YY1 through phosphorylation of its DNA-binding domain. PMID:19793915

  13. Probing the kinetic landscape of Hox transcription factor-DNA binding in live cells by massively parallel Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios K; Krmpot, Aleksandar J; Nikolić, Stanko N; Krautz, Robert; Terenius, Lars; Tomancak, Pavel; Rigler, Rudolf; Gehring, Walter J; Vukojević, Vladana

    2015-11-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors that control the formation of body structures, segment-specifically along the anterior-posterior axis of metazoans. Hox transcription factors bind nuclear DNA pervasively and regulate a plethora of target genes, deploying various molecular mechanisms that depend on the developmental and cellular context. To analyze quantitatively the dynamics of their DNA-binding behavior we have used confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), single-point fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). We show that the Hox transcription factor Sex combs reduced (Scr) forms dimers that strongly associate with its specific fork head binding site (fkh250) in live salivary gland cell nuclei. In contrast, dimers of a constitutively inactive, phospho-mimicking variant of Scr show weak, non-specific DNA-binding. Our studies reveal that nuclear dynamics of Scr is complex, exhibiting a changing landscape of interactions that is difficult to characterize by probing one point at a time. Therefore, we also provide mechanistic evidence using massively parallel FCS (mpFCS). We found that Scr dimers are predominantly formed on the DNA and are equally abundant at the chromosomes and an introduced multimeric fkh250 binding-site, indicating different mobilities, presumably reflecting transient binding with different affinities on the DNA. Our proof-of-principle results emphasize the advantages of mpFCS for quantitative characterization of fast dynamic processes in live cells.

  14. Studies on DNA-binding selectivity of WRKY transcription factors lend structural clues into WRKY-domain function.

    PubMed

    Ciolkowski, Ingo; Wanke, Dierk; Birkenbihl, Rainer P; Somssich, Imre E

    2008-09-01

    WRKY transcription factors have been shown to play a major role in regulating, both positively and negatively, the plant defense transcriptome. Nearly all studied WRKY factors appear to have a stereotypic binding preference to one DNA element termed the W-box. How specificity for certain promoters is accomplished therefore remains completely unknown. In this study, we tested five distinct Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factor subfamily members for their DNA binding selectivity towards variants of the W-box embedded in neighboring DNA sequences. These studies revealed for the first time differences in their binding site preferences, which are partly dependent on additional adjacent DNA sequences outside of the TTGACY-core motif. A consensus WRKY binding site derived from these studies was used for in silico analysis to identify potential target genes within the Arabidopsis genome. Furthermore, we show that even subtle amino acid substitutions within the DNA binding region of AtWRKY11 strongly impinge on its binding activity. Additionally, all five factors were found localized exclusively to the plant cell nucleus and to be capable of trans-activating expression of a reporter gene construct in vivo.

  15. Discovery, optimization and validation of an optimal DNA-binding sequence for the Six1 homeodomain transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yubing; Nandi, Soumyadeep; Martel, André; Antoun, Alen; Ioshikhes, Ilya; Blais, Alexandre

    2012-09-01

    The Six1 transcription factor is a homeodomain protein involved in controlling gene expression during embryonic development. Six1 establishes gene expression profiles that enable skeletal myogenesis and nephrogenesis, among others. While several homeodomain factors have been extensively characterized with regards to their DNA-binding properties, relatively little is known of the properties of Six1. We have used the genomic binding profile of Six1 during the myogenic differentiation of myoblasts to obtain a better understanding of its preferences for recognizing certain DNA sequences. DNA sequence analyses on our genomic binding dataset, combined with biochemical characterization using binding assays, reveal that Six1 has a much broader DNA-binding sequence spectrum than had been previously determined. Moreover, using a position weight matrix optimization algorithm, we generated a highly sensitive and specific matrix that can be used to predict novel Six1-binding sites with highest accuracy. Furthermore, our results support the idea of a mode of DNA recognition by this factor where Six1 itself is sufficient for sequence discrimination, and where Six1 domains outside of its homeodomain contribute to binding site selection. Together, our results provide new light on the properties of this important transcription factor, and will enable more accurate modeling of Six1 function in bioinformatic studies.

  16. Creating temperature-sensitive winged helix transcription factors. Amino acids that stabilize the DNA binding domain of HNF3.

    PubMed

    Stevens, K; Cirillo, L; Zaret, K S

    2000-09-29

    Winged helix transcription factors contain two polypeptide loops, or "wings," that make minor groove contacts with DNA from either side of a three-helix bundle that binds the DNA major groove. While wing 1 is stabilized by a beta-sheet, parameters that stabilize wing 2 are unknown. Herein we identify two bulky aromatic residues in wing 2 that stabilize the loop structure and, thereby, the entire protein's DNA binding and transcriptional stimulatory activity by interacting with other residues in the three-helix bundle. Mutations of these wing 2 residues create proteins that are temperature-sensitive for transcriptional activity. Aromatic and/or hydrophobic residues are highly conserved among the 150 known winged helix proteins, suggesting conserved function. We suggest that the winged helix structure evolved by the acquisition of aromatic and/or hydrophobic residues in distal polypeptide sequences that helped stabilize the association of a protein loop (wing 2) with the three-helix bundle, thereby enhancing DNA binding.

  17. In vitro Activation of Heat Shock Transcription Factor DNA-Binding by Calcium and Biochemical Conditions that Affect Protein Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, Dick D.; Kotzbauer, Paul T.; Sarge, Kevin D.; Morimoto, Richard I.

    1990-05-01

    The transcription of heat shock genes in response to physiological stress requires activation of heat shock transcription factor (HSF). Although the transcriptional response is most commonly induced by temperature elevation, the biochemical events involved in HSF activation in vivo can also be triggered at normal physiological temperatures by chemicals that inhibit metabolic processes. We have used a HeLa cell-free system in which HSF DNA-binding is activated by conditions that affect protein conformation, including increasing concentrations of hydrogen ions, urea, or nonionic detergents. Treatment with calcium ions also results in a concentration- and time-dependent activation of HSF in vitro. Pretreatment with each of these biochemical conditions reduces the temperature dependence for HSF activation in vitro. These results suggest that HSF is activated either directly by under-going a conformational change or indirectly through interactions with unfolded proteins.

  18. G =  MAT: linking transcription factor expression and DNA binding data.

    PubMed

    Tretyakov, Konstantin; Laur, Sven; Vilo, Jaak

    2011-01-31

    Transcription factors are proteins that bind to motifs on the DNA and thus affect gene expression regulation. The qualitative description of the corresponding processes is therefore important for a better understanding of essential biological mechanisms. However, wet lab experiments targeted at the discovery of the regulatory interplay between transcription factors and binding sites are expensive. We propose a new, purely computational method for finding putative associations between transcription factors and motifs. This method is based on a linear model that combines sequence information with expression data. We present various methods for model parameter estimation and show, via experiments on simulated data, that these methods are reliable. Finally, we examine the performance of this model on biological data and conclude that it can indeed be used to discover meaningful associations. The developed software is available as a web tool and Scilab source code at http://biit.cs.ut.ee/gmat/.

  19. G = MAT: Linking Transcription Factor Expression and DNA Binding Data

    PubMed Central

    Tretyakov, Konstantin; Laur, Sven; Vilo, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors are proteins that bind to motifs on the DNA and thus affect gene expression regulation. The qualitative description of the corresponding processes is therefore important for a better understanding of essential biological mechanisms. However, wet lab experiments targeted at the discovery of the regulatory interplay between transcription factors and binding sites are expensive. We propose a new, purely computational method for finding putative associations between transcription factors and motifs. This method is based on a linear model that combines sequence information with expression data. We present various methods for model parameter estimation and show, via experiments on simulated data, that these methods are reliable. Finally, we examine the performance of this model on biological data and conclude that it can indeed be used to discover meaningful associations. The developed software is available as a web tool and Scilab source code at http://biit.cs.ut.ee/gmat/. PMID:21297945

  20. Elucidating the evolutionary conserved DNA-binding specificities of WRKY transcription factors by molecular dynamics and in vitro binding assays

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Luise H.; Fischer, Nina M.; Harter, Klaus; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Wanke, Dierk

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors constitute a large protein family in plants that is involved in the regulation of developmental processes and responses to biotic or abiotic stimuli. The question arises how stimulus-specific responses are mediated given that the highly conserved WRKY DNA-binding domain (DBD) exclusively recognizes the ‘TTGACY’ W-box consensus. We speculated that the W-box consensus might be more degenerate and yet undetected differences in the W-box consensus of WRKYs of different evolutionary descent exist. The phylogenetic analysis of WRKY DBDs suggests that they evolved from an ancestral group IIc-like WRKY early in the eukaryote lineage. A direct descent of group IIc WRKYs supports a monophyletic origin of all other group II and III WRKYs from group I by loss of an N-terminal DBD. Group I WRKYs are of paraphyletic descent and evolved multiple times independently. By homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro DNA–protein interaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with AtWRKY50 (IIc), AtWRKY33 (I) and AtWRKY11 (IId) DBDs, we revealed differences in DNA-binding specificities. Our data imply that other components are essentially required besides the W-box-specific binding to DNA to facilitate a stimulus-specific WRKY function. PMID:23975197

  1. Differential sensitivity to methylated DNA by ETS-family transcription factors is intrinsically encoded in their DNA-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Dominique C; Poon, Gregory M K

    2016-10-14

    Transactivation by the ETS family of transcription factors, whose members share structurally conserved DNA-binding domains, is variably sensitive to methylation of their target genes. The mechanism by which DNA methylation controls ETS proteins remains poorly understood. Uncertainly also pervades the effects of hemi-methylated DNA, which occurs following DNA replication and in response to hypomethylating agents, on site recognition by ETS proteins. To address these questions, we measured the affinities of two sequence-divergent ETS homologs, PU.1 and Ets-1, to DNA sites harboring a hemi- and fully methylated CpG dinucleotide. While the two proteins bound unmethylated DNA with indistinguishable affinity, their affinities to methylated DNA are markedly heterogeneous and exhibit major energetic coupling between the two CpG methylcytosines. Analysis of simulated DNA and existing co-crystal structures revealed that hemi-methylation induced non-local backbone and groove geometries that were not conserved in the fully methylated state. Indirect readout of these perturbations was differentially achieved by the two ETS homologs, with the distinctive interfacial hydration in PU.1/DNA binding moderating the inhibitory effects of DNA methylation on binding. This data established a biophysical basis for the pioneering properties associated with PU.1, which robustly bound fully methylated DNA, but not Ets-1, which was substantially inhibited. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Heterogeneous dynamics in DNA site discrimination by the structurally homologous DNA-binding domains of ETS-family transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    He, Gaofei; Tolic, Ana; Bashkin, James K.; Poon, Gregory M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The ETS family of transcription factors exemplifies current uncertainty in how eukaryotic genetic regulators with overlapping DNA sequence preferences achieve target site specificity. PU.1 and Ets-1 represent archetypes for studying site discrimination by ETS proteins because their DNA-binding domains are the most divergent in sequence, yet they share remarkably superimposable DNA-bound structures. To gain insight into the contrasting thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA recognition by these two proteins, we investigated the structure and dynamics of site discrimination by their DNA-binding domains. Electrophoretic mobilities of complexes formed by the two homologs with circularly permuted binding sites showed significant dynamic differences only for DNA complexes of PU.1. Free solution measurements by dynamic light scattering showed PU.1 to be more dynamic than Ets-1; moreover, dynamic changes are strongly coupled to site discrimination by PU.1, but not Ets-1. Interrogation of the protein/DNA interface by DNA footprinting showed similar accessibility to dimethyl sulfate for PU.1/DNA and Ets-1/DNA complexes, indicating that the dynamics of PU.1/DNA complexes reside primarily outside that interface. An information-based analysis of the two homologs’ binding motifs suggests a role for dynamic coupling in PU.1's ability to enforce a more stringent sequence preference than Ets-1 and its proximal sequence homologs. PMID:25824951

  3. Heterogeneous dynamics in DNA site discrimination by the structurally homologous DNA-binding domains of ETS-family transcription factors.

    PubMed

    He, Gaofei; Tolic, Ana; Bashkin, James K; Poon, Gregory M K

    2015-04-30

    The ETS family of transcription factors exemplifies current uncertainty in how eukaryotic genetic regulators with overlapping DNA sequence preferences achieve target site specificity. PU.1 and Ets-1 represent archetypes for studying site discrimination by ETS proteins because their DNA-binding domains are the most divergent in sequence, yet they share remarkably superimposable DNA-bound structures. To gain insight into the contrasting thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA recognition by these two proteins, we investigated the structure and dynamics of site discrimination by their DNA-binding domains. Electrophoretic mobilities of complexes formed by the two homologs with circularly permuted binding sites showed significant dynamic differences only for DNA complexes of PU.1. Free solution measurements by dynamic light scattering showed PU.1 to be more dynamic than Ets-1; moreover, dynamic changes are strongly coupled to site discrimination by PU.1, but not Ets-1. Interrogation of the protein/DNA interface by DNA footprinting showed similar accessibility to dimethyl sulfate for PU.1/DNA and Ets-1/DNA complexes, indicating that the dynamics of PU.1/DNA complexes reside primarily outside that interface. An information-based analysis of the two homologs' binding motifs suggests a role for dynamic coupling in PU.1's ability to enforce a more stringent sequence preference than Ets-1 and its proximal sequence homologs. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Differential sensitivity to methylated DNA by ETS-family transcription factors is intrinsically encoded in their DNA-binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Dominique C.; Poon, Gregory M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Transactivation by the ETS family of transcription factors, whose members share structurally conserved DNA-binding domains, is variably sensitive to methylation of their target genes. The mechanism by which DNA methylation controls ETS proteins remains poorly understood. Uncertainly also pervades the effects of hemi-methylated DNA, which occurs following DNA replication and in response to hypomethylating agents, on site recognition by ETS proteins. To address these questions, we measured the affinities of two sequence-divergent ETS homologs, PU.1 and Ets-1, to DNA sites harboring a hemi- and fully methylated CpG dinucleotide. While the two proteins bound unmethylated DNA with indistinguishable affinity, their affinities to methylated DNA are markedly heterogeneous and exhibit major energetic coupling between the two CpG methylcytosines. Analysis of simulated DNA and existing co-crystal structures revealed that hemi-methylation induced non-local backbone and groove geometries that were not conserved in the fully methylated state. Indirect readout of these perturbations was differentially achieved by the two ETS homologs, with the distinctive interfacial hydration in PU.1/DNA binding moderating the inhibitory effects of DNA methylation on binding. This data established a biophysical basis for the pioneering properties associated with PU.1, which robustly bound fully methylated DNA, but not Ets-1, which was substantially inhibited. PMID:27270080

  5. Dual regulation of heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) activation and DNA-binding activity by H2O2: role of thioredoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Jacquier-Sarlin, M R; Polla, B S

    1996-01-01

    The heat-shock (HS) response is a ubiquitous cellular response to stress, involving the transcriptional activation of HS genes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to regulate the activity of a number of transcription factors. We investigated the redox regulation of the stress response and report here that in the human pre-monocytic line U937 cells, H2O2 induced a concentration-dependent transactivation and DNA-binding activity of heat-shock factor-1 (HSF-1). DNA-binding activity was, however, lower with H2O2 than with HS. We thus hypothesized a dual regulation of HSF by oxidants. We found that oxidizing agents, such as H2O2 and diamide, as well as alkylating agents, such as iodoacetic acid, abolished, in vitro, the HSF-DNA-binding activity induced by HS in vivo. The effects of H2O2 in vitro were reversed by the sulphydryl reducing agent dithiothreitol and the endogenous reductor thioredoxin (TRX), while the effects of iodoacetic acid were irreversible. In addition, TRX also restored the DNA-binding activity of HSF oxidized in vivo, while it was found to be itself induced in vivo by both HS and H2O2. Thus, H2O2 exerts dual effects on the activation and the DNA-binding activity of HSF: on the one hand, H2O2 favours the nuclear translocation of HSF, while on the other, it alters HSF-DNA-binding activity, most likely by oxidizing critical cysteine residues within the DNA-binding domain. HSF thus belongs to the group of ROS-modulated transcription factors. We propose that the time required for TRX induction, which may restore the DNA-binding activity of oxidized HSF, provides an explanation for the delay in heat-shock protein synthesis upon exposure of cells to ROS. PMID:8761470

  6. Induction of the DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of heat shock factor 1 is uncoupled in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, S; Hnatov, A; Ali, A; Ovsenek, N

    1998-03-12

    The DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) are repressed under normal conditions and rapidly upregulated by heat stress. Here, we tested for the ability of various stress agents to activate HSF1 in the Xenopus oocyte model system. The HSE-binding activity of HSF1 was induced by a number of chemical stresses including cadmium, aluminum, iron, mercury, arsenite, ethanol, methanol, and salicylate. HSE-binding was not induced by several stresses known to induce the synthesis of hsps in other cell types in different organisms including zinc, copper, cobalt, manganese, recovery from anoxia, UV-irradiation, and increased pH. The inability of several known inducers of the stress response to activate the HSE-binding ability of HSF1 suggests that certain stress activation pathways may be absent or inactive in oocytes. The transcriptional activity of oocyte HSF1 was induced by heat, cadmium, and arsenite, but many of the agents that induced HSE-binding failed to stimulate HSF1-mediated transcription. The apparent uncoupling of inducible HSE-binding and transcriptional activities of HSF1 under a variety of stress regimes indicates that these events are regulated by independent mechanisms in the oocyte.

  7. DNA-binding mechanism of the Hippo pathway transcription factor TEAD4.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; He, F; Chen, M; Hua, L; Wang, W; Jiao, S; Zhou, Z

    2017-07-27

    TEA domain (TEAD) family transcription factors are key regulators in development, tissue homeostasis and cancer progression. TEAD4 acts as a critical downstream effector of the evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway. The well-studied oncogenic protein YAP forms a complex with TEAD4 to regulate gene transcription; so does the tumor suppressor VGLL4. Although it is known that TEAD proteins can bind promoter regions of target genes through the TEA domain, the specific and detailed mechanism of DNA recognition by the TEA domain remains partially understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of TEAD4 TEA domain in complex with a muscle-CAT DNA element. The structure revealed extensive interactions between the TEA domain and the DNA duplex involving both the major and minor grooves of DNA helix. The DNA recognition helix, α3 helix, determines the specificity of the TEA domain binding to DNA sequence. Structure-guided biochemical analysis identified two major binding sites on the interface of the TEA domain-DNA complex. Mutation of TEAD4 at either site substantially decreases its occupancy on the promoter region of target genes, and largely impaired YAP-induced TEAD4 transactivation and target gene transcription, leading to inhibition of growth and colony formation of gastric cancer cell HGC-27. Collectively, our work provides a structural basis for understanding the regulatory mechanism of TEAD-mediated gene transcription.

  8. Systematic mutational analysis of the LytTR DNA binding domain of Staphylococcus aureus virulence gene transcription factor AgrA

    PubMed Central

    Nicod, Sophie S.; Weinzierl, Robert O. J.; Burchell, Lynn; Escalera-Maurer, Andres; James, Ellen H.; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

    2014-01-01

    Most DNA-binding bacterial transcription factors contact DNA through a recognition α-helix in their DNA-binding domains. An emerging class of DNA-binding transcription factors, predominantly found in pathogenic bacteria interact with the DNA via a relatively novel type of DNA-binding domain, called the LytTR domain, which mainly comprises β strands. Even though the crystal structure of the LytTR domain of the virulence gene transcription factor AgrA from Staphylococcus aureus bound to its cognate DNA sequence is available, the contribution of specific amino acid residues in the LytTR domain of AgrA to transcription activation remains elusive. Here, for the first time, we have systematically investigated the role of amino acid residues in transcription activation in a LytTR domain-containing transcription factor. Our analysis, which involves in vivo and in vitro analyses and molecular dynamics simulations of S. aureus AgrA identifies a highly conserved tyrosine residue, Y229, as a major amino acid determinant for maximal activation of transcription by AgrA and provides novel insights into structure–function relationships in S. aureus AgrA. PMID:25352558

  9. Structures of the Ets Protein DNA-binding Domains of Transcription Factors Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev: DETERMINANTS OF DNA BINDING AND REDOX REGULATION BY DISULFIDE BOND FORMATION.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher D O; Newman, Joseph A; Aitkenhead, Hazel; Allerston, Charles K; Gileadi, Opher

    2015-05-29

    Ets transcription factors, which share the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain, number nearly 30 members in humans and are particularly involved in developmental processes. Their deregulation following changes in expression, transcriptional activity, or by chromosomal translocation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Ets DNA binding, selectivity, and regulation have been extensively studied; however, questions still arise regarding binding specificity outside the core GGA recognition sequence and the mode of action of Ets post-translational modifications. Here, we report the crystal structures of Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev, alone and in complex with DNA. We identify previously unrecognized features of the protein-DNA interface. Interactions with the DNA backbone account for most of the binding affinity. We describe a highly coordinated network of water molecules acting in base selection upstream of the GGAA core and the structural features that may account for discrimination against methylated cytidine residues. Unexpectedly, all proteins crystallized as disulfide-linked dimers, exhibiting a novel interface (distant to the DNA recognition helix). Homodimers of Etv1, Etv4, and Etv5 could be reduced to monomers, leading to a 40-200-fold increase in DNA binding affinity. Hence, we present the first indication of a redox-dependent regulatory mechanism that may control the activity of this subset of oncogenic Ets transcription factors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Common and distinct DNA-binding and regulatory activities of the BEN-solo transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Ren, Aiming; Westholm, Jakub O; Duan, Hong; Patel, Dinshaw J; Lai, Eric C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the BEN (BANP, E5R, and NAC1) domain was recognized as a new class of conserved DNA-binding domain. The fly genome encodes three proteins that bear only a single BEN domain ("BEN-solo" factors); namely, Insensitive (Insv), Bsg25A (Elba1), and CG9883 (Elba2). Insv homodimers preferentially bind CCAATTGG palindromes throughout the genome to mediate transcriptional repression, whereas Bsg25A and Elba2 heterotrimerize with their obligate adaptor, Elba3 (i.e., the ELBA complex), to recognize a CCAATAAG motif in the Fab-7 insulator. While these data suggest distinct DNA-binding properties of BEN-solo proteins, we performed reporter assays that indicate that both Bsg25A and Elba2 can individually recognize Insv consensus sites efficiently. We confirmed this by solving the structure of Bsg25A complexed to the Insv site, which showed that key aspects of the BEN:DNA recognition strategy are similar between these proteins. We next show that both Insv and ELBA proteins are competent to mediate transcriptional repression via Insv consensus sequences but that the ELBA complex appears to be selective for the ELBA site. Reciprocally, genome-wide analysis reveals that Insv exhibits significant cobinding to class I insulator elements, indicating that it may also contribute to insulator function. Indeed, we observed abundant Insv binding within the Hox complexes with substantial overlaps with class I insulators, many of which bear Insv consensus sites. Moreover, Insv coimmunoprecipitates with the class I insulator factor CP190. Finally, we observed that Insv harbors exclusive activity among fly BEN-solo factors with respect to regulation of Notch-mediated cell fate choices in the peripheral nervous system. This in vivo activity is recapitulated by BEND6, a mammalian BEN-solo factor that conserves the Notch corepressor function of Insv but not its capacity to bind Insv consensus sites. Altogether, our data define an array of common and distinct biochemical and functional

  11. Common and distinct DNA-binding and regulatory activities of the BEN-solo transcription factor family

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Ren, Aiming; Westholm, Jakub O.; Duan, Hong; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the BEN (BANP, E5R, and NAC1) domain was recognized as a new class of conserved DNA-binding domain. The fly genome encodes three proteins that bear only a single BEN domain (“BEN-solo” factors); namely, Insensitive (Insv), Bsg25A (Elba1), and CG9883 (Elba2). Insv homodimers preferentially bind CCAATTGG palindromes throughout the genome to mediate transcriptional repression, whereas Bsg25A and Elba2 heterotrimerize with their obligate adaptor, Elba3 (i.e., the ELBA complex), to recognize a CCAATAAG motif in the Fab-7 insulator. While these data suggest distinct DNA-binding properties of BEN-solo proteins, we performed reporter assays that indicate that both Bsg25A and Elba2 can individually recognize Insv consensus sites efficiently. We confirmed this by solving the structure of Bsg25A complexed to the Insv site, which showed that key aspects of the BEN:DNA recognition strategy are similar between these proteins. We next show that both Insv and ELBA proteins are competent to mediate transcriptional repression via Insv consensus sequences but that the ELBA complex appears to be selective for the ELBA site. Reciprocally, genome-wide analysis reveals that Insv exhibits significant cobinding to class I insulator elements, indicating that it may also contribute to insulator function. Indeed, we observed abundant Insv binding within the Hox complexes with substantial overlaps with class I insulators, many of which bear Insv consensus sites. Moreover, Insv coimmunoprecipitates with the class I insulator factor CP190. Finally, we observed that Insv harbors exclusive activity among fly BEN-solo factors with respect to regulation of Notch-mediated cell fate choices in the peripheral nervous system. This in vivo activity is recapitulated by BEND6, a mammalian BEN-solo factor that conserves the Notch corepressor function of Insv but not its capacity to bind Insv consensus sites. Altogether, our data define an array of common and distinct biochemical and functional

  12. POZ domain transcription factor, FBI-1, represses transcription of ADH5/FDH by interacting with the zinc finger and interfering with DNA binding activity of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kee; Suh, Dongchul; Edenberg, Howard J; Hur, Man-Wook

    2002-07-26

    The POZ domain is a protein-protein interaction motif that is found in many transcription factors, which are important for development, oncogenesis, apoptosis, and transcription repression. We cloned the POZ domain transcription factor, FBI-1, that recognizes the cis-element (bp -38 to -22) located just upstream of the core Sp1 binding sites (bp -22 to +22) of the ADH5/FDH minimal promoter (bp -38 to +61) in vitro and in vivo, as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The ADH5/FDH minimal promoter is potently repressed by the FBI-1. Glutathione S-transferase fusion protein pull-down showed that the POZ domains of FBI-1, Plzf, and Bcl-6 directly interact with the zinc finger DNA binding domain of Sp1. DNase I footprinting assays showed that the interaction prevents binding of Sp1 to the GC boxes of the ADH5/FDH promoter. Gal4-POZ domain fusions targeted proximal to the GC boxes repress transcription of the Gal4 upstream activator sequence-Sp1-adenovirus major late promoter. Our data suggest that POZ domain represses transcription by interacting with Sp1 zinc fingers and by interfering with the DNA binding activity of Sp1.

  13. DNA binding and transcription activation by chicken interferon regulatory factor-3 (chIRF-3)

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Caroline E.; May, Donna L.; Deeley, Roger G.

    2000-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors involved in the cellular response to interferons and viral infection. Previously we isolated an IRF from a chicken embryonic liver cDNA library. Using a PCR-based binding site selection assay, we have characterised the binding specificity of chIRF-3. The optimal binding site (OBS) fits within the consensus interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) but the specificity of chIRF-3 binding allows less variation in nucleotides outside the core IRF-binding sequence. A comparison of IRF-1 and chIRF-3 binding to ISREs in electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that the binding specificity of chIRF-3 was clearly distinguishable from IRF-1. The selection assay also showed that chIRF-3 is capable of binding an inverted repeat of two half OBSs separated by 10–13 nt. ChIRF-3 appears to bind both the OBS and inverted repeat sites as a dimer with the protein–protein interaction requiring a domain between amino acids 117 and 311. In transfection experiments expression of chIRF-3 strongly activated a promoter containing the OBS. The activation domain was mapped to between amino acids 138 and 221 and a domain inhibitory to activation was also mapped to the C-terminal portion of chIRF-3. PMID:11095692

  14. Co-operative DNA binding by GAGA transcription factor requires the conserved BTB/POZ domain and reorganizes promoter topology.

    PubMed Central

    Katsani, K R; Hajibagheri, M A; Verrijzer, C P

    1999-01-01

    The POZ domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif present in a variety of transcription factors involved in development, chromatin remodelling and human cancers. Here, we study the role of the POZ domain of the GAGA transcription factor in promoter recognition. Natural target promoters for GAGA typically contain multiple GAGA-binding elements. Our results show that the POZ domain mediates strong co-operative binding to multiple sites but inhibits binding to single sites. Protein cross-linking and gel filtration chromatography experiments established that the POZ domain is required for GAGA oligomerization into higher order complexes. Thus, GAGA oligomerization increases binding specificity by selecting only promoters with multiple sites. Electron microscopy revealed that GAGA binds to multiple sites as a large oligomer and induces bending of the promoter DNA. Our results indicate a novel mode of DNA binding by GAGA, in which a large GAGA complex binds multiple GAGA elements that are spread out over a region of a few hundred base pairs. We suggest a model in which the promoter DNA is wrapped around a GAGA multimer in a conformation that may exclude normal nucleosome formation. PMID:9927429

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the DNA-binding with one zinc finger (Dof) transcription factor family in bananas.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-12-01

    DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) domain proteins are a multigene family of plant-specific transcription factors involved in numerous aspects of plant growth and development. In this study, we report a genome-wide search for Musa acuminata Dof (MaDof) genes and their expression profiles at different developmental stages and in response to various abiotic stresses. In addition, a complete overview of the Dof gene family in bananas is presented, including the gene structures, chromosomal locations, cis-regulatory elements, conserved protein domains, and phylogenetic inferences. Based on the genome-wide analysis, we identified 74 full-length protein-coding MaDof genes unevenly distributed on 11 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis with Dof members from diverse plant species showed that MaDof genes can be classified into four subgroups (StDof I, II, III, and IV). The detailed genomic information of the MaDof gene homologs in the present study provides opportunities for functional analyses to unravel the exact role of the genes in plant growth and development.

  16. Prediction of DNA binding motifs from 3D models of transcription factors; identifying TLX3 regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Pujato, Mario; Kieken, Fabien; Skiles, Amanda A; Tapinos, Nikos; Fiser, Andras

    2014-12-16

    Proper cell functioning depends on the precise spatio-temporal expression of its genetic material. Gene expression is controlled to a great extent by sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs). Our current knowledge on where and how TFs bind and associate to regulate gene expression is incomplete. A structure-based computational algorithm (TF2DNA) is developed to identify binding specificities of TFs. The method constructs homology models of TFs bound to DNA and assesses the relative binding affinity for all possible DNA sequences using a knowledge-based potential, after optimization in a molecular mechanics force field. TF2DNA predictions were benchmarked against experimentally determined binding motifs. Success rates range from 45% to 81% and primarily depend on the sequence identity of aligned target sequences and template structures, TF2DNA was used to predict 1321 motifs for 1825 putative human TF proteins, facilitating the reconstruction of most of the human gene regulatory network. As an illustration, the predicted DNA binding site for the poorly characterized T-cell leukemia homeobox 3 (TLX3) TF was confirmed with gel shift assay experiments. TLX3 motif searches in human promoter regions identified a group of genes enriched in functions relating to hematopoiesis, tissue morphology, endocrine system and connective tissue development and function. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Intermolecular epistasis shaped the function and evolution of an ancient transcription factor and its DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Dave W; McKeown, Alesia N; Thornton, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    Complexes of specifically interacting molecules, such as transcription factor proteins (TFs) and the DNA response elements (REs) they recognize, control most biological processes, but little is known concerning the functional and evolutionary effects of epistatic interactions across molecular interfaces. We experimentally characterized all combinations of genotypes in the joint protein-DNA sequence space defined by an historical transition in TF-RE specificity that occurred some 500 million years ago in the DNA-binding domain of an ancient steroid hormone receptor. We found that rampant epistasis within and between the two molecules was essential to specific TF-RE recognition and to the evolution of a novel TF-RE complex with unique derived specificity. Permissive and restrictive epistatic mutations across the TF-RE interface opened and closed potential evolutionary paths accessible by the other, making the evolution of each molecule contingent on its partner's history and allowing a molecular complex with novel specificity to evolve. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07864.001 PMID:26076233

  18. Rhodopsin targeted transcriptional silencing by DNA-binding.

    PubMed

    Botta, Salvatore; Marrocco, Elena; de Prisco, Nicola; Curion, Fabiola; Renda, Mario; Sofia, Martina; Lupo, Mariangela; Carissimo, Annamaria; Bacci, Maria Laura; Gesualdo, Carlo; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca; Surace, Enrico Maria

    2016-03-14

    Transcription factors (TFs) operate by the combined activity of their DNA-binding domains (DBDs) and effector domains (EDs) enabling the coordination of gene expression on a genomic scale. Here we show that in vivo delivery of an engineered DNA-binding protein uncoupled from the repressor domain can produce efficient and gene-specific transcriptional silencing. To interfere with RHODOPSIN (RHO) gain-of-function mutations we engineered the ZF6-DNA-binding protein (ZF6-DB) that targets 20 base pairs (bp) of a RHOcis-regulatory element (CRE) and demonstrate Rho specific transcriptional silencing upon adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated expression in photoreceptors. The data show that the 20 bp-long genomic DNA sequence is necessary for RHO expression and that photoreceptor delivery of the corresponding cognate synthetic trans-acting factor ZF6-DB without the intrinsic transcriptional repression properties of the canonical ED blocks Rho expression with negligible genome-wide transcript perturbations. The data support DNA-binding-mediated silencing as a novel mode to treat gain-of-function mutations.

  19. Rhodopsin targeted transcriptional silencing by DNA-binding

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Salvatore; Marrocco, Elena; de Prisco, Nicola; Curion, Fabiola; Renda, Mario; Sofia, Martina; Lupo, Mariangela; Carissimo, Annamaria; Bacci, Maria Laura; Gesualdo, Carlo; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca; Surace, Enrico Maria

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) operate by the combined activity of their DNA-binding domains (DBDs) and effector domains (EDs) enabling the coordination of gene expression on a genomic scale. Here we show that in vivo delivery of an engineered DNA-binding protein uncoupled from the repressor domain can produce efficient and gene-specific transcriptional silencing. To interfere with RHODOPSIN (RHO) gain-of-function mutations we engineered the ZF6-DNA-binding protein (ZF6-DB) that targets 20 base pairs (bp) of a RHOcis-regulatory element (CRE) and demonstrate Rho specific transcriptional silencing upon adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated expression in photoreceptors. The data show that the 20 bp-long genomic DNA sequence is necessary for RHO expression and that photoreceptor delivery of the corresponding cognate synthetic trans-acting factor ZF6-DB without the intrinsic transcriptional repression properties of the canonical ED blocks Rho expression with negligible genome-wide transcript perturbations. The data support DNA-binding-mediated silencing as a novel mode to treat gain-of-function mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12242.001 PMID:26974343

  20. Mga, a dual-specificity transcription factor that interacts with Max and contains a T-domain DNA-binding motif.

    PubMed Central

    Hurlin, P J; Steingrìmsson, E; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Eisenman, R N

    1999-01-01

    The basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) proteins Myc, Mad and Mnt are part of a transcription activation/repression system involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. The function of these proteins as transcription factors is mediated by heterodimerization with the small bHLHZip protein Max, which is required for their specific DNA binding to E-box sequences. We have identified a novel Max-interacting protein, Mga, which contains a Myc-like bHLHZip motif, but otherwise shows no relationship with Myc or other Max-interacting proteins. Like Myc, Mad and Mnt proteins, Mga requires heterodimerization with Max for binding to the preferred Myc-Max-binding site CACGTG. In addition to the bHLHZip domain, Mga contains a second DNA-binding domain: the T-box or T-domain. The T-domain is a highly conserved DNA-binding motif originally defined in Brachyury and characteristic of the Tbx family of transcription factors. Mga binds the preferred Brachyury-binding sequence and represses transcription of reporter genes containing promoter-proximal Brachyury-binding sites. Surprisingly, Mga is converted to a transcription activator of both Myc-Max and Brachyury site-containing reporters in a Max-dependent manner. Our results suggest that Mga functions as a dual-specificity transcription factor that regulates the expression of both Max-network and T-box family target genes. PMID:10601024

  1. The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding

    PubMed Central

    Gutsche, Nora; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redox-conditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG), which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly conserved

  2. The N-Terminus of the Floral Arabidopsis TGA Transcription Factor PERIANTHIA Mediates Redox-Sensitive DNA-Binding.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Nora; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TGA transcription factor (TF) PERIANTHIA (PAN) regulates the formation of the floral organ primordia as revealed by the pan mutant forming an abnormal pentamerous arrangement of the outer three floral whorls. The Arabidopsis TGA bZIP TF family comprises 10 members, of which PAN and TGA9/10 control flower developmental processes and TGA1/2/5/6 participate in stress-responses. For the TGA1 protein it was shown that several cysteines can be redox-dependently modified. TGA proteins interact in the nucleus with land plant-specific glutaredoxins, which may alter their activities posttranslationally. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding of PAN to the AAGAAT motif under different redox-conditions. The AAGAAT motif is localized in the second intron of the floral homeotic regulator AGAMOUS (AG), which controls stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. Whereas PAN protein binds to this regulatory cis-element under reducing conditions, the interaction is strongly reduced under oxidizing conditions in EMSA studies. The redox-sensitive DNA-binding is mediated via a special PAN N-terminus, which is not present in other Arabidopsis TGA TFs and comprises five cysteines. Two N-terminal PAN cysteines, Cys68 and Cys87, were shown to form a disulfide bridge and Cys340, localized in a C-terminal putative transactivation domain, can be S-glutathionylated. Comparative land plant analyses revealed that the AAGAAT motif exists in asterid and rosid plant species. TGA TFs with N-terminal extensions of variable length were identified in all analyzed seed plants. However, a PAN-like N-terminus exists only in the rosids and exclusively Brassicaceae homologs comprise four to five of the PAN N-terminal cysteines. Redox-dependent modifications of TGA cysteines are known to regulate the activity of stress-related TGA TFs. Here, we show that the N-terminal PAN cysteines participate in a redox-dependent control of the PAN interaction with a highly conserved

  3. NMR chemical shift perturbation mapping of DNA binding by a zinc-finger domain from the yeast transcription factor ADR1.

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedeskamp, M.; Rajagopal, P.; Klevit, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    Mutagenesis studies have revealed that the minimal DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor ADR1 consists of two Cys2-His2 zinc fingers plus an additional 20 residues proximal and N-terminal to the fingers. We have assigned NMR 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shifts for the entire minimal DNA-binding domain of ADR1 both free and bound to specific DNA. 1H chemical shift values suggest little structural difference between the zinc fingers in this construct and in single-finger constructs, and 13C alpha chemical shift index analysis indicates little change in finger structure upon DNA binding. 1H chemical shift perturbations upon DNA binding are observed, however, and these are mapped to define the protein-DNA interface. The two zinc fingers appear to bind DNA with different orientations, as the entire helix of finger 1 is perturbed, while only the extreme N-terminus of the finger 2 helix is affected. Furthermore, residues N-terminal to the first finger undergo large chemical shift changes upon DNA binding suggesting a role at the protein-DNA interface. A striking correspondence is observed between the protein-DNA interface mapped by chemical shift changes and that previously mapped by mutagenesis. PMID:9300483

  4. Non-DNA-binding cofactors enhance DNA-binding specificity of a transcriptional regulatory complex

    PubMed Central

    Siggers, Trevor; Duyzend, Michael H; Reddy, Jessica; Khan, Sidra; Bulyk, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment of cofactors to specific DNA sites is integral for specificity in gene regulation. As a model system, we examined how targeting and transcriptional control of the sulfur metabolism genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is governed by recruitment of the transcriptional co-activator Met4. We developed genome-scale approaches to measure transcription factor (TF) DNA-binding affinities and cofactor recruitment to >1300 genomic binding site sequences. We report that genes responding to the TF Cbf1 and cofactor Met28 contain a novel ‘recruitment motif' (RYAAT), adjacent to Cbf1 binding sites, which enhances the binding of a Met4–Met28–Cbf1 regulatory complex, and that abrogation of this motif significantly reduces gene induction under low-sulfur conditions. Furthermore, we show that correct recognition of this composite motif requires both non-DNA-binding cofactors Met4 and Met28. Finally, we demonstrate that the presence of an RYAAT motif next to a Cbf1 site, rather than Cbf1 binding affinity, specifies Cbf1-dependent sulfur metabolism genes. Our results highlight the need to examine TF/cofactor complexes, as novel specificity can result from cofactors that lack intrinsic DNA-binding specificity. PMID:22146299

  5. Hepatitis B virus X protein inhibits p53 sequence-specific DNA binding, transcriptional activity, and association with transcription factor ERCC3.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X W; Forrester, K; Yeh, H; Feitelson, M A; Gu, J R; Harris, C C

    1994-01-01

    Chronic active hepatitis caused by infection with hepatitis B virus, a DNA virus, is a major risk factor for human hepatocellular carcinoma. Since the oncogenicity of several DNA viruses is dependent on the interaction of their viral oncoproteins with cellular tumor-suppressor gene products, we investigated the interaction between hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX) and human wild-type p53 protein. HBX complexes with the wild-type p53 protein and inhibits its sequence-specific DNA binding in vitro. HBX expression also inhibits p53-mediated transcriptional activation in vivo and the in vitro association of p53 and ERCC3, a general transcription factor involved in nucleotide excision repair. Therefore, HBX may affect a wide range of p53 functions and contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Images PMID:8134379

  6. Dual DNA binding specificity of a petal epidermis-specific MYB transcription factor (MYB.Ph3) from Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed Central

    Solano, R; Nieto, C; Avila, J; Cañas, L; Diaz, I; Paz-Ares, J

    1995-01-01

    The MYB.Ph3 protein recognized two DNA sequences that resemble the two known types of MYB DNA binding site: consensus I (MBSI), aaaAaaC(G/C)-GTTA, and consensus II (MBSII), aaaAGTTAGTTA. Optimal MBSI was recognized by animal c-MYB and not by Am305 from Antirrhinum, whereas MBSII showed the reverse behaviour. Different constraints on MYB.Ph3 binding to the two classes of sequences were demonstrated. DNA binding studies with mutated MBSI and MBSII and hydroxyl radical footprinting analysis, pointed to the N-terminal MYB repeat (R2) as the most involved in determining the dual DNA binding specificity of MYB.Ph3 and supported the idea that binding to MBSI and MBSII does not involve alternative orientations of the two repeats of MYB.Ph3. Minimal promoters containing either MBSI and MBSII were activated to the same extent by MYB.Ph3 in yeast, indicating that both types of binding site can be functionally equivalent. MYB.Ph3 binding sites are present in the promoter of flavonoid biosynthetic genes, such as the Petunia chsJ gene, which was transcriptionally activated by MYB.Ph3 in tobacco protoplasts. MYB.Ph3 was immunolocalized in the epidermal cell layer of petals, where flavonoid biosynthetic genes are actively expressed. This strongly suggests a role for MYB.Ph3 in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. Images PMID:7737128

  7. An interplay between TATA box-binding protein and transcription factors IIE and IIA modulates DNA binding and transcription.

    PubMed

    Yokomori, K; Verrijzer, C P; Tjian, R

    1998-06-09

    The basal transcription factor IIE (TFIIE) is thought to be one of the last factors to be assembled into a preinitiation complex (PIC) at eukaryotic promoters after RNA polymerase II and TFIIF have been incorporated. It was shown that a primary function of TFIIE is to recruit and cooperate with TFIIH in promoter melting. Here, we show that the large subunit of TFIIE (E56) can directly stimulate TBP binding to the promoter in the absence of other basal factors. The zinc-finger domain of E56, required for transcriptional activity, is critical for this function. In addition, the small subunit of TFIIE (E34) directly contacts DNA and TFIIA and thus providing a second mechanism for TFIIE to help binding of a TBP/IIA complex to the promoter, the first critical step in the PIC assembly. These studies suggest an alternative PIC assembly pathway in which TFIIE affects both TBP and TFIIH functions during initiation of RNA synthesis.

  8. Two residues in the basic region of the yeast transcription factor Yap8 are crucial for its DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Catarina; Pimentel, Catarina; Matos, Rute G; Arraiano, Cecília M; Matzapetakis, Manolis; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

    2013-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Yap8 is a key determinant in arsenic stress response. Contrary to Yap1, another basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) yeast regulator, Yap8 has a very restricted DNA-binding specificity and only orchestrates the expression of ACR2 and ACR3 genes. In the DNA-binding basic region, Yap8 has three distinct amino acids residues, Leu26, Ser29 and Asn31, at sites of highly conserved positions in the other Yap family of transcriptional regulators and Pap1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To evaluate whether these residues are relevant to Yap8 specificity, we first built a homology model of the complex Yap8bZIP-DNA based on Pap1-DNA crystal structure. Several Yap8 mutants were then generated in order to confirm the contribution of the residues predicted to interact with DNA. Using bioinformatics analysis together with in vivo and in vitro approaches, we have identified several conserved residues critical for Yap8-DNA binding. Moreover, our data suggest that Leu26 is required for Yap8 binding to DNA and that this residue together with Asn31, hinder Yap1 response element recognition by Yap8, thus narrowing its DNA-binding specificity. Furthermore our results point to a role of these two amino acids in the stability of the Yap8-DNA complex.

  9. Cyclic AMP-responsive expression of the surfactant protein-A gene is mediated by increased DNA binding and transcriptional activity of thyroid transcription factor-1.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gao, E; Mendelson, C R

    1998-02-20

    Surfactant protein (SP)-A gene transcription is stimulated by factors that increase cyclic AMP. In the present study, we observed that three thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) binding elements (TBEs) located within a 255 base pair region flanking the 5'-end of the baboon SP-A2 (bSP-A2) gene are required for maximal cyclic AMP induction of bSP-A2 promoter activity. We found that TTF-1 DNA binding activity was increased in nuclear extracts of pulmonary type II cells cultured in the presence of cyclic AMP. By contrast, the levels of immunoreactive TTF-1 protein were similar in nuclear extracts of control and cyclic AMP-treated type II cells. The incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate into immunoprecipitated TTF-1 protein also was markedly increased by cyclic AMP treatment. Moreover, exposure of nuclear extracts from cyclic AMP-treated type II cells either to potato acid phosphatase or alkaline phosphatase abolished the cyclic AMP-induced increase in TTF-1 DNA-binding activity. Interestingly, the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), known to activate protein kinase C, also enhanced incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate into TTF-1 protein; however, the DNA binding activity of TTF-1 was decreased in nuclear extracts of TPA-treated type II cells. Expression vectors encoding TTF-1 and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA-cat) were cotransfected into A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells together with an SPA:human growth hormone fusion gene (255 base pairs of 5'-flanking DNA from the baboon SP-A2 gene linked to human growth hormone, as reporter) containing TBEs, or with a reporter gene construct containing three tandem TBEs fused upstream of the bSP-A2 gene TATA box and the transcription initiation site. Coexpression of TTF-1 and PKA-cat increased fusion gene expression 3-4-fold as compared with expression of TTF-1 in the absence of PKA-cat. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of TTF-1 was suppressed by cotransfection of a dominant negative form

  10. DNA-binding proteins in plant mitochondria: implications for transcription.

    PubMed

    Gualberto, José M; Kühn, Kristina

    2014-11-01

    The structural complexity of plant mitochondrial genomes correlates with the variety of single-strand DNA-binding proteins found in plant mitochondria. Most of these are plant-specific and have roles in homologous recombination and genome maintenance. Mitochondrial nucleoids thus differ fundamentally between plants and yeast or animals, where the principal nucleoid protein is a DNA-packaging protein that binds double-stranded DNA. Major transcriptional cofactors identified in mitochondria of non-plant species are also seemingly absent from plants. This article reviews current knowledge on plant mitochondrial DNA-binding proteins and discusses that those may affect the accessibility and conformation of transcription start sites, thus functioning as transcriptional modulators without being dedicated transcription factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  11. A conserved motif N-terminal to the DNA-binding domains of myogenic bHLH transcription factors mediates cooperative DNA binding with pbx-Meis1/Prep1.

    PubMed

    Knoepfler, P S; Bergstrom, D A; Uetsuki, T; Dac-Korytko, I; Sun, Y H; Wright, W E; Tapscott, S J; Kamps, M P

    1999-09-15

    The t(1;19) chromosomal translocation of pediatric pre-B cell leukemia produces chimeric oncoprotein E2a-Pbx1, which contains the N-terminal transactivation domain of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, E2a, joined to the majority of the homeodomain protein, Pbx1. There are three Pbx family members, which bind DNA as heterodimers with both broadly expressed Meis/Prep1 homeo-domain proteins and specifically expressed Hox homeodomain proteins. These Pbx heterodimers can augment the function of transcriptional activators bound to adjacent elements. In heterodimers, a conserved tryptophan motif in Hox proteins binds a pocket on the surface of the Pbx homeodomain, while Meis/Prep1 proteins bind an N-terminal Pbx domain, raising the possibility that the tryptophan-interaction pocket of the Pbx component of a Pbx-Meis/Prep1 complex is still available to bind trypto-phan motifs of other transcription factors bound to flanking elements. Here, we report that Pbx-Meis1/Prep1 binds DNA cooperatively with heterodimers of E2a and MyoD, myogenin, Mrf-4 or Myf-5. As with Hox proteins, a highly conserved tryptophan motif N-terminal to the DNA-binding domains of each myogenic bHLH family protein is required for cooperative DNA binding with Pbx-Meis1/Prep1. In vivo, MyoD requires this tryptophan motif to evoke chromatin remodeling in the Myogenin promoter and to activate Myogenin transcription. Pbx-Meis/Prep1 complexes, therefore, have the potential to cooperate with the myogenic bHLH proteins in regulating gene transcription.

  12. Bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract modulates AP-1 DNA-binding activity and nuclear transcription factor expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Gamboa, E; Franco-Molina, M A; Zapata-Benavides, P; Castillo-Tello, P; Vera-García, M E; Tamez-Guerra, R S; Rodríguez-Padilla, C

    2008-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) induces death through an apoptosis mechanism in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Depending on the cell type and stimulus, activating protein-1 (AP-1) has been shown to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, the stress response, apoptosis and survival. It remains unknown whether AP-1 and other transcription factors are mechanisms by which bDLE induces cell death. To determine whether bDLE modulates the AP-1 DNA binding and gene expression, MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with bDLE (0, 1, 5, 10 U) for 72 h and evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays. bDLE induced inhibition of cell growth, suppressed the AP-1 DNA-binding activity, decreased c-Jun protein expression and modulated NFATx, NFATc, NFkappaB, c-Jun and c-Fos transcription factor gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The present data indicate that bDLE can block the AP-1 DNA-binding activity and expression of several transcriptions factors in breast cancer cells, which will have great potential in improving cancer therapy.

  13. Equal impact of diffusion and DNA binding rates on the potential spatial distribution of nuclear factor κB transcription factor inside the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sycheva, A M; Kel, A; Nikolaev, E N; Moshkovskii, S A

    2014-06-01

    There are two physical processes that influence the spatial distribution of transcription factor molecules entering the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, the binding to genomic DNA and the diffusion throughout the nuclear volume. Comparison of the DNA-protein association rate constant and the protein diffusion constant may determine which one is the limiting factor. If the process is diffusion-limited, transcription factor molecules are captured by DNA before their even distribution in the nuclear volume. Otherwise, if the reaction rate is limiting, these molecules diffuse evenly and then find their binding sites. Using well-studied human NF-κB dimer as an example, we calculated its diffusion constant using the Debye-Smoluchowski equation. The value of diffusion constant was about 10(-15) cm(3)/s, and it was comparable to the NF-κB association rate constant for DNA binding known from previous studies. Thus, both diffusion and DNA binding play an equally important role in NF-κB spatial distribution. The importance of genome 3D-structure in gene expression regulation and possible dependence of gene expression on the local concentration of open chromatin can be hypothesized from our theoretical estimate.

  14. The crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of vIRF-1 from the oncogenic KSHV reveals a conserved fold for DNA binding and reinforces its role as a transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Hew, Kelly; Venkatachalam, Rajakannan; Nasertorabi, Fariborz; Lim, Bee Ting; Cornvik, Tobias; Nordlund, Pär

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes four viral homologues to cellular interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), where the most studied is vIRF-1. Even though vIRF-1 shows sequence homology to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) of human IRFs, a specific role for this domain in vIRF-1’s function has remained uncertain. To provide insights into the function of the vIRF-1 DBD, we have determined the crystal structure of it in complex with DNA and in its apo-form. Using a thermal stability shift assay (TSSA), we show that the vIRF-1 DBD binds DNA, whereas full-length vIRF-1 does not, suggesting a cis-acting regulatory mechanism in similarity to human IRFs. The complex structure of vIRF-1 DBD reveals interactions with the DNA backbone and the positioning of two arginines for specific recognition in the major grove. A superimposition with human IRF-3 reveals a similar positioning of the two specificity-determining arginines, and additional TSSAs indicate binding of vIRF-1 to an IRF-3 operator consensus sequence. The results from this study, therefore, provide support that vIRF-1 has evolved to bind DNA and plays a role in DNA binding in the context of transcriptional regulation and might act on some of the many operator sequences controlled by human IRF-3. PMID:23435230

  15. Addition and correction: the NF-kappa B-like DNA binding activity observed in Dictyostelium nuclear extracts is due to the GBF transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Traincard, F; Ponte, E; Pun, J; Coukell, B; Veron, M

    2001-10-01

    We have previously reported that a NF-kappa B transduction pathway was likely to be present in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This conclusion was based on several observations, including the detection of developmentally regulated DNA binding proteins in Dictyostelium nuclear extracts that bound to bona fide kappa B sequences. We have now performed additional experiments which demonstrate that the protein responsible for this NF-kappa B-like DNA binding activity is the Dictyostelium GBF (G box regulatory element binding factor) transcription factor. This result, along with the fact that no sequence with significant similarity to components of the mammalian NF-kappa B pathway can be found in Dictyostelium genome, now almost entirely sequenced, led us to reconsider our previous conclusion on the occurrence of a NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway in Dictyostelium.

  16. DNA-binding affinity and transcriptional activity of the RelA homodimer of nuclear factor kappa B are not correlated.

    PubMed

    Mulero, Maria Carmen; Huang, De-Bin; Nguyen, H Thien; Wang, Vivien; Li, Yidan; Biswas, Tapan; Ghosh, Gourisankar

    2017-09-21

    The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor family regulates genes involved in cell proliferation and inflammation. The promoters of these genes often contain NF-κB binding sites (κB sites) arranged in tandem. How NF-κB activates transcription through these multiple sites is incompletely understood. We report here an X-ray crystal structure of homodimers comprising the RelA DNA binding domain containing the Rel homology region (RHR) in NF-κB bound to an E-selectin promoter fragment with tandem κB sites. This structure revealed that two dimers bind asymmetrically to the symmetrically arranged κB sites at which multiple cognate contacts between one dimer to the corresponding DNA are broken. Since simultaneous RelA RHR dimer binding to tandem sites in solution was anti-cooperative, we inferred that asymmetric RelA RHR binding with fewer contacts likely indicates a dissociative binding mode. We found that both κB sites are essential for reporter gene activation by full-length RelA homodimer, suggesting that dimers facilitate DNA binding to each other even though their stable co-occupation is not promoted. Promoter variants with altered spacing and orientation of tandem κB sites displayed unexpected reporter activities that were not explained by solution-binding pattern of RelA RHR. Remarkably, full-length RelA bound all DNAs with a weaker affinity and specificity. Moreover, the transactivation domain (AD) played a negative role in DNA binding. These observations suggest that other nuclear factors influence full-length RelA binding to DNA by neutralizing AD negative effect. We propose that DNA binding by NF-κB dimers is highly complex and modulated by facilitated association-dissociation processes. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Transcriptional Regulation in Mammalian Cells by Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Pamela J.; Tjian, Robert

    1989-07-01

    The cloning of genes encoding mammalian DNA binding transcription factors for RNA polymerase II has provided the opportunity to analyze the structure and function of these proteins. This review summarizes recent studies that define structural domains for DNA binding and transcriptional activation functions in sequence-specific transcription factors. The mechanisms by which these factors may activate transcriptional initiation and by which they may be regulated to achieve differential gene expression are also discussed.

  18. Analysis of the DNA-Binding Activities of the Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Family by One-Hybrid Experiments in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Zsolt; Sebastian, Alvaro; Xu, Wenjia; Grain, Damaris; Salsac, Fabien; Avon, Alexandra; Berger, Nathalie; Tran, Joseph; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Lurin, Claire; Lepiniec, Loïc; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Dubos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The control of growth and development of all living organisms is a complex and dynamic process that requires the harmonious expression of numerous genes. Gene expression is mainly controlled by the activity of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins called transcription factors (TFs). Amongst the various classes of eukaryotic TFs, the MYB superfamily is one of the largest and most diverse, and it has considerably expanded in the plant kingdom. R2R3-MYBs have been extensively studied over the last 15 years. However, DNA-binding specificity has been characterized for only a small subset of these proteins. Therefore, one of the remaining challenges is the exhaustive characterization of the DNA-binding specificity of all R2R3-MYB proteins. In this study, we have developed a library of Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB open reading frames, whose DNA-binding activities were assayed in vivo (yeast one-hybrid experiments) with a pool of selected cis-regulatory elements. Altogether 1904 interactions were assayed leading to the discovery of specific patterns of interactions between the various R2R3-MYB subgroups and their DNA target sequences and to the identification of key features that govern these interactions. The present work provides a comprehensive in vivo analysis of R2R3-MYB binding activities that should help in predicting new DNA motifs and identifying new putative target genes for each member of this very large family of TFs. In a broader perspective, the generated data will help to better understand how TF interact with their target DNA sequences. PMID:26484765

  19. Thyroglobulin repression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, M; Chung, H K; Ulianich, L; Grassadonia, A; Suzuki, K; Kohn, L D

    2000-11-01

    Follicular thyroglobulin (TG) selectively suppresses the expression of thyroid-restricted transcription factors, thereby altering the expression of thyroid-specific proteins. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which TG suppresses the prototypic thyroid-restricted transcription factor, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), in rat FRTL-5 thyrocytes. We show that the region between bp -264 and -153 on the TTF-1 promoter contains two nuclear factor I (NFI) elements whose function is involved in TG-mediated suppression. Thus, NFI binding to these elements is critical for constitutive expression of TTF-1; TG decreases NFI binding to the NFI elements in association with TG repression. NFI is a family of transcription factors that is ubiquitously expressed and contributes to constitutive and cell-specific gene expression. In contrast to the contribution of NFI proteins to constitutive gene expression in other systems, we demonstrate that follicular TG transcriptionally represses all NFI RNAs (NFI-A, -B, -C, and -X) in association with decreased NFI binding and that the RNA levels decrease as early as 4 h after TG treatment. Although TG treatment for 48 h results in a decrease in NFI protein-DNA complexes measured in DNA mobility shift assays, NFI proteins are still detectable by Western analysis. We show, however, that the binding of all NFI proteins is redox regulated. Thus, diamide treatment of nuclear extracts strongly reduces the binding of NFI proteins, and the addition of higher concentrations of dithiothreitol to nuclear extracts from TG-treated cells restores NFI-DNA binding to levels in extracts from untreated cells. We conclude that NFI binding to two NFI elements, at bp -264 to -153, positively regulates TTF-1 expression and controls constitutive TTF-1 levels. TG mediates the repression of TTF-1 gene expression by decreasing NFI RNA and protein levels, as well as by altering the binding activity of NFI, which is redox controlled.

  20. Regulation of the trans-activation potential of STAT5 through its DNA-binding activity and interactions with heterologous transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Groner, B; Fritsche, M; Stöcklin, E; Berchtold, S; Merkle, C; Moriggl, R; Pfitzner, E

    2000-04-01

    Extracellular hormones, growth factors and cytokines relay their effects on the transcription of genes through the recognition of specific receptors and intracellular signalling molecules. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) have been recognized as crucial intracellular signalling molecules. The cytokine receptor-associated Janus kinases (JAKs) convert the latent monomeric form of the STAT molecules to the activated dimeric form through tyrosine phosphorylation. The dimers bind to specific DNA response elements and are able to induce transcription. This induction requires the full-length form of the STAT molecules. Negative regulatory potential is exerted by the short form of the molecule, which lacks the trans-activation domain. This short form is activated and dimerized, but dephosphorylation is impaired. The short form of STAT occupies the DNA-binding sites in a stable fashion and acts as a strong suppressor of wild-type action. Positive enhancement of STAT5 trans-activation potential is provided by the glucocorticoid receptor. Ligand activation of this receptor causes the formation of a complex with STAT5 and deviation to the STAT5 DNA-binding site. An additional regulatory loop is provided by the reactivation of the short form of STAT5 through glucocorticoid receptor association. Conversely, classical glucocorticoid-responsive genes are negatively affected by STAT5 activation.

  1. The MotA transcription factor from bacteriophage T4 contains a novel DNA-binding domain : the 'double wing' motif.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Sickmier, E. A.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; White, S. W.; Biosciences Division; St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Univ. of Tennessee Health Science Center; Corixa Inc.

    2002-01-01

    MotA is a transcription factor from bacteriophage T4 that helps adapt the host Escherichia coli transcription apparatus to T4 middle promoters. We have determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of MotA (MotCF) to 1.6 A resolution using multiwavelength, anomalous diffraction methods. The structure reveals a novel DNA-binding alpha/beta motif that contains an exposed beta-sheet surface that mediates interactions with the DNA. Independent biochemical experiments have shown that MotCF binds to one surface of a single turn of DNA through interactions in adjacent major and minor grooves. We present a model of the interaction in which beta-ribbons at opposite corners of the six-stranded beta-sheet penetrate the DNA grooves, and call the motif a 'double wing' to emphasize similarities to the 'winged-helix' motif. The model is consistent with data on how MotA functions at middle promoters, and provides an explanation for why MotA can form non-specific multimers on DNA.

  2. Crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of the transcription factor T-bet suggests simultaneous recognition of distant genome sites

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ce Feng; Brandt, Gabriel S.; Hoang, Quyen Q.; Naumova, Natalia; Lazarevic, Vanja; Hwang, Eun Sook; Dekker, Job; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Ringe, Dagmar; Petsko, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor T-bet (Tbox protein expressed in T cells) is one of the master regulators of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. It plays a central role in T-cell lineage commitment, where it controls the TH1 response, and in gene regulation in plasma B-cells and dendritic cells. T-bet is a member of the Tbox family of transcription factors; however, T-bet coordinately regulates the expression of many more genes than other Tbox proteins. A central unresolved question is how T-bet is able to simultaneously recognize distant Tbox binding sites, which may be located thousands of base pairs away. We have determined the crystal structure of the Tbox DNA binding domain (DBD) of T-bet in complex with a palindromic DNA. The structure shows a quaternary structure in which the T-bet dimer has its DNA binding regions splayed far apart, making it impossible for a single dimer to bind both sites of the DNA palindrome. In contrast to most other Tbox proteins, a single T-bet DBD dimer binds simultaneously to identical half-sites on two independent DNA. A fluorescence-based assay confirms that T-bet dimers are able to bring two independent DNA molecules into close juxtaposition. Furthermore, chromosome conformation capture assays confirm that T-bet functions in the direct formation of chromatin loops in vitro and in vivo. The data are consistent with a looping/synapsing model for transcriptional regulation by T-bet in which a single dimer of the transcription factor can recognize and coalesce distinct genetic elements, either a promoter plus a distant regulatory element, or promoters on two different genes. PMID:27791029

  3. Crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of the transcription factor T-bet suggests simultaneous recognition of distant genome sites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ce Feng; Brandt, Gabriel S; Hoang, Quyen Q; Naumova, Natalia; Lazarevic, Vanja; Hwang, Eun Sook; Dekker, Job; Glimcher, Laurie H; Ringe, Dagmar; Petsko, Gregory A

    2016-10-25

    The transcription factor T-bet (Tbox protein expressed in T cells) is one of the master regulators of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. It plays a central role in T-cell lineage commitment, where it controls the TH1 response, and in gene regulation in plasma B-cells and dendritic cells. T-bet is a member of the Tbox family of transcription factors; however, T-bet coordinately regulates the expression of many more genes than other Tbox proteins. A central unresolved question is how T-bet is able to simultaneously recognize distant Tbox binding sites, which may be located thousands of base pairs away. We have determined the crystal structure of the Tbox DNA binding domain (DBD) of T-bet in complex with a palindromic DNA. The structure shows a quaternary structure in which the T-bet dimer has its DNA binding regions splayed far apart, making it impossible for a single dimer to bind both sites of the DNA palindrome. In contrast to most other Tbox proteins, a single T-bet DBD dimer binds simultaneously to identical half-sites on two independent DNA. A fluorescence-based assay confirms that T-bet dimers are able to bring two independent DNA molecules into close juxtaposition. Furthermore, chromosome conformation capture assays confirm that T-bet functions in the direct formation of chromatin loops in vitro and in vivo. The data are consistent with a looping/synapsing model for transcriptional regulation by T-bet in which a single dimer of the transcription factor can recognize and coalesce distinct genetic elements, either a promoter plus a distant regulatory element, or promoters on two different genes.

  4. The MSG1 non-DNA-binding transactivator binds to the p300/CBP coactivators, enhancing their functional link to the Smad transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Yahata, T; de Caestecker, M P; Lechleider, R J; Andriole, S; Roberts, A B; Isselbacher, K J; Shioda, T

    2000-03-24

    The MSG1 nuclear protein has a strong transcriptional activating activity but does not bind directly to DNA. When cotransfected, MSG1 enhances transcription mediated by the Smad transcription factors in mammalian cells in a manner dependent on ligand-induced Smad hetero-oligomerization. However, the mechanism of this MSG1 effect has been unknown. We now show that MSG1 directly binds to the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) transcriptional coactivators, which in turn bind to the Smads, and enhances Smad-mediated transcription in a manner dependent on p300/CBP. The C-terminal transactivating domain of MSG1 is required for binding to p300/CBP and enhancement of Smad-mediated transcription; the viral VP16 transactivating domain could not substitute for it. In the N-terminal region of MSG1, we identified a domain that is necessary and sufficient to direct the specific interaction of MSG1 with Smads. We also found that the Hsc70 heat-shock cognate protein also forms complex with MSG1 in vivo, suppressing both binding of MSG1 to p300/CBP and enhancement of Smad-mediated transcription by MSG1. These results indicate that MSG1 interacts with both the DNA-binding Smad proteins and the p300/CBP coactivators through its N- and C-terminal regions, respectively, and enhances the functional link between Smads and p300/CBP.

  5. Identification of a sequence-specific DNA binding factor required for transcription of the barley chloroplast blue light-responsive psbD-psbC promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M; Mullet, J E

    1995-01-01

    The plastid gene psbD encodes the photosystem II reaction center chlorophyll protein D2. psbD is located in a complex operon that includes psbC, psbK, psbl, orf62, and trnG. The operon is transcribed from at least three different promoters. One of the psbD promoters is differentially activated when plants are exposed to blue light. In this study, the psbD blue light-responsive promoter was accurately transcribed in vitro in high-salt extracts of barley plastids. Transcription required supercoiled templates and was inhibited by tagetitoxin, an inhibitor of plastid transcription. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase did not recognize the psbD light-responsive promoter with the same specificity as plastid RNA polymerase. Deletion analyses demonstrated that sequences between -39 and -68, upstream of the transcription initiation site, were required for transcription of the psbD blue light-responsive promoter. This DNA region is highly conserved among plant species and contains multiple AAG sequences. Gel shift assays and DNase I footprinting experiments demonstrated that the AAG-rich DNA sequence interacts with a sequence-specific DNA binding factor termed AGF. Point mutations in the AAG cis element decreased binding of AGF and inhibited transcription from the psbD light-responsive promoter. We concluded that AGF is an essential factor required for transcription of the psbD light-responsive promoter. PMID:8589628

  6. A Novel RNA Polymerase I Transcription Initiation Factor, TIF-IE, Commits rRNA Genes by Interaction with TIF-IB, Not by DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khouri, Anna Maria; Paule, Marvin R.

    2002-01-01

    In the small, free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, rRNA transcription requires, in addition to RNA polymerase I, a single DNA-binding factor, transcription initiation factor IB (TIF-IB). TIF-IB is a multimeric protein that contains TATA-binding protein (TBP) and four TBP-associated factors that are specific for polymerase I transcription. TIF-IB is required for accurate and promoter-specific initiation of rRNA transcription, recruiting and positioning the polymerase on the start site by protein-protein interaction. In A. castellanii, partially purified TIF-IB can form a persistent complex with the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter while homogeneous TIF-IB cannot. An additional factor, TIF-IE, is required along with homogeneous TIF-IB for the formation of a stable complex on the rDNA core promoter. We show that TIF-IE by itself, however, does not bind to the rDNA promoter and thus differs in its mechanism from the upstream binding factor and upstream activating factor, which carry out similar complex-stabilizing functions in vertebrates and yeast, respectively. In addition to its presence in impure TIF-IB, TIF-IE is found in highly purified fractions of polymerase I, with which it associates. Renaturation of polypeptides excised from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels showed that a 141-kDa polypeptide possesses all the known activities of TIF-IE. PMID:11784852

  7. Identification of Position-Specific Correlations between DNA-Binding Domains and Their Binding Sites. Application to the MerR Family of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mironov, Andrey A.; Rakhmaininova, Alexandra B.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    The large and increasing volume of genomic data analyzed by comparative methods provides information about transcription factors and their binding sites that, in turn, enables statistical analysis of correlations between factors and sites, uncovering mechanisms and evolution of specific protein-DNA recognition. Here we present an online tool, Prot-DNA-Korr, designed to identify and analyze crucial protein-DNA pairs of positions in a family of transcription factors. Correlations are identified by analysis of mutual information between columns of protein and DNA alignments. The algorithm reduces the effects of common phylogenetic history and of abundance of closely related proteins and binding sites. We apply it to five closely related subfamilies of the MerR family of bacterial transcription factors that regulate heavy metal resistance systems. We validate the approach using known 3D structures of MerR-family proteins in complexes with their cognate DNA binding sites and demonstrate that a significant fraction of correlated positions indeed form specific side-chain-to-base contacts. The joint distribution of amino acids and nucleotides hence may be used to predict changes of specificity for point mutations in transcription factors. PMID:27690309

  8. Synergy of aromatic residues and phosphoserines within the intrinsically disordered DNA-binding inhibitory elements of the Ets-1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Geneviève; Meeker, Charles A; Bhachech, Niraja; Currie, Simon L; Okon, Mark; Graves, Barbara J; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2014-07-29

    The E26 transformation-specific (Ets-1) transcription factor is autoinhibited by a conformationally disordered serine-rich region (SRR) that transiently interacts with its DNA-binding ETS domain. In response to calcium signaling, autoinhibition is reinforced by calmodulin-dependent kinase II phosphorylation of serines within the SRR. Using mutagenesis and quantitative DNA-binding measurements, we demonstrate that phosphorylation-enhanced autoinhibition requires the presence of phenylalanine or tyrosine (ϕ) residues adjacent to the SRR phosphoacceptor serines. The introduction of additional phosphorylated Ser-ϕ-Asp, but not Ser-Ala-Asp, repeats within the SRR dramatically reinforces autoinhibition. NMR spectroscopic studies of phosphorylated and mutated SRR variants, both within their native context and as separate trans-acting peptides, confirmed that the aromatic residues and phosphoserines contribute to the formation of a dynamic complex with the ETS domain. Complementary NMR studies also identified the SRR-interacting surface of the ETS domain, which encompasses its positively charged DNA-recognition interface and an adjacent region of neutral polar and nonpolar residues. Collectively, these studies highlight the role of aromatic residues and their synergy with phosphoserines in an intrinsically disordered regulatory sequence that integrates cellular signaling and gene expression.

  9. Statistics of protein-DNA binding and the total number of binding sites for a transcription factor in the mammalian genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transcription factor (TF)-DNA binding loci are explored by analyzing massive datasets generated with application of Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation (ChIP)-based high-throughput sequencing technologies. These datasets suffer from a bias in the information about binding loci availability, sample incompleteness and diverse sources of technical and biological noises. Therefore adequate mathematical models of ChIP-based high-throughput assay(s) and statistical tools are required for a robust identification of specific and reliable TF binding sites (TFBS), a precise characterization of TFBS avidity distribution and a plausible estimation the total number of specific TFBS for a given TF in the genome for a given cell type. Results We developed an exploratory mixture probabilistic model for a specific and non-specific transcription factor-DNA (TF-DNA) binding. Within ChiP-seq data sets, the statistics of specific and non-specific DNA-protein binding is defined by a mixture of sample size-dependent skewed functions described by Kolmogorov-Waring (K-W) function (Kuznetsov, 2003) and exponential function, respectively. Using available Chip-seq data for eleven TFs, essential for self-maintenance and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (SC) (Nanog, Oct4, sox2, KLf4, STAT3, E2F1, Tcfcp211, ZFX, n-Myc, c-Myc and Essrb) reported in Chen et al (2008), we estimated (i) the specificity and the sensitivity of the ChiP-seq binding assays and (ii) the number of specific but not identified in the current experiments binding sites (BSs) in the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells. Motif finding analysis applied to the identified c-Myc TFBSs supports our results and allowed us to predict many novel c-Myc target genes. Conclusion We provide a novel methodology of estimating the specificity and the sensitivity of TF-DNA binding in massively paralleled ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) binding assay. Goodness-of fit analysis of K-W functions suggests that a large fraction of low

  10. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the DNA-binding domain of the Ets transcription factor in complex with target DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Suwa, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Teruya; Toma, Sachiko; Ikemizu, Shinji; Kai, Hirofumi; Yamagata, Yuriko

    2008-03-01

    The complex between the Ets domain of Ets2 and its target DNA has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution. The Ets2 transcription factor is a member of the Ets transcription-factor family. Ets2 plays a role in the malignancy of cancer and in Down’s syndrome by regulating the transcription of various genes. The DNA-binding domain of Ets2 (Ets domain; ETSD), which contains residues that are highly conserved among Ets transcription-factor family members, was expressed as a GST-fusion protein. The aggregation of ETSD produced after thrombin cleavage could be prevented by treatment with NDSB-195 (nondetergent sulfobetaine 195). ETSD was crystallized in complex with DNA containing the Ets2 target sequence (GGAA) by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystals were grown using 25% PEG 3350, 80 mM magnesium acetate, 50 mM sodium cacodylate pH 5.0/5.5 as the reservoir at 293 K. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.89, b = 95.52, c = 71.89 Å, β = 101.7° and a V{sub M} value of 3.56 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å.

  11. Structure of bacterial transcription factor SpoIIID and evidence for a novel mode of DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Himes, Paul; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Lu, Zhenwei; Liu, Aizhuo; Yan, Honggao; Kroos, Lee

    2014-06-01

    SpoIIID is evolutionarily conserved in endospore-forming bacteria, and it activates or represses many genes during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis. An SpoIIID monomer binds DNA with high affinity and moderate sequence specificity. In addition to a predicted helix-turn-helix motif, SpoIIID has a C-terminal basic region that contributes to DNA binding. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure of SpoIIID in complex with DNA revealed that SpoIIID does indeed have a helix-turn-helix domain and that it has a novel C-terminal helical extension. Residues in both of these regions interact with DNA, based on the NMR data and on the effects on DNA binding in vitro of SpoIIID with single-alanine substitutions. These data, as well as sequence conservation in SpoIIID binding sites, were used for information-driven docking to model the SpoIIID-DNA complex. The modeling resulted in a single cluster of models in which the recognition helix of the helix-turn-helix domain interacts with the major groove of DNA, as expected. Interestingly, the C-terminal extension, which includes two helices connected by a kink, interacts with the adjacent minor groove of DNA in the models. This predicted novel mode of binding is proposed to explain how a monomer of SpoIIID achieves high-affinity DNA binding. Since SpoIIID is conserved only in endospore-forming bacteria, which include important pathogenic Bacilli and Clostridia, whose ability to sporulate contributes to their environmental persistence, the interaction of the C-terminal extension of SpoIIID with DNA is a potential target for development of sporulation inhibitors.

  12. [2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD)-distamycin hybrid inhibits DNA binding to transcription factor Sp1.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, P G; Cacciari, B; Guiotto, A; Romagnoli, R; Spalluto, G; Leoni, A; Bianchi, N; Feriotto, G; Rutigliano, C; Mischiati, C; Gambari, R

    2000-08-01

    We designed and synthesized the hybrid 6, prepared combining the minor groove binders distamycin A and pyrrolo [2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine (PBD) 4, related to the natural occurring anthramycin (2) and DC-81 (3). In this paper, the effects of the compound 6 on molecular interactions between DNA and transcription factor Sp1 were studied. The results obtained demonstrate that PBD-distamycin hybrid is a powerful inhibitor of Sp1/DNA interactions.

  13. SP Transcription Factor Paralogs and DNA-Binding Sites Coevolve and Adaptively Converge in Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Ken Daigoro; Pollock, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Functional modification of regulatory proteins can affect hundreds of genes throughout the genome, and is therefore thought to be almost universally deleterious. This belief, however, has recently been challenged. A potential example comes from transcription factor SP1, for which statistical evidence indicates that motif preferences were altered in eutherian mammals. Here, we set out to discover possible structural and theoretical explanations, evaluate the role of selection in SP1 evolution, and discover effects on coregulatory proteins. We show that SP1 motif preferences were convergently altered in birds as well as mammals, inducing coevolutionary changes in over 800 regulatory regions. Structural and phylogenic evidence implicates a single causative amino acid replacement at the same SP1 position along both lineages. Furthermore, paralogs SP3 and SP4, which coregulate SP1 target genes through competitive binding to the same sites, have accumulated convergent replacements at the homologous position multiple times during eutherian and bird evolution, presumably to preserve competitive binding. To determine plausibility, we developed and implemented a simple model of transcription factor and binding site coevolution. This model predicts that, in contrast to prevailing beliefs, even small selective benefits per locus can drive concurrent fixation of transcription factor and binding site mutants under a broad range of conditions. Novel binding sites tend to arise de novo, rather than by mutation from ancestral sites, a prediction substantiated by SP1-binding site alignments. Thus, multiple lines of evidence indicate that selection has driven convergent evolution of transcription factors along with their binding sites and coregulatory proteins. PMID:23019068

  14. The Double Zinc Finger Domain and Adjacent Accessory Domain from the Transcription Factor Loss of Zinc Sensing 1 (Loz1) Are Necessary for DNA Binding and Zinc Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ehrensberger, Kate M.; Corkins, Mark E.; Choi, Sangyong; Bird, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    The Loz1 transcription factor from Schizosaccharomyces pombe plays an essential role in zinc homeostasis by repressing target gene expression in zinc-replete cells. To determine how Loz1 function is regulated by zinc, we employed a genetic screen to isolate mutants with impaired zinc-dependent gene expression and analyzed Loz1 protein truncations to map a minimal zinc-responsive domain. In the screen, we isolated 36 new loz1 alleles. 27 of these alleles contained mutations resulting in the truncation of the Loz1 protein. The remaining nine alleles contained point mutations leading to an amino acid substitution within a C-terminal double zinc finger domain. Further analysis of two of these substitutions revealed that they disrupted Loz1 DNA activity in vitro. By analyzing Loz1 protein truncations, we found that the last 96 amino acids of Loz1 was the smallest region that was able to confer partial zinc-dependent repression in vivo. This 96-amino acid region contains the double zinc finger domain and an accessory domain that enhances DNA binding. These results were further supported by the findings that MtfA, a transcription factor from Aspergillus nidulans that contains a related double zinc finger, is unable to complement loz1Δ, whereas a chimera of MtfA containing the Loz1 accessory domain is able to complement loz1Δ. Together, our studies indicate that the double zinc finger domain and adjacent accessory domain preceding zinc finger 1 are necessary for DNA binding and zinc-dependent repression. PMID:24831008

  15. Structural Determination of Functional Domains in Early B-cell Factor (EBF) Family of Transcription Factors Reveals Similarities to Rel DNA-binding Proteins and a Novel Dimerization Motif*

    PubMed Central

    Siponen, Marina I.; Wisniewska, Magdalena; Lehtiö, Lari; Johansson, Ida; Svensson, Linda; Raszewski, Grzegorz; Nilsson, Lennart; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Berglund, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The early B-cell factor (EBF) transcription factors are central regulators of development in several organs and tissues. This protein family shows low sequence similarity to other protein families, which is why structural information for the functional domains of these proteins is crucial to understand their biochemical features. We have used a modular approach to determine the crystal structures of the structured domains in the EBF family. The DNA binding domain reveals a striking resemblance to the DNA binding domains of the Rel homology superfamily of transcription factors but contains a unique zinc binding structure, termed zinc knuckle. Further the EBF proteins contain an IPT/TIG domain and an atypical helix-loop-helix domain with a novel type of dimerization motif. The data presented here provide insights into unique structural features of the EBF proteins and open possibilities for detailed molecular investigations of this important transcription factor family. PMID:20592035

  16. Sequence-specific transcription factor NF-Y displays histone-like DNA binding and H2B-like ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marco; Gnesutta, Nerina; Donati, Giacomo; Gatta, Raffaella; Forni, Claudia; Fossati, Andrea; Vonrhein, Clemens; Moras, Dino; Romier, Christophe; Bolognesi, Martino; Mantovani, Roberto

    2013-01-17

    The sequence-specific transcription factor NF-Y binds the CCAAT box, one of the sequence elements most frequently found in eukaryotic promoters. NF-Y is composed of the NF-YA and NF-YB/NF-YC subunits, the latter two hosting histone-fold domains (HFDs). The crystal structure of NF-Y bound to a 25 bp CCAAT oligonucleotide shows that the HFD dimer binds to the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone, mimicking the nucleosome H2A/H2B-DNA assembly. NF-YA both binds to NF-YB/NF-YC and inserts an α helix deeply into the DNA minor groove, providing sequence-specific contacts to the CCAAT box. Structural considerations and mutational data indicate that NF-YB ubiquitination at Lys138 precedes and is equivalent to H2B Lys120 monoubiquitination, important in transcriptional activation. Thus, NF-Y is a sequence-specific transcription factor with nucleosome-like properties of nonspecific DNA binding and helps establish permissive chromatin modifications at CCAAT promoters. Our findings suggest that other HFD-containing proteins may function in similar ways.

  17. Regions outside the DNA-binding domain are critical for proper in vivo specificity of an archetypal zinc finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Burdach, Jon; Funnell, Alister P W; Mak, Ka Sin; Artuz, Crisbel M; Wienert, Beeke; Lim, Wooi F; Tan, Lit Yeen; Pearson, Richard C M; Crossley, Merlin

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are often regarded as being composed of a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a functional domain. The two domains are considered separable and autonomous, with the DBD directing the factor to its target genes and the functional domain imparting transcriptional regulation. We examined an archetypal zinc finger (ZF) TF, Krüppel-like factor 3 with an N-terminal domain that binds the corepressor CtBP and a DBD composed of three ZFs at its C-terminus. We established a system to compare the genomic occupancy profile of wild-type Krüppel-like factor 3 with two mutants affecting the N-terminal functional domain: a mutant unable to contact the cofactor CtBP and a mutant lacking the entire N-terminal domain, but retaining the ZFs intact. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing was used to assess binding across the genome in murine embryonic fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, we observe that mutations in the N-terminal domain generally reduced binding, but there were also instances where binding was retained or even increased. These results provide a clear demonstration that the correct localization of TFs to their target genes is not solely dependent on their DNA-contact domains. This informs our understanding of how TFs operate and is of relevance to the design of artificial ZF proteins.

  18. Mutations that reduce its specific DNA binding inhibit high NaCl-induced nuclear localization of the osmoprotective transcription factor NFAT5

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yuichiro; Li, Jinxi; Villers, Courtney; Hashimoto, Kosuke; Burg, Maurice B.

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5) is activated by the stress of hypertonicity (e.g., high NaCl). Increased expression of NFAT5 target genes causes accumulation of protective organic osmolytes and heat shock proteins. Under normotonic conditions (∼300 mosmol/kgH2O), NFAT5 is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm, hypertonicity causes it to translocate into the nucleus, and hypotonicity causes it to translocate into the cytoplasm. The mechanism of translocation is complex and not completely understood. NFAT5-T298 is a known contact site of NFAT5 with its specific DNA element [osmotic response element (ORE)]. In the present study, we find that mutation of NFAT5-T298 to alanine or aspartic acid not only reduces binding of NFAT5 to OREs (EMSA) but also proportionately reduces high NaCl-induced nuclear translocation of NFAT5. Combined mutation of other NFAT5 DNA contact sites (R293A/E299A/R302A) also greatly reduces both specific DNA binding and nuclear localization of NFAT5. NFAT5-T298 is a potential phosphorylation site, but, using protein mass spectrometry, we do not find phosphorylation at NFAT5-T298. Further, decreased high NaCl-induced nuclear localization of NFAT5 mutated at T298 does not involve previously known regulatory mechanisms, including hypotonicity-induced export of NFAT5, regulated by phosphorylation of NFAT5-S155, XPO1 (CRM1/exportin1)-mediated export of NFAT5 from the nucleus, or hypertonicity-induced elevation of NUP88, which enhances nuclear localization of NFAT5. We conclude that specific DNA binding of NFAT5 contributes to its nuclear localization, by mechanisms, as yet undetermined, but independent of ones previously described to regulate NFAT5 distribution. PMID:22992674

  19. Inhibition of RNA Polymerase II Transcription in Human Cells by Synthetic DNA-Binding Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Liliane A.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Trauger, John W.; Baird, Eldon E.; Mosier, Donald E.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    1998-10-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole--imidazole polyamides were designed to bind DNA sequences immediately adjacent to binding sites for the transcription factors Ets-1, lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1, and TATA-box binding protein. These synthetic ligands specifically inhibit DNA-binding of each transcription factor and HIV type 1 transcription in cell-free assays. When used in combination, the polyamides inhibit virus replication by >99% in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no detectable cell toxicity. The ability of small molecules to target predetermined DNA sequences located with RNA polymerase II promoters suggests a general approach for regulation of gene expression, as well as a mechanism for the inhibition of viral replication.

  20. N-Termini of Fungal CSL Transcription Factors Are Disordered, Enriched in Regulatory Motifs and Inhibit DNA Binding in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Převorovský, Martin; Atkinson, Sophie R.; Ptáčková, Martina; McLean, Janel R.; Gould, Kathleen; Folk, Petr; Půta, František; Bähler, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Background CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) transcription factors are the effector components of the Notch receptor signalling pathway, which is critical for metazoan development. The metazoan CSL proteins (class M) can also function in a Notch-independent manner. Recently, two novel classes of CSL proteins, designated F1 and F2, have been identified in fungi. The role of the fungal CSL proteins is unclear, because the Notch pathway is not present in fungi. In fission yeast, the Cbf11 and Cbf12 CSL paralogs play antagonistic roles in cell adhesion and the coordination of cell and nuclear division. Unusually long N-terminal extensions are typical for fungal and invertebrate CSL family members. In this study, we investigate the functional significance of these extended N-termini of CSL proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings We identify 15 novel CSL family members from 7 fungal species and conduct bioinformatic analyses of a combined dataset containing 34 fungal and 11 metazoan CSL protein sequences. We show that the long, non-conserved N-terminal tails of fungal CSL proteins are likely disordered and enriched in phosphorylation sites and PEST motifs. In a case study of Cbf12 (class F2), we provide experimental evidence that the protein is proteolytically processed and that the N-terminus inhibits the Cbf12-dependent DNA binding activity in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Conclusions/Significance This study provides insight into the characteristics of the long N-terminal tails of fungal CSL proteins that may be crucial for controlling DNA-binding and CSL function. We propose that the regulation of DNA binding by Cbf12 via its N-terminal region represents an important means by which fission yeast strikes a balance between the class F1 and class F2 paralog activities. This mode of regulation might be shared with other CSL-positive fungi, some of which are relevant to human disease and biotechnology. PMID:21858190

  1. Solution structure of the DNA-binding domain of the heat shock transcription factor determined by multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Damberger, F. F.; Pelton, J. G.; Harrison, C. J.; Nelson, H. C.; Wemmer, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The solution structure of the 92-residue DNA-binding domain of the heat shock transcription factor from Kluyveromyces lactis has been determined using multidimensional NMR methods. Three-dimensional (3D) triple resonance, 1H-13C-13C-1H total correlation spectroscopy, and 15N-separated total correlation spectroscopy-heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation experiments were used along with various 2D spectra to make nearly complete assignments for the backbone and side-chain 1H, 15N, and 13C resonances. Five-hundred eighty-three NOE constraints identified in 3D 13C- and 15N-separated NOE spectroscopy (NOESY)-heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation spectra and a 4-dimensional 13C/13C-edited NOESY spectrum, along with 35 phi, 9 chi 1, and 30 hydrogen bond constraints, were used to calculate 30 structures by hybrid distance geometry/stimulated annealing protocol, of which 24 were used for structural comparison. The calculations revealed that a 3-helix bundle packs against a small 4-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. The backbone RMS deviation (RMSD) for the family of structures was 1.03 +/- 0.19 A with respect to the average structure. The topology is analogous to that of the C-terminal domain of the catabolite gene activator protein and appears to be in the helix-turn-helix family of DNA-binding proteins. The overall fold determined by the NMR data is consistent with recent crystallographic work on this domain (Harrison CJ, Bohm AA, Nelson HCM, 1994, Science 263:224) as evidenced by RMSD between backbone atoms in the NMR and X-ray structures of 1.77 +/- 0.20 A. Several differences were identified some of which may be due to protein-protein interactions in the crystal. PMID:7849597

  2. Mechanistic Heterogeneity in Site Recognition by the Structurally Homologous DNA-binding Domains of the ETS Family Transcription Factors Ets-1 and PU.1*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Linde, Miles H.; Munde, Manoj; Carvalho, Victor D.; Wilson, W. David; Poon, Gregory M. K.

    2014-01-01

    ETS family transcription factors regulate diverse genes through binding at cognate DNA sites that overlap substantially in sequence. The DNA-binding domains of ETS proteins (ETS domains) are highly conserved structurally yet share limited amino acid homology. To define the mechanistic implications of sequence diversity within the ETS family, we characterized the thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA site recognition by the ETS domains of Ets-1 and PU.1, which represent the extremes in amino acid divergence among ETS proteins. Even though the two ETS domains bind their optimal sites with similar affinities under physiologic conditions, their nature of site recognition differs strikingly in terms of the role of hydration and counter ion release. The data suggest two distinct mechanisms wherein Ets-1 follows a “dry” mechanism that rapidly parses sites through electrostatic interactions and direct protein-DNA contacts, whereas PU.1 utilizes hydration to interrogate sequence-specific sites and form a long-lived complex relative to the Ets-1 counterpart. The kinetic persistence of the high affinity PU.1·DNA complex may be relevant to an emerging role of PU.1, but not Ets-1, as a pioneer transcription factor in vivo. In addition, PU.1 activity is critical to the development and function of macrophages and lymphocytes, which present osmotically variable environments, and hydration-dependent specificity may represent an important regulatory mechanism in vivo, a hypothesis that finds support in gene expression profiles of primary murine macrophages. PMID:24952944

  3. CCAAT box binding protein NF-Y facilitates in vivo recruitment of upstream DNA binding transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K L; Vilen, B J; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Moore, T L; Li, G; Criscitiello, M; Cogswell, P; Clarke, J B; Ting, J P

    1994-01-01

    NF-Y binds a CCAAT motif found in many eukaryotic polymerase II-dependent promoters. In the HLA-DRA promoter it has been demonstrated that stereo-specific alignment between this motif and the upstream elements X1 and X2 is required for activation. To study the underlying mechanism for this requirement, a panel of transfected cell lines that maintained integrated, wild-type and mutant promoters were analyzed by in vivo genomic footprinting. Cell lines harboring a mutated CCAAT element exhibited a loss of interactions at the CCAAT site, as expected, and no transcriptional activity. Most importantly, mutation of the CCAAT sequence nearly abolished in vivo binding at the X1 and X2 sites, while mutations of X1 and X2 had little effect on CCAAT box binding. However, X1 and X2 binding was interdependent. In vitro, X1 binding activities are known to be stabilized by NF-Y binding. Interaction between NF-Y and X box binding proteins was demonstrated by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation in the absence of DNA and co-affinity purification in the presence of DNA. Collectively, these studies indicate that occupancy of the CCAAT element represents an early event affecting other protein-DNA interactions and suggest that NF-Y stabilizes and interacts with X box factors to mediate this function. These findings may represent a common theme among promoters containing a CCAAT element. Images PMID:8076600

  4. Distinctive features of Egr transcription factor regulation and DNA binding activity in CA1 of the hippocampus in synaptic plasticity and consolidation and reconsolidation of fear memory.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Hélène; Chagneau, Carine; Levasseur, Grégoire; Veyrac, Alexandra; Faucon-Biguet, Nicole; Laroche, Serge; Davis, Sabrina

    2012-03-01

    Activity-dependent regulation of Egr1/Zif268, a transcription factor (TF) of the Egr family, is essential for stabilization of dentate gyrus synaptic plasticity and consolidation and reconsolidation of several forms of memory. The gene can be rapidly induced in selective brain circuits after certain types of learning or after recall. Here, we focused on area CA1 and examined regulation of Egr1, Egr2, and Egr3 mRNA and protein, and their DNA binding activity to the Egr response element (ERE) at different times after LTP in vivo and after learning and recall of a fear memory. We found LTP in CA1 leads to rapid induction of the three Egrs, however only Egr1 protein was overexpressed without a co-ordinated change in binding activity, indicating a fundamental difference between CA1 and dentate gyrus LTP. Our investigations in fear memory reveal that both learning and retrieval lead to an increase in binding of constitutively expressed Egr1 and Egr3 to the ERE, but not Egr2. Memory recall was also associated with increased Egr1 protein translation. The nature and temporal dynamics of these changes and tests for interactions between TFs suggest that in addition to ERE-mediated transcription, Egr1 in CA1 may interact with the TF c-Fos to regulate genes via other DNA response elements.

  5. Sequence Discrimination by DNA-binding Domain of ETS Family Transcription Factor PU.1 Is Linked to Specific Hydration of Protein-DNA Interface*

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Gregory M. K.

    2012-01-01

    PU.1 is an essential transcription factor in normal hematopoietic lineage development. It recognizes a large number of promoter sites differing only in bases flanking a core consensus of 5′-GGAA-3′. DNA binding is mediated by its ETS domain, whose sequence selectivity directly corresponds to the transactivational activity and frequency of binding sites for full-length PU.1 in vivo. To better understand the basis of sequence discrimination, we characterized its binding properties to a high affinity and low affinity site. Despite sharing a homologous structural framework as confirmed by DNase I and hydroxyl radical footprinting, the two complexes exhibit striking heterogeneity in terms of hydration properties. High affinity binding is destabilized by osmotic stress, whereas low affinity binding is insensitive. Dimethyl sulfate footprinting showed that the major groove at the core consensus is protected in the high affinity complex but accessible in the low affinity one. Finally, destabilization of low affinity binding by salt is in quantitative agreement with the number of phosphate contacts but is substantially attenuated in high affinity binding. These observations support a mechanism of sequence discrimination wherein specifically bound water molecules couple flanking backbone contacts with base-specific interactions in a sequestered cavity at the core consensus. The implications of this model with respect to other ETS paralogs are discussed. PMID:22474303

  6. Mechanistic heterogeneity in site recognition by the structurally homologous DNA-binding domains of the ETS family transcription factors Ets-1 and PU.1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Linde, Miles H; Munde, Manoj; Carvalho, Victor D; Wilson, W David; Poon, Gregory M K

    2014-08-01

    ETS family transcription factors regulate diverse genes through binding at cognate DNA sites that overlap substantially in sequence. The DNA-binding domains of ETS proteins (ETS domains) are highly conserved structurally yet share limited amino acid homology. To define the mechanistic implications of sequence diversity within the ETS family, we characterized the thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA site recognition by the ETS domains of Ets-1 and PU.1, which represent the extremes in amino acid divergence among ETS proteins. Even though the two ETS domains bind their optimal sites with similar affinities under physiologic conditions, their nature of site recognition differs strikingly in terms of the role of hydration and counter ion release. The data suggest two distinct mechanisms wherein Ets-1 follows a "dry" mechanism that rapidly parses sites through electrostatic interactions and direct protein-DNA contacts, whereas PU.1 utilizes hydration to interrogate sequence-specific sites and form a long-lived complex relative to the Ets-1 counterpart. The kinetic persistence of the high affinity PU.1 · DNA complex may be relevant to an emerging role of PU.1, but not Ets-1, as a pioneer transcription factor in vivo. In addition, PU.1 activity is critical to the development and function of macrophages and lymphocytes, which present osmotically variable environments, and hydration-dependent specificity may represent an important regulatory mechanism in vivo, a hypothesis that finds support in gene expression profiles of primary murine macrophages. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of DNA-binding with one zinc finger (Dof) transcription factor family in potato.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Jelli; Park, Se Won

    2015-09-01

    DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) domain proteins are a multigene family of plant-specific transcription factors involved in numerous aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we report a genome-wide search for Solanum tuberosum Dof (StDof) genes and their expression profiles at various developmental stages and in response to various abiotic stresses. In addition, a complete overview of Dof gene family in potato is presented, including the gene structures, chromosomal locations, cis-regulatory elements, conserved protein domains, and phylogenetic inferences. Based on the genome-wide analysis, we identified 35 full-length protein-coding StDof genes, unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis with Dof members from diverse plant species showed that StDof genes can be classified into four subgroups (StDofI, II, III, and IV). qPCR expression analysis of StDof gene transcripts showed the distinct expression patterns of StDof genes in various potato organs, and tuber developmental stages analyzed. Many StDof genes were upregulated in response to drought, salinity, and ABA treatments. Overall, the StDof gene expression pattern and the number of over-represented cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the StDof genes indicate that most of the StDof genes have redundant functions. The detailed genomic information and expression profiles of the StDof gene homologs in the present study provide opportunities for functional analyses to unravel the genes' exact role in plant growth and development as well as in abiotic stress tolerance.

  8. bZIP transcription factors in the oomycete phytophthora infestans with novel DNA-binding domains are involved in defense against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Huerta, Apolonio I; Judelson, Howard S

    2013-10-01

    Transcription factors of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family control development and stress responses in eukaryotes. To date, only one bZIP has been described in any oomycete; oomycetes are members of the stramenopile kingdom. In this study, we describe the identification of 38 bZIPs from the Phytophthora infestans genome. Half contain novel substitutions in the DNA-binding domain at a site that in other eukaryotes is reported to always be Asn. Interspecific comparisons indicated that the novel substitutions (usually Cys, but also Val and Tyr) arose after oomycetes diverged from other stramenopiles. About two-thirds of P. infestans bZIPs show dynamic changes in mRNA levels during the life cycle, with many of the genes being upregulated in sporangia, zoospores, or germinated zoospore cysts. One bZIP with the novel Cys substitution was shown to reside in the nucleus throughout growth and development. Using stable gene silencing, the functions of eight bZIPs with the Cys substitution were tested. All but one were found to play roles in protecting P. infestans from hydrogen peroxide-induced injury, and it is proposed that the novel Cys substitution serves as a redox sensor. A ninth bZIP lacking the novel Asn-to-Cys substitution, but having Cys nearby, was also shown through silencing to contribute to defense against peroxide. Little effect on asexual development, plant pathogenesis, or resistance to osmotic stress was observed in transformants silenced for any of the nine bZIPs.

  9. bZIP Transcription Factors in the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans with Novel DNA-Binding Domains Are Involved in Defense against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Huerta, Apolonio I.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family control development and stress responses in eukaryotes. To date, only one bZIP has been described in any oomycete; oomycetes are members of the stramenopile kingdom. In this study, we describe the identification of 38 bZIPs from the Phytophthora infestans genome. Half contain novel substitutions in the DNA-binding domain at a site that in other eukaryotes is reported to always be Asn. Interspecific comparisons indicated that the novel substitutions (usually Cys, but also Val and Tyr) arose after oomycetes diverged from other stramenopiles. About two-thirds of P. infestans bZIPs show dynamic changes in mRNA levels during the life cycle, with many of the genes being upregulated in sporangia, zoospores, or germinated zoospore cysts. One bZIP with the novel Cys substitution was shown to reside in the nucleus throughout growth and development. Using stable gene silencing, the functions of eight bZIPs with the Cys substitution were tested. All but one were found to play roles in protecting P. infestans from hydrogen peroxide-induced injury, and it is proposed that the novel Cys substitution serves as a redox sensor. A ninth bZIP lacking the novel Asn-to-Cys substitution, but having Cys nearby, was also shown through silencing to contribute to defense against peroxide. Little effect on asexual development, plant pathogenesis, or resistance to osmotic stress was observed in transformants silenced for any of the nine bZIPs. PMID:23975888

  10. ChIP-exo signal associated with DNA-binding motifs provides insight into the genomic binding of the glucocorticoid receptor and cooperating transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Starick, Stephan R.; Ibn-Salem, Jonas; Jurk, Marcel; Hernandez, Céline; Love, Michael I.; Chung, Ho-Ryun; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H.

    2015-01-01

    The classical DNA recognition sequence of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) appears to be present at only a fraction of bound genomic regions. To identify sequences responsible for recruitment of this transcription factor (TF) to individual loci, we turned to the high-resolution ChIP-exo approach. We exploited this signal by determining footprint profiles of TF binding at single-base-pair resolution using ExoProfiler, a computational pipeline based on DNA binding motifs. When applied to our GR and the few available public ChIP-exo data sets, we find that ChIP-exo footprints are protein- and recognition sequence-specific signatures of genomic TF association. Furthermore, we show that ChIP-exo captures information about TFs other than the one directly targeted by the antibody in the ChIP procedure. Consequently, the shape of the ChIP-exo footprint can be used to discriminate between direct and indirect (tethering to other DNA-bound proteins) DNA association of GR. Together, our findings indicate that the absence of classical recognition sequences can be explained by direct GR binding to a broader spectrum of sequences than previously known, either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer binding together with a member of the ETS or TEAD families of TFs, or alternatively by indirect recruitment via FOX or STAT proteins. ChIP-exo footprints also bring structural insights and locate DNA:protein cross-link points that are compatible with crystal structures of the studied TFs. Overall, our generically applicable footprint-based approach uncovers new structural and functional insights into the diverse ways of genomic cooperation and association of TFs. PMID:25720775

  11. ChIP-exo signal associated with DNA-binding motifs provides insight into the genomic binding of the glucocorticoid receptor and cooperating transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Starick, Stephan R; Ibn-Salem, Jonas; Jurk, Marcel; Hernandez, Céline; Love, Michael I; Chung, Ho-Ryun; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2015-06-01

    The classical DNA recognition sequence of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) appears to be present at only a fraction of bound genomic regions. To identify sequences responsible for recruitment of this transcription factor (TF) to individual loci, we turned to the high-resolution ChIP-exo approach. We exploited this signal by determining footprint profiles of TF binding at single-base-pair resolution using ExoProfiler, a computational pipeline based on DNA binding motifs. When applied to our GR and the few available public ChIP-exo data sets, we find that ChIP-exo footprints are protein- and recognition sequence-specific signatures of genomic TF association. Furthermore, we show that ChIP-exo captures information about TFs other than the one directly targeted by the antibody in the ChIP procedure. Consequently, the shape of the ChIP-exo footprint can be used to discriminate between direct and indirect (tethering to other DNA-bound proteins) DNA association of GR. Together, our findings indicate that the absence of classical recognition sequences can be explained by direct GR binding to a broader spectrum of sequences than previously known, either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer binding together with a member of the ETS or TEAD families of TFs, or alternatively by indirect recruitment via FOX or STAT proteins. ChIP-exo footprints also bring structural insights and locate DNA:protein cross-link points that are compatible with crystal structures of the studied TFs. Overall, our generically applicable footprint-based approach uncovers new structural and functional insights into the diverse ways of genomic cooperation and association of TFs. © 2015 Starick et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Probing the electrostatics and pharmacological modulation of sequence-specific binding by the DNA-binding domain of the ETS family transcription factor PU.1: a binding affinity and kinetics investigation.

    PubMed

    Munde, Manoj; Poon, Gregory M K; Wilson, W David

    2013-05-27

    Members of the ETS family of transcription factors regulate a functionally diverse array of genes. All ETS proteins share a structurally conserved but sequence-divergent DNA-binding domain, known as the ETS domain. Although the structure and thermodynamics of the ETS-DNA complexes are well known, little is known about the kinetics of sequence recognition, a facet that offers potential insight into its molecular mechanism. We have characterized DNA binding by the ETS domain of PU.1 by biosensor-surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR analysis revealed a striking kinetic profile for DNA binding by the PU.1 ETS domain. At low salt concentrations, it binds high-affinity cognate DNA with a very slow association rate constant (≤10(5)M(-)(1)s(-)(1)), compensated by a correspondingly small dissociation rate constant. The kinetics are strongly salt dependent but mutually balance to produce a relatively weak dependence in the equilibrium constant. This profile contrasts sharply with reported data for other ETS domains (e.g., Ets-1, TEL) for which high-affinity binding is driven by rapid association (>10(7)M(-)(1)s(-)(1)). We interpret this difference in terms of the hydration properties of ETS-DNA binding and propose that at least two mechanisms of sequence recognition are employed by this family of DNA-binding domain. Additionally, we use SPR to demonstrate the potential for pharmacological inhibition of sequence-specific ETS-DNA binding, using the minor groove-binding distamycin as a model compound. Our work establishes SPR as a valuable technique for extending our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ETS-DNA interactions as well as developing potential small-molecule agents for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes.

  13. Identification of a Bipartite Jasmonate-Responsive Promoter Element in the Catharanthus roseus ORCA3 Transcription Factor Gene That Interacts Specifically with AT-Hook DNA-Binding Proteins1[W

    PubMed Central

    Vom Endt, Débora; Soares e Silva, Marina; Kijne, Jan W.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Memelink, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates are plant signaling molecules that play key roles in defense against certain pathogens and insects, among others, by controlling the biosynthesis of protective secondary metabolites. In Catharanthus roseus, the APETALA2-domain transcription factor ORCA3 is involved in the jasmonate-responsive activation of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic genes. ORCA3 gene expression is itself induced by jasmonate. By loss- and gain-of-function experiments, we located a 74-bp region within the ORCA3 promoter, which contains an autonomous jasmonate-responsive element (JRE). The ORCA3 JRE is composed of two important sequences: a quantitative sequence responsible for a high level of expression and a qualitative sequence that appears to act as an on/off switch in response to methyl jasmonate. We isolated 12 different DNA-binding proteins having one of four different types of DNA-binding domains, using the ORCA3 JRE as bait in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) one-hybrid transcription factor screening. The binding of one class of proteins bearing a single AT-hook DNA-binding motif was affected by mutations in the quantitative sequence within the JRE. Two of the AT-hook proteins tested had a weak activating effect on JRE-mediated reporter gene expression, suggesting that AT-hook family members may be involved in determining the level of expression of ORCA3 in response to jasmonate. PMID:17496112

  14. Alternatively spliced products of the maize P gene encode proteins with homology to the DNA-binding domain of myb-like transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Grotewold, E; Athma, P; Peterson, T

    1991-01-01

    The Zea mays P gene has been postulated to regulate the biosynthetic pathway of a flavonoid-derived pigment in certain floral tissues [Styles, E. D. & Ceska, O. (1977) Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 19, 289-302]. We have characterized two P transcripts that are alternatively spliced at their 3' ends. One message of 1802 nucleotides encodes a 43.7-kDa protein with an N-terminal region showing approximately 40% homology to the DNA-binding domain of several members of the myb family of protooncogene proteins. A second message of 945 nucleotides encodes a 17.3-kDa protein that contains most of the myb-homologous domain but differs from the first protein at the C terminus. The deduced P-encoded proteins show an even higher homology (70%) in the myb-homologous domain to the maize regulatory gene C1. Additionally, the P and C1 genes are structurally similar in the sizes and positions of the first and second exons and first intron. We show that P is required for accumulation in the pericarp of transcripts of two genes (A1 and C2) encoding enzymes for flavonoid biosynthesis--genes also regulated by C1 in the aleurone. Images PMID:2052542

  15. Diarctigenin, a lignan constituent from Arctium lappa, down-regulated zymosan-induced transcription of inflammatory genes through suppression of DNA binding ability of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hak; Hong, Seong Su; Kwon, Soon Woo; Lee, Hwa Young; Sung, Hyeran; Lee, In-Jeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Chung, Daehyun; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2008-11-01

    Diarctigenin was previously isolated as an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages from the seeds of Arctium lappa used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, little is known about the molecular basis of these effects. Here, we demonstrated that diarctigenin inhibited the production of NO, prostaglandin E(2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 with IC(50) values of 6 to 12 miciroM in zymosan- or lipopolysaccharide-(LPS) activated macrophages. Diarctigenin attenuated zymosan-induced mRNA synthesis of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and also inhibited promoter activities of iNOS and cytokine genes in the cells. Because nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB plays a pivotal role in inflammatory gene transcription, we next investigated the effect of diarctigenin on NF-kappaB activation. Diarctigenin inhibited the transcriptional activity and DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB in zymosan-activated macrophages but did not affect the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB) proteins. Moreover, diarctigenin suppressed expression vector NF-kappaB p65-elicited NF-kappaB activation and also iNOS promoter activity, indicating that the compound could directly target an NF-kappa-activating signal cascade downstream of IkappaB degradation and inhibit NF-kappaB-regulated iNOS expression. Diarctigenin also inhibited the in vitro DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB but did not affect the nuclear import of NF-kappaB p65 in the cells. Taken together, diarctigenin down-regulated zymosan- or LPS-induced inflammatory gene transcription in macrophages, which was due to direct inhibition of the DNA binding ability of NF-kappaB. Finally, this study provides a pharmacological potential of diarctigenin in the NF-kappaB-associated inflammatory disorders.

  16. Evaluation of DNA Binding Drugs as Inhibitors of ESX, and ETS Domain Transcription Factor Associated With Breast Cancer: Effects of ESX/DNA Complex Disruption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    the major groove simultaneously narrows. This distortion of the helix may contribute to the agent’s inhibition of TF/ DNA complex formation. Another...class of DNA binding agents is the intercalators, which slide the chromophore between the base pairs of DNA and lengthen the helix . This can adversely...7). This distortion of the helix may contribute to the agent’s inhibition of TF/ DNA complex formation (8-10). Another class of DNA binding agents is

  17. p53 represses Sp1 DNA binding and HIV-LTR directed transcription.

    PubMed

    Bargonetti, J; Chicas, A; White, D; Prives, C

    1997-11-01

    The HIV-LTR region contains binding sites for, and is regulated by, a number of transcription factors including Sp1 and NF-kB. The wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein represses transcription from the HIV-LTR promoter while oncogenic mutant forms of p53 stimulate expression from the HIV-LTR. We have shown previously that wild-type p53 is a site specific DNA binding protein that binds to a region of the SV40 virus which contains GC-box DNA binding sites for the ubiquitously expressed transcription factor Sp1. In this study using DNase I footprinting, we have shown that purified p53 is able to protect the Sp1 binding sites and the adjacent NF-kB site of the HIV-LTR. Furthermore we have demonstrated that when p53 and Sp1 are mixed together both proteins change each other's interaction with DNA. Interestingly, we noted that oncogenic mutant p53 is also able to change the interaction of Sp1 with DNA. We confirmed p53 dependent repression of HIV-LTR driven transcription by comparing the expression from an HIV-LTR reporter construct in the presence and absence of p53. EMSA of an oligonucleotide sequence derived from the HIV-LTR sequence demonstrated a slight decrease in Sp1 DNA binding activity with nuclear extract derived from the cell line expressing a high level of wild-type p53. These data suggest that the influence of p53 on the transcription of promoters with Sp1 binding sites may be partially due to a change in the DNA binding ability of Sp1.

  18. Characterization of a DNA-binding protein implicated in transcription in wheat mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, T M; Gray, M W

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the transcriptional apparatus in wheat mitochondria, mitochondrial extracts were subjected to column chromatography and protein fractions were analyzed by in vitro transcription and mobility shift assays. Fractions eluting from DEAE-Sephacel between 0.2 and 0.3 M KCl displayed DNA-binding activity and supported specific transcription initiated from a wheat cox2 promoter. The active DEAE-Sephacel pool was further resolved by chromatography on phosphocellulose. Fractions that exhibited DNA-binding activity and that stimulated both specific and nonspecific transcription in vitro were highly enriched in a 63-kDa protein (p63). From peptide sequence obtained from purified p63, a cDNA encoding the protein was assembled. The predicted amino acid sequence (612 amino acid residues, 69 kDa) contains a basic N-terminal targeting sequence expected to direct transport of the protein into mitochondria. The p63 sequence also features an acidic domain characteristic of transcriptional activation factors, as well as sequence blocks displaying limited similarity to positionally equivalent regions in sigma factors from eubacteria related to mitochondria. Recombinant p63 possesses DNA-binding activity, exhibiting an affinity for the core cox2 promoter element and upstream regions in gel shift assays and having the ability to enhance specific transcription in vitro. Transcripts encoding p63 are expressed at an early stage in the germination of isolated wheat embryos, in a temporal pattern parallelling that of newly synthesized precursors of cox2, a mitochondrial gene. Taken together, these data suggest a role for p63 in transcription in wheat mitochondria.

  19. Targeted expression of the DNA binding domain of DRE-binding factor, a Drosophila transcription factor, attenuates DNA replication of the salivary gland and eye imaginal disc.

    PubMed

    Hirose, F; Yamaguchi, M; Matsukage, A

    1999-09-01

    The promoters of Drosophila genes encoding DNA replication-related proteins contain transcription regulatory elements consisting of an 8-bp palindromic DNA replication-related element (DRE) sequence (5'-TATCGATA). The specific DRE-binding factor (DREF), a homodimer of the polypeptide with 709 amino acid residues, is a positive trans-acting factor for transcription of DRE-containing genes. Both DRE binding and dimer formation are associated with residues 16 to 115 of the N-terminal region. We have established transgenic flies expressing the full-length DREF polypeptide or its N-terminal fragment (amino acid residues 1 to 125) under the control of the heat shock promoter, the salivary gland-specific promoter, or the eye imaginal disc-specific promoter. Heat shock induction of the N-terminal fragment during embryonic, larval, or pupal stages caused greater than 50% lethality. This lethality was overcome by coexpression of the full-length DREF. In salivary glands of the transgenic larvae expressing the N-terminal fragment, this fragment formed a homodimer and a heterodimer with the endogenous DREF. Ectopic expression of the N-terminal fragment in salivary gland cells reduced the contents of mRNAs for the 180-kDa subunit of DNA polymerase alpha and for dE2F and the extent of DNA endoreplication. Ectopic expression of the N-terminal fragment in the eye imaginal discs significantly reduced DNA replication in cells at the second mitotic wave. The lines of evidence suggest that the N-terminal fragment can impede the endogenous DREF function in a dominant negative manner and that DREF is required for normal DNA replication in both mitotic cell cycle and endo cycle.

  20. An RNA aptamer that interferes with the DNA binding of the HSF transcription activator.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoching; Shi, Hua; Sevilimedu, Aarti; Liachko, Nicole; Nelson, Hillary C M; Lis, John T

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock factor (HSF) is a conserved and highly potent transcription activator. It is involved in a wide variety of important biological processes including the stress response and specific steps in normal development. Reagents that interfere with HSF function would be useful for both basic studies and practical applications. We selected an RNA aptamer that binds to HSF with high specificity. Deletion analysis defined the minimal binding motif of this aptamer to be two stems and one stem-loop joined by a three-way junction. This RNA aptamer interferes with normal interaction of HSF with its DNA element, which is a key regulatory step for HSF function. The DNA-binding domain plus a flanking linker region on the HSF (DL) is essential for the RNA binding. Additionally, this aptamer inhibits HSF-induced transcription in vitro in the complex milieu of a whole cell extract. In contrast to the previously characterized NF-kappaB aptamer, the HSF aptamer does not simply mimic DNA binding, but rather binds to HSF in a manner distinct from DNA binding to HSF.

  1. The NMR solution structure of a mutant of the Max b/HLH/LZ free of DNA: insights into the specific and reversible DNA binding mechanism of dimeric transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Simon; Tremblay, Luc; Lavigne, Pierre

    2004-09-17

    Basic region-helix1-loop-helix2-leucine zipper (b/H(1)LH(2)/LZ) transcription factors bind specific DNA sequence in their target gene promoters as dimers. Max, a b/H(1)LH(2)/LZ transcription factor, is the obligate heterodimeric partner of the related b/H(1)LH(2)/LZ proteins of the Myc and Mad families. These heterodimers specifically bind E-box DNA sequence (CACGTG) to activate (e.g. c-Myc/Max) and repress (e.g. Mad1/Max) transcription. Max can also homodimerize and bind E-box sequences in c-Myc target gene promoters. While the X-ray structure of the Max b/H(1)LH(2)/LZ/DNA complex and that of others have been reported, the precise sequence of events leading to the reversible and specific binding of these important transcription factors is still largely unknown. In order to provide insights into the DNA binding mechanism, we have solved the NMR solution structure of a covalently homodimerized version of a Max b/H(1)LH(2)/LZ protein with two stabilizing mutations in the LZ, and characterized its backbone dynamics from (15)N spin-relaxation measurements in the absence of DNA. Apart from minor differences in the pitch of the LZ, possibly resulting from the mutations in the construct, we observe that the packing of the helices in the H(1)LH(2) domain is almost identical to that of the two crystal structures, indicating that no important conformational change in these helices occurs upon DNA binding. Conversely to the crystal structures of the DNA complexes, the first 14 residues of the basic region are found to be mostly unfolded while the loop is observed to be flexible. This indicates that these domains undergo conformational changes upon DNA binding. On the other hand, we find the last four residues of the basic region form a persistent helical turn contiguous to H(1). In addition, we provide evidence of the existence of internal motions in the backbone of H(1) that are of larger amplitude and longer time-scale (nanoseconds) than the ones in the H(2) and LZ domain

  2. Genome-wide DNA-binding specificity of PIL5, an Arabidopsis basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyojin; Oh, Eunkyoo; Choi, Giltsu; Lee, Doheon

    2010-01-01

    PIL5 is a member of the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor superfamily. We previously showed that PIL5 binds to the G-box (CACGTG) motif with high affinity. However, since there are many randomly matched G-box motifs throughout the genome, other factors must account for the in-vivo PIL5 binding specificity. In this study, we investigated if in-vivo PIL5 binding sites can be explained by any other attributes extracted from various sources. Our results showed that PIL5 binding sites can be explained by attributes such as neighbouring motif composition, nucleosome density, DNA methylation and distance from transcription start site in addition to G-box.

  3. Stability and DNA-binding ability of the bZIP dimers formed by the ATF-2 and c-Jun transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, R J; Dragan, A I; Privalov, P L

    2010-02-19

    The dimer formed by the ATF-2 and c-Jun transcription factors is one of the main components of the human interferon-beta enhanceosome. Although these two transcription factors are able to form two homodimers and one heterodimer, it is mainly the heterodimer that participates in the formation of this enhanceosome, binding specifically to the positive regulatory domain IV (PRDIV) site of the enhancer DNA. To understand this surprising advantage of the heterodimer, we investigated the association of these transcription factors using fragments containing the basic DNA-recognition segment and the basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP). It was found that the probability of forming the hetero-bZIP significantly exceeds the probability of forming homo-bZIPs, and that the hetero-bZIP interacts more strongly with the PRDIV site of the interferon-beta enhancer, especially in the orientation that places the folded ATF-2 basic segment in the upstream half of this asymmetric site. The effect of salt on the formation of the ATF-2/c-Jun dimer and on its ability to bind the target PRDIV site showed that electrostatic interactions between the charged groups of these proteins and with DNA play an essential role in the formation of the asymmetric ATF-2/c-Jun/PRDIV complex. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of in vivo DNA-binding events of plant transcription factors by ChIP-seq: experimental protocol and computational analysis.

    PubMed

    van Mourik, Hilda; Muiño, Jose M; Pajoro, Alice; Angenent, Gerco C; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful technique for genome-wide identification of in vivo binding sites of DNA-binding proteins. The technique had been used to study many DNA-binding proteins in a broad variety of species. The basis of the ChIP-seq technique is the ability to covalently cross-link DNA and proteins that are located in very close proximity. This allows the use of an antibody against the (tagged) protein of interest to specifically enrich DNA-fragments bound by this protein. ChIP-seq can be performed using antibodies against the native protein or against tagged proteins. Using a specific antibody against a tag to immunoprecipitate tagged proteins eliminates the need for a specific antibody against the native protein and allows more experimental flexibility. In this chapter we present a complete workflow for experimental procedure and bioinformatic analysis that allows wet-lab biologists to perform and analyze ChIP-seq experiments.

  5. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in E-box motifs ACAT|GTG and ACAC|GTG increases DNA-binding of the B-HLH transcription factor TCF4.

    PubMed

    Khund-Sayeed, Syed; He, Ximiao; Holzberg, Timothy; Wang, Jun; Rajagopal, Divya; Upadhyay, Shriyash; Durell, Stewart R; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Weirauch, Matthew T; Rose, Robert; Vinson, Charles

    2016-09-12

    We evaluated DNA binding of the B-HLH family members TCF4 and USF1 using protein binding microarrays (PBMs) containing double-stranded DNA probes with cytosine on both strands or 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) on one DNA strand and cytosine on the second strand. TCF4 preferentially bound the E-box motif (CAN|NTG) with strongest binding to the 8-mer CAG|GTGGT. 5mC uniformly decreases DNA binding of both TCF4 and USF1. The bulkier 5hmC also inhibited USF1 binding to DNA. In contrast, 5hmC dramatically enhanced TCF4 binding to E-box motifs ACAT|GTG and ACAC|GTG, being better bound than any 8-mer containing cytosine. Examination of X-ray structures of the closely related TCF3 and USF1 bound to DNA suggests TCF3 can undergo a conformational shift to preferentially bind to 5hmC while the USF1 basic region is bulkier and rigid precluding a conformation shift to bind 5hmC. These results greatly expand the regulatory DNA sequence landscape bound by TCF4.

  6. In Silico Analysis for Transcription Factors With Zn(II)2C6 Binuclear Cluster DNA-Binding Domains in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Maicas, Sergi; Moreno, Inmaculada; Nieto, Almudena; Gómez, Micaela; Sentandreu, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    A total of 6047 open reading frames in the Candida albicans genome were screened for Zn(II)2C6-type zinc cluster proteins (or binuclear cluster proteins) involved in DNA recognition. These fungal proteins are transcription regulators of genes involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including metabolism of different compounds such as sugars or amino acids, as well as multi-drug resistance, control of meiosis, cell wall architecture, etc. The selection criteria used in the sequence analysis were the presence of the CysX2CysX6CysX5-16CysX2CysX6-8Cys motif and a putative nuclear localization signal. Using this approach, 70 putative Zn(II)2C6 transcription factors have been found in the genome of C. albicans. PMID:18629206

  7. Genome-wide DNA binding pattern of the homeodomain transcription factor Sine oculis (So) in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jusiak, Barbara; Wang, Feng; Karandikar, Umesh C; Kwak, Su-Jin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Rui; Mardon, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    The eye of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides a highly tractable genetic model system for the study of animal development, and many genes that regulate Drosophila eye formation have homologs implicated in human development and disease. Among these is the homeobox gene sine oculis (so), which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor (TF) that is both necessary for eye development and sufficient to reprogram a subset of cells outside the normal eye field toward an eye fate. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of So binding to DNA prepared from developing Drosophila eye tissue in order to identify candidate direct targets of So-mediated transcriptional regulation, as described in our recent article [1]. The data are available from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) with the accession number GSE52943. Here we describe the methods, data analysis, and quality control of our So ChIP-seq dataset.

  8. CtBP Levels Control Intergenic Transcripts, PHO/YY1 DNA Binding, and PcG Recruitment to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arindam; Atchison, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a well-known corepressor of several DNA binding transcription factors in Drosophila as well as in mammals. CtBP is implicated in Polycomb Group (PcG) complex-mediated transcriptional repression because it can bind to some PcG proteins, and mutation of the ctbp gene in flies results in lost PcG protein recruitment to Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) and lost PcG repression. However, the mechanism of reduced PcG DNA binding in CtBP mutant backgrounds is unknown. We show here that in a Drosophila CtBP mutant background, intergenic transcripts are induced across several PRE sequences and this corresponds to reduced DNA binding by PcG proteins Pleiohomeotic (PHO) and Polycomb (Pc), and reduced trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27, a hallmark of PcG repression. Restoration of CtBP levels by expression of a CtBP transgene results in repression of intergenic transcripts, restored PcG binding, and elevated trimethylation of H3 on lysine 27. Our results support a model in which CtBP regulates expression of intergenic transcripts that controls DNA binding by PcG proteins and subsequent histone modifications and transcriptional activity. PMID:20082324

  9. The NF-YB/NF-YC structure gives insight into DNA binding and transcription regulation by CCAAT factor NF-Y.

    PubMed

    Romier, Christophe; Cocchiarella, Fabienne; Mantovani, Roberto; Moras, Dino

    2003-01-10

    The heterotrimeric transcription factor NF-Y recognizes with high specificity and affinity the CCAAT regulatory element that is widely represented in promoters and enhancer regions. The CCAAT box acts in concert with neighboring elements, and its bending by NF-Y is thought to be a major mechanism required for transcription activation. We have solved the structure of the NF-YC/NF-YB subcomplex of NF-Y, which shows that the core domains of both proteins interact through histone fold motifs. This histone-like pair is closely related to the H2A/H2B and NC2alpha/NC2beta families, with features that are both common to this class of proteins and unique to NF-Y. The structure together with the modeling of the nonspecific interaction of NF-YC/NF-YB with DNA and the full NF-Y/CCAAT box complex highlight important structural features that account for different and possibly similar biological functions of the transcriptional regulators NF-Y and NC2. In particular, it emphasizes the role of the newly described alphaC helix of NF-YC, which is both important for NF-Y trimerization and a target for regulatory proteins, such as MYC and p53.

  10. DNA-binding proteins and evolution of transcription regulation in the archaea.

    PubMed

    Aravind, L; Koonin, E V

    1999-12-01

    Likely DNA-binding domains in archaeal proteins were analyzed using sequence profile methods and available structural information. It is shown that all archaea encode a large number of proteins containing the helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding domains whose sequences are much more similar to bacterial HTH domains than to eukaryotic ones, such as the PAIRED, POU and homeodomains. The predominant class of HTH domains in archaea is the winged-HTH domain. The number and diversity of HTH domains in archaea is comparable to that seen in bacteria. The HTH domain in archaea combines with a variety of other domains that include replication system components, such as MCM proteins, translation system components, such as the alpha-subunit of phenyl-alanyl-tRNA synthetase, and several metabolic enzymes. The majority of the archaeal HTH-containing proteins are predicted to be gene/operon-specific transcriptional regulators. This apparent bacterial-type mode of transcription regulation is in sharp contrast to the eukaryote-like layout of the core transcription machinery in the archaea. In addition to the predicted bacterial-type transcriptional regulators, the HTH domain is conserved in archaeal and eukaryotic core transcription factors, such as TFIIB, TFIIE-alpha and MBF1. MBF1 is the only highly conserved, classical HTH domain that is vertically inherited in all archaea and eukaryotes. In contrast, while eukaryotic TFIIB and TFIIE-alpha possess forms of the HTH domain that are divergent in sequence, their archaeal counterparts contain typical HTH domains. It is shown that, besides the HTH domain, archaea encode unexpectedly large numbers of two other predicted DNA-binding domains, namely the Arc/MetJ domain and the Zn-ribbon. The core transcription regulators in archaea and eukaryotes (TFIIB/TFB, TFIIE-alpha and MBF1) and in bacteria (the sigma factors) share no similarity beyond the presence of distinct HTH domains. Thus HTH domains might have been independently recruited for

  11. Structure, function, and tethering of DNA-binding domains in σ54 transcriptional activators

    PubMed Central

    Vidangos, Natasha; Maris, Ann E.; Young, Anisa; Hong, Eunmi; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Batchelor, Joseph D.; Wemmer, David E.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the structure, activity and linkage of DNA binding domains from σ54 transcriptional activators, and discuss how the properties of the DNA binding domains and the linker to the neighboring domain are affected by the overall properties and requirements of the full proteins. These transcriptional activators bind upstream of specific promoters that utilize σ54-polymerase. Upon receiving a signal the activators assemble into hexamers, which then, through ATP hydrolysis, drive a conformational change in polymerase that enables transcription initiation. We present structures of the DNA-binding domains of activators NtrC1 and Nlh2 from the thermophile A. aeolicus. The structures of these domains, and their relationship to other sparts of the activators are discussed. These structures are compared with previously determined structures of the DNA-binding domains of NtrC4, NtrC, ZraR, and FIS. The N-terminal linkers that connect the DNA-binding domains to the central domains in NtrC1 and Nlh2 were studied and found to be unstructured. Additionally, a crystal structure of full-length NtrC1 was solved, but density for the DNA-binding domains was extremely weak, further indicating that the linker between ATPase and DNA binding domains functions as a flexible tether. Flexible linking of ATPase and DNA binding domains is likely necessary to allow assembly of the active hexameric ATPase ring. The comparison of this set of activators also shows clearly that strong dimerization of the DNA binding domain only occurs when other domains do not dimerize strongly. PMID:23818155

  12. DNA-binding protects p53 from interactions with cofactors involved in transcription-independent functions.

    PubMed

    Lambrughi, Matteo; De Gioia, Luca; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Nussinov, Ruth; Urani, Chiara; Bruschi, Maurizio; Papaleo, Elena

    2016-11-02

    Binding-induced conformational changes of a protein at regions distant from the binding site may play crucial roles in protein function and regulation. The p53 tumour suppressor is an example of such an allosterically regulated protein. Little is known, however, about how DNA binding can affect distal sites for transcription factors. Furthermore, the molecular details of how a local perturbation is transmitted through a protein structure are generally elusive and occur on timescales hard to explore by simulations. Thus, we employed state-of-the-art enhanced sampling atomistic simulations to unveil DNA-induced effects on p53 structure and dynamics that modulate the recruitment of cofactors and the impact of phosphorylation at Ser215. We show that DNA interaction promotes a conformational change in a region 3 nm away from the DNA binding site. Specifically, binding to DNA increases the population of an occluded minor state at this distal site by more than 4-fold, whereas phosphorylation traps the protein in its major state. In the minor conformation, the interface of p53 that binds biological partners related to p53 transcription-independent functions is not accessible. Significantly, our study reveals a mechanism of DNA-mediated protection of p53 from interactions with partners involved in the p53 transcription-independent signalling. This also suggests that conformational dynamics is tightly related to p53 signalling. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. DNA-binding protects p53 from interactions with cofactors involved in transcription-independent functions

    PubMed Central

    Lambrughi, Matteo; De Gioia, Luca; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Nussinov, Ruth; Urani, Chiara; Bruschi, Maurizio; Papaleo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Binding-induced conformational changes of a protein at regions distant from the binding site may play crucial roles in protein function and regulation. The p53 tumour suppressor is an example of such an allosterically regulated protein. Little is known, however, about how DNA binding can affect distal sites for transcription factors. Furthermore, the molecular details of how a local perturbation is transmitted through a protein structure are generally elusive and occur on timescales hard to explore by simulations. Thus, we employed state-of-the-art enhanced sampling atomistic simulations to unveil DNA-induced effects on p53 structure and dynamics that modulate the recruitment of cofactors and the impact of phosphorylation at Ser215. We show that DNA interaction promotes a conformational change in a region 3 nm away from the DNA binding site. Specifically, binding to DNA increases the population of an occluded minor state at this distal site by more than 4-fold, whereas phosphorylation traps the protein in its major state. In the minor conformation, the interface of p53 that binds biological partners related to p53 transcription-independent functions is not accessible. Significantly, our study reveals a mechanism of DNA-mediated protection of p53 from interactions with partners involved in the p53 transcription-independent signalling. This also suggests that conformational dynamics is tightly related to p53 signalling. PMID:27604871

  14. A conserved motif in the linker domain of STAT1 transcription factor is required for both recognition and release from high-affinity DNA-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Hüntelmann, Bettina; Staab, Julia; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Binding to specific palindromic sequences termed gamma-activated sites (GAS) is a hallmark of gene activation by members of the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family of cytokine-inducible transcription factors. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the signal-dependent finding of target genes by STAT dimers have not yet been very well studied. In this study, we have characterized a sequence motif in the STAT1 linker domain which is highly conserved among the seven human STAT proteins and includes surface-exposed residues in close proximity to the bound DNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that a lysine residue in position 567 of the full-length molecule is required for GAS recognition. The substitution of alanine for this residue completely abolished both binding to high-affinity GAS elements and transcriptional activation of endogenous target genes in cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFNγ), while the time course of transient nuclear accumulation and tyrosine phosphorylation were virtually unchanged. In contrast, two glutamic acid residues (E559 and E563) on each monomer are important for the dissociation of dimeric STAT1 from DNA and, when mutated to alanine, result in elevated levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 as well as prolonged IFNγ-stimulated nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that the kinetics of signal-dependent GAS binding is determined by an array of glutamic acid residues located at the interior surface of the STAT1 dimer. These negatively charged residues appear to align the long axis of the STAT1 dimer in a position perpendicular to the DNA, thereby facilitating the interaction between lysine 567 and the phosphodiester backbone of a bound GAS element, which is a prerequisite for transient gene induction.

  15. Overcoming transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA binding domain sensitivity to cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Valton, Julien; Dupuy, Aurélie; Daboussi, Fayza; Thomas, Séverine; Maréchal, Alan; Macmaster, Rachel; Melliand, Kevin; Juillerat, Alexandre; Duchateau, Philippe

    2012-11-09

    Within the past 2 years, transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA binding domains have emerged as the new generation of engineerable platform for production of custom DNA binding domains. However, their recently described sensitivity to cytosine methylation represents a major bottleneck for genome engineering applications. Using a combination of biochemical, structural, and cellular approaches, we were able to identify the molecular basis of such sensitivity and propose a simple, drug-free, and universal method to overcome it.

  16. Identification of a DNA-binding site for the transcription factor Haa1, required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to acetic acid stress

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Nuno P.; Henriques, Sílvia F.; Keller, Greg; Teixeira, Miguel C.; Matos, Rute G.; Arraiano, Cecília M.; Winge, Dennis R.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor Haa1 is the main player in reprogramming yeast genomic expression in response to acetic acid stress. Mapping of the promoter region of one of the Haa1-activated genes, TPO3, allowed the identification of an acetic acid responsive element (ACRE) to which Haa1 binds in vivo. The in silico analysis of the promoter regions of the genes of the Haa1-regulon led to the identification of an Haa1-responsive element (HRE) 5′-GNN(G/C)(A/C)(A/G)G(A/G/C)G-3′. Using surface plasmon resonance experiments and electrophoretic mobility shift assays it is demonstrated that Haa1 interacts with high affinity (KD of 2 nM) with the HRE motif present in the ACRE region of TPO3 promoter. No significant interaction was found between Haa1 and HRE motifs having adenine nucleotides at positions 6 and 8 (KD of 396 and 6780 nM, respectively) suggesting that Haa1p does not recognize these motifs in vivo. A lower affinity of Haa1 toward HRE motifs having mutations in the guanine nucleotides at position 7 and 9 (KD of 21 and 119 nM, respectively) was also observed. Altogether, the results obtained indicate that the minimal functional binding site of Haa1 is 5′-(G/C)(A/C)GG(G/C)G-3′. The Haa1-dependent transcriptional regulatory network active in yeast response to acetic acid stress is proposed. PMID:21586585

  17. CD43-mediated signals induce DNA binding activity of AP-1, NF-AT, and NFkappa B transcription factors in human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Santana, M A; Pedraza-Alva, G; Olivares-Zavaleta, N; Madrid-Marina, V; Horejsi, V; Burakoff, S J; Rosenstein, Y

    2000-10-06

    Although numerous reports document a role for CD43 in T cell signaling, the direct participation of this molecule in cell activation has been questioned. In this study we show that CD43 ligation on human normal peripheral T cells was sufficient to induce interleukin-2, CD69, and CD40-L gene expression, without requiring signals provided by additional receptor molecules. This response was partially inhibited by cyclosporin A and staurosporine, suggesting the participation of both the Ca(2+) and the protein kinase C pathways in CD43 signaling. Consistent with the transient CD43-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) peaks reported by others, signals generated through the CD43 molecule resulted in the induction of NF-AT DNA binding activity. CD43-dependent signals resulted also in AP-1 and NFkappaB activation, probably as a result of protein kinase C involvement. AP-1 complexes bound to the AP-1 sequence contained c-Jun, and those bound to the NF-AT-AP-1 composite site contained c-Jun and Fos. NFkappaB complexes containing p65 could be found as early as 1 h after CD43 cross-linking, suggesting that CD43 participates in early events of T cell activation. The induction of the interleukin-2, CD69, and CD-40L genes and the participation of AP-1, NF-AT, and NFkappaB in the CD43-mediated signaling cascade implicate an important role for this molecule in the regulation of gene expression and cell function.

  18. The high mobility group protein HMG I(Y) can stimulate or inhibit DNA binding of distinct transcription factor ATF-2 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Du, W; Maniatis, T

    1994-11-22

    The high mobility group protein HMG I(Y) stimulates the binding of a specific isoform of the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2(195)) to the interferon beta (IFN-beta) gene promoter. HMG I(Y) specifically interacts with the basic-leucine zipper region of ATF-2(195), and HMG I(Y) binds to two sites immediately flanking the ATF-2 binding site of the IFN-beta promoter. Here, we show that HMG I(Y) can stimulate the binding of ATF-2(195), at least in part, by promoting ATF-2 dimerization. In addition, we report the characterization of a naturally occurring isoform of ATF-2 (ATF-2(192)) that binds specifically to the IFN-beta promoter but is unable to interact with HMG I(Y). Remarkably, HMG I(Y) inhibits the binding of ATF-2(192) to the IFN-beta promoter. Thus, the ability of HMG I(Y) to specifically interact with ATF-2 correlates with its ability to stimulate ATF-2 binding to the IFN-beta promoter. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of the basic-leucine zipper domains of ATF-2(195) and ATF-2(192) suggest that HMG I(Y) interacts with a short stretch of basic amino acids near the amino terminus of the basic-leucine zipper domain of ATF-2(195).

  19. [Analysis of protein-on-DNA binding profiles, detected with chIP-seq method, reveals possible interaction of specific transcription factors with RNA polymerase II in the process of transcription elongation].

    PubMed

    Belostotskiĭ, A A

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that in the course of mRNA transcription almost all transcription factors stay on a promoter while RNA polymerase II "clears" the promoter and "proceeds" to elongation. However, analysis of some specific transcription factors and RNA polymerase II binding profiles on DNA, detected with ChIP-seq method, revealed the possibility of interaction between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II in the process of transcription elongation.

  20. Nanobody®-based chromatin immunoprecipitation/micro-array analysis for genome-wide identification of transcription factor DNA binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Duc, Trong; Peeters, Eveline; Muyldermans, Serge; Charlier, Daniel; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Nanobodies® are single-domain antibody fragments derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies. Because of their small size, straightforward production in Escherichia coli, easy tailoring, high affinity, specificity, stability and solubility, nanobodies® have been exploited in various biotechnological applications. A major challenge in the post-genomics and post-proteomics era is the identification of regulatory networks involving nucleic acid–protein and protein–protein interactions. Here, we apply a nanobody® in chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) for genome-wide identification of DNA–protein interactions. The Lrp-like regulator Ss-LrpB, arguably one of the best-studied specific transcription factors of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, was chosen for this proof-of-principle nanobody®-assisted ChIP. Three distinct Ss-LrpB-specific nanobodies®, each interacting with a different epitope, were generated for ChIP. Genome-wide ChIP-chip with one of these nanobodies® identified the well-established Ss-LrpB binding sites and revealed several unknown target sequences. Furthermore, these ChIP-chip profiles revealed auxiliary operator sites in the open reading frame of Ss-lrpB. Our work introduces nanobodies® as a novel class of affinity reagents for ChIP. Taking into account the unique characteristics of nanobodies®, in particular, their short generation time, nanobody®-based ChIP is expected to further streamline ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq experiments, especially in organisms with no (or limited) possibility of genetic manipulation. PMID:23275538

  1. The Influence of Repressor DNA Binding Site Architecture on Transcriptional Control

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT How the architecture of DNA binding sites dictates the extent of repression of promoters is not well understood. Here, we addressed the importance of the number and information content of the three direct repeats (DRs) in the binding and repression of the icdA promoter by the phosphorylated form of the global Escherichia coli repressor ArcA (ArcA-P). We show that decreasing the information content of the two sites with the highest information (DR1 and DR2) eliminated ArcA binding to all three DRs and ArcA repression of icdA. Unexpectedly, we also found that DR3 occupancy functions principally in repression, since mutation of this low-information-content site both eliminated DNA binding to DR3 and significantly weakened icdA repression, despite the fact that binding to DR1 and DR2 was intact. In addition, increasing the information content of any one of the three DRs or addition of a fourth DR increased ArcA-dependent repression but perturbed signal-dependent regulation of repression. Thus, our data show that the information content and number of DR elements are critical architectural features for maintaining a balance between high-affinity binding and signal-dependent regulation of icdA promoter function in response to changes in ArcA-P levels. Optimization of such architectural features may be a common strategy to either dampen or enhance the sensitivity of DNA binding among the members of the large OmpR/PhoB family of regulators as well as other transcription factors. PMID:25161193

  2. Discovery of inhibitors of aberrant gene transcription from Libraries of DNA binding molecules: inhibition of LEF-1-mediated gene transcription and oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Stover, James S; Shi, Jin; Jin, Wei; Vogt, Peter K; Boger, Dale L

    2009-03-11

    The screening of a >9000 compound library of synthetic DNA binding molecules for selective binding to the consensus sequence of the transcription factor LEF-1 followed by assessment of the candidate compounds in a series of assays that characterized functional activity (disruption of DNA-LEF-1 binding) at the intended target and site (inhibition of intracellular LEF-1-mediated gene transcription) resulting in a desired phenotypic cellular change (inhibit LEF-1-driven cell transformation) provided two lead compounds: lefmycin-1 and lefmycin-2. The sequence of screens defining the approach assures that activity in the final functional assay may be directly related to the inhibition of gene transcription and DNA binding properties of the identified molecules. Central to the implementation of this generalized approach to the discovery of DNA binding small molecule inhibitors of gene transcription was (1) the use of a technically nondemanding fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assay for initial assessment of the DNA binding affinity and selectivity of a library of compounds for any sequence of interest, and (2) the technology used to prepare a sufficiently large library of DNA binding compounds.

  3. Discovery of Inhibitors of Aberrant Gene Transcription from Libraries of DNA Binding Molecules: Inhibition of LEF-1 Mediated Gene Transcription and Oncogenic Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Stover, James S.; Shi, Jin; Jin, Wei; Vogt, Peter K.; Boger, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    The screening of a >9000 compound library of synthetic DNA binding molecules for selective binding to the consensus sequence of the transcription factor LEF-1 followed by assessment of the candidate compounds in a series of assays that characterized functional activity (disruption of DNA–LEF-1 binding) at the intended target and site (inhibition of intracellular LEF-1 mediated gene transcription) resulting in a desired phenotypic cellular change (inhibit LEF-1 driven cell transformation) provided two lead compounds: lefmycin-1 and lefmycin-2. The sequence of screens defining the approach assures that activity in the final functional assay may be directly related to the inhibition of gene transcription and DNA binding properties of the identified molecules. Central to the implementation of this generalized approach to the discovery of DNA binding small molecule inhibitors of gene transcription was: (1) the use of a technically non-demanding fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assay for initial assessment of the DNA binding affinity and selectivity of a library of compounds for any sequence of interest, and (2) the technology used to prepare a sufficiently large library of DNA binding compounds. PMID:19216569

  4. Auto-Inhibition of Ets-1 Is Counteracted by DNA Binding Cooperativity with Core-Binding Factor α2

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Tamara L.; Gu, Ting-Lei; Speck, Nancy A.; Graves, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Auto-inhibition is a common transcriptional control mechanism that is well characterized in the regulatory transcription factor Ets-1. Autoinhibition of Ets-1 DNA binding works through an inhibitory module that exists in two conformations. DNA binding requires a change in the inhibitory module from the packed to disrupted conformation. This structural switch provides a mechanism to tightly regulate Ets-1 DNA binding. We report that the Ets-1 partner protein core-binding factor α2 (CBFα2; also known as AML1 or PEBP2) stimulates Ets-1 DNA binding and counteracts auto-inhibition. Support for this conclusion came from three observations. First, the level of cooperative DNA binding (10-fold) was similar to the level of repression by auto-inhibition (10- to 20-fold). Next, a region necessary for cooperative DNA binding mapped to the inhibitory module. Third, an Ets-1 mutant with a constitutively disrupted inhibitory module did not bind DNA cooperatively with CBFα2. Furthermore, two additional lines of evidence indicated that CBFα2 affects the structural switch by direct interactions with Ets-1. First, the retention of cooperative DNA binding on nicked duplexes eliminated a potential role of through-DNA effects. Second, cooperative DNA binding was observed on composite sites with altered spacing or reversed orientation. We suggest that only protein interactions can accommodate this observed flexibility. These findings provide a mechanism by which CBF relieves the auto-inhibition of Ets-1 and illustrates one strategy for the synergistic activity of regulatory transcription factors. PMID:10594011

  5. Evans Blue is an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB)-DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh K; Otsuka, Masami; Pande, Vineet; Inoue, Jun-ichiro; João Ramos, Maria

    2004-12-20

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is an important transcription factor, involved in many immune and inflammatory responses. It is critical in HIV gene expression as it has kappa B binding sites in the HIV-1 long-terminal repeat. Hence, targeting NF-kappaB to prevent its DNA binding holds a significant therapeutic potential. In this context, we report Evans Blue as a novel inhibitor of NF-kappaB-DNA binding. Evans Blue was found to be inhibiting DNA binding of NF-kappaB at a low concentration of 100 microM. Further, molecular modeling studies using docking and generation of electrostatic potential maps predicted a possible binding mode of EB to the DNA binding region of NF-kappaB, consistent with the experimental activity.

  6. Cell-Specific Transcriptional Control of the Mouse DNA-Binding Protein mC/EBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xanthopoulos, Kleanthis G.; Mirkovitch, Jovan; Decker, Thomas; Kuo, C. Frank; Darnell, James E.

    1989-06-01

    The mRNA encoding the mouse homolog of C/EBP, a rat DNA-binding protein that participates in activating a number of genes in hepatocytes, is present in liver cells at a far higher concentration than in most other cells, including spleen, kidney, muscle, and the majority of the brain. However, fat cells and intestinal cells contain 25-50% as much mRNA as liver cells. ``Run-on'' experiments show that the basis for the restricted cellular distribution of the mouse C/EBP mRNA is transcriptional regulation of the gene. We also show that disruption of cell-cell contacts incident to liver cell dispersion results in a prompt and extensive reduction in mouse C/EBP transcription as we had earlier shown to be the case for a group of 10 genes transcribed in a hepatocyte-specific fashion. In contrast, breaking cell contacts and plating the hepatocytes in culture leads to a prolonged increase in transcription of the Jun-B gene that encodes a widely distributed transcription factor. These results illustrate that the regulation of expression of a mammalian regulatory protein with limited tissue distribution is controlled at the level of transcription and depends on cell contacts.

  7. The repertoire of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rueda, E; Collado-Vides, J

    2000-04-15

    Using a combination of several approaches we estimated and characterized a total of 314 regulatory DNA-binding proteins in Escherichia coli, which might represent its minimal set of transcription factors. The collection is comprised of 35% activators, 43% repressors and 22% dual regulators. Within many regulatory protein families, the members are homogeneous in their regulatory roles, physiology of regulated genes, regulatory function, length and genome position, showing that these families have evolved homogeneously in prokaryotes, particularly in E.coli. This work describes a full characterization of the repertoire of regulatory interactions in a whole living cell. This repertoire should contribute to the interpretation of global gene expression profiles in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  8. Effect of in vitro administered 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on DNA-binding activities of nuclear transcription factors in NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seong Gu; Sasagawa, Hiromi; Matsumura, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    TCDD is a very toxic environmental contaminant which is known to cause a variety of toxic symptoms in many species. Because of a myriad of biochemical changes TCDD is known to induce in many test animals, it has been difficult to pinpoint the causative event common to all those symptoms in different species. One of the research avenues we have been following is identification of the pattern of TCDD-induced changes in DNA binding characteristics of nuclear transcription factors (NTFs), each of which has the property to trigger a set of coordinated changes in many gene expressions. Since in our previous work we studied animals affected by TCDD in vivo using gel mobility shift assay approached with32P labeled oligonucleotide probes, we examined in the current study the possibility whether we could establish an equivalent in vitro system in NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells so as to be able to learn the similarities and the dissimilarities of TCDD-induced responses of NTFs between in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that, for a large part, this in vitro test system could reasonably reproduce the pattern of changes occurring in vivo at the early stages of TCDD's action in terms of induced changes in binding of thes NTSs to DNA. The key features were TCDD induced upregulation of NTFs binding to the response elements for AP-1, dioxin (DRE) and T3 (thyroid hormone) and down-regulation of those to response elements (REs) for c-Myc, Sp-1 and retinoic acid receptor (RARE). However, the time course required the changes in DNA binding activity was much shorter in vitro. To study the basic cause for such changes in NTF binding, we studied the effects of exogenously added EGF, forskolin, TPA (12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate) and TNFalpha on the expression of TCDD's action on some of these NTFs. The results showed that these agents indeed greatly influence the outcome. The most influential agents were TNFalpha, forskolin and EGF. These results indicate that this in vitro

  9. Genomic Heat Shock Element Sequences Drive Cooperative Human Heat Shock Factor 1 DNA Binding and Selectivity*

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Alex M.; Makley, Leah N.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) activates expression of a variety of genes involved in cell survival, including protein chaperones, the protein degradation machinery, anti-apoptotic proteins, and transcription factors. Although HSF1 activation has been linked to amelioration of neurodegenerative disease, cancer cells exhibit a dependence on HSF1 for survival. Indeed, HSF1 drives a program of gene expression in cancer cells that is distinct from that activated in response to proteotoxic stress, and HSF1 DNA binding activity is elevated in cycling cells as compared with arrested cells. Active HSF1 homotrimerizes and binds to a DNA sequence consisting of inverted repeats of the pentameric sequence nGAAn, known as heat shock elements (HSEs). Recent comprehensive ChIP-seq experiments demonstrated that the architecture of HSEs is very diverse in the human genome, with deviations from the consensus sequence in the spacing, orientation, and extent of HSE repeats that could influence HSF1 DNA binding efficacy and the kinetics and magnitude of target gene expression. To understand the mechanisms that dictate binding specificity, HSF1 was purified as either a monomer or trimer and used to evaluate DNA-binding site preferences in vitro using fluorescence polarization and thermal denaturation profiling. These results were compared with quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in vivo. We demonstrate a role for specific orientations of extended HSE sequences in driving preferential HSF1 DNA binding to target loci in vivo. These studies provide a biochemical basis for understanding differential HSF1 target gene recognition and transcription in neurodegenerative disease and in cancer. PMID:25204655

  10. Molecular mechanisms of ligand-mediated attenuation of DNA binding by MarR family transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    Perera, Inoka C; Grove, Anne

    2010-10-01

    Bacteria and archaea encode members of the large multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcriptional regulators. Generally, MarR homologs regulate activity of genes involved in antibiotic resistance, stress responses, virulence or catabolism of aromatic compounds. They constitute a diverse group of transcriptional regulators that includes both repressors and activators, and the conventional mode of regulation entails a genetic locus in which the MarR homolog and a gene under its regulation are encoded divergently; binding of the MarR homolog to the intergenic region typically represses transcription of both genes, while binding of a specific ligand to the transcription factor results in attenuated DNA binding and hence activated gene expression. For many homologs, the natural ligand is unknown. Crystal structures reveal a common architecture with a characteristic winged helix domain for DNA binding, and recent structural information of homologs solved both in the absence and presence of their respective ligands, as well as biochemical data, is finally converging to illuminate the mechanisms by which ligand-binding causes attenuated DNA binding. As MarR homologs regulate pathways that are critical to bacterial physiology, including virulence, a molecular understanding of mechanisms by which ligands affect a regulation of gene activity is essential. Specifying the position of ligand-binding pockets further has the potential to aid in identifying the ligands for MarR homologs for which the ligand remains unknown.

  11. Erythroblast transformation by FLI-1 depends upon its specific DNA binding and transcriptional activation properties.

    PubMed

    Ano, Sabine; Pereira, Rui; Pironin, Martine; Lesault, Isabelle; Milley, Caroline; Lebigot, Ingrid; Quang, Christine Tran; Ghysdael, Jacques

    2004-01-23

    FLI-1 is a transcriptional regulator of the ETS family of proteins. Insertional activation at the FLI-1 locus is an early event in F-murine leukemia virus-induced erythroleukemia. Consistent with its essential role in erythroid transformation, enforced expression of FLI-1 in primary erythroblasts strongly impairs the response of these cells to erythropoietin (Epo), a cytokine essential to erythropoiesis. We show here that point mutations in the ETS domain that abolished FLI-1 binding to specific DNA elements (ETS-binding sites) suppressed the ability of FLI-1 to transform erythroblasts. The exchange of the entire ETS domain (DNA binding domain) of FLI-1 for that of PU.1 changed the DNA binding specificity of FLI-1 for that of PU.1 and impaired FLI-1 transforming properties. In contrast, ETS domain swapping mutants that maintained the DNA binding specificity of FLI-1 did not affect the ability of FLI-1 to transform erythroblasts. Deletion and swapping mutants that failed to inhibit the DNA binding activity of FLI-1 but impaired its transcriptional activation properties were also transformation-defective. Taken together, these results show that both the ability of FLI-1 to inhibit Epo-induced differentiation of erythroblasts and to confer enhanced cell survival in the absence of Epo critically depend upon FLI-1 ETS-binding site-dependent transcriptional activation properties.

  12. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) replication and transcription factor activates the K9 (vIRF) gene through two distinct cis elements by a non-DNA-binding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Keiji; Ishikawa, Kayo; Nishimura, Ken; Sakakibara, Shuhei; Do, Eunju; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2002-12-01

    The replication and transcription activator (RTA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus 8, a homologue of Epstein-Barr virus BRLF1 or Rta, is a strong transactivator and inducer of lytic replication. RTA acting alone can induce lytic replication of KSHV in infected cell lines that originated from primary effusion lymphomas, leading to virus production. During the lytic replication process, RTA activates many kinds of genes, including polyadenylated nuclear RNA, K8, K9 (vIRF), ORF57, and so on. We focused here on the mechanism of how RTA upregulates the K9 (vIRF) promoter and identified two independent cis-acting elements in the K9 (vIRF) promoter that responded to RTA. These elements were finally confined to the sequence 5'-TCTGGGACAGTC-3' in responsive element (RE) I-2B and the sequence 5'-GTACTTAAAATA-3' in RE IIC-2, both of which did not share sequence homology. Multiple factors bound specifically with these elements, and their binding was correlated with the RTA-responsive activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay with nuclear extract from infected cells and the N-terminal part of RTA expressed in Escherichia coli, however, did not show that RTA interacted directly with these elements, in contrast to the RTA responsive elements in the PAN/K12 promoter region, the ORF57/K8 promoter region. Thus, it was likely that RTA could transactivate several kinds of unique cis elements without directly binding to the responsive elements, probably through cooperation with other DNA-binding factors.

  13. Distinct DNA binding sites contribute to the TCF transcriptional switch in C. elegans and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Chandan; Ravindranath, Aditi J; Mentink, Remco A; Chang, Mikyung V; Betist, Marco C; Yang, Yaxuan X; Koushika, Sandhya P; Korswagen, Hendrik C; Cadigan, Ken M

    2014-02-01

    Regulation of gene expression by signaling pathways often occurs through a transcriptional switch, where the transcription factor responsible for signal-dependent gene activation represses the same targets in the absence of signaling. T-cell factors (TCFs) are transcription factors in the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, which control numerous cell fate specification events in metazoans. The TCF transcriptional switch is mediated by many co-regulators that contribute to repression or activation of Wnt target genes. It is typically assumed that DNA recognition by TCFs is important for target gene location, but plays no role in the actual switch. TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) and some vertebrate TCF isoforms bind DNA through two distinct domains, a High Mobility Group (HMG) domain and a C-clamp, which recognize DNA motifs known as HMG and Helper sites, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that POP-1 (the C. elegans TCF) also activates target genes through HMG and Helper site interactions. Helper sites enhanced the ability of a synthetic enhancer to detect Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in several tissues and revealed an unsuspected role for POP-1 in regulating the C. elegans defecation cycle. Searching for HMG-Helper site clusters allowed the identification of a new POP-1 target gene active in the head muscles and gut. While Helper sites and the C-clamp are essential for activation of worm and fly Wnt targets, they are dispensable for TCF-dependent repression of targets in the absence of Wnt signaling. These data suggest that a fundamental change in TCF-DNA binding contributes to the transcriptional switch that occurs upon Wnt stimulation.

  14. Distinct DNA Binding Sites Contribute to the TCF Transcriptional Switch in C. elegans and Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bhambhani, Chandan; Ravindranath, Aditi J.; Mentink, Remco A.; Chang, Mikyung V.; Betist, Marco C.; Yang, Yaxuan X.; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Korswagen, Hendrik C.; Cadigan, Ken M.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression by signaling pathways often occurs through a transcriptional switch, where the transcription factor responsible for signal-dependent gene activation represses the same targets in the absence of signaling. T-cell factors (TCFs) are transcription factors in the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, which control numerous cell fate specification events in metazoans. The TCF transcriptional switch is mediated by many co-regulators that contribute to repression or activation of Wnt target genes. It is typically assumed that DNA recognition by TCFs is important for target gene location, but plays no role in the actual switch. TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) and some vertebrate TCF isoforms bind DNA through two distinct domains, a High Mobility Group (HMG) domain and a C-clamp, which recognize DNA motifs known as HMG and Helper sites, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that POP-1 (the C. elegans TCF) also activates target genes through HMG and Helper site interactions. Helper sites enhanced the ability of a synthetic enhancer to detect Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in several tissues and revealed an unsuspected role for POP-1 in regulating the C. elegans defecation cycle. Searching for HMG-Helper site clusters allowed the identification of a new POP-1 target gene active in the head muscles and gut. While Helper sites and the C-clamp are essential for activation of worm and fly Wnt targets, they are dispensable for TCF-dependent repression of targets in the absence of Wnt signaling. These data suggest that a fundamental change in TCF-DNA binding contributes to the transcriptional switch that occurs upon Wnt stimulation. PMID:24516405

  15. A molecular modeling study of inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa-B (p50)--DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vineet; Sharma, Rakesh K; Inoue, Jun-Ichiro; Otsuka, Masami; Ramos, Maria J

    2003-12-01

    Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is an inducible transcription factor of the Rel family, and is sequestered in the cytoplasm by the IkappaB family of proteins. NF-kappaB can exist in several dimeric forms, but the p50/p65 heterodimer is the predominant one. Activation of NF-kappaB by a range of stimuli including viral products, and oxidative stress, leads to phosphorylation and proteasome dependent degradation of IkappaB, leading to the release of free NF-kappaB. This free NF-kappaB then binds to its target sites (KB sites in the DNA) to initiate transcription. These kappaB sites are also present in the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) of HIV-1, and hence NF-kappaB (p50 subunit) binding to LTR-DNA is critical in viral replication. Targeting direct p50-DNA binding, in this regard, is a novel approach to design anti-HIV gene expression inhibitors, which do not have the problem of resistance unlike in other anti-HIV strategies. The present study is a part of our search for leads for the specific inhibition of p50-DNA binding. We have been experimentally studying different types of these inhibitors, and in this work, we attempted to get a common definition of their structural mechanism onto p50-DNA binding. Using three different classes of inhibitors, we modelled their association with the DNA-Binding Region (DBR) of the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB. Docking studies were carried out using a genetic algorithm based program (GOLD). Further, to compare electrostatic complementarity in the association of the inhibitors with the DBR, Molecular Electrostatic Potentials (MEPs) were generated for the DBR and each inhibitor. The results of docking revealed a strong network of hydrogen bonding interactions for every active inhibitor, and the contrary for the less active ones. Further, the MEPs revealed that the DBR of p50 represents a surface of electropositive potential, and the active inhibitors represent a complementary electronegative surface. With the present modelling study we

  16. A molecular modeling study of inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa-B (p50) DNA binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Vineet; Sharma, Rakesh K.; Inoue, Jun-Ichiro; Otsuka, Masami; Ramos, Maria J.

    2003-12-01

    Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is an inducible transcription factor of the Rel family, and is sequestered in the cytoplasm by the IκB family of proteins. NF-κB can exist in several dimeric forms, but the p50/p65 heterodimer is the predominant one. Activation of NF-κB by a range of stimuli including viral products, and oxidative stress, leads to phosphorylation and proteasome dependent degradation of IκB, leading to the release of free NF-κB. This free NF-κB then binds to its target sites (κB sites in the DNA) to initiate transcription. These κB sites are also present in the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) of HIV-1, and hence NF-κB (p50 subunit) binding to LTR-DNA is critical in viral replication. Targeting direct p50-DNA binding, in this regard, is a novel approach to design anti-HIV gene expression inhibitors, which do not have the problem of resistance unlike in other anti-HIV strategies. The present study is a part of our search for leads for the specific inhibition of p50-DNA binding. We have been experimentally studying different types of these inhibitors, and in this work, we attempted to get a common definition of their structural mechanism onto p50-DNA binding. Using three different classes of inhibitors, we modelled their association with the DNA-Binding Region (DBR) of the p50 subunit of NF-κB. Docking studies were carried out using a genetic algorithm based program (GOLD). Further, to compare electrostatic complementarity in the association of the inhibitors with the DBR, Molecular Electrostatic Potentials (MEPs) were generated for the DBR and each inhibitor. The results of docking revealed a strong network of hydrogen bonding interactions for every active inhibitor, and the contrary for the less active ones. Further, the MEPs revealed that the DBR of p50 represents a surface of electropositive potential, and the active inhibitors represent a complementary electronegative surface. With the present modelling study we conclude that the principal

  17. Genomewide analysis of Drosophila GAGA factor target genes reveals context-dependent DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    van Steensel, Bas; Delrow, Jeffrey; Bussemaker, Harmen J.

    2003-01-01

    The association of sequence-specific DNA-binding factors with their cognate target sequences in vivo depends on the local molecular context, yet this context is poorly understood. To address this issue, we have performed genomewide mapping of in vivo target genes of Drosophila GAGA factor (GAF). The resulting list of ≈250 target genes indicates that GAF regulates many cellular pathways. We applied unbiased motif-based regression analysis to identify the sequence context that determines GAF binding. Our results confirm that GAF selectively associates with (GA)n repeat elements in vivo. GAF binding occurs in upstream regulatory regions, but less in downstream regions. Surprisingly, GAF binds abundantly to introns but is virtually absent from exons, even though the density of (GA)n is roughly the same. Intron binding occurs equally frequently in last introns compared with first introns, suggesting that GAF may not only regulate transcription initiation, but possibly also elongation. We provide evidence for cooperative binding of GAF to closely spaced (GA)n elements and explain the lack of GAF binding to exons by the absence of such closely spaced GA repeats. Our approach for revealing determinants of context-dependent DNA binding will be applicable to many other transcription factors. PMID:12601174

  18. Structure, function, and tethering of DNA-binding domains in σ⁵⁴ transcriptional activators.

    PubMed

    Vidangos, Natasha; Maris, Ann E; Young, Anisa; Hong, Eunmi; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Batchelor, Joseph D; Wemmer, David E

    2013-12-01

    We compare the structure, activity, and linkage of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) from σ(54) transcriptional activators and discuss how the properties of the DBDs and the linker to the neighboring domain are affected by the overall properties and requirements of the full proteins. These transcriptional activators bind upstream of specific promoters that utilize σ(54)-polymerase. Upon receiving a signal the activators assemble into hexamers, which then, through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis, drive a conformational change in polymerase that enables transcription initiation. We present structures of the DBDs of activators nitrogen regulatory protein C 1 (NtrC1) and Nif-like homolog 2 (Nlh2) from the thermophile Aquifex aeolicus. The structures of these domains and their relationship to other parts of the activators are discussed. These structures are compared with previously determined structures of the DBDs of NtrC4, NtrC, ZraR, and factor for inversion stimulation. The N-terminal linkers that connect the DBDs to the central domains in NtrC1 and Nlh2 were studied and found to be unstructured. Additionally, a crystal structure of full-length NtrC1 was solved, but density of the DBDs was extremely weak, further indicating that the linker between ATPase and DBDs functions as a flexible tether. Flexible linking of ATPase and DBDs is likely necessary to allow assembly of the active hexameric ATPase ring. The comparison of this set of activators also shows clearly that strong dimerization of the DBD only occurs when other domains do not dimerize strongly. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. PAX 8 regulates human WT1 transcription through a novel DNA binding site.

    PubMed

    Fraizer, G C; Shimamura, R; Zhang, X; Saunders, G F

    1997-12-05

    The Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) is an essential gene for kidney and gonadal development, although how WT1 expression is induced in these tissues is not known. One kidney transcription factor likely to play a role in this regulation is PAX 8. The co-expression of WT1 and PAX 8 during kidney development and in Wilms' tumors with an epithelium predominant histology suggested a possible interaction, and indeed, we identified potential core PAX-binding sites in the WT1 promoter. Endogenous PAX 8 plays an important role in the activation of the WT1 promoter, since promoter activity is much stronger in cells with PAX 8 than without. Using binding assays, we searched for evidence of PAX 8-DNA interactions throughout the 652-base pair human WT1 promoter and found only one functional PAX 8 site with DNA binding activity, located 250 base pairs 5' of the minimal promoter. The responsiveness of the PAX 8 site was confirmed by assessing its ability to function as an enhancer significantly activating the minimal promoter in a position- and orientation-independent manner. Using transfection assays, we demonstrated that either endogenous or exogenously added PAX 8 activated the WT1 promoter and that this promoter up-regulation depended upon the presence of an intact PAX 8-binding site. In contrast, the previously reported core PAX 8-binding sites identified by computer analysis of the WT1 promoter failed to specifically bind in vitro translated PAX 8 protein or activate the minimal promoter. Thus, we identified a novel functional binding site for the transcription factor PAX 8, suggesting that part of its role in kidney development may be as a modulator of WT1 expression in the kidney.

  20. Auto-Inhibition and Partner Proteins, Core-Binding Factor β (CBFβ) and Ets-1, Modulate DNA Binding by CBFα2 (AML1)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ting-Lei; Goetz, Tamara L.; Graves, Barbara J.; Speck, Nancy A.

    2000-01-01

    Core-binding factor α2 (CBFα2; otherwise known as AML1 or PEBP2αB) is a DNA-binding subunit in the family of core-binding factors (CBFs), heterodimeric transcription factors that play pivotal roles in multiple developmental processes in mammals, including hematopoiesis and bone development. The Runt domain in CBFα2 (amino acids 51 to 178) mediates DNA binding and heterodimerization with the non-DNA-binding CBFβ subunit. Both the CBFβ subunit and the DNA-binding protein Ets-1 stimulate DNA binding by the CBFα2 protein. Here we quantify and compare the extent of cooperativity between CBFα2, CBFβ, and Ets-1. We also identify auto-inhibitory sequences within CBFα2 and sequences that modulate its interactions with CBFβ and Ets-1. We show that sequences in the CBFα2 Runt domain and sequences C terminal to amino acid 214 inhibit DNA binding. Sequences C terminal to amino acid 214 also inhibit heterodimerization with the non-DNA-binding CBFβ subunit, particularly heterodimerization off DNA. CBFβ rescinds the intramolecular inhibition of CBFα2, stimulating DNA binding approximately 40-fold. In comparison, Ets-1 stimulates CBFα2 DNA binding 7- to 10-fold. Although the Runt domain alone is sufficient for heterodimerization with CBFβ, sequences N terminal to amino acid 41 and between amino acids 190 and 214 are required for cooperative DNA binding with Ets-1. Cooperative DNA binding with Ets-1 is less pronounced with the CBFα2-CBFβ heterodimer than with CBFα2 alone. These analyses demonstrate that CBFα2 is subject to both negative regulation by intramolecular interactions, and positive regulation by two alternative partnerships. PMID:10594012

  1. Mutations on the DNA Binding Surface of TBP Discriminate between Yeast TATA and TATA-Less Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kamenova, Ivanka; Warfield, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Most RNA polymerase (Pol) II promoters lack a TATA element, yet nearly all Pol II transcription requires TATA binding protein (TBP). While the TBP-TATA interaction is critical for transcription at TATA-containing promoters, it has been unclear whether TBP sequence-specific DNA contacts are required for transcription at TATA-less genes. Transcription factor IID (TFIID), the TBP-containing coactivator that functions at most TATA-less genes, recognizes short sequence-specific promoter elements in metazoans, but analogous promoter elements have not been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We generated a set of mutations in the yeast TBP DNA binding surface and found that most support growth of yeast. Both in vivo and in vitro, many of these mutations are specifically defective for transcription of two TATA-containing genes with only minor defects in transcription of two TATA-less, TFIID-dependent genes. TBP binds several TATA-less promoters with apparent high affinity, but our results suggest that this binding is not important for transcription activity. Our results are consistent with the model that sequence-specific TBP-DNA contacts are not important at yeast TATA-less genes and suggest that other general transcription factors or coactivator subunits are responsible for recognition of TATA-less promoters. Our results also explain why yeast TBP derivatives defective for TATA binding appear defective in activated transcription. PMID:24865972

  2. Mutations on the DNA binding surface of TBP discriminate between yeast TATA and TATA-less gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Kamenova, Ivanka; Warfield, Linda; Hahn, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Most RNA polymerase (Pol) II promoters lack a TATA element, yet nearly all Pol II transcription requires TATA binding protein (TBP). While the TBP-TATA interaction is critical for transcription at TATA-containing promoters, it has been unclear whether TBP sequence-specific DNA contacts are required for transcription at TATA-less genes. Transcription factor IID (TFIID), the TBP-containing coactivator that functions at most TATA-less genes, recognizes short sequence-specific promoter elements in metazoans, but analogous promoter elements have not been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We generated a set of mutations in the yeast TBP DNA binding surface and found that most support growth of yeast. Both in vivo and in vitro, many of these mutations are specifically defective for transcription of two TATA-containing genes with only minor defects in transcription of two TATA-less, TFIID-dependent genes. TBP binds several TATA-less promoters with apparent high affinity, but our results suggest that this binding is not important for transcription activity. Our results are consistent with the model that sequence-specific TBP-DNA contacts are not important at yeast TATA-less genes and suggest that other general transcription factors or coactivator subunits are responsible for recognition of TATA-less promoters. Our results also explain why yeast TBP derivatives defective for TATA binding appear defective in activated transcription. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Structured and disordered regions cooperatively mediate DNA-binding autoinhibition of ETS factors ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Simon L.; Lau, Desmond K. W.; Doane, Jedediah J.; Whitby, Frank G.; Okon, Mark; McIntosh, Lawrence P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoinhibition enables spatial and temporal regulation of cellular processes by coupling protein activity to surrounding conditions, often via protein partnerships or signaling pathways. We report the molecular basis of DNA-binding autoinhibition of ETS transcription factors ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5, which are often overexpressed in prostate cancer. Inhibitory elements that cooperate to repress DNA binding were identified in regions N- and C-terminal of the ETS domain. Crystal structures of these three factors revealed an α-helix in the C-terminal inhibitory domain that packs against the ETS domain and perturbs the conformation of its DNA-recognition helix. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated that the N-terminal inhibitory domain (NID) is intrinsically disordered, yet utilizes transient intramolecular interactions with the DNA-recognition helix of the ETS domain to mediate autoinhibition. Acetylation of selected lysines within the NID activates DNA binding. This investigation revealed a distinctive mechanism for DNA-binding autoinhibition in the ETV1/4/5 subfamily involving a network of intramolecular interactions not present in other ETS factors. These distinguishing inhibitory elements provide a platform through which cellular triggers, such as protein–protein interactions or post-translational modifications, may specifically regulate the function of these oncogenic proteins. PMID:28161714

  4. Modulation of Promoter Occupancy by Cooperative DNA Binding and Activation-Domain Function is a Major Determinant of Transcriptional Regulation by Activators in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masafumi

    1996-04-01

    Binding of transcriptional activators to a promoter is a prerequisite process in transcriptional activation. It is well established that the efficiency of activator binding to a promoter is determined by the affinity of direct interactions between the DNA-binding domain of an activator and its specific target sequences. However, I describe here that activator binding to a promoter is augmented in vivo by the effects of two other determinants that have not been generally appreciated: (i) the number of activator binding sites present in a promoter and (ii) the potency of activation domains of activators. Multiple sites within a promoter can cooperatively recruit cognate factors regardless of whether they contain an effective activation domain. This cooperativity can result in the synergistic activation of transcription. The second effect is the enhancement of activator binding to a promoter by the presence of activation domains. In this case, activation domains are not simply tethered to the promoter by the DNA-binding domain but instead assist the DNA-binding domain being tethered onto the promoter. This effect of activation domains on DNA binding is instrumental in determining how potent activators can induce steep transcriptional increases at low concentrations.

  5. A human TATA binding protein-related protein with altered DNA binding specificity inhibits transcription from multiple promoters and activators.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Ozer, J; Salunek, M; Jan, G; Zerby, D; Campbell, S; Lieberman, P M

    1999-11-01

    The TATA binding protein (TBP) plays a central role in eukaryotic and archael transcription initiation. We describe the isolation of a novel 23-kDa human protein that displays 41% identity to TBP and is expressed in most human tissue. Recombinant TBP-related protein (TRP) displayed barely detectable binding to consensus TATA box sequences but bound with slightly higher affinities to nonconsensus TATA sequences. TRP did not substitute for TBP in transcription reactions in vitro. However, addition of TRP potently inhibited basal and activated transcription from multiple promoters in vitro and in vivo. General transcription factors TFIIA and TFIIB bound glutathione S-transferase-TRP in solution but failed to stimulate TRP binding to DNA. Preincubation of TRP with TFIIA inhibited TBP-TFIIA-DNA complex formation and addition of TFIIA overcame TRP-mediated transcription repression. TRP transcriptional repression activity was specifically reduced by mutations in TRP that disrupt the TFIIA binding surface but not by mutations that disrupt the TFIIB or DNA binding surface of TRP. These results suggest that TFIIA is a primary target of TRP transcription inhibition and that TRP may modulate transcription by a novel mechanism involving the partial mimicry of TBP functions.

  6. Differential DNA binding and transcription modulation by three T-box proteins, T, TBX1 and TBX2.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S; Abraham, S; Gronostajski, R M; Campbell, C E

    2000-11-27

    T-box genes encode a family of phylogenetically conserved DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression during embryogenesis. While the developmental importance of many T-box genes has been well documented, little is known about how family members differ in their DNA binding properties and ability to modulate transcription. Here we show that although TBX1, TBX2 and the Xenopus T protein (Xbra) share only 50-60% identity within their DNA-binding domains they can bind the same DNA sequence in vitro. However, the proteins differ in three important respects. While TBX1 protein binds a palindromic T oligonucleotide as a dimer, as had been previously reported for Xbra, TBX2 appears to bind the same DNA sequence as a monomer. Also, T protein/DNA complexes are stabilized in vitro by the addition of specific antibodies, whereas TBX2/DNA complexes are not stabilized by antibodies. Most importantly, TBX2 represses while Xbra activates transcription of the same chimeric reporter plasmid. TBX1, although capable of binding to the chimeric promoter, has no effect on transcription. Thus, while the DNA binding domains of T-box proteins share substantial homology, these proteins differ in both their DNA binding and transcriptional modulation properties. These results suggest that the various T-box proteins, while highly conserved, likely use different mechanisms to modulate transcription and may have different targets in vivo.

  7. A novel AT-rich DNA binding protein that combines an HMG I-like DNA binding domain with a putative transcription domain.

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, G; Coruzzi, G M

    1994-01-01

    There is growing evidence that AT-rich promoter elements play a role in transcription of plant genes. For the promoter of the nuclear gene for chloroplast glutamine synthetase from pea (GS2), the deletion of a 33-bp AT-rich sequence (box 1 native) from the 5' end of a GS2 promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion resulted in a 10-fold reduction in GUS activity. The box 1 native element was used in gel shift analysis and two distinct complexes were detected. One complex is related to the low-mobility complex reported previously for AT-rich elements from several other plant promoters. A multimer of the box 1 sequence was used to isolate a cDNA encoding an AT-rich DNA binding protein (ATBP-1). ATBP-1 is not a high-mobility group protein, but it is a novel protein that combines a high-mobility group I/Y-like DNA binding domain with a glutamine-rich putative transcriptional domain. PMID:7907505

  8. The Drosophila tissue-specific factor Grainyhead contains novel DNA-binding and dimerization domains which are conserved in the human protein CP2.

    PubMed

    Uv, A E; Thompson, C R; Bray, S J

    1994-06-01

    We have mapped the regions in the Drosophila melanogaster tissue-specific transcription factor Grainyhead that are required for DNA binding and dimerization. These functional domains correspond to regions conserved between Grainyhead and the vertebrate transcription factor CP2, which we show has similar activities. The identified DNA-binding domain is large (263 amino acids) but contains a smaller core that is able to interact with DNA at approximately 400-fold lower affinity. The major dimerization domain is located in a separate region of the protein and is required to stabilize the interactions with DNA. Our data also suggest that Grainyhead activity can be modulated by an N-terminal inhibitory domain.

  9. Acetylation of interferon regulatory factor-7 by p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP)-associated factor (PCAF) impairs its DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Alexandre; Prakash, Arun; Smith, Eric; Masumi, Atsuko; Hovanessian, Ara G; Levy, David E; Marié, Isabelle

    2002-12-20

    Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is an interferon-inducible transcription factor required for induction of delayed early interferon alpha genes and the onset of a potent antiviral state. After induction of IRF7 by autocrine interferon, latent IRF7 is activated by virus-induced phosphorylation on serine residues within the C-terminal regulatory domain. Although it is likely that IRF7 is subjected to a cascade of events responsible for regulating its biological activity, to date no mechanism other than phosphorylation has been reported to modulate IRF7 activity. Here, we report that IRF7 is acetylated in vivo by the histone acetyltransferases p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and GCN5. The single lysine residue target for acetylation, lysine 92, is located in the DNA-binding domain and is conserved throughout the entire IRF family. Mutation of lysine 92 resulted in complete abolition of DNA binding ability. However, a mutant that cannot be acetylated by PCAF due to a change in the surrounding amino acid context of lysine 92 showed increased DNA binding and activity compared with wild type IRF7. Conversely, we showed that acetylated IRF7 displayed impaired DNA binding capability and that over-expression of PCAF led to decreased IRF7 activity. Together, our results strongly suggest that acetylation of lysine 92 negatively modulates IRF7 DNA binding.

  10. alpha-MSH inhibits induction of C/EBPbeta-DNA binding activity and NOS2 gene transcription in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Diaz, R A; Higham, S; Kone, B C

    2000-06-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is an endogenous tridecapeptide that exerts anti-inflammatory actions and abrogates postischemic renal injury in rodents. alpha-MSH inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of several cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2), but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been clearly defined. To test the hypothesis that alpha-MSH inhibits the expression of inducible trans-activating factors involved in NOS2 regulation, we used RAW 264.7 macrophage cells to examine the effects of alpha-MSH on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBPbeta), trans-acting factors known to be involved in LPS + interferon (IFN)-gamma induction of the NOS2 gene. Gel shift assays were performed to identify NF-kappaB and C/EBP DNA binding activities in LPS + IFN-gamma-treated RAW 264.7 cells in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. NOS2 promoter assays were conducted to identify the effects of alpha-MSH on LPS + IFN-gamma-mediated induction of NOS2 transcription. Gel shift assays demonstrated LPS + IFN-gamma induction of NF-kappaB and C/EBP family protein-DNA complexes in nuclei harvested from the cells. Supershift assays revealed that the C/EBP complexes were comprised of C/EBPbeta, but not C/EBPalpha, C/EBPdelta, or C/EBPepsilon. alpha-MSH (100 nmol/L) inhibited the LPS + IFN-gamma-mediated induction of nuclear DNA binding activity of C/EBPbeta, but not that of NF-kappaB (in contrast to reports in other cell types), as well as the activity of a murine NOS2 promoter-luciferase construct. In contrast, alpha-MSH (100 nmol/L) had no effect on the induction of NOS2 promoter-luciferase genes harboring deletion or mutation of the C/EBP box. These data indicate that alpha-MSH inhibits the induction of C/EBPbeta DNA binding activity and that this effect is a major mechanism by which alpha-MSH inhibits the transcription of the NOS2 gene. The

  11. Characterization of unique DNA-binding and transcriptional-activation functions in the carboxyl-terminal extension of the zinc finger region in the human vitamin D receptor.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J C; Whitfield, G K; Oza, A K; Dang, H T; Price, J N; Galligan, M A; Jurutka, P W; Thompson, P D; Haussler, C A; Haussler, M R

    1999-12-07

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and mediates its actions on gene transcription by heterodimerizing with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) on direct repeat (DR+3) vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) located in target genes. The VDRE binding function of VDR has been primarily ascribed to the zinc finger region (residues 24-87). To define the minimal VDRE binding domain for human VDR (hVDR), a series of C-terminally truncated hVDR mutants (Delta134, Delta113, Delta102, Delta90, Delta84, Delta80, and Delta60) was generated and expressed in bacteria. Only the Delta134 and Delta113 mutants bound the VDRE (predominantly as monomers), suggesting that, in addition to the conserved zinc finger region of hVDR, as many as 25 amino acids in a C-terminal extension (CTE) participate in DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved charged residues in full-length hVDR was then performed to dissect the functional significance of the CTE (residues 88-112) in the context of the complete hVDR-RXR-VDRE interaction. Functional assays revealed that E98K/E99K, R102A/K103A/R104A, and K109A/R110A/K111A mutant hVDRs possessed dramatically reduced DNA binding and transcriptional activities, whereas distinct point mutants, such as K103A, bound to DNA normally but lacked transcriptional activity. Therefore, the boundary for the minimal DNA-binding domain in hVDR extends C-terminal of the zinc fingers to Lys-111, with clusters of highly conserved charged amino acids playing a crucial role in binding to the DR+3 element. Further, individual residues in this region (e.g., Lys-103) may lie on the opposing face of a DNA-binding alpha-helix, where they could contact transcriptional coactivators or basal transcription factors.

  12. DNA-binding specificity, transcriptional activation potential, and the rin mutation effect for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Ihashi, Nao; Yabe, Kimiko; Kimbara, Junji; Yasuda, Junichi; Ito, Hirotaka; Inakuma, Takahiro; Hiroi, Seiji; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2008-07-01

    The RIN gene encodes a putative MADS box transcription factor that controls tomato fruit ripening, and its ripening inhibitor (rin) mutation yields non-ripening fruit. In this study, the molecular properties of RIN and the rin mutant protein were clarified. The results revealed that the RIN protein accumulates in ripening fruit specifically and is localized in the nucleus of the cell. In vitro studies revealed that RIN forms a stable homodimer that binds to MADS domain-specific DNA sites. Analysis of binding site selection experiments revealed that the consensus binding sites of RIN highly resemble those of the SEPALLATA (SEP) proteins, which are Arabidopsis MADS box proteins that control the identity of floral organs. RIN exhibited a transcription-activating function similar to that exhibited by the SEP proteins. These results indicate that RIN exhibits similar molecular functions to SEP proteins although they play distinctly different biological roles. In vivo assays revealed that RIN binds to the cis-element of LeACS2. Our results also revealed that the rin mutant protein accumulates in the mutant fruit and exhibits a DNA-binding activity similar to that exhibited by the wild-type protein, but has lost its transcription-activating function, which in turn would inhibit ripening in mutant fruit.

  13. Novel FOXC2 Mutation in Hereditary Distichiasis Impairs DNA-Binding Activity and Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Leilei; He, Jie; Han, Bing; Lu, Linna; Fan, Jiayan; Zhang, He; Ge, Shengfang; Zhou, Yixiong; Jia, Renbing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-01-01

    Distichiasis presents as double rows of eyelashes arising from aberrant differentiation of the meibomian glands of the eyelids, and it may be sporadic or hereditary. FOXC2 gene mutations in hereditary distichiasis are rarely reported. Here, we examined two generations of a Chinese family with hereditary distichiasis but without lymphedema or other features of LD syndrome. The FOXC2 gene was amplified and sequenced in all family members. Subcellular localization and luciferase assays were performed to assess the activity of the mutant FOXC2 protein. Clinical examinations showed distichiasis, lower eyelid ectropion, congenital ptosis and photophobia in all affected individuals. Sequence analysis revealed a novel frameshift mutation, c.964_965insG, in the coding region of the FOXC2 gene. This mutation caused protein truncation due to the presence of a premature stop codon. A fluorescence assay showed that this mutation did not change the nuclear localization of the protein. However, it impaired DNA-binding activity and decreased transcriptional activation. This is the first report of a FOXC2 mutation in hereditary distichiasis in the Chinese population. The findings of our study expand the FOXC2 mutation spectrum and contribute to the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation of this disease. PMID:27570485

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of DNA-binding drugs to inhibit transcription using the c-fos serum response element as a target.

    PubMed

    White, C M; Heidenreich, O; Nordheim, A; Beerman, T A

    2000-10-10

    Previous work has demonstrated that sequence-selective DNA-binding drugs can inhibit transcription factors from binding to their target sites on gene promoters. In this study, the potency and effectiveness of DNA-binding drugs to inhibit transcription were assessed using the c-fos promoter's serum response element (SRE) as a target. The drugs chosen for analysis included the minor groove binding agents chromomycin A(3) and Hoechst 33342, which bind to G/C-rich and A/T-rich regions, respectively, and the intercalating agent nogalamycin, which binds G/C-rich sequences in the major groove. The transcription factors targeted, Elk-1 and serum response factor (SRF), form a ternary complex (TC) on the SRE that is necessary and sufficient for induction of c-fos by serum. The drugs' abilities to prevent TC formation on the SRE in vitro were nogalamycin > Hoechst 33342 > chromomycin. Their potencies in inhibiting cell-free transcription and endogenous c-fos expression in NIH3T3 cells, however, were chromomycin > nogalamycin > Hoechst 33342. The latter order of potency was also obtained for the drugs' cytotoxicity and inhibition of general transcription as measured by [(3)H]uridine incorporation. These systematic analyses provide insight into how drug and transcription factor binding characteristics are related to drugs' effectiveness in inhibiting gene expression.

  15. GT-2: in vivo transcriptional activation activity and definition of novel twin DNA binding domains with reciprocal target sequence selectivity.

    PubMed

    Ni, M; Dehesh, K; Tepperman, J M; Quail, P H

    1996-06-01

    GT-2 is a novel DNA binding protein that interacts with a triplet functionally defined, positively acting GT-box motifs (GT1-bx, GT2-bx, and GT3-bx) in the rice phytochrome A gene (PHYA) promoter. Data from a transient transfection assay used here show that recombinant GT-2 enhanced transcription from both homologous and heterologous GT-box-containing promoters, thereby indicating that this protein can function as a transcriptional activator in vivo. Previously, we have shown that GT-2 contains separate DNA binding determinants in its N- and C-terminal halves, with binding site preferences for the GT3-bx and GT2-bx promoter motifs, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the minimal DNA binding domains reside within dual 90-amino acid polypeptide segments encompassing duplicated sequences, termed trihelix regions, in each half of the molecule, plus 15 additional immediately adjacent amino acids downstream. These minimal binding domains retained considerable target sequence selectivity for the different GT-box motifs, but this selectivity was enhanced by a separate polypeptide segment farther downstream on the C-terminal side of each trihelix region. Therefore, the data indicate that the twin DNA binding domains of GT-2 each consist of a general GT-box recognition core with intrinsic differential binding activity toward closely related target motifs and a modified sequence conferring higher resolution reciprocal selectivity between these motifs.

  16. Cooperative DNA binding of the bovine papillomavirus E2 transcriptional activator is antagonized by truncated E2 polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Monini, P; Blitz, I L; Cassai, E

    1993-01-01

    Cooperative DNA binding of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E2 transcriptional activator (E2-TA) is thought to play a role in the transcriptional synergism of multiple E2-responsive DNA elements (J. Ham, N. Dostatni, J.-M. Gauthier, and M. Yaniv, Trends Biochem. Sci. 16:440-444, 1991). Binding-equilibrium considerations show that such involvement is unlikely, thereby suggesting that the E2-TA cooperative capacity may have evolved to play other, different roles. The role of cooperative interactions in the antagonistic activity of BPV-1-positive and BPV-1-negative E2 regulatory proteins was investigated by an in vitro quantitative gel shift assay. Viral repressor E2-TR, a truncated peptide encompassing the activator DNA-binding domain, possesses a small but measurable cooperative capacity. Furthermore, the minimal E2 DNA-binding domain interacts with the activator in a positive, heterocooperative manner. As a result, the in vitro competition of full-length and truncated E2 peptides appears to be (macroscopically) noncooperative. This heterocooperative effect is probably dominant in latently infected G0-G1 cells, in which repressor E2-TR is 10- to 20-fold more abundant than the activator. The data are discussed considering the possible role of homo- and heterocooperative DNA binding in E2-conditional gene expression. Images PMID:8394466

  17. Drosophila damaged DNA-binding protein 1 is an essential factor for development.

    PubMed

    Takata, Kei-ichi; Yoshida, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2004-10-01

    The damaged DNA-binding protein (DDB) complex, thought to recognize (6-4) photoproducts and other lesions in DNA, has been implicated to have a role in global genomic nucleotide excision repair (NER) and E2F-1-mediated transcription. The complex consists of a heterodimer of p127 (DDB1) and p48 (DDB2), the latter also being known as XPE. We reported previously that in Drosophila expression of the DDB1 (D-DDB1) gene is controlled by the DRE/DREF system, and external injury to DNA is not essential for D-DDB1 function. In the present study of the function of D-DDB1 in a multicellular system, we prepared transgenic flies, which were knocked down for the D-DDB1 gene due to RNA interference (RNAi), and performed immunocytochemistry to ascertain the distribution of D-DDB1 in the eye imaginal disc. It was found to be abundant in the anterior of the morphogenetic furrow (MF). Whole-body overexpression of dsRNA of D-DDB1 in Drosophila using a GAL4-UAS targeted expression system induced melanotic tumors and caused complete lethality. When limited to the eye imaginal disc, a severe rough eye phenotype resulted. Correspondingly, all of the D-DDB1 gene knocked-out flies also died. D-DDB1 therefore appears to be an essential development-associated factor in a multicellular organism.

  18. Applying DNA affinity chromatography to specifically screen for sucrose-related DNA-binding transcriptional regulators of Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Leßmeier, Lennart; Alkhateeb, Rabeaa S; Schulte, Fabian; Steffens, Tim; Loka, Tobias Pascal; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg

    2016-08-20

    At a molecular level, the regulation of many important cellular processes is still obscure in xanthomonads, a bacterial group of outstanding relevance as world-wide plant pathogens and important for biotechnology as producers of the polysaccharide xanthan. Transcriptome analysis indicated a sucrose-dependent regulation of 18 genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) B100. The expression of 12 of these genes was clearly increased in the presence of sucrose. Only part of these genes was obviously involved in sucrose utilization. To identify regulatory proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, a DNA fragment-specific pull-down approach was established for Xcc. Putative promoter regions were identified and used to isolate DNA-binding proteins, which were separated by SDS PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. This led to the identification of four transcriptional regulators, among them the global transcriptional regulator Clp and a previously identified regulator of sucrose utilization, SuxR, plus a third DNA-binding transcriptional regulator encoded by xcc-b100_2861 and recently shown to interact with a cyclic di-GMP-binding protein. The fourth regulatory protein was encoded by xcc-b100_2791. These results indicate DNA fragment-specific pull-down experiments as promising approaches to screen for specific DNA-binding regulatory proteins in Xcc.

  19. Crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of Myelin-gene Regulatory Factor.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xiangkai; Li, Bowen; Hu, Fen; Yan, Shufeng; Meloni, Gabriele; Li, Huiliang; Shi, Ning

    2017-06-16

    Myelin-gene Regulatory Factor (MyRF) is one of the master transcription factors controlling myelin formation and development in oligodendrocytes which is crucial for the powerful brain functions. The N-terminal of MyRF, which contains a proline-rich region and a DNA binding domain (DBD), is auto-cleaved from the ER membrane, and then enters the nucleus to participate in transcription regulation of the myelin genes. Here we report the crystal structure of MyRF DBD. It shows an Ig-fold like architecture which consists of two antiparallel β-sheets with 7 main strands, packing against each other, forming a β-sandwich. Compared to its homolog, Ndt80, MyRF has a smaller and less complex DBD lacking the helices and the big loops outside the core. Structural alignment reveals that MyRF DBD possess less interaction sites with DNA than Ndt80 and may bind only at the major groove of DNA. Moreover, the structure reveals a trimeric assembly, agreeing with the previous report that MyRF DBD functions as a trimer. The mutant that we designed based on the structure disturbed trimer formation, but didn't affect the auto-cleavage reaction. It demonstrates that the activation of self-cleavage reaction of MyRF is independent of the presence of its N-terminal DBD homotrimer. The structure reported here will help to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the important roles of MyRF in myelin formation and development.

  20. Genome-wide specificity of DNA binding, gene regulation, and chromatin remodeling by TALE- and CRISPR/Cas9-based transcriptional activators.

    PubMed

    Polstein, Lauren R; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Kocak, D Dewran; Vockley, Christopher M; Bledsoe, Peggy; Song, Lingyun; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E; Reddy, Timothy E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-08-01

    Genome engineering technologies based on the CRISPR/Cas9 and TALE systems are enabling new approaches in science and biotechnology. However, the specificity of these tools in complex genomes and the role of chromatin structure in determining DNA binding are not well understood. We analyzed the genome-wide effects of TALE- and CRISPR-based transcriptional activators in human cells using ChIP-seq to assess DNA-binding specificity and RNA-seq to measure the specificity of perturbing the transcriptome. Additionally, DNase-seq was used to assess genome-wide chromatin remodeling that occurs as a result of their action. Our results show that these transcription factors are highly specific in both DNA binding and gene regulation and are able to open targeted regions of closed chromatin independent of gene activation. Collectively, these results underscore the potential for these technologies to make precise changes to gene expression for gene and cell therapies or fundamental studies of gene function.

  1. Scanning Mutagenesis of Mcm1: Residues Required for DNA Binding, DNA Bending, and Transcriptional Activation by a MADS-Box Protein

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Thomas B.; Mead, Janet; Steiner, Andrew M.; Vershon, Andrew K.

    2000-01-01

    MCM1 is an essential gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is a member of the MADS-box family of transcriptional regulatory factors. To understand the nature of the protein-DNA interactions of this class of proteins, we have made a series of alanine substitutions in the DNA-binding domain of Mcm1 and examined the effects of these mutations in vivo and in vitro. Our results indicate which residues of Mcm1 are important for viability, transcriptional activation, and DNA binding and bending. Substitution of residues in Mcm1 which are highly conserved among the MADS-box proteins are lethal to the cell and abolish DNA binding in vitro. These positions have almost identical interactions with DNA in both the serum response factor-DNA and α2-Mcm1-DNA crystal structures, suggesting that these residues make up a conserved core of protein-DNA interactions responsible for docking MADS-box proteins to DNA. Substitution of residues which are not as well conserved among members of the MADS-box family play important roles in contributing to the specificity of DNA binding. These results suggest a general model of how MADS-box proteins recognize and bind DNA. We also provide evidence that the N-terminal extension of Mcm1 may have considerable conformational freedom, possibly to allow binding to different DNA sites. Finally, we have identified two mutants at positions which are critical for Mcm1-mediated DNA bending that have a slow-growth phenotype. This finding is consistent with our earlier results, indicating that DNA bending may have a role in Mcm1 function in the cell. PMID:10594003

  2. Mutation of serum response factor phosphorylation sites and the mechanism by which its DNA-binding activity is increased by casein kinase II.

    PubMed Central

    Manak, J R; Prywes, R

    1991-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylates the mammalian transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) on a serine residue(s) located within a region of the protein spanning amino acids 70 to 92, thereby enhancing its DNA-binding activity in vitro. We report here that serine 83 appears to be the residue phosphorylated by CKII but that three other serines in this region can also be involved in phosphorylation and the enhancement of DNA-binding activity. A mutant that contained glutamate residues in place of these serines had only low-level binding activity; however, when the serines were replaced with glutamates and further mutations were made that increased the negative charge of the region, the resulting mutant showed a constitutively high level of binding equal to that achieved by phosphorylation of wild-type SRF. We have investigated the mechanism by which phosphorylation of SRF increases its DNA-binding activity. We have ruled out the possibilities that phosphorylation affects SRF dimerization or relieves inhibition due to masking of the DNA-binding domain by an amino-terminal region of the protein. Rather, using partial proteolysis to probe SRF's structure, we find that the conformation of SRF's DNA-binding domain is altered by phosphorylation. Images PMID:2046671

  3. A Novel DNA Binding Mechanism for maf Basic Region-Leucine Zipper Factors Inferred from a MafA-DNA Complex Structure and Binding Specificities

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xun; Guanga, Gerald P; Wan, Cheng; Rose, Robert B

    2012-11-13

    MafA is a proto-oncoprotein and is critical for insulin gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. Maf proteins belong to the AP1 superfamily of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. Residues in the basic helix and an ancillary N-terminal domain, the Extended Homology Region (EHR), endow maf proteins with unique DNA binding properties: binding a 13 bp consensus site consisting of a core AP1 site (TGACTCA) flanked by TGC sequences and binding DNA stably as monomers. To further characterize maf DNA binding, we determined the structure of a MafA–DNA complex. MafA forms base-specific hydrogen bonds with the flanking G–5C–4 and central C0/G0 bases, but not with the core-TGA bases. However, in vitro binding studies utilizing a pulse–chase electrophoretic mobility shift assay protocol revealed that mutating either the core-TGA or flanking-TGC bases dramatically increases the binding off rate. Comparing the known maf structures, we propose that DNA binding specificity results from positioning the basic helix through unique phosphate contacts. The EHR does not contact DNA directly but stabilizes DNA binding by contacting the basic helix. Collectively, these results suggest a novel multistep DNA binding process involving a conformational change from contacting the core-TGA to contacting the flanking-TGC bases.

  4. Transcriptional activation and repression by cellular DNA-binding protein C/EBP.

    PubMed Central

    Pei, D Q; Shih, C H

    1990-01-01

    A putative transcription factor, C/EBP, isolated from rat liver nuclei, has been shown to bind to at least two different sequence motifs: the CCAAT promoter domain and a core sequence [GTGG(T/A)(T/A)(T/A)G] common to many viral enhancers, including simian virus 40 and human hepatitis B virus. It has been proposed that C/EBP might function as a positive transcription factor by facilitating the communication between promoter and enhancer elements through its dual binding activities to DNA. Surprisingly, results from three different approaches suggest that C/EBP functions as a transcriptional repressor to hepatitis B virus and simian virus 40. Further investigation indicated that C/EBP can function as both a transcriptional activator and a repressor, depending on the reporter gene system. Images PMID:2157040

  5. DNA binding site for a factor(s) required to initiate simian virus 40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, M; DePamphilis, M L

    1986-01-01

    Efficient initiation of DNA replication in the absence of nonspecific DNA repair synthesis was obtained by using a modification of the system developed by J.J. Li and T.J. Kelly [(1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 6973-6977]. Circular double-stranded DNA plasmids replicated in extracts of CV-1 cells only when the plasmids contained the cis-acting origin sequence for simian virus 40 DNA replication (ori) and the extract contained simian virus 40 large tumor antigen. Competition between plasmids containing ori and plasmids carrying deletions in and about ori served to identify a sequence that binds the rate-limiting factor(s) required to initiate DNA replication. The minimum binding site (nucleotides 72-5243) encompassed one-half of the simian virus 40 ori sequence that is required for initiation of replication (ori-core) plus the contiguous sequence on the late gene side of ori-core containing G + C-rich repeats that facilitates initiation (ori-auxiliary). This initiation factor binding site was specific for the simian virus 40 ori region, even though it excluded the high-affinity large tumor antigen DNA binding sites. Images PMID:3006062

  6. Receptor to nucleus signaling by prolactin and interleukin 2 via activation of latent DNA-binding factors.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, K C; Reich, N C

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of action of prolactin (PRL), a lactogenic and immunoregulatory hormone, has remained undetermined despite its critical role in development. This study identifies a DNA-binding factor induced by PRL that appears to mediate a signal from the cell surface receptor to specific gene expression in the nucleus. PRL stimulates the proliferation of Nb2 T-lymphoma cells and activates transcription of the interferon-regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) gene. Within minutes of PRL stimulation, a PRL-induced factor (PRLIF) is activated and binds to a target site in the promoter of the IRF-1 gene. The PRLIF-binding site contains an inverted GAAA repeat that is also functional in the hormone-responsive beta-casein gene. The PRL-receptor complex signals tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, which may lead to activation of PRLIF. T-cell proliferation and transcriptional activation of the IRF-1 gene is also induced by the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2). This report demonstrates the rapid activation of an IL-2 nuclear-activated factor that recognizes the same GAAA inverted repeat in the IRF-1 promoter. PRLIF and IL-2 nuclear-activated factor are newly identified factors that appear to serve fundamental roles in the signal transduction pathways of PRL and IL-2, respectively, leading to the transcriptional regulation of responsive genes. Images PMID:8041708

  7. Fungal CSL transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Převorovský, Martin; Půta, František; Folk, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Background The CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) transcription factor family members are well-known components of the transmembrane receptor Notch signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in metazoan development. They function as context-dependent activators or repressors of transcription of their responsive genes, the promoters of which harbor the GTG(G/A)GAA consensus elements. Recently, several studies described Notch-independent activities of the CSL proteins. Results We have identified putative CSL genes in several fungal species, showing that this family is not confined to metazoans. We have analyzed their sequence conservation and identified the presence of well-defined domains typical of genuine CSL proteins. Furthermore, we have shown that the candidate fungal protein sequences contain highly conserved regions known to be required for sequence-specific DNA binding in their metazoan counterparts. The phylogenetic analysis of the newly identified fungal CSL proteins revealed the existence of two distinct classes, both of which are present in all the species studied. Conclusion Our findings support the evolutionary origin of the CSL transcription factor family in the last common ancestor of fungi and metazoans. We hypothesize that the ancestral CSL function involved DNA binding and Notch-independent regulation of transcription and that this function may still be shared, to a certain degree, by the present CSL family members from both fungi and metazoans. PMID:17629904

  8. Disarming Bacterial Virulence through Chemical Inhibition of the DNA Binding Domain of an AraC-like Transcriptional Activator Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji; Hocking, Dianna M.; Cheng, Catherine; Dogovski, Con; Perugini, Matthew A.; Holien, Jessica K.; Parker, Michael W.; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Tauschek, Marija; Robins-Browne, Roy M.

    2013-01-01

    The misuse of antibiotics during past decades has led to pervasive antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of new and alternative approaches to combat bacterial infections. In most bacterial pathogens the expression of virulence is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, targeting pathogens with drugs that interfere with virulence gene expression offers an effective alternative to conventional antimicrobial chemotherapy. Many Gram-negative intestinal pathogens produce AraC-like proteins that control the expression of genes required for infection. In this study we investigated the prototypical AraC-like virulence regulator, RegA, from the mouse attaching and effacing pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, as a potential drug target. By screening a small molecule chemical library and chemical optimization, we identified two compounds that specifically inhibited the ability of RegA to activate its target promoters and thus reduced expression of a number of proteins required for virulence. Biophysical, biochemical, genetic, and computational analyses indicated that the more potent of these two compounds, which we named regacin, disrupts the DNA binding capacity of RegA by interacting with amino acid residues within a conserved region of the DNA binding domain. Oral administration of regacin to mice, commencing 15 min before or 12 h after oral inoculation with C. rodentium, caused highly significant attenuation of intestinal colonization by the mouse pathogen comparable to that of an isogenic regA-deletion mutant. These findings demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the DNA binding domains of transcriptional regulators is a viable strategy for the development of antimicrobial agents that target bacterial pathogens. PMID:24019519

  9. Coordinated effects of sequence variation on DNA binding, chromatin structure, and transcription.

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Helena; Waszak, Sebastian M; Gschwind, Andreas R; Raghav, Sunil K; Witwicki, Robert M; Orioli, Andrea; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Wiederkehr, Michaël; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Panousis, Nikolaos I; Yurovsky, Alisa; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Romano-Palumbo, Luciana; Planchon, Alexandra; Bielser, Deborah; Bryois, Julien; Padioleau, Ismael; Udin, Gilles; Thurnheer, Sarah; Hacker, David; Core, Leighton J; Lis, John T; Hernandez, Nouria; Reymond, Alexandre; Deplancke, Bart; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T

    2013-11-08

    DNA sequence variation has been associated with quantitative changes in molecular phenotypes such as gene expression, but its impact on chromatin states is poorly characterized. To understand the interplay between chromatin and genetic control of gene regulation, we quantified allelic variability in transcription factor binding, histone modifications, and gene expression within humans. We found abundant allelic specificity in chromatin and extensive local, short-range, and long-range allelic coordination among the studied molecular phenotypes. We observed genetic influence on most of these phenotypes, with histone modifications exhibiting strong context-dependent behavior. Our results implicate transcription factors as primary mediators of sequence-specific regulation of gene expression programs, with histone modifications frequently reflecting the primary regulatory event.

  10. A Trihelix DNA Binding Protein Counterbalances Hypoxia-Responsive Transcriptional Activation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Licausi, Francesco; Kosmacz, Monika; Oosumi, Teruko; van Dongen, Joost T.; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional activation in response to hypoxia in plants is orchestrated by ethylene-responsive factor group VII (ERF-VII) transcription factors, which are stable during hypoxia but destabilized during normoxia through their targeting to the N-end rule pathway of selective proteolysis. Whereas the conditionally expressed ERF-VII genes enable effective flooding survival strategies in rice, the constitutive accumulation of N-end-rule–insensitive versions of the Arabidopsis thaliana ERF-VII factor RAP2.12 is maladaptive. This suggests that transcriptional activation under hypoxia that leads to anaerobic metabolism may need to be fine-tuned. However, it is presently unknown whether a counterbalance of RAP2.12 exists. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses identified an uncharacterized trihelix transcription factor gene, which we named HYPOXIA RESPONSE ATTENUATOR1 (HRA1), as highly up-regulated by hypoxia. HRA1 counteracts the induction of core low oxygen-responsive genes and transcriptional activation of hypoxia-responsive promoters by RAP2.12. By yeast-two-hybrid assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation we demonstrated that HRA1 interacts with the RAP2.12 protein but with only a few genomic DNA regions from hypoxia-regulated genes, indicating that HRA1 modulates RAP2.12 through protein–protein interaction. Comparison of the low oxygen response of tissues characterized by different levels of metabolic hypoxia (i.e., the shoot apical zone versus mature rosette leaves) revealed that the antagonistic interplay between RAP2.12 and HRA1 enables a flexible response to fluctuating hypoxia and is of importance to stress survival. In Arabidopsis, an effective low oxygen-sensing response requires RAP2.12 stabilization followed by HRA1 induction to modulate the extent of the anaerobic response by negative feedback regulation of RAP2.12. This mechanism is crucial for plant survival under suboptimal oxygenation conditions. The discovery of the feedback loop regulating the oxygen

  11. Pax factors in transcription and epigenetic remodelling.

    PubMed

    Mayran, Alexandre; Pelletier, Audrey; Drouin, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    The nine Pax transcription factors that constitute the mammalian family of paired domain (PD) factors play key roles in many developmental processes. As DNA binding transcription factors, they exhibit tremendous variability and complexity in their DNA recognition patterns. This is ascribed to the presence of multiple DNA binding structural domains, namely helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains. The PD contains two HTH subdomains and four of the nine Pax factors have an additional HTH domain, the homeodomain (HD). We now review these diverse DNA binding modalities together with their properties as transcriptional activators and repressors. The action of Pax factors on gene expression is also exerted through recruitment of chromatin remodelling complexes that introduce either activating or repressive chromatin marks. Interestingly, the recent demonstration that Pax7 has pioneer activity, the unique property to "open" chromatin, further underlines the mechanistic versatility and the developmental importance of these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Amino acid residues critical for DNA binding and inducer recognition in CbnR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator from Cupriavidus necator NH9.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Ryota; Takada, Kaori; Takabayashi, Masae; Yamamoto, Yuko; Shimodaira, Jun; Kuroda, Naoko; Akiyama, Emiko; Udagawa, Mayumi; Minai, Ryoichi; Fukuda, Masao; Senda, Toshiya; Ogawa, Naoto

    2017-09-22

    CbnR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator from Cupriavidus necator NH9, activates the transcription of chlorocatechol-degradative enzymes. To activate the transcription, CbnR needs to bind not only to the cbnA promoter but also to the inducer. In this study, the transcriptional activity and DNA-binding activity of twenty-five mutants of CbnR were analyzed. Of the 17 mutants of the DNA-binding domain, 11 mutants lost their ability to activate transcription. While most mutants without transcriptional activation did not show DNA-binding activity, Asn17Ala, Gln29Ala, and Pro30Ala retained DNA-binding activity, suggesting that transcriptional activation by CbnR requires more than its binding to promoter DNA. Of the 8 mutants of the regulatory domain, 6 mutants changed their responses to the inducer, when compared with wild-type CbnR. Interestingly, Arg199Ala and Val246Ala induced constitutive expression of the cbnA promoter without the inducer, suggesting that these mutations brought about a conformational change mimicking that induced by the inducer molecule.

  13. Steric mechanism of auto-inhibitory regulation of specific and non-specific DNA binding by the ETS transcriptional repressor ETV6.

    PubMed

    De, Soumya; Chan, Anson C K; Coyne, H Jerome; Bhachech, Niraja; Hermsdorf, Ulrike; Okon, Mark; Murphy, Michael E P; Graves, Barbara J; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2014-04-03

    DNA binding by the ETS transcriptional repressor ETV6 (or TEL) is auto-inhibited ~50-fold due to an α-helix that sterically blocks its ETS domain binding interface. Using NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrate that this marginally stable helix is unfolded, and not displaced to a non-inhibitory position, when ETV6 is bound to DNA containing a consensus (5')GGAA(3') recognition site. Although significantly lower in affinity, binding to non-specific DNA is auto-inhibited ~5-fold and is also accompanied by helix unfolding. Based on NMR chemical shift perturbations, both specific and non-specific DNA are bound via the same canonical ETS domain interface. However, spectral perturbations are smaller for the non-specific complex, suggesting weaker and less well-defined interactions than in the specific complex. In parallel, the crystal structure of ETV6 bound to a specific DNA duplex was determined. The structure of this complex reveals that a non-conserved histidine residue in the ETS domain recognition helix helps establish the specificity of ETV6 for DNA-binding sites containing (5')GGAA(3')versus(5')GGAT(3'). These studies provide a unified steric mechanism for attenuating ETV6 binding to both specific and non-specific DNA and expand the repertoire of characterized auto-inhibitory strategies utilized to regulate ETS factors. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of the Pathway-Specific Positive Transcriptional Regulator for Actinorhodin Biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as a DNA-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Paloma; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel A.; Malpartida, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    The ActII-ORF4 protein has been characterized as a DNA-binding protein that positively regulates the transcription of the actinorhodin biosynthetic genes. The target regions for the ActII-ORF4 protein were located within the act cluster. These regions, at high copy number, generate a nonproducer strain by in vivo titration of the regulator. The mutant phenotype could be made to revert with extra copies of the wild-type actII-ORF4 gene but not with the actII-ORF4-177 mutant. His-tagged recombinant wild-type ActII-ORF4 and mutant ActII-ORF4-177 proteins were purified from Escherichia coli cultures; both showed specific DNA-binding activity for the actVI-ORF1–ORFA and actIII-actI intergenic regions. DNase I footprinting assays clearly located the DNA-binding sites within the −35 regions of the corresponding promoters, showing the consensus sequence 5′-TCGAG-3′. Although both gene products (wild-type and mutant ActII-ORF4) showed DNA-binding activity, only the wild-type gene was capable of activating transcription of the act genes; thus, two basic functions can be differentiated within the regulatory protein: a specific DNA-binding activity and a transcriptional activation of the act biosynthetic genes. PMID:10559161

  15. Definition of the transcriptional activation domains of three human HOX proteins depends on the DNA-binding context.

    PubMed

    Viganò, M A; Di Rocco, G; Zappavigna, V; Mavilio, F

    1998-11-01

    Hox proteins control developmental patterns and cell differentiation in vertebrates by acting as positive or negative regulators of still unidentified downstream target genes. The homeodomain and other small accessory sequences encode the DNA-protein and protein-protein interaction functions which ultimately dictate target recognition and functional specificity in vivo. The effector domains responsible for either positive or negative interactions with the cell transcriptional machinery are unknown for most Hox proteins, largely due to a lack of physiological targets on which to carry out functional analysis. We report the identification of the transcriptional activation domains of three human Hox proteins, HOXB1, HOXB3, and HOXD9, which interact in vivo with the autoregulatory and cross-regulatory enhancers of the murine Hoxb-1 and human HOXD9 genes. Activation domains have been defined both in a homologous context, i.e., within a HOX protein binding as a monomer or as a HOX-PBX heterodimer to the specific target, and in a heterologous context, after translocation to the yeast Gal4 DNA-binding domain. Transfection analysis indicates that activation domains can be identified in different regions of the three HOX proteins depending on the context in which they interact with the DNA target. These results suggest that Hox proteins may be multifunctional transcriptional regulators, interacting with different cofactors and/or components of the transcriptional machinery depending on the structure of their target regulatory elements.

  16. A DNA-binding factor specific for xenobiotic responsive elements of P-450c gene exists as a cryptic form in cytoplasm: Its possible translocation to nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa-Sehara, Atsuko; Yamane, Miyuki; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki

    1988-08-01

    Transcription of the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P-450c gene is induced by 3-methylcholanthrene or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Previously, the authors defined two xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs) of {approx}15 base pairs, both of which activate transcription in cis in response to these xenobiotics. Using a gel mobility shift assay, they have identified a factor that specifically binds to the XREs. This factor appears in nuclei of mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1 only when the cells are treated with the xenobiotics, while the factor is undetectable in the nuclei of a 3-methylcholanthrene-treated mutant of Hepa-1 with defective function of a xenobiotic receptor. In addition, the nuclear factor bound to the XRE in the gel was found to be associated with ({sup 3}H)TCDD when the cells were treated with it, suggesting that the xenobiotic receptor is at least a component of the DNA-binding factor. The cytoplasmic fraction from nontreated Hepa-1 cells also contains the factor as a cryptic form and prominently reveals its DNA-binding activity by incubation with 3-methylcholanthrene in vitro. These results not only suggest the involvement of the XRE-binding factor in transcriptional activation via XREs but also provide evidence that the binding of ligands to the preexisting factor in a cryptic form induces its XRE-binding activity, which is probably followed by its translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus.

  17. A sequence-selective single-strand DNA-binding protein regulates basal transcription of the murine tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (Timp-1) gene.

    PubMed

    Phillips, B W; Sharma, R; Leco, P A; Edwards, D R

    1999-08-06

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is important in maintaining the extracellular proteolytic balance during tissue remodeling processes. To allow homeostatic tissue turnover, the murine Timp-1 gene is expressed by most cells at a low basal level, and during acute remodeling its transcription is activated by a variety of stimuli. A non-consensus AP-1-binding site (5'-TGAGTAA-3') that is conserved in mammalian timp-1 genes is a critical element in basal and serum-stimulated transcription. We show here that each strand of this unusual AP-1 site binds a distinct single-stranded DNA-binding protein, although neither strand from a perfect consensus AP-1 site from the human collagenase gene shows similar binding. One of the single-strand binding factors, which we term ssT1, binds to a second upstream Timp-1 region between nucleotides -115 and -100. Deletion analysis demonstrated that this region is important in basal but not serum-inducible transcription. The ssT1 factor was 52-54 kDa by UV cross-linking of electrophoretic mobility shift assays and Southwestern blot analysis. Its binding to DNA shows sequence selectivity rather than specificity, with 5'-CT/ATTN((4-6))ATC-3' as a favored motif. Multiple ssT1-like activities were found in nuclear extracts from mouse fibroblasts and rat liver and testis, suggesting that these factors may regulate basal Timp-1 transcription in a tissue-specific fashion.

  18. DNA binding by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic switch protein is necessary for transcriptional activation of two viral delayed early promoters.

    PubMed

    Lukac, D M; Garibyan, L; Kirshner, J R; Palmeri, D; Ganem, D

    2001-08-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also known as human herpesvirus-8) establishes latent and lytic infections in both lymphoid and endothelial cells and has been associated with diseases of both cell types. The KSHV open reading frame 50 (ORF50) protein is a transcriptional activator that plays a central role in the reactivation of lytic viral replication from latency. Here we identify and characterize a DNA binding site for the ORF50 protein that is shared by the promoters of two delayed early genes (ORF57 and K-bZIP). Transfer of this element to heterologous promoters confers on them high-level responsiveness to ORF50, indicating that the element is both necessary and sufficient for activation. The element consists of a conserved 12-bp palindromic sequence and less conserved sequences immediately 3' to it. Mutational analysis reveals that sequences within the palindrome are critical for binding and activation by ORF50, but the presence of a palindrome itself is not absolutely required. The 3' flanking sequences also play a critical role in DNA binding and transactivation. The strong concordance of DNA binding in vitro with transcriptional activation in vivo strongly implies that sequence-specific DNA binding is necessary for ORF50-mediated activation through this element. Expression of truncated versions of the ORF50 protein reveals that DNA binding is mediated by the amino-terminal 272 amino acids of the polypeptide.

  19. A damage-responsive DNA binding protein regulates transcription of the yeast DNA repair gene PHR1.

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, J; Sancar, G B

    1991-01-01

    The PHR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the DNA repair enzyme photolyase. Transcription of PHR1 increases in response to treatment of cells with 254-nm radiation and chemical agents that damage DNA. We report here the identification of a damage-responsive DNA binding protein, termed photolyase regulatory protein (PRP), and its cognate binding site, termed the PHR1 upstream repression sequence, that together regulate induction of PHR1 transcription after DNA damage. PRP activity, monitored by electrophoretic-mobility-shift assay, was detected in cells during normal growth but disappeared within 30 min after irradiation. Copper-phenanthroline footprinting of PRP-DNA complexes revealed that PRP protects a 39-base-pair region of PHR1 5' flanking sequence beginning 40 base pairs upstream from the coding sequence. A prominent feature of the foot-printed region is a 22-base-pair palindrome. Deletion of the PHR1 upstream repression sequence increased the basal level expression of PHR1 in vivo and decreased induction after exposure of cells to UV radiation or methyl methanesulfonate, whereas insertion of the PRP binding site between the CYC1 upstream activation sequence and "TATA" sequence reduced basal level expression and conferred damage responsiveness upon a reporter gene. Thus these observations establish that PRP is a damage-responsive repressor of PHR1 transcription. Images PMID:1763039

  20. Dynamic phosphorylation of RelA on Ser42 and Ser45 in response to TNFα stimulation regulates DNA binding and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Lanucara, Francesco; Lam, Connie; Mann, Jelena; Monie, Tom P.; Colombo, Stefano A. P.; Holman, Stephen W.; Boyd, James; Dange, Manohar C.; Mann, Derek A.; White, Michael R. H.

    2016-01-01

    The NF-κB signalling module controls transcription through a network of protein kinases such as the IKKs, as well as inhibitory proteins (IκBs) and transcription factors including RelA/p65. Phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunits is critical for dictating system dynamics. Using both non-targeted discovery and quantitative selected reaction monitoring-targeted proteomics, we show that the cytokine TNFα induces dynamic multisite phosphorylation of RelA at a number of previously unidentified residues. Putative roles for many of these phosphorylation sites on RelA were predicted by modelling of various crystal structures. Stoichiometry of phosphorylation determination of Ser45 and Ser42 revealed preferential early phosphorylation of Ser45 in response to TNFα. Quantitative analyses subsequently confirmed differential roles for pSer42 and pSer45 in promoter-specific DNA binding and a role for both of these phosphosites in regulating transcription from the IL-6 promoter. These temporal dynamics suggest that RelA-mediated transcription is likely to be controlled by functionally distinct NF-κB proteoforms carrying different combinations of modifications, rather than a simple ‘one modification, one effect’ system. PMID:27466442

  1. Functional Interplay between CBP and PCAF in Acetylation and Regulation of Transcription Factor KLF13 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chao-Zhong; Keller, Kimberly; Chen, Yangchao; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300 and PCAF participate in transcriptional activation by many factors. We have shown that both CBP/p300 and PCAF stimulate the transcriptional activation by KLF13, a member of the KLF/Sp1 family, either individually or cooperatively. Here we further investigated how CBP and PCAF acetylation regulate KLF13 activity, and how these two co-activators functionally interplay in the regulation of KLF13 activity. We found that CBP and PCAF acetylated KLF13 at specific lysine residues in the zinc finger domain of KLF13. The acetylation by CBP, however, resulted in disruption of KLF13 DNA binding. Although the acetyltransferase activity of CBP is not required for stimulating the DNA binding activity of all of the transcription factors that we have examined, the disruption of factor DNA binding by CBP acetylation is factor-specific. We further showed that PCAF and CBP act synergistically and antagonistically to regulate KLF13 DNA binding depending on the status of acetylation. PCAF blocked CBP acetylation and disruption of KLF13 DNA binding. Conversely, acetylation of KLF13 by CBP prevented PCAF stimulation of KLF13 DNA binding. PCAF blocked CBP disruption of KLF13 DNA binding by preventing CBP acetylation of KLF13. These results demonstrate that acetylation by CBP has distinct effects on transcription factor DNA binding, and that CBP and PCAF regulate each other functionally in their regulation of transcription factor DNA binding. PMID:12758070

  2. Acetylation of lysine 109 modulates pregnane X receptor DNA binding and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Pasquel, Danielle; Doricakova, Aneta; Li, Hao; Kortagere, Sandhya; Krasowski, Matthew D; Biswas, Arunima; Walton, William G; Redinbo, Matthew R; Dvorak, Zdenek; Mani, Sridhar

    2016-09-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a major transcriptional regulator of xenobiotic metabolism and transport pathways in the liver and intestines, which are critical for protecting organisms against potentially harmful xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. Inadvertent activation of drug metabolism pathways through PXR is known to contribute to drug resistance, adverse drug-drug interactions, and drug toxicity in humans. In both humans and rodents, PXR has been implicated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Because of PXR's important functions, it has been a therapeutic target of interest for a long time. More recent mechanistic studies have shown that PXR is modulated by multiple PTMs. Herein we provide the first investigation of the role of acetylation in modulating PXR activity. Through LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified lysine 109 (K109) in the hinge as PXR's major acetylation site. Using various biochemical and cell-based assays, we show that PXR's acetylation status and transcriptional activity are modulated by E1A binding protein (p300) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Based on analysis of acetylation site mutants, we found that acetylation at K109 represses PXR transcriptional activity. The mechanism involves loss of RXRα dimerization and reduced binding to cognate DNA response elements. This mechanism may represent a promising therapeutic target using modulators of PXR acetylation levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Maxwell W.; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M.; Huck, John D.; Surtees, Jennifer A.; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2–Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2–Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2–Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2–Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2–Msh3 and Msh2–Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2–Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  4. Thermodynamic Characterization of the Folding Coupled DNA Binding by the Monomeric Transcription Activator GCN4 Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Cao, Wei; Cao, Aoneng; Lai, Luhua

    2003-01-01

    Dimerization is a widely believed critical requirement for the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 specifically recognizing its DNA target sites. Nonetheless, the binding of the monomeric GCN4 to DNA target sites AP-1 and ATF/CREB was recently detected by kinetic studies. Here, for the first time, we present a detailed description of the thermodynamics of a monomeric peptide GCN4-br, the basic region (226–252) of GCN4, binding to AP-1, and ATF/CREB. GCN4 specifically binds to AP-1 and ATF/CREB in the monomeric form as shown by our circular dichroism thermal unfolding measurements. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicate that the binding process of GCN4-br with DNA is enthalpically driven, accompanied by an unfavorable entropy change. The temperature dependence of ΔH0 reveals negative changes in heat capacity ΔCp: ΔCp = −0.92 kJ · mol−1 K−1 and ΔCp = −0.95 kJ · mol−1 K−1 for GCN4-br binding to AP-1 and ATF/CREB, respectively, which is a striking manifestation of GCN4-br specifically recognizing DNA target sites. These thermodynamic characteristics may give new insight into the mechanism by which GCN4 protein binds to DNA target sites for its transcriptional regulation. PMID:12609888

  5. HTLV-1 Tax Protein Stimulation of DNA Binding of bZIP Proteins by Enhancing Dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Susanne; Green, Michael R.

    1993-10-01

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  6. DBD: a transcription factor prediction database.

    PubMed

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2006-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression influences almost all biological processes in an organism; sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors are critical to this control. For most genomes, the repertoire of transcription factors is only partially known. Hitherto transcription factor identification has been largely based on genome annotation pipelines that use pairwise sequence comparisons, which detect only those factors similar to known genes, or on functional classification schemes that amalgamate many types of proteins into the category of 'transcription factor'. Using a novel transcription factor identification method, the DBD transcription factor database fills this void, providing genome-wide transcription factor predictions for organisms from across the tree of life. The prediction method behind DBD identifies sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors through homology using profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) of domains. Thus, it is limited to factors that are homologus to those HMMs. The collection of HMMs is taken from two existing databases (Pfam and SUPERFAMILY), and is limited to models that exclusively detect transcription factors that specifically recognize DNA sequences. It does not include basal transcription factors or chromatin-associated proteins, for instance. Based on comparison with experimentally verified annotation, the prediction procedure is between 95% and 99% accurate. Between one quarter and one-half of our genome-wide predicted transcription factors represent previously uncharacterized proteins. The DBD (www.transcriptionfactor.org) consists of predicted transcription factor repertoires for 150 completely sequenced genomes, their domain assignments and the hand curated list of DNA-binding domain HMMs. Users can browse, search or download the predictions by genome, domain family or sequence identifier, view families of transcription factors based on domain architecture and receive predictions for a protein sequence.

  7. Redox regulation of c-Jun DNA binding by reversible S-glutathiolation.

    PubMed

    Klatt, P; Molina, E P; De Lacoba, M G; Padilla, C A; Martinez-Galesteo, E; Barcena, J A; Lamas, S

    1999-09-01

    Redox control of the transcription factor c-Jun maps to a single cysteine in its DNA binding domain. However, the nature of the oxidized state of this cysteine and, thus, the potential molecular mechanisms accounting for the redox regulation of c-Jun DNA binding remain unclear. To address this issue, we have analyzed the purified recombinant c-Jun DNA binding domain for redox-dependent thiol modifications and concomitant changes in DNA binding activity. We show that changes in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione provide the potential to oxidize c-Jun sulfhydryls by mechanisms that include both protein disulfide formation and S-glutathiolation. We provide evidence that S-glutathiolation, which is specifically targeted to the cysteine residue located in the DNA binding site of the protein, may account for the reversible redox regulation of c-Jun DNA binding. Furthermore, based on a molecular model of the S-glutathiolated protein, we discuss the structural elements facilitating S-glutathiolation and how this modification interferes with DNA binding. Given the structural similarities between the positively charged cysteine-containing DNA binding motif of c-Jun and the DNA binding site of related oxidant-sensitive transcriptional activators, the unprecedented phenomenon of redox-triggered S-thiolation of a transcription factor described in this report suggests a novel role for protein thiolation in the redox control of transcription.

  8. Formation of STAT5-containing DNA binding complexes in response to colony-stimulating factor-1 and platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed

    Novak, U; Mui, A; Miyajima, A; Paradiso, L

    1996-08-02

    Colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) activates several members belonging to the STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) family of transcription factors. We investigated the DNA binding complexes activated by CSF-1 in several cell lines and compared them with complexes activated by platelet-derived growth factor and interleukin 3. Our results indicate that the SIF-A complex activated by CSF-1 and platelet-derived growth factor may contain STAT3/STAT5 heterodimers binding to the high affinity SIF binding site, m67. In addition, both growth factors activate one or several STAT5-containing protein complexes binding to the prolactin-inducible element, PIE. The formation of these complexes was cell type and growth factor specific. Interleukin 3 activated only PIE binding complexes containing STAT5A and STAT5B and did not activate m67 binding complexes. It appears, therefore, that STAT5 cannot bind to m67 as a homodimer, but it can bind if it is dimerized with STAT3, whereas it can bind to the PIE element without being either complexed with STAT3 or any other known STAT protein, possibly as a homodimer or as STAT5A/STAT5B heterodimer. However, in addition, STAT5 may heterodimerize with other proteins and form novel PIE binding complexes.

  9. Identification of Preferred DNA-Binding Sites for the Thermus thermophilus Transcriptional Regulator SbtR by the Combinatorial Approach REPSA

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Matthew D.; Clay, Emily; Hiam, Kamir J.; McMurry, Jonathan L.; Xie, Ying

    2016-01-01

    One of the first steps towards elucidating the biological function of a putative transcriptional regulator is to ascertain its preferred DNA-binding sequences. This may be rapidly and effectively achieved through the application of a combinatorial approach, one involving very large numbers of randomized oligonucleotides and reiterative selection and amplification steps to enrich for high-affinity nucleic acid-binding sequences. Previously, we had developed the novel combinatorial approach Restriction Endonuclease Protection, Selection and Amplification (REPSA), which relies not on the physical separation of ligand-nucleic acid complexes but instead selects on the basis of ligand-dependent inhibition of enzymatic template inactivation, specifically cleavage by type IIS restriction endonucleases. Thus, no prior knowledge of the ligand is required for REPSA, making it more amenable for discovery purposes. Here we describe using REPSA, massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics to identify the preferred DNA-binding sites for the transcriptional regulator SbtR, encoded by the TTHA0167 gene from the model extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB8. From the resulting position weight matrix, we can identify multiple operons potentially regulated by SbtR and postulate a biological role for this protein in regulating extracellular transport processes. Our study provides a proof-of-concept for the application of REPSA for the identification of preferred DNA-binding sites for orphan transcriptional regulators and a first step towards determining their possible biological roles. PMID:27428627

  10. Specific interactions with TBP and TFIIB in vitro suggest that 14-3-3 proteins may participate in the regulation of transcription when part of a DNA binding complex.

    PubMed

    Pan, S; Sehnke, P C; Ferl, R J; Gurley, W B

    1999-08-01

    The 14-3-3 family of multifunctional proteins is highly conserved among animals, plants, and yeast. Several studies have shown that these proteins are associated with a G-box DNA binding complex and are present in the nucleus in several plant and animal species. In this study, 14-3-3 proteins are shown to bind the TATA box binding protein (TBP), transcription factor IIB (TFIIB), and the human TBP-associated factor hTAF(II)32 in vitro but not hTAF(II)55. The interactions with TBP and TFIIB were highly specific, requiring amino acid residues in the box 1 domain of the 14-3-3 protein. These interactions do not require formation of the 14-3-3 dimer and are not dependent on known 14-3-3 recognition motifs containing phosphoserine. The 14-3-3-TFIIB interaction appears to occur within the same domain of TFIIB that binds the human herpes simplex virus transcriptional activator VP16, because VP16 and 14-3-3 were able to compete for interaction with TFIIB in vitro. In a plant transient expression system, 14-3-3 was able to activate GAL4-dependent beta-glucuronidase reporter gene expression at low levels when translationally fused with the GAL4 DNA binding domain. The in vitro binding with general transcription factors TBP and TFIIB together with its nuclear location provide evidence supporting a role for 14-3-3 proteins as transcriptional activators or coactivators when part of a DNA binding complex.

  11. Mercuric ion attenuates nuclear factor-kappaB activation and DNA binding in normal rat kidney epithelial cells: implications for mercury-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dieguez-Acuña, F J; Ellis, M E; Kushleika, J; Woods, J S

    2001-06-15

    Mercuric ion (Hg(2+)), one of the strongest thiol-binding agents known, mediates the toxicity associated with elemental, inorganic, and organic mercurial compounds. Studies of cellular events associated with Hg(2+) toxicity have focused largely on disruption of cell membranes and impairment of mitochondrial functions. In contrast, few studies have sought to define the specific molecular mechanisms through which Hg(2+) might affect toxicity via alteration of thiol-dependent signal transduction pathways that regulate cell proliferation and survival. Of particular interest in this regard is the effect of Hg(2+) on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a pleiotropic transcriptional factor that is known to require reduced cysteine moieties at critical steps of activation and DNA binding. Here, we evaluated the effects of Hg(2+) on the expression of NF-kappaB in normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK52E) cells, a principal target of Hg(2+) toxicity. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible form of NF-kappaB was readily detected in kidney cells and has been characterized as the p50p65 heterodimer. NF-kappaB-DNA binding was prevented in a dose-related manner by Hg(2+) (0-55 microM) in vitro when added to DNA binding reactions containing the nonthiol reducing agent Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP). Similarly, Hg(2+) at the same concentrations prevented DNA binding of a human recombinant wild-type p50p50 homodimer in binding reactions, and this effect was attenuated using a mutant form of the p50 protein containing a cys(62)-->ser(62) mutation. The inhibition of p50-DNA binding by Hg(2+) was reversible in a dose-related manner in vitro by competitive thiols DTT, GSH, and l-cysteine in binding reactions. In contrast, competitive thiols added to nuclear binding reactions were unable to reverse attenuation of LPS-mediated NF-kappaB-DNA binding affinity when cells were pretreated in vivo with Hg(2+) at concentrations as low as 2 microM prior to LPS administration

  12. Metal and DNA binding properties of a two-domain fragment of neural zinc finger factor 1, a CCHC-type zinc binding protein.

    PubMed

    Berkovits, H J; Berg, J M

    1999-12-21

    Neural zinc finger factor 1 (NZF-1) is a member of a family of neural-specific transcription factors that contain multiple copies of a relatively uncharacterized zinc binding motif. We have studied the metal binding and DNA binding properties of a fragment of NZF-1 containing two adjacent zinc binding domains. Partial proteolysis with endoproteinase Lys-C identified metal-stabilized fragments containing either one or both of the zinc binding domains. Both domains were required for specific DNA binding to the beta-retinoic acid receptor element, producing a DNase I footprint covering predominantly one strand. The metal binding site was probed via cobalt(II) substitution. The visible absorption spectrum of the cobalt(II) complex is consistent with Cys-Cys-His-Cys coordination of the metal. The two domains appear to have similar affinities for metal and bind cobalt(II) and zinc(II) with dissociation constants of 4 (+/- 2) x 10(-)(7) M and 1.4 (+/- 0.8) x 10(-)(10) M, respectively. The domains fold upon the addition of zinc, as observed by (1)H NMR. However, an additional weak binding site causes line broadening in the presence of excess zinc, presumably due to aggregation.

  13. A new mode of DNA binding distinguishes Capicua from other HMG-box factors and explains its mutation patterns in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Forés, Marta; Samper, Núria; Barbacid, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    HMG-box proteins, including Sox/SRY (Sox) and TCF/LEF1 (TCF) family members, bind DNA via their HMG-box. This binding, however, is relatively weak and both Sox and TCF factors employ distinct mechanisms for enhancing their affinity and specificity for DNA. Here we report that Capicua (CIC), an HMG-box transcriptional repressor involved in Ras/MAPK signaling and cancer progression, employs an additional distinct mode of DNA binding that enables selective recognition of its targets. We find that, contrary to previous assumptions, the HMG-box of CIC does not bind DNA alone but instead requires a distant motif (referred to as C1) present at the C-terminus of all CIC proteins. The HMG-box and C1 domains are both necessary for binding specific TGAATGAA-like sites, do not function via dimerization, and are active in the absence of cofactors, suggesting that they form a bipartite structure for sequence-specific binding to DNA. We demonstrate that this binding mechanism operates throughout Drosophila development and in human cells, ensuring specific regulation of multiple CIC targets. It thus appears that HMG-box proteins generally depend on auxiliary DNA binding mechanisms for regulating their appropriate genomic targets, but that each sub-family has evolved unique strategies for this purpose. Finally, the key role of C1 in DNA binding also explains the fact that this domain is a hotspot for inactivating mutations in oligodendroglioma and other tumors, while being preserved in oncogenic CIC-DUX4 fusion chimeras associated to Ewing-like sarcomas. PMID:28278156

  14. DNA-Binding Factor Target Identification by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in Plants.

    PubMed

    Posé, David; Yant, Levi

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) allows the precise identification of genomic loci that physically interact with a protein of interest, whether that protein is a transcription factor, a core polymerase, a histone, or other chromatin-associated protein. In short, tissue is first cross-linked to freeze a population of DNA-protein interactions at a stage of interest. Chromatin is then extracted, fragmented, and incubated with a specific antibody against the protein of interest. Next, the resultant DNA-protein complexes are immunoprecipitated and captured using beads that bind to the antibody constant region. Samples are finally reverse cross-linked to separate the bound fragments and the DNA is purified. This DNA is analyzed by quantitative PCR for enrichment of genomic regions expected to be bound by the protein under study. The protocol detailed in this chapter has been successfully applied in the identification of target genes for seven transcriptional regulators of diverse classes involved in Arabidopsis thaliana floral transition.

  15. HTLV-I Tax protein stimulation of DNA binding of bZIP proteins by enhancing dimerization.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S; Green, M R

    1993-10-15

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  16. Visually Relating Gene Expression and in vivo DNA Binding Data

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Min-Yu; Mackey, Lester; Ker?,; nen, Soile V. E.; Weber, Gunther H.; Jordan, Michael I.; Knowles, David W.; Biggin, Mark D.; Hamann, Bernd

    2011-09-20

    Gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data provide important information for understanding gene regulatory networks: in vivo DNA binding data indicate genomic regions where transcription factors are bound, and expression data show the output resulting from this binding. Thus, there must be functional relationships between these two types of data. While visualization and data analysis tools exist for each data type alone, there is a lack of tools that can easily explore the relationship between them. We propose an approach that uses the average expression driven by multiple of ciscontrol regions to visually relate gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data. We demonstrate the utility of this tool with examples from the network controlling early Drosophila development. The results obtained support the idea that the level of occupancy of a transcription factor on DNA strongly determines the degree to which the factor regulates a target gene, and in some cases also controls whether the regulation is positive or negative.

  17. Molecular Dissection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Integration Host Factor Reveals Novel Insights into the Mode of DNA Binding and Nucleoid Compaction*

    PubMed Central

    Sharadamma, Narayanaswamy; Harshavardhana, Yadumurthy; Ravishankar, Apoorva; Anand, Praveen; Chandra, Nagasuma; Muniyappa, K.

    2014-01-01

    The annotated whole-genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed that Rv1388 (Mtihf) is likely to encode for a putative 20-kDa integration host factor (mIHF). However, very little is known about the functional properties of mIHF or the organization of the mycobacterial nucleoid. Molecular modeling of the mIHF three-dimensional structure, based on the cocrystal structure of Streptomyces coelicolor IHF duplex DNA, a bona fide relative of mIHF, revealed the presence of Arg-170, Arg-171, and Arg-173, which might be involved in DNA binding, and a conserved proline (Pro-150) in the tight turn. The phenotypic sensitivity of Escherichia coli ΔihfA and ΔihfB strains to UV and methyl methanesulfonate could be complemented with the wild-type Mtihf but not its alleles bearing mutations in the DNA-binding residues. Protein-DNA interaction assays revealed that wild-type mIHF, but not its DNA-binding variants, binds with high affinity to fragments containing attB and attP sites and curved DNA. Strikingly, the functionally important amino acid residues of mIHF and the mechanism(s) underlying its binding to DNA, DNA bending, and site-specific recombination are fundamentally different from that of E. coli IHFαβ. Furthermore, we reveal novel insights into IHF-mediated DNA compaction depending on the placement of its preferred binding sites; mIHF promotes DNA compaction into nucleoid-like or higher order filamentous structures. We therefore propose that mIHF is a distinct member of a subfamily of proteins that serve as essential cofactors in site-specific recombination and nucleoid organization and that these findings represent a significant advance in our understanding of the role(s) of nucleoid-associated proteins. PMID:25324543

  18. Regulated assembly of transcription factors and control of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Beckett, D

    2001-11-30

    Proteins that function in regulation of transcription initiation are typically homo or hetero-oligomeric. Results of recent biophysical studies of transcription regulators indicate that the assembly of these proteins is often subject to regulation. This regulation of assembly dictates the frequency of transcription initiation via its influence on the affinity of a transcription regulator for DNA and its affect on target site selection. Factors that modulate transcription factor assembly include binding of small molecules, post-translational modification, DNA binding and interactions with other proteins. Here, the results of recent structural and/or thermodynamic studies of a number of transcription regulators that are subject to regulated assembly are reviewed. The accumulated data indicate that this phenomenon is ubiquitous and that mechanisms utilized in eukaryotes and prokaryotes share common features. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. Yin Yang 1: a multifaceted protein beyond a transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiyong; Cao, Paul; Wan, Mei Mei; Sui, Guangchao

    2010-01-01

    As a transcription factor, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) regulates the transcription of a dazzling list of genes and the number of its targets still mounts. Recent studies revealed that YY1 possesses functions independent of its DNA binding activity and its regulatory role in tumorigenesis has started to emerge.

  20. A novel mechanism of repression of the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter, by single strand DNA binding cold shock domain (Y-box) proteins in normoxic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Coles, Leeanne S; Diamond, Peter; Lambrusco, Lidia; Hunter, Julie; Burrows, Julie; Vadas, Mathew A; Goodall, Gregory J

    2002-11-15

    Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated in a number of diseases. It is therefore critical that mechanisms exist to strictly regulate VEGF expression. A hypoxia-responsive (HR) region of the VEGF promoter which binds the HIF-1 transcription factor is a target for many signals that up-regulate VEGF transcription. Repressors targeting the HIF-1 transcription factor have been identified but no repressors directly binding the HR promoter region had been reported. We now report a novel mechanism of repression of the VEGF HR region involving DNA binding. We find that single strand DNA-specific cold shock domain (CSD or Y-box) proteins repress the HR region via a binding site downstream of the HIF-1 site. The repressor site is functional in unstimulated, normoxic fibroblasts and represents a novel means to prevent expression of VEGF in the absence of appropriate stimuli. We characterized complexes forming on the VEGF repressor site and identified a previously unreported nuclear CSD protein complex containing dbpA. Nuclear dbpA appears to bind as a dimer and we determined a means by which nuclear CSD proteins may enter double strand DNA to bind to their single strand sites to bring about repression of the VEGF HR region.

  1. Mechanism for attenuation of DNA binding by MarR family transcriptional regulators by small molecule ligands.

    PubMed

    Perera, Inoka C; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Wilkinson, Steven P; Grove, Anne

    2009-07-31

    Members of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family control gene expression in a variety of metabolic processes in bacteria and archaea. Hypothetical uricase regulator (HucR), which belongs to the ligand-responsive branch of the MarR family, regulates uricase expression in Deinococcus radiodurans by binding a shared promoter region between uricase and HucR genes. We show here that HucR responds only to urate and, to a lesser extent, to xanthine by attenuated DNA binding, compared to other intermediates of purine degradation. Using molecular-dynamics-guided mutational analysis, we identified the ligand-binding site in HucR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and intrinsic Trp fluorescence have identified W20 from the N-terminal helix and R80 from helix 3, which serves as a scaffold for the DNA recognition helix, as being essential for ligand binding. Using structural data combined with in silico and in vitro analyses, we propose a mechanism for the attenuation of DNA binding in which a conformational change initiated by charge repulsion due to a bound ligand propagates to DNA recognition helices. This mechanism may apply generally to MarR homologs that bind anionic phenolic ligands.

  2. Spermine Attenuates the Action of the DNA Intercalator, Actinomycin D, on DNA Binding and the Inhibition of Transcription and DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Wu, Wen-Lin; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P.; Su, Wang-Lin; Chuang, Show-Mei; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion. PMID:23144800

  3. Spermine attenuates the action of the DNA intercalator, actinomycin D, on DNA binding and the inhibition of transcription and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Yu; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Lee, Yueh-Luen; Lai, Yi-Hua; Chen, Jeremy J W; Wu, Wen-Lin; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Su, Wang-Lin; Chuang, Show-Mei; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion.

  4. PER and TIM inhibit the DNA binding activity of a Drosophila CLOCK-CYC/dBMAL1 heterodimer without disrupting formation of the heterodimer: a basis for circadian transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Bae, K; Edery, I

    1999-08-01

    The Drosophila CLOCK (dCLOCK) and CYCLE (CYC) (also referred to as dBMAL1) proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are required for high-level expression of the circadian clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). Several lines of evidence indicate that PER, TIM, or a PER-TIM heterodimer somehow inhibit the transcriptional activity of a putative dCLOCK-CYC complex, generating a negative-feedback loop that is a core element of the Drosophila circadian oscillator. In this report we show that PER and/or TIM inhibits the binding of a dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer to an E-box-containing DNA fragment that is present in the 5' nontranscribed region of per and acts as a circadian enhancer element. Surprisingly, inhibition of this DNA binding activity by PER, TIM, or both is not accompanied by disruption of the association between dCLOCK and CYC. The results suggest that the interaction of PER, TIM, or both with the dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer induces a conformational change or masks protein regions in the heterodimer, leading to a reduction in DNA binding activity. Together with other findings, our results strongly suggest that daily cycles in the association of PER and TIM with the dCLOCK-CYC complex probably contribute to rhythmic expression of per and tim.

  5. Transcription initiation at the TATA-less spliced leader RNA gene promoter requires at least two DNA-binding proteins and a tripartite architecture that includes an initiator element.

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Gilinger, G; Mukherjee, D; Bellofatto, V

    1999-11-05

    Eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory signals, defined as core and activator promoter elements, have yet to be identified in the earliest diverging group of eukaryotes, the primitive protozoans, which include the Trypanosomatidae family of parasites. The divergence within this family is highlighted by the apparent absence of the "universal" transcription factor TATA-binding protein. To understand gene expression in these protists, we have investigated spliced leader RNA gene transcription. The RNA product of this gene provides an m(7)G cap and a 39-nucleotide leader sequence to all cellular mRNAs via a trans-splicing reaction. Regulation of spliced leader RNA synthesis is controlled by a tripartite promoter located exclusively upstream from the transcription start site. Proteins PBP-1 and PBP-2 bind to two of the three promoter elements in the trypanosomatid Leptomonas seymouri. They represent the first trypanosome transcription factors with typical double-stranded DNA binding site recognition. These proteins ensure efficient transcription. However, accurate initiation is determined an initiator element with a a loose consensus of CYAC/AYR (+1), which differs from that found in metazoan initiator elements as well as from that identified in one of the earliest diverging protozoans, Trichomonas vaginalis. Trypanosomes may utilize initiator element-protein interactions, and not TATA sequence-TATA-binding protein interactions, to direct proper transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II.

  6. Synergistic activation of transcription is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Drosophila fushi tarazu homeoprotein and can occur without DNA binding by the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ananthan, J; Baler, R; Morrissey, D; Zuo, J; Lan, Y; Weir, M; Voellmy, R

    1993-01-01

    Synergistic activation of transcription by Drosophila segmentation genes in tissue culture cells provides a model with which to study combinatorial regulation. We examined the synergistic activation of an engrailed-derived promoter by the pair-rule proteins paired (PRD) and fushi tarazu (FTZ). Synergistic activation by PRD requires regions of the homeodomain or adjacent sequences, and that by FTZ requires the first 171 residues. Surprisingly, deletion of the FTZ homeodomain does not reduce the capacity of the protein for synergistic activation, although this mutation abolishes any detectable DNA-binding activity. This finding suggests that FTZ can function through protein-protein interactions with PRD or other components of the homeoprotein transcription complex, adding a new layer of mechanisms that could underlie the functional specificities and combinatorial regulation of homeoproteins. Images PMID:8095092

  7. Recruitment of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 into specific intranuclear compartments depends on tyrosine phosphorylation that affects its DNA-binding and transactivation potential.

    PubMed Central

    Ktistaki, E; Ktistakis, N T; Papadogeorgaki, E; Talianidis, I

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) is a prominent member of the family of liver-enriched transcription factors, playing a role in the expression of a large number of liver-specific genes. We report here that HNF-4 is a phosphoprotein and that phosphorylation at tyrosine residue(s) is important for its DNA-binding activity and, consequently, for its transactivation potential both in cell-free systems and in cultured cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation did not affect the transport of HNF-4 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus but had a dramatic effect on its subnuclear localization. HNF-4 was concentrated in distinct nuclear compartments, as evidenced by in situ immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. This compartmentalization disappeared when tyrosine phosphorylation was inhibited by genistein. The correlation between the intranuclear distribution of HNF-4 and its ability to activate endogenous target genes demonstrates a phosphorylation signal-dependent pathway in the regulation of transcription factor activity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568236

  8. Embryonic neural inducing factor churchill is not a DNA-binding zinc finger protein: solution structure reveals a solvent-exposed beta-sheet and zinc binuclear cluster.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian M; Buck-Koehntop, Bethany A; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2007-08-31

    Churchill is a zinc-containing protein that is involved in neural induction during embryogenesis. At the time of its discovery, it was thought on the basis of sequence alignment to contain two zinc fingers of the C4 type. Further, binding of an N-terminal GST-Churchill fusion protein to a particular DNA sequence was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation selection assay, suggesting that Churchill may function as a transcriptional regulator by sequence-specific DNA binding. We show by NMR solution structure determination that, far from containing canonical C4 zinc fingers, the protein contains three bound zinc ions in novel coordination sites, including an unusual binuclear zinc cluster. The secondary structure of Churchill is also unusual, consisting of a highly solvent-exposed single-layer beta-sheet. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange and backbone relaxation measurements reveal that Churchill is unusually dynamic on a number of time scales, with the exception of regions surrounding the zinc coordinating sites, which serve to stabilize the otherwise unstructured N terminus and the single-layer beta-sheet. No binding of Churchill to the previously identified DNA sequence could be detected, and extensive searches using DNA sequence selection techniques could find no other DNA sequence that was bound by Churchill. Since the N-terminal amino acids of Churchill form part of the zinc-binding motif, the addition of a fusion protein at the N terminus causes loss of zinc and unfolding of Churchill. This observation most likely explains the published DNA-binding results, which would arise due to non-specific interaction of the unfolded protein in the immunoprecipitation selection assay. Since Churchill does not appear to bind DNA, we suggest that it may function in embryogenesis as a protein-interaction factor.

  9. De novo-engineered transcription activator-like effector (TALE) hybrid nuclease with novel DNA binding specificity creates double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Magdy M; Li, Lixin; Shamimuzzaman, Md; Wibowo, Anjar; Fang, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2011-02-08

    Site-specific and rare cutting nucleases are valuable tools for genome engineering. The generation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) promotes homologous recombination in eukaryotes and can facilitate gene targeting, additions, deletions, and inactivation. Zinc finger nucleases have been used to generate DSBs and subsequently, for genome editing but with low efficiency and reproducibility. The transcription activator-like family of type III effectors (TALEs) contains a central domain of tandem repeats that could be engineered to bind specific DNA targets. Here, we report the generation of a Hax3-based hybrid TALE nuclease with a user-selected DNA binding specificity. We show that the engineered TALE nuclease can bind to its target sequence in vitro and that the homodimeric TALE nuclease can cleave double-stranded DNA in vitro if the DNA binding sites have the proper spacing and orientation. Transient expression assays in tobacco leaves suggest that the hybrid nuclease creates DSB in its target sequence, which is subsequently repaired by nonhomologous end-joining repair. Taken together, our data show the feasibility of engineering TALE-based hybrid nucleases capable of generating site-specific DSBs and the great potential for site-specific genome modification in plants and eukaryotes in general.

  10. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase increases okadaic acid mediated AP-1 expression and DNA binding but has no effect on TRE dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, S F; Gupta, A; Bowden, G T

    1999-06-17

    By performing in vitro kinase assays we found in papilloma producing 308 mouse keratinocytes that okadaic acid elevated activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). This okadaic acid mediated activation of MAP kinases correlated with increased AP-1 binding to a consensus TPA responsive element (TRE) and elevated TRE dependent transcription. To determine the role of p38 MAP kinases in these processes we employed the specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB 203580. Using orthophosphate labeling we showed a decrease in phosphorylation of MAPK activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2) indicating reduced activity of p38 MAPKs utilizing this kinase as substrate. In contrast, we found that SB 203580 raised activities of ERK-1/2 and JNKs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed an increase in TRE binding activity in response to SB 203580 most likely resulting from increased expression of the major TRE binding components JunD and FosB as indicated by Western blot analyses. Increased TRE DNA binding failed to lead to increased transactivation correlating with the inability of SB 203580 to increase phosphorylation of these AP-1 proteins. These data indicate that SB 203580 sensitive p38 MAP kinases are not involved in okadaic acid mediated increases in TRE DNA binding and transactivation.

  11. Functional homology between the sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins nuclear factor I from HeLa cells and the TGGCA protein from chicken liver.

    PubMed Central

    Leegwater, P A; van der Vliet, P C; Rupp, R A; Nowock, J; Sippel, A E

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear factor I from HeLa cells, a protein with enhancing function in adenovirus DNA replication, and the chicken TGGCA protein are specific DNA-binding proteins that were first detected by independent methods and that appeared to have similar DNA sequence specificity. To test whether they are homologous proteins from different species we have compared (i) their DNA binding properties and (ii) their function in reconstituted adenovirus DNA replication systems. Using deletion and substitution mutants derived from the DNA binding site on the adenovirus 2 inverted terminal repeat, it was found that the two proteins protect the same 24-nucleotide region of both strands against DNase I digestion and that they have identical minimal recognition sequences of 15 bp containing dyad symmetry. Like nuclear factor I, the TGGCA protein enhances the initiation reaction of adenovirus 2 DNA replication in vitro in a DNA recognition site-dependent manner. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3709517

  12. THAP5 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor that is regulated in melanoma cells during DNA damage-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P.; Cilenti, Lucia; Ambivero, Camilla; Goto, Yamafumi; Takata, Minoru; Turkson, James; Li, Xiaoman Shawn; Zervos, Antonis S.

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. {yields} THAP5 is induced in melanoma cells upon exposure to UV or treatment with cisplatin. {yields} THAP5 induction correlates with the degree of apoptosis in melanoma cell population. {yields} THAP5 is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in melanoma cell death. -- Abstract: THAP5 was originally isolated as a specific interactor and substrate of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. It is a human zinc finger protein characterized by a restricted pattern of expression and the lack of orthologs in mouse and rat. The biological function of THAP5 is unknown but our previous studies suggest it could regulate G2/M transition in kidney cells and could be involved in human cardiomyocyte cell death associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this report, we expanded our studies on the properties and function of THAP5 in human melanoma cells. THAP5 was expressed in primary human melanocytes as well as in all melanoma cell lines that were tested. THAP5 protein level was significantly induced by UV irradiation or cisplatin treatment, conditions known to cause DNA damage. The induction of THAP5 correlated with a significant increase in apoptotic cell death. In addition, we show that THAP5 is a nuclear protein that could recognize and bind a specific DNA motif. THAP5 could also repress the transcription of a reporter gene in a heterologous system. Our work suggests that THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. Furthermore, THAP5 has a pro-apoptotic function and it was induced in melanoma cells under conditions that promoted cell death.

  13. Yeast TATA-box transcription factor gene.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M C; Kao, C C; Pei, R; Berk, A J

    1989-10-01

    The first step in the transcription of most protein-encoding genes in eukaryotes is the binding of a transcription factor to the TATA-box promoter element. This TATA-box transcription factor was purified from extracts of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using reconstitution of in vitro transcription reactions as an assay. The activity copurified with a protein whose sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel mobility is 25 kDa. The sequence of the amino-terminal 21 residues of this protein was determined by sequential Edman degradation. A yeast genomic library was screened with mixed oligonucleotides encoding six residues of the protein sequence. The yeast TATA-box factor gene was cloned, and DNA sequencing revealed a 720-base-pair open reading frame encoding a 27,016-Da protein. The identity of the clone was confirmed by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli and detecting TATA-box factor DNA binding and transcriptional activities in extracts of the recombinant E. coli. The TATA-box factor gene was mapped to chromosome five of S. cerevisiae. RNA blot hybridization and nuclease S1 analysis indicated that the major TATA-box factor mRNA is 1.3 kilobases, including an unusually long 5' untranslated region of 188 +/- 5 nucleotides. Homology searches showed a region of distant similarity to the calcium-binding structures of calpains, a structure that has a conformation similar to the helix-turn-helix motif of DNA binding proteins.

  14. Calling cards for DNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoyi; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David

    2007-01-01

    Identifying genomic targets of transcription factors is fundamental for understanding transcriptional regulatory networks. Current technology enables identification of all targets of a single transcription factor, but there is no realistic way to achieve the converse: identification of all proteins that bind to a promoter of interest. We have developed a method that promises to fill this void. It employs the yeast retrotransposon Ty5, whose integrase interacts with the Sir4 protein. A DNA-binding protein fused to Sir4 directs insertion of Ty5 into the genome near where it binds; the Ty5 becomes a “calling card” the DNA-binding protein leaves behind in the genome. We constructed customized calling cards for seven transcription factors of yeast by including in each Ty5 a unique DNA sequence that serves as a “molecular bar code.” Ty5 transposition was induced in a population of yeast cells, each expressing a different transcription factor–Sir4 fusion and its matched, bar-coded Ty5, and the calling cards deposited into selected regions of the genome were identified, revealing the transcription factors that visited that region of the genome. In each region we analyzed, we found calling cards for only the proteins known to bind there: In the GAL1–10 promoter we found only calling cards for Gal4; in the HIS4 promoter we found only Gcn4 calling cards; in the PHO5 promoter we found only Pho4 and Pho2 calling cards. We discuss how Ty5 calling cards might be implemented for mapping all targets of all transcription factors in a single experiment. PMID:17623806

  15. Protein−DNA binding in the absence of specific base-pair recognition

    PubMed Central

    Afek, Ariel; Schipper, Joshua L.; Horton, John; Gordân, Raluca; Lukatsky, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Until now, it has been reasonably assumed that specific base-pair recognition is the only mechanism controlling the specificity of transcription factor (TF)−DNA binding. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that nonspecific DNA sequences possessing certain repeat symmetries, when present outside of specific TF binding sites (TFBSs), statistically control TF−DNA binding preferences. We used high-throughput protein−DNA binding assays to measure the binding levels and free energies of binding for several human TFs to tens of thousands of short DNA sequences with varying repeat symmetries. Based on statistical mechanics modeling, we identify a new protein−DNA binding mechanism induced by DNA sequence symmetry in the absence of specific base-pair recognition, and experimentally demonstrate that this mechanism indeed governs protein−DNA binding preferences. PMID:25313048

  16. Transcriptional control mediated by the ArcA two-component response regulator protein of Escherichia coli: characterization of DNA binding at target promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, A S; Lin, E C

    1996-01-01

    ArcA protein bearing an amino-terminal, oligohistidine extension has been purified, and its DNA binding activity has been characterized with or without prior incubation with carbamoyl phosphate. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I protection assays indicate that where the phosphorylated form of the ArcA protein (ArcA-P) is expected to act as a transcriptional repressor (e.g., of lctPRD and gltA-sdhCDAB), the effect is likely to be mediated by sequestration of cis-controlling transcriptional regulatory elements. In contrast, in the case of cydAB, for which ArcA-P is expected to function as a transcriptional activator, two discrete binding sites have been identified upstream of a known promoter, and activation from these sites is likely to be mediated by a mechanism typical of the type I class of prokaryotic transcriptional activators. An additional ArcA-P binding site has also been located downstream of the known promoter, and a distinct role for this site in the regulation of the cydAB operon during anoxic growth transitions is suggested. These results are discussed within the framework of an overall model of signaling by the Arc two-component signal transduction system in response to changes in aerobiosis. PMID:8892825

  17. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA cross-linking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5' → 3' exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATAC-seq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches.

  18. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA crosslinking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5′ → 3′ exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATACseq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases, and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches. PMID:26038153

  19. Structures of apo IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains: effect of loop L1 on DNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    De Ioannes, Pablo; Escalante, Carlos R.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2013-11-20

    Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 are transcription factors essential in the activation of interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) gene in response to viral infections. Although, both proteins recognize the same consensus IRF binding site AANNGAAA, they have distinct DNA binding preferences for sites in vivo. The X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains (DBDs) bound to IFN-{beta} promoter elements revealed flexibility in the loops (L1-L3) and the residues that make contacts with the target sequence. To characterize the conformational changes that occur on DNA binding and how they differ between IRF family members, we have solved the X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DBDs in the absence of DNA. We found that loop L1, carrying the conserved histidine that interacts with the DNA minor groove, is disordered in apo IRF-3 but is ordered in apo IRF-7. This is reflected in differences in DNA binding affinities when the conserved histidine in loop L1 is mutated to alanine in the two proteins. The stability of loop L1 in IRF-7 derives from a unique combination of hydrophobic residues that pack against the protein core. Together, our data show that differences in flexibility of loop L1 are an important determinant of differential IRF-DNA binding.

  20. Structures of apo IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains: effect of loop L1 on DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    De Ioannes, Pablo; Escalante, Carlos R.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2011-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 are transcription factors essential in the activation of interferon-β (IFN-β) gene in response to viral infections. Although, both proteins recognize the same consensus IRF binding site AANNGAAA, they have distinct DNA binding preferences for sites in vivo. The X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains (DBDs) bound to IFN-β promoter elements revealed flexibility in the loops (L1–L3) and the residues that make contacts with the target sequence. To characterize the conformational changes that occur on DNA binding and how they differ between IRF family members, we have solved the X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DBDs in the absence of DNA. We found that loop L1, carrying the conserved histidine that interacts with the DNA minor groove, is disordered in apo IRF-3 but is ordered in apo IRF-7. This is reflected in differences in DNA binding affinities when the conserved histidine in loop L1 is mutated to alanine in the two proteins. The stability of loop L1 in IRF-7 derives from a unique combination of hydrophobic residues that pack against the protein core. Together, our data show that differences in flexibility of loop L1 are an important determinant of differential IRF-DNA binding. PMID:21596780

  1. Dampening DNA binding: a common mechanism of transcriptional repression for both ncRNAs and protein domains

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich, James A.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2010-01-01

    With eukaryotic non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) now established as critical regulators of cellular transcription, the true diversity with which they can elicit biological effects is beginning to be appreciated. Two ncRNAs, mouse B2 RNA and human Alu RNA, have been found to repress mRNA transcription in response to heat shock. They do so by binding directly to RNA polymerase II, assembling into complexes on promoter DNA, and disrupting contacts between the polymerase and the DNA. Such a mechanism of repression had not previously been observed for a eukaryotic ncRNA; however, there are examples of eukaryotic protein domains that repress transcription by blocking essential protein-DNA interactions. Comparing the mechanism of transcriptional repression utilized by these protein domains to that used by B2 and Alu RNAs raises intriguing questions regarding transcriptional control, and how B2 and Alu RNAs might themselves be regulated. PMID:20436282

  2. Quantification of Cooperativity in Heterodimer-DNA Binding Improves the Accuracy of Binding Specificity Models.

    PubMed

    Isakova, Alina; Berset, Yves; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Deplancke, Bart

    2016-05-06

    Many transcription factors (TFs) have the ability to cooperate on DNA elements as heterodimers. Despite the significance of TF heterodimerization for gene regulation, a quantitative understanding of cooperativity between various TF dimer partners and its impact on heterodimer DNA binding specificity models is still lacking. Here, we used a novel integrative approach, combining microfluidics-steered measurements of dimer-DNA assembly with mechanistic modeling of the implicated protein-protein-DNA interactions to quantitatively interrogate the cooperative DNA binding behavior of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ):retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer. Using the high throughput MITOMI (mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions) platform, we derived equilibrium DNA binding data for PPARγ, RXRα, as well as the PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer to more than 300 target DNA sites and variants thereof. We then quantified cooperativity underlying heterodimer-DNA binding and derived an integrative heterodimer DNA binding constant. Using this cooperativity-inclusive constant, we were able to build a heterodimer-DNA binding specificity model that has superior predictive power than the one based on a regular one-site equilibrium. Our data further revealed that individual nucleotide substitutions within the target site affect the extent of cooperativity in PPARγ:RXRα-DNA binding. Our study therefore emphasizes the importance of assessing cooperativity when generating DNA binding specificity models for heterodimers.

  3. Experimental determination of the evolvability of a transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Maerkl, Sebastian J; Quake, Stephen R

    2009-11-03

    Sequence-specific binding of a transcription factor to DNA is the central event in any transcriptional regulatory network. However, relatively little is known about the evolutionary plasticity of transcription factors. For example, the exact functional consequence of an amino acid substitution on the DNA-binding specificity of most transcription factors is currently not predictable. Furthermore, although the major structural families of transcription factors have been identified, the detailed DNA-binding repertoires within most families have not been characterized. We studied the sequence recognition code and evolvability of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family by creating all possible 95 single-point mutations of five DNA-contacting residues of Max, a human helix-loop-helix transcription factor and measured the detailed DNA-binding repertoire of each mutant. Our results show that the sequence-specific repertoire of Max accessible through single-point mutations is extremely limited, and we are able to predict 92% of the naturally occurring diversity at these positions. All naturally occurring basic regions were also found to be accessible through functional intermediates. Finally, we observed a set of amino acids that are functional in vitro but are not found to be used naturally, indicating that functionality alone is not sufficient for selection.

  4. DNA binding and transcriptional regulatory activity of mammalian achaete-scute homologous (MASH) proteins revealed by interaction with a muscle-specific enhancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Birren, S J; Saito, T; Anderson, D J

    1992-04-15

    The MASH genes are vertebrate homologues of achaete-scute, genes required for neuronal determination in Drosophila. The sequence of MASH1 and MASH2 contains a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif that is present in other transcriptional regulators such as MyoD and E12. In the absence of an authentic target for the MASH proteins, we examined their DNA binding and transcriptional regulatory activity by using a binding site (the E box) from the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene, a target of MyoD. Like myogenic bHLH proteins, the MASH proteins form heterooligomers with E12 that bind the MCK E box with high affinity in vitro. Unexpectedly, however, MASH1 and MASH2 also activate transcription of both exogenous and endogenous MCK in transfected C3H/10T1/2 fibroblasts. However, they do not induce myogenesis. Myogenic activity is not exclusively a property of the MyoD basic region, as substitution of this domain fails to confer myogenic activity on MASH1. These data suggest that different bHLH proteins may activate overlapping but distinct sets of target genes in the same cell type.

  5. A designed DNA binding motif that recognizes extended sites and spans two adjacent major grooves†

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jéssica; Mosquera, Jesús; García-Fandiño, Rebeca; Vázquez, M. Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L.

    2016-01-01

    We report the rational design of a DNA-binding peptide construct composed of the DNA-contacting regions of two transcription factors (GCN4 and GAGA) linked through an AT-hook DNA anchor. The resulting chimera, which represents a new, non-natural DNA binding motif, binds with high affinity and selectivity to a long composite sequence of 13 base pairs (TCAT-AATT-GAGAG). PMID:27252825

  6. Activation of transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling reduces aggregate formation of mislocalized TAR DNA-binding protein-43.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masataka; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ito, Hidefumi; Jiang, Shiwen; Fujita, Kengo; Wate, Reika; Nakano, Satoshi; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is naturally located in the nucleus and has been identified as the major component of cytoplasmic ubiquitinated inclusions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have reported that TDP-43 and phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2), an intracellular mediator protein of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling, are co-localized within cytoplasmic inclusions in the anterior horn cells of sporadic ALS patients. To investigate the possible pathophysiological linkage between pathologic cytoplasmic inclusions containing TDP-43 and TGFβ/Smad signaling. We replicated cytoplasmic aggregates of TDP-43 in HEK293T cells by transfecting the cells with a nuclear localization signal deletion mutant of TDP-43 and inhibiting proteasome activity, and assessed the effect of TGFβ/Smad signaling on the cytoplasmic aggregate formation. The aggregates contained ubiquitinated, phosphorylated, and fragmented TDP-43, consistent with the essential features of the human pathology. Moreover, the aggregates were co-localized with pSmad2 under continuous TGFβ stimulation. Overexpression of Smad2 reduced the amount of cytoplasmic aggregates in HEK293T cells, and TGFβ stimulation augmented this reduction effect in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of the TGFβ/Smad signaling system is protective against aggregate formation of cytoplasmically mislocalized TDP-43 and may be a potential therapeutic approach to delay progression of ALS. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Differential use of SCL/TAL-1 DNA-binding domain in developmental hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Mira T; Chagraoui, Hedia; Vyas, Paresh; Porcher, Catherine

    2008-08-15

    Dissecting the molecular mechanisms used by developmental regulators is essential to understand tissue specification/differentiation. SCL/TAL-1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor absolutely critical for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell specification and lineage maturation. Using in vitro and forced expression experimental systems, we previously suggested that SCL might have DNA-binding-independent functions. Here, to assess the requirements for SCL DNA-binding activity in vivo, we examined hematopoietic development in mice carrying a germline DNA-binding mutation. Remarkably, in contrast to complete absence of hematopoiesis and early lethality in scl-null embryos, specification of hematopoietic cells occurred in homozygous mutant embryos, indicating that direct DNA binding is dispensable for this process. Lethality was forestalled to later in development, although some mice survived to adulthood. Anemia was documented throughout development and in adulthood. Cellular and molecular studies showed requirements for SCL direct DNA binding in red cell maturation and indicated that scl expression is positively autoregulated in terminally differentiating erythroid cells. Thus, different mechanisms of SCL's action predominate depending on the developmental/cellular context: indirect DNA binding activities and/or sequestration of other nuclear regulators are sufficient in specification processes, whereas direct DNA binding functions with transcriptional autoregulation are critically required in terminal maturation processes.

  8. A Key Evolutionary Mutation Enhances DNA Binding of the FOXP2 Forkhead Domain.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gavin; Fanucchi, Sylvia

    2016-04-05

    Forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors share a conserved forkhead DNA binding domain (FHD) and are key role players in the development of many eukaryotic species. Their involvement in various congenital disorders and cancers makes them clinically relevant targets for novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, the FOXP subfamily of multidomain transcriptional repressors is unique in its ability to form DNA binding homo and heterodimers. The truncated FOXP2 FHD, in the absence of the leucine zipper, exists in equilibrium between monomeric and domain-swapped dimeric states in vitro. As a consequence, determining the DNA binding properties of the FOXP2 FHD becomes inherently difficult. In this work, two FOXP2 FHD hinge loop mutants have been generated to successfully prevent both the formation (A539P) and the dissociation (F541C) of the homodimers. This allows for the separation of the two species for downstream DNA binding studies. Comparison of DNA binding of the different species using electrophoretic mobility shift assay, fluorescence anisotropy and isothermal titration calorimetry indicates that the wild-type FOXP2 FHD binds DNA as a monomer. However, comparison of the DNA-binding energetics of the monomer and wild-type FHD, reveals that there is a difference in the mechanism of binding between the two species. We conclude that the naturally occurring reverse mutation (P539A) seen in the FOXP subfamily increases DNA binding affinity and may increase the potential for nonspecific binding compared to other FOX family members.

  9. DNA-Binding Properties of African Swine Fever Virus pA104R, a Histone-Like Protein Involved in Viral Replication and Transcription.

    PubMed

    Frouco, Gonçalo; Freitas, Ferdinando B; Coelho, João; Leitão, Alexandre; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2017-06-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) codes for a putative histone-like protein (pA104R) with extensive sequence homology to bacterial proteins that are implicated in genome replication and packaging. Functional characterization of purified recombinant pA104R revealed that it binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) over a wide range of temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations and in an ATP-independent manner, with an estimated binding site size of about 14 to 16 nucleotides. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the arginine located in pA104R's DNA-binding domain, at position 69, was found to be relevant for efficient DNA-binding activity. Together, pA104R and ASFV topoisomerase II (pP1192R) display DNA-supercoiling activity, although none of the proteins by themselves do, indicating that the two cooperate in this process. In ASFV-infected cells, A104R transcripts were detected from 2 h postinfection (hpi) onward, reaching a maximum concentration around 16 hpi. pA104R was detected from 12 hpi onward, localizing with viral DNA replication sites and being found exclusively in the Triton-insoluble fraction. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown experiments revealed that pA104R plays a critical role in viral DNA replication and gene expression, with transfected cells showing lower viral progeny numbers (up to a reduction of 82.0%), lower copy numbers of viral genomes (-78.3%), and reduced transcription of a late viral gene (-47.6%). Taken together, our results strongly suggest that pA104R participates in the modulation of viral DNA topology, probably being involved in viral DNA replication, transcription, and packaging, emphasizing that ASFV mutants lacking the A104R gene could be used as a strategy to develop a vaccine against ASFV.IMPORTANCE Recently reintroduced in Europe, African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal disease in domestic pigs, causing high economic losses in affected countries, as no vaccine or treatment is currently

  10. Using protein-binding microarrays to study transcription factor specificity: homologs, isoforms and complexes

    PubMed Central

    Andrilenas, Kellen K.; Penvose, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Protein–DNA binding is central to specificity in gene regulation, and methods for characterizing transcription factor (TF)–DNA binding remain crucial to studies of regulatory specificity. High-throughput (HT) technologies have revolutionized our ability to characterize protein–DNA binding by significantly increasing the number of binding measurements that can be performed. Protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) are a robust and powerful HT platform for studying DNA-binding specificity of TFs. Analysis of PBM-determined DNA-binding profiles has provided new insight into the scope and mechanisms of TF binding diversity. In this review, we focus specifically on the PBM technique and discuss its application to the study of TF specificity, in particular, the binding diversity of TF homologs and multi-protein complexes. PMID:25431149

  11. In vitro transcription and DNA binding characteristics of chloroplast and etioplast extracts from mustard (Sinapis alba) indicate differential usage of the psbA promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Eisermann, A; Tiller, K; Link, G

    1990-01-01

    The psbA gene which is differentially expressed in vivo in chloroplasts and etioplasts has an unusual promoter, containing both prokaryotic-type '-35' and '-10' elements and a sequence motif that resembles the nuclear TATA box. Single base pair substitutions were introduced into the mustard psbA promoter and the mutants were tested in transcription and DNA binding experiments, using extracts from either chloroplasts or etioplasts. Positions within the '-35' region appear to play an essential role in the chloroplast but not in the etioplast system. Altering the first or second position of the 'TATA box'-like region led to decreased psbA in vitro transcription in either plastid extract. These two mutations, however, did not affect binding of extracts to the (linear) psbA promoter fragment in gel retardation assays. Fragments carrying two other plastid promoters effectively competed psbA promoter binding of the etioplast extract, but more weakly that of the chloroplast extract. Lambda exonuclease mapping shows that the 5' border of the binding region is more upstream with the etioplast than with the chloroplast system, whereas the 3' border appears to be the same. Hence, protein(s) of the two plastid types seem to interact differently with the mustard psbA promoter in vitro and perhaps also in vivo. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2249659

  12. DNA residence time is a regulatory factor of transcription repression.

    PubMed

    Clauß, Karen; Popp, Achim P; Schulze, Lena; Hettich, Johannes; Reisser, Matthias; Escoter Torres, Laura; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Gebhardt, J Christof M

    2017-08-21

    Transcription comprises a highly regulated sequence of intrinsically stochastic processes, resulting in bursts of transcription intermitted by quiescence. In transcription activation or repression, a transcription factor binds dynamically to DNA, with a residence time unique to each factor. Whether the DNA residence time is important in the transcription process is unclear. Here, we designed a series of transcription repressors differing in their DNA residence time by utilizing the modular DNA binding domain of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and varying the number of nucleotide-recognizing repeat domains. We characterized the DNA residence times of our repressors in living cells using single molecule tracking. The residence times depended non-linearly on the number of repeat domains and differed by more than a factor of six. The factors provoked a residence time-dependent decrease in transcript level of the glucocorticoid receptor-activated gene SGK1. Down regulation of transcription was due to a lower burst frequency in the presence of long binding repressors and is in accordance with a model of competitive inhibition of endogenous activator binding. Our single molecule experiments reveal transcription factor DNA residence time as a regulatory factor controlling transcription repression and establish TALE-DNA binding domains as tools for the temporal dissection of transcription regulation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Structural Basis for p53 Lys120-Acetylation-Dependent DNA-Binding Mode.

    PubMed

    Vainer, Radion; Cohen, Sarit; Shahar, Anat; Zarivach, Raz; Arbely, Eyal

    2016-07-31

    Normal cellular homeostasis depends on tight regulation of gene expression, which requires the modulation of transcription factors' DNA-binding specificity. That said, the mechanisms that allow transcription factors to distinguish between closely related response elements following different cellular signals are not fully understood. In the tumor suppressor protein p53, acetylation of loop L1 residue Lys120 within the DNA-binding domain has been shown to promote the transcription of proapoptotic genes such as bax. Here, we report the crystal structures of Lys120-acetylated p53 DNA-binding domain in complex with a consensus response element and with the natural BAX response element. Our structural analyses reveal that Lys120 acetylation expands the conformational space of loop L1 in the DNA-bound state. Loop L1 flexibility is known to increase p53's DNA-binding specificity, and Lys120-acetylation-dependent conformational changes in loop L1 enable the formation of sequence-dependent DNA-binding modes for p53. Furthermore, binding to the natural BAX response element is accompanied by global conformational changes, deformation of the DNA helical structure, and formation of an asymmetric tetrameric complex. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for p53's Lys120 acetylation-dependent DNA-binding mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in DNA Binding Specificity of Floral Homeotic Protein Complexes Predict Organ-Specific Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Smaczniak, Cezary; Muiño, Jose M; Chen, Dijun; Angenent, Gerco C; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Floral organ identities in plants are specified by the combinatorial action of homeotic master regulatory transcription factors. However, how these factors achieve their regulatory specificities is still largely unclear. Genome-wide in vivo DNA binding data show that homeotic MADS domain proteins recognize partly distinct genomic regions, suggesting that DNA binding specificity contributes to functional differences of homeotic protein complexes. We used in vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (SELEX-seq) on several floral MADS domain protein homo- and heterodimers to measure their DNA binding specificities. We show that specification of reproductive organs is associated with distinct binding preferences of a complex formed by SEPALLATA3 and AGAMOUS. Binding specificity is further modulated by different binding site spacing preferences. Combination of SELEX-seq and genome-wide DNA binding data allows differentiation between targets in specification of reproductive versus perianth organs in the flower. We validate the importance of DNA binding specificity for organ-specific gene regulation by modulating promoter activity through targeted mutagenesis. Our study shows that intrafamily protein interactions affect DNA binding specificity of floral MADS domain proteins. Differential DNA binding of MADS domain protein complexes plays a role in the specificity of target gene regulation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Difference in DNA-binding abilities of Fur-homolog DNA binding protein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Angshuman

    2016-10-01

    Gonorrhea is a severe disease infecting both men and women worldwide. The causative agent of the disease is Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The organism mostly affects human beings in iron restricted environments. In such an environment the organism produces a set of proteins which are mostly absent in iron rich environments. The expressions of the genes for the proteins are regulated by the transcription factor (TF) belonging to the Fur family. Interestingly, the same TF acts as the activator and repressor of genes. In this present work, an attempt has been made to analyze the molecular details of the differential DNA-binding activities of the TF from Neisseria gonorrhoeae to come up with a plausible molecular reason behind the difference DNA binding activities of the same TF. Computational modelling technique was used to build the three dimensional structure of the TF. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to determine the binding interactions between the TF and the promoter DNA. With the help of the computational techniques, the biochemical reason behind the different modes of DNA binding by the TF was analyzed. Results from this analysis may be useful to future drug development endeavours to curtail the spread of Gonorrhea.

  16. Genomic and Biochemical Insights into the Specificity of ETS Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hollenhorst, Peter C.; McIntosh, Lawrence P.; Graves, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    ETS proteins are a group of evolutionarily related, DNA-binding transcriptional factors. These proteins direct gene expression in diverse normal and disease states by binding to specific promoters and enhancers and facilitating assembly of other components of the transcriptional machinery. The highly conserved DNA-binding ETS domain defines the family and is responsible for specific recognition of a common sequence motif, 5′-GGA(A/T)-3′. Attaining specificity for biological regulation in such a family is thus a conundrum. We present the current knowledge of routes to functional diversity and DNA binding specificity, including divergent properties of the conserved ETS and PNT domains, the involvement of flanking structured and unstructured regions appended to these dynamic domains, posttranslational modifications, and protein partnerships with other DNA-binding proteins and coregulators. The review emphasizes recent advances from biochemical and biophysical approaches, as well as insights from genomic studies that detect ETS-factor occupancy in living cells. PMID:21548782

  17. Genetic analysis of Xenopus transcription factor IIIA.

    PubMed

    Bumbulis, M J; Wroblewski, G; McKean, D; Setzer, D R

    1998-12-18

    We describe a method for the genetic analysis of the DNA-binding properties of Xenopus transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). In this approach, a transcriptional activator with the DNA-binding specificity of Xenopus TFIIIA is expressed in yeast cells, where it specifically activates expression of a beta-galactosidase reporter gene containing one or more Xenopus 5 S rRNA genes that function as upstream activator sequences. This transcription-promoting activity was used as the basis for a genetic assay of Xenopus TFIIIA's DNA-binding function in yeast, an assay that we show can be calibrated quantitatively to allow the affinity of the Xenopus TFIIIA-5 S rRNA gene interaction to be deduced from measurements of beta-galactosidase activity. We have combined this genetic assay with a simple and efficient method of mutagenesis that makes use of error-prone PCR and homologous recombination to generate and screen large numbers of TFIIIA mutants for those with altered 5 S rRNA gene-binding affinity. Over 30 such mutants have been identified and partially characterized. The mutants we have obtained provide strong support for the application to intact TFIIIA of recent structural models of the N-terminal zinc fingers of the protein bound to fragments of the 5 S rRNA gene. Other mutants permit identification of important residues in more C-terminal zinc fingers of TFIIIA for which high-resolution structural information is not currently available. Finally, our results have interesting implications with respect to the mechanism of activation of transcription by RNA polymerase II in yeast. Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  18. A mutation at proline-115 in the A-factor receptor protein of Streptomyces griseus abolishes DNA-binding ability but not ligand-binding ability.

    PubMed Central

    Onaka, H; Sugiyama, M; Horinouchi, S

    1997-01-01

    A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) and its specific receptor protein (ArpA) are required for streptomycin production and aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. A mutant strain HO1 that produced streptomycin and formed aerial mycelium and spores was derived from an A-factor-deficient mutant, S. griseus HH1. The phenotypes of mutant HO1 were found to result from a single amino acid replacement of ArpA; the proline residue at position 115 in the wild-type ArpA was replaced by serine, yielding mutant ArpA (P115S). The mutant ArpA (P115S) was still able to form a homodimer and possessed A-factor-binding ability but lost the ability to bind DNA. The properties of P115S suggest that ArpA consists of two independently functional domains, one for A-factor binding and one for DNA binding, and that proline-115 plays an important role in DNA binding. This is in agreement with the idea that A-factor binding to the COOH-terminal domain of ArpA causes a subtle conformational change of the distal NH2-terminal DNA-binding domain, resulting in dissociation of ArpA from DNA. PMID:9098075

  19. Nerve growth factor inhibits the synthesis of a single-stranded DNA binding protein in pheochromocytoma cells (clone PC12).

    PubMed Central

    Biocca, S; Cattaneo, A; Calissano, P

    1984-01-01

    Arrest of mitosis and neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma cells (clone PC12) is accompanied by a progressive inhibition of the synthesis of a protein that binds to single-stranded but not to double-stranded DNA. Time course experiments show that this inhibition is already apparent after a 2-day incubation with NGF and is maximum (85-95%) upon achievement of complete PC12 cell differentiation. Inhibition of the synthesis of this single-stranded DNA binding protein after 48 hr of incubation with NGF is potentiated by concomitant treatment of PC12 cells with antimitotic drugs acting at different levels of DNA replication. Purification on a preparative scale of this protein and analysis of its major physicochemical properties show that: (i) it constitutes 0.5% of total soluble proteins of naive PC12 cells; (ii) its molecular weight measured by NaDodSO4/PAGE is Mr 34,000 (sucrose gradient centrifugation under nondenaturing conditions yields a sedimentation coefficient s20,w of 8.1 S, indicating that the native protein is an oligomer); (iii) amino acid analysis demonstrates a preponderance of acidic over basic residues, while electrofocusing experiments show that it has an isoelectric point around 8.0; (iv) approximately 15% of the protein is phosphorylated in vivo. It is postulated that control of the synthesis of this protein is connected with activation of a differentiative program triggered by NGF in the PC12 neoplastic cell line at some step(s) of DNA activity. Images PMID:6585787

  20. Novel fungal transcriptional activators, Cmr1p of Colletotrichum lagenarium and pig1p of Magnaporthe grisea, contain Cys2His2 zinc finger and Zn(II)2Cys6 binuclear cluster DNA-binding motifs and regulate transcription of melanin biosynthesis genes in a developmentally specific manner.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, G; Kenmochi, Y; Takano, Y; Sweigard, J; Farrall, L; Furusawa, I; Horino, O; Kubo, Y

    2000-12-01

    Colletotrichum lagenarium and Magnaporthe grisea are plant pathogenic fungi that produce melanin during the appressorial differentiation stage of conidial germination and during the late stationary phase of mycelial growth. Here, we report the identification of genes for two unique transcription factors, CMR1 (Colletotrichum melanin regulation) and PIG1 (pigment of Magnaporthe), that are involved in melanin biosynthesis. Both Cmr1p and Pig1p contain two distinct DNA-binding motifs, a Cys2His2 zinc finger motif and a Zn(II)2Cys6 binuclear cluster motif. The presence of both these motifs in a single transcriptional regulatory protein is unique among known eukaryotic transcription factors. Deletion of CMR1 in C. lagenarium caused a defect in mycelial melanization, but not in appressorial melanization. Also, cmr1Delta mutants do not express the melanin biosynthetic structural genes SCD1 and THR1 during mycelial melanization, although the expression of these two genes was not affected during appressorial melanization.

  1. New Insights into Cooperative Binding of Homeodomain Transcription Factors PREP1 and PBX1 to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Zucchelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Elena; Blasi, Francesco; Musco, Giovanna; Bruckmann, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    PREP1 and PBX1 are homeodomain (HD) transcription factors that play crucial roles in embryonic development. Here, we present the first biophysical characterization of a PREP1 HD, and the NMR spectroscopic study of its DNA binding pocket. The data show that residues flanking the HD participate in DNA binding. The kinetic parameters for DNA binding of individual PREP1 and PBX1 HDs, and of their combination, show that isolated PREP1 and PBX1 HDs bind to DNA in a cooperative manner. A novel PREP1 motif, flanking the HD at the C-terminus, is required for cooperativity. PMID:28094776

  2. The role of the C-terminal extension (CTE) of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta DNA binding domain in DNA binding and interaction with HMGB.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Vida Senkus; Harrell, Chuck; Adelman, James S; Kraus, W Lee; Churchill, Mair; Edwards, Dean P

    2004-04-09

    HMGB-1/-2 are coregulatory proteins that facilitate the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of steroid receptor members of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We investigated the influence and mechanism of action of HMGB-1/-2 (formerly known as HMG-1/-2) on estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta. Both ER subtypes were responsive to HMGB-1/-2 with respect to enhancement of receptor DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity in cells. Responsiveness to HMGB-1/-2 was dependent on the C-terminal extension (CTE) region of the ER DNA binding domain (DBD) and correlated with a direct protein interaction between HMGB-1/-2 and the CTE. Thus the previously reported higher DNA binding affinity and transcription activity of ERalpha as compared with ERbeta is not due to a lack of ERbeta interaction with HMGB-1/-2. Using chimeric receptor DBDs, the higher intrinsic DNA binding affinity of ERalpha than ERbeta was shown to be due to a unique property of the ERalpha CTE, independent of HMGB-1/-2. The CTE of both ER subtypes was also shown to be required for interaction with ERE half-sites. These studies reveal the importance of the CTE and HMGB-1/-2 for ERalpha and ERbeta interaction with their cognate target DNAs.

  3. The Lon protease from the haloalkaliphilic archaeon Natrialba magadii is transcriptionally linked to a cluster of putative membrane proteases and displays DNA-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Diego E; Paggi, Roberto A; De Castro, Rosana E

    2011-05-20

    The ATP-dependent Lon protease is universally distributed in bacteria, eukaryotic organelles and archaea. In comparison with bacterial and eukaryal Lon proteases, the biology of the archaeal Lon has been studied to a limited extent. In this study, the gene encoding the Lon protease of the alkaliphilic haloarchaeon Natrialba magadii (Nmlon) was cloned and sequenced, and the genetic organization of Nmlon was examined at the transcriptional level. Nmlon encodes a 84 kDa polypeptide with a pI of 4.42 which contains the ATPase, protease and membrane targeting domains of the archaeal-type LonB proteases. Nmlon is part of an operon that encodes membrane proteases and it is transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA in N. magadii cells at different growth stages. Accordingly, NmLon was detected in cell membranes of N. magadii throughout growth by Western blot analysis using specific anti-NmLon antibodies. Interestingly, in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, purified NmLon bound double stranded as well as single stranded DNA in the presence of elevated salt concentrations. This finding shows that DNA-binding is conserved in the LonA and LonB subfamilies and suggests that Lon-DNA interaction may be relevant for its function in haloarchaea.

  4. The Methanosarcina acetivorans thioredoxin system activates DNA binding of the redox-sensitive transcriptional regulator MsvR

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Ryan; McCarver, Addison C.; Isom, Catherine E.; Karr, Elizabeth A.; Lessner, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    The production of biogas (methane) by anaerobic digestion is an important facet to renewable energy, but is subject to instability due to the sensitivity of strictly anaerobic methanogenic archaea (methanogens) to environmental perturbations, such as oxygen. An understanding of the oxidant-sensing mechanisms used by methanogens may lead to the development of more oxidant tolerant (i.e. stable) methanogen strains. MsvR is a redox-sensitive transcriptional regulator that is found exclusively in methanogens. We show here that oxidation of MsvR from Methanosarcina acetivorans (MaMsvR) with hydrogen peroxide oxidizes cysteine thiols, which inactivates MaMsvR binding to its own promoter (PmsvR). Incubation of oxidized MaMsvR with the M. acetivorans thioredoxin system (NADPH, MaTrxR, and MaTrx7) results in reduction of the cysteines back to thiols and activation of PmsvR binding. These data confirm that cysteines are critical for the thiol-disulfide regulation of PmsvR binding by MaMsvR and support a role for the M. acetivorans thioredoxin system in the in vivo activation of MaMsvR. The results support the feasibility of using MaMsvR and PmsvR, along with the Methanosarcina genetic system, to design methanogen strains with oxidant-regulated gene expression systems, which may aid in stabilizing anaerobic digestion. PMID:25791378

  5. In Vivo Estradiol, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene Modulation of Association/Dissociation Kinetics for Estrogen Receptor, Interacting Co-Factors and DNA Binding Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    is preferred clinically (3, 5 , 7 , 13). It is our goal to understand the molecular and cellular basis of the tissue-specific actions of these...IFinal (14 May 01 - 23 May 02) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS In Vivo Estradiol, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene Modulation of DAMDl7-01-1-0498...Association/Dissociation Kinetics for Estrogen Receptor, Interacting Co-Factors and DNA Binding Sites 6. AUTHOR(S) Fred J. Schaufele, Ph.D. 7

  6. Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) acts as an inhibitor of ID-1, -2 and -3 and promotes basic helix loop helix (bHLH) E47 DNA binding and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Chinaranagari, Swathi; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-05-01

    The four known ID proteins (ID1-4, Inhibitor of Differentiation) share a homologous helix loop helix (HLH) domain and act as dominant negative regulators of basic-HLH transcription factors. ID proteins also interact with many non-bHLH proteins in complex networks. The expression of ID proteins is increasingly observed in many cancers. Whereas ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3, are generally considered as tumor promoters, ID4 on the contrary has emerged as a tumor suppressor. In this study we demonstrate that ID4 heterodimerizes with ID-1, -2 and -3 and promote bHLH DNA binding, essentially acting as an inhibitor of inhibitors of differentiation proteins. Interaction of ID4 was observed with ID1, ID2 and ID3 that was dependent on intact HLH domain of ID4. Interaction with bHLH protein E47 required almost 3 fold higher concentration of ID4 as compared to ID1. Furthermore, inhibition of E47 DNA binding by ID1 was restored by ID4 in an EMSA binding assay. ID4 and ID1 were also colocalized in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. The alpha helix forming alanine stretch N-terminal, unique to HLH ID4 domain was required for optimum interaction. Ectopic expression of ID4 in DU145 prostate cancer line promoted E47 dependent expression of CDKNI p21. Thus counteracting the biological activities of ID-1, -2 and -3 by forming inactive heterodimers appears to be a novel mechanism of action of ID4. These results could have far reaching consequences in developing strategies to target ID proteins for cancer therapy and understanding biologically relevant ID-interactions.

  7. Identification of amino acids essential for DNA binding and dimerization in p67SRF: implications for a novel DNA-binding motif.

    PubMed Central

    Sharrocks, A D; Gille, H; Shaw, P E

    1993-01-01

    The serum response factor (p67SRF) binds to a palindromic sequence in the c-fos serum response element (SRE). A second protein, p62TCF binds in conjunction with p67SRF to form a ternary complex, and it is through this complex that growth factor-induced transcriptional activation of c-fos is thought to take place. A 90-amino-acid peptide, coreSRF, is capable for dimerizing, binding DNA, and recruiting p62TCF. By using extensive site-directed mutagenesis we have investigated the role of individual coreSRF amino acids in DNA binding. Mutant phenotypes were defined by gel retardation and cross-linking analyses. Our results have identified residues essential for either DNA binding or dimerization. Three essential basic amino acids whose conservative mutation severely reduced DNA binding were identified. Evidence which is consistent with these residues being on the face of a DNA binding alpha-helix is presented. A phenylalanine residue and a hexameric hydrophobic box are identified as essential for dimerization. The amino acid phasing is consistent with the dimerization interface being presented as a continuous region on a beta-strand. A putative second alpha-helix acts as a linker between these two regions. This study indicates that p67SRF is a member of a protein family which, in common with many DNA binding proteins, utilize an alpha-helix for DNA binding. However, this alpha-helix is contained within a novel domain structure. Images PMID:8417320

  8. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  9. Proteopedia: 3D Visualization and Annotation of Transcription Factor-DNA Readout Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantas Machado, Ana Carolina; Saleebyan, Skyler B.; Holmes, Bailey T.; Karelina, Maria; Tam, Julia; Kim, Sharon Y.; Kim, Keziah H.; Dror, Iris; Hodis, Eran; Martz, Eric; Compeau, Patricia A.; Rohs, Remo

    2012-01-01

    3D visualization assists in identifying diverse mechanisms of protein-DNA recognition that can be observed for transcription factors and other DNA binding proteins. We used Proteopedia to illustrate transcription factor-DNA readout modes with a focus on DNA shape, which can be a function of either nucleotide sequence (Hox proteins) or base pairing…

  10. Proteopedia: 3D Visualization and Annotation of Transcription Factor-DNA Readout Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantas Machado, Ana Carolina; Saleebyan, Skyler B.; Holmes, Bailey T.; Karelina, Maria; Tam, Julia; Kim, Sharon Y.; Kim, Keziah H.; Dror, Iris; Hodis, Eran; Martz, Eric; Compeau, Patricia A.; Rohs, Remo

    2012-01-01

    3D visualization assists in identifying diverse mechanisms of protein-DNA recognition that can be observed for transcription factors and other DNA binding proteins. We used Proteopedia to illustrate transcription factor-DNA readout modes with a focus on DNA shape, which can be a function of either nucleotide sequence (Hox proteins) or base pairing…

  11. The Oncogenic Capacity of HRX-ENL Requires the Transcriptional Transactivation Activity of ENL and the DNA Binding Motifs of HRX

    PubMed Central

    Slany, Robert K.; Lavau, Catherine; Cleary, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The HRX gene (also called MLL, ALL-1, and Htrx) at chromosome band 11q23 is associated with specific subsets of acute leukemias through translocations that result in its fusion with a variety of heterologous partners. Two of these partners, ENL and AF9, code for proteins that are highly similar to each other and as fusions with HRX induce myeloid leukemias in mice as demonstrated by retroviral gene transfer and knock-in experiments, respectively. In the present study, a structure-function analysis was performed to determine the molecular requirements for in vitro immortalization of murine myeloid cells by HRX-ENL. Deletions of either the AT hook motifs or the methyltransferase homology domain of HRX substantially impaired the transforming effects of HRX-ENL. The methyltransferase homology domain was shown to bind non-sequence specifically to DNA in vitro, providing evidence that the full transforming activity of HRX-ENL requires multiple DNA binding structures in HRX. The carboxy-terminal 84 amino acids of ENL, which encode two predicted helical structures highly conserved in AF9, were necessary and sufficient for transformation when they were fused to HRX. Similarly, mutations that deleted one or both of these conserved helices completely abrogated the transcriptional activation properties of ENL. This finding correlates, for the first time, a biological function of an HRX fusion partner with the transforming activity of the chimeric proteins. Our studies support a model in which HRX-ENL induces myeloid transformation by deregulating subordinate genes through a gain of function contributed by the transcriptional effector properties of ENL. PMID:9418860

  12. The oncogenic capacity of HRX-ENL requires the transcriptional transactivation activity of ENL and the DNA binding motifs of HRX.

    PubMed

    Slany, R K; Lavau, C; Cleary, M L

    1998-01-01

    The HRX gene (also called MLL, ALL-1, and Htrx) at chromosome band 11q23 is associated with specific subsets of acute leukemias through translocations that result in its fusion with a variety of heterologous partners. Two of these partners, ENL and AF9, code for proteins that are highly similar to each other and as fusions with HRX induce myeloid leukemias in mice as demonstrated by retroviral gene transfer and knock-in experiments, respectively. In the present study, a structure-function analysis was performed to determine the molecular requirements for in vitro immortalization of murine myeloid cells by HRX-ENL. Deletions of either the AT hook motifs or the methyltransferase homology domain of HRX substantially impaired the transforming effects of HRX-ENL. The methyltransferase homology domain was shown to bind non-sequence specifically to DNA in vitro, providing evidence that the full transforming activity of HRX-ENL requires multiple DNA binding structures in HRX. The carboxy-terminal 84 amino acids of ENL, which encode two predicted helical structures highly conserved in AF9, were necessary and sufficient for transformation when they were fused to HRX. Similarly, mutations that deleted one or both of these conserved helices completely abrogated the transcriptional activation properties of ENL. This finding correlates, for the first time, a biological function of an HRX fusion partner with the transforming activity of the chimeric proteins. Our studies support a model in which HRX-ENL induces myeloid transformation by deregulating subordinate genes through a gain of function contributed by the transcriptional effector properties of ENL.

  13. A family of genus-specific RNAs in tandem with DNA-binding proteins control expression of the badA major virulence factor gene in Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Tu, Nhan; Carroll, Ronan K; Weiss, Andy; Shaw, Lindsey N; Nicolas, Gael; Thomas, Sarah; Lima, Amorce; Okaro, Udoka; Anderson, Burt

    2017-04-01

    Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative zoonotic bacterium that causes infections in humans including endocarditis and bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae has been shown to grow as large aggregates and form biofilms in vitro. The aggregative growth and the angiogenic host response requires the trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA. We examined the transcriptome of the Houston-1 strain of B. henselae using RNA-seq revealing nine novel, highly-expressed intergenic transcripts (Bartonella regulatory transcript, Brt1-9). The Brt family of RNAs is unique to the genus Bartonella and ranges from 194 to 203 nucleotides with high homology and stable predicted secondary structures. Immediately downstream of each of the nine RNA genes is a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding protein (transcriptional regulatory protein, Trp1-9) that is poorly transcribed under the growth conditions used for RNA-seq. Using knockdown or overexpressing strains, we show a role of both the Brt1 and Trp1 in the regulation of badA and also in biofilm formation. Based on these data, we hypothesize that Brt1 is a trans-acting sRNA that also serves as a cis-acting riboswitch to control the expression of badA. This family of RNAs together with the downstream Trp DNA-binding proteins represents a novel coordinated regulatory circuit controlling expression of virulence-associated genes in the bartonellae. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Multiple DNA-binding factors interact with overlapping specificities at the aryl hydrocarbon response element of the cytochrome P450IA1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Saatcioglu, F; Perry, D J; Pasco, D S; Fagan, J B

    1990-01-01

    to lack nuclear Ah receptor, expressed normal levels of XF1 and XF2, suggesting that the former factor is genetically distinct from the latter two; and (v) a divalent metal ion, probably Zn2+, is known to be an essential cofactor for the Ah receptor but was not required for the DNA-binding activities of XF1 and XF2. Together, these findings indicate that the Ah receptor is distinct from XF1 and XF2, while the latter two activities may be related. Because the DNA-binding domains of these three factors overlap substantially, their binding to XREs is probably mutually exclusive, which suggests that the interplay of these factors at Ah response elements may be important to the regulation of CYP1A1 gene transcription. The results of preliminary transfection experiments with constructs harboring XREs upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene driven by a minimal simian virus 40 promoter are presented that are consistent with this hypothesis. Images PMID:2174107

  15. Inhibition of host cell RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription by poliovirus: Inactivation of specific transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, L.G.; Yoshinaga, S.K.; Berk, A.J.; Dasgupta, A.

    1987-11-01

    The inhibition of transcription by RNA polymerase III in poliovirus-infected cells was studied. Experiments utilizing two different cell lines showed that the initiation step of transcription by RNA polymerase III was impaired by infection of these cells with the virus. The observed inhibition of transcription was not due to shut-off of host cell protein synthesis by poliovirus. Among four distinct components required for accurate transcription in vitro from cloned DNA templates, activities of RNA polymerase III and transcription factor TFIIIA were not significantly affected by virus infection. The activity of transcription factor TFIIIC, the limiting component required for transcription of RNA polymerase III genes, was severely inhibited in infected cells, whereas that of transcription factor TFIIIB was inhibited to a lesser extent. The sequence-specific DNA-binding of TFIIIC to the adenovirus VA1 gene internal promoted, however, was not altered by infection of cells with the virus. The authors conclude that (i) at least two transcription factors, TFIIIB and TFIIIC, are inhibited by infection of cells with poliovirtus, (ii) inactivation of TFIIIC does not involve destruction of its DNA-binding domain, and (iii) sequence-specific DNA binding by TFIIIC may be necessary but is not sufficient for the formation of productive transcription complexes.

  16. Transcriptional Repressor TrmBL2 from Thermococcus kodakarensis Forms Filamentous Nucleoprotein Structures and Competes with Histones for DNA Binding in a Salt- and DNA Supercoiling-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Artem K; Qu, Yuanyuan; Maruyama, Hugo; Lim, Ci J; Takeyasu, Kunio; Yan, Jie

    2015-06-19

    Architectural DNA proteins play important roles in the chromosomal DNA organization and global gene regulation in living cells. However, physiological functions of some DNA-binding proteins from archaea remain unclear. Recently, several abundant DNA-architectural proteins including histones, Alba, and TrmBL2 have been identified in model euryarchaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. Although histones and Alba proteins have been previously characterized, the DNA binding properties of TrmBL2 and its interplay with the other major architectural proteins in the chromosomal DNA organization and gene transcription regulation remain largely unexplored. Here, we report single-DNA studies showing that at low ionic strength (<300 mM KCl), TrmBL2 binds to DNA largely in non-sequence-specific manner with positive cooperativity, resulting in formation of stiff nucleoprotein filamentous patches, whereas at high ionic strength (>300 mM KCl) TrmBL2 switches to more sequence-specific interaction, suggesting the presence of high affinity TrmBL2-filament nucleation sites. Furthermore, in vitro assays indicate the existence of DNA binding competition between TrmBL2 and archaeal histones B from T. kodakarensis, which can be strongly modulated by DNA supercoiling and ionic strength of surrounding solution. Overall, these results advance our understanding of TrmBL2 DNA binding properties and provide important insights into potential functions of architectural proteins in nucleoid organization and gene regulation in T. kodakarensis.

  17. Transcriptional Repressor TrmBL2 from Thermococcus kodakarensis Forms Filamentous Nucleoprotein Structures and Competes with Histones for DNA Binding in a Salt- and DNA Supercoiling-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Efremov, Artem K.; Qu, Yuanyuan; Maruyama, Hugo; Lim, Ci J.; Takeyasu, Kunio; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Architectural DNA proteins play important roles in the chromosomal DNA organization and global gene regulation in living cells. However, physiological functions of some DNA-binding proteins from archaea remain unclear. Recently, several abundant DNA-architectural proteins including histones, Alba, and TrmBL2 have been identified in model euryarchaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. Although histones and Alba proteins have been previously characterized, the DNA binding properties of TrmBL2 and its interplay with the other major architectural proteins in the chromosomal DNA organization and gene transcription regulation remain largely unexplored. Here, we report single-DNA studies showing that at low ionic strength (<300 mm KCl), TrmBL2 binds to DNA largely in non-sequence-specific manner with positive cooperativity, resulting in formation of stiff nucleoprotein filamentous patches, whereas at high ionic strength (>300 mm KCl) TrmBL2 switches to more sequence-specific interaction, suggesting the presence of high affinity TrmBL2-filament nucleation sites. Furthermore, in vitro assays indicate the existence of DNA binding competition between TrmBL2 and archaeal histones B from T. kodakarensis, which can be strongly modulated by DNA supercoiling and ionic strength of surrounding solution. Overall, these results advance our understanding of TrmBL2 DNA binding properties and provide important insights into potential functions of architectural proteins in nucleoid organization and gene regulation in T. kodakarensis. PMID:25931116

  18. The effect of specific rhlA-las-box mutations on DNA binding and gene activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing transcriptional regulators RhlR and LasR.

    PubMed

    González-Valdez, Abigail; Servín-González, Luis; Juárez, Katy; Hernandez-Aligio, Alberto; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a free-living bacterium and an important opportunistic pathogen. The genes coding for virulence-associated traits are regulated at the level of transcription by the quorum-sensing response. In this response, the regulator LasR coupled with the autoinducer 3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) activates transcription of genes for several virulence factors. LasR/3O-C12-HSL also activates transcription of rhlR, the gene coding for the transcriptional regulator RhlR, and of rhlI that encodes the synthase that produces the autoinducer butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) that interacts with RhlR. Genes activated by RhlR/C4-HSL include those involved in rhamnolipids production (like the rhlAB operon) and lecA, coding for PA-I lectin. The molecular basis of LasR/3O-C12-HSL- and RhlR/C4-HSLDNA-binding specificity (at the so-called las-boxes) has not been clearly determined, and the aim of this work was to contribute to its understanding. Therefore, we analyzed the interaction of LasR and RhlR to variants of the rhlA-las-box that were constructed based on the comparison of this las-box to the las-box of lecA. We conclude that LasR and RhlR DNA-binding specificity is a complex multifactorial phenomenon in which both positive and negative effects are involved and that binding of these proteins does not necessarily result in gene activation.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cAMP Receptor Protein (Rv3676) Differs from the Escherichia coli Paradigm in Its cAMP Binding and DNA Binding Properties and Transcription Activation Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Melanie; Haq, Ihtshamul; Hunt, Debbie M.; Arnvig, Kristine B.; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Buxton, Roger S.; Green, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a burst of cAMP upon infection of macrophages. Bacterial cyclic AMP receptor proteins (CRP) are transcription factors that respond to cAMP by binding at target promoters when cAMP concentrations increase. Rv3676 (CRPMt) is a CRP family protein that regulates expression of genes (rpfA and whiB1) that are potentially involved in M. tuberculosis persistence and/or emergence from the dormant state. Here, the CRPMt homodimer is shown to bind two molecules of cAMP (one per protomer) at noninteracting sites. Furthermore, cAMP binding by CRPMt was relatively weak, entropy driven, and resulted in a relatively small enhancement in DNA binding. Tandem CRPMt-binding sites (CRP1 at −58.5 and CRP2 at −37.5) were identified at the whiB1 promoter (PwhiB1). In vitro transcription reactions showed that CRP1 is an activating site and that CRP2, which was only occupied in the presence of cAMP or at high CRPMt concentrations in the absence of cAMP, is a repressing site. Binding of CRPMt to CRP1 was not essential for open complex formation but was required for transcription activation. Thus, these data suggest that binding of CRPMt to the PwhiB1 CRP1 site activates transcription at a step after open complex formation. In contrast, high cAMP concentrations allowed occupation of both CRP1 and CRP2 sites, resulting in inhibition of open complex formation. Thus, M. tuberculosis CRP has evolved several distinct characteristics, compared with the Escherichia coli CRP paradigm, to allow it to regulate gene expression against a background of high concentrations of cAMP. PMID:20028978

  20. Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays.

    PubMed

    Huber, François; Hegner, Martin; Gerber, Christoph; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Hans Peter

    2006-02-15

    We report the measurement of protein interaction with double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides using cantilever microarray technology. We investigated two different DNA-binding proteins, the transcription factors SP1 and NF-kappaB, using cantilever arrays as they allow label-free measurement of different biomolecular interactions in parallel. Double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides containing a specific binding site for a transcription factor were sensitized on gold-coated cantilevers. The binding of the transcription factor creates a surface stress, resulting in a bending of the cantilevers. Both transcription factors could be detected independently at concentrations of 80-100 nM. A concentration dependence of the bending signal was measured using concentrations from 100 to 400 nM of NF-kappaB. The experiments show that the recognition sequence of one transcription factor can serve as a reference for the other, highlighting the sequence specificity of transcription factor binding.

  1. WRKY transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Paul J; Somssich, Imre E; Ringler, Patricia; Shen, Qingxi J

    2010-05-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signalling webs that modulate many plant processes. Here, we review recent significant progress in WRKY transcription factor research. New findings illustrate that WRKY proteins often act as repressors as well as activators, and that members of the family play roles in both the repression and de-repression of important plant processes. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that a single WRKY transcription factor might be involved in regulating several seemingly disparate processes. Mechanisms of signalling and transcriptional regulation are being dissected, uncovering WRKY protein functions via interactions with a diverse array of protein partners, including MAP kinases, MAP kinase kinases, 14-3-3 proteins, calmodulin, histone deacetylases, resistance proteins and other WRKY transcription factors. WRKY genes exhibit extensive autoregulation and cross-regulation that facilitates transcriptional reprogramming in a dynamic web with built-in redundancy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation by reducing the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}/retinoid X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, Adam J.; Luo Zhengyu; Vincent, Karen A.; Akita, Geoffrey Y.; Cheng, Seng H.; Gregory, Richard J.; Jiang Canwen

    2007-12-21

    In response to cellular hypoxia, cardiomyocytes adapt to consume less oxygen by shifting ATP production from mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation to glycolysis. The transcriptional activation of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In this study, we examined whether HIF-1 was involved in the suppression of mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. We showed that either hypoxia or adenovirus-mediated expression of a constitutively stable hybrid form (HIF-1{alpha}/VP16) suppressed mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by an accumulation of intracellular neutral lipid. Both treatments also reduced the mRNA levels of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mitochondrial import of fatty acids for {beta}-oxidation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of HIF-1{alpha}/VP16 in cardiomyocytes under normoxic conditions also mimicked the reduction in the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})/retinoid X receptor (RXR), in the presence or absence of a PPAR{alpha} ligand. These results suggest that HIF-1 may be involved in hypoxia-induced suppression of fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes by reducing the DNA binding activity of PPAR{alpha}/RXR.

  3. TFCat: the curated catalog of mouse and human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Debra L; Sundararajan, Saravanan; Badis, Gwenael; Hughes, Timothy R; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Roach, Jared C; Sladek, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling regulatory programs governed by transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to understanding biological systems. TFCat is a catalog of mouse and human TFs based on a reliable core collection of annotations obtained by expert review of the scientific literature. The collection, including proven and homology-based candidate TFs, is annotated within a function-based taxonomy and DNA-binding proteins are organized within a classification system. All data and user-feedback mechanisms are available at the TFCat portal . PMID:19284633

  4. A SAM oligomerization domain shapes the genomic binding landscape of the LEAFY transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Sayou, Camille; Nanao, Max H.; Jamin, Marc; Posé, David; Thévenon, Emmanuel; Grégoire, Laura; Tichtinsky, Gabrielle; Denay, Grégoire; Ott, Felix; Peirats Llobet, Marta; Schmid, Markus; Dumas, Renaud; Parcy, François

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms directing transcription factors (TFs) to specific genome regions is essential to understand and predict transcriptional regulation. TFs recognize short DNA motifs primarily through their DNA-binding domain. Some TFs also possess an oligomerization domain suspected to potentiate DNA binding but for which the genome-wide influence remains poorly understood. Here we focus on the LEAFY transcription factor, a master regulator of flower development in angiosperms. We have determined the crystal structure of its conserved amino-terminal domain, revealing an unanticipated Sterile Alpha Motif oligomerization domain. We show that this domain is essential to LEAFY floral function. Moreover, combined biochemical and genome-wide assays suggest that oligomerization is required for LEAFY to access regions with low-affinity binding sites or closed chromatin. This finding shows that domains that do not directly contact DNA can nevertheless have a profound impact on the DNA binding landscape of a TF. PMID:27097556

  5. A SAM oligomerization domain shapes the genomic binding landscape of the LEAFY transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Sayou, Camille; Nanao, Max H; Jamin, Marc; Posé, David; Thévenon, Emmanuel; Grégoire, Laura; Tichtinsky, Gabrielle; Denay, Grégoire; Ott, Felix; Peirats Llobet, Marta; Schmid, Markus; Dumas, Renaud; Parcy, François

    2016-04-21

    Deciphering the mechanisms directing transcription factors (TFs) to specific genome regions is essential to understand and predict transcriptional regulation. TFs recognize short DNA motifs primarily through their DNA-binding domain. Some TFs also possess an oligomerization domain suspected to potentiate DNA binding but for which the genome-wide influence remains poorly understood. Here we focus on the LEAFY transcription factor, a master regulator of flower development in angiosperms. We have determined the crystal structure of its conserved amino-terminal domain, revealing an unanticipated Sterile Alpha Motif oligomerization domain. We show that this domain is essential to LEAFY floral function. Moreover, combined biochemical and genome-wide assays suggest that oligomerization is required for LEAFY to access regions with low-affinity binding sites or closed chromatin. This finding shows that domains that do not directly contact DNA can nevertheless have a profound impact on the DNA binding landscape of a TF.

  6. Onecut transcription factors in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kropp, Peter A.; Gannon, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Developmental processes are remarkably well conserved among species, and among the most highly conserved developmental regulators are transcription factor families. The Onecut transcription factor family consists of three members known for their single “cut” DNA-binding domain and an aberrant homeodomain. The three members of the Onecut family are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and have significant roles in regulating the development of diverse tissues derived from the ectoderm or endoderm, where they activate a number of gene families. Of note, the genetic interaction between Onecut family members and Neurogenin genes appears to be essential in multiple tissues for proper specification and development of unique cell types. This review highlights the importance of the Onecut factors in cell fate specification and organogenesis, highlighting their role in vertebrates, and discusses their role in the maintenance of cell fate and prevention of disease. We cover the essential spatial and temporal control of Onecut factor expression and how this tight regulation is required for proper specification and subsequent terminal differentiation of multiple tissue types including those within the retina, central nervous system, liver and pancreas. Beyond development, Onecut factors perform necessary functions in mature cell types; their misregulation can contribute to diseases such as pancreatic cancer. Given the importance of this family of transcription factors in development and disease, their consideration in essential transcription factor networks is underappreciated. PMID:28018056

  7. The Staphylococcus aureus group II biotin protein ligase BirA is an effective regulator of biotin operon transcription and requires the DNA binding domain for full enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Henke, Sarah K; Cronan, John E

    2016-11-01

    Group II biotin protein ligases (BPLs) are characterized by the presence of an N-terminal DNA binding domain that functions in transcriptional regulation of the genes of biotin biosynthesis and transport. The Staphylococcus aureus Group II BPL which is called BirA has been reported to bind an imperfect inverted repeat located upstream of the biotin synthesis operon. DNA binding by other Group II BPLs requires dimerization of the protein which is triggered by synthesis of biotinoyl-AMP (biotinoyl-adenylate), the intermediate in the ligation of biotin to its cognate target proteins. However, the S. aureus BirA was reported to dimerize and bind DNA in the absence of biotin or biotinoyl-AMP (Soares da Costa et al. (2014) Mol Microbiol 91: 110-120). These in vitro results argued that the protein would be unable to respond to the levels of biotin or acceptor proteins and thus would lack the regulatory properties of the other characterized BirA proteins. We tested the regulatory function of the protein using an in vivo model system and examined its DNA binding properties in vitro using electrophoretic mobility shift and fluorescence anisotropy analyses. We report that the S. aureus BirA is an effective regulator of biotin operon transcription and that the prior data can be attributed to artifacts of mobility shift analyses. We also report that deletion of the DNA binding domain of the S. aureus BirA results in loss of virtually all of its ligation activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Autoactivation by a Candida glabrata copper metalloregulatory transcription factor requires critical minor groove interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, K A; Thiele, D J

    1996-01-01

    Rapid transcriptional autoactivation of the Candida glabrata AMT1 copper metalloregulatory transcription factor gene is essential for survival in the presence of high extracellular copper concentrations. Analysis of the interactions between purified recombinant AMT1 protein and the AMT1 promoter metal regulatory element was carried out by a combination of missing-nucleoside analysis, ethylation interference, site-directed mutagenesis, and quantitative in vitro DNA binding studies. The results of these experiments demonstrate that monomeric AMT1 binds the metal regulatory element with very high affinity and utilizes critical contacts in both the major and minor grooves. A single adenosine residue in the minor groove, conserved in all known yeast Cu metalloregulatory transcription factor DNA binding sites, plays a critical role in both AMT1 DNA binding in vitro and Cu-responsive AMT1 gene transcription in vivo. Furthermore, a mutation in the AMT1 Cu-activated DNA binding domain which converts a single arginine, found in a conserved minor groove binding domain, to lysine markedly reduces AMT1 DNA binding affinity in vitro and results in a severe defect in the ability of C. glabrata cells to mount a protective response against Cu toxicity. PMID:8552101

  9. PAX transcription factors in neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2015-08-01

    The nine vertebrate PAX transcription factors (PAX1-PAX9) play essential roles during early development and organogenesis. Pax genes were identified in vertebrates using their homology with the Drosophila melanogaster paired gene DNA-binding domain. PAX1-9 functions are largely conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, in particular during central nervous system and neural crest development. The neural crest is a vertebrate invention, which gives rise to numerous derivatives during organogenesis, including neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, craniofacial skeleton and mesenchyme, the heart outflow tract, endocrine and pigment cells. Human and mouse spontaneous mutations as well as experimental analyses have evidenced the critical and diverse functions of PAX factors during neural crest development. Recent studies have highlighted the role of PAX3 and PAX7 in neural crest induction. Additionally, several PAX proteins - PAX1, 3, 7, 9 - regulate cell proliferation, migration and determination in multiple neural crest-derived lineages, such as cardiac, sensory, and enteric neural crest, pigment cells, glia, craniofacial skeleton and teeth, or in organs developing in close relationship with the neural crest such as the thymus and parathyroids. The diverse PAX molecular functions during neural crest formation rely on fine-tuned modulations of their transcriptional transactivation properties. These modulations are generated by multiple means, such as different roles for the various isoforms (formed by alternative splicing), or posttranslational modifications which alter protein-DNA binding, or carefully orchestrated protein-protein interactions with various co-factors which control PAX proteins activity. Understanding these regulations is the key to decipher the versatile roles of PAX transcription factors in neural crest development, differentiation and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of DNA binding property of the HIV-1 host factor and tumor suppressor protein Integrase Interactor 1 (INI1/hSNF5).

    PubMed

    Das, Supratik; Banerjee, Baisakhi; Hossain, Maidul; Thangamuniyandi, Muruganandan; Dasgupta, Saumya; Chongdar, Nipa; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh; Basu, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Integrase Interactor 1 (INI1/hSNF5) is a component of the hSWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The INI1 gene is either deleted or mutated in rhabdoid cancers like ATRT (Atypical terratoid and rhabdoid tumor). INI1 is also a host factor for HIV-1 replication. INI1 binds DNA non-specifically. However, the mechanism of DNA binding and its biological role are unknown. From agarose gel retardation assay (AGRA), Ni-NTA pull-down and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies we show that amino acids 105-183 of INI1 comprise the minimal DNA binding domain (DBD). The INI1 DBD is absent in plants and in yeast SNF5. It is present in Caenorhabditis elegans SNF5, Drosophila melanogaster homologue SNR1 and is a highly conserved domain in vertebrates. The DNA binding property of this domain in SNR1, that is only 58% identical to INI1/hSNF5, is conserved. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies of INI1 DBD and INI1 DBD:DNA complexes at different concentrations show that the DBD exists as a monomer at low protein concentration and two molecules of monomer binds one molecule of DNA. At high protein concentration, it exists as a dimer and binds two DNA molecules. Furthermore, isothermal calorimetry (ITC) experiments demonstrate that the DBD monomer binds DNA with a stoichiometry (N) of ∼0.5 and Kd  = 0.94 µM whereas the DBD dimer binds two DNA molecules sequentially with K'd1 = 222 µM and K'd2 = 1.16 µM. Monomeric DBD binding to DNA is enthalpy driven (ΔH = -29.9 KJ/mole). Dimeric DBD binding to DNA is sequential with the first binding event driven by positive entropy (ΔH'1 = 115.7 KJ/mole, TΔS'1 = 136.8 KJ/mole) and the second binding event driven by negative enthalpy (ΔH'2 = -106.3 KJ/mole, TΔS'2 = -75.7 KJ/mole). Our model for INI1 DBD binding to DNA provides new insights into the mechanism of DNA binding by INI1.

  11. WRKY transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  12. Mutual activation of Ets-1 and AML1 DNA binding by direct interaction of their autoinhibitory domains.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, W Y; Sieweke, M; Ogawa, E; Wee, H J; Englmeier, U; Graf, T; Ito, Y

    1999-01-01

    The transcription factors Ets-1 and AML1 (the alphaBl subunit of PEBP2/CBF) play critical roles in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis, and cooperate in the transactivation of the T cell receptor (TCR) beta chain enhancer. The DNA binding capacity of both factors is blocked intramolecularly but can be activated by the removal of negative regulatory domains. These include the exon VII domain for Ets-1 and the negative regulatory domain for DNA binding (NRDB) for alphaB1. Here we report that the direct interaction between the two factors leads to a reciprocal stimulation of their DNA binding activity and activation of their transactivation function. Detailed mapping revealed two independent contact points involving the exon VII and NRDB regions as well as the two DNA binding domains. Using deletion variants and dominant interfering mutants, we demonstrate that the interaction between exon VII and NRDB is necessary and sufficient for cooperative DNA binding. The exon VII and NRDB motifs are highly conserved in evolution yet deleted in natural variants, suggesting that the mechanism described is of biological relevance. The mutual activation of DNA binding of Ets and AML1 through the intermolecular interaction of autoinhibitory domains may represent a novel principle for the regulation of transcription factor function. PMID:10075931

  13. PCB-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE DNA BINDING OF SEVERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPING CEREBELLUM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent chemical pollutants prevalent in the environment despite the ban of their use for decades. Disturbances in brain development and cognition are among the neurotoxic manifestations of PCBs. The cellular and molecular basis...

  14. PCB-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE DNA BINDING OF SEVERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPING CEREBELLUM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent chemical pollutants prevalent in the environment despite the ban of their use for decades. Disturbances in brain development and cognition are among the neurotoxic manifestations of PCBs. The cellular and molecular basis...

  15. Transcription factors and induction in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Knöchel, W; Kaufmann, E

    1997-04-01

    Studies with amphibian embryos have contributed major insights into the molecular basis of induction processes and the formation of germ layers during vertebrate embryogenesis. Primary signals that have been identified as growth factors or growth factor-related ligands act as inducing factors on their target cells and, by a change of the genetic program, evoke a specification of the cellular differentiation pathways. While at present the signal transduction mechanisms leading from the ligands via cognate receptors to the nuclei are still poorly understood, there is growing information on transcription factors which are activated upon induction. They govern the expression of other regulatory molecules and co-ordinate the expression of cell type-specific structural genes. Meanwhile, it is generally accepted that development and cellular differentiation in all multicellular organisms depends upon a cascade of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors. Striking structural similarities within their DNA-binding domains allow many of these factors to be subdivided into different transcription factor families. Most of the basic knowledge on these factors emerged from the pioneering work done with Drosophila embryos which was greatly facilitated by the availability of numerous mutants. Despite the fact that Drosophila development until the blastoderm stage proceeds in a multinuclear syncytium and thus is significantly different from that in vertebrate organisms, the primary structures of many embryonic transcription factors have been conserved in higher organisms. This especially holds true for the various DNA binding motifs and it facilitated the isolation and characterization of vertebrate homologues to factors previously identified in lower organisms.

  16. The enhancer factor R of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gruffat, H; Manet, E; Rigolet, A; Sergeant, A

    1990-01-01

    In cells latently infected with EBV, the switch from latency to productive infection is linked to the expression of two EBV transcription factors called EB1 (or Z) and R. EB1 is an upstream element factor which has partial homology to the AP1/ATF family, whereas R is an enhancer factor. In the R-responsive enhancer of the replication origin only active during the EBV lytic cycle (ORIIyt), R-responsive elements are located in a region of about 70 bp (RRE-DR). Here we show that R, produced either by in vitro translation, or present in nuclear extracts from HeLa cells constitutively producing R, binds directly to and protects against DNAase I digestion, two regions in RRE-DR. Using mobility shift assay and DMS interference, we have characterized the contact-points between R and the DNA. Two binding sites, RRE-DR1 and RRE-DR2, were characterized and are contiguous in RRE-DR. R binds to these two sites probably by simultaneously contacting two sequences within the sites, which are separated by 7 bp in RRE-DR1, cctGTGCCttgtcccGTGGACaatgtccc, and by 6bp in RRE-DR2, caatGTCCCtccagcGTGGTGgctg. Direct interaction of R with its cognate sequences is conferred by its N-terminal 355 amino-acids. Directed mutagenesis in RRE-DR, of either R-binding site, impaired binding of R in vitro and, as assayed by transient expression in HeLa cells, impaired R-activation by a factor of two. This suggests that RRE-DR1 and RRE-DR2 do not respond cooperatively to R. Images PMID:2175879

  17. Patents on plant transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Arce, Agustin L; Cabello, Julieta V; Chan, Raquel L

    2008-01-01

    Transcription factors are clue elements in the regulation of signal transduction pathways in living organisms. These proteins are able to recognize and bind specific sequences in the promoter regions of their targets and subsequently activate or repress entire metabolic or developmental processes. About 1500 TFs were informatically identified in plants, analysis mainly based in the presence of DNA-binding domains in the translated sequences. However, only a few of these 1500 were functionally characterized and clearly classified as TFs. Among these, several seem to be powerful biotechnological tools in order to improve agronomic crops via the obtaining of transgenic plants or as molecular markers. Such TFs have become the objects of patents presentations in the whole world. The assigned uses present a variety of purposes including the improvement in yield, abiotic and biotic stresses tolerances as well as a combination of them. Some examples are commented in the present overview. Most of these TFs confer to transgenic plants complex phenotypes due to a combination of different regulated pathways. In this sense, the use of inducible promoters instead of constitutive ones seems in some cases to be useful to limit the changed phenotype to the desired one, avoiding lateral effects. None of these TFs was converted up to now in a market product since time-consuming experiments and regulation permits are required to arrive to such point. Moreover, a considerable money investment must be done, not justified in all cases. However, it is likely that these molecules will become in the near future the first choice for breeders since it was demonstrated that TFs are very efficient conferring desired traits to transgenic plants. Additionally, for the public perception the over or ectopic expression of a plant gene should be more accepted than the use of molecules from other species.

  18. Complex Patterns of Association between Pleiotropy and Transcription Factor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chesmore, Kevin N.; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Cheng, Chao; Williams, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiotropy has been claimed to constrain gene evolution but specific mechanisms and extent of these constraints have been difficult to demonstrate. The expansion of molecular data makes it possible to investigate these pleiotropic effects. Few classes of genes have been characterized as intensely as human transcription factors (TFs). We therefore analyzed the evolutionary rates of full TF proteins, along with their DNA binding domains and protein-protein interacting domains (PID) in light of the degree of pleiotropy, measured by the number of TF–TF interactions, or the number of DNA-binding targets. Data were extracted from the ENCODE Chip-Seq dataset, the String v 9.2 database, and the NHGRI GWAS catalog. Evolutionary rates of proteins and domains were calculated using the PAML CodeML package. Our analysis shows that the numbers of TF-TF interactions and DNA binding targets associated with constrained gene evolution; however, the constraint caused by the number of DNA binding targets was restricted to the DNA binding domains, whereas the number of TF-TF interactions constrained the full protein and did so more strongly. Additionally, we found a positive correlation between the number of protein–PIDs and the evolutionary rates of the protein–PIDs. These findings show that not only does pleiotropy associate with constrained protein evolution but the constraint differs by domain function. Finally, we show that GWAS associated TF genes are more highly pleiotropic. The GWAS data illustrates that mutations in highly pleiotropic genes are more likely to be associated with disease phenotypes. PMID:27635052

  19. Increased Stability and DNA Site Discrimination of Single Chain Variants of the Dimeric beta-Barrel DNA Binding Domain of the Human Papillomavirus E2 Transcriptional Regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Dellarole,M.; Sanchez, I.; Freire, E.; de Prat-Gay, G.

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomavirus infects millions of people worldwide and is a causal agent of cervical cancer in women. The HPV E2 protein controls the expression of all viral genes through binding of its dimeric C-terminal domain (E2C) to its target DNA site. We engineered monomeric versions of the HPV16 E2C, in order to probe the link of the dimeric {beta}-barrel fold to stability, dimerization, and DNA binding. Two single-chain variants, with 6 and 12 residue linkers (scE2C-6 and scE2C-12), were purified and characterized. Spectroscopy and crystallography show that the native structure is unperturbed in scE2C-12. The single chain variants are stabilized with respect to E2C, with effective concentrations of 0.6 to 6 mM. The early folding events of the E2C dimer and scE2C-12 are very similar and include formation of a compact species in the submillisecond time scale and a non-native monomeric intermediate with a half-life of 25 ms. However, monomerization changes the unfolding mechanism of the linked species from two-state to three-state, with a high-energy intermediate. Binding to the specific target site is up to 5-fold tighter in the single chain variants. Nonspecific DNA binding is up to 7-fold weaker in the single chain variants, leading to an overall 10-fold increased site discrimination capacity, the largest described so far for linked DNA binding domains. Titration calorimetric binding analysis, however, shows almost identical behavior for dimer and single-chain species, suggesting very subtle changes behind the increased specificity. Global analysis of the mechanisms probed suggests that the dynamics of the E2C domain, rather than the structure, are responsible for the differential properties. Thus, the plastic and dimeric nature of the domain did not evolve for a maximum affinity, specificity, and stability of the quaternary structure, likely because of regulatory reasons and for roles other than DNA binding played by partly folded dimeric or monomeric conformers.

  20. CRTR-1, a developmentally regulated transcriptional repressor related to the CP2 family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rodda, S; Sharma, S; Scherer, M; Chapman, G; Rathjen, P

    2001-02-02

    CP2-related proteins comprise a family of DNA-binding transcription factors that are generally activators of transcription and expressed ubiquitously. We reported a differential display polymerase chain reaction fragment, Psc2, which was expressed in a regulated fashion in mouse pluripotent cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report further characterization of the Psc2 cDNA and function. The Psc2 cDNA contained an open reading frame homologous to CP2 family proteins. Regions implicated in DNA binding and oligomeric complex formation, but not transcription activation, were conserved. Psc2 expression in vivo during embryogenesis and in the adult mouse demonstrated tight spatial and temporal regulation, with the highest levels of expression in the epithelial lining of distal convoluted tubules in embryonic and adult kidneys. Functional analysis demonstrated that PSC2 repressed transcription 2.5-15-fold when bound to a heterologous promoter in ES, 293T, and COS-1 cells. The N-terminal 52 amino acids of PSC2 were shown to be necessary and sufficient for this activity and did not share obvious homology with reported repressor motifs. These results represent the first report of a CP2 family member that is expressed in a developmentally regulated fashion in vivo and that acts as a direct repressor of transcription. Accordingly, the protein has been named CP2-Related Transcriptional Repressor-1 (CRTR-1).

  1. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is susceptible to many foliage diseases. Although candidate genes for resistances to several pathogens in cucumber have been reported, the underlying defence mechanisms remain unclear. The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) proteins are a group of plant-specific transcription factors that ha...

  2. Determination of DNA Binding Behavior of FoxA1 Constructs Using a Gold Nanoparticle-Based High Throughput Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aung, Khin Moh Moh; Lim, Michelle Gek Liang; Hong, Shuzhen; Cheung, Edwin; Su, Xiaodi

    Forkhead box protein 1 (FoxA1) is a member of the forkhead family of winged-helix transcription factors. It plays crucial roles in the development and differentiation of multiple organs and in the regulation of estrogen-stimulated genes. In this study, in order to determine the regions of FoxA1 necessary for efficient Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) binding, we cloned, expressed and purified a series of FoxA1 constructs that contain either the DNA Binding Domain (DBD), the Transcription Activation Domain (TAD), or both. We determined the DNA binding behavior of these constructs using traditional electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a recently developed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based fast screening method. We conclude that just the DBD region alone is not sufficient for protein-DNA binding activity. Amino acids flanking the upstream of the DBD region are required for maximal DNA binding activity. Through this study, we have also further validated the AuNPs assay for its generality and expanded the existing protocol for comparing the DNA binding behavior of multiple proteins of different charge properties and molecular weights.

  3. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  4. MOCCS: Clarifying DNA-binding motif ambiguity using ChIP-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Haruka; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-08-01

    As a key mechanism of gene regulation, transcription factors (TFs) bind to DNA by recognizing specific short sequence patterns that are called DNA-binding motifs. A single TF can accept ambiguity within its DNA-binding motifs, which comprise both canonical (typical) and non-canonical motifs. Clarification of such DNA-binding motif ambiguity is crucial for revealing gene regulatory networks and evaluating mutations in cis-regulatory elements. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) now provides abundant data on the genomic sequences to which a given TF binds, existing motif discovery methods are unable to directly answer whether a given TF can bind to a specific DNA-binding motif. Here, we report a method for clarifying the DNA-binding motif ambiguity, MOCCS. Given ChIP-Seq data of any TF, MOCCS comprehensively analyzes and describes every k-mer to which that TF binds. Analysis of simulated datasets revealed that MOCCS is applicable to various ChIP-Seq datasets, requiring only a few minutes per dataset. Application to the ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets proved that MOCCS directly evaluates whether a given TF binds to each DNA-binding motif, even if known position weight matrix models do not provide sufficient information on DNA-binding motif ambiguity. Furthermore, users are not required to provide numerous parameters or background genomic sequence models that are typically unavailable. MOCCS is implemented in Perl and R and is freely available via https://github.com/yuifu/moccs. By complementing existing motif-discovery software, MOCCS will contribute to the basic understanding of how the genome controls diverse cellular processes via DNA-protein interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel Snail-related transcription factor Smuc regulates basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor activities via specific E-box motifs

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki; Mori, Seiichi; Sano, Hideto; Ozaki, Harunobu; Yokota, Yoshifumi; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Kita, Toru

    2000-01-01

    Snail family proteins are zinc finger transcriptional regulators first identified in Drosophila which play critical roles in cell fate determination. We identified a novel Snail-related gene from murine skeletal muscle cells designated Smuc. Northern blot analysis showed that Smuc was highly expressed in skeletal muscle and thymus. Smuc contains five putative DNA-binding zinc finger domains in its C-terminal half. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, recombinant zinc finger domains of Smuc specifically bound to CAGGTG and CACCTG E-box motifs (CANNTG). Because basic helix–loop–helix transcription factors (bHLH) bind to the same E-box sequences, we examined whether Smuc competes with the myogenic bHLH factor MyoD for DNA binding. Smuc inhibited the binding of a MyoD–E12 complex to the CACCTG E-box sequence in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the transcriptional activity of MyoD–E12. When heterologously targeted to the thymidine kinase promoter as fusion proteins with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, the non-zinc finger domain of Smuc acted as a transcriptional repressor. Furthermore, overexpression of Smuc in myoblasts repressed transactivation of muscle differentiation marker Troponin T. Thus, Smuc might regulate bHLH transcription factors by zinc finger domains competing for E-box binding, and non-zinc finger repressor domains might also confer transcriptional repression to control differentiation processes. PMID:10606664

  6. FlyTF: a systematic review of site-specific transcription factors in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Adryan, Boris; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2006-06-15

    We present a manually annotated catalogue of site-specific transcription factors (TFs) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. These were identified from a list of candidate proteins with transcription-related Gene Ontology (Go) annotation as well as structural DNA-binding domain assignments. For all 1052 candidate proteins, a defined set of rules was applied to classify information from the literature and computational data sources with respect to both DNA-binding and transcriptional regulatory properties. We propose a set of 753 TFs in the fruit fly, of which 23 are confident novel predictions of this function for previously uncharacterized proteins.

  7. Linchpin DNA-binding residues serve as go/no-go controls in the replication factor C-catalyzed clamp-loading mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Zhou, Yayan; Hingorani, Manju M

    2017-09-22

    DNA polymerases depend on circular sliding clamps for processive replication. Clamps must be loaded onto primer-template DNA (ptDNA) by clamp loaders that open and close clamps around ptDNA in an ATP-fueled reaction. All clamp loaders share a core structure in which five subunits form a spiral chamber that binds the clamp at its base in a twisted open form and encloses ptDNA within, while binding and hydrolyzing ATP to topologically link the clamp and ptDNA. To understand how clamp loaders perform this complex task, here we focused on conserved arginines that might play a central coordinating role in the mechanism because they can alternately contact ptDNA or Walker B glutamate in the ATPase site and lie close to the clamp loader-clamp-binding interface. We mutated Arg-84, Arg-88, and Arg-101 in the ATPase-active B, C, and D subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication factor C (RFC) clamp loader, respectively, and assessed the impact on multiple transient events in the reaction: proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp binding/opening/closure/release, ptDNA binding/release, and ATP hydrolysis/product release. The results show that these arginines relay critical information between the PCNA-binding, DNA-binding, and ATPase sites at all steps of the reaction, particularly at a checkpoint before RFC commits to ATP hydrolysis. Moreover, their actions are subunit-specific with RFC-C Arg-88 serving as an accelerator that enables rapid ATP hydrolysis upon contact with ptDNA and RFC-D Arg-101 serving as a brake that confers specificity for ptDNA as the correct substrate for loading PCNA. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Effect of DNA binding on geminate CO recombination kinetics in CooA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Karunakaran, Venugopal; Youn, Hwan; Poulos, Thomas; Champion, Paul

    2012-02-01

    CooA proteins are heme-based CO-sensing transcription factors. Here we study the ultrafast dynamics of geminate CO rebinding to RrCooA. The effects of DNA binding and the truncation of the DNA binding domain on the CO geminate recombination kinetics were investigated. The CO rebinding kinetics in these CooA complexes takes place on ultrafast timescales but remains non-exponential over many decades in time. We show that this non-exponential kinetic response is due to a quenched enthalpic barrier distribution resulting from a distribution of heme geometries that is frozen or slowly evolving on the timescale of CO rebinding. We also show that, upon CO binding, the distal pocket of the heme in RrCooA relaxes to form a very efficient hydrophobic trap for CO. DNA binding further tightens the narrow distal pocket and slightly weakens the iron-proximal histidine bond. Analysis of our data reveals that the uncomplexed and inherently flexible DNA binding domain adds additional structural heterogeneity to the heme doming coordinate. When CooA forms a complex with DNA, the flexibility of the DNA-binding domain decreases and the distribution of the conformations available in the heme domain becomes restricted.

  9. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

  10. The transcription factor encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.

  11. Smad transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Massagué, Joan; Seoane, Joan; Wotton, David

    2005-12-01

    Smad transcription factors lie at the core of one of the most versatile cytokine signaling pathways in metazoan biology-the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway. Recent progress has shed light into the processes of Smad activation and deactivation, nucleocytoplasmic dynamics, and assembly of transcriptional complexes. A rich repertoire of regulatory devices exerts control over each step of the Smad pathway. This knowledge is enabling work on more complex questions about the organization, integration, and modulation of Smad-dependent transcriptional programs. We are beginning to uncover self-enabled gene response cascades, graded Smad response mechanisms, and Smad-dependent synexpression groups. Our growing understanding of TGFbeta signaling through the Smad pathway provides general principles for how animal cells translate complex inputs into concrete behavior.

  12. TFClass: an expandable hierarchical classification of human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Wingender, Edgar; Schoeps, Torsten; Dönitz, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    TFClass (http://tfclass.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/) provides a comprehensive classification of human transcription factors based on their DNA-binding domains. Transcription factors constitute a large functional family of proteins directly regulating the activity of genes. Most of them are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, thus reading out the information encoded in cis-regulatory DNA elements of promoters, enhancers and other regulatory regions of a genome. TFClass is a database that classifies human transcription factors by a six-level classification schema, four of which are abstractions according to different criteria, while the fifth level represents TF genes and the sixth individual gene products. Altogether, nine superclasses have been identified, comprising 40 classes and 111 families. Counted by genes, 1558 human TFs have been classified so far or >2900 different TFs when including their isoforms generated by alternative splicing or protein processing events. With this classification, we hope to provide a basis for deciphering protein–DNA recognition codes; moreover, it can be used for constructing expanded transcriptional networks by inferring additional TF-target gene relations. PMID:23180794

  13. Forkhead transcription factors regulate mosquito reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Immo A.; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Munro, James B.; Shiao, Shin-Hong; Cruz, Josefa; Lee, Iris W.; Heraty, John M.; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2007-01-01

    Forkhead box (Fox) genes encode a family of transcription factors defined by a ‘winged helix’ DNA-binding domain. In this study we aimed to identify Fox factors that are expressed within the fat body of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, and determine whether any of these are involved in the regulation of mosquito yolk protein gene expression. The Ae. aegypti genome contains eighteen loci that encode putative Fox factors. Our stringent cladistic analysis has profound implications for the use of Fox genes as phylogenetic markers. Twelve Ae. aegypti Fox genes are expressed within various tissues of adult females, six of which are expressed within the fat body. All six Fox genes expressed in the fat body displayed dynamic expression profiles following a blood meal. We knocked down the ’fat body Foxes’ through RNAi to determine whether these “knockdowns” hindered amino acid-induced vitellogenin gene expression. We also determined the effect of these knockdowns on the number of eggs deposited following a blood meal. Knockdown of FoxN1, FoxN2, FoxL, and FoxO, had a negative effect on amino acid- induced vitellogenin gene expression and resulted in significantly fewer eggs laid. Our analysis stresses the importance of Fox transcription factors in regulating mosquito reproduction. PMID:17681238

  14. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    PubMed Central

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  15. The EDLL motif: a potent plant transcriptional activation domain from AP2/ERF transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shiv B; Belachew, Alemu; Ma, Siu Fong; Young, Melinda; Ade, Jules; Shen, Yu; Marion, Colleen M; Holtan, Hans E; Bailey, Adina; Stone, Jeffrey K; Edwards, Leslie; Wallace, Andreah D; Canales, Roger D; Adam, Luc; Ratcliffe, Oliver J; Repetti, Peter P

    2012-06-01

    In plants, the ERF/EREBP family of transcriptional regulators plays a key role in adaptation to various biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins contain a conserved AP2 DNA-binding domain and several uncharacterized motifs. Here, we describe a short motif, termed 'EDLL', that is present in AtERF98/TDR1 and other clade members from the same AP2 sub-family. We show that the EDLL motif, which has a unique arrangement of acidic amino acids and hydrophobic leucines, functions as a strong activation domain. The motif is transferable to other proteins, and is active at both proximal and distal positions of target promoters. As such, the EDLL motif is able to partly overcome the repression conferred by the AtHB2 transcription factor, which contains an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif. We further examined the activation potential of EDLL by analysis of the regulation of flowering time by NF-Y (nuclear factor Y) proteins. Genetic evidence indicates that NF-Y protein complexes potentiate the action of CONSTANS in regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis; we show that the transcriptional activation function of CONSTANS can be substituted by direct fusion of the EDLL activation motif to NF-YB subunits. The EDLL motif represents a potent plant activation domain that can be used as a tool to confer transcriptional activation potential to heterologous DNA-binding proteins.

  16. Recent advances in the structural molecular biology of Ets transcription factors: interactions, interfaces and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Christopher D.O.; Newman, Joseph A.; Gileadi, Opher

    2014-01-01

    The Ets family of eukaryotic transcription factors is based around the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain. Although their DNA-binding selectivity is biochemically and structurally well characterized, structures of homodimeric and ternary complexes point to Ets domains functioning as versatile protein-interaction modules. In the present paper, we review the progress made over the last decade to elucidate the structural mechanisms involved in modulation of DNA binding and protein partner selection during dimerization. We see that Ets domains, although conserved around a core architecture, have evolved to utilize a variety of interaction surfaces and binding mechanisms, reflecting Ets domains as dynamic interfaces for both DNA and protein interaction. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in drug development for inhibition of Ets factors, and the roles structural biology can play in their future. PMID:24450640

  17. Recent advances in the structural molecular biology of Ets transcription factors: interactions, interfaces and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher D O; Newman, Joseph A; Gileadi, Opher

    2014-02-01

    The Ets family of eukaryotic transcription factors is based around the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain. Although their DNA-binding selectivity is biochemically and structurally well characterized, structures of homodimeric and ternary complexes point to Ets domains functioning as versatile protein-interaction modules. In the present paper, we review the progress made over the last decade to elucidate the structural mechanisms involved in modulation of DNA binding and protein partner selection during dimerization. We see that Ets domains, although conserved around a core architecture, have evolved to utilize a variety of interaction surfaces and binding mechanisms, reflecting Ets domains as dynamic interfaces for both DNA and protein interaction. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in drug development for inhibition of Ets factors, and the roles structural biology can play in their future.

  18. FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER Negatively Regulates Ethylene Response DNA-Binding Factors by Activating an Ethylene-Responsive Factor to Control Arabidopsis Floral Organ Senescence and Abscission1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Fang; Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    In this study of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we investigated the relationship between FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) and Ethylene Response DNA-binding Factors (EDFs) and functionally analyzed a key FYF target, an Ethylene-Responsive Factor (ERF), that controls flower senescence/abscission. Ectopic expression of EDF1/2/3/4 caused promotion of flower senescence/abscission and the activation of the senescence-associated genes. The presence of a repressor domain in EDFs and the enhancement of the promotion of senescence/abscission in EDF1/2/3/4+SRDX (converting EDFs to strong repressors by fusion with the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression motif repression domain SRDX) transgenic plants suggested that EDFs act as repressors. The significant reduction of β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression by 35S:FYF in EDF1/2/3/4:GUS plants indicates that EDF1/2/3/4 functions downstream of FYF in regulating flower senescence/abscission. In this study, we also characterized an ERF gene, FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER UP-REGULATING FACTOR1 (FUF1), which is up-regulated by FYF during flower development. Ectopic expression of FUF1 caused similar delayed flower senescence/abscission as seen in 35S:FYF plants. This phenotype was correlated with deficient abscission zone formation, ethylene insensitivity, and down-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 and abscission-associated genes in 35S:FUF1 flowers. In contrast, significant promotion of flower senescence/abscission and up-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 were observed in 35S:FUF1+SRDX transgenic dominant-negative plants, in which FUF1 is converted to a potent repressor by fusion to an SRDX-suppressing motif. Thus, FUF1 acts as an activator in suppressing EDF1/2/3/4 function and senescence/abscission of the flowers. Our results reveal that FYF regulates flower senescence/abscission by negatively regulating EDF1/2/3/4, which is the downstream gene in the ethylene response, by activating FUF1 in Arabidopsis. PMID:26063506

  19. FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER Negatively Regulates Ethylene Response DNA-Binding Factors by Activating an Ethylene-Responsive Factor to Control Arabidopsis Floral Organ Senescence and Abscission.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Han; Li, Pei-Fang; Chen, Ming-Kun; Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    In this study of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we investigated the relationship between FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) and Ethylene Response DNA-binding Factors (EDFs) and functionally analyzed a key FYF target, an Ethylene-Responsive Factor (ERF), that controls flower senescence/abscission. Ectopic expression of EDF1/2/3/4 caused promotion of flower senescence/abscission and the activation of the senescence-associated genes. The presence of a repressor domain in EDFs and the enhancement of the promotion of senescence/abscission in EDF1/2/3/4+SRDX (converting EDFs to strong repressors by fusion with the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression motif repression domain SRDX) transgenic plants suggested that EDFs act as repressors. The significant reduction of β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression by 35S:FYF in EDF1/2/3/4:GUS plants indicates that EDF1/2/3/4 functions downstream of FYF in regulating flower senescence/abscission. In this study, we also characterized an ERF gene, FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER UP-REGULATING FACTOR1 (FUF1), which is up-regulated by FYF during flower development. Ectopic expression of FUF1 caused similar delayed flower senescence/abscission as seen in 35S:FYF plants. This phenotype was correlated with deficient abscission zone formation, ethylene insensitivity, and down-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 and abscission-associated genes in 35S:FUF1 flowers. In contrast, significant promotion of flower senescence/abscission and up-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 were observed in 35S:FUF1+SRDX transgenic dominant-negative plants, in which FUF1 is converted to a potent repressor by fusion to an SRDX-suppressing motif. Thus, FUF1 acts as an activator in suppressing EDF1/2/3/4 function and senescence/abscission of the flowers. Our results reveal that FYF regulates flower senescence/abscission by negatively regulating EDF1/2/3/4, which is the downstream gene in the ethylene response, by activating FUF1 in Arabidopsis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights

  20. Understanding variation in transcription factor binding by modeling transcription factor genome-epigenome interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh-Chun; Xiao, Shu; Xie, Dan; Cao, Xiaoyi; Song, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Ting; He, Chuan; Zhong, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Despite explosive growth in genomic datasets, the methods for studying epigenomic mechanisms of gene regulation remain primitive. Here we present a model-based approach to systematically analyze the epigenomic functions in modulating transcription factor-DNA binding. Based on the first principles of statistical mechanics, this model considers the interactions between epigenomic modifications and a cis-regulatory module, which contains multiple binding sites arranged in any configurations. We compiled a comprehensive epigenomic dataset in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, including DNA methylation (MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq), DNA hydroxymethylation (5-hmC-seq), and histone modifications (ChIP-seq). We discovered correlations of transcription factors (TFs) for specific combinations of epigenomic modifications, which we term epigenomic motifs. Epigenomic motifs explained why some TFs appeared to have different DNA binding motifs derived from in vivo (ChIP-seq) and in vitro experiments. Theoretical analyses suggested that the epigenome can modulate transcriptional noise and boost the cooperativity of weak TF binding sites. ChIP-seq data suggested that epigenomic boost of binding affinities in weak TF binding sites can function in mES cells. We showed in theory that the epigenome should suppress the TF binding differences on SNP-containing binding sites in two people. Using personal data, we identified strong associations between H3K4me2/H3K9ac and the degree of personal differences in NFκB binding in SNP-containing binding sites, which may explain why some SNPs introduce much smaller personal variations on TF binding than other SNPs. In summary, this model presents a powerful approach to analyze the functions of epigenomic modifications. This model was implemented into an open source program APEG (Affinity Prediction by Epigenome and Genome, http://systemsbio.ucsd.edu/apeg).

  1. Sumoylation activates the transcriptional activity of Pax-6, an important transcription factor for eye and brain development.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qin; Gong, Lili; Deng, Mi; Zhang, Lan; Sun, Shuming; Liu, Jiao; Ma, Haili; Yuan, Dan; Chen, Pei-Chao; Hu, Xiaohui; Liu, Jinping; Qin, Jichao; Xiao, Ling; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Jian; Li, David Wan-Cheng

    2010-12-07

    Pax-6 is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor regulating brain and eye development. Four Pax-6 isoforms have been reported previously. Although the longer Pax-6 isoforms (p46 and p48) bear two DNA-binding domains, the paired domain (PD) and the homeodomain (HD), the shorter Pax-6 isoform p32 contains only the HD for DNA binding. Although a third domain, the proline-, serine- and threonine-enriched activation (PST) domain, in the C termini of all Pax-6 isoforms mediates their transcriptional modulation via phosphorylation, how p32 Pax-6 could regulate target genes remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we show that sumoylation at K91 is required for p32 Pax-6 to bind to a HD-specific site and regulate expression of target genes. First, in vitro-synthesized p32 Pax-6 alone cannot bind the P3 sequence, which contains the HD recognition site, unless it is preincubated with nuclear extracts precleared by anti-Pax-6 but not by anti-small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (anti-SUMO1) antibody. Second, in vitro-synthesized p32 Pax-6 can be sumoylated by SUMO1, and the sumoylated p32 Pax-6 then can bind to the P3 sequence. Third, Pax-6 and SUMO1 are colocalized in the embryonic optic and lens vesicles and can be coimmunoprecipitated. Finally, SUMO1-conjugated p32 Pax-6 exists in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and sumoylation significantly enhances the DNA-binding ability of p32 Pax-6 and positively regulates gene expression. Together, our results demonstrate that sumoylation activates p32 Pax-6 in both DNA-binding and transcriptional activities. In addition, our studies demonstrate that p32 and p46 Pax-6 possess differential DNA-binding and regulatory activities.

  2. Sumoylation activates the transcriptional activity of Pax-6, an important transcription factor for eye and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qin; Gong, Lili; Deng, Mi; Zhang, Lan; Sun, Shuming; Liu, Jiao; Ma, Haili; Yuan, Dan; Chen, Pei-Chao; Hu, Xiaohui; Liu, Jinping; Qin, Jichao; Xiao, Ling; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Jian; Wan-Cheng Li, David

    2010-01-01

    Pax-6 is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor regulating brain and eye development. Four Pax-6 isoforms have been reported previously. Although the longer Pax-6 isoforms (p46 and p48) bear two DNA-binding domains, the paired domain (PD) and the homeodomain (HD), the shorter Pax-6 isoform p32 contains only the HD for DNA binding. Although a third domain, the proline-, serine- and threonine-enriched activation (PST) domain, in the C termini of all Pax-6 isoforms mediates their transcriptional modulation via phosphorylation, how p32 Pax-6 could regulate target genes remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we show that sumoylation at K91 is required for p32 Pax-6 to bind to a HD-specific site and regulate expression of target genes. First, in vitro-synthesized p32 Pax-6 alone cannot bind the P3 sequence, which contains the HD recognition site, unless it is preincubated with nuclear extracts precleared by anti–Pax-6 but not by anti-small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (anti-SUMO1) antibody. Second, in vitro-synthesized p32 Pax-6 can be sumoylated by SUMO1, and the sumoylated p32 Pax-6 then can bind to the P3 sequence. Third, Pax-6 and SUMO1 are colocalized in the embryonic optic and lens vesicles and can be coimmunoprecipitated. Finally, SUMO1-conjugated p32 Pax-6 exists in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and sumoylation significantly enhances the DNA-binding ability of p32 Pax-6 and positively regulates gene expression. Together, our results demonstrate that sumoylation activates p32 Pax-6 in both DNA-binding and transcriptional activities. In addition, our studies demonstrate that p32 and p46 Pax-6 possess differential DNA-binding and regulatory activities. PMID:21084637

  3. bZIPs and WRKYs: two large transcription factor families executing two different functional strategies.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Carles M; Potschin, Maren; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    bZIPs and WRKYs are two important plant transcription factor (TF) families regulating diverse developmental and stress-related processes. Since a partial overlap in these biological processes is obvious, it can be speculated that they fulfill non-redundant functions in a complex regulatory network. Here, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms that are so far described for bZIPs and WRKYs. bZIP factors need to heterodimerize for DNA-binding and regulation of transcription, and based on a bioinformatics approach, bZIPs can build up more than the double of protein interactions than WRKYs. In contrast, an enrichment of the WRKY DNA-binding motifs can be found in WRKY promoters, a phenomenon which is not observed for the bZIP family. Thus, the two TF families follow two different functional strategies in which WRKYs regulate each other's transcription in a transcriptional network whereas bZIP action relies on intensive heterodimerization.

  4. The tumor suppressor gene HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1) is a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor: definition of its consensus binding sequence and analysis of its DNA binding and repressive properties.

    PubMed

    Pinte, Sébastien; Stankovic-Valentin, Nicolas; Deltour, Sophie; Rood, Brian R; Guérardel, Cateline; Leprince, Dominique

    2004-09-10

    HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1) is a tumor suppressor gene located at chromosome 17p13.3, a region frequently hypermethylated or deleted in human tumors and in a contiguous-gene syndrome, the Miller-Dieker syndrome. HIC1 is a transcriptional repressor containing five Krüppel-like C(2)H(2) zinc fingers and an N-terminal dimerization and autonomous repression domain called BTB/POZ. Although some of the HIC1 transcriptional repression mechanisms have been recently deciphered, target genes are still to be discovered. In this study, we determined the consensus binding sequence for HIC1 and investigated its DNA binding properties. Using a selection and amplification of binding sites technique, we identified the sequence 5'-(C)/(G)NG(C)/(G)GGGCA(C)/(A) CC-3' as an optimal binding site. In silico and functional analyses fully validated this consensus and highlighted a GGCA core motif bound by zinc fingers 3 and 4. The BTB/POZ domain inhibits the binding of HIC1 to a single site but mediates cooperative binding to a probe containing five concatemerized binding sites, a property shared by other BTB/POZ proteins. Finally, full-length HIC1 proteins transiently expressed in RK13 cells and more importantly, endogenous HIC1 proteins from the DAOY medulloblastoma cell line, repress the transcription of a reporter gene through their direct binding to these sites, as confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. The definition of the HIC1-specific DNA binding sequence as well as the requirement for multiple sites for optimal binding of the full-length protein are mandatory prerequisites for the identification and analyses of bona fide HIC1 target genes.

  5. Structures of DNA-binding mutant zinc finger domains: implications for DNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, R. C.; Horvath, S. J.; Klevit, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of Cys2-His2 zinc finger domains have revealed that the structures of individual finger domains in solution determined by NMR spectroscopy are strikingly similar to the structure of fingers bound to DNA determined by X-ray diffraction. Therefore, detailed structural analyses of single finger domains that contain amino acid substitutions known to affect DNA binding in the whole protein can yield information concerning the structural ramifications of such mutations. We have used this approach to study two mutants in the N-terminal finger domain of ADR1, a yeast transcription factor that contains two Cys2-His2 zinc finger sequences spanning residues 102-159. Two point mutants at position 118 in the N-terminal zinc finger (ADR1b: 102-130) that adversely affect the DNA-binding activity of ADR1 have previously been identified: H118A and H118Y. The structures of wild-type ADR1b and the two mutant zinc finger domains were determined using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distance geometry and were refined using a complete relaxation matrix method approach (REPENT) to improve agreement between the models and the nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy data from which they were generated. The molecular architecture of the refined wild-type ADR1b domain is presented in detail. Comparisons of wild-type ADR1b and the two mutants revealed that neither mutation causes a significant structural perturbation. The structures indicate that the DNA binding properties of the His 118 mutants are dependent on the identity of the side chain at position 118, which has been postulated to make a direct DNA contact in the wild-type ADR1 protein. The results suggest that the identity of the side chain at the middle DNA contact position in Cys2-His2 zinc fingers may be changed with impunity regarding the domain structure and can affect the affinity of the protein-DNA interaction. PMID:8318900

  6. A Method for isolation of DNA-binding proteins based on solubility of DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Li, Huang; Rao, Li-qun; Long, Gui-you; Peng, Guo-ping; Jin, Lu

    2012-10-01

    The study of DNA-binding proteins is crucial in understanding gene regulatory networks. We developed a new method for the enrichment of DNA-binding proteins based on the variability of DNA-protein complexes' solubility in different ionic strength solutions. 0.14M sodium chloride was determined as the most efficient extraction concentration to precipitate DNA-binding proteins. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that some high-abundance proteins were removed effectively and at the same time DNA-binding proteins were isolated in this simple process. Twenty kinds of proteins were identified in the acquired sample by 1-D gel-LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, computerized analysis of MS data showed that quite a number of unmatched peptides have the classic structure of leucine zipper or zinc finger, which were symbolic elements of transcription factors. These results suggested that this new method can acquire DNA-binding proteins effectively and allow improvement in the isolation of high-quality DNA-binding proteins.

  7. The 68-kilodalton E1 protein of bovine papillomavirus is a DNA binding phosphoprotein which associates with the E2 transcriptional activator in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Blitz, I L; Laimins, L A

    1991-01-01

    The E1 open reading frame of bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes factors necessary for extrachromosomal maintenance of the viral genome in transformed cells. To facilitate biochemical characterization of the gene products encoded by this open reading frame, we have expressed the full-length E1 protein in a baculovirus-insect cell system. This protein was found to be phosphorylated and localized to the nucleus of infected cells. The E1 protein alone has affinity for DNA but appears to lack specificity for viral sequences. In addition, we present evidence that the E1 protein interacts with the virally encoded transcriptional activator E2 in vitro. These results are consistent with a model in which the E1 protein, as part of a complex with E2, interacts with specific DNA sequences in the viral genome. Images PMID:1846189

  8. Cross-talk between site-specific transcription factors and DNA methylation states.

    PubMed

    Blattler, Adam; Farnham, Peggy J

    2013-11-29

    DNA methylation, which occurs predominantly at CpG dinucleotides, is a potent epigenetic repressor of transcription. Because DNA methylation is reversible, there is much interest in understanding the mechanisms by which it can be regulated by DNA-binding transcription factors. We discuss several models that, by incorporating sequence motifs, CpG density, and methylation levels, attempt to link the binding of a transcription factor with the acquisition or loss of DNA methylation at promoters and distal regulatory elements. Additional in vivo genome-wide characterization of transcription factor binding patterns and high-resolution DNA methylation analyses are clearly required for stronger support of each model.

  9. Both HMG boxes in Hmo1 are essential for DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Ayako; Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Kasahara, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Hmo1, a member of the high mobility group B family proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, associates with the promoters of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) to direct accurate transcriptional initiation. Here, to identify factors involved in the binding of Hmo1 to its targets and the mechanism of Hmo1-dependent transcriptional initiation, we developed a novel reporter system using the promoter of the RPG RPS5. A genetic screen did not identify any factors that influence Hmo1 binding, but did identify a number of mutations in Hmo1 that impair its DNA binding activity in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Hmo1 binds to its target promoters autonomously without any aid of additional factors. Furthermore, characterization of Hmo1 mutants showed that the box A domain plays a pivotal role in DNA binding and may be required for the recognition of structural properties of target promoters that occur in native chromatin.

  10. Regulation of the Hippo Pathway Transcription Factor TEAD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kimberly C; Park, Hyun Woo; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2017-09-27

    The TEAD transcription factor family is best known for transcriptional output of the Hippo signaling pathway and has been implicated in processes such as development, cell growth and proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and regeneration. Our understanding of the functional importance of TEADs has increased dramatically since its initial discovery three decades ago. The majority of our knowledge of TEADs is in the context of Hippo signaling as nuclear DNA-binding proteins passively activated by Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional activator with PDZ-binding domain (TAZ), transcription coactivators downstream of the Hippo pathway. However, recent studies suggest that TEAD itself is actively regulated. Here, we highlight evidence demonstrating Hippo-independent regulation of TEADs and the potential impacts these studies may have on new cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcription factor trapping by RNA in gene regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Sigova, Alla A; Abraham, Brian J; Ji, Xiong; Molinie, Benoit; Hannett, Nancy M; Guo, Yang Eric; Jangi, Mohini; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Sharp, Phillip A; Young, Richard A

    2015-11-20

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind specific sequences in promoter-proximal and -distal DNA elements to regulate gene transcription. RNA is transcribed from both of these DNA elements, and some DNA binding TFs bind RNA. Hence, RNA transcribed from regulatory elements may contribute to stable TF occupancy at these sites. We show that the ubiquitously expressed TF Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) binds to both gene regulatory elements and their associated RNA species across the entire genome. Reduced transcription of regulatory elements diminishes YY1 occupancy, whereas artificial tethering of RNA enhances YY1 occupancy at these elements. We propose that RNA makes a modest but important contribution to the maintenance of certain TFs at gene regulatory elements and suggest that transcription of regulatory elements produces a positive-feedback loop that contributes to the stability of gene expression programs. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Role of non-coding RNA transcription around gene regulatory elements in transcription factor recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Kunihiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryotic cells produce a variety of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), many of which have been shown to play pivotal roles in biological processes such as differentiation, maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells, and cellular response to various stresses. Genome-wide analyses have revealed that many ncRNAs are transcribed around regulatory DNA elements located proximal or distal to gene promoters, but their biological functions are largely unknown. Recently, it has been demonstrated in yeast and mouse that ncRNA transcription around gene promoters and enhancers facilitates DNA binding of transcription factors to their target sites. These results suggest universal roles of promoter/enhancer-associated ncRNAs in the recruitment of transcription factors to their binding sites. PMID:27763805

  13. Gene duplication and co-evolution of G1/S transcription factor specificity in fungi are essential for optimizing cell fitness.

    PubMed

    Hendler, Adi; Medina, Edgar M; Kishkevich, Anastasiya; Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Klier, Steffi; Buchler, Nicolas E; de Bruin, Robertus A M; Aharoni, Amir

    2017-05-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks play a central role in optimizing cell survival. How DNA binding domains and cis-regulatory DNA binding sequences have co-evolved to allow the expansion of transcriptional networks and how this contributes to cellular fitness remains unclear. Here we experimentally explore how the complex G1/S transcriptional network evolved in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by examining different chimeric transcription factor (TF) complexes. Over 200 G1/S genes are regulated by either one of the two TF complexes, SBF and MBF, which bind to specific DNA binding sequences, SCB and MCB, respectively. The difference in size and complexity of the G1/S transcriptional network across yeast species makes it well suited to investigate how TF paralogs (SBF and MBF) and DNA binding sequences (SCB and MCB) co-evolved after gene duplication to rewire and expand the network of G1/S target genes. Our data suggests that whilst SBF is the likely ancestral regulatory complex, the ancestral DNA binding element is more MCB-like. G1/S network expansion took place by both cis- and trans- co-evolutionary changes in closely related but distinct regulatory sequences. Replacement of the endogenous SBF DNA-binding domain (DBD) with that from more distantly related fungi leads to a contraction of the SBF-regulated G1/S network in budding yeast, which also correlates with increased defects in cell growth, cell size, and proliferation.

  14. Polycomb silencing mediated by specific DNA-binding recruiters.

    PubMed

    March, Eduardo; Farrona, Sara

    2017-09-27

    Regulation of epigenetic factors through their recruitment to specific genomic regions is still poorly understood. A recent study demonstrates a global mechanism of tethering Polycomb group (PcG) proteins through sequence-specific DNA-binding factors.

  15. Signatures of DNA target selectivity by ETS transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Poon, Gregory M K; Kim, Hye Mi

    2017-05-27

    The ETS family of transcription factors is a functionally heterogeneous group of gene regulators that share a structurally conserved, eponymous DNA-binding domain. DNA target specificity derives from combinatorial interactions with other proteins as well as intrinsic heterogeneity among ETS domains. Emerging evidence suggests molecular hydration as a fundamental feature that defines the intrinsic heterogeneity in DNA target selection and susceptibility to epigenetic DNA modification. This perspective invokes novel hypotheses in the regulation of ETS proteins in physiologic osmotic stress, their pioneering potential in heterochromatin, and the effects of passive and pharmacologic DNA demethylation on ETS regulation.

  16. Hyperglycemia and redox status regulate RUNX2 DNA-binding and an angiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mochin, Maria T; Underwood, Karen F; Cooper, Brandon; McLenithan, John C; Pierce, Adam D; Nalvarte, Cesar; Arbiser, Jack; Karlsson, Anna I; Moise, Alexander R; Moskovitz, Jackob; Passaniti, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is regulated by hyperglycemic conditions, which can induce cellular stress responses, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-oxidant defenses that modulate intracellular signaling to prevent oxidative damage. The RUNX2 DNA-binding transcription factor is activated by a glucose-mediated intracellular pathway, plays an important role in endothelial cell (EC) function and angiogenesis, and is a target of oxidative stress. RUNX2 DNA-binding and EC differentiation in response to glucose were conserved in ECs from different tissues and inhibited by hyperglycemia, which stimulated ROS production through the aldose reductase glucose-utilization pathway. Furthermore, the redox status of cysteine and methionine residues regulated RUNX2 DNA-binding and reversal of oxidative inhibition was consistent with an endogenous Methionine sulfoxide reductase-A (MsrA) activity. Low molecular weight MsrA substrates and sulfoxide scavengers were potent inhibitors of RUNX2 DNA binding in the absence of oxidative stress, but acted as antioxidants to increase DNA binding in the presence of oxidants. MsrA was associated with RUNX2:DNA complexes, as measured by a sensitive, quantitative DNA-binding ELISA. The related RUNX2 protein family member, RUNX1, which contains an identical DNA-binding domain, was a catalytic substrate of recombinant MsrA. These findings define novel redox pathways involving aldose reductase and MsrA that regulate RUNX2 transcription factor activity and biological function in ECs. Targeting of these pathways could result in more effective strategies to alleviate the vascular dysfunction associated with diabetes or cancer.

  17. Exploring the utility of organo-polyoxometalate hybrids to inhibit SOX transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SOX transcription factors constitute an attractive target class for intervention with small molecules as they play a prominent role in the field of regenerative biomedicine and cancer biology. However, rationally engineering specific inhibitors that interfere with transcription factor DNA interfaces continues to be a monumental challenge in the field of transcription factor chemical biology. Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic compounds that were previously shown to target the high-mobility group (HMG) of SOX proteins at nanomolar concentrations. In continuation of this work, we carried out an assessment of the selectivity of a panel of newly synthesized organo-polyoxometalate hybrids in targeting different transcription factor families to enable the usage of polyoxometalates as specific SOX transcription factor drugs. Results The residual DNA-binding activities of 15 different transcription factors were measured after treatment with a panel of diverse polyoxometalates. Polyoxometalates belonging to the Dawson structural class were found to be more potent inhibitors than the Keggin class. Further, organically modified Dawson polyoxometalates were found to be the most potent in inhibiting transcription factor DNA binding activity. The size of the polyoxometalates and its derivitization were found to be the key determinants of their potency. Conclusion Polyoxometalates are highly potent, nanomolar range inhibitors of the DNA binding activity of the Sox-HMG family. However, binding assays involving a limited subset of structurally diverse polyoxometalates revealed a low selectivity profile against different transcription factor families. Further progress in achieving selectivity and deciphering structure-activity relationship of POMs require the identification of POM binding sites on transcription factors using elaborate approaches like X-ray crystallography and multidimensional NMR. In summary, our report reaffirms that transcription factors are

  18. Specific and non-specific interactions of integration host factor with DNA: thermodynamic evidence for disruption of multiple IHF surface salt-bridges coupled to DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, J A; Tsodikov, O V; Saecker, R M; Record, M T

    2001-07-06

    Site-specific DNA binding of architectural protein integration host factor (IHF) is involved in formation of functional multiprotein-DNA assemblies in Escherichia coli, while non-specific binding of IHF and other histone-like proteins serves to structure the nucleoid. Here, we report an isothermal titration calorimetry study of the thermodynamics of binding IHF to a 34 bp fragment composed entirely of the specific H' site from lambda-phage DNA. At low to moderate [K(+)] (60-100 mM), strong competition is observed between specific and non-specific binding as a result of a low specificity ratio (approximately 10(2)) and a very small non-specific site size. In this [K(+)] range, both specific and non-specific binding are enthalpy-driven, with large negative enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity changes and binding constants that are insensitive to [K(+)]. Above 100 mM K(+), only specific binding is observed, and both the binding constant and the magnitudes of enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity changes all decrease strongly with increasing [K(+)]. When interpreted in the context of the structure of the specific complex, the thermodynamics provide compelling evidence for a previously unrecognized design principle by which proteins that form extensive binding interfaces with nucleic acids control binding constants, binding site sizes and effects of temperature and ion concentrations on stability and specificity. We propose that up to 22 of the 23 IHF cationic side-chains that are located within 6 A of DNA phosphate oxygen atoms in the complex, are masked in the absence of DNA by pairing with anionic carboxylate groups in intramolecular salt-bridges (dehydrated ion-pairs). These salt-bridges increase in stability with increasing temperature and decreasing [K(+)]. To explain the unusual thermodynamics of IHF-DNA interactions, we propose that both specific and non-specific binding at low [K(+)] require disruption of salt-bridges (as many as 18 for specific binding) whereupon

  19. The intracisternal A-particle proximal enhancer-binding protein activates transcription and is identical to the RNA- and DNA-binding protein p54nrb/NonO.

    PubMed

    Basu, A; Dong, B; Krainer, A R; Howe, C C

    1997-02-01

    The long terminal repeats of murine intracisternal A particles (IAPs) contain an IAP proximal enhancer (IPE) element that is inactive in murine F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and active in the parietal endoderm cell line PYS-2. The element binds efficiently to a 60-kDa IPE-binding protein (IPEB) present in PYS-2 cells but poorly to F9 proteins, suggesting a role for IPEB in regulating IAP expression. We have purified calf thymus IPEB, which binds to the IPE and transactivates a reporter gene in HeLa cell extracts. Based on the peptide sequence of the purified calf IPEB, we have cloned a 420-bp cDNA and showed that the encoded protein is the homolog of human p54nrb and mouse NonO, which are characterized by the presence of two RNA recognition motifs. We show that p54nrb is an IPE-binding transcription activator with its DNA-binding and activation domains in the N- and C-terminal halves, respectively. The activation domain of p54nrb is active in HeLa, PYS-2, and F9 cells, whereas p54nrb as a whole molecule is active in HeLa and PYS-2 cells but not in F9 cells. Thus, the lack of activity of p54nrb in F9 cells is due to an ineffective DNA-binding domain. We demonstrate that p54nrb also binds to a pre-mRNA. Based on the close sequence relatedness of this protein to PSF, which is required for pre-mRNA splicing in vitro, we discuss the possibility that p54nrb has dual roles in transcription and splicing.

  20. SMiLE-seq identifies binding motifs of single and dimeric transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Isakova, Alina; Groux, Romain; Imbeault, Michael; Rainer, Pernille; Alpern, Daniel; Dainese, Riccardo; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Trono, Didier; Bucher, Philipp; Deplancke, Bart

    2017-03-01

    Resolving the DNA-binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs) is of critical value for understanding gene regulation. Here, we present a novel, semiautomated protein-DNA interaction characterization technology, selective microfluidics-based ligand enrichment followed by sequencing (SMiLE-seq). SMiLE-seq is neither limited by DNA bait length nor biased toward strong affinity binders; it probes the DNA-binding properties of TFs over a wide affinity range in a fast and cost-effective fashion. We validated SMiLE-seq by analyzing 58 full-length human, mouse, and Drosophila TFs from distinct structural classes. All tested TFs yielded DNA-binding models with predictive power comparable to or greater than that of other in vitro assays. De novo motif discovery on all JUN-FOS heterodimers and several nuclear receptor-TF complexes provided novel insights into partner-specific heterodimer DNA-binding preferences. We also successfully analyzed the DNA-binding properties of uncharacterized human C2H2 zinc-finger proteins and validated several using ChIP-exo.

  1. Decreased Expression of Inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id) Proteins and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Increased Apoptosis in Ovarian Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Jung; Park, Sea Hee; Moon, Sung Eun; Koo, Ja Seong; Moon, Hwa Sook; Joo, Bo Sun

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the expression of inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id) proteins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ovary according to female age using a mice model as the first step in investigating the potential role of Ids and VEGF in ovarian aging. C57BL inbred female mice of three age groups (6-9, 14-16, and 23-26 weeks) were injected with 5 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) in order to synchronize the estrus cycle. After 48 h, ovarian expression of Ids and VEGF was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry. Ovarian apoptosis was examined by ovarian expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Expression of Id-1 and VEGF was decreased with advancing female age, but not Id-2, Id-3, and Id-4. In particular, their expressions were significantly decreased in aged mice of 23-26 weeks compared with the young mice of 6-9 weeks (p < 0.05). In contrast, ovarian apoptosis was greatly increased in the aged mice compared to the young mice. This result suggests that Id-1 may have an implicated role in ovarian aging by associating with VEGF.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of ETS-family DNA-binding in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gong-Hong; Badis, Gwenael; Berger, Michael F; Kivioja, Teemu; Palin, Kimmo; Enge, Martin; Bonke, Martin; Jolma, Arttu; Varjosalo, Markku; Gehrke, Andrew R; Yan, Jian; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Turunen, Mikko; Taipale, Mikko; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Ukkonen, Esko; Hughes, Timothy R; Bulyk, Martha L; Taipale, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Members of the large ETS family of transcription factors (TFs) have highly similar DNA-binding domains (DBDs)—yet they have diverse functions and activities in physiology and oncogenesis. Some differences in DNA-binding preferences within this family have been described, but they have not been analysed systematically, and their contributions to targeting remain largely uncharacterized. We report here the DNA-binding profiles for all human and mouse ETS factors, which we generated using two different methods: a high-throughput microwell-based TF DNA-binding specificity assay, and protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). Both approaches reveal that the ETS-binding profiles cluster into four distinct classes, and that all ETS factors linked to cancer, ERG, ETV1, ETV4 and FLI1, fall into just one of these classes. We identify amino-acid residues that are critical for the differences in specificity between all the classes, and confirm the specificities in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) for a member of each class. The results indicate that even relatively small differences in in vitro binding specificity of a TF contribute to site selectivity in vivo. PMID:20517297

  3. Regulation of RUNX2 transcription factor-DNA interactions and cell proliferation by vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) prohormone activity.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Karen F; D'Souza, David R; Mochin-Peters, Maria; Pierce, Adam D; Kommineni, Sravya; Choe, Moran; Bennett, Jessica; Gnatt, Averell; Habtemariam, Bahru; MacKerell, Alexander D; Passaniti, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    The fat-soluble prohormone cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) is a precursor of the circulating 25-OH Vitamin D3, which is converted by 1α-hydroxylase to the biologically active 1,25-OH Vitamin D3. Active Vitamin D3 interacts with the Vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor that plays an important role in calcium mobilization and bone formation. RUNX2 is a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates target genes important in bone formation, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. Using computer-assisted drug design (CADD) and a microtiter plate-based DNA-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (D-ELISA) to measure nuclear RUNX2 DNA binding, we have found that Vitamin D3 prohormones can modulate RUNX2 DNA binding, which was dose-dependent and sensitive to trypsin, salt, and phosphatase treatment. Unlabeled oligonucleotide or truncated, dominant negative RUNX2 proteins were competitive inhibitors of RUNX2 DNA binding. The RUNX2 heterodimeric partner, Cbfβ, was detected in the binding complexes with specific antibodies. Evaluation of several RUNX2:DNA targeted small molecules predicted by CADD screening revealed a previously unknown biological activity of the inactive Vitamin D3 precursor, cholecalciferol. Cholecalciferol modulated RUNX2:DNA binding at nanomolar concentrations even in cells with low VDR. Cholecalciferol and 25-OH Vitamin D3 prohormones were selective inhibitors of RUNX2-positive endothelial, bone, and breast cancer cell proliferation, but not of cells lacking RUNX2 expression. These compounds may have application in modulating RUNX2 activity in an angiogenic setting, in metastatic cells, and to promote bone formation in disease-mediated osteoporosis. The combination CADD discovery and D-ELISA screening approaches allows the testing of other novel derivatives of Vitamin D and/or transcriptional inhibitors with the potential to regulate DNA binding and biological function. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. Positive Control Mutations in the MyoD Basic Region Fail to Show Cooperative DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengal, Eyal; Flores, Osvaldo; Rangarajan, Pundi N.; Chen, Amy; Weintraub, Harold; Verma, Inder M.

    1994-06-01

    An in vitro transcription system from HeLa cells has been established in which MyoD and E47 proteins activate transcription both as homodimers and heterodimers. However, heterodimers activate transcription more efficiently than homodimers, and function synergistically from multiple binding sites. Positive control mutants in the basic region of MyoD that have previously been shown to be defective in initiating the myogenic program, can bind DNA but have lost their ability to function as transcriptional activators in vitro. Additionally, positive control mutants, unlike wild-type MyoD, fail to bind cooperatively to DNA. We propose that binding of MyoD complexes to high affinity MyoD binding sites induces conformational changes that facilitate cooperative binding to multiple sites and promote transcriptional activation.

  5. Interferon gamma rapidly induces in human monocytes a DNA-binding factor that recognizes the gamma response region within the promoter of the gene for the high-affinity Fc gamma receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K C; Finbloom, D S

    1992-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) transcriptionally activates several early-response genes in monocytes that are important for the ultimate phenotype of the activated macrophage. One of these genes is the high-affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI). Recently, Pearse et al. [Pearse, R.N., Feinman, R. & Ravetch, J. V. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 11305-11309] defined within the promoter region of the Fc gamma RI gene an element, the gamma response region, which was necessary for IFN-gamma-induced enhancement of Fc gamma RI. In this report we describe the induction by IFN-gamma of a DNA-binding factor, FcRF gamma (Fc gamma RI DNA-binding factor, IFN-gamma induced), that specifically recognizes the gamma response region element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the presence of FcRF gamma in human monocytes within 1 min after exposure to IFN-gamma. On EMSA, FcRF gamma consisted of two complexes termed FcRF gamma 1 and FcRF gamma 2. The nuclear concentration of FcRF gamma rapidly increased, peaked at 15 min, and then fell after 1-2 hr. Dose-response studies revealed (i) as little as 0.05 ng of IFN-gamma per ml induced FcRF gamma, (ii) maximum activation occurred at 1 ng/ml, and (iii) steady-state levels of Fc gamma RI mRNA closely paralleled that of FcRF gamma. Since FcRF gamma was activated in cells normally not expressing Fc gamma RI RNA, other regulatory mechanisms must control Fc gamma RI-restricted tissue expression. Activation of FcRF gamma by IFN-gamma was inhibited by pretreatment with 500 nM staurosporin and 25 microM phenyl arsine oxide. These data suggest that a kinase and possibly a phosphatase activity are required for IFN-gamma-induced signaling of FcRF gamma in monocytes. Images PMID:1334553

  6. Azadiradione ameliorates polyglutamine expansion disease in Drosophila by potentiating DNA binding activity of heat shock factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Naibedya; Ghosh, Suvranil; Jana, Manas; Ganguli, Arnab; Komarov, Andrei; Paul, Soumyadip; Dwivedi, Vibha; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Jana, Nihar R.; Lakhotia, Subhash C.; Chakrabarti, Gopal; Misra, Anup K.; Mandal, Subhash C.; Pal, Mahadeb

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of proteins with the expansion of polyglutamine tracts in the brain underlies progressive genetic neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) like Huntington's disease and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA). An insensitive cellular proteotoxic stress response to non-native protein oligomers is common in such conditions. Indeed, upregulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) function and its target protein chaperone expression has shown promising results in animal models of NDs. Using an HSF1 sensitive cell based reporter screening, we have isolated azadiradione (AZD) from the methanolic extract of seeds of Azadirachta indica, a plant known for its multifarious medicinal properties. We show that AZD ameliorates toxicity due to protein aggregation in cell and fly models of polyglutamine expansion diseases to a great extent. All these effects are correlated with activation of HSF1 function and expression of its target protein chaperone genes. Notably, HSF1 activation by AZD is independent of cellular HSP90 or proteasome function. Furthermore, we show that AZD directly interacts with purified human HSF1 with high specificity, and facilitates binding of HSF1 to its recognition sequence with higher affinity. These unique findings qualify AZD as an ideal lead molecule for consideration for drug development against NDs that affect millions worldwide. PMID:27835876

  7. Recruitment of the priming protein pTP and DNA binding occur by overlapping Oct-1 POU homeodomain surfaces

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, R.N.; Mysiak, M.E.; Meijer, L.A.T.; van der Linden, M.; van der Vliet, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    The human transcription factor Oct-1 can stimulate transcription from a variety of promoters by interacting with the coactivators OBF-1/OCA-B/BOB-1, SNAP190 and VP16. These proteins contact Oct-1 regions different from the DNA binding surface. Oct-1 also stimulates the DNA replication of adenovirus through its DNA binding site in the origin. The Oct-1 POU homeodomain (POUhd) binds the adenovirus precursor terminal protein pTP, which serves as the protein primer of DNA replication and recruits pTP to the origin. To map the interaction with pTP at the POUhd surface, we screened a library of randomly mutated POU domains and identified mutations that interfered with pTP interaction and DNA replication stimulation. These mutants clustered at a surface different from those recognized by OBF-1, SNAP190 and VP16. Unexpectedly, the pTP binding region largely overlapped with the DNA binding surface of POUhd. In agreement with this, pTP binding and DNA binding were mutually exclusive. We propose a model to reconcile pTP recruitment and DNA binding by Oct-1. PMID:11847120

  8. Auto-inhibition of ETV6 (TEL) DNA-binding: appended helices sterically block the ETS domain

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, H. Jerome; De, Soumya; Okon, Mark; Green, Sean M.; Bhachech, Niraja; Graves, Barbara J.; McIntosh, Lawrence P.

    2012-01-01

    ETV6 (or TEL), a transcriptional repressor belonging to the ETS family, is frequently involved in chromosomal translocations linked with human cancers. It displays a DNA-binding mode distinct from other ETS proteins due to the presence of a self-associating PNT domain. In this study, we used NMR spectroscopy to dissect the structural and dynamic bases for the auto-inhibition of ETV6 DNA-binding by sequences C-terminal to its ETS domain. The CID (C-terminal inhibitory domain) contains two helices, H4 and H5, which sterically block the DNA-binding interface of the ETS domain. Importantly, these appended helices are only marginally stable as revealed by amide hydrogen exchange and 15N relaxation measurements. The CID is thus poised to undergo a facile conformational change as required for DNA-binding. The CID also dampens millisecond timescale motions of the ETS domain hypothesized to be critical for the recognition of specific ETS target sequences. This work illustrates the use of appended sequences on conserved structural domains to generate biological diversity, and complements previous studies of the allosteric mechanism of ETS1 auto-inhibition to reveal both common and divergent features underlying the regulation of DNA-binding by ETS transcription factors. PMID:22584210

  9. Inhibition of AtMYB2 DNA-binding by nitric oxide involves cysteine S-nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Serpa, Viviane; Vernal, Javier; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Grotewold, Erich; Cassia, Raul; Terenzi, Hernán

    2007-10-05

    Nitric oxide (NO) can influence the transcriptional activity of a wide set of Arabidopsis genes. The aim of the present work was to investigate if NO modifies DNA-binding activity of AtMYB2 (a typical R2R3-MYB from Arabidopsis thaliana), by a posttranslational modification of its conserved Cys53 residue. We cloned a fully active minimal DNA-binding domain of AtMYB2 spanning residues 19-125, hereafter called M2D. In EMSA assays, M2D binds the core binding site 5'-[A]AACC[A]-3'. The NO donors SNP and GSNO inhibit M2D DNA-binding. As expected for a Cys S-nitrosylation, the NO-mediated inhibitory effect was reversed by DTT, and S-nitrosylation of Cys53 in M2D was detected by biotin switch assays. These results demonstrate that the DNA-binding of M2D is inhibited by S-nitrosylation of Cys53 as a consequence of NO action, thus establishing for the first time a relationship between the redox state and DNA-binding in a plant MYB transcription factor.

  10. FlbD has a DNA-binding activity near its carboxy terminus that recognizes ftr sequences involved in positive and negative regulation of flagellar gene transcription in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, D A; Van Way, S M; Blankenship, C A; Mullin, A H

    1994-01-01

    FlbD is a transcriptional regulatory protein that negatively autoregulates fliF, and it is required for expression of other Caulobacter crescentus flagellar genes, including flaN and flbG. In this report we have investigated the interaction between carboxy-terminal fragments of FlbD protein and enhancer-like ftr sequences in the promoter regions of fliF, flaN, and flbG. FlbDc87 is a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-FlbD fusion protein that carries the carboxy-terminal 87 amino acids of FlbD, and FlbDc87 binds to restriction fragments containing the promoter regions of fliF, flaN, and flbG, whereas a GST-FlbD fusion protein carrying the last 48 amino acids of FlbD failed to bind to these promoter regions. DNA footprint analysis demonstrated that FlbDc87 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that makes close contact with 11 nucleotides in ftr4, and 6 of these nucleotides were shown previously to function in negative regulation of fliF transcription in vivo (S. M. Van Way, A. Newton, A. H. Mullin, and D. A. Mullin, J. Bacteriol. 175:367-376, 1993). Three DNA fragments, each carrying an ftr4 mutation that resulted in elevated fliF transcript levels in vivo, were defective in binding to FlbDc87 in vitro. We also found that a missense mutation in the recognition helix of the putative helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif of FlbDc87 resulted in defective binding to ftr4 in vitro. These data suggest that the binding of FlbDc87 to ftr4 is relevant to negative transcriptional regulation of fliF and that FlbD functions directly as a repressor. Footprint analysis showed that FlbDc87 also makes close contacts with specific nucleotides in ftr1, ftr2, and ftr3 in the flaN-flbG promoter region, and some of these nucleotides were shown previously to be required for regulated transcription of flaN and flbG (D. A. Mullin and A. Newton, J. Bacteriol. 175:2067-2076, 1993). Footprint analysis also revealed a new ftr-like sequence, ftr5, at -136 from the transcription start site of flb

  11. Global analysis of ion dependence unveils hidden steps in DNA binding and bending by integration host factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, Paula; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Kuznetsov, Serguei V.; Rice, Phoebe A.; Ansari, Anjum

    2013-09-01

    Proteins that recognize and bind to specific sites on DNA often distort the DNA at these sites. The rates at which these DNA distortions occur are considered to be important in the ability of these proteins to discriminate between specific and nonspecific sites. These rates have proven difficult to measure for most protein-DNA complexes in part because of the difficulty in separating the kinetics of unimolecular conformational rearrangements (DNA bending and kinking) from the kinetics of bimolecular complex association and dissociation. A notable exception is the Integration Host Factor (IHF), a eubacterial architectural protein involved in chromosomal compaction and DNA recombination, which binds with subnanomolar affinity to specific DNA sites and bends them into sharp U-turns. The unimolecular DNA bending kinetics has been resolved using both stopped-flow and laser temperature-jump perturbation. Here we expand our investigation by presenting a global analysis of the ionic strength dependence of specific binding affinity and relaxation kinetics of an IHF-DNA complex. This analysis enables us to obtain each of the underlying elementary rates (DNA bending/unbending and protein-DNA association/dissociation), and their ionic strength dependence, even under conditions where the two processes are coupled. Our analysis indicates interesting differences in the ionic strength dependence of the bi- versus unimolecular steps. At moderate [KCl] (100-500 mM), nearly all the ionic strength dependence to the overall equilibrium binding affinity appears in the bimolecular association/dissociation of an initial, presumably weakly bent, encounter complex, with a slope SKbi ≈ 8 describing the loglog-dependence of the equilibrium constant to form this complex on [KCl]. In contrast, the unimolecular equilibrium constant to form the fully wrapped specific complex from the initial complex is nearly independent of [KCl], with SKuni < 0.5. This result is counterintuitive because there

  12. Pioneer transcription factors: establishing competence for gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zaret, Kenneth S.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors are adaptor molecules that detect regulatory sequences in the DNA and target the assembly of protein complexes that control gene expression. Yet much of the DNA in the eukaryotic cell is in nucleosomes and thereby occluded by histones, and can be further occluded by higher-order chromatin structures and repressor complexes. Indeed, genome-wide location analyses have revealed that, for all transcription factors tested, the vast majority of potential DNA-binding sites are unoccupied, demonstrating the inaccessibility of most of the nuclear DNA. This raises the question of how target sites at silent genes become bound de novo by transcription factors, thereby initiating regulatory events in chromatin. Binding cooperativity can be sufficient for many kinds of factors to simultaneously engage a target site in chromatin and activate gene expression. However, in cases in which the binding of a series of factors is sequential in time and thus not initially cooperative, special “pioneer transcription factors” can be the first to engage target sites in chromatin. Such initial binding can passively enhance transcription by reducing the number of additional factors that are needed to bind the DNA, culminating in activation. In addition, pioneer factor binding can actively open up the local chromatin and directly make it competent for other factors to bind. Passive and active roles for the pioneer factor FoxA occur in embryonic development, steroid hormone induction, and human cancers. Herein we review the field and describe how pioneer factors may enable cellular reprogramming. PMID:22056668

  13. The DNA-binding domain of BenM reveals the structural basis for the recognition of a T-N11-A sequence motif by LysR-type transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Amer M; Neidle, Ellen L; Momany, Cory

    2013-10-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) play critical roles in metabolism and constitute the largest family of bacterial regulators. To understand protein-DNA interactions, atomic structures of the DNA-binding domain and linker-helix regions of a prototypical LTTR, BenM, were determined by X-ray crystallography. BenM structures with and without bound DNA reveal a set of highly conserved amino acids that interact directly with DNA bases. At the N-terminal end of the recognition helix (α3) of a winged-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif, several residues create hydrophobic pockets (Pro30, Pro31 and Ser33). These pockets interact with the methyl groups of two thymines in the DNA-recognition motif and its complementary strand, T-N11-A. This motif usually includes some dyad symmetry, as exemplified by a sequence that binds two subunits of a BenM tetramer (ATAC-N7-GTAT). Gln29 forms hydrogen bonds to adenine in the first position of the recognition half-site (ATAC). Another hydrophobic pocket defined by Ala28, Pro30 and Pro31 interacts with the methyl group of thymine, complementary to the base at the third position of the half-site. Arg34 interacts with the complementary base of the 3' position. Arg53, in the wing, provides AT-tract recognition in the minor groove. For DNA recognition, LTTRs use highly conserved interactions between amino acids and nucleotide bases as well as numerous less-conserved secondary interactions.

  14. Determination and inference of eukaryotic transcription factor sequence specificity.

    PubMed

    Weirauch, Matthew T; Yang, Ally; Albu, Mihai; Cote, Atina G; Montenegro-Montero, Alejandro; Drewe, Philipp; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Lambert, Samuel A; Mann, Ishminder; Cook, Kate; Zheng, Hong; Goity, Alejandra; van Bakel, Harm; Lozano, Jean-Claude; Galli, Mary; Lewsey, Mathew G; Huang, Eryong; Mukherjee, Tuhin; Chen, Xiaoting; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Shaulsky, Gad; Walhout, Albertha J M; Bouget, François-Yves; Ratsch, Gunnar; Larrondo, Luis F; Ecker, Joseph R; Hughes, Timothy R

    2014-09-11

    Transcription factor (TF) DNA sequence preferences direct their regulatory activity, but are currently known for only ∼1% of eukaryotic TFs. Broadly sampling DNA-binding domain (DBD) types from multiple eukaryotic clades, we determined DNA sequence preferences for >1,000 TFs encompassing 54 different DBD classes from 131 diverse eukaryotes. We find that closely related DBDs almost always have very similar DNA sequence preferences, enabling inference of motifs for ∼34% of the ∼170,000 known or predicted eukaryotic TFs. Sequences matching both measured and inferred motifs are enriched in chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) peaks and upstream of transcription start sites in diverse eukaryotic lineages. SNPs defining expression quantitative trait loci in Arabidopsis promoters are also enriched for predicted TF binding sites. Importantly, our motif "library" can be used to identify specific TFs whose binding may be altered by human disease risk alleles. These data present a powerful resource for mapping transcriptional networks across eukaryotes.

  15. Identification of a polyoxometalate inhibitor of the DNA binding activity of Sox2.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Kamesh; Pillay, Shubhadra; Bin Ahmad, Nor Rizal; Bikadi, Zsolt; Hazai, Eszter; Yan, Li; Kolatkar, Prasanna R; Pervushin, Konstantin; Jauch, Ralf

    2011-06-17

    Aberrant expression of transcription factors is a frequent cause of disease, yet drugs that modulate transcription factor protein-DNA interactions are presently unavailable. To this end, the chemical tractability of the DNA binding domain of the stem cell inducer and oncogene Sox2 was explored in a high-throughput fluorescence anisotropy screen. The screening revealed a Dawson polyoxometalate (K(6)[P(2)Mo(18)O(62)]) as a direct and nanomolar inhibitor of the DNA binding activity of Sox2. The Dawson polyoxometalate (Dawson-POM) was found to be selective for Sox2 and related Sox-HMG family members when compared to unrelated paired and zinc finger DNA binding domains. [(15)N,(1)H]-Transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) experiments coupled with docking studies suggest an interaction site of the POM on the Sox2 surface that enabled the rationalization of its inhibitory activity. The unconventional molecular scaffold of the Dawson-POM and its inhibitory mode provides strategies for the development of drugs that modulate transcription factors.

  16. Breaking the code of DNA binding specificity of TAL-type III effectors.

    PubMed

    Boch, Jens; Scholze, Heidi; Schornack, Sebastian; Landgraf, Angelika; Hahn, Simone; Kay, Sabine; Lahaye, Thomas; Nickstadt, Anja; Bonas, Ulla

    2009-12-11

    The pathogenicity of many bacteria depends on the injection of effector proteins via type III secretion into eukaryotic cells in order to manipulate cellular processes. TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas are important virulence factors that act as transcriptional activators in the plant cell nucleus, where they directly bind to DNA via a central domain of tandem repeats. Here, we show how target DNA specificity of TAL effectors is encoded. Two hypervariable amino acid residues in each repeat recognize one base pair in the target DNA. Recognition sequences of TAL effectors were predicted and experimentally confirmed. The modular protein architecture enabled the construction of artificial effectors with new specificities. Our study describes the functionality of a distinct type of DNA binding domain and allows the design of DNA binding domains for biotechnology.

  17. A Network of Paralogous Stress Response Transcription Factors in the Human Pathogen Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Merhej, Jawad; Thiebaut, Antonin; Blugeon, Corinne; Pouch, Juliette; Ali Chaouche, Mohammed El Amine; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Le Crom, Stéphane; Lelandais, Gaëlle; Devaux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Candida glabrata has become the second cause of systemic candidemia in humans. However, relatively few genome-wide studies have been conducted in this organism and our knowledge of its transcriptional regulatory network is quite limited. In the present work, we combined genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq), transcriptome analyses, and DNA binding motif predictions to describe the regulatory interactions of the seven Yap (Yeast AP1) transcription factors of C. glabrata. We described a transcriptional network containing 255 regulatory interactions and 309 potential target genes. We predicted with high confidence the preferred DNA binding sites for 5 of the 7 CgYaps and showed a strong conservation of the Yap DNA binding properties between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. We provided reliable functional annotation for 3 of the 7 Yaps and identified for Yap1 and Yap5 a core regulon which is conserved in S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata, and C. albicans. We uncovered new roles for CgYap7 in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, for CgYap1 in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and for CgYap5 in the repression of GRX4 in response to iron starvation. These transcription factors define an interconnected transcriptional network at the cross-roads between redox homeostasis, oxygen consumption, and iron metabolism. PMID:27242683

  18. Fission Yeast CSL Proteins Function as Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Oravcová, Martina; Teska, Mikoláš; Půta, František; Folk, Petr; Převorovský, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcription factors of the CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jk/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family are key regulators of metazoan development and function as the effector components of the Notch receptor signalling pathway implicated in various cell fate decisions. CSL proteins recognize specifically the GTG[G/A]AA sequence motif and several mutants compromised in their ability to bind DNA have been reported. In our previous studies we have identified a number of novel putative CSL family members in fungi, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. It is not clear whether these represent genuine CSL family members. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches we characterized the DNA binding properties of Cbf11 and Cbf12, the antagonistic CSL paralogs from the fission yeast, important for the proper coordination of cell cycle events and the regulation of cell adhesion. We have shown that a mutation of a conserved arginine residue abolishes DNA binding in both CSL paralogs, similar to the situation in mouse. We have also demonstrated the ability of Cbf11 and Cbf12 to activate gene expression in an autologous fission yeast reporter system. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the fission yeast CSL proteins are indeed genuine family members capable of functioning as transcription factors, and provide support for the ancient evolutionary origin of this important protein family. PMID:23555033

  19. A filter microplate assay for quantitative analysis of DNA binding proteins using fluorescent DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, William C; Swartz, James R

    2011-08-15

    We present a rapid method for quantifying the apparent DNA binding affinity and capacity of recombinant transcription factors (TFs). We capture His6-tagged TFs using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose and incubate the immobilized TFs with fluorescently labeled cognate DNA probes. After washing, the strength of the fluorescence signal indicates the extent of DNA binding. The assay was validated using two pluripotency-regulating TFs: SOX2 and NANOG. Using competitive binding analysis with nonlabeled competitor DNA, we show that SOX2 and NANOG specifically bind to their consensus sequences. We also determined the apparent affinity of SOX2 and NANOG for their consensus sequences to be 54.2±9 and 44.0±6nM, respectively, in approximate agreement with literature values. Our assay does not require radioactivity, but radioactively labeling the TFs enables the measurement of absolute amounts of immobilized SOX2 and NANOG and, hence, a DNA-to-protein binding ratio. SOX2 possesses a 0.95 DNA-to-protein binding ratio, whereas NANOG possesses a 0.44 ratio, suggesting that most of the SOX2 and approximately half of the NANOG are competent for DNA binding. Alternatively, the NANOG dimer may be capable of binding only one DNA target. This flexible DNA binding assay enables the analysis of crude or purified samples with or without radioactivity.

  20. Adenovirus DNA-binding protein forms a multimeric protein complex with double-stranded DNA and enhances binding of nuclear factor I.

    PubMed Central

    Stuiver, M H; van der Vliet, P C

    1990-01-01

    The 72-kilodalton adenovirus DNA-binding protein (DBP) binds to single-stranded DNA as well as to RNA and double-stranded DNA and is essential for the replication of viral DNA. We investigated the binding of DBP to double-stranded DNA by gel retardation analysis. By using a 114-base-pair DNA fragment, five or six different complexes were observed by gel retardation. The mobility of these complexes is dependent on the DBP concentration, suggesting that the complexes arise by sequential binding of DBP molecules to the DNA. In contrast to binding to single-stranded DNA, the binding of DBP to double-stranded DNA appears to be noncooperative. DBP binds to linear DNA as well as to circular DNA, while linear DNA containing the adenovirus terminal protein was also recognized. No specificity for adenovirus origin sequences was observed. To study whether the binding of DBP could influence initiation of DNA replication, we analyzed the effect of DBP on the binding of nuclear factor I (NFI) and NFIII, two sequence-specific origin-recognizing proteins that enhance initiation. At subsaturating levels of NFI, DBP increases the rate of binding of NFI considerably, while no effect was seen on NFIII. This stimulation of NFI binding is specific for DBP and was not observed with another protein (NFIV), which forms a similar DNA-multimeric protein complex. In agreement with enhanced NFI binding, DBP stimulates initiation of adenovirus DNA replication in vitro especially strongly at subsaturating NFI concentrations. We explain our results by assuming that DBP forms a complex with origin DNA that promotes formation of an alternative DNA structure, thereby facilitating the binding of NFI as well as the initiation of DNA replication via NFI. Images PMID:2293667

  1. A missense mutation in damage-specific DNA binding protein 2 is a genetic risk factor for limbal squamous cell carcinoma in horses.

    PubMed

    Bellone, Rebecca R; Liu, Jiayin; Petersen, Jessica L; Mack, Maura; Singer-Berk, Moriel; Drögemüller, Cord; Malvick, Julia; Wallner, Barbara; Brem, Gottfried; Penedo, M Cecilia; Lassaline, Mary

    2017-07-15

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common cancer of the equine eye, frequently originating at the limbus, with the potential to invade the cornea, cause visual impairment, and result in loss of the eye. Several breeds of horses have a high occurrence of limbal SCC implicating a genetic basis for limbal SCC predisposition. Pedigree analysis in the Haflinger breed supports a simple recessive mode of inheritance and a genome-wide association study (N = 23) identified a 1.5 Mb locus on ECA12 significantly associated with limbal SCC (Pcorrected = 0.04). Sequencing the most physiologically relevant gene from this locus, damage specific DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2), identified a missense mutation (c.1013 C > T p.Thr338Met) that was strongly associated with limbal SCC (P = 3.41 × 10(-10) ). Genotyping 42 polymorphisms narrowed the ECA12 candidate interval to 483 kb but did not identify another variant that was more strongly associated. DDB2 binds to ultraviolet light damaged DNA and recruits other proteins to perform global genome nucleotide excision repair. Computational modeling predicts this mutation to be deleterious by altering conformation of the β loop involved in photolesion recognition. This DDB2 variant was also detected in two other closely related breeds with reported cases of ocular SCC, the Belgian and the Percheron, suggesting it may also be a SCC risk factor in these breeds. Furthermore, in humans xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E, a disease characterized by sun sensitivity and increased risk of cutaneous SCC and melanomas, is explained by mutations in DDB2. Cross-species comparison remains to be further evaluated. © 2017 UICC.

  2. Transcriptional Regulation by Competing Transcription Factor Modules

    PubMed Central

    Hermsen, Rutger; Tans, Sander; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2006-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks lie at the heart of cellular computation. In these networks, intracellular and extracellular signals are integrated by transcription factors, which control the expression of transcription units by binding to cis-regulatory regions on the DNA. The designs of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cis-regulatory regions are usually highly complex. They frequently consist of both repetitive and overlapping transcription factor binding sites. To unravel the design principles of these promoter architectures, we have designed in silico prokaryotic transcriptional logic gates with predefined input–output relations using an evolutionary algorithm. The resulting cis-regulatory designs are often composed of modules that consist of tandem arrays of binding sites to which the transcription factors bind cooperatively. Moreover, these modules often overlap with each other, leading to competition between them. Our analysis thus identifies a new signal integration motif that is based upon the interplay between intramodular cooperativity and intermodular competition. We show that this signal integration mechanism drastically enhances the capacity of cis-regulatory domains to integrate signals. Our results provide a possible explanation for the complexity of promoter architectures and could be used for the rational design of synthetic gene circuits. PMID:17140283

  3. In vitro squelching of activated transcription by serum response factor: evidence for a common coactivator used by multiple transcriptional activators.

    PubMed Central

    Prywes, R; Zhu, H

    1992-01-01

    Low amounts of serum response factor (SRF) activate transcription in vitro from a fos promoter construct containing an SRF binding site. Using this human HeLa cell-derived in vitro transcription system, we have found that high amounts of SRF inhibited, or 'squelched', transcription from this construct. Transcription from several other promoters activated by different gene-specific factors, including CREB and the acidic activator VP16, was also inhibited by high amounts of SRF. Basal transcription, from TATA-only promoters, however, was not inhibited. These results suggest that SRF binds to a common factor(s) (termed coactivator) required for activated transcription by a diverse group of transcriptional activators. Inhibition of transcription by SRF could be blocked by a double stranded oligonucleotide containing an SRF binding site. Mutations in SRF which abolished its DNA binding activity also reduced its ability to inhibit transcription. In addition, a C-terminal truncation of SRF which reduced its ability to activate transcription also reduced SRF's ability to inhibit transcription. These results suggest that activation and inhibition of transcription may be mediated by SRF binding to the same factor and that SRF can only bind to this factor when SRF is bound to plasmid DNA. Images PMID:1531519

  4. Nitric oxide inhibits c-Jun DNA binding by specifically targeted S-glutathionylation.

    PubMed

    Klatt, P; Molina, E P; Lamas, S

    1999-05-28

    This study addresses potential molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of the transcription factor c-Jun by nitric oxide. We show that in the presence of the physiological sulfhydryl glutathione nitric oxide modifies the two cysteine residues contained in the DNA binding module of c-Jun in a selective and distinct way. Although nitric oxide induced the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bridge between cysteine residues in the leucine zipper site of c-Jun monomers, this same radical directed the covalent incorporation of stoichiometric amounts of glutathione to a single conserved cysteine residue in the DNA-binding site of the protein. We found that covalent dimerization of c-Jun apparently did not affect its DNA binding activity, whereas the formation of a mixed disulfide with glutathione correlated well with the inhibition of transcription factor binding to DNA. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence that nitric oxide-induced S-glutathionylation and inhibition of c-Jun involves the formation of S-nitrosoglutathione. In conclusion, our results support the reversible formation of a mixed disulfide between glutathione and c-Jun as a potential mechanism by which nitrosative stress may be transduced into a functional response at the level of transcription.

  5. Functional Profiling of Transcription Factor Genes in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Alexander J; Schacht, Patrick; Cabrera, Ilva E; Blahut, Johnathon; Prudhomme, Loren; Dietrich, Sarah; Bekman, Thomas; Mei, Jennifer; Carrera, Cristian; Chen, Vivian; Clark, Isaiah; Fierro, Gerardo; Ganzen, Logan; Orellana, Jose; Wise, Shelby; Yang, Kevin; Zhong, Hui; Borkovich, Katherine A

    2017-09-07

    Regulation of gene expression by DNA-binding transcription factors is essential for proper control of growth and development in all organisms. In this study, we annotate and characterize growth and developmental phenotypes for transcription factor genes in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa We identified 312 transcription factor genes, corresponding to 3.2% of the protein coding genes in the genome. The largest class was the fungal-specific Zn2Cys6 (C6) binuclear cluster, with 135 members, followed by the highly conserved C2H2 zinc finger group, with 61 genes. Viable knockout mutants were produced for 273 genes, and complete growth and developmental phenotypic data are available for 242 strains, with 64% possessing at least one defect. The most prominent defect observed was in growth of basal hyphae (43% of mutants analyzed), followed by asexual sporulation (38%), and the various stages of sexual development (19%). Two growth or developmental defects were observed for 21% of the mutants, while 8% were defective in all three major phenotypes tested. Analysis of available mRNA expression data for a time course of sexual development revealed mutants with sexual phenotypes that correlate with transcription factor transcript abundance in wild type. Inspection of this data also implicated cryptic roles in sexual development for several cotranscribed transcription factor genes that do not produce a phenotype when mutated. Copyright © 2017 Carrillo et al.

  6. The AP2/EREBP family of plant transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    AP2 (APETALA2) and EREBPs (ethylene-responsive element binding proteins) are the prototypic members of a family of transcription factors unique to plants, whose distinguishing characteristic is that they contain the so-called AP2 DNA-binding domain. AP2/ REBP genes form a large multigene family, and they play a variety of roles throughout the plant life cycle: from being key regulators of several developmental processes, like floral organ identity determination or control of leaf epidermal cell identity, to forming part of the mechanisms used by plants to respond to various types of biotic and environmental stress. The molecular and biochemical characteristics of the AP2/EREBP transcription factors and their diverse functions are reviewed here, and this multigene family is analyzed within the context of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence project.

  7. The conserved histone deacetylase Rpd3 and the DNA binding regulator Ume6 repress BOI1's meiotic transcript isoform during vegetative growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuchen; Stuparevic, Igor; Xie, Bingning; Becker, Emmanuelle; Law, Michael J; Primig, Michael

    2015-05-01

    BOI1 and BOI2 are paralogs important for the actin cytoskeleton and polar growth. BOI1 encodes a meiotic transcript isoform with an extended 5'-untranslated region predicted to impair protein translation. It is, however, unknown how the isoform is repressed during mitosis, and if Boi1 is present during sporulation. By interpreting microarray data from MATa cells, MATa/α cells, a starving MATα/α control, and a meiosis-impaired rrp6 mutant, we classified BOI1's extended isoform as early meiosis-specific. These results were confirmed by RNA-Sequencing, and extended by a 5'-RACE assay and Northern blotting, showing that meiotic cells induce the long isoform while the mitotic isoform remains detectable during meiosis. We provide evidence via motif predictions, an in vivo binding assay and genetic experiments that the Rpd3/Sin3/Ume6 histone deacetylase complex, which represses meiotic genes during mitosis, also prevents the induction of BOI1's 5'-extended isoform in mitosis by direct binding of Ume6 to its URS1 target. Finally, we find that Boi1 protein levels decline when cells switch from fermentation to respiration and sporulation. The histone deacetylase Rpd3 is conserved, and eukaryotic genes frequently encode transcripts with variable 5'-UTRs. Our findings are therefore relevant for regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of transcript isoforms in multi-cellular organisms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. De Novo Identification and Biophysical Characterization of Transcription Factor Binding Sites with Microfluidic Affinity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fordyce, Polly M.; Gerber, Doron; Tran, Danh; Zheng, Jiashun; Li, Hao; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated in part by protein transcription factors (TFs) that bind target regulatory DNA sequences. Predicting DNA binding sites and affinities from transcription factor sequence or structure is difficult; therefore, experimental data are required to link TFs to target sequences. We present a microfluidics-based approach for de novo discovery and quantitative biophysical characterization of DNA target sequences. We validated our technique by measuring sequence preferences for 28 S. cerevisiae TFs with a variety of DNA binding domains, including several that have proven difficult to study via other techniques. For each TF, we measured relative binding affinities to oligonucleotides covering all possible 8-bp DNA sequences to create a comprehensive map of sequence preferences; for 4 TFs, we also determined absolute affinities. We anticipate that these data and future use of this technique will provide information essential for understanding TF specificity, improving identification of regulatory sites, and reconstructing regulatory interactions. PMID:20802496

  9. Regulation of Lactobacillus casei Sorbitol Utilization Genes Requires DNA-Binding Transcriptional Activator GutR and the Conserved Protein GutM▿

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTSGut). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIBGat domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIAMtl domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBCGut negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM. PMID:18676710

  10. Regulation of Lactobacillus casei sorbitol utilization genes requires DNA-binding transcriptional activator GutR and the conserved protein GutM.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2008-09-01

    Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIB(Gat) domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIA(Mtl) domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBC(Gut) negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM.

  11. Characterization of DNA-binding-dependent and -independent functions of SCL/TAL1 during human erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Ravet, Emmanuel; Reynaud, Damien; Titeux, Monique; Izac, Brigitte; Fichelson, Serge; Roméo, Paul-Henri; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne; Pflumio, Françoise

    2004-05-01

    The transcription factor TAL1 has major functions during embryonic hematopoiesis and in adult erythropoiesis and megakaryocytopoiesis. These functions rely on different TAL1 structural domains that are responsible for dimerization, transactivation, and DNA binding. Previous work, most often done in mice, has shown that some TAL1 functions do not require DNA binding. To study the role of TAL1 and the relevance of the TAL1 DNA-binding domain in human erythropoiesis, we developed an approach that allows an efficient enforced wild-type or mutant TAL1 protein expression in human hematopoietic CD34(+) cells using a lentiviral vector. Differentiation capacities of the transduced cells were studied in a culture system that distinguishes early and late erythroid development. Results indicate that enforced TAL1 expression enhances long-term culture initiating cell (LTC-IC) potential and erythroid differentiation of human CD34(+) cells as shown by increased beta globin and porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) gene expressions and erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-Es), erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-Es), and glycophorin A-positive (GPA(+)) cell productions. Enforced expression of a TAL1 protein deleted of its DNA-binding domain (named Delta bTAL1) mimicked most TAL1 effects except for the LTC-IC enhancement, the down-regulation of the CD34 surface marker, and the GPA(+) cell production. These results provide the first functional indications of DNA-binding-dependent and -independent roles of TAL1 in human erythropoiesis.

  12. Porcine bocavirus NP1 negatively regulates interferon signaling pathway by targeting the DNA-binding domain of IRF9

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ruoxi; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Zhang, Huan; Xie, Lilan; Li, Yi; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2015-11-15

    To subvert host antiviral immune responses, many viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN signaling pathway. Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it shows clinically high co-infection prevalence with other pathogens in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) and diarrheic piglets. In this study, we screened the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by PBoV and found that the non-structural protein NP1 significantly suppressed IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) activity and subsequent IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, NP1 affected neither the activation and translocation of STAT1/STAT2, nor the formation of the heterotrimeric transcription factor complex ISGF3 (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9). Detailed analysis demonstrated that PBoV NP1 blocked the ISGF3 DNA-binding activity by combining with the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of IRF9. In summary, these results indicate that PBoV NP1 interferes with type I IFN signaling pathway by blocking DNA binding of ISGF3 to attenuate innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) NP1 interferes with the IFN α/β signaling pathway. • PBoV NP1 does not prevent STAT1/STAT2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • PBoV NP1 inhibits the DNA-binding activity of ISGF3. • PBoV NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF9.

  13. ELK1 uses different DNA binding modes to regulate functionally distinct classes of target genes.

    PubMed

    Odrowaz, Zaneta; Sharrocks, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic transcription factors are grouped into families and, due to their similar DNA binding domains, often have the potential to bind to the same genomic regions. This can lead to redundancy at the level of DNA binding, and mechanisms are required to generate specific functional outcomes that enable distinct gene expression programmes to be controlled by a particular transcription factor. Here we used ChIP-seq to uncover two distinct binding modes for the ETS transcription factor ELK1. In one mode, other ETS transcription factors can bind regulatory regions in a redundant fashion; in the second, ELK1 binds in a unique fashion to another set of genomic targets. Each binding mode is associated with different binding site features and also distinct regulatory outcomes. Furthermore, the type of binding mode also determines the control of functionally distinct subclasses of genes and hence the phenotypic response elicited. This is demonstrated for the unique binding mode where a novel role for ELK1 in controlling cell migration is revealed. We have therefore uncovered an unexpected link between the type of binding mode employed by a transcription factor, the subsequent gene regulatory mechanisms used, and the functional categories of target genes controlled.

  14. CtrA, a global response regulator, uses a distinct second category of weak DNA binding sites for cell cycle transcription control in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Spencer, William; Siam, Rania; Ouimet, Marie-Claude; Bastedo, D Patrick; Marczynski, Gregory T

    2009-09-01

    CtrA controls cell cycle programs of chromosome replication and genetic transcription. Phosphorylated CtrA approximately P exhibits high affinity (dissociation constant [K(d)], <10 nM) for consensus TTAA-N7-TTAA binding sites with "typical" (N = 7) spacing. We show here that ctrA promoters P1 and P2 use low-affinity (K(d), >500 nM) CtrA binding sites with "atypical" (N not equal 7) spacing. Footprints demonstrated that phosphorylated CtrA approximately P does not exhibit increased affinity for "atypical" sites, as it does for sites in the replication origin. Instead, high levels of CtrA (>10 microM) accumulate, which can drive CtrA binding to "atypical" sites. In vivo cross-linking showed that when the stable CtrADelta3 protein persists during the cell cycle, the "atypical" sites at ctrA and motB are persistently bound. Interestingly, the cell cycle timing of ctrA P1 and P2 transcription is not altered by persistent CtrADelta3 binding. Therefore, operator DNA occupancy is not sufficient for regulation, and it is the cell cycle variation of CtrA approximately P phosphorylation that provides the dominant "activation" signal. Protein dimerization is one potential means of "activation." The glutathione S-transferase (GST) protein dimerizes, and fusion with CtrA (GST-CtrA) creates a stable dimer with enhanced affinity for TTAA motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with GST-CtrA revealed cooperative modes of binding that further distinguish the "atypical" sites. GST-CtrA also binds a single TTAA motif in ctrA P1 aided by DNA in the extended TTAACCAT motif. We discuss how "atypical" sites are a common yet distinct category of CtrA regulatory sites and new implications for the working and evolution of cell cycle control networks.

  15. TAF4/4b·TAF12 Displays a Unique Mode of DNA Binding and Is Required for Core Promoter Function of a Subset of Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Gazit, Kfir; Moshonov, Sandra; Elfakess, Rofa; Sharon, Michal; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin; Dikstein, Rivka

    2009-01-01

    The major core promoter-binding factor in polymerase II transcription machinery is TFIID, a complex consisting of TBP, the TATA box-binding protein, and 13 to 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Previously we found that the histone H2A-like TAF paralogs TAF4 and TAF4b possess DNA-binding activity. Whether TAF4/TAF4b DNA binding directs TFIID to a specific core promoter element or facilitates TFIID binding to established core promoter elements is not known. Here we analyzed the mode of TAF4b·TAF12 DNA binding and show that this complex binds DNA with high affinity. The DNA length required for optimal binding is ∼70 bp. Although the complex displays a weak sequence preference, the nucleotide composition is less important than the length of the DNA for high affinity binding. Comparative expression profiling of wild-type and a DNA-binding mutant of TAF4 revealed common core promoter features in the down-regulated genes that include a TATA-box and an Initiator. Further examination of the PEL98 gene from this group showed diminished Initiator activity and TFIID occupancy in TAF4 DNA-binding mutant cells. These findings suggest that DNA binding by TAF4/4b-TAF12 facilitates the association of TFIID with the core promoter of a subset of genes. PMID:19635797

  16. Diversity and Complexity in DNA Recognition by Transcription Factors**

    PubMed Central

    Badis, Gwenael; Berger, Michael F.; Philippakis, Anthony A.; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Gehrke, Andrew R.; Jaeger, Savina A.; Chan, Esther T.; Metzler, Genita; Vedenko, Anastasia; Chen, Xiaoyu; Kuznetsov, Hanna; Wang, Chi-Fong; Coburn, David; Newburger, Daniel E.; Morris, Quaid; Hughes, Timothy R.; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    Sequence preferences of DNA-binding proteins are a primary mechanism by which cells interpret the genome. Despite these proteins’ central importance in physiology, development, and evolution, comprehensive DNA-binding specificities have been determined experimentally for few proteins. Here, we used microarrays containing all 10-base-pair sequences to examine the binding specificities of 104 distinct mouse DNA-binding proteins representing 22 structural classes. Our results reveal a complex landscape of binding, with virtually every protein analyzed possessing unique preferences. Roughly half of the proteins each recognized multiple distinctly different sequence motifs, challenging our molecular understanding of how proteins interact with their DNA binding sites. This complexity in DNA recognition may be important in gene regulation and in evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks. PMID:19443739

  17. Inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA binding by nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, J R; Botting, C H; Panico, M; Morris, H R; Hay, R T

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that the NF-kappaB transcription factor family may mediate expression of the gene encoding the cytokine-inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). To establish if nitric oxide (NO) could in turn affect activity of NF-kappaB, the ability of NO-donor compounds to influence NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in vitro was investigated. NO-donor compounds sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) both inhibited the DNA binding activity of recombinant NF-kappaB p50 and p65 homodimers and of p50-p65 heterodimers. Inhibition of NF-kappaB p50 DNA binding by NO-donor compounds involved modification of the conserved redox-sensitive C62 residue, as a C62S p50 mutant was significantly more resistant to SNP-mediated inactivation. Non-reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that SNP could inhibit p50 DNA binding by mechanisms other than the formation of intersubunit disulphide bonds involving p50 residue C62. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of a synthetic NF-kappaB p5O peptide containing the C62 residue suggested that NO gas can modify C62 by S-nitrosylation. This study indicates that NO-donors can directly inhibit the DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB family proteins, suggesting that cellular NO provides another control mechanism for modulating the expression of NF-kappaB-responsive genes. PMID:8710491

  18. Homo-trimerization is essential for the transcription factor function of Myrf for oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongkyeong; Choi, Jin-Ok; Fan, Chuandong; Shearer, Randall S; Sharif, Mohamed; Busch, Patrick; Park, Yungki

    2017-05-19

    Myrf is a key transcription factor for oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination. We and others have previously shown that Myrf is generated as a membrane protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and that it undergoes auto-processing to release its N-terminal fragment from the ER, which enters the nucleus to work as a transcription factor. These previous studies allow a glimpse into the unusual complexity behind the biogenesis and function of the transcription factor domain of Myrf. Here, we report that Myrf N-terminal fragments assemble into stable homo-trimers before ER release. Consequently, Myrf N-terminal fragments are released from the ER only as homo-trimers. Our re-analysis of a previous genetic screening result in Caenorhabditis elegans shows that homo-trimerization is essential for the biological functions of Myrf N-terminal fragment, and that the region adjacent to the DNA-binding domain is pivotal to its homo-trimerization. Further, our computational analysis uncovered a novel homo-trimeric DNA motif that mediates the homo-trimeric DNA binding of Myrf N-terminal fragments. Importantly, we found that homo-trimerization defines the DNA binding specificity of Myrf N-terminal fragments. In sum, our study elucidates the molecular mechanism governing the biogenesis and function of Myrf N-terminal fragments and its physiological significance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. New DNA-binding radioprotectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roger

    The normal tissue damage associated with cancer radiotherapy has motivated the development at Peter Mac of a new class of DNA-binding radioprotecting drugs that could be applied top-ically to normal tissues at risk. Methylproamine (MP), the lead compound, reduces radiation induced cell kill at low concentrations. For example, experiments comparing the clonogenic survival of transformed human keratinocytes treated with 30 micromolar MP before and dur-ing various doses of ionising radiation, with the radiation dose response for untreated cells, indicate a dose reduction factor (DRF) of 2. Similar survival curve experiments using various concentrations of MP, with parallel measurements of uptake of MP into cell nuclei, have en-abled the relationship between drug uptake and extent of radioprotection to be established. Radioprotection has also been demonstrated after systemic administration to mice, for three different endpoints, namely lung, jejunum and bone marrow (survival at 30 days post-TBI). The results of pulse radiolysis studies indicated that the drugs act by reduction of transient radiation-induced oxidative species on DNA. This hypothesis was substantiated by the results of experiments in which MP radioprotection of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, assessed as -H2AX foci, in the human keratinocyte cell line. For both endpoints, the extent of radioprotection increased with MP concentration up to a maximal value. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that radioprotection by MP is mediated by attenuation of the extent of initial DNA damage. However, although MP is a potent radioprotector, it becomes cytotoxic at higher concentrations. This limitation has been addressed in an extensive program of lead optimisation and some promising analogues have emerged from which the next lead will be selected. Given the clinical potential of topical radioprotection, the new analogues are being assessed in terms of delivery to mouse oral mucosa. This is

  20. Cooperative activation of Xenopus rhodopsin transcription by paired-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, rod photoreceptor-specific gene expression is regulated by the large Maf and Pax-like transcription factors, Nrl/LNrl and Crx/Otx5. The ubiquitous occurrence of their target DNA binding sites throughout rod-specific gene promoters suggests that multiple transcription factor interactions within the promoter are functionally important. Cooperative action by these transcription factors activates rod-specific genes such as rhodopsin. However, a quantitative mechanistic explanation of transcriptional rate determinants is lacking. Results We investigated the contributions of various paired-like transcription factors and their cognate cis-elements to rhodopsin gene activation using cultured cells to quantify activity. The Xenopus rhodopsin promoter (XOP) has a bipartite structure, with ~200 bp proximal to the start site (RPP) coordinating cooperative activation by Nrl/LNrl-Crx/Otx5 and the adjacent 5300 bp upstream sequence increasing the overall expression level. The synergistic activation by Nrl/LNrl-Crx/Otx5 also occurred when XOP was stably integrated into the genome. We determined that Crx/Otx5 synergistically activated transcription independently and additively through the two Pax-like cis-elements, BAT1 and Ret4, but not through Ret1. Other Pax-like family members, Rax1 and Rax2, do not synergistically activate XOP transcription with Nrl/LNrl and/or Crx/Otx5; rather they act as co-activators via the Ret1 cis-element. Conclusions We have provided a quantitative model of cooperative transcriptional activation of the rhodopsin promoter through interaction of Crx/Otx5 with Nrl/LNrl at two paired-like cis-elements proximal to the NRE and TATA binding site. Further, we have shown that Rax genes act in cooperation with Crx/Otx5 with Nrl/LNrl as co-activators of rhodopsin transcription. PMID:24499263

  1. Identifying DNA Binding Motifs by Combining Data from Different Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Linyong; Resat, Haluk; Nagib Callaos; Katsuhisa Horimoto; Jake Chen; Amy Sze Chan

    2004-07-19

    A transcription factor regulates the expression of its target genes by binding to their operator regions. It functions by affecting the interactions between RNA polymerases and the gene's promoter. Many transcription factors bind to their targets by recognizing a specific DNA sequence pattern, which is referred to as a consensus sequence or a motif. Since it would remove the possible biases, combining biological data from different sources can be expected to improve the quality of the information extracted from the biological data. We analyzed the microarray gene expression data and the organism's genome sequence jointly to determine the transcription factor recognition sequences with more accuracy. Utilizing such a data integration approach, we have investigated the regulation of the photosynthesis genes of the purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The photosynthesis genes in this organism are tightly regulated as a function of environmental growth conditions by three major regulatory systems, PrrB/PrrA, AppA/PpsR and FnrL. In this study, we have detected a previously undefined PrrA consensus sequence, improved the previously known DNA-binding motif of PpsR, and confirmed the consensus sequence of the global regulator FnrL.

  2. Identification of Transcriptional Targets of the Dual Function Transcription Factor/Phosphatase Eyes Absent

    PubMed Central

    Jemc, Jennifer; Rebay, Ilaria

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila eye specification and development relies on a collection of transcription factors termed the retinal determination gene network (RDGN). Two members of this network, Eyes absent (EYA) and Sine oculis (SO), form a transcriptional complex in which EYA provides the transactivation function while SO provides the DNA binding activity. EYA also functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase, raising the question of whether transcriptional output is dependent or independent of phosphatase activity. To explore this, we used microarrays together with binding site analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, genetics and in vivo expression analysis to identify new EYA-SO targets. In parallel, we examined the expression profiles of tissue expressing phosphatase mutant eya and found that reducing phosphatase activity did not globally impair transcriptional output. Among the targets identified by our analysis was the cell cycle regulatory gene, string (stg), suggesting that EYA and SO may influence cell proliferation through transcriptional regulation of stg. Future investigation into the regulation of stg and other EYA-SO targets identified in this study will help elucidate the transcriptional circuitries whereby output from the RDGN integrates with other signaling inputs to coordinate retinal development. PMID:17714699

  3. Structural basis of DNA recognition by PCG2 reveals a novel DNA binding mode for winged helix-turn-helix domains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junfeng; Huang, Jinguang; Zhao, Yanxiang; Liu, Huaian; Wang, Dawei; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Wensheng; Taylor, Ian A.; Peng, You-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The MBP1 family proteins are the DNA binding subunits of MBF cell-cycle transcription factor complexes and contain an N terminal winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) DNA binding domain (DBD). Although the DNA binding mechanism of MBP1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively studied, the structural framework and the DNA binding mode of other MBP1 family proteins remains to be disclosed. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the DBD of PCG2, the Magnaporthe oryzae orthologue of MBP1, bound to MCB–DNA. The structure revealed that the wing, the 20-loop, helix A and helix B in PCG2–DBD are important elements for DNA binding. Unlike previously characterized wHTH proteins, PCG2–DBD utilizes the wing and helix-B to bind the minor groove and the major groove of the MCB–DNA whilst the 20-loop and helix A interact non-specifically with DNA. Notably, two glutamines Q89 and Q82 within the wing were found to recognize the MCB core CGCG sequence through making hydrogen bond interactions. Further in vitro assays confirmed essential roles of Q89 and Q82 in the DNA binding. These data together indicate that the MBP1 homologue PCG2 employs an unusual mode of binding to target DNA and demonstrate the versatility of wHTH domains. PMID:25550425

  4. The Dof domain, a zinc finger DNA-binding domain conserved only in higher plants, truly functions as a Cys2/Cys2 Zn finger domain.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Yoshimi; Ishiduka, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Rie; Esaka, Muneharu

    2004-03-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) proteins are plant transcription factors that have a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, called the Dof domain. The Dof domain, which is composed of 52 amino acid residues, is similar to the Cys2/Cys2 zinc finger DNA-binding domain of GATA1 and steroid hormone receptors, but has a longer putative loop than that in the case of these zinc finger domains. The DNA-binding function of ascorbate oxidase gene binding protein (AOBP), a Dof protein, was investigated by gel retardation analysis. When Cys was replaced by His, the Dof domain could not function as a Cys3/His- or a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger. The characteristic longer loop was essential for DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, heavy metals such as Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III) inhibited the DNA-binding activity of the Dof domain. Manganese ion as well as zinc ion was coordinated by the Dof domain in vitro. On the other hand, the analysis using inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed that the Dof domain contained zinc ion but not manganese ion. Thus, the Dof domain was proved to function as a Cys2/Cys2 zinc finger domain.

  5. Structural Insights into the Autoregulation and Cooperativity of the Human Transcription Factor Ets-2*

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joseph A; Cooper, Christopher D. O.; Aitkenhead, Hazel; Gileadi, Opher

    2015-01-01

    Ets-2, like its closely related homologue Ets-1, is a member of the Ets family of DNA binding transcription factors. Both proteins are subject to multiple levels of regulation of their DNA binding and transactivation properties. One such regulatory mechanism is the presence of an autoinhibitory module, which in Ets-1 allosterically inhibits the DNA binding activity. This inhibition can be relieved by interaction with protein partners or cooperative binding to closely separated Ets binding sites in a palindromic arrangement. In this study we describe the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of a DNA complex of the Ets-2 Ets domain. The Ets domain crystallized with two distinct species in the asymmetric unit, which closely resemble the autoinhibited and DNA bound forms of Ets-1. This discovery prompted us to re-evaluate the current model for the autoinhibitory mechanism and the structural basis for cooperative DNA binding. In contrast to Ets-1, in which the autoinhibition is caused by a combination of allosteric and steric mechanisms, we were unable to find clear evidence for the allosteric mechanism in Ets-2. We also demonstrated two possibly distinct types of cooperative binding to substrates with Ets binding motifs separated by four and six base pairs and suggest possible molecular mechanisms for this behavior. PMID:25670864

  6. Structural insights into the autoregulation and cooperativity of the human transcription factor Ets-2.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joseph A; Cooper, Christopher D O; Aitkenhead, Hazel; Gileadi, Opher

    2015-03-27

    Ets-2, like its closely related homologue Ets-1, is a member of the Ets family of DNA binding transcription factors. Both proteins are subject to multiple levels of regulation of their DNA binding and transactivation properties. One such regulatory mechanism is the presence of an autoinhibitory module, which in Ets-1 allosterically inhibits the DNA binding activity. This inhibition can be relieved by interaction with protein partners or cooperative binding to closely separated Ets binding sites in a palindromic arrangement. In this study we describe the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of a DNA complex of the Ets-2 Ets domain. The Ets domain crystallized with two distinct species in the asymmetric unit, which closely resemble the autoinhibited and DNA bound forms of Ets-1. This discovery prompted us to re-evaluate the current model for the autoinhibitory mechanism and the structural basis for cooperative DNA binding. In contrast to Ets-1, in which the autoinhibition is caused by a combination of allosteric and steric mechanisms, we were unable to find clear evidence for the allosteric mechanism in Ets-2. We also demonstrated two possibly distinct types of cooperative binding to substrates with Ets binding motifs separated by four and six base pairs and suggest possible molecular mechanisms for this behavior. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Characterization of the DNA-binding properties of the myeloid zinc finger protein MZF1: two independent DNA-binding domains recognize two DNA consensus sequences with a common G-rich core.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J F; Hromas, R; Rauscher, F J

    1994-01-01

    The myeloid zinc finger gene 1, MZF1, encodes a transcription factor which is expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells that are committed to myeloid lineage differentiation. MZF1 contains 13 C2H2 zinc fingers arranged in two domains which are separated by a short glycine- and proline-rich sequence. The first domain consists of zinc fingers 1 to 4, and the second domain is formed by zinc fingers 5 to 13. We have determined that both sets of zinc finger domains bind DNA. Purified, recombinant MZF1 proteins containing either the first set of zinc fingers or the second set were prepared and used to affinity select DNA sequences from a library of degenerate oligonucleotides by using successive rounds of gel shift followed by PCR amplification. Surprisingly, both DNA-binding domains of MZF1 selected similar DNA-binding consensus sequences containing a core of four or five guanine residues, reminiscent of an NF-kappa B half-site: 1-4, 5'-AGTGGGGA-3'; 5-13, 5'-CGGGnGAGGGGGAA-3'. The full-length MZF1 protein containing both sets of zinc finger DNA-binding domains recognizes synthetic oligonucleotides containing either the 1-4 or 5-13 consensus binding sites in gel shift assays. Thus, we have identified the core DNA consensus binding sites for each of the two DNA-binding domains of a myeloid-specific zinc finger transcription factor. Identification of these DNA-binding sites will allow us to identify target genes regulated by MZF1 and to assess the role of MZF1 as a transcriptional regulator of hematopoiesis. Images PMID:8114711

  8. Distal substitutions drive divergent DNA specificity among paralogous transcription factors through subdivision of conformational space.

    PubMed

    Hudson, William H; Kossmann, Bradley R; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Chuo, Shih-Wei; Weikum, Emily R; Eick, Geeta N; Thornton, Joseph W; Ivanov, Ivaylo N; Kojetin, Douglas J; Ortlund, Eric A

    2016-01-12

    Many genomes contain families of paralogs--proteins with divergent function that evolved from a common ancestral gene after a duplication event. To understand how paralogous transcription factors evolve divergent DNA specificities, we examined how the glucocorticoid receptor and its paralogs evolved to bind activating response elements [(+)GREs] and negative glucocorticoid response elements (nGREs). We show that binding to nGREs is a property of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA-binding domain (DBD) not shared by other members of the steroid receptor family. Using phylogenetic, structural, biochemical, and molecular dynamics techniques, we show that the ancestral DBD from which GR and its paralogs evolved was capable of binding both nGRE and (+)GRE sequences because of the ancestral DBD's ability to assume multiple DNA-bound conformations. Subsequent amino acid substitutions in duplicated daughter genes selectively restricted protein conformational space, causing this dual DNA-binding specificity to be selectively enhanced in the GR lineage and lost in all others. Key substitutions that determined the receptors' response element-binding specificity were far from the proteins' DNA-binding interface and interacted epistatically to change the DBD's function through DNA-induced allosteric mechanisms. These amino acid substitutions subdivided both the conformational and functional space of the ancestral DBD among the present-day receptors, allowing a paralogous family of transcription factors to control disparate transcriptional programs despite high sequence identity.

  9. Distal substitutions drive divergent DNA specificity among paralogous transcription factors through subdivision of conformational space

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, William H.; Kossmann, Bradley R.; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Chuo, Shih-Wei; Weikum, Emily R.; Thornton, Joseph W.; Ivanov, Ivaylo N.; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Many genomes contain families of paralogs—proteins with divergent function that evolved from a common ancestral gene after a duplication event. To understand how paralogous transcription factors evolve divergent DNA specificities, we examined how the glucocorticoid receptor and its paralogs evolved to bind activating response elements [(+)GREs] and negative glucocorticoid response elements (nGREs). We show that binding to nGREs is a property of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA-binding domain (DBD) not shared by other members of the steroid receptor family. Using phylogenetic, structural, biochemical, and molecular dynamics techniques, we show that the ancestral DBD from which GR and its paralogs evolved was capable of binding both nGRE and (+)GRE sequences because of the ancestral DBD’s ability to assume multiple DNA-bound conformations. Subsequent amino acid substitutions in duplicated daughter genes selectively restricted protein conformational space, causing this dual DNA-binding specificity to be selectively enhanced in the GR lineage and lost in all others. Key substitutions that determined the receptors’ response element-binding specificity were far from the proteins’ DNA-binding interface and interacted epistatically to change the DBD’s function through DNA-induced allosteric mechanisms. These amino acid substitutions subdivided both the conformational and functional space of the ancestral DBD among the present-day receptors, allowing a paralogous family of transcription factors to control disparate transcriptional programs despite high sequence identity. PMID:26715749

  10. Regulation of gene expression at the beginning of mammalian development and the TEAD family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K J; DePamphilis, M L

    1998-01-01

    In mouse development, transcription is first detected in late 1-cell embryos, but translation of newly synthesized transcripts does not begin until the 2-cell stage. Thus, the onset of zygotic gene expression (ZGE) is regulated at the level of both transcription and translation. Chromatin-mediated repression is established after formation of a 2-cell embryo, concurrent with the developmental acquisition of enhancer function. The most effective enhancer in cleavage stage mouse embryos depends on DNA binding sites for TEF-1, the prototype for a family of transcription factors that share the same TEA DNA binding domain. Mice contain at least four, and perhaps five, genes with the same TEA DNA binding domain (mTEAD genes). Since mTEAD-2 is the only one expressed during the first 7 days of mouse development, it is most likely responsible for the TEAD transcription factor activity that first appears at the beginning of ZGE. All four mTEAD genes are expressed at later embryonic stages and in adult tissues; virtually every tissue expresses at least one family member, consistent with a critical role for TEAD proteins in either cell proliferation or differentiation. The 72-amino acid TEA DNA binding domains in mTEAD-2, 3, and 4 are approximately 99% homologous to the same domain in mTEAD-1, and all four proteins bind specifically to the same DNA sequences in vitro with a Kd value of 16-38 nM DNA. Since TEAD proteins appear to be involved in both activation and repression of different genes and do not appear to be functionally redundant, differential activity of TEAD proteins must result either from association with other proteins or from differential sensitivity to chromatin-packaged DNA binding sites.

  11. TAL Effector DNA-Binding Principles and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Annekatrin; Streubel, Jana; Boch, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins with a unique DNA-binding domain that confers both a predictable and programmable specificity. The DNA-binding domain consists typically of 34-amino acid near-identical repeats. The repeats form a right-handed superhelical structure that wraps around the DNA double helix and exposes the variable amino acids at position 13 of each repeat to the sense strand DNA bases. Each repeat binds one base in a highly specific, non-overlapping, and comma-free fashion. Although TALE specificities are encoded in a simple way, sophisticated rules can be taken into account to build highly efficient DNA-binding modules for biotechnological use.

  12. Phosphorylation inhibits DNA-binding of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator

    SciTech Connect

    Kewley, Robyn J. . E-mail: rkewley@csu.edu.au; Whitelaw, Murray L.

    2005-12-09

    The basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM homology (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) is a key component of various pathways which induce the transcription of cytochrome P450 and hypoxia response genes. ARNT can be alternatively spliced to express Alt ARNT, containing an additional 15 amino acids immediately N-terminal to the DNA-binding basic region. Here, we show that ARNT and Alt ARNT proteins are differentially phosphorylated by protein kinase CKII in vitro. Phosphorylation had an inhibitory effect on DNA-binding to an E-box probe by Alt ARNT, but not ARNT, homodimers. This inhibitory phosphorylation occurs through Ser77. Moreover, a point mutant, Alt ARNT S77A, shows increased activity on an E-box reporter gene, consistent with Ser77 being a regulatory site in vivo. In contrast, DNA binding by an Alt ARNT/dioxin receptor heterodimer to the xenobiotic response element is not inhibited by phosphorylation with CKII, nor does Alt ARNT S77A behave differently from wild type Alt ARNT in the context of a dioxin receptor heterodimer.

  13. Dimerization-induced corepressor binding and relaxed DNA-binding specificity are critical for PML/RARA-induced immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Pérès, Laurent; Honoré, Nicole; Nasr, Rihab; Zhu, Jun; de Thé, Hugues

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia involves the transcriptional repression of master genes of myeloid differentiation by the promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARA) oncogene. PML-enforced RARA homodimerization allows the tighter binding of corepressors, silencing RARA target genes. In addition, homodimerization dramatically extends the spectrum of DNA-binding sites of the fusion protein compared with those of normal RARA. Yet, any contribution of these two properties of PML/RARA to differentiation arrest and immortalization of primary mouse hematopoietic progenitors was unknown. We demonstrate that dimerization-induced silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors (SMRT)-enhanced binding and relaxed DNA-binding site specificity are both required for efficient immortalization. Thus, enforced RARA dimerization is critical not only for triggering transcriptional repression but also for extending the repertoire of target genes. Our studies exemplify how dimerization-induced gain of functions converts an unessential transcription factor into a dominant oncogenic protein. PMID:16757557

  14. Dimerization-induced corepressor binding and relaxed DNA-binding specificity are critical for PML/RARA-induced immortalization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Pérès, Laurent; Honoré, Nicole; Nasr, Rihab; Zhu, Jun; de Thé, Hugues

    2006-06-13

    The pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia involves the transcriptional repression of master genes of myeloid differentiation by the promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML/RARA) oncogene. PML-enforced RARA homodimerization allows the tighter binding of corepressors, silencing RARA target genes. In addition, homodimerization dramatically extends the spectrum of DNA-binding sites of the fusion protein compared with those of normal RARA. Yet, any contribution of these two properties of PML/RARA to differentiation arrest and immortalization of primary mouse hematopoietic progenitors was unknown. We demonstrate that dimerization-induced silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors (SMRT)-enhanced binding and relaxed DNA-binding site specificity are both required for efficient immortalization. Thus, enforced RARA dimerization is critical not only for triggering transcriptional repression but also for extending the repertoire of target genes. Our studies exemplify how dimerization-induced gain of functions converts an unessential transcription factor into a dominant oncogenic protein.

  15. A novel cysteine-rich sequence-specific DNA-binding protein interacts with the conserved X-box motif of the human major histocompatibility complex class II genes via a repeated Cys-His domain and functions as a transcriptional repressor

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules function in the presentation of processed peptides to helper T cells. As most mammalian cells can endocytose and process foreign antigen, the critical determinant of an antigen-presenting cell is its ability to express class II MHC molecules. Expression of these molecules is usually restricted to cells of the immune system and dysregulated expression is hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of a severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome and certain autoimmune diseases. Human complementary DNA clones encoding a newly identified, cysteine-rich transcription factor, NF-X1, which binds to the conserved X-box motif of class II MHC genes, were obtained, and the primary amino acid sequence deduced. The major open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 1,104 amino acids with a symmetrical organization. A central cysteine-rich portion encodes the DNA-binding domain, and is subdivided into seven repeated motifs. This motif is similar to but distinct from the LIM domain and the RING finger family, and is reminiscent of known metal-binding regions. The unique arrangement of cysteines indicates that the consensus sequence CX3CXL-XCGX1- 5HXCX3CHXGXC represents a novel cysteine-rich motif. Two lines of evidence indicate that the polypeptide encodes a potent and biologically relevant repressor of HLA-DRA transcription: (a) overexpression of NF-X1 from a retroviral construct strongly decreases transcription from the HLA-DRA promoter; and (b) the NF-X1 transcript is markedly induced late after induction with interferon gamma (IFN- gamma), coinciding with postinduction attenuation of HLA-DRA transcription. The NF-X1 protein may therefore play an important role in regulating the duration of an inflammatory response by limiting the period in which class II MHC molecules are induced by IFN-gamma. PMID:7964459

  16. The Next Generation of Transcription Factor Binding Site Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2013-01-01

    Finding where transcription factors (TFs) bind to the DNA is of key importance to decipher gene regulation at a transcriptional level. Classically, computational prediction of TF binding sites (TFBSs) is based on basic position weight matrices (PWMs) which quantitatively score binding motifs based on the observed nucleotide patterns in a set of TFBSs for the corresponding TF. Such models make the strong assumption that each nucleotide participates independently in the corresponding DNA-protein interaction and do not account for flexible length motifs. We introduce transcription factor flexible models (TFFMs) to represent TF binding properties. Based on hidden Markov models, TFFMs are flexible, and can model both position interdependence within TFBSs and variable length motifs within a single dedicated framework. The availability of thousands of experimentally validated DNA-TF interaction sequences from ChIP-seq allows for the generation of models that perform as well as PWMs for stereotypical TFs and can improve performance for TFs with flexible binding characteristics. We present a new graphical representation of the motifs that convey properties of position interdependence. TFFMs have been assessed on ChIP-seq data sets coming from the ENCODE project, revealing that they can perform better than both PWMs and the dinucleotide weight matrix extension in discriminating ChIP-seq from background sequences. Under the assumption that ChIP-seq signal values are correlated with the affinity of the TF-DNA binding, we find that TFFM scores correlate with ChIP-seq peak signals. Moreover, using available TF-DNA affinity measurements for the Max TF, we demonstrate that TFFMs constructed from ChIP-seq data correlate with published experimentally measured DNA-binding affinities. Finally, TFFMs allow for the straightforward computation of an integrated TF occupancy score across a sequence. These results demonstrate the capacity of TFFMs to accurately model DNA

  17. PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORα (PPARα) AGONISTS DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATE INHIBITOR OF DNA BINDING (ID2) EXPRESSION IN RODENTS AND HUMAN CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2) is a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor family whose members play important roles in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones,...

  18. PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORα (PPARα) AGONISTS DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATE INHIBITOR OF DNA BINDING (ID2) EXPRESSION IN RODENTS AND HUMAN CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2) is a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor family whose members play important roles in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones,...

  19. Cytokinin Response Factor 5 has transcriptional activity governed by its C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Bernd; Melton, Anthony E; Schwacke, Rainer; Krause, Kirsten; Fischer, Karsten; Goertzen, Leslie R; Rashotte, Aaron M

    2017-02-01

    Cytokinin Response Factors (CRFs) are AP2/ERF transcription factors involved in cytokinin signal transduction. CRF proteins consist of a N-terminal dimerization domain (CRF domain), an AP2 DNA-binding domain, and a clade-specific C-terminal region of unknown function. Using a series of sequential deletions in yeast-2-hybrid assays, we provide evidence that the C-terminal region of Arabidopsis CRF5 can confer transactivation activity. Although comparative analyses identified evolutionarily conserved protein sequence within the C-terminal region, deletion experiments suggest that this transactivation domain has a partially redundant modular structure required for activation of target gene transcription.

  20. Why Transcription Factor Binding Sites Are Ten Nucleotides Long

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Hannenhalli, Sridhar; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled primarily by transcription factors, whose DNA binding sites are typically 10 nt long. We develop a population-genetic model to understand how the length and information content of such binding sites evolve. Our analysis is based on an inherent trade-off between specificity, which is greater in long binding sites, and robustness to mutation, which is greater in short binding sites. The evolutionary stable distribution of binding site lengths predicted by the model agrees with the empirical distribution (5–31 nt, with mean 9.9 nt for eukaryotes), and it is remarkably robust to variation in the underlying parameters of population size, mutation rate, number of transcription factor targets, and strength of selection for proper binding and selection against improper binding. In a systematic data set of eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription factors we also uncover strong relationships between the length of a binding site and its information content per nucleotide, as well as between the number of targets a transcription factor regulates and the information content in its binding sites. Our analysis explains these features as well as the remarkable conservation of binding site characteristics across diverse taxa. PMID:22887818

  1. Epistatic relationships reveal the functional organization of yeast transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiashun; Benschop, Joris J; Shales, Michael; Kemmeren, Patrick; Greenblatt, Jack; Cagney, Gerard; Holstege, Frank; Li, Hao; Krogan, Nevan J

    2010-10-05

    The regulation of gene expression is, in large part, mediated by interplay between the general transcription factors (GTFs) that function to bring about the expression of many genes and site-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (STFs). Here, quantitative genetic profiling using the epistatic miniarray profile (E-MAP) approach allowed us to measure 48 391 pairwise genetic interactions, both negative (aggravating) and positive (alleviating), between and among genes encoding STFs and GTFs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This allowed us to both reconstruct regulatory models for specific subsets of transcription factors and identify global epistatic patterns. Overall, there was a much stronger preference for negative relative to positive genetic interactions among STFs than there was among GTFs. Negative genetic interactions, which often identify factors working in non-essential, redundant pathways, were also enriched for pairs of STFs that co-regulate similar sets of genes. Microarray analysis demonstrated that pairs of STFs that display negative genetic interactions regulate gene expression in an independent rather than coordinated manner. Collectively, these data suggest that parallel/compensating relationships between regulators, rather than linear pathways, often characterize transcriptional circuits.

  2. Regulation of neural gene transcription by optogenetic inhibition of the RE1-silencing transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Paonessa, Francesco; Criscuolo, Stefania; Sacchetti, Silvio; Amoroso, Davide; Scarongella, Helena; Pecoraro Bisogni, Federico; Carminati, Emanuele; Pruzzo, Giacomo; Maragliano, Luca; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-05

    Optogenetics provides new ways to activate gene transcription; however, no attempts have been made as yet to modulate mammalian transcription factors. We report the light-mediated regulation of the repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor (REST), a master regulator of neural genes. To tune REST activity, we selected two protein domains that impair REST-DNA binding or recruitment of the cofactor mSin3a. Computational modeling guided the fusion of the inhibitory domains to the light-sensitive Avena sativa light-oxygen-voltage-sensing (LOV) 2-phototrophin 1 (AsLOV2). By expressing AsLOV2 chimeras in Neuro2a cells, we achieved light-dependent modulation of REST target genes that was associated with an improved neural differentiation. In primary neurons, light-mediated REST inhibition increased Na(+)-channel 1.2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription and boosted Na(+) currents and neuronal firing. This optogenetic approach allows the coordinated expression of a cluster of genes impinging on neuronal activity, providing a tool for studying neuronal physiology and correcting gene expression changes taking place in brain diseases.

  3. Regulation of neural gene transcription by optogenetic inhibition of the RE1-silencing transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Paonessa, Francesco; Criscuolo, Stefania; Sacchetti, Silvio; Amoroso, Davide; Scarongella, Helena; Pecoraro Bisogni, Federico; Carminati, Emanuele; Pruzzo, Giacomo; Maragliano, Luca; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics provides new ways to activate gene transcription; however, no attempts have been made as yet to modulate mammalian transcription factors. We report the light-mediated regulation of the repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor (REST), a master regulator of neural genes. To tune REST activity, we selected two protein domains that impair REST-DNA binding or recruitment of the cofactor mSin3a. Computational modeling guided the fusion of the inhibitory domains to the light-sensitive Avena sativa light–oxygen–voltage-sensing (LOV) 2-phototrophin 1 (AsLOV2). By expressing AsLOV2 chimeras in Neuro2a cells, we achieved light-dependent modulation of REST target genes that was associated with an improved neural differentiation. In primary neurons, light-mediated REST inhibition increased Na+-channel 1.2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription and boosted Na+ currents and neuronal firing. This optogenetic approach allows the coordinated expression of a cluster of genes impinging on neuronal activity, providing a tool for studying neuronal physiology and correcting gene expression changes taking place in brain diseases. PMID:26699507

  4. DNA binding triggers tetramerization of the glucocorticoid receptor in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Presman, Diego M.; Ganguly, Sourav; Schiltz, R. Louis; Johnson, Thomas A.; Karpova, Tatiana S.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors dynamically bind to chromatin and are essential for the regulation of genes. Although a large percentage of these proteins appear to self-associate to form dimers or higher order oligomers, the stoichiometry of DNA-bound transcription factors has been poorly characterized in vivo. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand-regulated transcription factor widely believed to act as a dimer or a monomer. Using a unique set of imaging techniques coupled with a cell line containing an array of DNA binding elements, we show that GR is predominantly a tetramer when bound to its target DNA. We find that DNA binding triggers an interdomain allosteric regulation within the GR, leading to tetramerization. We therefore propose that dynamic changes in GR stoichiometry represent a previously unidentified level of regulation in steroid receptor activation. Quaternary structure analysis of other members of the steroid receptor family (estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors) reveals variation in oligomerization states among this family of transcription factors. Because GR’s oligomerization state has been implicated in therapy outcome, our findings open new doors to the rational design of novel GR ligands and redefine the quaternary structure of steroid receptors. PMID:27382178

  5. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Activation of Oxidative Stress-Related Transcription Factors in Female A/J Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tharappel, Job C.; Cholewa, Jill; Espandiari, Parvaneh; Spear, Brett T.; Gairola, C. Gary; Glauert, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains a high concentration of free radicals and induces oxidative stress in the lung and other tissues. Several transcription factors are known to be activated by oxidative stress, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Studies were therefore undertaken to examine if cigarette smoke could activate these transcription factors, as well as other transcription factors that may be important in lung carcinogenesis. Female A/J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 42, or 56 days (6 hr/day, 5 days/wk). Cigarette smoke did not increase NF-κB activation at any of these times, but NF-κB DNA binding activity was lower after 15 days and 56 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was lower after 10 days and 56 days but was not changed after 42 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of HIF was quantitatively increased after 42 days of smoke exposure but decreased after 56 days. Whether the activation of other transcription factors in the lung could be altered after exposure to cigarette smoke was subsequently examined. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2, myc-CF1, RORE, and p53 were examined after 10 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53 were quantitatively increased, but those of myc-CF1 and RORE were unaffected. These studies show that cigarette smoke exposure leads to quantitative increases in DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53, while the activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and HIF are largely unaffected or reduced. PMID:20711931

  6. Anti-Transcription Factor RNA Aptamers as Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are DNA-binding proteins that play critical roles in regulating gene expression. These proteins control all major cellular processes, including growth, development, and homeostasis. Because of their pivotal role, cells depend on proper TF function. It is, therefore, not surprising that TF deregulation is linked to disease. The therapeutic drug targeting of TFs has been proposed as a frontier in medicine. RNA aptamers make interesting candidates for TF modulation because of their unique characteristics. The products of in vitro selection, aptamers are short nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that bind their targets with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers can be expressed on demand from transgenes and are intrinsically amenable to recognition by nucleic acid-binding proteins such as TFs. In this study, we review several natural prokaryotic and eukaryotic examples of RNAs that modulate the activity of TFs. These examples include 5S RNA, 6S RNA, 7SK, hepatitis delta virus-RNA (HDV-RNA), neuron restrictive silencer element (NRSE)-RNA, growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5), steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), trophoblast STAT utron (TSU), the 3′ untranslated region of caudal mRNA, and heat shock RNA-1 (HSR1). We then review examples of unnatural RNA aptamers selected to inhibit TFs nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), TATA-binding protein (TBP), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). The field of RNA aptamers for DNA-binding proteins continues to show promise. PMID:26509637

  7. Molecular characterization of a zebrafish TCF ETS-domain transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Brown, L A; Yang, S H; Hair, A; Galanis, A; Sharrocks, A D

    1999-12-23

    The ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-transcription factors represent key nuclear targets of the MAP kinase pathways. Members of this subfamily are classified by the presence of several conserved domains for DNA binding, interaction with SRF, interaction with MAP kinases and transcriptional activation. In this study we have isolated a further member of this subfamily (TCF-1) from zebrafish. The protein product of zebrafish TCF-1 (zTCF-1), shares sequence similarity with the mammalian TCFs in all four conserved domains, with highest overall similarity to SAP-1. Zebrafish TCF-1 is expressed throughout zebrafish embryonic development and exhibits typical TCF DNA binding characteristics, with the B-box being required for interaction with SRF. Of the mammalian TCFs, its DNA binding specificity resembles Elk-1. zTCF-1 is a target for both the growth factor/mitogen-activated and stress-activated MAP kinase cascades in vitro and in vivo. However, differential targeting occurs, with the profile of its activation closely resembling that of mammalian SAP-1. Together, our results demonstrate that the TCFs have been functionally conserved during vertebrate development.

  8. Antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid inhibits osteoclast differentiation by reducing nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding and prevents in vivo bone resorption induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyon Jong; Chang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Man; Lee, Seung Bok; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Su Kim, Ghi; Kim, Hong-Hee

    2006-05-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and bone mineral density or osteoporosis has recently been reported. As bone loss occurring in osteoporosis and inflammatory diseases is primarily due to increases in osteoclast number, reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be relevant to osteoclast differentiation, which requires receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) frequently present in inflammatory conditions has a profound synergy with RANKL in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA), a strong antioxidant clinically used for some time, on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. At concentrations showing no growth inhibition, alpha-LA potently suppressed osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow-derived precursor cells driven either by a high-dose RANKL alone or by a low-dose RANKL plus TNF-alpha (RANKL/TNF-alpha). alpha-LA abolished ROS elevation by RANKL or RANKL/TNF-alpha and inhibited NF-ka